Science.gov

Sample records for embedded electricity generation

  1. Electric generator

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Jr., John S.; Wilson, James R.; McDonald, Jr., Charles A.

    1983-01-01

    1. In an electrical energy generator, the combination comprising a first elongated annular electrical current conductor having at least one bare surface extending longitudinally and facing radially inwards therein, a second elongated annular electrical current conductor disposed coaxially within said first conductor and having an outer bare surface area extending longitudinally and facing said bare surface of said first conductor, the contiguous coaxial areas of said first and second conductors defining an inductive element, means for applying an electrical current to at least one of said conductors for generating a magnetic field encompassing said inductive element, and explosive charge means disposed concentrically with respect to said conductors including at least the area of said inductive element, said explosive charge means including means disposed to initiate an explosive wave front in said explosive advancing longitudinally along said inductive element, said wave front being effective to progressively deform at least one of said conductors to bring said bare surfaces thereof into electrically conductive contact to progressively reduce the inductance of the inductive element defined by said conductors and transferring explosive energy to said magnetic field effective to generate an electrical potential between undeformed portions of said conductors ahead of said explosive wave front.

  2. Electrical Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Described are two activities designed to help children investigate electrical charges, electric meters, and electromagnets. Included are background information, a list of materials, procedures, and follow-up questions. Sources of additional information are cited. (CW)

  3. Electrical Generation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Described are two activities designed to help children investigate electrical charges, electric meters, and electromagnets. Included are background information, a list of materials, procedures, and follow-up questions. Sources of additional information are cited. (CW)

  4. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1986-01-01

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1,000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

  5. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1984-11-16

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator includes an intrinsically irreversible thermoacoustic heat engine coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator. The heat engine includes an electrically conductive liquid metal as the working fluid and includes two heat exchange and thermoacoustic structure assemblies which drive the liquid in a push-pull arrangement to cause the liquid metal to oscillate at a resonant acoustic frequency on the order of 1000 Hz. The engine is positioned in the field of a magnet and is oriented such that the liquid metal oscillates in a direction orthogonal to the field of the magnet, whereby an alternating electrical potential is generated in the liquid metal. Low-loss, low-inductance electrical conductors electrically connected to opposite sides of the liquid metal conduct an output signal to a transformer adapted to convert the low-voltage, high-current output signal to a more usable higher voltage, lower current signal.

  6. Embedded Hyperchaotic Generators: A Comparative Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadoudi, Said; Tanougast, Camel; Azzaz, Mohamad Salah; Dandache, Abbas

    In this paper, we present a comparative analysis of FPGA implementation performances, in terms of throughput and resources cost, of five well known autonomous continuous hyperchaotic systems. The goal of this analysis is to identify the embedded hyperchaotic generator which leads to designs with small logic area cost, satisfactory throughput rates, low power consumption and low latency required for embedded applications such as secure digital communications between embedded systems. To implement the four-dimensional (4D) chaotic systems, we use a new structural hardware architecture based on direct VHDL description of the forth order Runge-Kutta method (RK-4). The comparative analysis shows that the hyperchaotic Lorenz generator provides attractive performances compared to that of others. In fact, its hardware implementation requires only 2067 CLB-slices, 36 multipliers and no block RAMs, and achieves a throughput rate of 101.6 Mbps, at the output of the FPGA circuit, at a clock frequency of 25.315 MHz with a low latency time of 316 ns. Consequently, these good implementation performances offer to the embedded hyperchaotic Lorenz generator the advantage of being the best candidate for embedded communications applications.

  7. Biomass for Electricity Generation

    EIA Publications

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines issues affecting the uses of biomass for electricity generation. The methodology used in the National Energy Modeling System to account for various types of biomass is discussed, and the underlying assumptions are explained.

  8. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1986-07-08

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator is described comprising a magnet having a magnetic field, an elongate hollow housing containing an electrically conductive liquid and a thermoacoustic structure positioned in the liquid, heat exchange means thermally connected to the thermoacoustic structure for inducing the liquid to oscillate at an acoustic resonant frequency within the housing. The housing is positioned in the magnetic field and oriented such that the direction of the magnetic field and the direction of oscillatory motion of the liquid are substantially orthogonal to one another, first and second electrical conductor means connected to the liquid on opposite sides of the housing along an axis which is substantially orthogonal to both the direction of the magnetic field and the direction of oscillatory motion of the liquid, an alternating current output signal is generated in the conductor means at a frequency corresponding to the frequency of the oscillatory motion of the liquid.

  9. Electrically heated particulate filter embedded heater design

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Chapman, Mark R.

    2014-07-01

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine and wherein an upstream surface of the particulate filter includes machined grooves. A grid of electrically resistive material is inserted into the machined grooves of the exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF.

  10. Wind turbine electric generator

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, J. M.

    1985-04-02

    A wind-operated electric generator system of simple design including a stationary circular arrangement of segmental wind inlet passages extending around a vertical axis and having vertical inlet openings at the outer ends, the inlet openings having inwardly and upwardly curving walls extending from the inlet openings toward the central axis, the lower walls sloping upwardly an appreciably greater extent than the upper walls to form an inwardly and upwardly extending convergence with the inner portions of the upper walls to form constricted upwardly directed exit passages that merge into a Venturi throat in which a bladed impeller is mounted upon a vertical shaft which is connected to an electric generator, and the sides of the segmental inlet passages also converging toward the central axis and cooperating with the converging upper and lower walls to form an efficient Venturi effect to increase the speed of air currents directed to the impeller.

  11. Wind power. [electricity generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  12. Wind power. [electricity generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  13. Electricity Generation Baseline Report

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, Jeffrey; Marcy, Cara; McCall, James; Flores-Espino, Francisco; Bloom, Aaron; Aabakken, Jorn; Cole, Wesley; Jenkin, Thomas; Porro, Gian; Liu, Chang; Ganda, Francesco; Boardman, Richard; Tarka, Thomas; Brewer, John; Schultz, Travis

    2017-01-01

    This report was developed by a team of national laboratory analysts over the period October 2015 to May 2016 and is part of a series of studies that provide background material to inform development of the second installment of the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER 1.2). The report focuses specifically on U.S. power sector generation. The report limits itself to the generation sector and does not address in detail parallel issues in electricity end use, transmission and distribution, markets and policy design, and other important segments. The report lists 15 key findings about energy system needs of the future.

  14. Electricity generation and health.

    PubMed

    Markandya, Anil; Wilkinson, Paul

    2007-09-15

    The provision of electricity has been a great benefit to society, particularly in health terms, but it also carries health costs. Comparison of different forms of commercial power generation by use of the fuel cycle methods developed in European studies shows the health burdens to be greatest for power stations that most pollute outdoor air (those based on lignite, coal, and oil). The health burdens are appreciably smaller for generation from natural gas, and lower still for nuclear power. This same ranking also applies in terms of greenhouse-gas emissions and thus, potentially, to long-term health, social, and economic effects arising from climate change. Nuclear power remains controversial, however, because of public concern about storage of nuclear waste, the potential for catastrophic accident or terrorist attack, and the diversion of fissionable material for weapons production. Health risks are smaller for nuclear fusion, but commercial exploitation will not be achieved in time to help the crucial near-term reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions. The negative effects on health of electricity generation from renewable sources have not been assessed as fully as those from conventional sources, but for solar, wind, and wave power, such effects seem to be small; those of biofuels depend on the type of fuel and the mode of combustion. Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage is increasingly being considered for reduction of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel plants, but the health effects associated with this technology are largely unquantified and probably mixed: efficiency losses mean greater consumption of the primary fuel and accompanying increases in some waste products. This paper reviews the state of knowledge regarding the health effects of different methods of generating electricity.

  15. Dissecting psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding.

    PubMed

    Brodersen, Kay H; Deserno, Lorenz; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Lin, Zhihao; Penny, Will D; Buhmann, Joachim M; Stephan, Klaas E

    2014-01-01

    This proof-of-concept study examines the feasibility of defining subgroups in psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding, using dynamical system models which infer neuronal circuit mechanisms from neuroimaging data. To this end, we re-analysed an fMRI dataset of 41 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 42 healthy controls performing a numerical n-back working-memory task. In our generative-embedding approach, we used parameter estimates from a dynamic causal model (DCM) of a visual-parietal-prefrontal network to define a model-based feature space for the subsequent application of supervised and unsupervised learning techniques. First, using a linear support vector machine for classification, we were able to predict individual diagnostic labels significantly more accurately (78%) from DCM-based effective connectivity estimates than from functional connectivity between (62%) or local activity within the same regions (55%). Second, an unsupervised approach based on variational Bayesian Gaussian mixture modelling provided evidence for two clusters which mapped onto patients and controls with nearly the same accuracy (71%) as the supervised approach. Finally, when restricting the analysis only to the patients, Gaussian mixture modelling suggested the existence of three patient subgroups, each of which was characterised by a different architecture of the visual-parietal-prefrontal working-memory network. Critically, even though this analysis did not have access to information about the patients' clinical symptoms, the three neurophysiologically defined subgroups mapped onto three clinically distinct subgroups, distinguished by significant differences in negative symptom severity, as assessed on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). In summary, this study provides a concrete example of how psychiatric spectrum diseases may be split into subgroups that are defined in terms of neurophysiological mechanisms specified by a generative model of

  16. Ocean wave electric generators

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, H.R.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes an apparatus for generating electricity from ocean waves. It consists of: 1.) a hollow buoyant duck positioned in the path of waves including a core about the center axis of which the duck rotates, a lower chamber portion having liquid therein and an upper chamber portion having air therein. The air is alternately compressed and expanded by the liquid in the chamber during the rotational motion of the duck caused by waves. A turbine mounted in the upper portion of the duck is driven by the compressed and expanded air. A generator is coupled to the turbine and operated to produce electrical energy and an air bulb; 2.) a spine having a transverse axial shaft anchoring the spine to the ocean floor. The upper portion of the spine engages the duck to maintain the duck in position. The spine has a curved configuration to concentrate and direct wave energy. The spine configuration acts as a scoop to increase the height of wave peaks and as a foil to increase the depth of wave troughs.

  17. Generation of electrical power

    DOEpatents

    Hursen, Thomas F.; Kolenik, Steven A.; Purdy, David L.

    1976-01-01

    A heat-to-electricity converter is disclosed which includes a radioactive heat source and a thermoelectric element of relatively short overall length capable of delivering a low voltage of the order of a few tenths of a volt. Such a thermoelectric element operates at a higher efficiency than longer higher-voltage elements; for example, elements producing 6 volts. In the generation of required power, thermoelectric element drives a solid-state converter which is controlled by input current rather than input voltage and operates efficiently for a high signal-plus-noise to signal ratio of current. The solid-state converter has the voltage gain necessary to deliver the required voltage at the low input of the thermoelectric element.

  18. ELECTRIC PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Buntenbach, R.W.

    1959-06-01

    S>An electro-optical apparatus is described which produces electric pulses in programmed sequences at times and durations controlled with great accuracy. An oscilloscope CRT is supplied with signals to produce a luminous spot moving in a circle. An opaque mask with slots of variable width transmits light from the spot to a photoelectric transducer. For shorter pulse decay times a CRT screen which emits UV can be used with a UVtransmitting filter and a UV- sensitive photoelectric cell. Pulses are varied by changing masks or by using masks with variable slots. This device may be used in multiple arrangements to produce other pulse aT rangements, or it can be used to trigger an electronic pulse generator. (T.R.H.)

  19. Solar thermal electricity generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasemagha, Khairy Ramadan

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of modeling the thermal performance and economic feasibility of large (utility scale) and small solar thermal power plants for electricity generation. A number of solar concepts for power systems applications have been investigated. Each concept has been analyzed over a range of plant power ratings from 1 MW(sub e) to 300 MW(sub e) and over a range of capacity factors from a no-storage case (capacity factor of about 0.25 to 0.30) up to intermediate load capacity factors in the range of 0.46 to 0.60. The solar plant's economic viability is investigated by examining the effect of various parameters on the plant costs (both capital and O & M) and the levelized energy costs (LEC). The cost components are reported in six categories: collectors, energy transport, energy storage, energy conversion, balance of plant, and indirect/contingency costs. Concentrator and receiver costs are included in the collector category. Thermal and electric energy transport costs are included in the energy transport category. Costs for the thermal or electric storage are included in the energy storage category; energy conversion costs are included in the energy conversion category. The balance of plant cost category comprises the structures, land, service facilities, power conditioning, instrumentation and controls, and spare part costs. The indirect/contingency category consists of the indirect construction and the contingency costs. The concepts included in the study are (1) molten salt cavity central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-C-Salt); (2) molten salt external central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-E-Salt); (3) sodium external central receiver with sodium storage (PFCR/RE-Na); (4) sodium external central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-E-Na/Salt); (5) water/steam external central receiver with oil/rock storage (PFCR/R-E-W/S); (6) parabolic dish with stirling engine conversion and lead acid battery storage (PFDR/SLAB); (7) parabolic dish

  20. Method for protecting an electric generator

    DOEpatents

    Kuehnle, Barry W.; Roberts, Jeffrey B.; Folkers, Ralph W.

    2008-11-18

    A method for protecting an electrical generator which includes providing an electrical generator which is normally synchronously operated with an electrical power grid; providing a synchronizing signal from the electrical generator; establishing a reference signal; and electrically isolating the electrical generator from the electrical power grid if the synchronizing signal is not in phase with the reference signal.

  1. Electrical power generating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A power generating system for adjusting coupling an induction motor, as a generator, to an A.C. power line wherein the motor and power line are connected through a triac is described. The triac is regulated to normally turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation, whereby at less than operating speed, and thus when the induction motor functions as a motor rather than as a generator, power consumption from the line is substantially reduced.

  2. THERMO-ELECTRIC GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Jordan, K.C.

    1958-07-22

    The conversion of heat energy into electrical energy by a small compact device is descrtbed. Where the heat energy is supplied by a radioactive material and thermopIIes convert the heat to electrical energy. The particular battery construction includes two insulating discs with conductive rods disposed between them to form a circular cage. In the center of the cage is disposed a cup in which the sealed radioactive source is located. Each thermopile is formed by connecting wires from two adjacent rods to a potnt on an annular ring fastened to the outside of the cup, the ring having insulation on its surface to prevent electrica1 contact with the thermopiles. One advantage of this battery construction is that the radioactive source may be inserted after the device is fabricated, reducing the radiation hazard to personnel assembling the battery.

  3. Heat operated cryogenic electrical generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.; Saffren, M. M.; Elleman, D. D. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An electrical generator useful for providing electrical power in deep space, is disclosed. The electrical generator utilizes the unusual hydrodynamic property exhibited by liquid helium as it is converted to and from a superfluid state to cause opposite directions of rotary motion for a rotor cell thereof. The physical motion of the rotor cell was employed to move a magnetic field provided by a charged superconductive coil mounted on the exterior of the cell. An electrical conductor was placed in surrounding proximity to the cell to interact with the moving magnetic field provided by the superconductive coil and thereby generate electrical energy. A heat control arrangement was provided for the purpose of causing the liquid helium to be partially converted to and from a superfluid state by being cooled and heated, respectively.

  4. Generating physically realizable stellar structures via embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, S. K.; Govender, M.

    2017-05-01

    In this work we present an exact solution of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations describing compact charged objects within the framework of classical general relativity. Our model is constructed by embedding a four-dimensional spherically symmetric static metric into a five-dimensional flat metric. The source term for the matter field is composed of a perfect fluid distribution with charge. We show that our model obeys all the physical requirements and stability conditions necessary for a realistic stellar model. Our theoretical model approximates observations of neutron stars and pulsars to a very good degree of accuracy.

  5. Stretchable biocompatible electronics by embedding electrical circuitry in biocompatible elastomers.

    PubMed

    Jahanshahi, Amir; Salvo, Pietro; Vanfleteren, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Stretchable and curvilinear electronics has been used recently for the fabrication of micro systems interacting with the human body. The applications range from different kinds of implantable sensors inside the body to conformable electrodes and artificial skins. One of the key parameters in biocompatible stretchable electronics is the fabrication of reliable electrical interconnects. Although very recent literature has reported on the reliability of stretchable interconnects by cyclic loading, work still needs to be done on the integration of electrical circuitry composed of rigid components and stretchable interconnects in a biological environment. In this work, the feasibility of a developed technology to fabricate simple electrical circuits with meander shaped stretchable interconnects is presented. Stretchable interconnects are 200 nm thin Au layer supported with polyimide (PI). A stretchable array of light emitting diodes (LEDs) is embedded in biocompatible elastomer using this technology platform and it features a 50% total elongation.

  6. Electricity generation using electromagnetic radiation

    DOEpatents

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2017-08-22

    In general, in one aspect, the invention relates to a system to create vapor for generating electric power. The system includes a vessel comprising a fluid and a complex and a turbine. The vessel of the system is configured to concentrate EM radiation received from an EM radiation source. The vessel of the system is further configured to apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat. The vessel of the system is also configured to transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the fluid to vapor. The vessel of the system is further configured to sending the vapor to a turbine. The turbine of the system is configured to receive, from the vessel, the vapor used to generate the electric power.

  7. Solar Thermal Electricity Generating System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Sambeet; Tripathy, Pratyasha

    2012-08-01

    A Solar Thermal Electricity generating system also known as Solar Thermal Power plant is an emerging renewable energy technology, where we generate the thermal energy by concentrating and converting the direct solar radiationat medium/high temperature (300∫C ñ 800∫C). The resulting thermal energy is then used in a thermodynamic cycleto produce electricity, by running a heat engine, which turns a generator to make electricity. Solar thermal power is currently paving the way for the most cost-effective solar technology on a large scale and is heading to establish a cleaner, pollution free and secured future. Photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal technologies are two main ways of generating energy from the sun, which is considered the inexhaustible source of energy. PV converts sunlight directly into electricity whereas in Solar thermal technology, heat from the sun's rays is concentrated to heat a fluid, whose steam powers a generator that produces electricity. It is similar to the way fossil fuel-burning power plants work except that the steam is produced by the collected heat rather than from the combustion of fossil fuels. In order to generate electricity, five major varieties of solar thermal technologies used are:* Parabolic Trough Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS).* Central Receiver Power Plant.* Solar Chimney Power Plant.* Dish Sterling System.* Solar Pond Power Plant.Most parts of India,Asia experiences a clear sunny weather for about 250 to 300 days a year, because of its location in the equatorial sun belt of the earth, receiving fairly large amount of radiation as compared to many parts of the world especially Japan, Europe and the US where development and deployment of solar technologies is maximum.Whether accompanied with this benefit or not, usually we have to concentrate the solar radiation in order to compensate for the attenuation of solar radiation in its way to earthís surface, which results in from 63,2 GW/m2 at the Sun to 1 kW/m2 at

  8. Electromechanically generating electricity with a gapped-graphene electric generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressen, Donald; Golovchenko, Jene

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication and operation of a gapped-graphene electric generator (G-GEG) device. The G-GEG generates electricity from the mechanical oscillation of droplets of electrolytes and ionic liquids. The spontaneous adsorption of ionic species on graphene charges opposing electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) on each half of the device. Modulating the area of contact between the droplet and graphene leads to adsorption/desorption of ions, effectively charging/discharging each EDLC and generating a current. The flow of current supports a potential difference across the G-GEG due to the device's internal impedance. Both the magnitude and polarity of the induced current and voltage show a strong dependence on the type of ionic species used, suggesting that certain ions interact more strongly with graphene than others. We find that a simple model circuit consisting of an AC current source in series with a resistor and a time-varying capacitor accurately predicts the device's dynamic behavior. Additionally, we discuss the effect of graphene's intrinsic quantum capacitance on the G-GEG's performance and speculate on the utility of the device in the context of energy harvesting.

  9. Apparatuses and methods for generating electric fields

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R; McJunkin, Timothy R; Tremblay, Paul L

    2013-08-06

    Apparatuses and methods relating to generating an electric field are disclosed. An electric field generator may include a semiconductive material configured in a physical shape substantially different from a shape of an electric field to be generated thereby. The electric field is generated when a voltage drop exists across the semiconductive material. A method for generating an electric field may include applying a voltage to a shaped semiconductive material to generate a complex, substantially nonlinear electric field. The shape of the complex, substantially nonlinear electric field may be configured for directing charged particles to a desired location. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed.

  10. Embedded silver PDMS electrodes for single cell electrical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yuan; Xu, Zhensong; Cachia, Mark A.; Nguyen, John; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a microfluidic device with wide channels and embedded AgPDMS electrodes for measuring the electrical properties of single cells. The work demonstrates the feasibility of using a large channel design and embedded electrodes for impedance spectroscopy to circumvent issues such as channel clogging and limited device re-usability. AgPDMS electrodes were formed on channel sidewalls for impedance detection and cell electrical properties measurement. Equivalent circuit models were used to interpret multi-frequency impedance data to quantify each cell’s cytoplasm conductivity and specific membrane capacitance. T24 cells were tested to validate the microfluidic system and modeling results. Comparisons were then made by measuring two leukemia cell lines (AML-2 and HL-60) which were found to have different cytoplasm conductivity values (0.29  ±  0.15 S m-1 versus 0.47  ±  0.20 S m-1) and specific membrane capacitance values (41  ±  25 mF m-2 versus 55  ±  26 mF m-2) when the cells were flown through the wide channel and measured by the AgPDMS electrodes.

  11. DNA Generated Electric Current Biosensor.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lanshuang; Hu, Shengqiang; Guo, Linyan; Shen, Congcong; Yang, Minghui; Rasooly, Avraham

    2017-02-21

    In addition to its primary function as a genetic material, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is also a potential biologic energy source for molecular electronics. For the first time, we demonstrate that DNA can generate a redox electric current. As an example of this new functionality, DNA generated redox current was used for electrochemical detection of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), a clinically important breast cancer biomarker. To induce redox current, the phosphate of the single stranded DNA aptamer backbone was reacted with molybdate to form redox molybdophosphate precipitate and generate an electrochemical current of ∼16.8 μA/μM cm(2). This detection of HER2 was performed using a sandwich detection assay. A HER2 specific peptide was immobilized onto a gold electrode surface for capturing HER2 in buffer and serum. The HER2 specific aptamer was used as both ligand to bind the captured HER2 and to generate a redox current signal. When tested for HER2 detection, the electrochemical current generated by the aptasensor was proportional to HER2 concentration in the range of 0.01 to 5 ng/mL, with a current generated in the range of ∼6.37 to 31.8 μA/cm(2) in both buffer and serum. This detection level is within the clinically relevant range of HER2 concentrations. This method of electrochemical signal amplification greatly simplifies the signal transduction of aptasensors, broadening their use for HER2 analysis. This novel approach of using the same aptamer as biosensor ligand and as transducer can be universally extended to other aptasensors for a wide array of biodetection applications. Moreover, electric currents generated by DNA or other nucleic acids can be used in molecular electronics or implanted devices for both power generation and measurement of output.

  12. Embedded Thermal Control for Subsystems for Next Generation Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Didion, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, Silver Spring MD NCTS 21070-15. NASA, the Defense Department and commercial interests are actively engaged in developing miniaturized spacecraft systems and scientific instruments to leverage smaller cheaper spacecraft form factors such as CubeSats. This paper outlines research and development efforts among Goddard Space Flight Center personnel and its several partners to develop innovative embedded thermal control subsystems. Embedded thermal control subsystems is a cross cutting enabling technology integrating advanced manufacturing techniques to develop multifunctional intelligent structures to reduce Size, Weight and Power (SWaP) consumption of both the thermal control subsystem and overall spacecraft. Embedded thermal control subsystems permit heat acquisition and rejection at higher temperatures than state of the art systems by employing both advanced heat transfer equipment (integrated heat exchangers) and high heat transfer phenomena. The Goddard Space Flight Center Thermal Engineering Branch has active investigations seeking to characterize advanced thermal control systems for near term spacecraft missions. The embedded thermal control subsystem development effort consists of fundamental research as well as development of breadboard and prototype hardware and spaceflight validation efforts. This paper will outline relevant fundamental investigations of micro-scale heat transfer and electrically driven liquid film boiling. The hardware development efforts focus upon silicon based high heat flux applications (electronic chips, power electronics etc.) and multifunctional structures. Flight validation efforts include variable gravity campaigns and a proposed CubeSat based flight demonstration of a breadboard embedded thermal control system. The CubeSat investigation is technology demonstration will characterize in long-term low earth orbit a breadboard embedded thermal subsystem and its individual components to develop

  13. Mini-biomass electric generation

    SciTech Connect

    Elliot, G.

    1997-12-01

    Awareness of the living standards achieved by others has resulted in a Russian population which is yearning for a higher standard of living. Such a situation demands access to affordable electricity in remote areas. Remote energy requirements creates the need to transport power or fossil fuels over long distances. Application of local renewable energy resources could eliminate the need for and costs of long distance power supply. Vast forest resources spread over most of Russia make biomass an ideal renewable energy candidate for many off-grid villages. The primary objective for this preliminary evaluation is to examine the economic feasibility of replacing distillate and gasoline fuels with local waste biomass as the primary fuel for village energy in outlying regions of Russia. Approximately 20 million people live in regions where Russia`s Unified Electric System grid does not penetrate. Most of these people are connected to smaller independent power grids, but approximately 8 million Russians live in off-grid villages and small towns served by stand-alone generation systems using either diesel fuel or gasoline. The off-grid villages depend on expensive distillate fuels and gasoline for combustion in small boilers and engines. These fuels are used for both electricity generation and district heating. Typically, diesel generator systems with a capacity of up to 1 MW serve a collective farm, settlement and their rural enterprises (there are an estimated 10,000 such systems in Russia). Smaller gasoline-fueled generator systems with capacities in the range of 0.5 - 5 kW serve smaller farms or rural enterprises (there are about 60,000 such systems in Russia).

  14. Exploring packaging strategies of nano-embedded thermoelectric generators

    SciTech Connect

    Singha, Aniket; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran; Mahanti, Subhendra D.

    2015-10-15

    Embedding nanostructures within a bulk matrix is an important practical approach towards the electronic engineering of high performance thermoelectric systems. For power generation applications, it ideally combines the efficiency benefit offered by low dimensional systems along with the high power output advantage offered by bulk systems. In this work, we uncover a few crucial details about how to embed nanowires and nanoflakes in a bulk matrix so that an overall advantage over pure bulk may be achieved. First and foremost, we point out that a performance degradation with respect to bulk is inevitable as the nanostructure transitions to a multi moded one. It is then shown that a nano embedded system of suitable cross-section offers a power density advantage over a wide range of efficiencies at higher packing fractions, and this range gradually narrows down to the high efficiency regime, as the packing fraction is reduced. Finally, we introduce a metric - the advantage factor, to elucidate quantitatively, the enhancement in the power density offered via nano-embedding at a given efficiency. In the end, we explore the maximum effective width of nano-embedding which serves as a reference in designing generators in the efficiency range of interest.

  15. Electricity generation from defective tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Namita; Fogg, Alex; Wilder, Joseph; Franco, Daniel; Komisar, Simeon; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana

    2016-12-01

    The United States faces a significant burden in treating 0.61billionkg of defective tomatoes (culls) every year. We present a proof-of-concept for generating electricity from culled tomatoes in microbial-electrochemical systems (MESs). This study delineates impedance behavior of the culled tomatoes in MESs and compares its impedance spectra with that of soluble substrates (dextrose, acetate, and wastewater). A series of AC and DC diagnostic tests have revealed the superior performance of the culled tomatoes compared to the pure substrates. Cyclic voltammetry results have indicated the active role of indigenous, diffusible redox-active pigments in the culled tomatoes on overall electricity production. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results have elucidated the role of peel and seed on the oxidation behavior of the culled tomatoes.

  16. EVALUATION OF A SUPERCONDUCTING ROTATING ELECTRIC GENERATOR.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ELECTRIC POWER, *PRODUCTION, GENERATORS , SUPERCONDUCTORS, SUPERCONDUCTORS, ROTATION, FEASIBILITY STUDIES, REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS, MAGNETIC FIELDS, TEST EQUIPMENT, ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT, SOLENOIDS, TEMPERATURE, ELECTROMAGNETS.

  17. Wind wheel electric power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, J.W.

    1980-03-04

    Wind wheel electric power generator apparatus is disclosed as including a housing rotatably mounted upon a vertically disposed support column. Primary and auxiliary funnel-type, venturi ducts are fixedly mounted upon the housing for capturing wind currents and for conducting the same to a bladed wheel adapted to be operatively connected with generator apparatus. Additional air flows are also conducted onto the bladed wheel, all of the air flows positively effecting rotation of the wheel in a cumulative manner. The auxiliary ducts are disposed at an acute angle with respect to the longitudinal axis of the housing, and this feature , together with the rotatability of the housing and the ducts, permits capture of wind currents within a variable directional range.

  18. Wind wheel electric power generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, J. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Wind wheel electric power generator apparatus includes a housing rotatably mounted upon a vertical support column. Primary and auxiliary funnel-type, venturi ducts are fixed onto the housing for capturing wind currents and conducting to a bladed wheel adapted to be operatively connected with the generator apparatus. Additional air flows are also conducted onto the bladed wheel; all of the air flows positively effecting rotation of the wheel in a cumulative manner. The auxiliary ducts are disposed at an acute angle with respect to the longitudinal axis of the housing, and this feature, together with the rotatability of the housing and the ducts, permits capture of wind currents within a variable directional range.

  19. Solar energy thermally powered electrical generating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, William R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A thermally powered electrical generating system for use in a space vehicle is disclosed. The rate of storage in a thermal energy storage medium is controlled by varying the rate of generation and dissipation of electrical energy in a thermally powered electrical generating system which is powered from heat stored in the thermal energy storage medium without exceeding a maximum quantity of heat. A control system (10) varies the rate at which electrical energy is generated by the electrical generating system and the rate at which electrical energy is consumed by a variable parasitic electrical load to cause storage of an amount of thermal energy in the thermal energy storage system at the end of a period of insolation which is sufficient to satisfy the scheduled demand for electrical power to be generated during the next period of eclipse. The control system is based upon Kalman filter theory.

  20. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation summarizes various electricity and electricity/steam cogeneration alternatives. Among these alternatives, are fossil fuel and biomass power generation plants. These plants have different designs due to the need in fossil fuel (coal) plants to include process u...

  1. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation summarizes various electricity and electricity/steam cogeneration alternatives. Among these alternatives, are fossil fuel and biomass power generation plants. These plants have different designs due to the need in fossil fuel (coal) plants to include process u...

  2. Electrical power generation by mechanically modulating electrical double layers.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jong Kyun; Jeong, Jaeki; Lee, Dongyun; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Since Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry made their great discovery of electromagnetic induction, there have been continuous developments in electrical power generation. Most people today get electricity from thermal, hydroelectric, or nuclear power generation systems, which use this electromagnetic induction phenomenon. Here we propose a new method for electrical power generation, without using electromagnetic induction, by mechanically modulating the electrical double layers at the interfacial areas of a water bridge between two conducting plates. We find that when the height of the water bridge is mechanically modulated, the electrical double layer capacitors formed on the two interfacial areas are continuously charged and discharged at different phases from each other, thus generating an AC electric current across the plates. We use a resistor-capacitor circuit model to explain the results of this experiment. This observation could be useful for constructing a micro-fluidic power generation system in the near future.

  3. Electrical power generating system. [for windpowered generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An alternating current power generation system adopted to inject power in an already powered power line is discussed. The power generating system solves to adjustably coup an induction motor, as a generator, to an ac power line wherein the motor and power line are connected through a triac. The triac is regulated to normally turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation, whereby at less than operating speed, and thus when the induction motor functions as a motor rather than as a generator, power consumption from the line is substantially reduced. The principal application will be for windmill powered generation.

  4. NAFTA opportunities: Electrical equipment and power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) provides significant commercial opportunities in Mexico and Canada for the United States electric equipment and power generation industries, through increased goods and services exports to the Federal Electricity Commission (CFE) and through new U.S. investment in electricity generation facilities in Mexico. Canada and Mexico are the United States' two largest export markets for electrical equipment with exports of $1.53 billion and $1.51 billion, respectively, in 1992. Canadian and Mexican markets represent approximately 47 percent of total U.S. exports of electric equipment. The report presents an economic analysis of the section.

  5. Installation of electric generators on turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demel, H. F.

    1983-01-01

    The installation of generators on turbine aircraft is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the use of the samarium cobalt generator. Potential advantages of an electric secondary power system at the engine level are listed. The integrated generator and the externally mounted generator are discussed. It is concluded that the integrated generator is best used in turbojet and low bypass ratio engines where there is no easy way of placing generators externally without influencing frontal areas.

  6. Water Resource Impacts Embedded in the Western US Electrical Energy Trade; Current Patterns and Adaptation to Future Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, E. A.; Herron, S.; Qiu, Y.; Tidwell, V. C.; Ruddell, B. L.

    2013-12-01

    Water resources are a key element in the global coupled natural-human (CNH) system, because they are tightly coupled with the world's social, environmental, and economic subsystems, and because water resources are under increasing pressure worldwide. A fundamental adaptive tool used especially by cities to overcome local water resource scarcity is the outsourcing of water resource impacts through substitutionary economic trade. This is generally understood as the indirect component of a water footprint, and as ';virtual water' trade. This work employs generalized CNH methods to reveal the trade in water resource impacts embedded in electrical energy within the Western US power grid, and utilizes a general equilibrium economic trade model combined with drought and demand growth constraints to estimate the future status of this trade. Trade in embedded water resource impacts currently increases total water used for electricity production in the Western US and shifts water use to more water-limited States. Extreme drought and large increases in electrical energy demand increase the need for embedded water resource impact trade, while motivating a shift to more water-efficient generation technologies and more water-abundant generating locations. Cities are the largest users of electrical energy, and in the 21st Century will outsource a larger fraction of their water resource impacts through trade. This trade exposes cities to risks associated with disruption of long-distance transmission and distant hydrological droughts.

  7. Electrical Power Generation by Mechanically Modulating Electrical Double Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Hyuk Kyu; Moon, Jong Kyun

    2014-11-01

    Since Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry made their great discovery of electromagnetic induction, there have been continuous developments in electrical power generation. Most people today get electricity from thermal, hydroelectric, or nuclear power generation systems, which use this electromagnetic induction phenomenon. Here we propose a new method for electrical power generation, without using electromagnetic induction, by mechanically modulating the electrical double layers at the interfacial areas of a water bridge between two conducting plates. We find that when the height of the water bridge is mechanically modulated, the electrical double layer capacitors formed on the two interfacial areas are continuously charged and discharged at different phases from each other, thus generating an AC electric current across the plates. We use a resistor-capacitor circuit model to explain the results of this experiment. This observation could be useful for constructing a micro-fluidic power generation system and for understanding the interfacial charge distribution in solid-liquid interfaces in the near future. This work was supported by Center for Soft and Living Matter through IBS prgram in Korea.

  8. Entanglement generation by electric field background

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadi, Zahra Mirza, Behrouz

    2014-12-15

    The quantum vacuum is unstable under the influence of an external electric field and decays into pairs of charged particles, a process which is known as the Schwinger pair production. We propose and demonstrate that this electric field can generate entanglement. Using the Schwinger pair production for constant and pulsed electric fields, we study entanglement for scalar particles with zero spins and Dirac fermions. One can observe the variation of the entanglement produced for bosonic and fermionic modes with respect to different parameters.

  9. Prospect of electric generation using sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Qingyu

    2017-05-01

    Noise is also an important energy, but has been controlled for its harm. If noise can be made effective use of at the same time, there would be a large change in social life. Based on studies on converting sound to electricity over the years, some effective implements of electric generation using sound are put forward for the new situation of utilizing of noise.

  10. Microgrids in the Evolving Electricity Generation and DeliveryInfrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Marnay, Chris; Venkataramanan, Giri

    2006-02-01

    The legacy paradigm for electricity service in most of the electrified world today is based on the centralized generation-transmission-distribution infrastructure that evolved under a regulated environment. More recently, a quest for effective economic investments, responsive markets, and sensitivity to the availability of resources, has led to various degrees of deregulation and unbundling of services. In this context, a new paradigm is emerging wherein electricity generation is intimately embedded with the load in microgrids. Development and decay of the familiar macrogrid is discussed. Three salient features of microgrids are examined to suggest that cohabitation of micro and macro grids is desirable, and that overall energy efficiency can be increased, while power is delivered to loads at appropriate levels of quality.

  11. Electricity generation by intermittent sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, F.

    2015-08-01

    This paper deals with the production of electricity by wind and photovoltaic (PV) power mostly in Germany. The German data of 2012 are scaled to a 100% supply of the electricity consumption by renewable sources. Wind and PV power are mixed in a ratio which minimises back-up energy. The 100%, optimal mix data are used to identify the powers to be installed, the accumulating backup and surplus energies, the size of storage to replace thermal back-up power, the possibilities of demand-side-management, and the specific CO2 production. The benefits of using an EU-wide field of renewable energies (RES) instead of the national one are quantified and the interconnection capacities specified. Finally, the costs of installing RES are discussed. The conclusion is that a 100% supply by RES may not be meaningful. Large-scale supply by RES alone has deficiencies and it will remain a major task for science and technology to either improve such a system or find a suitable replacement.

  12. "Beating speckles" via electrically-induced vibrations of Au nanorods embedded in sol-gel.

    PubMed

    Ritenberg, Margarita; Beilis, Edith; Ilovitsh, Asaf; Barkai, Zehava; Shahmoon, Asaf; Richter, Shachar; Zalevsky, Zeev; Jelinek, Raz

    2014-01-13

    Generation of macroscopic phenomena through manipulating nano-scale properties of materials is among the most fundamental goals of nanotechnology research. We demonstrate cooperative "speckle beats" induced through electric-field modulation of gold (Au) nanorods embedded in a transparent sol-gel host. Specifically, we show that placing the Au nanorod/sol-gel matrix in an alternating current (AC) field gives rise to dramatic modulation of incident light scattered from the material. The speckle light patterns take form of "beats", for which the amplitude and frequency are directly correlated with the voltage and frequency, respectively, of the applied AC field. The data indicate that the speckle beats arise from localized vibrations of the gel-embedded Au nanorods, induced through the interactions between the AC field and the electrostatically-charged nanorods. This phenomenon opens the way for new means of investigating nanoparticles in constrained environments. Applications in electro-optical devices, such as optical modulators, movable lenses, and others are also envisaged.

  13. Electric Field Generation in Martian Dust Devils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Erika L.; Farrell, William M.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial dust devils are known to generate electric fields from the vertical separation of charged dust particles. The particles present within the dust devils on Mars may also be subject to similar charging processes and so likely contribute to electric field generation there as well. However, to date, no Marsin situ instrumentation has been deployed to measure electric field strength. In order to explore the electric environment of dust devils on Mars, the triboelectric dust charging physics from the MacroscopicTriboelectric Simulation (MTS) code has been coupled to the Mars Regional Atmospheric ModelingSystem (MRAMS). Using this model, we examine how macroscopic electric fields are generated within martian dust disturbances and attempt to quantify the time evolution of the electrodynamical system.Electric fields peak for several minutes within the dust devil simulations. The magnitude of the electric field is a strong function of the size of the particles present, the average charge on the particles and the number of particles lifted. Varying these parameters results in peak electric fields between tens of millivolts per meter and tens of kilovolts per meter.

  14. Electric Field Generation in Martian Dust Devils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Erika L.; Farrell, William M.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial dust devils are known to generate electric fields from the vertical separation of charged dust particles. The particles present within the dust devils on Mars may also be subject to similar charging processes and so likely contribute to electric field generation there as well. However, to date, no Marsin situ instrumentation has been deployed to measure electric field strength. In order to explore the electric environment of dust devils on Mars, the triboelectric dust charging physics from the MacroscopicTriboelectric Simulation (MTS) code has been coupled to the Mars Regional Atmospheric ModelingSystem (MRAMS). Using this model, we examine how macroscopic electric fields are generated within martian dust disturbances and attempt to quantify the time evolution of the electrodynamical system.Electric fields peak for several minutes within the dust devil simulations. The magnitude of the electric field is a strong function of the size of the particles present, the average charge on the particles and the number of particles lifted. Varying these parameters results in peak electric fields between tens of millivolts per meter and tens of kilovolts per meter.

  15. Electric field generation in martian dust devils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Erika L.; Farrell, William M.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial dust devils are known to generate electric fields from the vertical separation of charged dust particles. The particles present within the dust devils on Mars may also be subject to similar charging processes and so likely contribute to electric field generation there as well. However, to date, no Mars in situ instrumentation has been deployed to measure electric field strength. In order to explore the electric environment of dust devils on Mars, the triboelectric dust charging physics from the Macroscopic Triboelectric Simulation (MTS) code has been coupled to the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS). Using this model, we examine how macroscopic electric fields are generated within martian dust disturbances and attempt to quantify the time evolution of the electrodynamical system. Electric fields peak for several minutes within the dust devil simulations. The magnitude of the electric field is a strong function of the size of the particles present, the average charge on the particles and the number of particles lifted. Varying these parameters results in peak electric fields between tens of millivolts per meter and tens of kilovolts per meter.

  16. Fluidic Active Transducer for Electricity Generation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, YoungJun; Park, Junwoo; Kwon, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Youn Sang

    2015-01-01

    Flows in small size channels have been studied for a long time over multidisciplinary field such as chemistry, biology and medical through the various topics. Recently, the attempts of electricity generation from the small flows as a new area for energy harvesting in microfluidics have been reported. Here, we propose for the first time a new fluidic electricity generator (FEG) by modulating the electric double layer (EDL) with two phase flows of water and air without external power sources. We find that an electric current flowed by the forming/deforming of the EDL with a simple separated phase flow of water and air at the surface of the FEG. Electric signals between two electrodes of the FEG are checked from various water/air passing conditions. Moreover, we verify the possibility of a self-powered air slug sensor by applying the FEG in the detection of an air slug. PMID:26511626

  17. Fluidic Active Transducer for Electricity Generation.

    PubMed

    Yang, YoungJun; Park, Junwoo; Kwon, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Youn Sang

    2015-10-29

    Flows in small size channels have been studied for a long time over multidisciplinary field such as chemistry, biology and medical through the various topics. Recently, the attempts of electricity generation from the small flows as a new area for energy harvesting in microfluidics have been reported. Here, we propose for the first time a new fluidic electricity generator (FEG) by modulating the electric double layer (EDL) with two phase flows of water and air without external power sources. We find that an electric current flowed by the forming/deforming of the EDL with a simple separated phase flow of water and air at the surface of the FEG. Electric signals between two electrodes of the FEG are checked from various water/air passing conditions. Moreover, we verify the possibility of a self-powered air slug sensor by applying the FEG in the detection of an air slug.

  18. Electricity generation from hydrothermal vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryadi, Y.; Rizal, I. S.; Fadhli, M. N.

    2016-09-01

    Hydrothermal vent is a kind of manifestation of geothermal energy on seabed. It produces high temperature fluid through a hole which has a diameter in various range between several inches to tens of meters. Hydrothermal vent is mostly found over ocean ridges. There are some 67000 km of ocean ridges, 13000 of them have been already studied discovering more than 280 sites with geothermal vents. Some of them have a thermal power of up to 60 MWt. These big potential resources of energy, which are located over subsea, have a constraint related to environmental impact to the biotas live around when it becomes an object of exploitation. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a method of exploiting heat energy to become electricity using organic fluid. This paper presents a model of exploitation technology of hydrothermal vent using ORC method. With conservative calculation, it can give result of 15 MWe by exploiting a middle range diameter of hydrothermal vent in deep of 2000 meters below sea level. The technology provided here really has small impact to the environment. With an output energy as huge as mentioned before, the price of constructing this technology is low considering the empty of cost for drilling as what it should be in conventional exploitation. This paper also presents the comparison in several equipment which is more suitable to be installed over subsea.

  19. Electrical transport studies of Ag nanoclusters embedded in glass matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magudapathy, P.; Gangopadhyay, P.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Nair, K. G. M.; Dhara, S.

    2001-05-01

    Silver nanoclusters embedded in glass matrices have been obtained by the combined use of ion exchange and subsequent ion implantation. XRD and UV-visible spectro-photometric analysis have confirmed the formation of Ag nano-clusters in the ion-irradiated samples. Temperature-dependent resistivity measurements of the irradiated samples have been found to follow ρ( T)∝exp√( T0/ T) in the temperature range of 80-280 K. The observed behaviour of ρ( T) is consistent with charge transport due to hopping between isolated, conducting islands. The separation distance between the conducting islands has been found to be a function of fluence.

  20. Engineering Design Handbook. Dielectric Embedding of Electrical or Electronic Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-06

    Salient Properties of Polyurethanes 4-1 4-2 Hydroxyl Terminated Polymers 4-3 4-3 Isocyanates Used in Polyurethane Elastomers 4-3 4-4 Chain...Extending Agents 4-4 4-5 Some Trade Names/Suppliers of Polyurethane Embedments (Types 4 and 5) .... 4-6 4-6 Typical Isocyanates Used in...encased in dielectric materials. The earliest substances used for such purpose were materials such as waxes and asphaltic materials. These now may

  1. Design and evaluation of brushless electrical generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, F. A.; Ellis, J. N.

    1970-01-01

    Ten design manuals assembled and nine computer programs are developed for evaluation of proposed designs of brushless rotating electrical generators. Design manual package provides all information required for generator design, and computer programs permit calculation of performance of specific designs including effects of materials.

  2. Algae fuel clean electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, D.

    1993-02-08

    The paper describes plans for a 600-kW pilot generating unit, fueled by diesel and Chlorella, a green alga commonly seen growing on the surface of ponds. The plant contains Biocoil units in which Chlorella are grown using the liquid effluents from sewage treatment plants and dissolved carbon dioxide from exhaust gases from the combustion unit. The algae are partially dried and fed into the combustor where diesel fuel is used to maintain ignition. Diesel fuel is also used for start-up and as a backup fuel for seasonal shifts that affect the algae growing conditions. Since the algae use the carbon dioxide emitted during the combustion process, the process will not contribute to global warming.

  3. Generation of Electric and Magnetic Fields During Detonation of High Explosive Charges in Boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Soloviev, S; Sweeney, J

    2004-06-04

    We present experimental results of a study of electromagnetic field generation during underground detonation of high explosive charges in holes bored in sandy loam and granite. Test conditions and physico-mechanical properties of the soil exert significant influence on the parameters of electromagnetic signals generated by underground TNT charges with masses of 2 - 200 kg. The electric and magnetic field experimental data are satisfactorily described by an electric dipole model with the source embedded in a layered media.

  4. Electricity generation potential of Thai sugar mills

    SciTech Connect

    Therdyothin, A.; Bhattacharaya, S.C.; Chirarattananon, S. )

    1992-10-01

    At present, the total installed electricity generating capacity of Thailand is 7500 MW. Because this level of investment will take an unacceptable large part of total foreign borrowing, the government plans to encourage participation of the private sector in electricity generation. Among the various technology options for power production, cogeneration appears to be the most promising technology due to its very high effectiveness of fuel utilization. Therefore, in the first phase of private power generation, the Thai government is encouraging cogeneration systems. This paper discusses sugar mills, where expertise and equipment for electricity generation already exist, appear to be in a particularly advantageous position to participate in the private power generation program. At present, there are 46 sugar mills in Thailand with a total capacity of 338,000 tons of cane per day. The fiber part delivered from the milling of sugarcane, bagasse, is normally used to produce steam for the process heat and electricity generation. The investment and operating costs for each of these alternatives have been evaluated. The internal rate of return is used to indicate the benefit of each alternative.

  5. Quasi-Static Electric Field Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A generator for producing an electric field for with an inspection technology system is provided. The generator provides the required variable magnitude quasi-static electric fields for the "illumination" of objects, areas and volumes to be inspected by the system, and produces human-safe electric fields that are only visible to the system. The generator includes a casing, a driven, non-conducting and triboelectrically neutral rotation shaft mounted therein, an ungrounded electrostatic dipole element which works in the quasi-static range, and a non-conducting support for mounting the dipole element to the shaft. The dipole element has a wireless motor system and a charging system which are wholly contained within the dipole element and the support that uses an electrostatic approach to charge the dipole element.

  6. Electricity generation by Rhodopseudomonas palustris DX-1.

    PubMed

    Xing, Defeng; Zuo, Yi; Cheng, Shaoan; Regan, John M; Logan, Bruce E

    2008-06-01

    Bacteria able to generate electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are of great interest, but there are few strains capable of high power production in these systems. Here we report that the phototrophic purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris DX-1, isolated from an MFC, produced electricity at higher power densities (2720 +/- 60 mW/m2) than mixed cultures in the same device. While Rhodopseudomonas species are known for their ability to generate hydrogen, they have not previously been shown to generate power in an MFC, and current was generated without the need for light or hydrogen production. Strain DX-1 utilizes a wide variety of substrates (volatile acids, yeast extract, and thiosulfate) for power production in different metabolic modes, making it highly useful for studying power generation in MFCs and generating power from a range of simple and complex sources of organic matter. These results demonstrate that a phototrophic purple nonsulfur bacterium can efficiently generate electricity by direct electron transfer in MFCs, providing another model microorganism for MFC investigations.

  7. Subabul: A wood species for electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M.; Gupta, R.C.

    1996-10-01

    In view of energy and environmental considerations, efforts have been made in this article to suggest the use of biomass as a renewable and nonpolluting source of energy for power generation. This article presents the results of the proximate analyses and energy contents of various components of the Subabul tree and their impact on land requirements to generate necessary biomass for small-scale electricity generation units. The results have shown that for the Subabul-wood-based thermal power plant, approximately 400 ha of land are required to generate 2,000 kWh/d.

  8. Partnership for electrical generation technology education

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, R. S.; Beaty, L.; Holman, R.

    2006-07-01

    This Engineering Technician education effort adapts an existing two-year Instrumentation and Control (I and C) education program into a model that is focused on electrical-generation technologies. It will also locally implement a program developed elsewhere with National Science Foundation funding, aimed at public schools, and adapt it to stimulate pre-college interest in pursuing energy careers in general. (authors)

  9. The rising cost of electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, Tobey

    2008-06-15

    Through most of its history, the electric industry has experienced a stable or declining cost structure. Recently, the economic fundamentals have shifted and generating costs are now rising and driving up prices at a time when the industry faces new challenges to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. New plant investment faces the most difficult economic environment in decades. (author)

  10. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder; Sivapalan, Subarna; Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep; Karim, Samsul Ariffin A.

    2014-10-01

    Under the 10th Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels.

  11. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder Karim, Samsul Ariffin A.; Sivapalan, Subarna; Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep

    2014-10-24

    Under the 10{sup th} Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels.

  12. Packaging and Embedded Electronics for the Next Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes examples of electronic packaging that protects an electronic element from handling, contamination, shock, vibration and light penetration. The use of Hermetic and non-hermetic packaging is also discussed. The topics include: 1) What is Electronic Packaging? 2) Why Package Electronic Parts? 3) Evolution of Packaging; 4) General Packaging Discussion; 5) Advanced non-hermetic packages; 6) Discussion of Hermeticity; 7) The Class Y Concept and Possible Extensions; 8) Embedded Technologies; and 9) NEPP Activities.

  13. Antifungal Properties of Electrically Generated Metallic Ions

    PubMed Central

    Berger, T. J.; Spadaro, J. A.; Bierman, Richard; Chapin, S. E.; Becker, R. O.

    1976-01-01

    A qualitative and quantitative investigation was undertaken to study the susceptibility of unicellular eucaryotic organisms (yeasts) to metallic cations generated by low levels of direct current. Results were characteristic of effects obtained previously using clinical and standard bacteria test organisms. The present study demonstrated that anodic silver (Ag+) at low direct currents had inhibitory and fungicidal properties. Broth dilution susceptibility tests were made on several species of Candida and one species of Torulopsis. Growth in all isolates was inhibited by concentrations of electrically generated silver ions between 0.5 and 4.7 μg/ml, and silver exhibited fungicidal properties at concentrations as low as 1.9 μg/ml. The inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations of electrically generated silver ions are lower than those reported for other silver compounds. Images PMID:1034467

  14. Nanopowder production by gas-embedded electrical explosion of wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiao-Bing; Mao, Zhi-Guo; Wang, Xin-Xin; Jiang, Wei-Hua

    2013-04-01

    A small electrical explosion of wire (EEW) setup for nanopowder production is constructed. It consists of a low inductance capacitor bank of 2 μF-4 μF typically charged to 8 kV-30 kV, a triggered gas switch, and a production chamber housing the exploding wire load and ambient gas. With the EEW device, nanosize powders of titanium oxides, titanium nitrides, copper oxides, and zinc oxides are successfully synthesized. The average particle size of synthesized powders under different experimental conditions is in a range of 20 nm-80 nm. The pressure of ambient gas or wire vapor can strongly affect the average particle size. The lower the pressure, the smaller the particle size is. For wire material with relatively high resistivity, such as titanium, whose deposited energy Wd is often less than sublimation energy Ws due to the flashover breakdown along the wire prematurely ending the Joule heating process, the synthesized particle size of titanium oxides or titanium nitrides increases with overheat coefficient k (k = Wd/Ws) increasing.

  15. Acoustic patterning for 3D embedded electrically conductive wire in stereolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem Yunus, Doruk; Sohrabi, Salman; He, Ran; Shi, Wentao; Liu, Yaling

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we reported a new approach for particle assembly with acoustic tweezers during three-dimensional (3D) printing, for the fabrication of embedded conductive wires with 3D structures. A hexagon shaped acoustic tweezer was incorporated with a digital light processing based stereolithography printer to pattern conductive lines via aligning and condensing conductive nanoparticles. The effect of filler content on electrical resistivity and pattern thickness were studied for copper, magnetite nanoparticles, and carbon nanofiber reinforced nanocomposite samples. The obtained data was later used to produce examples of conductive 3D microstructures and embedded electronic components by using the suggested method.

  16. Electrical power systems for distributed generation

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, T.A.; Huval, S.J.

    1996-12-31

    {open_quotes}Distributed Generation{close_quotes} has become the {open_quotes}buzz{close_quotes} word of an electric utility industry facing deregulation. Many industrial facilities utilize equipment in distributed installations to serve the needs of a thermal host through the capture of exhaust energy in a heat recovery steam generator. The electrical power generated is then sold as a {open_quotes}side benefit{close_quotes} to the cost-effective supply of high quality thermal energy. Distributed generation is desirable for many different reasons, each with unique characteristics of the product. Many years of experience in the distributed generation market has helped Stewart & Stevenson to define a range of product features that are crucial to most any application. The following paper will highlight a few of these applications. The paper will also examine the range of products currently available and in development. Finally, we will survey the additional services offered by Stewart & Stevenson to meet the needs of a rapidly changing power generation industry.

  17. Motion Generated Static Electricity in Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao Feng, Chung

    2004-03-01

    The charge state of a metallic object, neutral when stationary, is observed to become positive when in motion. This phenomenon was discovered while testing a hypothesis which expects atoms to be more positive when moving faster. The same hypothesis has also led to the discovery of the phenomena of static electric charges being produced by thermal changes during vaporization, condensation and heating of water. The phenomena due to thermal changes were reported at the American Physical Society meetings of MAR02 (W30 4: Electricity of Vaporization and Condensation) and MAR03 (J1 206: Static Electricity from Heating and Cooling). The phenomenon of charges generated by motion can be seen in simple experiments, by the difference in the charge state of a metal rotor between motionless and spinning. The hypothesis and the phenomenon will be discussed. Some of the experiments will be demonstrated.

  18. Why do particle clouds generate electric charges?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pähtz, T.; Herrmann, H. J.; Shinbrot, T.

    2010-05-01

    Grains in desert sandstorms spontaneously generate strong electrical charges; likewise volcanic dust plumes produce spectacular lightning displays. Charged particle clouds also cause devastating explosions in food, drug and coal processing industries. Despite the wide-ranging importance of granular charging in both nature and industry, even the simplest aspects of its causes remain elusive, because it is difficult to understand how inert grains in contact with little more than other inert grains can generate the large charges observed. Here, we present a simple yet predictive explanation for the charging of granular materials in collisional flows. We argue from very basic considerations that charge transfer can be expected in collisions of identical dielectric grains in the presence of an electric field, and we confirm the model's predictions using discrete-element simulations and a tabletop granular experiment.

  19. Local electric dipole moments for periodic systems via density functional theory embedding

    SciTech Connect

    Luber, Sandra

    2014-12-21

    We describe a novel approach for the calculation of local electric dipole moments for periodic systems. Since the position operator is ill-defined in periodic systems, maximally localized Wannier functions based on the Berry-phase approach are usually employed for the evaluation of local contributions to the total electric dipole moment of the system. We propose an alternative approach: within a subsystem-density functional theory based embedding scheme, subset electric dipole moments are derived without any additional localization procedure, both for hybrid and non-hybrid exchange–correlation functionals. This opens the way to a computationally efficient evaluation of local electric dipole moments in (molecular) periodic systems as well as their rigorous splitting into atomic electric dipole moments. As examples, Infrared spectra of liquid ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate are presented, which are commonly employed as solvents in Lithium ion batteries.

  20. The Birth of Nuclear-Generated Electricity

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1999-09-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor-I (EBR-I), built in Idaho in 1949, generated the first usable electricity from nuclear power on December 20, 1951. More importantly, the reactor was used to prove that it was possible to create more nuclear fuel in the reactor than it consumed during operation -- fuel breeding. The EBR-I facility is now a National Historic Landmark open to the public.

  1. Electrical generation of natural aerosols from vegetation.

    PubMed

    Fish, B R

    1972-03-17

    It is suggested that an alternative, or additional, source of the blue haze above heavily forested areas may be the generation of submicrometer-sized wax particles by the action of strong electrical fields at the tips of pine needles and other wax-covered plant surfaces. Exposure of pine needles to high potential gradients results in the production of airborne wax particles with diameters less than 0.6 micrometer.

  2. An overview of thermophotovoltaic generation of electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, T.J.

    1999-09-09

    This paper provides an overview of the developments in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generation of electricity that have occurred relatively recently-from about 1994 to October 1998. The components considered are the semiconductor converter; the radiator; and the means of recirculating unusable, long-wavelength photons. A short account of the functions and performance of each of these components is given. Also discussed are operational systems and progress in modeling TPV systems.

  3. Coal based electric generation comparative technologies report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-26

    Ohio Clean Fuels, Inc., (OCF) has licensed technology that involves Co-Processing (Co-Pro) poor grade (high sulfur) coal and residual oil feedstocks to produce clean liquid fuels on a commercial scale. Stone Webster is requested to perform a comparative technologies report for grassroot plants utilizing coal as a base fuel. In the case of Co-Processing technology the plant considered is the nth plant in a series of applications. This report presents the results of an economic comparison of this technology with other power generation technologies that use coal. Technologies evaluated were:Co-Processing integrated with simple cycle combustion turbine generators, (CSC); Co-Processing integrated with combined cycle combustion turbine generators, (CCC); pulverized coal-fired boiler with flue gas desulfurization and steam turbine generator, (PC) and Circulating fluidized bed boiler and steam turbine generator, (CFB). Conceptual designs were developed. Designs were based on approximately equivalent net electrical output for each technology. A base case of 310 MWe net for each technology was established. Sensitivity analyses at other net electrical output sizes varying from 220 MWe's to 1770 MWe's were also performed. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Floating Oscillator-Embedded Triboelectric Generator for Versatile Mechanical Energy Harvesting

    PubMed Central

    Seol, Myeong-Lok; Han, Jin-Woo; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Meyyappan, M.; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    A versatile vibration energy harvesting platform based on a triboelectricity is proposed and analyzed. External mechanical vibration repeats an oscillating motion of a polymer-coated metal oscillator floating inside a surrounding tube. Continuous sidewall friction at the contact interface of the oscillator induces current between the inner oscillator electrode and the outer tube electrode to convert mechanical vibrations into electrical energy. The floating oscillator-embedded triboelectric generator (FO-TEG) is applicable for both impulse excitation and sinusoidal vibration which universally exist in usual environment. For the impulse excitation, the generated current sustains and slowly decays by the residual oscillation of the floating oscillator. For the sinusoidal vibration, the output energy can be maximized by resonance oscillation. The operating frequency range can be simply optimized with high degree of freedom to satisfy various application requirements. In addition, the excellent immunity against ambient humidity is experimentally demonstrated, which stems from the inherently packaged structure of FO-TEG. The prototype device provides a peak-to-peak open-circuit voltage of 157 V and instantaneous short-circuit current of 4.6 μA, within sub-10 Hz of operating frequency. To visually demonstrate the energy harvesting behavior of FO-TEG, lighting of an array of LEDs is demonstrated using artificial vibration and human running. PMID:26553524

  5. Microbial electricity generation via microfluidic flow control.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Ying; LeDuc, Philip R; Gregory, Kelvin B

    2011-09-01

    Next generation battery technology is rapidly evolving to meet the demand for higher power densities and smaller footprints through novel catalysts and battery architecture. We present a µ-scale, biological fuel cell which utilizes microbial electricity generation enabled by microfluidic flow control to produce power. The new fuel cell, the smallest of its kind, with a total volume of 0.3 µL, produces scalable and controllable electrical energy from organic matter which is sustained through microbial respiration and laminar flow separation of the electrolytes. Electrical currents are dependent on specific biofilm formation on the anode, the concentration of electron donor, and a diffusion-limited flow regime. A maximum current density of 18.40 ± 3.48 mA m(-2) (92 ± 17 A m(-3)) was produced by Geobacter sulfurreducens, and 25.42 mA m(-2) (127 A m(-3)) by Shewanella oneidensis. The µ-scale biological fuel cell introduces the necessary small size and fuel flexibility for applications in vivo and in situ sensors which may be remotely deployed and self-powered.

  6. Embedding the Form Generator in a Content Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, A.; Wicenec, A.; Delmotte, N.; Tejero, A.

    2008-08-01

    Given the tremendous amount of data generated by ESO's telescopes and the rapid evolution of the World Wide Web, the ESO archive web interface needs to offer more flexible services and advanced functionalities to a growing community of users all over the world. To achieve this endeavour, a query form generator is being developed inside a Content Management System. We present here a progress report.

  7. Controlling the set of carbon-fiber embedded cement with electric current

    DOEpatents

    Mattus, Alfred J.

    2004-06-15

    A method for promoting cement or concrete set on demand for concrete that has been chemically retarded by adding carbon fiber to the concrete, which enables it to become electrically conductive, sodium tartrate retardant, and copper sulfate which forms a copper tartrate complex in alkaline concrete mixes. Using electricity, the concrete mix anodically converts the retarding tartrate to an insoluble polyester polymer. The carbon fibers act as a continuous anode surface with a counter electrode wire embedded in the mix. Upon energizing, the retarding effect of tartrate is defeated by formation of the polyester polymer through condensation esterification thereby allowing the normal set to proceed unimpeded.

  8. Electric-field-induced response of a droplet embedded in a polyelectrolyte gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Aliasghar

    2013-08-01

    The electric-field induced response of a droplet embedded in a quenched polyelectrolyte gel is calculated theoretically. The response comprises the droplet translation and the electric-field induced flow fields within the droplet. The gel is modeled as a soft, and electrically charged porous solid saturated with a salted Newtonian fluid. The droplet is considered an incompressible Newtonian fluid with no free charge. An analytical solution, using the perturbation methodology and linear superposition, is obtained for the leading-order steady response to a DC electric-field. The fluid within the droplet is driven due to hydrodynamic coupling with the electroosmotic flow. The fluid velocity within the droplet is linearly proportional to the electroosmotic flow. Moreover, the microrheological response function of a droplet within a polyelectrolyte gel is also provided, highlighting the importance of boundary conditions at the droplet-gel interface on microrheological measurements.

  9. Solid waste electrical generating feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    The feasibility of recommissioning the existing 3 megawatt steam turbine driven electrical generator of the Municipal Utilities of Valley City, North Dakota, using steam generated in a new facility from the incineration of municipal solid waste generated in the area is examined. It is concluded that (1) there is sufficient municipal solid waste that can be obtained from Valley City, Moorhead and Jamestown (and/or West Fargo) to fuel the plant; (2) the seasonal fluctuation in the amounts of municipal solid waste indicates that a supplementary source of fuel for use during winter would increase plant efficiency; (3) the probable capital cost of the project will be $3,590,000.00; (4) the cost of production of electricity could range from 3.72 cents/kWh to 4.90 cents/kWh, depending on the construction costs, interest rate, lifetime of the project, availability for the plant and steam produced per ton of municipal solid waste; (5) there is no compelling reason why the tertiary cell of the sewage lagoon, cannot be used for cooling water; (6) the State Health Department is ambivalent toward the project; and (7) the public perception of the project is positive. 92 references.

  10. Third Generation Flywheels for electric storage

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, Michael, R.; Fiske, O. James

    2008-02-29

    Electricity is critical to our economy, but growth in demand has saturated the power grid causing instability and blackouts. The economic penalty due to lost productivity in the US exceeds $100 billion per year. Opposition to new transmission lines and power plants, environmental restrictions, and an expected $100 billion grid upgrade cost have slowed system improvements. Flywheel electricity storage could provide a more economical, environmentally benign alternative and slash economic losses if units could be scaled up in a cost effective manner to much larger power and capacity than the present maximum of a few hundred kW and a few kWh per flywheel. The goal of this project is to design, construct, and demonstrate a small-scale third generation electricity storage flywheel using a revolutionary architecture scalable to megawatt-hours per unit. First generation flywheels are built from bulk materials such as steel and provide inertia to smooth the motion of mechanical devices such as engines. They can be scaled up to tens of tons or more, but have relatively low energy storage density. Second generation flywheels use similar designs but are fabricated with composite materials such as carbon fiber and epoxy. They are capable of much higher energy storage density but cannot economically be built larger than a few kWh of storage capacity due to structural and stability limitations. LaunchPoint is developing a third generation flywheel — the "Power Ring" — with energy densities as high or higher than second generation flywheels and a totally new architecture scalable to enormous sizes. Electricity storage capacities exceeding 5 megawatt-hours per unit appear both technically feasible and economically attractive. Our design uses a new class of magnetic bearing – a radial gap “shear-force levitator” – that we discovered and patented, and a thin-walled composite hoop rotated at high speed to store kinetic energy. One immediate application is power grid

  11. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning from Portable Electrical Generators.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Neil B; Dunn, Susan L

    2015-08-01

    Portable electrical generators have been responsible for over 800 accidental carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning deaths in the United States from 1999-2012. Because mortality figures are typically the only data reported with regard to the adverse effects of generators, we describe a nonfatal segment of the poisoned population to further emphasize the significance of the problem. Unidentifiable information about patients treated in the United States with hyperbaric oxygen for acute CO poisoning was prospectively reported by participating centers. Those patients poisoned by portable generators were selected for analysis. Of 1604 patients reported from August 1, 2008 to July 31, 2011, there were 264 accidentally poisoned by portable generators. Exposures occurred in 151 incidents in 33 states. In 99 incidents, poisoning occurred in a residence. Average patient age was 37 ± 20 years (range 1 to 90+ years). Of those poisoned, 146 (55%) were non-Hispanic white, 57 (22%) were black, 52 (20%) were Hispanic white, 4 (2%) were Asian, and 4 (2%) were Native American. English was spoken by 96%. The most common symptoms included headache (62%), dizziness (52%), and loss of consciousness (50%). Blood carboxyhemoglobin levels averaged 22.7 ± 9.0% (range 2.3-48.3%). Thirty-six patients demonstrated evidence of cardiac ischemia. Acute, severe CO poisoning from portable electric generators is common in the United States, likely affecting an estimated 4000 individuals annually, occurring predominantly in residential settings, and affecting English language-speaking individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Electric current generation in distorted graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizher, Ana Julia; Raya, Alfredo; Villavicencio, Cristián

    2016-12-01

    Graphene-like materials can be effectively described by quantum electrodynamics in (2+1) dimensions, QED3. In a pristine state, these systems exhibit a symmetry between the nonequivalent Dirac points in the honeycomb lattice. Realistic samples which include distortions and crystalline anisotropies are considered through mass gaps of topological and dynamical nature. In this work, we show that the incorporation of an in-plane uniform external magnetic field on this pseudochiral asymmetric configuration generates a nondissipative electric current aligned with the magnetic field: The pseudochiral magnetic effect (PCME). This scenario resembles the chiral magnetic effect in quantum chromodynamics (QCD).

  13. 78 FR 4873 - Electrical Protective Equipment Standard and the Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... on Electrical Protective Equipment (29 CFR 1910.137) and Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and... Equipment Standard (29 CFR 1910.137) and the Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution... the equipment-testing requirements of the Standard. Electric Power Generation, Transmission,...

  14. Primary electric power generation systems for advanced-technology engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The advantages of the all electric airplane are discussed. In the all electric airplane the generator is the sole source of electric power; it powers the primary and secondary flight controls, the environmentals, and the landing gear. Five candidates for all electric power systems are discussed and compared. Cost benefits of the all electric airplane are discussed.

  15. Electrically-Generated Spin Polarization in Non-Magnetic Semiconductors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-31

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0143 Electrically-generated spin polarization in non-magnetic semiconductors Vanessa Sih UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Final Report 03...SUBTITLE (YIP) - Electrically-generated spin polarization in non-magnetic semiconductors 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0258 5c...that produced electrically-generated electron spin polarization in non-magnetic semiconductor heterostructures. Electrically-generated electron spin

  16. 78 FR 36277 - Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... COMMISSION Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION..., and Acceptance Criteria (ITAAC) E.2.5.04.05.05.01, for the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3... Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3 ] (ADAMS Accession No. ML13032A592). This ITAAC was approved as...

  17. Automated Testcase Generation for Numerical Support Functions in Embedded Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Schnieder, Stefan-Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We present a tool for the automatic generation of test stimuli for small numerical support functions, e.g., code for trigonometric functions, quaternions, filters, or table lookup. Our tool is based on KLEE to produce a set of test stimuli for full path coverage. We use a method of iterative deepening over abstractions to deal with floating-point values. During actual testing the stimuli exercise the code against a reference implementation. We illustrate our approach with results of experiments with low-level trigonometric functions, interpolation routines, and mathematical support functions from an open source UAS autopilot.

  18. Electrical Generating Capacities of Geothermal Slim Holes

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchett, J.W.

    1998-10-01

    Theoretical calculations are presented to estimate the electrical generating capacity of the hot fluids discharged from individual geothermal wells using small wellhead generating equipment over a wide range of reservoir and operating conditions. The purpose is to appraise the possibility of employing slim holes (instead of conventional production-size wells) to power such generators for remote off-grid applications such as rural electrification in developing countries. Frequently, the generating capacity desired is less than one megawatt, and can be as low as 100 kilowatts; if slim holes can be usefully employed, overall project costs will be significantly reduced. This report presents the final results of the study. Both self-discharging wells and wells equipped with downhole pumps (either of the ''lineshaft'' or the ''submersible'' type) are examined. Several power plant designs are considered, including conventional single-flash backpressure and condensing steam turbines, binary plants, double-flash steam plants, and steam turbine/binary hybrid designs. Well inside diameters from 75 mm to 300 mm are considered; well depths vary from 300 to 1200 meters. Reservoir temperatures from 100 C to 240 C are examined, as are a variety of reservoir pressures and CO2 contents and well productivity index values.

  19. Electrical dark compacton generator: theory and simulations.

    PubMed

    Kenmogne, Fabien; Yemélé, David; Woafo, Paul

    2012-05-01

    A modified Colpitts oscillator (MCO) associated with a nonlinear transmission line (NLTL) with intersite nonlinearity is introduced as a self-sustained generator of a train of modulated dark signals with compact shape. Equations of state describing the dynamics of the MCO part are derived and the stationary state is obtained. Using the Routh-Hurwitz criterion, the result of a stability analysis indicates the existence of a limit cycle in certain parameter regimes and there the oscillation of the circuit delivers pulselike electrical signals. The train of generated signals is then transformed into a train of compact modulated dark voltage solitons by the NLTL. The exactness of this analytical analysis is confirmed by numerical simulations performed on the circuit equations. Finally, simulations show the capacity of this circuit to work as a generator of compactlike dark voltage solitons. The performance of the generator, namely, the pulse width and the repetition rate, is controlled by the magnitude of the characteristic parameters of the electronic components of the device.

  20. Fatigue degradation and electric recovery in Silicon solar cells embedded in photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paggi, Marco; Berardone, Irene; Infuso, Andrea; Corrado, Mauro

    2014-03-01

    Cracking in Silicon solar cells is an important factor for the electrical power-loss of photovoltaic modules. Simple geometrical criteria identifying the amount of inactive cell areas depending on the position of cracks with respect to the main electric conductors have been proposed in the literature to predict worst case scenarios. Here we present an experimental study based on the electroluminescence (EL) technique showing that crack propagation in monocrystalline Silicon cells embedded in photovoltaic (PV) modules is a much more complex phenomenon. In spite of the very brittle nature of Silicon, due to the action of the encapsulating polymer and residual thermo-elastic stresses, cracked regions can recover the electric conductivity during mechanical unloading due to crack closure. During cyclic bending, fatigue degradation is reported. This pinpoints the importance of reducing cyclic stresses caused by vibrations due to transportation and use, in order to limit the effect of cracking in Silicon cells.

  1. Mechanically Stretchable and Electrically Insulating Thermal Elastomer Composite by Liquid Alloy Droplet Embedment

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Seung Hee; Chen, Si; Huo, Jinxing; Gamstedt, Erik Kristofer; Liu, Johan; Zhang, Shi-Li; Zhang, Zhi-Bin; Hjort, Klas; Wu, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Stretchable electronics and soft robotics have shown unsurpassed features, inheriting remarkable functions from stretchable and soft materials. Electrically conductive and mechanically stretchable materials based on composites have been widely studied for stretchable electronics as electrical conductors using various combinations of materials. However, thermally tunable and stretchable materials, which have high potential in soft and stretchable thermal devices as interface or packaging materials, have not been sufficiently studied. Here, a mechanically stretchable and electrically insulating thermal elastomer composite is demonstrated, which can be easily processed for device fabrication. A liquid alloy is embedded as liquid droplet fillers in an elastomer matrix to achieve softness and stretchability. This new elastomer composite is expected useful to enhance thermal response or efficiency of soft and stretchable thermal devices or systems. The thermal elastomer composites demonstrate advantages such as thermal interface and packaging layers with thermal shrink films in transient and steady-state cases and a stretchable temperature sensor. PMID:26671673

  2. Fatigue degradation and electric recovery in Silicon solar cells embedded in photovoltaic modules

    PubMed Central

    Paggi, Marco; Berardone, Irene; Infuso, Andrea; Corrado, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Cracking in Silicon solar cells is an important factor for the electrical power-loss of photovoltaic modules. Simple geometrical criteria identifying the amount of inactive cell areas depending on the position of cracks with respect to the main electric conductors have been proposed in the literature to predict worst case scenarios. Here we present an experimental study based on the electroluminescence (EL) technique showing that crack propagation in monocrystalline Silicon cells embedded in photovoltaic (PV) modules is a much more complex phenomenon. In spite of the very brittle nature of Silicon, due to the action of the encapsulating polymer and residual thermo-elastic stresses, cracked regions can recover the electric conductivity during mechanical unloading due to crack closure. During cyclic bending, fatigue degradation is reported. This pinpoints the importance of reducing cyclic stresses caused by vibrations due to transportation and use, in order to limit the effect of cracking in Silicon cells. PMID:24675974

  3. Solid waste electrical generating feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    The feasibility of recommissioning the existing 3 megawatt steam turbine driven electrical generator of the Municipal Utilities of Valley City, North Dakota, using steam generated in a new facility from the incineration of municipal solid waste generated in the area is examined. It is concluded that (1) there is sufficient municipal solid waste that can be obtained from Valley City, Moorhead and Jamestown (and/or West Fargo) to fuel the plant; (2) the seasonal fluctuation in the amounts of municipal solid waste indicates that a supplementary source of fuel for use during winter would increase plant efficiency; (3) the probable capital cost of the project will be $3,590,000.00; (4) the cost of production of electricity could range from 3.72 cents/kWh to 4.90 cents/kWh, depending on the construction costs, interest rate, lifetime of the project, availability for the plant and steam produced per ton of municipal solid waste; (5) there is no compelling reason why the tertiary cell of the sewage lagoon, cannot be used for cooling water; (6) the State Health Department is ambivalent toward the project; and (7) the public perception of the project is positive. The recommendations include (1) obtain the blessing of the appropriate authorities to proceed to the next steps; (2) obtain letters of intent to commit their municipal solid waste stream to this project from other municipalities; (3) develop a complete and detailed ''Request for Proposals'' based on demonstrated performance; and (4) explore vigorously the possibilities of grant monies to offset part of the cost. 92 refs., 29 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Superior electrical characteristics of novel nanoscale MOSFET with embedded tunnel diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zareiee, Meysam; Orouji, Ali A.

    2017-01-01

    Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET) play an important role in electronic industry development. To improve the electrical characteristics of these transistors in this paper, a new structure is proposed to reduce floating body effect, lattice temperature, and short channel effects. The main mechanism for controlling these critical issues is using an embedded tunnel diode. The tunnel diode formed by heavily doped N and P silicon windows which are embedded into the buried oxide layer. The accumulated holes are effectively released by the tunnel current of the tunnel diode. The simulation with ATLAS simulator shows that the proposed structure works properly and the important parameters such as subthreshold slope, off current, voltage gain, and maximum lattice temperature improve in comparison with the conventional nanoscale MOSFET.

  5. Vogtle Electric Generating Plant ETE Analysis Review

    SciTech Connect

    Diediker, Nona H.; Jones, Joe A.

    2006-12-09

    Under contract with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL)-Albuquerque reviewed the evacuation time estimate (ETE) analysis dated April 2006 prepared by IEM for the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant (VEGP). The ETE analysis was reviewed for consistency with federal regulations using the NRC guidelines in Review Standard (RS)-002, Supplement 2 and Appendix 4 to NUREG-0654, and NUREG/CR-4831. Additional sources of information referenced in the analysis and used in the review included NUREG/CR-6863 and NUREG/CR-6864. The PNNL report includes general comments, data needs or clarifications, and requests for additional information (RAI) resulting from review of the ETE analysis.

  6. SNAP-8 electrical generating system development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The SNAP-8 program has developed the technology base for one class of multikilowatt dynamic space power systems. Electrical power is generated by a turbine-alternator in a mercury Rankine-cycle loop to which heat is transferred and removed by means of sodium-potassium eutectic alloy subsystems. Final system overall criteria include a five-year operating life, restartability, man rating, and deliverable power in the 90 kWe range. The basic technology has been demonstrated by more than 400,000 hours of major component endurance testing and numerous startup and shutdown cycles. A test system, comprised of developed components, delivered up to 35 kWe for a period exceeding 12,000 hours. The SNAP-8 system baseline is considered to have achieved a level of technology suitable for final application development for long-term multikilowatt space missions.

  7. SNAP-8 electrical generating system development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The SNAP-8 program has developed the technology base for one class of multikilowatt dynamic space power systems. Electrical power is generated by a turbine-alternator in a mercury Rankine-cycle loop to which heat is transferred and removed by means of sodium-potassium eutectic alloy subsystems. Final system overall criteria include a five-year operating life, restartability, man rating, and deliverable power in the 90 kWe range. The basic technology was demonstrated by more than 400,000 hours of major component endurance testing and numerous startup and shutdown cycles. A test system, comprised of developed components, delivered up to 35 kWe for a period exceeding 12,000 hours. The SNAP-8 system baseline is considered to have achieved a level of technology suitable for final application development for long-term multikilowatt space missions.

  8. Performance study of thermo-electric generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohit, G.; Manaswini, D.; Kotebavi, Vinod; R, Nagaraja S.

    2017-07-01

    Devices like automobiles, stoves, ovens, boilers, kilns and heaters dissipate large amount of waste heat. Since most of this waste heat goes unused, the efficiency of these devices is drastically reduced. A lot of research is being conducted on the recovery of the waste heat, among which Thermoelectric Generators (TEG) is one of the popular method. TEG is a semiconductor device that produces electric potential difference when a thermal gradient develops on it. This paper deals with the study of performance of a TEG module for different hot surface temperatures. Performance characteristics used here are voltage, current and power developed by the TEG. One side of the TEG was kept on a hot plate where uniform heat flux was supplied to that. And the other side was cooled by supplying cold water. The results show that the output power increases significantly with increase in the temperature of the hot surface.

  9. Electrical power generation from insect flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reissman, Timothy; MacCurdy, Robert B.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2011-03-01

    This article presents an implementation of a miniature energy harvester (weighing 0.292 grams) on an insect (hawkmoth Manduca sexta) in un-tethered flight. The harvester utilizes a piezoelectric transducer which converts the vibratory motion induced by the insect's flight into electrical power (generating up to 59 μWRMS). By attaching a low-power management circuit (weighing 0.200 grams) to the energy harvester and accumulating the converted energy onboard the flying insect, we are able to visually demonstrate pulsed power delivery (averaging 196 mW) by intermittently flashing a light emitting diode. This self-recharging system offers biologists a new means for powering onboard electronics used to study small flying animals. Using this approach, the lifetime of the electronics would be limited only by the lifetime of the individuals, a vast improvement over current methods.

  10. Retention of nativelike conformation by proteins embedded in high external electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompa, P. P.; Bramanti, A.; Maruccio, G.; Cingolani, R.; De Rienzo, F.; Corni, S.; Di Felice, R.; Rinaldi, R.

    2005-05-01

    In this Communication, we show that proteins embedded in high external electric fields are capable of retaining a nativelike fold pattern. We have tested the metalloprotein azurin, immobilized onto SiO2 substrates in air with proper electrode configuration, by applying static fields up to 106-107V/m. The effects on the conformational properties of protein molecules have been determined by means of intrinsic fluorescence measurements. Experimental results indicate that no significant field-induced conformational alteration occurs. Such results are also discussed and supported by theoretical predictions of the inner protein fields.

  11. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric power... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made of the waters of the basin for the generation of electric power at hydro, pumped storage, and...

  12. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electric power... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made of the waters of the basin for the generation of electric power at hydro, pumped storage, and...

  13. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Electric power... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made of the waters of the basin for the generation of electric power at hydro, pumped storage,...

  14. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electric power... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made of the waters of the basin for the generation of electric power at hydro, pumped storage,...

  15. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electric power... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made of the waters of the basin for the generation of electric power at hydro, pumped storage,...

  16. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF FISK STREET ELECTRIC GENERATING STATION COMPLEX, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF FISK STREET ELECTRIC GENERATING STATION COMPLEX, LOOKING SOUTH; IN THE CENTER, BEHIND THE STACK IS THE GENERATING STATION BUILT IN 1959; THE TALL METAL-CLAD BUILDING CONTAINS A COAL BUNKER, COAL PULVERIZER, FURNACE, BOILER, SUPER-HEATER, STEAM PIPES, AND HOT-AIR DUCTS. TO THE RIGHT OF THIS 1959 GENERATING STATION IS THE ORIGINAL POWERHOUSE. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  17. Electrical Double Layer Capacitance in a Graphene-embedded Al2O3 Gate Dielectric.

    PubMed

    Ki Min, Bok; Kim, Seong K; Jun Kim, Seong; Ho Kim, Sung; Kang, Min-A; Park, Chong-Yun; Song, Wooseok; Myung, Sung; Lim, Jongsun; An, Ki-Seok

    2015-11-04

    Graphene heterostructures are of considerable interest as a new class of electronic devices with exceptional performance in a broad range of applications has been realized. Here, we propose a graphene-embedded Al2O3 gate dielectric with a relatively high dielectric constant of 15.5, which is about 2 times that of Al2O3, having a low leakage current with insertion of tri-layer graphene. In this system, the enhanced capacitance of the hybrid structure can be understood by the formation of a space charge layer at the graphene/Al2O3 interface. The electrical properties of the interface can be further explained by the electrical double layer (EDL) model dominated by the diffuse layer.

  18. Electrical Double Layer Capacitance in a Graphene-embedded Al2O3 Gate Dielectric

    PubMed Central

    Ki Min, Bok; Kim, Seong K.; Jun Kim, Seong; Ho Kim, Sung; Kang, Min-A; Park, Chong-Yun; Song, Wooseok; Myung, Sung; Lim, Jongsun; An, Ki-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Graphene heterostructures are of considerable interest as a new class of electronic devices with exceptional performance in a broad range of applications has been realized. Here, we propose a graphene-embedded Al2O3 gate dielectric with a relatively high dielectric constant of 15.5, which is about 2 times that of Al2O3, having a low leakage current with insertion of tri-layer graphene. In this system, the enhanced capacitance of the hybrid structure can be understood by the formation of a space charge layer at the graphene/Al2O3 interface. The electrical properties of the interface can be further explained by the electrical double layer (EDL) model dominated by the diffuse layer. PMID:26530817

  19. Distributed Generation of Electricity and its Environmental Impacts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    When connected to the electric utility’s lower voltage distribution lines, distributed generation can help support delivery of clean, reliable power to additional customers and reduce electricity losses along transmission and distribution lines.

  20. Electric field-free gas breakdown in explosively driven generators

    SciTech Connect

    Shkuratov, Sergey I.; Baird, Jason; Talantsev, Evgueni F.; Altgilbers, Larry L.

    2010-07-15

    All known types of gas discharges require an electric field to initiate them. We are reporting on a unique type of gas breakdown in explosively driven generators that does not require an electric field.

  1. Fracture Mechanics Method for Word Embedding Generation of Neural Probabilistic Linguistic Model.

    PubMed

    Bi, Size; Liang, Xiao; Huang, Ting-Lei

    2016-01-01

    Word embedding, a lexical vector representation generated via the neural linguistic model (NLM), is empirically demonstrated to be appropriate for improvement of the performance of traditional language model. However, the supreme dimensionality that is inherent in NLM contributes to the problems of hyperparameters and long-time training in modeling. Here, we propose a force-directed method to improve such problems for simplifying the generation of word embedding. In this framework, each word is assumed as a point in the real world; thus it can approximately simulate the physical movement following certain mechanics. To simulate the variation of meaning in phrases, we use the fracture mechanics to do the formation and breakdown of meaning combined by a 2-gram word group. With the experiments on the natural linguistic tasks of part-of-speech tagging, named entity recognition and semantic role labeling, the result demonstrated that the 2-dimensional word embedding can rival the word embeddings generated by classic NLMs, in terms of accuracy, recall, and text visualization.

  2. Fracture Mechanics Method for Word Embedding Generation of Neural Probabilistic Linguistic Model

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Size; Liang, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Word embedding, a lexical vector representation generated via the neural linguistic model (NLM), is empirically demonstrated to be appropriate for improvement of the performance of traditional language model. However, the supreme dimensionality that is inherent in NLM contributes to the problems of hyperparameters and long-time training in modeling. Here, we propose a force-directed method to improve such problems for simplifying the generation of word embedding. In this framework, each word is assumed as a point in the real world; thus it can approximately simulate the physical movement following certain mechanics. To simulate the variation of meaning in phrases, we use the fracture mechanics to do the formation and breakdown of meaning combined by a 2-gram word group. With the experiments on the natural linguistic tasks of part-of-speech tagging, named entity recognition and semantic role labeling, the result demonstrated that the 2-dimensional word embedding can rival the word embeddings generated by classic NLMs, in terms of accuracy, recall, and text visualization. PMID:27698659

  3. Generative Embedding for Model-Based Classification of fMRI Data

    PubMed Central

    Brodersen, Kay H.; Schofield, Thomas M.; Leff, Alexander P.; Ong, Cheng Soon; Lomakina, Ekaterina I.; Buhmann, Joachim M.; Stephan, Klaas E.

    2011-01-01

    Decoding models, such as those underlying multivariate classification algorithms, have been increasingly used to infer cognitive or clinical brain states from measures of brain activity obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The practicality of current classifiers, however, is restricted by two major challenges. First, due to the high data dimensionality and low sample size, algorithms struggle to separate informative from uninformative features, resulting in poor generalization performance. Second, popular discriminative methods such as support vector machines (SVMs) rarely afford mechanistic interpretability. In this paper, we address these issues by proposing a novel generative-embedding approach that incorporates neurobiologically interpretable generative models into discriminative classifiers. Our approach extends previous work on trial-by-trial classification for electrophysiological recordings to subject-by-subject classification for fMRI and offers two key advantages over conventional methods: it may provide more accurate predictions by exploiting discriminative information encoded in ‘hidden’ physiological quantities such as synaptic connection strengths; and it affords mechanistic interpretability of clinical classifications. Here, we introduce generative embedding for fMRI using a combination of dynamic causal models (DCMs) and SVMs. We propose a general procedure of DCM-based generative embedding for subject-wise classification, provide a concrete implementation, and suggest good-practice guidelines for unbiased application of generative embedding in the context of fMRI. We illustrate the utility of our approach by a clinical example in which we classify moderately aphasic patients and healthy controls using a DCM of thalamo-temporal regions during speech processing. Generative embedding achieves a near-perfect balanced classification accuracy of 98% and significantly outperforms conventional activation-based and correlation

  4. Integrated engine-generator concept for aircraft electric secondary power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.; Macosko, R. P.; Repas, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    The integrated engine-generator concept of locating an electric generator inside an aircraft turbojet or turbofan engine concentric with, and driven by, one of the main engine shafts is discussed. When properly rated, the generator can serve as an engine starter as well as a generator of electric power. The electric power conversion equipment and generator controls are conveniently located in the aircraft. Preliminary layouts of generators in a large engine together with their physical sizes and weights indicate that this concept is a technically feasible approach to aircraft secondary power.

  5. The General Electric MOD-1 wind turbine generator program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poor, R. H.; Hobbs, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    The design, fabrication, installation and checkout of MOD-1, a megawatt class wind turbine generator which generates utility grade electrical power, is described. A MOD-1/MOD-1A tradeoff study is discussed.

  6. Electrical measurement system in milling balance machine based on embedded optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yijun; Mei, Yushan

    2015-12-01

    Electrical measurement system in milling balance machine currently consists of micro-controller and peripheral devices. The structure has the problems which include low integration, single signal processing algorithms and great measurement error. Therefore, electrical measurement system in milling balance machine based on embedded optimization is presented in the paper. Firstly, the device control electrical measuring system by ARM subsystem of OMAP dual-core architecture and DSP subsystem realizes digital signal processing and unbalance computing. Also, the low-pass filtering circuit is designed for solving frequency interference. Secondly, the system implement digital band-pass tracking filter based on harmonic wavelet packet. Thirdly, the system extracts any period of weak signal characteristics using the unlimited segmentation features harmonic for wavelet packet signal in the frequency domain. Simulation results show that the system effectively inhibits nearly frequency signal interference, improves signal to noise ratio, and reduces the initial imbalance signal characteristics. And test results improve that precision indexes and technical specifications could meet the design goals.

  7. Development tool for generating optimized HL7 libraries for embedded medical devices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hang-Chan; Yi, Byoung-Kee; Kim, Ilkon

    2008-11-06

    Embedded medical devices with constraints on the CPU power and memory capacity must communicate with HIS only in a few HL7 messages. Therefore, it is not desirable to deploy one big library that processes all HL7 messages to all types of devices. We present a development tool that automatically generates an optimized library with a small memory footprint that only processes a subset of HL7 messages for each target device type.

  8. Concepts for central solar electric power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kintigh, J. K.

    1974-01-01

    The investigation reported was conducted to select the best conceptual design of a power plant for the dynamic conversion of solar heat to electricity. Conversion of thermal energy to electricity was to be an accomplished with conventional turbomachinery. Questions of site selection are discussed along with solar energy collection systems, aspects of candidate system definition, and reference systems.

  9. Concepts for central solar electric power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kintigh, J. K.

    1974-01-01

    The investigation reported was conducted to select the best conceptual design of a power plant for the dynamic conversion of solar heat to electricity. Conversion of thermal energy to electricity was to be an accomplished with conventional turbomachinery. Questions of site selection are discussed along with solar energy collection systems, aspects of candidate system definition, and reference systems.

  10. Direct generation of charge carriers in c-Si solar cells due to embedded nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkengen, M.; Bergli, J.; Galperin, Y. M.

    2007-11-01

    It is known that silicon is an indirect band gap material, reducing its efficiency in photovoltaic applications. Using surface plasmons in metallic nanoparticles embedded in a solar cell has recently been proposed as a way to increase the efficiency of thin-film silicon solar cells. The dipole mode that dominates the plasmons in small particles produces an electric field having Fourier components with all wave numbers. In this work, we show that such a field creates electron-hole-pairs without phonon assistance, and discuss the importance of this effect compared to radiation from the particle and losses due to heating.

  11. Generating Exome Enriched Sequencing Libraries from Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissue DNA for Next-Generation Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Marosy, Beth A; Craig, Brian D; Hetrick, Kurt N; Witmer, P Dane; Ling, Hua; Griffith, Sean M; Myers, Benjamin; Ostrander, Elaine A; Stanford, Janet L; Brody, Lawrence C; Doheny, Kimberly F

    2017-01-11

    This unit describes a technique for generating exome-enriched sequencing libraries using DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples. Utilizing commercially available kits, we present a low-input FFPE workflow starting with 50 ng of DNA. This procedure includes a repair step to address damage caused by FFPE preservation that improves sequence quality. Subsequently, libraries undergo an in-solution-targeted selection for exons, followed by sequencing using the Illumina next-generation short-read sequencing platform. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. Module Embedded Micro-inverter Smart Grid Ready Residential Solar Electric System

    SciTech Connect

    Agamy, Mohammed

    2015-10-27

    The “Module Embedded Micro-inverter Smart Grid Ready Residential Solar Electric System” program is focused on developing innovative concepts for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems with the following objectives: to create an Innovative micro-inverter topology that reduces the cost from the best in class micro-inverter and provides high efficiency (>96% CEC - California Energy Commission), and 25+ year warranty, as well as reactive power support; integrate micro-inverter and PV module to reduce system price by at least $0.25/W through a) accentuating dual use of the module metal frame as a large area heat spreader reducing operating temperature, and b) eliminating redundant wiring and connectors; and create micro-inverter controller handles smart grid and safety functions to simplify implementation and reduce cost.

  13. Refinements and practical implementation of a power based loss of grid detection algorithm for embedded generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, James

    The incorporation of small, privately owned generation operating in parallel with, and supplying power to, the distribution network is becoming more widespread. This method of operation does however have problems associated with it. In particular, a loss of the connection to the main utility supply which leaves a portion of the utility load connected to the embedded generator will result in a power island. This situation presents possible dangers to utility personnel and the public, complications for smooth system operation and probable plant damage should the two systems be reconnected out-of-synchronism. Loss of Grid (or Islanding), as this situation is known, is the subject of this thesis. The work begins by detailing the requirements for operation of generation embedded in the utility supply with particular attention drawn to the requirements for a loss of grid protection scheme. The mathematical basis for a new loss of grid protection algorithm is developed and the inclusion of the algorithm in an integrated generator protection scheme described. A detailed description is given on the implementation of the new algorithm in a microprocessor based relay hardware to allow practical tests on small embedded generation facilities, including an in-house multiple generator test facility. The results obtained from the practical tests are compared with those obtained from simulation studies carried out in previous work and the differences are discussed. The performance of the algorithm is enhanced from the theoretical algorithm developed using the simulation results with simple filtering together with pattern recognition techniques. This provides stability during severe load fluctuations under parallel operation and system fault conditions and improved performance under normal operating conditions and for loss of grid detection. In addition to operating for a loss of grid connection, the algorithm will respond to load fluctuations which occur within a power island

  14. Formulas for predicting the dynamic performance of ROCOF relays for embedded generation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira, J.C. M.; Freitas, Walmir; Huang, Zhenyu; Xu, Wilsun; Morelato, A.

    2006-07-13

    A set of formulas directly predict the performance of rate-of-change-of-frequency (ROCOF) relays used to detect islanding of embedded synchronous generators. The formulas are analytically derived from the dynamic model of the generator and relay. Dynamic simulation results obtained using a representative distribution system confirm the validity and accuracy. The formulas presented are a useful tool for protection engineers; they can be used, for example, to assess the effectiveness of anti-islanding schemes based on ROCOF relays, or to assist the selection of relay settings, significantly reducing the number of repeated dynamic simulations necessary to carry out such studies.

  15. Global potential for wind-generated electricity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xi; McElroy, Michael B.; Kiviluoma, Juha

    2009-01-01

    The potential of wind power as a global source of electricity is assessed by using winds derived through assimilation of data from a variety of meteorological sources. The analysis indicates that a network of land-based 2.5-megawatt (MW) turbines restricted to nonforested, ice-free, nonurban areas operating at as little as 20% of their rated capacity could supply >40 times current worldwide consumption of electricity, >5 times total global use of energy in all forms. Resources in the contiguous United States, specifically in the central plain states, could accommodate as much as 16 times total current demand for electricity in the United States. Estimates are given also for quantities of electricity that could be obtained by using a network of 3.6-MW turbines deployed in ocean waters with depths <200 m within 50 nautical miles (92.6 km) of closest coastlines. PMID:19549865

  16. Global potential for wind-generated electricity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xi; McElroy, Michael B; Kiviluoma, Juha

    2009-07-07

    The potential of wind power as a global source of electricity is assessed by using winds derived through assimilation of data from a variety of meteorological sources. The analysis indicates that a network of land-based 2.5-megawatt (MW) turbines restricted to nonforested, ice-free, nonurban areas operating at as little as 20% of their rated capacity could supply >40 times current worldwide consumption of electricity, >5 times total global use of energy in all forms. Resources in the contiguous United States, specifically in the central plain states, could accommodate as much as 16 times total current demand for electricity in the United States. Estimates are given also for quantities of electricity that could be obtained by using a network of 3.6-MW turbines deployed in ocean waters with depths <200 m within 50 nautical miles (92.6 km) of closest coastlines.

  17. Potential for wind-generated electricity in China.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Michael B; Lu, Xi; Nielsen, Chris P; Wang, Yuxuan

    2009-09-11

    Wind offers an important alternative to coal as a source of energy for generation of electricity in China with the potential for substantial savings in carbon dioxide emissions. Wind fields derived from assimilated meteorological data are used to assess the potential for wind-generated electricity in China subject to the existing government-approved bidding process for new wind farms. Assuming a guaranteed price of 0.516 RMB (7.6 U.S. cents) per kilowatt-hour for delivery of electricity to the grid over an agreed initial average period of 10 years, it is concluded that wind could accommodate all of the demand for electricity projected for 2030, about twice current consumption. Electricity available at a concession price as low as 0.4 RMB per kilowatt-hour would be sufficient to displace 23% of electricity generated from coal.

  18. Enabling Multiphoton and Second Harmonic Generation Imaging in Paraffin-Embedded and Histologically Stained Sections

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Michael G.; Kroll, Sebastian; Brucker, Sara Y.

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear microscopy, namely multiphoton imaging and second harmonic generation (SHG), is an established noninvasive technique useful for the imaging of extracellular matrix (ECM). Typically, measurements are performed in vivo on freshly excised tissues or biopsies. In this article, we describe the effect of rehydrating paraffin-embedded sections on multiphoton and SHG emission signals and the acquisition of nonlinear images from hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained sections before and after a destaining protocol. Our results reveal that bringing tissue sections to a physiological state yields a significant improvement in nonlinear signals, particularly in SHG. Additionally, the destaining of sections previously processed with H&E staining significantly improves their SHG emission signals during imaging, thereby allowing sufficient analysis of collagen in these sections. These results are important for researchers and pathologists to obtain additional information from paraffin-embedded tissues and archived samples to perform retrospective analysis of the ECM or gain additional information from rare samples. PMID:27018844

  19. Enabling Multiphoton and Second Harmonic Generation Imaging in Paraffin-Embedded and Histologically Stained Sections.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Michael G; Kroll, Sebastian; Brucker, Sara Y; Schenke-Layland, Katja

    2016-06-01

    Nonlinear microscopy, namely multiphoton imaging and second harmonic generation (SHG), is an established noninvasive technique useful for the imaging of extracellular matrix (ECM). Typically, measurements are performed in vivo on freshly excised tissues or biopsies. In this article, we describe the effect of rehydrating paraffin-embedded sections on multiphoton and SHG emission signals and the acquisition of nonlinear images from hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained sections before and after a destaining protocol. Our results reveal that bringing tissue sections to a physiological state yields a significant improvement in nonlinear signals, particularly in SHG. Additionally, the destaining of sections previously processed with H&E staining significantly improves their SHG emission signals during imaging, thereby allowing sufficient analysis of collagen in these sections. These results are important for researchers and pathologists to obtain additional information from paraffin-embedded tissues and archived samples to perform retrospective analysis of the ECM or gain additional information from rare samples.

  20. Direct Generation of Electric Currents from Flowing Neutral Ionic Solutions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We have discovered a new method of generating electric currents, directly from high pressure-induced flow of neutral ionic solutions. The mechanism is that the cations and anions have different flow velocities, if their atomic masses are dramatically different, due to different accelerations generated from the high applied pressure. The generated electric current is very sensitive to the strengths of the applied pressure, and it might be potentially used for detection of atomic masses and pressures. PMID:24187520

  1. Voltaic turbine - A paradigm shift proposed in generating electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    V, Meera

    2013-12-01

    Sustainable demand for electric power results in a warehouse that naturally favors development of wind turbines that are significantly quieter and more efficient for generating electricity than today's fleet. Achieving this will require a revolutionary new concept, in particular "Magneto Voltaic Power plant" that generate electricity with the help of repulsive force which cause the turbine blades to rotate. The magneto voltaic power plant triggered the original development of wind turbines raising its energy and output power. This paper outlines the main issues involved in replacing the wind source to that of the repulsive force. It's shown that implementation of repulsive force generates electric power at a feasible cost and this would clearly be the enabling technology for generating electricity of the future.

  2. Food processing with electrically generated photon irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design for a portable electric food irradiation processing machine is presented and analyzed for cost assuming the required accelerators are available for $1.5 million each. It is shown that food can be processed to 1 kGy for a price of $5.98/ton.

  3. A new solar thermal electricity/cooling generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pytlinski, J. T.; Cherng, J.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a basic thermodynamic and economic study of a combined solar thermal electricity generation and refrigeration system employing a Rankine cycle or refrigeration cycle respectively. The study demonstrates the technical and economical feasibility of retrofitting a water-ammonia solar powered absorption refrigeration system with a turbine and electric generator for the purpose of electricity generation. Through optimization of the system, an increase in the solar energy conversion efficiency and a decrease in the payback period could be expected.

  4. An experimental electrical generating unit using sugarcane bagasse as fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Elkoury, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the alternatives that exist within the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority to develop an experimental electrical generating unit which would use sugarcane bagasse as fuel. The study includes a comparison between the sugarcane bagasse and other fuels, the location of an experimental electrical generating unit with respect to the sugarcane fields, the transportation of the bagasse and the generating equipment available for this project in terms of its fisical condition. This latter part would include any modifications in the equipment which we would have to undertake in order to carry out the study.

  5. Human cardiovascular effects of a new generation conducted electrical weapon.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jeffrey D; Dawes, Donald M; Reardon, Robert F; Strote, Seth R; Kunz, Sebastian N; Nelson, Rebecca S; Lundin, Erik J; Orozco, Benjamin S; Miner, James R

    2011-01-30

    The conducted electrical weapon (CEW) is used by law enforcement to control potentially violent people. Much of the research in CEW safety has focused on the TASER X26, which uses a single deployment cartridge. New Generation CEW (NGCEW) technology has been developed that uses a different circuit and multiple cartridges that can be simultaneously deployed. The objective of this study is to examine the cardiovascular effects of the NGCEW in different deployment possibilities. This was a prospective study of human subjects during NGCEW training courses. Subjects received a NGCEW probe deployment to the frontal torso in 1 of 3 configurations: 2, 3,or 4 embedded probes and then underwent a 10-s exposure. Before and after vital signs, electrocardiograms (ECGs), and serum troponin I values were obtained. Real-time echocardiography was utilized before, during and after the exposure to evaluate heart rate and rhythm. Initially, a 1st version NGCEW (NGCEWv1) that was in the final stages of manufacturer verification was used at the training courses. It had not been publicly released. During a NGCEWv1 exposure with 2 probes, there was an apparent brief episode of cardiac capture. Testing was halted and the manufacturer was notified. The device was redesigned and the study continued when a redesigned, 2nd version (NGCEWv2) was used. The NGCEW1 was studied in 8 subjects. The NGCEWv2 was studied in 45 subjects with no evidence of cardiac capture. There were no important post-exposure vital sign, troponin I or ECG changes found in any volunteers. An apparent brief myocardial capture event occurred with the NGCEWv1. This device was not released and was redesigned. The NGCEWv2 appears to exhibit a reasonable degree of cardiac safety with frontal torso exposures and multiple probe combination configurations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vortex array laser beam generation from a Dove prism-embedded unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shu-Chun; Yang, Chao-Shun; Otsuka, Kenju

    2008-11-24

    This paper proposes a new scheme for generating vortex laser beams from a laser. The proposed system consists of a Dove prism embedded in an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration. This configuration allows controlled construction of p x p vortex array beams from Ince-Gaussian modes, IG(e) (p,p) modes. An incident IG(e)(p,p) laser beam of variety order p can easily be generated from an end-pumped solid-state laser system with an off-axis pumping mechanism. This study simulates this type of vortex array laser beam generation, analytically derives the vortex positions of the resulting vortex array laser beams, and discusses beam propagation effects. The resulting vortex array laser beam can be applied to optical tweezers and atom traps in the form of two-dimensional arrays, or used to study the transfer of angular momentum to micro particles or atoms (Bose-Einstein condensate).

  7. Efficient hybrid electric and thermal energy generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, X. Winston; Parfenov, Alexander V.; Aye, Tin M.; Shih, Min-Yi

    2011-10-01

    We demonstrate a novel hybrid solar photovoltaic electrical and thermal energy cogeneration system with high efficiency, at potentially reduced overall weight and size compared with current solar energy systems. The new system is based on highly efficient photovoltaic solar cells and tubular water thermal receivers, incorporating holographic spectral beam light guide concentrators resulting in a more cost-effective solution. Details of fabrication and preliminary experimental testing results are presented.

  8. Coal gasification for electric power generation.

    PubMed

    Spencer, D F; Gluckman, M J; Alpert, S B

    1982-03-26

    The electric utility industry is being severely affected by rapidly escalating gas and oil prices, restrictive environmental and licensing regulations, and an extremely tight money market. Integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have the potential to be economically competitive with present commercial coal-fired power plants while satisfying stringent emission control requirements. The current status of gasification technology is discussed and the critical importance of the 100-megawatt Cool Water IGCC demonstration program is emphasized.

  9. Design of portable electric and magnetic field generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, M. G.; Siew, W. H.; Campbell, L. C.; Stewart, M. G.; Siew, W. H.

    2000-11-01

    Electric and magnetic field generators capable of producing high-amplitude output are not readily available. This presents difficulties for electromagnetic compatibility testing of new measurement systems where these systems are intended to operate in a particularly hostile electromagnetic environment. A portable electric and a portable magnetic field generator having high pulsed field output are described in this paper. The output of these generators were determined using an electromagnetic-compatible measurement system. These generators allow immunity testing in the laboratory of electronic systems to very high electrical fields, as well as for functional verification of the electronic systems on site. In the longer term, the basic design of the magnetic field generator may be developed as the generator to provide the damped sinusoid magnetic field specified in IEC 61000-4-10, which is adopted in BS EN 61000-4-10.

  10. Storing the Electric Energy Produced by an AC Generator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, P. Simeao; Lima, Ana Paula; Carvalho, Pedro Simeao

    2010-01-01

    Producing energy from renewable energy sources is nowadays a priority in our society. In many cases this energy comes as electric energy, and when we think about electric energy generators, one major issue is how we can store that energy. In this paper we discuss how this can be done and give some ideas for applications that can serve as a…

  11. The Environmental Impact of Electrical Power Generation: Nuclear and Fossil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    This text was written to accompany a course concerning the need, environmental costs, and benefits of electrical power generation. It was compiled and written by a committee drawn from educators, health physicists, members of industry and conservation groups, and environmental scientists. Topics include: the increasing need for electrical power,…

  12. Liquefied natural gas-freon electricity generation system

    SciTech Connect

    Nozawa, R.

    1982-05-25

    The present invention relates to an electricity generation system, using freon as an agent to circulate between a warm heat source and a cold heat sink, recapturing electrical energy on one side and alleviating thermal pollution in the environment on the other side.

  13. Liquefied natural gas-freon electricity generation system

    SciTech Connect

    Nozawa, R.

    1983-12-27

    The present invention relates to an electricity generation system, using freon as an agent to circulate between a warm heat source and a cold heat sink, recapturing electrical energy on one side and alleviating thermal pollution in the environment on the other side.

  14. Storing the Electric Energy Produced by an AC Generator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, P. Simeao; Lima, Ana Paula; Carvalho, Pedro Simeao

    2010-01-01

    Producing energy from renewable energy sources is nowadays a priority in our society. In many cases this energy comes as electric energy, and when we think about electric energy generators, one major issue is how we can store that energy. In this paper we discuss how this can be done and give some ideas for applications that can serve as a…

  15. Electricity generation modeling and photovoltaic forecasts in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shengnan

    With the economic development of China, the demand for electricity generation is rapidly increasing. To explain electricity generation, we use gross GDP, the ratio of urban population to rural population, the average per capita income of urban residents, the electricity price for industry in Beijing, and the policy shift that took place in China. Ordinary least squares (OLS) is used to develop a model for the 1979--2009 period. During the process of designing the model, econometric methods are used to test and develop the model. The final model is used to forecast total electricity generation and assess the possible role of photovoltaic generation. Due to the high demand for resources and serious environmental problems, China is pushing to develop the photovoltaic industry. The system price of PV is falling; therefore, photovoltaics may be competitive in the future.

  16. 18. DETAIL OF GENERATOR UNIT 34; BEYOND IS ELECTRIC LIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL OF GENERATOR UNIT 34; BEYOND IS ELECTRIC LIGHT SIGN '1898' INDICATING DATE WHEN THE PLANT WAS NEARING COMPLETION - Snoqualmie Falls Hydroelectric Project, .5 mile north of Snoqualmie, Snoqualmie, King County, WA

  17. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF ELECTRIC GENERATOR ON UPPER LEVEL ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF ELECTRIC GENERATOR ON UPPER LEVEL ON HYDROELECTRIC POWER HOUSE - St. Lucie Canal, Lock No. 1, Hydroelectric Power House, St. Lucie, Cross State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Stuart, Martin County, FL

  18. Electrostatic air filters generated by electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Biermann, A.H.; Hebard, H.D.; Lum, B.Y.; Kuhl, W.D.

    1981-01-27

    This paper presents theoretical and experimental findings on fibrous filters converted to electrostatic operation by a nonionizing electric field. Compared to a conventional fibrous filter, the electrostatic filter has a higher efficiency and a longer, useful life. The increased efficiency is attributed to a time independent attraction between polarized fibers and charged, polarized particles and a time dependent attraction between charged fibers and charged, polarized particles. The charge on the fibers results from a dynamic process of charge accumulation due to the particle deposits and a charge dissipation due to the fiber conductivity.

  19. Secondary electric power generation with minimum engine bleed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tagge, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    Secondary electric power generation with minimum engine bleed is discussed. Present and future jet engine systems are compared. The role of auxiliary power units is evaluated. Details of secondary electric power generation systems with and without auxiliary power units are given. Advanced bleed systems are compared with minimum bleed systems. A cost model of ownership is given. The difference in the cost of ownership between a minimum bleed system and an advanced bleed system is given.

  20. Integrated capacity planning for electricity generation: A fuzzy environmental policy analysis approach

    SciTech Connect

    Nasiri, F.; Huang, G.

    2008-07-01

    This study proposes an integrated model for capacity planning in electricity generation. It utilizes a multiple-criteria linear programming to incorporate cost and environmental objectives into the planning. To treat the uncertainties embedded in definition of model parameters, the concept of decision-maker degree of optimism will be used. Optimization of the model provides different planning scenarios. To determine the best compromise plan, a post-optimization assessment based on fuzzy set theory concepts is developed. The proposed methodology is employed for a medium-term capacity planning in Canada's electricity generation sector. The results approve a major capacity growth for natural gas facilities accompanied by retirement of most coal-burning facilities.

  1. Spin generation by strong inhomogeneous electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkler, Ilya; Engel, Hans-Andreas; Rashba, Emmanuel; Halperin, Bertrand

    2007-03-01

    Motivated by recent experiments [1], we propose a model with extrinsic spin-orbit interaction, where an inhomogeneous electric field E in the x-y plane can give rise, through nonlinear effects, to a spin polarization with non-zero sz, away from the sample boundaries. The field E induces a spin current js^z= z x(αjc+βE), where jc=σE is the charge current, and the two terms represent,respectively, the skew scattering and side-jump contributions. [2]. The coefficients α and β are assumed to be E- independent, but conductivity σ is field dependent. We find the spin density sz by solving the equation for spin diffusion and relaxation with a source term ∇.js^z. For sufficiently low fields, jc is linear in E, and the source term vanishes, implying that sz=0 away from the edges. However, for large fields, σ varies with E. Solving the diffusion equation in a T-shaped geometry, where the electric current propagates along the main channel, we find spin accumulation near the entrance of the side channel, similar to experimental findings [1]. Also, we present a toy model where spin accumulation away from the boundary results from a nonlinear and anisotropic conductivity. [1] V. Sih, et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 096605 (2006). [2] H.-A. Engel, B.I. Halperin, E.I.Rashba, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 166605 (2005).

  2. The Highly Robust Electrical Interconnects and Ultrasensitive Biosensors Based on Embedded Carbon Nanotube Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jun; Cassell, Alan; Koehne, Jessica; Chen, Hua; Ng, Hou Tee; Ye, Qi; Stevens, Ramsey; Han, Jie; Meyyappan, M.

    2003-01-01

    We report on our recent breakthroughs in two different applications using well-aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays on Si chips, including (1) a novel processing solution for highly robust electrical interconnects in integrated circuit manufacturing, and (2) the development of ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA sensors. Both of them rely on the invention of a bottom-up fabrication scheme which includes six steps, including: (a) lithographic patterning, (b) depositing bottom conducting contacts, (c) depositing metal catalysts, (d) CNT growth by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), (e) dielectric gap-filling, and (f) chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). Such processes produce a stable planarized surface with only the open end of CNTs exposed, whch can be further processed or modified for different applications. By depositing patterned top contacts, the CNT can serve as vertical interconnects between the two conducting layers. This method is fundamentally different fiom current damascene processes and avoids problems associated with etching and filling of high aspect ratio holes at nanoscales. In addition, multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) are highly robust and can carry a current density of 10(exp 9) A/square centimeters without degradation. It has great potential to help extending the current Si technology. The embedded MWCNT array without the top contact layer can be also used as a nanoelectrode array in electrochemical biosensors. The cell time-constant and sensitivity can be dramatically improved. By functionalizing the tube ends with specific oligonucleotide probes, specific DNA targets can be detected with electrochemical methods down to subattomoles.

  3. Fabrication and electrical transport properties of embedded graphite microwires in a diamond matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzola-Quiquia, J.; Lühmann, T.; Wunderlich, R.; Stiller, M.; Zoraghi, M.; Meijer, J.; Esquinazi, P.; Böttner, J.; Estrela-Lopis, I.

    2017-04-01

    Micrometer width and nanometer thick wires with different shapes were produced ≈ 3~μ m below the surface of a diamond crystal using a microbeam of He+ ions with 1.8 MeV energy. Initial samples are amorphous and after annealing at T≈ 1475 K, the wires crystallized into graphite-like structures, according to confocal Raman spectroscopy measurements. The electrical resistivity at room temperature is only one order of magnitude larger than the in-plane resistivity of highly oriented pyrolytic bulk graphite and shows a small resistivity ratio (ρ ≤ft(2~\\text{K}\\right)/ρ ≤ft(315~\\text{K}\\right)≈ 1.275 ). A small negative magnetoresistance below T  =  200 K was measured and can be well understood taking spin-dependent scattering processes into account. The used method provides the means to design and produce millimeter to micrometer sized conducting circuits with arbitrary shape embedded in a diamond matrix.

  4. The Highly Robust Electrical Interconnects and Ultrasensitive Biosensors Based on Embedded Carbon Nanotube Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jun; Cassell, Alan; Koehne, Jessica; Chen, Hua; Ng, Hou Tee; Ye, Qi; Stevens, Ramsey; Han, Jie; Meyyappan, M.

    2003-01-01

    We report on our recent breakthroughs in two different applications using well-aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays on Si chips, including (1) a novel processing solution for highly robust electrical interconnects in integrated circuit manufacturing, and (2) the development of ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA sensors. Both of them rely on the invention of a bottom-up fabrication scheme which includes six steps, including: (a) lithographic patterning, (b) depositing bottom conducting contacts, (c) depositing metal catalysts, (d) CNT growth by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), (e) dielectric gap-filling, and (f) chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). Such processes produce a stable planarized surface with only the open end of CNTs exposed, whch can be further processed or modified for different applications. By depositing patterned top contacts, the CNT can serve as vertical interconnects between the two conducting layers. This method is fundamentally different fiom current damascene processes and avoids problems associated with etching and filling of high aspect ratio holes at nanoscales. In addition, multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) are highly robust and can carry a current density of 10(exp 9) A/square centimeters without degradation. It has great potential to help extending the current Si technology. The embedded MWCNT array without the top contact layer can be also used as a nanoelectrode array in electrochemical biosensors. The cell time-constant and sensitivity can be dramatically improved. By functionalizing the tube ends with specific oligonucleotide probes, specific DNA targets can be detected with electrochemical methods down to subattomoles.

  5. Role of Energy Storage with Renewable Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, have vast potential to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions in the electric sector. Climate change concerns, state initiatives including renewable portfolio standards, and consumer efforts are resulting in increased deployments of both technologies. Both solar photovoltaics (PV) and wind energy have variable and uncertain (sometimes referred to as intermittent) output, which are unlike the dispatchable sources used for the majority of electricity generation in the United States. The variability of these sources has led to concerns regarding the reliability of an electric grid that derives a large fraction of its energy from these sources as well as the cost of reliably integrating large amounts of variable generation into the electric grid. In this report, we explore the role of energy storage in the electricity grid, focusing on the effects of large-scale deployment of variable renewable sources (primarily wind and solar energy).

  6. Solar powered Stirling cycle electrical generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaltens, Richard K.

    1991-01-01

    Under NASA's Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI), the NASA Lewis Research Center is developing the technology needed for free-piston Stirling engines as a candidate power source for space systems in the late 1990's and into the next century. Space power requirements include high efficiency, very long life, high reliability, and low vibration. Furthermore, system weight and operating temperature are important. The free-piston Stirling engine has the potential for a highly reliable engine with long life because it has only a few moving parts, non-contacting gas bearings, and can be hermetically sealed. These attributes of the free-piston Stirling engine also make it a viable candidate for terrestrial applications. In cooperation with the Department of Energy, system designs are currently being completed that feature the free-piston Stirling engine for terrestrial applications. Industry teams were assembled and are currently completing designs for two Advanced Stirling Conversion Systems utilizing technology being developed under the NASA CSTI Program. These systems, when coupled with a parabolic mirror to collect the solar energy, are capable of producing about 25 kW of electricity to a utility grid. Industry has identified a niche market for dish Stirling systems for worldwide remote power application. They believe that these niche markets may play a major role in the introduction of Stirling products into the commercial market.

  7. Optimizing the electrical energy conversion cycle of dielectric elastomer generators.

    PubMed

    Shian, Samuel; Huang, Jiangshui; Zhu, Shijie; Clarke, David R

    2014-10-01

    A strategy to control the electrical charge is developed to achieve high energy density of soft dielectric elastomer generators for energy harvesting. The strategy is analytically shown and experimentally demonstrated to produce the highest energy density ever reported for a soft generator. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Electrical power generation from salinity gradients using pressure retarded osmosis

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, A.F.; Yourstone, W.H.

    1983-08-01

    The use of a pressure retarded osmosis system (PRO) to generate electricity form naturally available or artificially generated salt is described. Variations in overall system efficiency are analyzed in terms of freshwater and brine flow rates, fluid pressure levels, and membrane permeability. It is shown that the PRO system is economically competitive with other alternative energy systems.

  9. Market concentration and marketing power among electricity generators in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Zarnikau, J.; Lam, A.

    1998-11-01

    Policy initiatives designed to foster competition among electricity generators in Texas face a special challenge due to the relative isolation of that system. This isolation contributes to high levels of market concentration and market power that could hinder the development of a truly competitive market. This paper examines market concentration and market power in the ERCOT market for electricity generation by calculating the Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI) under various assumptions to gauge the degree of market concentration among generators in ERCOT. In addition, some ongoing studies of market power in ERCOT are discussed. The distinction between market concentration and market power is highlighted.

  10. Nanostructured Silicon Used for Flexible and Mobile Electricity Generation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Baoquan; Shao, Mingwang; Lee, Shuitong

    2016-12-01

    The use of nanostructured silicon for the generation of electricity in flexible and mobile devices is reviewed. This field has attracted widespread interest in recent years due to the emergence of plastic electronics. Such developments are likely to alter the nature of power sources in the near future. For example, flexible photovoltaic cells can supply electricity to rugged and collapsible electronics, biomedical devices, and conformable solar panels that are integrated with the curved surfaces of vehicles or buildings. Here, the unique optical and electrical properties of nanostructured silicon are examined, with regard to how they can be exploited in flexible photovoltaics, thermoelectric generators, and piezoelectric devices, which serve as power generators. Particular emphasis is placed on organic-silicon heterojunction photovoltaic devices, silicon-nanowire-based thermoelectric generators, and core-shell silicon/silicon oxide nanowire-based piezoelectric devices, because they are flexible, lightweight, and portable.

  11. Solar electricity supply isolines of generation capacity and storage.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Wolf; Grossmann, Iris; Steininger, Karl W

    2015-03-24

    The recent sharp drop in the cost of photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation accompanied by globally rapidly increasing investment in PV plants calls for new planning and management tools for large-scale distributed solar networks. Of major importance are methods to overcome intermittency of solar electricity, i.e., to provide dispatchable electricity at minimal costs. We find that pairs of electricity generation capacity G and storage S that give dispatchable electricity and are minimal with respect to S for a given G exhibit a smooth relationship of mutual substitutability between G and S. These isolines between G and S support the solving of several tasks, including the optimal sizing of generation capacity and storage, optimal siting of solar parks, optimal connections of solar parks across time zones for minimizing intermittency, and management of storage in situations of far below average insolation to provide dispatchable electricity. G-S isolines allow determining the cost-optimal pair (G,S) as a function of the cost ratio of G and S. G-S isolines provide a method for evaluating the effect of geographic spread and time zone coverage on costs of solar electricity.

  12. Solar electricity supply isolines of generation capacity and storage

    PubMed Central

    Grossmann, Wolf; Grossmann, Iris; Steininger, Karl W.

    2015-01-01

    The recent sharp drop in the cost of photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation accompanied by globally rapidly increasing investment in PV plants calls for new planning and management tools for large-scale distributed solar networks. Of major importance are methods to overcome intermittency of solar electricity, i.e., to provide dispatchable electricity at minimal costs. We find that pairs of electricity generation capacity G and storage S that give dispatchable electricity and are minimal with respect to S for a given G exhibit a smooth relationship of mutual substitutability between G and S. These isolines between G and S support the solving of several tasks, including the optimal sizing of generation capacity and storage, optimal siting of solar parks, optimal connections of solar parks across time zones for minimizing intermittency, and management of storage in situations of far below average insolation to provide dispatchable electricity. G−S isolines allow determining the cost-optimal pair (G,S) as a function of the cost ratio of G and S. G−S isolines provide a method for evaluating the effect of geographic spread and time zone coverage on costs of solar electricity. PMID:25755261

  13. Eighth international conference on MHD electrical power generation. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The VIIIth International Conference on MHD Electrical Power Generation was convened at the initiative of the International Liaison Group on MHD Electrical Power Generation by the USSR Academy of Sciences (Institute of High Temperature) and under the sponsorship of: UNESCO; Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON); Energoinvest (Yugoslavia), Control Data Corporation (USA); and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India). The proceedings of the VIIIth International Conference on MHD Electrical Power Generation contain the results of most recent R and D work aimed at practical realization of this advanced method of electrical power generation. The papers presented to the Conference deal with heat-generating schemes and cycles, conceptual and detail designs of MHD power plants, including that of the first commercial 500-MW power generating unit presently under construction in the USSR. Research results obtained in pilot and experimental facilities in the USSR, USA, Poland, Japan, Netherlands and other countries are described. Volume 4 was concerned with Materials, Combined-Cycle, Liquid-Metal MHD, and Closed-Cycle Disk-Type MHD Generator. This DOE report contains full translations in English of all the papers in Volume 4. These have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  14. Thermooptical properties of gold nanoparticles embedded in ice: characterization of heat generation and melting.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Hugh H; Hickman, Zackary N; Govorov, Alexander O; Thomas, Alyssa C; Zhang, Wei; Kordesch, Martin E

    2006-04-01

    We investigate the system of optically excited gold NPs in an ice matrix aiming to understand heat generation and melting processes at the nanoscale level. Along with the traditional fluorescence method, we introduce thermooptical spectroscopy based on phase transformation of a matrix. With this, we can not only measure optical response but also thermal response, that is, heat generation. After several recrystallization cycles, the nanoparticles are embedded into the ice film where the optical and thermal properties of the nanoparticles are probed. Spatial fluorescence mapping shows the locations of Au nanoparticles, whereas the time-resolved Raman signal of ice reveals the melting process. From the time-dependent Raman signals, we determine the critical light intensities at which the laser beam is able to melt ice around the nanoparticles. The melting intensity depends strongly on temperature and position. The position-dependence is especially strong and reflects a mesoscopic character of heat generation. We think that it comes from the fact that nanoparticles form small complexes of different geometry and each complex has a unique thermal response. Theoretical calculations and experimental data are combined to make a quantitative measure of the amount of heat generated by optically excited Au nanoparticles and agglomerates. The information obtained in this study can be used to design nanoscale heaters and actuators.

  15. Automatic query generation using word embeddings for retrieving passages describing experimental methods

    PubMed Central

    Aydın, Ferhat; Hüsünbeyi, Zehra Melce; Özgür, Arzucan

    2017-01-01

    Information regarding the physical interactions among proteins is crucial, since protein–protein interactions (PPIs) are central for many biological processes. The experimental techniques used to verify PPIs are vital for characterizing and assessing the reliability of the identified PPIs. A lot of information about PPIs and the experimental methods are only available in the text of the scientific publications that report them. In this study, we approach the problem of identifying passages with experimental methods for physical interactions between proteins as an information retrieval search task. The baseline system is based on query matching, where the queries are generated by utilizing the names (including synonyms) of the experimental methods in the Proteomics Standard Initiative–Molecular Interactions (PSI-MI) ontology. We propose two methods, where the baseline queries are expanded by including additional relevant terms. The first method is a supervised approach, where the most salient terms for each experimental method are obtained by using the term frequency–relevance frequency (tf.rf) metric over 13 articles from our manually annotated data set of 30 full text articles, which is made publicly available. On the other hand, the second method is an unsupervised approach, where the queries for each experimental method are expanded by using the word embeddings of the names of the experimental methods in the PSI-MI ontology. The word embeddings are obtained by utilizing a large unlabeled full text corpus. The proposed methods are evaluated on the test set consisting of 17 articles. Both methods obtain higher recall scores compared with the baseline, with a loss in precision. Besides higher recall, the word embeddings based approach achieves higher F-measure than the baseline and the tf.rf based methods. We also show that incorporating gene name and interaction keyword identification leads to improved precision and F-measure scores for all three evaluated

  16. Automatic query generation using word embeddings for retrieving passages describing experimental methods.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Ferhat; Hüsünbeyi, Zehra Melce; Özgür, Arzucan

    2017-01-01

    Information regarding the physical interactions among proteins is crucial, since protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are central for many biological processes. The experimental techniques used to verify PPIs are vital for characterizing and assessing the reliability of the identified PPIs. A lot of information about PPIs and the experimental methods are only available in the text of the scientific publications that report them. In this study, we approach the problem of identifying passages with experimental methods for physical interactions between proteins as an information retrieval search task. The baseline system is based on query matching, where the queries are generated by utilizing the names (including synonyms) of the experimental methods in the Proteomics Standard Initiative-Molecular Interactions (PSI-MI) ontology. We propose two methods, where the baseline queries are expanded by including additional relevant terms. The first method is a supervised approach, where the most salient terms for each experimental method are obtained by using the term frequency-relevance frequency (tf.rf) metric over 13 articles from our manually annotated data set of 30 full text articles, which is made publicly available. On the other hand, the second method is an unsupervised approach, where the queries for each experimental method are expanded by using the word embeddings of the names of the experimental methods in the PSI-MI ontology. The word embeddings are obtained by utilizing a large unlabeled full text corpus. The proposed methods are evaluated on the test set consisting of 17 articles. Both methods obtain higher recall scores compared with the baseline, with a loss in precision. Besides higher recall, the word embeddings based approach achieves higher F-measure than the baseline and the tf.rf based methods. We also show that incorporating gene name and interaction keyword identification leads to improved precision and F-measure scores for all three evaluated methods

  17. The energetics of electric organ discharge generation in gymnotiform weakly electric fish.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Vielka L; Krahe, Rüdiger; Lewis, John E

    2013-07-01

    Gymnotiform weakly electric fish produce an electric signal to sense their environment and communicate with conspecifics. Although the generation of such relatively large electric signals over an entire lifetime is expected to be energetically costly, supporting evidence to date is equivocal. In this article, we first provide a theoretical analysis of the energy budget underlying signal production. Our analysis suggests that wave-type and pulse-type species invest a similar fraction of metabolic resources into electric signal generation, supporting previous evidence of a trade-off between signal amplitude and frequency. We then consider a comparative and evolutionary framework in which to interpret and guide future studies. We suggest that species differences in signal generation and plasticity, when considered in an energetics context, will not only help to evaluate the role of energetic constraints in the evolution of signal diversity but also lead to important general insights into the energetics of bioelectric signal generation.

  18. Under What Conditions Are Embedded versus Generative Cognitive Strategy Activators Effective? Two Prescriptive Models for Designing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darwazeh, Afnan N.

    In an embedded cognitive-strategy system, learners are forced to use a given cognitive strategy prepared by the instructor, designer, or researcher. In a generative cognitive-strategy system, learners are directed to generate a certain cognitive strategy activator by themselves. This is a review of experimental and theoretical studies conducted on…

  19. 75 FR 53687 - Southern Montana Electric Generation & Transmission Cooperative, Inc. v. NorthWestern Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...] Southern Montana Electric Generation & Transmission Cooperative, Inc. v. NorthWestern Corporation; Notice...) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.206, Southern Montana Electric Generation &...

  20. Fresh look at electric-generating reserve margins

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, E.H.

    1983-04-28

    In recent years, public attention has focused on electric-generating reserve margins as barometers of electric-power cost and service reliability. This article argues that the current definition, based on peak demand, overstates actual reserve capacity and therefore contributes to the perception that reserve margins are excessive. A new definition based on available installed capacity is proposed as a more-precise representation of the system condition. 6 figures.

  1. Vascular effects of free radicals generated by electrical stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, F.S.; Webb, R.C.

    1984-11-01

    Electrical field stimulation (9 V, 1.0 ms, 4 Hz) of isolated segments of rat tail arteries and dog coronary arteries inhibits contractile response to exogenous norephinephrine and elevated potassium concentration. This inhibitory effect of electrical stimulation is blocked by various agents that alter oxygen metabolism: superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, ascorbate, and dimethyl sulfoxide. The observations suggest that the inhibitory effect is due to an action of oxygen free radical metabolites that are generated by the electrical stimulation of the oxygen-rich buffer. These free radical metabolites have two actions: 1) they oxidize drugs in the experimental system, and 2) they exert a direct inhbitory action on vascular smooth muscle.

  2. Electrically controlled nonlinear generation of light with plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenshan; Vasudev, Alok P; Brongersma, Mark L

    2011-09-23

    Plasmonics provides a route to develop ultracompact optical devices on a chip by using extreme light concentration and the ability to perform simultaneous electrical and optical functions. These properties also make plasmonics an ideal candidate for dynamically controlling nonlinear optical interactions at the nanoscale. We demonstrate electrically tunable harmonic generation of light from a plasmonic nanocavity filled with a nonlinear medium. The metals that define the cavity also serve as electrodes that can generate high direct current electric fields across the nonlinear material. A fundamental wave at 1.56 micrometers was frequency doubled and modulated in intensity by applying a moderate external voltage to the electrodes, yielding a voltage-dependent nonlinear generation with a normalized magnitude of ~7% per volt.

  3. Application of field-modulated generator systems to dispersed solar thermal electric generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramakumar, R.

    1979-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of field modulated generation system (FMGS) is presented, and the application of FMGS to dispersed solar thermal electric generation is discussed. The control and monitoring requirements for solar generation system are defined. A comparison is presented between the FMGS approach and other options and the technological development needs are discussed.

  4. Road electric generation system with use of solar power

    SciTech Connect

    Meiarashi, S.; Ohara, Toshimasa

    1997-09-01

    The temperature of road pavement surface becomes more than 70 C because of the solar power in summer. The characteristics of asphalt pavement on heat transfer and the relatively huge occupation with urban area have caused the heat-island phenomena. The phenomena increase the temperature and the energy consumption for conditioners. Road administrators have to keep the road pavement surface out of freezing in winter. For the purpose, the use of dusting powder becomes popular in recent days. However, the negative influence of the huge amount of the powder could not be ignored, for instance, corrosion of steel bridge and cars, water pollution, and soil pollution. Another way is a road heating system. The enormous electric energy consumption prevents the system from becoming popular. The authors have devised the new system that generates electric power and works as a road heating system. The authors call the system as ``Road Electric Generation System (REGS).`` The basic principal of the electric generation and road heating is Seebeck and Pertier effect, respectively. In this paper, the authors have calculated the electric power generated by the system, road surface temperature after introducing the system, and the heat radiation from the road surface.

  5. Development of a linear piston-type pulse power electric generator for powering electric guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerfield, Martin

    1993-01-01

    The development of a linear piston-type electric pulse-power generator capable of powering electric guns and EM (rail and coil) guns and ET guns, presently under development, is discussed. The pulse-power generator consists of a cylindrical armature pushed by gases from the combustion of fuel or propellant through an externally produced magnetic field. An arrangement of electrodes and connecting straps serves to extract current from the moving armature and to send it to an external load (the electric gun).

  6. Heat generation of a piezoceramic induced-strain actuator embedded in a glass/epoxy composite panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesieutre, George A.; Fang, Lei; Koopmann, Gary H.; Pai, Suresh P.; Yoshikawa, Shoko

    1996-05-01

    The thermal response of a specific piezoceramic induced-strain actuator (the Penn State SPICES 'frame' actuator) was investigated under two conditions: (1) as a free device; and (2) embedded in a woven glass/epoxy composite panel. Actuators were driven at various combinations of electric field strengths and frequencies. Field strengths ranged from 75 kV/m to 1.5 MV/m (10 to 200 Vrms over a 135 micron thickness), while frequencies ranged from 100 Hz to 2000 Hz. The 50-ply composite panel was instrumented with thermocouples at 4 locations through the panel thickness. Temperature measurements were recorded continuously from an initial ambient isothermal state until a steady state temperature distribution was reached. Temperatures increased with frequency and field level, with heat generation roughly proportional to the frequency and to the square of the field level, consistent with a dielectric loss mechanism. The temperature rise at the actuator-composite interface, when driven at 100 Vrms and 500 Hz, was 50 degrees Celsius. The data indicate that self-heating in applications involving a combination of high field levels, high frequencies, and thick composites can result in high internal temperatures, and possibly lead to reduced performance and reliability.

  7. Apparatus for utilizing tidal variation to generate electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Giguere, A.

    1981-08-18

    The need to utilize alternative power sources for generating electricity is answered by harnessing the power of the tides in oceans. A power unit consists of a float with an opening therethrough which permits the float to ascend and descend a fixed column mounted on the ocean floor, the float being responsive to the variation in tidal height. Force linking means connecting the column and float transmit the linear power to a suitable form for an electrical generating means mounted on the float. The types of force linking means include a gear rack and gear means; helical gear combination means, gear speedmultiplying means and piston means.

  8. Dispersed solar thermal generation employing parabolic dish-electric transport with field modulated generator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramakumar, R.; Bahrami, K.

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of field modulated generator systems (FMGS) to dispersed solar-thermal-electric generation from a parabolic dish field with electric transport. Each solar generation unit is rated at 15 kWe and the power generated by an array of such units is electrically collected for insertion into an existing utility grid. Such an approach appears to be most suitable when the heat engine rotational speeds are high (greater than 6000 r/min) and, in particular, if they are operated in the variable speed mode and if utility-grade a.c. is required for direct insertion into the grid without an intermediate electric energy storage and reconversion system. Predictions of overall efficiencies based on conservative efficiency figures for the FMGS are in the range of 25 per cent and should be encouraging to those involved in the development of cost-effective dispersed solar thermal power systems.

  9. Generation of high-density biskyrmions by electric current

    DOE PAGES

    Peng, Licong; Zhang, Ying; He, Min; ...

    2017-06-16

    Much interest has been focused on the manipulation of magnetic skyrmions, including the generation, annihilation, and motion behaviors, for potential applications in spintronics. We experimentally demonstrate that a high-density Bloch-type biskyrmion lattice in MnNiGa can be generated by applying electric current. It is revealed that the density of biskyrmions can be remarkably increased by increasing the electric current, in contrast to the scattered biskyrmions induced by a magnetic field alone. Furthermore, the transition from the ferromagnetic state to the stripe domain structure can be terminated by the electric current, leading to the biskyrmions dominated residual domain pattern. These biskyrmions inmore » such residual domain structure are extremely stable at zero magnetic and electric fields and can further evolve into the high-density biskyrmion lattice over a temperature range from 100 to 330 K. Finally, our experimental findings open up a new pathway for the generation of skyrmion lattice by electric current manipulation.« less

  10. Electric Power Generation Systems for Use in Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1960-07-20

    Unlike the chemical battery, however, the fuel cell is in a preliminary development stage. (2) Electromechanical conversion devices utilize a heat engine ...to drive an electric generator. Currently, the principal type of heat engine under con- sideration is the steady-flow turbine using a working fluid...primary propulsion power for the first flight test of an experimental ion engine . In addition to the nuclear systems, two solar-powered turbine-generator

  11. Generation After Next Propulsor Research: Robust Design for Embedded Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arend, David J.; Tillman, Gregory; O'Brien, Walter F.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, United Technologies Research Center and Virginia Polytechnic and State University have contracted to pursue multi-disciplinary research into boundary layer ingesting (BLI) propulsors for generation after next environmentally responsible subsonic fixed wing aircraft. This Robust Design for Embedded Engine Systems project first conducted a high-level vehicle system study based on a large commercial transport class hybrid wing body aircraft, which determined that a 3 to 5 percent reduction in fuel burn could be achieved over a 7,500 nanometer mission. Both pylon-mounted baseline and BLI propulsion systems were based on a low-pressure-ratio fan (1.35) in an ultra-high-bypass ratio engine (16), consistent with the next generation of advanced commercial turbofans. An optimized, coupled BLI inlet and fan system was subsequently designed to achieve performance targets identified in the system study. The resulting system possesses an inlet with total pressure losses less than 0.5%, and a fan stage with an efficiency debit of less than 1.5 percent relative to the pylon-mounted, clean-inflow baseline. The subject research project has identified tools and methodologies necessary for the design of next-generation, highly-airframe-integrated propulsion systems. These tools will be validated in future large-scale testing of the BLI inlet / fan system in NASA's 8 foot x 6 foot transonic wind tunnel. In addition, fan unsteady response to screen-generated total pressure distortion is being characterized experimentally in a JT15D engine test rig. These data will document engine sensitivities to distortion magnitude and spatial distribution, providing early insight into key physical processes that will control BLI propulsor design.

  12. Optical generation in an amplifying photonic crystal with an embedded nanocomposite polarizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadoenkova, Yuliya; Glukhov, Igor; Moiseev, Sergey; Svetukhin, Viacheslav; Zhukov, Andrey; Zolotovskii, Igor

    2017-04-01

    We show the possibility of selective polarization generation in an amplifying photonic crystal structure via the use of an embedded film of a sub-wavelength thickness with uniformly oriented metallic elongated nanoparticles chaotically distributed in the volume of a semiconductor. Such nanocomposite polarizer presents a uniaxial crystal with different values of dielectric permittivity components along and perpendicular to the polar axis of the nanoparticles. Dispersion of the dielectric permittivity of the nanocomposite is defined by the concentration and shape factor of the nanoparticles. Wavelength dependence of imaginary part of the nanocomposite permittivity possesses a resonance behavior resulting from plasmon resonance in nanoparticles. We show that this allows, depending on the relative orientation of the nanocomposite anisotropy axis and the polarization direction of the light, to achieve the mode discrimination of the photonic structure in the vicinity of a resonance of one of the permittivity components, where the absorption of the nanocomposite layer is maximal. Also we vary the parameters of the nanocomposite polarizer to obtain the optimal conditions of optical generation at the given wavelength.

  13. Generation of strong electric fields in an ice film capacitor.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sunghwan; Kim, Youngsoon; Moon, Eui-seong; Lee, Du Hyeong; Kang, Hani; Kang, Heon

    2013-08-21

    We present a capacitor-type device that can generate strong electrostatic field in condensed phase. The device comprises an ice film grown on a cold metal substrate in vacuum, and the film is charged by trapping Cs(+) ions on the ice surface with thermodynamic surface energy. Electric field within the charged film was monitored through measuring the film voltage using a Kelvin work function probe and the vibrational Stark effect of acetonitrile using IR spectroscopy. These measurements show that the electric field can be increased to ∼4 × 10(8) V m(-1), higher than that achievable by conventional metal plate capacitors. In addition, the present device may provide several advantages in studying the effects of electric field on molecules in condensed phase, such as the ability to control the sample composition and structure at molecular scale and the spectroscopic monitoring of the sample under electric field.

  14. Effective critical electric field for runaway-electron generation.

    PubMed

    Stahl, A; Hirvijoki, E; Decker, J; Embréus, O; Fülöp, T

    2015-03-20

    In this Letter we investigate factors that influence the effective critical electric field for runaway-electron generation in plasmas. We present numerical solutions of the kinetic equation and discuss the implications for the threshold electric field. We show that the effective electric field necessary for significant runaway-electron formation often is higher than previously calculated due to both (1) extremely strong dependence of primary generation on temperature and (2) synchrotron radiation losses. We also address the effective critical field in the context of a transition from runaway growth to decay. We find agreement with recent experiments, but show that the observation of an elevated effective critical field can mainly be attributed to changes in the momentum-space distribution of runaways, and only to a lesser extent to a de facto change in the critical field.

  15. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2: Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, C.; Bain, R.; Chapman, J.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Hall, D.G.; Lantz, E.; Margolis, R.; Thresher, R.; Sandor, D.; Bishop, N.A.; Brown, S.R.; Cada, G.F.; Felker, F.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  16. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2. Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, Chad; Bain, Richard; Chapman, Jamie; Denholm, Paul; Drury, Easan; Hall, Douglas G.; Lantz, Eric; Margolis, Robert; Thresher, Robert; Sandor, Debra; Bishop, Norman A.; Brown, Stephen R.; Felker, Fort; Fernandez, Steven J.; Goodrich, Alan C.; Hagerman, George; Heath, Garvin; O'Neil, Sean; Paquette, Joshua; Tegen, Suzanne; Young, Katherine

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  17. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-01-01

    Analysts at NREL have developed and applied a systematic approach to review the LCA literature, identify primary sources of variability and, where possible, reduce variability in GHG emissions estimates through a procedure called 'harmonization.' Harmonization of the literature provides increased precision and helps clarify the impacts of specific electricity generation choices, producing more robust results.

  18. Modeling Distributed Electricity Generation in the NEMS Buildings Models

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling methodology, projected market penetration, and impact of distributed generation with respect to offsetting future electricity needs and carbon dioxide emissions in the residential and commercial buildings sector in the Annual Energy Outlook 2000 (AEO2000) reference case.

  19. The Environmental Impact of Electrical Generation: Nuclear vs. Conventional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, John J., Ed.

    This minicourse, partially supported by the Division of Nuclear Education and Training of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, is an effort to describe the benefit-to-risk ratio of various methods of generating electrical power. It attempts to present an unbiased, straightforward, and objective view of the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear…

  20. Industry sector analysis, Colombia: Electricity generation equipment. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The article is derived from a report titled: The Electrical Generating Equipment Market in Colombia', dated Janaury 1993, prepared by Mario Cediel, American Embassy - Bogota. The article consists of 21 pages and contains the following subtopics: Overview; Statistical Data; Market Assessment; Best Sales Prospects; Competitive Situation; Market Access; and Trade Promotion Opportunities.

  1. AIR POLLUTION: Emissions from Older Electricity Generating Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    Protection Agency (EPA), under the Clean Air Act , regulates emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from a variety of sources including...electricity generating units that burn fossil fuels, other industrial sources, and automobiles. EPA does not regulate carbon dioxide. Under the Clean Air Act , EPA

  2. Clean coal technologies in electric power generation: a brief overview

    SciTech Connect

    Janos Beer; Karen Obenshain

    2006-07-15

    The paper talks about the future clean coal technologies in electric power generation, including pulverized coal (e.g., advanced supercritical and ultra-supercritical cycles and fluidized-bed combustion), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), and CO{sub 2} capture technologies. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization under VariousElectricity Tariffs

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2007-05-01

    The on-site generation of electricity can offer buildingowners and occupiers financial benefits as well as social benefits suchas reduced grid congestion, improved energy efficiency, and reducedgreenhouse gas emissions. Combined heat and power (CHP), or cogeneration,systems make use of the waste heat from the generator for site heatingneeds. Real-time optimal dispatch of CHP systems is difficult todetermine because of complicated electricity tariffs and uncertainty inCHP equipment availability, energy prices, and system loads. Typically,CHP systems use simple heuristic control strategies. This paper describesa method of determining optimal control in real-time and applies it to alight industrial site in San Diego, California, to examine: 1) the addedbenefit of optimal over heuristic controls, 2) the price elasticity ofthe system, and 3) the site-attributable greenhouse gas emissions, allunder three different tariff structures. Results suggest that heuristiccontrols are adequate under the current tariff structure and relativelyhigh electricity prices, capturing 97 percent of the value of thedistributed generation system. Even more value could be captured bysimply not running the CHP system during times of unusually high naturalgas prices. Under hypothetical real-time pricing of electricity,heuristic controls would capture only 70 percent of the value ofdistributed generation.

  4. 28. HOISTING CHAIN, ELECTRIC GENERATOR (FORMERLY USED TO DRIVE BELTS), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. HOISTING CHAIN, ELECTRIC GENERATOR (FORMERLY USED TO DRIVE BELTS), ACETYLENE TANK, ENGINE LATHE, WELDING AREA, SCREW PRESS, AND AIR COMPRESSOR (L TO R)-LOOKING NORTHEAST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

  5. Electricity generation and transmission planning in deregulated power markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yang

    This dissertation addresses the long-term planning of power generation and transmission facilities in a deregulated power market. Three models with increasing complexities are developed, primarily for investment decisions in generation and transmission capacity. The models are presented in a two-stage decision context where generation and transmission capacity expansion decisions are made in the first stage, while power generation and transmission service fees are decided in the second stage. Uncertainties that exist in the second stage affect the capacity expansion decisions in the first stage. The first model assumes that the electric power market is not constrained by transmission capacity limit. The second model, which includes transmission constraints, considers the interactions between generation firms and the transmission network operator. The third model assumes that the generation and transmission sectors make capacity investment decisions separately. These models result in Nash-Cournot equilibrium among the unregulated generation firms, while the regulated transmission network operator supports the competition among generation firms. Several issues in the deregulated electric power market can be studied with these models such as market powers of generation firms and transmission network operator, uncertainties of the future market, and interactions between the generation and transmission sectors. Results deduced from the developed models include (a) regulated transmission network operator will not reserve transmission capacity to gain extra profits; instead, it will make capacity expansion decisions to support the competition in the generation sector; (b) generation firms will provide more power supplies when there is more demand; (c) in the presence of future uncertainties, the generation firms will add more generation capacity if the demand in the future power market is expected to be higher; and (d) the transmission capacity invested by the

  6. Bio-electricity Generation using Jatropha Oil Seed Cake.

    PubMed

    Raheman, Hifjur; Padhee, Debasish

    2016-01-01

    The review of patents reveals that Handling of Jatropha seed cake after extraction of oil is essential as it contains toxic materials which create environmental pollution. The goal of this work is complete utilisation of Jatropha seeds. For this purpose, Jatropha oil was used for producing biodiesel and the byproduct Jatropha seed cake was gasified to obtain producer gas. Both biodiesel and producer gas were used to generate electricity. To achieve this, a system comprising gasifier, briquetting machine, diesel engine and generator was developed. Biodiesel was produced successfully using the method patented for biodiesel production and briquettes of Jatropha seed cake were made using a vertical extruding machine. Producer gas was obtained by gasifying these briquettes in a downdraft gasifier. A diesel engine was then run in dual fuel mode with biodiesel and producer gas instead of only diesel. Electricity was generated by coupling it to a generator. The cost of producing kilowatthour of electricity with biodiesel and diesel in dual fuel mode with producer gas was found to be 0.84 $ and 0.75 $, respectively as compared to 0.69 $ and 0.5 $ for the same fuels in single fuel mode resulting in up to 48 % saving of pilot fuel. Compared to singlefuel mode, there was 25-32 % reduction in system and brake thermal efficiency along with significantly lower NOx, higher CO and CO2 emissions when the bio-electricity generating system was operated in dual fuel mode. Overall, the developed system could produce electricity successfully by completely uti- lising Jatropha seeds without leaving any seed cake to cause environmental pollution.

  7. Bedload sediment transport embedded in seismic signals generated from a mountain stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, D. L.; Brodsky, E. E.; Finnegan, N. J.; Turowski, J. M.; Wyss, C. R.; Badoux, A.; Schneider, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    We examine broadband (15 - 450 Hz) seismic data from the well-studied Erlenbach stream in the Swiss Prealps, where discharge, precipitation, and bedload transport are independently constrained during flood events. We perform a general linear least squares inversion of seismic data, exploiting times with isolated discharge or rain events, to identify the spectral signals of water turbulence and raindrop impacts. This, in turn, allows us to remove the contributions of turbulence and rainfall from the seismic spectra, thereby isolating the signal of bedload transport. We use one storm to calibrate the regression for bedload transport, then use this regression along with precipitation and discharge data to predict bedload transport rates for the remainder of the two-month campaign. Our predicted bedload transport rates correlate well with transport rates from calibrated geophones embedded in the channel (r2~0.6, p<<10-5). We also find that rain generates a roughly broadband seismic spectrum, while water turbulence and sediment transport exhibit power primarily in lower frequency bands (<100 Hz), due in part to different attenuation path lengths. We use the varying attenuation of water turbulence and bedload transport spectra to infer the locations of the primary sources generating each signal: a downstream waterfall, and the channel bed near the seismometers, respectively. Our results indicate that deconstruction of seismic signals from rivers can provide insight into the component signals generated by water turbulence, rain, and sediment transport. Further, we find that regression of seismic spectra with precipitation, discharge and bedload transport data for a single calibration period enables the estimation of transport for subsequent periods with only precipitation, discharge and seismic data. Since precipitation and discharge are significantly easier to monitor than transport, this represents a potential application for in-field monitoring of bedload activity.

  8. Generation and management of waste electric vehicle batteries in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, ChengJian; Zhang, Wenxuan; He, Wenzhi; Li, Guangming; Huang, Juwen; Zhu, Haochen

    2017-08-12

    With the increasing adoption of EVs (electric vehicles), a large number of waste EV LIBs (electric vehicle lithium-ion batteries) were generated in China. Statistics showed generation of waste EV LIBs in 2016 reached approximately 10,000 tons, and the amount of them would be growing rapidly in the future. In view of the deleterious effects of waste EV LIBs on the environment and the valuable energy storage capacity or materials that can be reused in them, China has started emphasizing the management, reuse, and recycling of them. This paper presented the generation trend of waste EV LIBs and focused on interrelated management development and experience in China. Based on the situation of waste EV LIBs management in China, existing problems were analyzed and summarized. Some recommendations were made for decision-making organs to use as valuable references to improve the management of waste EV LIBs and promote the sustainable development of EVs.

  9. Potential for electricity generation from biomass residues in Cuba

    SciTech Connect

    Lora, E.S.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is the study of the availability of major biomass residues in Cuba and the analysis of the electricity generation potential by using different technologies. An analysis of the changes in the country`s energy balance from 1988 up to date is presented, as well as a table with the availability study results and the energy equivalent for the following biomass residues: sugar cane bagasse and trash, rice and coffee husk, corn an cassava stalks and firewood. A total equivalent of 4.42 10{sup 6} tons/year of fuel-oil was obtained. Possible scenarios for the electricity production increase in the sugar industry are presented too. The analysis is carried out for a high stream parameter CEST and two BIG/GT system configurations. Limitations are introduced about the minimal milling capacity of the sugar mills for each technology. The calculated {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} electricity generation potential for BIG/GT systems, based on GE LM5000 CC gas turbines, an actual cane harvest of 58.0 10{sup 6} tons/year, half the available trash utilization and an specific steam consumption of 210 kg/tc, was 18601,0 GWh/year. Finally different alternatives are presented for low-scale electricity generation based on the other available agricultural residues.

  10. Proximity-based frameworks for generating embeddings from multi-output data.

    PubMed

    Mu, Tingting; Goulermas, John Yannis; Tsujii, Jun'ichi; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2012-11-01

    This paper is about supervised and semi-supervised dimensionality reduction (DR) by generating spectral embeddings from multi-output data based on the pairwise proximity information. Two flexible and generic frameworks are proposed to achieve supervised DR (SDR) for multilabel classification. One is able to extend any existing single-label SDR to multilabel via sample duplication, referred to as MESD. The other is a multilabel design framework that tackles the SDR problem by computing weight (proximity) matrices based on simultaneous feature and label information, referred to as MOPE, as a generalization of many current techniques. A diverse set of different schemes for label-based proximity calculation, as well as a mechanism for combining label-based and feature-based weight information by considering information importance and prioritization, are proposed for MOPE. Additionally, we summarize many current spectral methods for unsupervised DR (UDR), single/multilabel SDR, and semi-supervised DR (SSDR) and express them under a common template representation as a general guide to researchers in the field. We also propose a general framework for achieving SSDR by combining existing SDR and UDR models, and also a procedure of reducing the computational cost via learning with a target set of relation features. The effectiveness of our proposed methodologies is demonstrated with experiments with document collections for multilabel text categorization from the natural language processing domain.

  11. BRCA somatic and germline mutation detection in paraffin embedded ovarian cancers by next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Mafficini, Andrea; Simbolo, Michele; Parisi, Alice; Rusev, Borislav; Luchini, Claudio; Cataldo, Ivana; Piazzola, Elena; Sperandio, Nicola; Turri, Giona; Franchi, Massimo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Bovo, Chiara; Lawlor, Rita T; Scarpa, Aldo

    2016-01-12

    BRCA mutated ovarian cancers respond better to platinum-based therapy and to the recently approved PARP-inhibitors. There is the need for efficient and timely methods to detect both somatic and germline mutations using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues and commercially available technology. We used a commercial kit exploring all exons and 50bp exon-intron junctions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, and semiconductor next-generation sequencing (NGS) on DNA from 47 FFPE samples of high-grade serous ovarian cancers. Pathogenic mutations were found in 13/47 (28%) cancers: eight in BRCA1 and five in BRCA2. All BRCA1 and two BRCA2 mutations were germline; three BRCA2 mutations were somatic. All mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. To evaluate the performance of the NGS panel, we assessed its capability to detect the 6,953 variants described for BRCA1 and BRCA2 in ClinVar and COSMIC databases using callability analysis. 6,059 (87.1%) variants were identified automatically by the software; 829 (12.0%) required visual verification. The remaining 65 (0.9%) variants were uncallable, and would require 15 Sanger reactions to be resolved. Thus, the sensitivity of the NGS-panel was 99.1%. In conclusion, NGS performed with a commercial kit is highly efficient for detection of germline and somatic mutations in BRCA genes using routine FFPE tissue.

  12. BRCA somatic and germline mutation detection in paraffin embedded ovarian cancers by next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Mafficini, Andrea; Simbolo, Michele; Parisi, Alice; Rusev, Borislav; Luchini, Claudio; Cataldo, Ivana; Piazzola, Elena; Sperandio, Nicola; Turri, Giona; Franchi, Massimo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Bovo, Chiara; Lawlor, Rita T.; Scarpa, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    BRCA mutated ovarian cancers respond better to platinum-based therapy and to the recently approved PARP-inhibitors. There is the need for efficient and timely methods to detect both somatic and germline mutations using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues and commercially available technology. We used a commercial kit exploring all exons and 50bp exon-intron junctions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, and semiconductor next-generation sequencing (NGS) on DNA from 47 FFPE samples of high-grade serous ovarian cancers. Pathogenic mutations were found in 13/47 (28%) cancers: eight in BRCA1 and five in BRCA2. All BRCA1 and two BRCA2 mutations were germline; three BRCA2 mutations were somatic. All mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. To evaluate the performance of the NGS panel, we assessed its capability to detect the 6,953 variants described for BRCA1 and BRCA2 in ClinVar and COSMIC databases using callability analysis. 6,059 (87.1%) variants were identified automatically by the software; 829 (12.0%) required visual verification. The remaining 65 (0.9%) variants were uncallable, and would require 15 Sanger reactions to be resolved. Thus, the sensitivity of the NGS-panel was 99.1%. In conclusion, NGS performed with a commercial kit is highly efficient for detection of germline and somatic mutations in BRCA genes using routine FFPE tissue. PMID:26745875

  13. Evaluation and Ranking of Geothermal Resources for Electrical Generation or Electrical Offset in Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. Volume II.

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R. Gordon

    1985-06-01

    This volume contains appendices on: (1) resource assessment - electrical generation computer results; (2) resource assessment summary - direct use computer results; (3) electrical generation (high temperature) resource assessment computer program listing; (4) direct utilization (low temperature) resource assessment computer program listing; (5) electrical generation computer program CENTPLANT and related documentation; (6) electrical generation computer program WELLHEAD and related documentation; (7) direct utilization computer program HEATPLAN and related documentation; (8) electrical generation ranking computer program GEORANK and related documentation; (9) direct utilization ranking computer program GEORANK and related documentation; and (10) life cycle cost analysis computer program and related documentation. (ACR)

  14. Electrical power systems (Colombia). Portable/stationary electrical power generators, April 1992. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The Colombian electric power sector is confronting a critical situation due to poor planning and administration, labor problems, a very high foreign debt, lack of maintenance of the thermoelectric generation system, and a longer than expected nation wide drought. The unusual circumstances which Colombia is facing have sparked an extraordinary demand for portable and stationary electric power generation sets of all types (mainly gasoline and diesel) and emergency lighting systems. Imports of this type of equipment are expected to increase by 150 percent in 1992 in relation to the US $36.9 million imported in 1991.

  15. Managing Wind-based Electricity Generation and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yangfang

    Among the many issues that profoundly affect the world economy every day, energy is one of the most prominent. Countries such as the U.S. strive to reduce reliance on the import of fossil fuels, and to meet increasing electricity demand without harming the environment. Two of the most promising solutions for the energy issue are to rely on renewable energy, and to develop efficient electricity storage. Renewable energy---such as wind energy and solar energy---is free, abundant, and most importantly, does not exacerbate the global warming problem. However, most renewable energy is inherently intermittent and variable, and thus can benefit greatly from coupling with electricity storage, such as grid-level industrial batteries. Grid storage can also help match the supply and demand of an entire electricity market. In addition, electricity storage such as car batteries can help reduce dependence on oil, as it can enable the development of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles, and Battery Electric Vehicles. This thesis focuses on understanding how to manage renewable energy and electricity storage properly together, and electricity storage alone. In Chapter 2, I study how to manage renewable energy, specifically wind energy. Managing wind energy is conceptually straightforward: generate and sell as much electricity as possible when prices are positive, and do nothing otherwise. However, this leads to curtailment when wind energy exceeds the transmission capacity, and possible revenue dilution when current prices are low but are expected to increase in the future. Electricity storage is being considered as a means to alleviate these problems, and also enables buying electricity from the market for later resale. But the presence of storage complicates the management of electricity generation from wind, and the value of storage for a wind-based generator is not entirely understood. I demonstrate that for such a combined generation and storage system the optimal policy does not

  16. MEMS CLOSED CHAMBER HEAT ENGINE AND ELECTRIC GENERATOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A heat engine, preferably combined with an electric generator, and advantageously implemented using micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) technologies as an array of one or more individual heat engine/generators. The heat engine is based on a closed chamber containing a motive medium, preferably a gas; means for alternately enabling and disabling transfer of thermal energy from a heat source to the motive medium; and at least one movable side of the chamber that moves in response to thermally-induced expansion and contraction of the motive medium, thereby converting thermal energy to oscillating movement. The electrical generator is combined with the heat engine to utilize movement of the movable side to convert mechanical work to electrical energy, preferably using electrostatic interaction in a generator capacitor. Preferably at least one heat transfer side of the chamber is placed alternately into and out of contact with the heat source by a motion capacitor, thereby alternately enabling and disabling conductive transfer of heat to the motive medium.

  17. Halbach array motor/generators: A novel generalized electric machine

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, B.T.; Post, R.F.; Dreifuerst, G.R.; Bender, D.A.

    1994-10-28

    In August 1979, Halbach submitted a paper entitled ``Design of Permanent Multipole Magnets with Oriented Rare Earth Cobalt Material.`` In this paper, he presented a novel method of generating multipole magnetic fields using non-intuitive geometrical arrangements of permanent magnets. In subsequent publications, he further defined these concepts. Of particular interest to one of the authors (RFP) was the special magnet array that generated a uniform dipole field. In 1990 Post proposed the construction of an electric machine (a motor/generator) using a dipole field based on Klaus Halbach`s array of permanent magnets. He further proposed that such a system should be employed as an integral part of ``an electromechanical battery`` (EMB), i.e., a modular flywheel system to be used as a device for storing electrical energy, as an alternative to the electrochemical storage battery. This paper reviews Halbach`s theory for the generation of a dipole field using an array of permanent magnet bars, presents a simple analysis of a family of novel ``ironless`` electric machines designed using the dipole Halbach array, and describes the results obtained when they were tested in the laboratory.

  18. Imaging electrical spin generation and spin Hall dynamics in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, N. P.

    2009-03-01

    The capability to generate and manipulate spin polarization through the spin-orbit interaction drives interest in all-electrical techniques to exploit electron spins for semiconductor spintronics. The spin Hall effect refers to the generation of a pure spin current transverse to a charge current, resulting in a spontaneous spin accumulation near sample boundaries without the need for magnetic fields or materials. Recent experiments toward imaging this electrically generated spin polarization with both spatially and temporally resolved Kerr rotation microscopy in bulk zincblende semiconductors are discussed. Both current-induced in-plane spin polarization and out-of-plane spin accumulation from the spin Hall effect are observed in ZnSe up to room temperatureootnotetextN. P. Stern, S. Ghosh, G. Xiang, M. Zhu, N. Samarth, and D. D. Awschalom, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 126603 (2006). In GaAs devices, spatially resolved measurements of steady-state spin Hall accumulation and associated modeling clarify the important role of drift and diffusion in transporting spins generated at sample boundaries to the device interiorootnotetextN. P. Stern, D. W. Steuerman, S. Mack, A. C. Gossard, and D. D. Awschalom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 062109 (2007). In these typical optical experiments, electrically-generated spin accumulation is measured using steady-state techniques that do not directly observe dynamics at timescales important for device operation. Here we discuss a time- and spatially-resolved measurement of the spin Hall effect using a pulsed current to drive spin accumulationootnotetextN. P. Stern, D. W. Steuerman, S. Mack, A. C. Gossard, and D. D. Awschalom, Nat. Physics 4, 843 (2008). The dynamical processes of spin accumulation and diffusion reveal spatially-dependent nanosecond timescales comparable to the electric-field dependent spin coherence time. A time-dependent diffusion analysis reconciles the observed spatial and temporal dynamics of spin accumulation from the spin

  19. Rapid embedded wire heating via resistive guiding of laser-generated fast electrons as a hydrodynamic driver

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, A. P. L.; Schmitz, H.; Pasley, J.

    2013-12-15

    Resistively guiding laser-generated fast electron beams in targets consisting of a resistive wire embedded in lower Z material should allow one to rapidly heat the wire to over 100 eV over a substantial distance without strongly heating the surrounding material. On the multi-ps timescale, this can drive hydrodynamic motion in the surrounding material. Thus, ultra-intense laser solid interactions have the potential as a controlled driver of radiation hydrodynamics in solid density material. In this paper, we assess the laser and target parameters needed to achieve such rapid and controlled heating of the embedded wire.

  20. Electrical Power Conversion of River and Tidal Power Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, Eduard; Gevorgian, Vahan; Wright, Alan; Donegan, James; Marnagh, Cian; McEntee, Jarlath

    2016-11-21

    As renewable generation has become less expensive during recent decades, and it becomes more accepted by the global population, the focus on renewable generation has expanded to include new types with promising future applications, such as river and tidal generation. Although the utilization of power electronics and electric machines in industry is phenomenal, the emphasis on system design is different for various sectors of industry. In precision control, robotics, and weaponry, the design emphasis is on accuracy and reliability with less concern for the cost of the final product. In energy generation, the cost of energy is the prime concern; thus, capital expenditures (CAPEX) and operations and maintenance expenditures (OPEX) are the major design objectives. This paper describes the electrical power conversion aspects of river and tidal generation. Although modern power converter control is available to control the generation side, the design was chosen on the bases of minimizing the CAPEX and OPEX; thus, the architecture is simple and modular for ease of replacement and maintenance. The power conversion is simplified by considering a simple diode bridge and a DC-DC power converter to take advantage of abundant and low-cost photovoltaic inverters that have well-proven grid integration characteristics (i.e., the capability to produce energy with good power quality and control real power and voltage on the grid side).

  1. Intense ionospheric electric and magnetic field pulses generated by lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.; Ding, J. G.; Holzworth, R. H.

    1990-01-01

    Electric and magnetic field measurements have been made in the ionosphere over an active thunderstorm and an optical detector onboard the same rocket yielded an excellent time base for the study of waves radiated into space from the discharge. In addition to detection of intense, but generally well understood whistler mode waves, very unusual electric and magnetic field pulses preceded the 1-10 kHz component of the radiated signal. These pulses lasted several ms and had a significant electric field component parallel to the magnetic field. No known propagating wave mode has this polarization nor a signal propagation velocity as high as those measured here. This study investigated and rejected an explanation based on an anomalous skin depth effect. Although only a hypothesis at this time, a more promising explanation involving the generation of the pulse via a nonlinear decay of whistler mode waves in the frequency range 10-80 kHz is being investigated.

  2. Electricity generation and environmental externalities: Case studies, September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-28

    Electricity constitutes a critical input in sustaining the Nation`s economic growth and development and the well-being of its inhabitants. However, there are byproducts of electricity production that have an undesirable effect on the environment. Most of these are emissions introduced by the combustion of fossil fuels, which accounts for nearly 70 percent of the total electricity generated in the United States. The environmental impacts (or damages) caused by these emissions are labeled environmental ``externalities.`` Included in the generic term ``externality`` are benefits or costs resulting as an unintended byproduct of an economic activity that accrue to someone other than the parties involved in the activity. This report provides an overview of the economic foundation of externalities, the Federal and State regulatory approaches, and case studies of the impacts of the externality policies adopted by three States.

  3. Inactivation of bacteria by electric current in the presence of carbon nanotubes embedded within a polymeric membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Anna; Liu, Harris K; Long, Feng; Su, Erzheng; Klibanov, Alexander M

    2015-01-01

    Uniform conductive composite membranes were prepared using a phase inversion method by blending carboxyl-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with a polysulfone polymer. At 6 % of the embedded CNTs, the membrane pore size measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was approximately 50 nm. Electric current in the presence of the composite membranes markedly inactivated the model pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, with the extent of bacterial inactivation rising when the current was increased. Over 99.999 % inactivation of both bacteria was observed in deionized water after 40 min at 5 mA direct current (DC); importantly, no appreciable inactivation occurred in the absence of either the electric field or the CNTs within the membranes under otherwise the same conditions. A much lower, although still pronounced, inactivation was seen with alternating current (AC) in a 25 mM NaCl aqueous solution.

  4. Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model (GenSim)

    SciTech Connect

    DRENNEN, THOMAS E.; KAMERY, WILLIAM

    2002-11-01

    The Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model (GenSim) is a user-friendly, high-level dynamic simulation model that calculates electricity production costs for variety of electricity generation technologies, including: pulverized coal, gas combustion turbine, gas combined cycle, nuclear, solar (PV and thermal), and wind. The model allows the user to quickly conduct sensitivity analysis on key variables, including: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; and capacity factors. The model also includes consideration of a wide range of externality costs and pollution control options for carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and mercury. Two different data sets are included in the model; one from the US. Department of Energy (DOE) and the other from Platt's Research Group. Likely users of this model include executives and staff in the Congress, the Administration and private industry (power plant builders, industrial electricity users and electric utilities). The model seeks to improve understanding of the economic viability of various generating technologies and their emissions trade-offs. The base case results, using the DOE data, indicate that in the absence of externality costs, or renewable tax credits, pulverized coal and gas combined cycle plants are the least cost alternatives at 3.7 and 3.5 cents/kwhr, respectively. A complete sensitivity analysis on fuel, capital, and construction time shows that these results coal and gas are much more sensitive to assumption about fuel prices than they are to capital costs or construction times. The results also show that making nuclear competitive with coal or gas requires significant reductions in capital costs, to the $1000/kW level, if no other changes are made. For renewables, the results indicate that wind is now competitive with the nuclear option and is only competitive with coal and gas for grid connected applications if one includes the federal production tax credit

  5. Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model (GenSim).

    SciTech Connect

    Kamery, William; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2003-07-01

    The Electricity Generation Cost Simulation Model (GenSim) is a user-friendly, high-level dynamic simulation model that calculates electricity production costs for variety of electricity generation technologies, including: pulverized coal, gas combustion turbine, gas combined cycle, nuclear, solar (PV and thermal), and wind. The model allows the user to quickly conduct sensitivity analysis on key variables, including: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; and capacity factors. The model also includes consideration of a wide range of externality costs and pollution control options for carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and mercuty. Two different data sets are included in the model; one from the US. Department of Energy (DOE) and the other from Platt's Research Group. Likely users of this model include executives and staff in the Congress, the Administration and private industry (power plant builders, industrial electricity users and electric utilities). The model seeks to improve understanding of the economic viability of various generating technologies and their emissions trade-offs. The base case results, using the DOE data, indicate that in the absence of externality costs, or renewable tax credits, pulverized coal and gas combined cycle plants are the least cost alternatives at 3.7 and 3.5 cents/kwhr, respectively. A complete sensitivity analysis on fuel, capital, and construction time shows that these results coal and gas are much more sensitive to assumption about fuel prices than they are to capital costs or construction times. The results also show that making nuclear competitive with coal or gas requires significant reductions in capital costs, to the $1000/kW level, if no other changes are made. For renewables, the results indicate that wind is now competitive with the nuclear option and is only competitive with coal and gas for grid connected applications if one includes the federal production tax credit

  6. On second harmonic generation and multiphoton-absorption induced luminescence from laser-reshaped silver nanoparticles embedded in glass.

    PubMed

    Zolotovskaya, S A; Tyrk, M A; Stalmashonak, A; Gillespie, W A; Abdolvand, A

    2016-10-28

    Spherical silver nanoparticles (NPs) of 30 nm diameter embedded in soda-lime glass were uniformly reshaped (elongated) after irradiation by a linearly polarised 250 fs pulsed laser operating within the NPs' surface plasmon resonance band. We observed second harmonic generation (SHG) and multiphoton-absorption-induced luminescence (MAIL) in the embedded laser-reshaped NPs upon picosecond (10 ps) pulsed laser excitation at 1064 nm. A complementary study of SHG and MAIL was conducted in soda-lime glass containing embedded, mechanically-reshaped silver NPs of a similar elongation ratio (aspect ratio) to the laser-reshaped NPs. This supports the notion that the observed difference in SHG and MAIL in the studied nanocomposite systems is due to the shape modification mechanism. The discrete dipole approximation method was used to assess the absorption and scattering cross-sections of the reshaped NPs with different elongation ratios.

  7. On second harmonic generation and multiphoton-absorption induced luminescence from laser-reshaped silver nanoparticles embedded in glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotovskaya, S. A.; Tyrk, M. A.; Stalmashonak, A.; Gillespie, W. A.; Abdolvand, A.

    2016-10-01

    Spherical silver nanoparticles (NPs) of 30 nm diameter embedded in soda-lime glass were uniformly reshaped (elongated) after irradiation by a linearly polarised 250 fs pulsed laser operating within the NPs’ surface plasmon resonance band. We observed second harmonic generation (SHG) and multiphoton-absorption-induced luminescence (MAIL) in the embedded laser-reshaped NPs upon picosecond (10 ps) pulsed laser excitation at 1064 nm. A complementary study of SHG and MAIL was conducted in soda-lime glass containing embedded, mechanically-reshaped silver NPs of a similar elongation ratio (aspect ratio) to the laser-reshaped NPs. This supports the notion that the observed difference in SHG and MAIL in the studied nanocomposite systems is due to the shape modification mechanism. The discrete dipole approximation method was used to assess the absorption and scattering cross-sections of the reshaped NPs with different elongation ratios.

  8. Electric Generator in the System for Damping Oscillations of Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serebryakov, A.; Kamolins, E.; Levin, N.

    2017-04-01

    The control systems for the objects of industry, power generation, transport, etc. are extremely complicated; functional efficiency of these systems determines to a great extent the safe and non-polluting operation as well as convenience of service and repair of such objects. The authors consider the possibility to improve the efficiency of systems for damping oscillations in transport using a combination of electrical (generators of rotational and linear types) and hydraulic means. Better efficiency of functioning is achieved through automatic control over the operational conditions of such a system in order to make it adaptive to variations in the road profile and ambient temperature; besides, it is possible to produce additional electric energy.

  9. Role of electric discharges in the generation of atmospheric vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinkevich, O. A.; Maslov, S. A.; Gusein-zade, N. G.

    2017-02-01

    The existing thermohydrodynamic and hydroelectromagnetic models of tornado are considered. The potentialities of the humid atmosphere as a heat engine generating air vortices are analyzed in detail. The ability of long-term atmospheric electric discharges to form a tornado funnel and create an initial twist of up to 10-3-10-2 s-1 in it are estimated. The possible effect of a lightning discharge on the initiation and evolution of the tornado is discussed. It is shown that the electric current flowing along the lightning channel can lead to helical instability and generation of a weak primary vortex. The channel formed in the atmosphere by a lightning discharge and the vortex motion of the parent thundercloud can enhance the primary vortex and promote its transformation into a tornado. Possible mechanisms of enhancement of the primary vortex created by a lightning discharge and the possibility of its transformation into a tornado in the postdischarge stage are discussed.

  10. Electricity generation from cysteine in a microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Logan, Bruce E; Murano, Cassandro; Scott, Keith; Gray, Neil D; Head, Ian M

    2005-03-01

    In a microbial fuel cell (MFC), power can be generated from the oxidation of organic matter by bacteria at the anode, with reduction of oxygen at the cathode. Proton exchange membranes used in MFCs are permeable to oxygen, resulting in the diffusion of oxygen into the anode chamber. This could either lower power generation by obligate anaerobes or result in the loss in electron donor from aerobic respiration by facultative or other aerobic bacteria. In order to maintain anaerobic conditions in conventional anaerobic laboratory cultures, chemical oxygen scavengers such as cysteine are commonly used. It is shown here that cysteine can serve as a substrate for electricity generation by bacteria in a MFC. A two-chamber MFC containing a proton exchange membrane was inoculated with an anaerobic marine sediment. Over a period of a few weeks, electricity generation gradually increased to a maximum power density of 19 mW/m(2) (700 or 1000 Omega resistor; 385 mg/L of cysteine). Power output increased to 39 mW/m(2) when cysteine concentrations were increased up to 770 mg/L (493 Omega resistor). The use of a more active cathode with Pt- or Pt-Ru, increased the maximum power from 19 to 33 mW/m(2) demonstrating that cathode efficiency limited power generation. Power was always immediately generated upon addition of fresh medium, but initial power levels consistently increased by ca. 30% during the first 24 h. Electron recovery as electricity was 14% based on complete cysteine oxidation, with an additional 14% (28% total) potentially lost to oxygen diffusion through the proton exchange membrane. 16S rRNA-based analysis of the biofilm on the anode of the MFC indicated that the predominant organisms were Shewanella spp. closely related to Shewanella affinis (37% of 16S rRNA gene sequences recovered in clone libraries).

  11. TEC as electric generator in an automobile catalytic converter

    SciTech Connect

    Svensson, R.; Holmlid, L.

    1996-12-31

    Modern cars use more and more electric power due to more on-board electric systems, e.g., ABS brakes, active suspension systems, electric windows, chair adjustment systems and electronic engine control systems. One possible energy source for electricity generation is to use the waste heat from the car`s engine, which generally is as much as 80% of the total energy from the combustion of the gasoline. Maybe the best location to tap the excess heat is the Catalytic Converter (Cat) in the exhaust system or perhaps at the exhaust pipes close to the engine. The Cat must be kept within a certain temperature interval. Large amounts of heat are dissipated through the wall of the Cat. A Thermionic Energy Converter (TEC) in coaxial form could conveniently be located around the ceramic cartridge of the Cat. Since the TEC is a rather good heat insulator before it reaches its working temperature the Cat will reach working temperature faster, and the final temperature of it can be controlled better when encapsulated in a concentric TEC arrangement. It is also possible to regulate the temperature of the Cat and the TEC by controlling the electrical load of the TEC. The possible working temperatures of present and future Cats appear very suitable for the new low work function collector TEC, which has been demonstrated to work down to 470 K.

  12. Performance of Electricity Generation from Bryophyllum Leaf for Practical Utilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Md. Kamrul Alam

    2017-01-01

    Constructing an affordable cost, environment friendly simplified electrical energy source with Pathor Kuchi Leaf (PKL) for power electrifications which will significantly upgrade the life style of 1.6 billion people especially, who live in rural areas of Bangladesh. However, one fifth of the world's population still lack access to electricity-well, mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia (Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Nepal and Bhutan). This innovative technology will meet essential requirements as lighting, telecommunication as well as information access. Electrodes are put into the Bryophyllum Pinnatum Leaf (BPL) or Pathor Kuchi Leaf (PKL) sap and they produce substantially sufficient amount of electricity to power energy consumed electronics and electrical appliances. CuSO4.5H2O solution is used as a secondary salt. The role of CuSO4.5H2O solution has been studied. The electrical and chemical properties, a very important factor for PKL electricity generation device have been studied in this research work. The electrical properties are: internal resistance, voltage regulation, energy efficiency, pulse performance, self discharge characteristics, discharge characteristics with load, capacity of the PKL cell, temperature characteristics and life cycle of the PKL cell. The chemical properties are: variation of voltage, current with the variation of [Zn2+], [Cu2+] and time. The performance of the production of the two bi-products (fertilizer and hydrogen gas production) has been studied. Variation of concentration of Zn2+ and Cu2+ with the variation of percentage of the I am grateful to the authority of the Science and technology ministry,Bangladesh for financial support during the research work.

  13. The Exploitation of the Electric Contributions in Infrared Power Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-02

    establishes a method to harvest infrared radiation and transform it into usable energy . We have identified an electrical contribution to the energy ...radiation harvesting, renewable and sustainable energy source 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 17. LIMITATION OF...radiation as a sustainable and renewable source of energy . These two goals are achieved by illuminating a power generator (PG) device, shown in Fig

  14. Use of a thermophotovoltaic generator in a hybrid electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Orion; Seal, Michael; West, Edward; Connelly, William

    1999-03-01

    Viking 29 is the World's first thermophotovoltaic (TPV) powered automobile. The prototype was funded by the Department of Energy and designed and built by students and faculty at the Vehicle Research Institute (VRI) at Western Washington University. Viking 29 is a series hybrid electric vehicle that utilizes TPV generators to charge its battery pack. Acceleration, speed, and handling compare to modern high performance sports cars, while emissions are cleaner than current internal combustion engine vehicles.

  15. Static and dynamic high power, space nuclear electric generating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetch, J. R.; Begg, L. L.; Koester, J. K.

    1985-01-01

    Space nuclear electric generating systems concepts have been assessed for their potential in satisfying future spacecraft high power (several megawatt) requirements. Conceptual designs have been prepared for reactor power systems using the most promising static (thermionic) and the most promising dynamic conversion processes. Component and system layouts, along with system mass and envelope requirements have been made. Key development problems have been identified and the impact of the conversion process selection upon thermal management and upon system and vehicle configuration is addressed.

  16. The impacts of renewable energy policies on renewable energy sources for electricity generating capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Bryan Bonsuk

    Electricity generation from non-hydro renewable sources has increased rapidly in the last decade. For example, Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity (RES-E) generating capacity in the U.S. almost doubled for the last three year from 2009 to 2012. Multiple papers point out that RES-E policies implemented by state governments play a crucial role in increasing RES-E generation or capacity. This study examines the effects of state RES-E policies on state RES-E generating capacity, using a fixed effects model. The research employs panel data from the 50 states and the District of Columbia, for the period 1990 to 2011, and uses a two-stage approach to control endogeneity embedded in the policies adopted by state governments, and a Prais-Winsten estimator to fix any autocorrelation in the panel data. The analysis finds that Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) and Net-metering are significantly and positively associated with RES-E generating capacity, but neither Public Benefit Funds nor the Mandatory Green Power Option has a statistically significant relation to RES-E generating capacity. Results of the two-stage model are quite different from models which do not employ predicted policy variables. Analysis using non-predicted variables finds that RPS and Net-metering policy are statistically insignificant and negatively associated with RES-E generating capacity. On the other hand, Green Energy Purchasing policy is insignificant in the two-stage model, but significant in the model without predicted values.

  17. Displacement Current and the Generation of Parallel Electric Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Song Yan; Lysak, Robert L.

    2006-04-14

    We show for the first time the dynamical relationship between the generation of magnetic field-aligned electric field (E{sub parallel}) and the temporal changes and spatial gradients of magnetic and velocity shears, and the plasma density in Earth's magnetosphere. We predict that the signatures of reconnection and auroral particle acceleration should have a correlation with low plasma density, and a localized voltage drop (V{sub parallel}) should often be associated with a localized magnetic stress concentration. Previous interpretations of the E{sub parallel} generation are mostly based on the generalized Ohm's law, causing serious confusion in understanding the nature of reconnection and auroral acceleration.

  18. Automation of steam generator services at public service electric & gas

    SciTech Connect

    Cruickshank, H.; Wray, J.; Scull, D.

    1995-03-01

    Public Service Electric & Gas takes an aggressive approach to pursuing new exposure reduction techniques. Evaluation of historic outage exposure shows that over the last eight refueling outages, primary steam generator work has averaged sixty-six (66) person-rem, or, approximately tewenty-five percent (25%) of the general outage exposure at Salem Station. This maintenance evolution represents the largest percentage of exposure for any single activity. Because of this, primary steam generator work represents an excellent opportunity for the development of significant exposure reduction techniques. A study of primary steam generator maintenance activities demonstrated that seventy-five percent (75%) of radiation exposure was due to work activities of the primary steam generator platform, and that development of automated methods for performing these activities was worth pursuing. Existing robotics systems were examined and it was found that a new approach would have to be developed. This resulted in a joint research and development project between Westinghouse and Public Service Electric & Gas to develop an automated system of accomplishing the Health Physics functions on the primary steam generator platform. R.O.M.M.R.S. (Remotely Operated Managed Maintenance Robotics System) was the result of this venture.

  19. Gold nanoparticles embedded in organic/inorganic hybrid matrix: electrical and electrochemical behavior (withdrawal notice)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, Sandra D. F. C.; Silva, J. P. B.; Silva, Carlos J. R.; Capan, I.; Gomes, M. J. M.; Costa, Manuel F. M.

    2013-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with different diameters, from 3 to 32 nm, were immobilized in amine-alcohol-silicate matrix by mixing a preformed nanoparticle colloid with the precursors of amine-alcohol-silicate (AAs) prior to the solgel transition. These nanocomposites show high optical quality and optical features dictated by the size of the nanoparticle dopants but also present a high degree of flexibility which can largely enhance the range of practical applications. The current-voltage, impedance and capacitance-voltage characteristics of these materials have been measured. The electrochemical and impedimetric results reveal that AuNPs with different sizes give different signals, thus providing useful information that allows the employment of AuNPs in electrochemical biosensors. Capacitance- voltage measurements showed that these composites embedded AuNPs exhibited a large hysteresis window of 2.4V which indicates the possibility of charge storage in the Au nanoparticles embedded AAs hybrids.

  20. Reconstitution of biological molecular generators of electric current. Inorganic pyrophosphatase.

    PubMed

    Kondrashin, A A; Remennikov, V G; Samuilov, V D; Skulachev, V P

    1980-12-01

    Proteoliposomes have been reconstituted from soy-bean phospholipids (asolectin) and inorganic pyrophosphatase isolated from Rhodospirillum rubrum chromatophores. In the presence of Mg2+ ions, pyrophosphatase proteoliposomes were incorporated into a phospholipid-impregnated Teflon filter separating two solutions of an identical electrolyte content. Addition of inorganic pyrophosphate to the same compartment as proteoliposomes was found to induce generation of an electric potential difference between the two filter-separated compartments, the proteoliposomes-containing compartment being negatively charged. An electric potential difference of 15 mV and a current of 20 pA were observed. The electrogenic effect required Mg2+ and proved to be sensitive to fluoride, an inorganic pyrophosphatase inhibitor. Treatment with 10 microM N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide for several minutes was without influence upon pyrophosphate-induced membrane potential generation. Similar results were obtained in experiments with a proteoliposome suspension and a penetrating anion, tetraphenyl borate, which is a probe for membrane potential. The obtained data are discussed in connection with the results of studies on other enzymes as molecular generators of electric current.

  1. Electro-optic switching in iron oxide nanoparticle embedded paramagnetic chiral liquid crystal via magneto-electric coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, Puja; Arora, Manju; Biradar, Ashok M.

    2014-03-28

    The variation in optical texture, electro-optic, and dielectric properties of iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) embedded ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) with respect to change in temperature and electrical bias conditions are demonstrated in the current investigations. Improvement in spontaneous polarization and response time in nanocomposites has been attributed to magneto-electric (ME) coupling resulting from the strong interaction among the ferromagnetic nanoparticle's exchange field (due to unpaired e{sup −}) and the field of liquid crystal molecular director. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of FLC material gives a broad resonance signal with superimposed components indicating the presence of a source of spin. This paramagnetic behavior of host FLC material had been a major factor in strengthening the guest host interaction by giving an additional possibility of (a) spin-spin interaction and (b) interactions between magnetic-dipole and electric-dipole moments (ME effects) in the composite materials. Furthermore, the phenomenon of dielectric and static memory effect in these composites are also observed which yet again confirms the coupling of magnetic NP's field with FLC's director orientation. We therefore believe that such advanced soft materials holding the optical and electrical properties of conventional LCs with the magnetic and electronic properties of ferromagnetic nanoparticles are going to play a key role in the development of futuristic multifunctional optical devices.

  2. BUILDOUT AND UPGRADE OF CENTRAL EMERGENCY GENERATOR SYSTEM, GENERATOR 3 AND 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Seifert; G. Shawn West; Kurt S. Myers; Jim Moncur

    2006-07-01

    SECTION 01000—SUMMARY OF WORK PART 1—GENERAL 1.1 SUMMARY The work to be performed under this project consists of providing the labor, equipment, and materials to perform "Buildout and Upgrade of Central Emergency Generator System, Generator 3 and 4 Electrical Installation" for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration at the Dryden Flight Research Center (NASA/DFRC), Edwards, California 93523. All modifications to existing substations and electrical distribution systems are the responsibility of the contractor. It is the contractor’s responsibility to supply a complete and functionally operational system. The work shall be performed in accordance with these specifications and the related drawings. The work of this project is defined by the plans and specifications contained and referenced herein. This work specifically includes but is not limited to the following: Scope of Work - Installation 1. Install all electrical wiring and controls for new generators 3 and 4 to match existing electrical installation for generators 1 and 2 and in accordance with drawings. Contractor shall provide as-built details for electrical installation. 2. Install battery charger systems for new generators 3 and 4 to match existing battery charging equipment and installation for generators 1 and 2. This may require exchange of some battery charger parts already on-hand. Supply power to new battery chargers from panel and breakers as shown on drawings. Utilize existing conduits already routed to generators 3 and 4 to field route the new wiring in the most reasonable way possible. 3. Install electrical wiring for fuel/lube systems for new generators 3 and 4 to match existing installation for generators 1 and 2. Supply power to lube oil heaters and fuel system (day tanks) from panel and breakers as shown on drawings. Utilize existing conduits already routed to generators 3 and 4 to field route the new wiring in the most reasonable way possible. Add any conduits necessary to

  3. Generation capacity expansion planning in deregulated electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Deepak

    With increasing demand of electric power in the context of deregulated electricity markets, a good strategic planning for the growth of the power system is critical for our tomorrow. There is a need to build new resources in the form of generation plants and transmission lines while considering the effects of these new resources on power system operations, market economics and the long-term dynamics of the economy. In deregulation, the exercise of generation planning has undergone a paradigm shift. The first stage of generation planning is now undertaken by the individual investors. These investors see investments in generation capacity as an increasing business opportunity because of the increasing market prices. Therefore, the main objective of such a planning exercise, carried out by individual investors, is typically that of long-term profit maximization. This thesis presents some modeling frameworks for generation capacity expansion planning applicable to independent investor firms in the context of power industry deregulation. These modeling frameworks include various technical and financing issues within the process of power system planning. The proposed modeling frameworks consider the long-term decision making process of investor firms, the discrete nature of generation capacity addition and incorporates transmission network modeling. Studies have been carried out to examine the impact of the optimal investment plans on transmission network loadings in the long-run by integrating the generation capacity expansion planning framework within a modified IEEE 30-bus transmission system network. The work assesses the importance of arriving at an optimal IRR at which the firm's profit maximization objective attains an extremum value. The mathematical model is further improved to incorporate binary variables while considering discrete unit sizes, and subsequently to include the detailed transmission network representation. The proposed models are novel in the

  4. Electric-Field Switchable Second-Harmonic Generation in Bilayer MoS2 by Inversion Symmetry Breaking.

    PubMed

    Klein, J; Wierzbowski, J; Steinhoff, A; Florian, M; Rösner, M; Heimbach, F; Müller, K; Jahnke, F; Wehling, T O; Finley, J J; Kaniber, M

    2017-01-11

    We demonstrate pronounced electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation in naturally inversion symmetric 2H stacked bilayer MoS2 embedded into microcapacitor devices. By applying strong external electric field perturbations (|F| = ±2.6 MV cm(-1)) perpendicular to the basal plane of the crystal, we control the inversion symmetry breaking and, hereby, tune the nonlinear conversion efficiency. Strong tunability of the nonlinear response is observed throughout the energy range (Eω ∼ 1.25-1.47 eV) probed by measuring the second-harmonic response at E2ω, spectrally detuned from both the A- and B-exciton resonances. A 60-fold enhancement of the second-order nonlinear signal is obtained for emission at E2ω = 2.49 eV, energetically detuned by ΔE = E2ω - EC = -0.26 eV from the C-resonance (EC = 2.75 eV). The pronounced spectral dependence of the electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation signal reflects the bandstructure and wave function admixture and exhibits particularly strong tunability below the C-resonance, in good agreement with density functional theory calculations. Moreover, we show that the field-induced second-harmonic generation relies on the interlayer coupling in the bilayer. Our findings strongly suggest that the strong tunability of the electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation signal in bilayer transition metal dichalcogenides may find applications in miniaturized electrically switchable nonlinear devices.

  5. Thermoelectric power generation for hybrid-electric vehicle auxiliary power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Headings, Leon M.; Washington, Gregory N.; Midlam-Mohler, Shawn; Heremans, Joseph P.

    2009-03-01

    The plug-in hybrid-electric vehicle (PHEV) concept allows for a moderate driving range in electric mode but uses an onboard range extender to capitalize on the high energy density of fuels using a combustion-based generator, typically using an internal combustion engine. An alternative being developed here is a combustion-based thermoelectric generator in order to develop systems technologies which capitalize on the high power density and inherent benefits of solid-state thermoelectric power generation. This thermoelectric power unit may find application in many military, industrial, and consumer applications including range extension for PHEVs. In this research, a baseline prototype was constructed using a novel multi-fuel atomizer with diesel fuel, a conventional thermoelectric heat exchange configuration, and a commercially available bismuth telluride module (maximum 225°C). This prototype successfully demonstrated the viability of diesel fuel for thermoelectric power generation, provided a baseline performance for evaluating future improvements, provided the mechanism to develop simulation and analysis tools and methods, and highlighted areas requiring development. The improvements in heat transfer efficiency using catalytic combustion were evaluated, the system was redesigned to operate at temperatures around 500 °C, and the performance of advanced high temperature thermoelectric modules was examined.

  6. Increased use of reject heat from electric generation

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, R.W.; Piraino, M.

    1994-02-01

    This study aims to determine existing barriers to greater use of reject heat by electric power producers, including utilities and cogenerators. It includes analytical studies of the technical and economic issues and a survey of several electric power producers. The core analytic findings of the study are that although electric utility- based, cogenerated district heating is sometimes cost competitive with currently common furnaces and boilers, it is not clearly less expensive, and is often more expensive. Since market penetration by a new technology depends on strong perceived advantages, district heating will remain at a disadvantage unless its benefits, such as lowered emissions and decreased reliance on foreign oil, are given overt financial form through subsidies or tax incentives. The central finding from the survey was that electric utilities have arrived at the same conclusion by their own routes; we present a substantial list of their reasons for not engaging in district heating or for not pursuing it more vigorously, and many of them can be summarized as the lack of a clear cost advantage for district heat. We also note that small-scale district heating systems, based on diesel generators and located near the thermal load center, show very clear cost advantages over individual furnaces. This cost advantage is consistent with the explosive growth currently observed in private cogeneration systems.

  7. Multi-agent simulation of generation expansion in electricity markets.

    SciTech Connect

    Botterud, A; Mahalik, M. R.; Veselka, T. D.; Ryu, H.-S.; Sohn, K.-W.; Decision and Information Sciences; Korea Power Exchange

    2007-06-01

    We present a new multi-agent model of generation expansion in electricity markets. The model simulates generation investment decisions of decentralized generating companies (GenCos) interacting in a complex, multidimensional environment. A probabilistic dispatch algorithm calculates prices and profits for new candidate units in different future states of the system. Uncertainties in future load, hydropower conditions, and competitors actions are represented in a scenario tree, and decision analysis is used to identify the optimal expansion decision for each individual GenCo. We test the model using real data for the Korea power system under different assumptions about market design, market concentration, and GenCo's assumed expectations about their competitors investment decisions.

  8. Electric energy production by particle thermionic-thermoelectric power generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oettinger, P. E.

    1980-01-01

    Thermionic-thermoelectric power generators, composed of a thin layer of porous, low work function material separating a heated emitter electrode and a cooler collector electrode, have extremely large Seebeck coefficients of over 2 mV/K and can provide significant output power. Preliminary experiments with 20-micron thick (Ba Sr Ca)O coatings, limited by evaporative loss to temperatures below 1400 K, have yielded short circuit current densities of 500 mA/sq cm and power densities of 60 mW/ sq cm. Substantially more output is expected with cesium-coated refractory oxide particle coatings operating at higher temperatures. Practical generators will have thermal-to-electrical efficiencies of 10 to 20%. Further increases can be gained by cascading these high-temperature devices with lower temperature conventional thermoelectric generators.

  9. Electricity generation using continuously recirculated flow electrodes in reverse electrodialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fei; Coronell, Orlando; Call, Douglas F.

    2017-07-01

    Capacitive flow electrode systems that generate electricity from salinity gradients are limited by low power densities, inefficient electrical current collection, and complex system operation. We show here the proof-of-concept that a single reverse electrodialysis cell using continuously recirculated activated carbon flow electrodes can generate uninterrupted electricity from an artificial sea/river water gradient. Power densities reached 61 ± 5.7 mW m-2 (normalized to total membrane surface area) and current densities 2.4 ± 0.13 A m-2 when a 10% by weight carbon loading was used with graphite plate current collectors. Using high-surface area graphite brush current collectors, maximum power densities increased more than 320% to 260 ± 8.7 mW m-2 and maximum current densities more than 400% to 14 ± 0.59 A m-2. The performance improvements were attributed to a more than 80% decrease in electrode resistances when brushes were used instead of plates. A control static capacitive electrode system obtained slightly higher average power densities (290 ± 8.7 mW m-2), but could not produce it continuously, highlighting the operational advantage of the recirculated flow electrode design.

  10. Assessing Vulnerability of Electricity Generation Under Potential Future Droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, E.; Tidwell, V. C.; Wigmosta, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    In the past few decades, the western US experienced increased sever, frequent, and prolonged droughts resulting in significant water availability issues, which raised questions as to how electricity sector might be vulnerable to future droughts. To improve our understanding of potential risks of electricity generation curtailment due to drought, an impact analysis was performed with a series of modeling tools including climate downscaling, competitive water-use calculator, hydrologic model for various hydrologic processes, and power-plant specific models. This presentation will demonstrate the predicted effects of potential droughts on power generation at a local level of the USGS 8-digit watersheds and individual power plants within the context of current and future characteristics of power system and water resource system.The study identified three potential drought scenarios based on historical drought records and projected climate changes from the GFDL and the PCM global climate models, for greenhouse gas emission scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 defined by the IPCC. The potential impacts under these three drought scenarios were evaluated with a hydrologic model constructed for the Pacific Northwest River Basin and California River Basin. The hydrologic model incorporates competitive water uses, climate forcing data corresponding to each of drought scenarios, and all major reservoirs that are currently supporting water withdrawal for various sectors and hydroelectric power generation. The hydrologic responses to drought scenarios predicted for each of the USGS 8-digit watersheds and reservoirs are used as input to power-plant specific models to quantify potential risk of curtailment at each power plant. The key findings from this study will help to improve understanding of spatial distribution of vulnerable power plants and watersheds as well as the scale of potential reduction of electricity generation under various drought scenarios. Beyond impacts to the existing

  11. Electrical and memory properties of Si3N4 MIS structures with embedded Si nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Z J; Basa, P; Jászi, T; Pap, A E; Dobos, L; Pécz, B; Tóth, L; Szöllosi, P; Nagy, K

    2008-02-01

    Memory structures with an embedded sheet of separated Si nanocrystals were prepared by low pressure chemical vapour deposition using a Si3N4 control layer and different Si2O2 or Si3N4 tunnel layers. It was obtained that Si nanocrystals improve the charging behaviour of the MNOS structures. Memory window width of 1.3 V and 2.0 V were obtained for pulse amplitudes of +/-9 V and +/-10 V, 100 ms, respectively. The extrapolated memory window after 10 years is about 15% of its initial value.

  12. Development and Buildup of a Stirling Radioisotope Generator Electrical Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Greer, Lawrence C.; Flatico, Joseph M.; Spina, Dan C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) Simulator for use in a prototype lunar robotic rover. The SRG developed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is a promising power source for the robotic exploration of the sunless areas of the moon. The simulator designed provides a power output similar to the SRG output of 5.7 A at 28 Vdc, while using ac wall power as the input power source. The designed electrical simulator provides rover developers the physical and electrical constraints of the SRG supporting parallel development of the SRG and rover. Parallel development allows the rover design team to embrace the SRG s unique constraints while development of the SRG is continued to a flight qualified version.

  13. Eighth international conference on MHD electrical power generation. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The VIIIth International Conference on MHD Electrical Power Generation was convened at the initiative of the International Liaison Group on MHD Electrical Power Generation by the USSR Academy of Sciences (Institute of High Temperatures) and under the sponsorship of: UNESCO; Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON); Energoinvest (Yugoslavia); Control Data Corporation (USA); and the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India). Considerable emphasis is placed in the Conference proceedings on the problems of testing, designing and mathematical modeling of MHD channels, as well as on the studies into MHD flows, heat transfer, properties and physical processes in plasma, electrode phenomena and diagnostics. The various MHD components are described from the standpoint of their development, namely, compressors, air preheaters, systems for seed injection and recovery, combustors, cooling systems, steam generators, superconducting magnets, loading systems etc. Problems related to high-temperature materials, operation of the equipment under conditions of slagging, and suppression of nitrogen and sulfur oxides are discussed. All but one of the papers have been entered into EDB; one had been entered previously from other sources.

  14. Surplus from and storage of electricity generated by intermittent sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Friedrich

    2016-12-01

    Data from the German electricity system for the years 2010, 2012, 2013, and 2015 are used and scaled up to a 100% supply by intermittent renewable energy sources (iRES). In the average, 330GW wind and PV power are required to meet this 100% target. A back-up system is necessary with the power of 89% of peak load. Surplus electricity accrues at high power levels. Curtailing surplus power to a large extent is found to be uneconomic. Demand-side management will suffer from the strong day-to-day variation of available surplus energy. A day storage is ineffective because of the day-night correlation of surplus power during winter. A seasonal storage loses its character when transformation losses are considered because it can contribute only after periods with excessive surplus production. The option of an oversized iRES system to feed the storage is also not effective because, in this case, energy can be taken directly from the large iRES supply, making storage superfluous. The capacities to be installed stress the difficulty to base heat supply and mobility also on iRES generated electricity in the future. As the German energy transition replaces one CO2-free electricity supply system by another one, no major reduction in CO2 emission can be expected till 2022, when the last nuclear reactor will be switched off. By 2022, an extremely oversized power supply system has to be created, which can be expected to continue running down spot-market electricity prices. The continuation of the economic response -to replace expensive gas fuel by cheap lignite- causes an overall increase in CO2 emission. The German GHG emission targets for 2020 and beyond are therefore in jeopardy.

  15. Electrical Detection of Quantum Dot Hot Electrons Generated via a Mn(2+)-Enhanced Auger Process.

    PubMed

    Barrows, Charles J; Rinehart, Jeffrey D; Nagaoka, Hirokazu; deQuilettes, Dane W; Salvador, Michael; Chen, Jennifer I L; Ginger, David S; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2017-01-05

    An all-solid-state quantum-dot-based photon-to-current conversion device is demonstrated that selectively detects the generation of hot electrons. Photoexcitation of Mn(2+)-doped CdS quantum dots embedded in the device is followed by efficient picosecond energy transfer to Mn(2+) with a long-lived (millisecond) excited-state lifetime. Electrons injected into the QDs under applied bias then capture this energy via Auger de-excitation, generating hot electrons that possess sufficient energy to escape over a ZnS blocking layer, thereby producing current. This electrically detected hot-electron generation is correlated with a quench in the steady-state Mn(2+) luminescence and the introduction of a new nonradiative excited-state decay process, consistent with electron-dopant Auger cross-relaxation. The device's efficiency at detecting hot-electron generation provides a model platform for the study of hot-electron ionization relevant to the development of novel photodetectors and alternative energy-conversion devices.

  16. Transparent conductor-embedding nanocones for selective emitters: optical and electrical improvements of Si solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joondong; Yun, Ju-Hyung; Kim, Hyunyub; Cho, Yunae; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Kumar, M Melvin David; Yi, Junsin; Anderson, Wayne A; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2015-03-19

    Periodical nanocone-arrays were employed in an emitter region for high efficient Si solar cells. Conventional wet-etching process was performed to form the nanocone-arrays for a large area, which spontaneously provides the graded doping features for a selective emitter. This enables to lower the electrical contact resistance and enhances the carrier collection due to the high electric field distribution through a nanocone. Optically, the convex-shaped nanocones efficiently reduce light-reflection and the incident light is effectively focused into Si via nanocone structure, resulting in an extremely improved the carrier collection performances. This nanocone-arrayed selective emitter simultaneously satisfies optical and electrical improvement. We report the record high efficiency of 16.3% for the periodically nanoscale patterned emitter Si solar cell.

  17. Direct electrical transport measurement on a single thermoelectric nanowire embedded in an alumina template.

    PubMed

    Ben Khedim, Meriam; Cagnon, Laurent; Garagnon, Christophe; Serradeil, Valerie; Bourgault, Daniel

    2016-04-28

    Electrical conductivity is a key parameter to increase the performance of thermoelectric materials. However, the measurement of such performance remains complex for 1D structures, involving tedious processing. In this study, we present a non-destructive, rapid and easy approach for the characterization of electrical conductivity of Bi2Te3 based single nanowires. By controlling the nanowire overgrowth, each nanowire emerges in the form of a micrometric hemisphere constituting a unique contact zone for direct nanoprobing. As nanowires need no preliminary preparation and remain in their template during measurement, we avoid oxidation effects and time-consuming processing. Electrical transport results show a low nanowire resistivity for compact nanowires obtained at low overpotential. Such values are comparable to bulk materials and thin films. This method not only confirmed its reliability, but it could also be adopted for other semiconducting or metallic electrodeposited nanowires.

  18. Transparent conductor-embedding nanocones for selective emitters: optical and electrical improvements of Si solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joondong; Yun, Ju-Hyung; Kim, Hyunyub; Cho, Yunae; Park, Hyeong-Ho; Kumar, M. Melvin David; Yi, Junsin; Anderson, Wayne A.; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2015-01-01

    Periodical nanocone-arrays were employed in an emitter region for high efficient Si solar cells. Conventional wet-etching process was performed to form the nanocone-arrays for a large area, which spontaneously provides the graded doping features for a selective emitter. This enables to lower the electrical contact resistance and enhances the carrier collection due to the high electric field distribution through a nanocone. Optically, the convex-shaped nanocones efficiently reduce light-reflection and the incident light is effectively focused into Si via nanocone structure, resulting in an extremely improved the carrier collection performances. This nanocone-arrayed selective emitter simultaneously satisfies optical and electrical improvement. We report the record high efficiency of 16.3% for the periodically nanoscale patterned emitter Si solar cell. PMID:25787933

  19. Microbial electricity generation enhances decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) degradation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yonggang; Xu, Meiying; He, Zhili; Guo, Jun; Sun, Guoping; Zhou, Jizhong

    2013-01-01

    Due to environmental persistence and biotoxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), it is urgent to develop potential technologies to remediate PBDEs. Introducing electrodes for microbial electricity generation to stimulate the anaerobic degradation of organic pollutants is highly promising for bioremediation. However, it is still not clear whether the degradation of PBDEs could be promoted by this strategy. In this study, we hypothesized that the degradation of PBDEs (e.g., BDE-209) would be enhanced under microbial electricity generation condition. The functional compositions and structures of microbial communities in closed-circuit microbial fuel cell (c-MFC) and open-circuit microbial fuel cell (o-MFC) systems for BDE-209 degradation were detected by a comprehensive functional gene array, GeoChip 4.0, and linked with PBDE degradations. The results indicated that distinctly different microbial community structures were formed between c-MFCs and o-MFCs, and that lower concentrations of BDE-209 and the resulting lower brominated PBDE products were detected in c-MFCs after 70-day performance. The diversity and abundance of a variety of functional genes in c-MFCs were significantly higher than those in o-MFCs. Most genes involved in chlorinated solvent reductive dechlorination, hydroxylation, methoxylation and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation were highly enriched in c-MFCs and significantly positively correlated with the removal of PBDEs. Various other microbial functional genes for carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur cycling, as well as energy transformation process, were also significantly increased in c-MFCs. Together, these results suggest that PBDE degradation could be enhanced by introducing the electrodes for microbial electricity generation and by specifically stimulating microbial functional genes.

  20. Microbial Electricity Generation Enhances Decabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-209) Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yonggang; Xu, Meiying; He, Zhili; Guo, Jun; Sun, Guoping; Zhou, Jizhong

    2013-01-01

    Due to environmental persistence and biotoxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), it is urgent to develop potential technologies to remediate PBDEs. Introducing electrodes for microbial electricity generation to stimulate the anaerobic degradation of organic pollutants is highly promising for bioremediation. However, it is still not clear whether the degradation of PBDEs could be promoted by this strategy. In this study, we hypothesized that the degradation of PBDEs (e.g., BDE-209) would be enhanced under microbial electricity generation condition. The functional compositions and structures of microbial communities in closed-circuit microbial fuel cell (c-MFC) and open-circuit microbial fuel cell (o-MFC) systems for BDE-209 degradation were detected by a comprehensive functional gene array, GeoChip 4.0, and linked with PBDE degradations. The results indicated that distinctly different microbial community structures were formed between c-MFCs and o-MFCs, and that lower concentrations of BDE-209 and the resulting lower brominated PBDE products were detected in c-MFCs after 70-day performance. The diversity and abundance of a variety of functional genes in c-MFCs were significantly higher than those in o-MFCs. Most genes involved in chlorinated solvent reductive dechlorination, hydroxylation, methoxylation and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation were highly enriched in c-MFCs and significantly positively correlated with the removal of PBDEs. Various other microbial functional genes for carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur cycling, as well as energy transformation process, were also significantly increased in c-MFCs. Together, these results suggest that PBDE degradation could be enhanced by introducing the electrodes for microbial electricity generation and by specifically stimulating microbial functional genes. PMID:23940625

  1. Evaluation of High-Performance Space Nuclear Electric Generators for Electric Propulsion Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Gordon; Kross, Dennis A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Electric propulsion applications are enhanced by high power-to-mass ratios for their electric power sources. At multi-megawatt levels, we can expect thrust production systems to be less than 5 kg/kWe. Application of nuclear electric propulsion to human Mars missions becomes an attractive alternative to nuclear thermal propulsion if the propulsion system is less than about 10 kg/kWe. Recent references have projected megawatt-plus nuclear electric sources at specific mass values from less than 1 kg/kWe to about 5 kg/kWe. Various assumptions are made regarding power generation cycle (turbogenerator; MHD (magnetohydrodynamics)) and reactor heat source design. The present paper compares heat source and power generation options on the basis of a parametric model that emphasizes heat transfer design and realizable hardware concept. Pressure drop (important!) is included in the power cycle analysis, and MHD and turbogenerator cycles are compared. Results indicate that power source specific mass less than 5 kg/kWe is attainable, even if peak temperatures achievable are limited to 1500 K. Projections of specific mass less than 1 kg/kWe are unrealistic, even at the highest peak temperatures considered.

  2. Use of a thermophotovoltaic generator in a hybrid electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, O.; Seal, M.; West, E.; Connelly, W.

    1999-03-01

    Viking 29 is the World{close_quote}s first thermophotovoltaic (TPV) powered automobile. The prototype was funded by the Department of Energy and designed and built by students and faculty at the Vehicle Research Institute (VRI) at Western Washington University. Viking 29 is a series hybrid electric vehicle that utilizes TPV generators to charge its battery pack. Acceleration, speed, and handling compare to modern high performance sports cars, while emissions are cleaner than current internal combustion engine vehicles. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Computer Analysis of 400 HZ Aircraft Electrical Generator Test Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    7 D-AIO0 705 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AlS OH SCHOO-CTC F/ /2 AOMPUTER ANALYSIS OF 400 HZ AIRCRAFT ELECTRICAL GEERATOR TES JUN 80 P G...software system to analyze the data available from the Generator-Test Facility. I - -- - --- - - - - -- I, 0 Co 4.3 CO COm- I : W z I 40 g(2) • 10 4 E- c...triangles. Figure 4 presents the basis for the following linear inter- polation used to estimate time of zero crossover. Z T = ___- (T 2-T 1 ) + T1(4

  4. Electrical motor/generator drive apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Gui Jia

    2013-02-12

    The present disclosure includes electrical motor/generator drive systems and methods that significantly reduce inverter direct-current (DC) bus ripple currents and thus the volume and cost of a capacitor. The drive methodology is based on a segmented drive system that does not add switches or passive components but involves reconfiguring inverter switches and motor stator winding connections in a way that allows the formation of multiple, independent drive units and the use of simple alternated switching and optimized Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) schemes to eliminate or significantly reduce the capacitor ripple current.

  5. Externalities of energy use, analyzed for shipping and electricity generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Heather

    Energy use is central to the modern lifestyle, but producing this energy often comes at an environmental cost. The three studies in this paper look at the tradeoffs involved in energy production. The first looks at transitioning marine vessels to natural gas from current distillate fuels. While natural gas will reduce local air pollutants, such as sulfur oxides and particulate matter, the implications for greenhouse gases depend on how the natural gas is extracted, processed, distributed, and used. Applying a "technology warming potential" (TWP) approach, natural gas as a marine fuel achieves climate parity within 30 years for diesel ignited engines, though it could take up to 190 years to reach climate parity with conventional fuels in a spark ignited engine. Movement towards natural gas as a marine fuel continues to progress, and conditions exist in some regions to make a near-term transition to natural gas feasible. The second study looks at externalities associated with electricity generation. The impact on the surrounding community is one concern when siting new electricity generating facilities. A survey was conducted of residents living near an industrial scale wind turbine and a coal-fired power plant to determine their visual and auditory effects on the residents. Results concluded that respondents living near the wind turbine were in favor of the facility. They were willing to pay an average of 2.56 a month to keep the turbine in its current location. Respondents living near the coal plant were opposed to the facility. They were willing to spend 1.82 a month to have the facility removed. The third study presents a cost effectiveness analysis of three of the main fuels used for electricity generation, namely coal, natural gas, and wind. This analysis adds social costs to the private costs traditionally utilized by investors making decisions. It utilizes previous research on visual and auditory amenity and disamenity values as well as recent published

  6. Assessment of health impacts in electricity generation and use

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes the health effects of concern associated with electricity generation, information from which health effects can be estimated, and how the boundaries of analysis are determined. It also describes advances, new approaches, and trends in the risk assessment process. It discusses the application of these advances to comparative risk studies. Trends in the risk assessment process include more explicit characterization of quantitative uncertainty, the broader application and acceptance of Monte Carlo analysis and other numerical methods to the propagation of uncertainties through the analysis, greater realism in risk assessment, and the application of greatly increased computational capabilities.

  7. Improvement of optical transmittance and electrical properties for the Si quantum dot-embedded ZnO thin film

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A Si quantum dot (QD)-embedded ZnO thin film is successfully fabricated on a p-type Si substrate using a ZnO/Si multilayer structure. Its optical transmittance is largely improved when increasing the annealing temperature, owing to the phase transformation from amorphous to nanocrystalline Si QDs embedded in the ZnO matrix. The sample annealed at 700°C exhibits not only high optical transmittance in the long-wavelength range but also better electrical properties including low resistivity, small turn-on voltage, and high rectification ratio. By using ZnO as the QDs’ matrix, the carrier transport is dominated by the multistep tunneling mechanism, the same as in a n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunction diode, which clearly differs from that using the traditional matrix materials. Hence, the carriers transport mainly in the ZnO matrix, not through the Si QDs. The unusual transport mechanism using ZnO as matrix promises the great potential for optoelectronic devices integrating Si QDs. PMID:24148255

  8. Embedding Academic Literacy Support within the Electrical Engineering Curriculum: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, I.; Mort, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the integration of supplementary training in academic literacy, for those without the assumed entry standard, into a standard electrical engineering program without compromising any other educational objectives. All students who commenced an engineering degree were tested as part of their first session's assessment activities.…

  9. Embedding Academic Literacy Support within the Electrical Engineering Curriculum: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, I.; Mort, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the integration of supplementary training in academic literacy, for those without the assumed entry standard, into a standard electrical engineering program without compromising any other educational objectives. All students who commenced an engineering degree were tested as part of their first session's assessment activities.…

  10. Review of Operational Water Consumption and Withdrawal Factors for Electricity Generating Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Macknick, J.; Newmark, R.; Heath, G.; Hallett, K. C.

    2011-03-01

    Various studies have attempted to consolidate published estimates of water use impacts of electricity generating technologies, resulting in a wide range of technologies and values based on different primary sources of literature. The goal of this work is to consolidate the various primary literature estimates of water use during the generation of electricity by conventional and renewable electricity generating technologies in the United States to more completely convey the variability and uncertainty associated with water use in electricity generating technologies.

  11. Computational analysis of electrical conduction in hybrid nanomaterials with embedded non-penetrating conductive particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jizhe; Naraghi, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a comprehensive multi-resolution two-dimensional (2D) resistor network model is proposed to analyze the electrical conductivity of hybrid nanomaterials made of insulating matrix with conductive particles such as CNT reinforced nanocomposites and thick film resistors. Unlike existing approaches, our model takes into account the impenetrability of the particles and their random placement within the matrix. Moreover, our model presents a detailed description of intra-particle conductivity via finite element analysis, which to the authors’ best knowledge has not been addressed before. The inter-particle conductivity is assumed to be primarily due to electron tunneling. The model is then used to predict the electrical conductivity of electrospun carbon nanofibers as a function of microstructural parameters such as turbostratic domain alignment and aspect ratio. To simulate the microstructure of single CNF, randomly positioned nucleation sites were seeded and grown as turbostratic particles with anisotropic growth rates. Particle growth was in steps and growth of each particle in each direction was stopped upon contact with other particles. The study points to the significant contribution of both intra-particle and inter-particle conductivity to the overall conductivity of hybrid composites. Influence of particle alignment and anisotropic growth rate ratio on electrical conductivity is also discussed. The results show that partial alignment in contrast to complete alignment can result in maximum electrical conductivity of whole CNF. High degrees of alignment can adversely affect conductivity by lowering the probability of the formation of a conductive path. The results demonstrate approaches to enhance electrical conductivity of hybrid materials through controlling their microstructure which is applicable not only to carbon nanofibers, but also many other types of hybrid composites such as thick film resistors.

  12. Submerged electricity generation plane with marine current-driven motors

    DOEpatents

    Dehlsen, James G.P.; Dehlsen, James B.; Fleming, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    An underwater apparatus for generating electric power from ocean currents and deep water tides. A submersible platform including two or more power pods, each having a rotor with fixed-pitch blades, with drivetrains housed in pressure vessels that are connected by a transverse structure providing buoyancy, which can be a wing depressor, hydrofoil, truss, or faired tube. The platform is connected to anchors on the seafloor by forward mooring lines and a vertical mooring line that restricts the depth of the device in the water column. The platform operates using passive, rather than active, depth control. The wing depressor, along with rotor drag loads, ensures the platform seeks the desired operational current velocity. The rotors are directly coupled to a hydraulic pump that drives at least one constant-speed hydraulic-motor generator set and enables hydraulic braking. A fluidic bearing decouples non-torque rotor loads to the main shaft driving the hydraulic pumps.

  13. Halbach array motor/generators: A novel generalized electric machine

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, B.T.; Post, R.F.; Dreifuerst, G.R.; Bender, D.A.

    1995-02-01

    For many years Klaus Halbach has been investigating novel designs for permanent magnet arrays, using advanced analytical approaches and employing a keen insight into such systems. One of his motivations for this research was to find more efficient means for the utilization of permanent magnets for use in particle accelerators and in the control of particle beams. As a result of his pioneering work, high power free-electron laser systems, such as the ones built at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, became feasible, and his arrays have been incorporated into other particle-focusing systems of various types. This paper reports another, quite different, application of Klaus` work, in the design of high power, high efficiency, electric generators and motors. When tested, these motor/generator systems display some rather remarkable properties. Their success derives from the special properties which these arrays, which the authors choose to call {open_quotes}Halbach arrays,{close_quotes} possess.

  14. On Parameterization of the Global Electric Circuit Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slyunyaev, N. N.; Zhidkov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    We consider the problem of generator parameterization in the global electric circuit (GEC) models. The relationship between the charge density and external current density distributions inside a thundercloud is studied using a one-dimensional description and a three-dimensional GEC model. It is shown that drastic conductivity variations in the vicinity of the cloud boundaries have a significant impact on the structure of the charge distribution inside the cloud. Certain restrictions on the charge density distribution in a realistic thunderstorm are found. The possibility to allow for conductivity inhomogeneities in the thunderstorm regions by introducing an effective external current density is demonstrated. Replacement of realistic thunderstorms with equivalent current dipoles in the GEC models is substantiated, an equation for the equivalent current is obtained, and the applicability range of this equation is analyzed. Relationships between the main GEC characteristics under variable parameterization of GEC generators are discussed.

  15. Is It Better to Burn or Bury Waste for Clean Electricity Generation?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The generation of electricity through renewables has increased 5% since 2002. Although considerably less prominent than solar and wind, the use of municipal solid waste (MSW) to generate electricity represents roughly 14 percent of U.S. non-hydro renewable electricity generation....

  16. Is It Better to Burn or Bury Waste for Clean Electricity Generation?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The generation of electricity through renewables has increased 5% since 2002. Although considerably less prominent than solar and wind, the use of municipal solid waste (MSW) to generate electricity represents roughly 14 percent of U.S. non-hydro renewable electricity generation....

  17. Stationary diesel engines for use with generators to supply electric power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The procurement of stationary diesel engines for on-site generation of electric power deals with technical criteria and policy relating to federal agency, not electrical components of diesel-generator sets or for the design of electric-power generating plants or their air-pollution or noise control equipment.

  18. 29 CFR 1910.269 - Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution... § 1910.269 Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. Note: OSHA is staying the... the operation and maintenance of electric power generation, control, transformation, transmission, and...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.269 - Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution... § 1910.269 Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. Note: OSHA is staying the... the operation and maintenance of electric power generation, control, transformation, transmission, and...

  20. The greenhouse impact of unconventional gas for electricity generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultman, Nathan; Rebois, Dylan; Scholten, Michael; Ramig, Christopher

    2011-10-01

    New techniques to extract natural gas from unconventional resources have become economically competitive over the past several years, leading to a rapid and largely unanticipated expansion in natural gas production. The US Energy Information Administration projects that unconventional gas will supply nearly half of US gas production by 2035. In addition, by significantly expanding and diversifying the gas supply internationally, the exploitation of new unconventional gas resources has the potential to reshape energy policy at national and international levels—altering geopolitics and energy security, recasting the economics of energy technology investment decisions, and shifting trends in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In anticipation of this expansion, one of the perceived core advantages of unconventional gas—its relatively moderate GHG impact compared to coal—has recently come under scrutiny. In this paper, we compare the GHG footprints of conventional natural gas, unconventional natural gas (i.e. shale gas that has been produced using the process of hydraulic fracturing, or 'fracking'), and coal in a transparent and consistent way, focusing primarily on the electricity generation sector. We show that for electricity generation the GHG impacts of shale gas are 11% higher than those of conventional gas, and only 56% that of coal for standard assumptions.

  1. Second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion plants for electric power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A. ); Bonk, D. ); Horazak, D. ); Newby, R. . Science and Technology Center); Rehmat, A.

    1992-01-01

    In the search for a more efficient, less costly, and more environmentally responsible method for generating electrical power from coal, research and development has turned to advanced pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) and coal gasification technologies. A logical extension of this work is the second-generation PFBC plant, which incorporates key components of each of these technologies. In this new type of plant, coal is devolatilized/carbonized before it is injected into the PFB combustor bed, and the low-Btu fuel gas produced by this process is burned in a gas turbine topping combustor. By integrating coal carbonization with PFB[degree]C (2300[degree]F) and higher can be achieved. When integrated with a conventional 16.5-MPa gage/538[degree]C/538[degree]C/8.5-kPa Hg (2400- psig/1000[degree]F/1000[degree]F/2.5-in. Hg) steam cycle, a plant electrical generating efficiency of 45-percent is predicted. Concomitant advantages, among others, are a 20-percent lower cost of electricity (compared with a conventional pulverized-coal-fired plant with stack gas scrubbing), reduced stack emissions, and components that can be shipped by barge. This paper presents a conceptual design and economic analysis of Pittsburgh No. 8 and Texas lignite coal-fired 500-MWe second-generation PFB combustion plants.

  2. Electrically controlled plasmonic lasing resonances with silver nanoparticles embedded in amplifying nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chin; Deng, Luogen

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrated an electrical control of coherent plasmonic random lasing with very diluted Ag nanoparticles dispersed in a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal (NLC), in which the external electric field dependent emission intensity and frequency-splitting were recorded. A modified rate equation model is proposed to interpret the observed coherent lasing, which is a manifestation of the double enhancements caused by the plasmon-polariton near-fields of Ag particles on the population inversion of laser dye molecules and on the optical energy density of lasing modes. The featured laser quenching as weakening the applied field indicates that the present lasing resonances are very sensitive to the fluctuant dielectric perturbations in the NLC host, and are thus most likely associated with some coupled plasmonic oscillations among the metal nanoparticles.

  3. Assessing climate benefits of natural gas and coal electricity generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Myhrvold, Nathan; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-04-01

    A transition from a system of coal electricity generation to near-zero emission electricity generation will be central to any effort to mitigate climate change. Natural gas is increasingly seen as a 'bridge fuel' for transitions form coal to near-zero emission energy sources. However, various studies use different metrics to estimate the climate impact of natural gas utilization, and led to differing conclusions. Thus, there is a need to identify the key factors affecting the climate effects of natural gas and coal electricity production, and to present these climate effects in as clear and transparent a way as possible. Here, we identify power plant efficiency and methane leakage rate as the key factors that explain most of the variance in greenhouse gas emissions by natural gas and coal power plants. We then develop a power plant GHG emission model, apply available life-cycle parameters to calculate associated CO2 and CH4 emissions and assess climate effects. Simple underlying physical changes can be obscured by abstract evaluation metrics, thus we base our discussion on temperature changes over time. We find that, during the period of plant operation, if there is substantial natural gas leakage, natural gas plants can produce greater near-term warming than a coal plant with the same power output. If leakage rates can be made to be low and efficiency high, natural gas plants can produce some reduction in near-term warming. However, without carbon capture and storage natural gas power plants cannot achieve the deep reductions that would be required to avoid substantial contribution to additional global warming. Achieving climate benefits from the use of natural gas depends on building high-efficiency natural gas plants, controlling methane leakage, and on developing a policy environment that assures a transition to future lower-emission technologies. For more information please see http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/9/11/114022/article .

  4. Evidence of a permanent electric polarisation in highly strained Cr2O3 clusters measured by a second harmonic generation technique.

    PubMed

    Hamieh, Mohamad; Dorkenoo, Kokoo; Taupier, Gregory; Henry, Yves; Halley, David

    2017-03-24

    We investigate the second harmonic generation (SHG) signal in strained Cr2O3 clusters. We show that the SHG signal generated by nanometric Cr2O3 clusters embedded in MgO varies under an applied electric field, at room temperature. The variation of the intensity follows a Langevin law as a function of the electric field, which is consistent with a super-paraelectric clusters assembly. This reveals the presence of a weak spontaneous electric dipole in Cr2O3 when in the shape of highly strained epitaxial clusters, whereas this material does not posses any permanent electric dipole in the bulk phase. These results indicate that the multiferroic state recently observed at low temperature in those clusters, which was associated to a giant magneto-electric effect, might still exist at room temperature: this opens the way to new applications based on chromium oxide strained nanoparticles.

  5. Evidence of a permanent electric polarisation in highly strained Cr2O3 clusters measured by a second harmonic generation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamieh, M.; Dorkenoo, K. D.; Taupier, G.; Henry, Y.; Halley, D.

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the second harmonic generation (SHG) signal in strained Cr2O3 clusters. We show that the SHG signal generated by nanometric Cr2O3 clusters embedded in MgO varies under an applied electric field, at room temperature. The variation of the intensity follows a Langevin law as a function of the electric field, which is consistent with a super-paraelectric clusters assembly. This reveals the presence of a weak spontaneous electric dipole in Cr2O3 when in the shape of highly strained epitaxial clusters, whereas this material does not posses any permanent electric dipole in the bulk phase. These results indicate that the multiferroic state recently observed at low temperature in those clusters, which was associated to a giant magneto-electric effect, might still exist at room temperature: this opens the way to new applications based on chromium oxide strained nanoparticles.

  6. Electrically controlled nonlinear optical generation and signal processing in plasmonic metamaterials (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Wenshan

    2016-09-01

    Metamaterials have offered not only the unprecedented opportunity to generate unconventional electromagnetic properties that are not found in nature, but also the exciting potential to create customized nonlinear media with tailored high-order effects. Two particularly compelling directions of current interests are active metamaterials, where the optical properties can be purposely manipulated by external stimuli, and nonlinear metamaterials, which enable intensity-dependent frequency conversion of light. By exploring the interaction of these two directions, we leverage the electrical and optical functions simultaneously supported in nanostructured metals and demonstrate electrically-controlled nonlinear processes from photonic metamaterials. We show that a variety of nonlinear optical phenomena, including the wave mixing and the optical rectification, can be purposely modulated by applied voltage signals. In addition, electrically-induced and voltage-controlled nonlinear effects facilitate us to demonstrate the backward phase matching in a negative index material, a long standing prediction in nonlinear metamaterials. Other results to be covered in this talk include photon-drag effect in plasmonic metamaterials and ion-assisted nonlinear effects from metamaterials in electrolytes. Our results reveal a grand opportunity to exploit optical metamaterials as self-contained, dynamic electrooptic systems with intrinsically embedded electrical functions and optical nonlinearities. Reference: L. Kang, Y. Cui, S. Lan, S. P. Rodrigues, M. L. Brongersma, and W. Cai, Nature Communications, 5, 4680 (2014). S. P. Rodrigues and W.Cai, Nature Nanotechnology, 10, 387 (2015). S. Lan, L. Kang, D. T. Schoen, S. P. Rodrigues, Y. Cui, M. L. Brongersma, and W. Cai, Nature Materials, 14, 807 (2015).

  7. Low-temperature Stirling Engine for Geothermal Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Stillman, Greg; Weaver, Samuel P.

    2013-03-27

    Up to 2700 terawatt-hours per year of geothermal electricity generation capacity has been shown to be available within North America, typically with wells drilled into geologically active regions of the earth's crust where this energy is concentrated (Huttrer, 2001). Of this potential, about half is considered to have temperatures high enough for conventional (steam-based) power production, while the other half requires unconventional power conversion approaches, such as organic Rankine cycle systems or Stirling engines. If captured and converted effectively, geothermal power generation could replace up to 100GW of fossil fuel electric power generation, leading to a significant reduction of US power sector emissions. In addition, with the rapid growth of hydro-fracking in oil and gas production, there are smaller-scale distributed power generation opportunities in heated liquids that are co-produced with the main products. Since 2006, Cool Energy, Inc. (CEI) has designed, fabricated and tested four generations of low-temperature (100°C to 300°C) Stirling engine power conversion equipment. The electric power output of these engines has been demonstrated at over 2kWe and over 16% thermal conversion efficiency for an input temperature of 215°C and a rejection temperature of 15°C. Initial pilot units have been shipped to development partners for further testing and validation, and significantly larger engines (20+ kWe) have been shown to be feasible and conceptually designed. Originally intended for waste heat recovery (WHR) applications, these engines are easily adaptable to geothermal heat sources, as the heat supply temperatures are similar. Both the current and the 20+ kWe designs use novel approaches of self-lubricating, low-wear-rate bearing surfaces, non-metallic regenerators, and high-effectiveness heat exchangers. By extending CEI's current 3 kWe SolarHeart® Engine into the tens of kWe range, many additional applications are possible, as one 20 k

  8. Coupling dark metabolism to electricity generation using photosynthetic cocultures.

    PubMed

    Badalamenti, Jonathan P; Torres, César I; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the role of green sulfur bacteria inlight-responsive electricity generation in microbial electrochemical cells (MXCs). We operated MXCs containing either monocultures or defined cocultures of previously enriched phototrophic Chlorobium and anode-respiring Geobacter under anaerobic conditions in the absence of electron donor. Monoculture control MXCs containing Geobacter or Chlorobium neither responded to light nor produced current, respectively. Instead, light-responsive current generation occurred only in coculture MXCs. Current increased above background levels only in the dark and declined slowly over 96 h. This pattern suggested that Chlorobium exhausted intracellular glycogen reserves via dark fermentation to supply an electron donor, presumably acetate, to Geobacter. With medium containing sulfide as the sole photosynthetic electron donor, current generation had a similar and reproducible negative light response. To investigate whether this metabolic interaction also occurred without an electrode, we performed coculture experiments in batch serum bottles. In this setup, sulfide served as the sole electron donor, whose oxidation by Chlorobium was required to provide S(0) as the electron acceptor to Geobacter. Copies of Geobacter 16S rDNA increased approximately 14-fold in batch bottle cocultures containing sulfide compared to those lacking sulfide, and did not decline after termination of sulfide feeding. These results suggest that products of both photosynthesis and dark fermentation by Chlorobium were sufficient both to yield an electrochemical response by Geobacter biofilms, and to promote Geobacter growthin batch cocultures. Our work expands upon the fusion of MXCs with coculture techniques and reinforces the utility of microbial electrochemistry for sensitive, real-time monitoring of microbial interactions in which a metabolic intermediate can be converted to electrical current.

  9. Electrical detection of single pollen allergen particles using electrode-embedded microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Chihiro; Noda, Tetsuya; Tsutsui, Makusu; Taniguchi, Masateru; Kawano, Satoyuki; Kawai, Tomoji

    2012-04-01

    We report on the development of a microfluidic system for the electrical detection of single pollen allergen particles. Our device consists of 500 nm electrode gaps fabricated in an 800 nm wide fluidic channel. We flowed pollen allergen particles of average size 330 nm along the channel via fluid pumping and simultaneously monitored temporal change in dc current flowing through the sensing electrodes. Current spikes were detected, which can be attributed to a capacitance discharging upon trapping/detrapping of single allergens in the electrode gap. This sensing mechanism may open new avenues for a highly sensitive pollen allergen sensor.

  10. Sensing of electrically conductive textiles and capacitance sensor-embedded fabrics for parachutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damplo, Mark; Niezrecki, Christopher; Willis, David; Chen, Julie; Niemi, Eugene; Agnihotra, Srikanthrao; Manohar, Sanjeev K.; Desabrais, Kenneth; Charette, Christine

    2012-04-01

    This paper evaluates the conductive properties and sensing capabilities of various smart materials being considered for enhancing parachute performance. In a previous review of sensing technologies, several materials showed potential for parachute implementation - specifically, electrically conductive textiles and dielectric electro-active polymers (DEAPs). Past efforts have been focused on mechanically testing and evaluating the sensing performance of conductive fabrics (coated with carbon nanotubes, polypyrrole and polyaniline) and DEAPs. While some of the conductive fabrics demonstrated sufficient sensing capability, they were not conductive enough to implement into an intelligent parachute sensor network for transmitting power or data. Also, attaching or stitching DEAPs to the parachute fabric has proven to be a challenge. The primary goal of this paper is to investigate the use of highly-conductive textiles in an intelligent textile sensor network for sensing and as a means to transmit power or electrical signals. The applications of the materials investigated in this paper may also extend beyond parachutes to any large-scale textile structure.

  11. Electric-field controlled liposome formation with embedded superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Eleršič, Kristina; Pavlič, Janez I; Iglič, Aleš; Vesel, Alenka; Mozetič, Miran

    2012-01-01

    Liposomes are one of the most promising biomaterial carriers to deliver DNA,(1) proteins, drugs and medicine in human bodies. However, artificially formed liposomes have to satisfy some crucial functions such as: (i) to efficiently carry drugs to targeted systems, (ii) to be biologically stable until they are removed from human body, (iii) to be biodegradable, and (iv) to be sufficiently small in size for effective drug delivery. Here, we report an efficient and novel method to simultaneously manufacture and incorporate super-paramagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (efficient target finder in the presence of external magnetic field) into the liposome's interior and its bilayer. In this technique, we use electric field to control the formation of liposomes and the incorporation of iron oxide nanoparticles. Our preparation procedure does not require any chemical or ultrasound treatments. Apart from that, we also provide further experimental investigations on the role of electric fields on the formation of liposomes using XPS(2) and the magnetic-optical microscope.

  12. Transmission cost minimization strategies for wind-electric generating facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, R.

    1997-12-31

    Integrating wind-electric generation facilities into existing power systems presents opportunities not encountered in conventional energy projects. Minimizing outlet cost requires probabilistic value-based analyses appropriately reflecting the wind facility`s operational characteristics. The wind resource`s intermittent nature permits relaxation of deterministic criteria addressing outlet configuration and capacity required relative to facility rating. Equivalent capacity ratings of wind generation facilities being a fraction of installed nameplate rating, outlet design studies contingency analyses can concentrate on this fractional value. Further, given its non-dispatchable, low capacity factor nature, a lower level of redundancy in outlet facilities is appropriate considering the trifling contribution to output unreliability. Further cost reduction opportunities arise from {open_quotes}wind speed/generator power output{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}wind speed/overhead conductor rating{close_quotes} functions` correlation. Proper analysis permits the correlation`s exploitation to safely increase line ratings. Lastly, poor correlation between output and utility load may permit use of smaller conductors, whose higher (mostly off-peak) losses are economically justifiable.

  13. Computational Needs for the Next Generation Electric Grid Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Birman, Kenneth; Ganesh, Lakshmi; Renessee, Robbert van; Ferris, Michael; Hofmann, Andreas; Williams, Brian; Sztipanovits, Janos; Hemingway, Graham; University, Vanderbilt; Bose, Anjan; Stivastava, Anurag; Grijalva, Santiago; Grijalva, Santiago; Ryan, Sarah M.; McCalley, James D.; Woodruff, David L.; Xiong, Jinjun; Acar, Emrah; Agrawal, Bhavna; Conn, Andrew R.; Ditlow, Gary; Feldmann, Peter; Finkler, Ulrich; Gaucher, Brian; Gupta, Anshul; Heng, Fook-Luen; Kalagnanam, Jayant R; Koc, Ali; Kung, David; Phan, Dung; Singhee, Amith; Smith, Basil

    2011-10-05

    The April 2011 DOE workshop, 'Computational Needs for the Next Generation Electric Grid', was the culmination of a year-long process to bring together some of the Nation's leading researchers and experts to identify computational challenges associated with the operation and planning of the electric power system. The attached papers provide a journey into these experts' insights, highlighting a class of mathematical and computational problems relevant for potential power systems research. While each paper defines a specific problem area, there were several recurrent themes. First, the breadth and depth of power system data has expanded tremendously over the past decade. This provides the potential for new control approaches and operator tools that can enhance system efficiencies and improve reliability. However, the large volume of data poses its own challenges, and could benefit from application of advances in computer networking and architecture, as well as data base structures. Second, the computational complexity of the underlying system problems is growing. Transmitting electricity from clean, domestic energy resources in remote regions to urban consumers, for example, requires broader, regional planning over multi-decade time horizons. Yet, it may also mean operational focus on local solutions and shorter timescales, as reactive power and system dynamics (including fast switching and controls) play an increasingly critical role in achieving stability and ultimately reliability. The expected growth in reliance on variable renewable sources of electricity generation places an exclamation point on both of these observations, and highlights the need for new focus in areas such as stochastic optimization to accommodate the increased uncertainty that is occurring in both planning and operations. Application of research advances in algorithms (especially related to optimization techniques and uncertainty quantification) could accelerate power system software tool

  14. Development of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Electricity is mainly produced from coal, natural gas and hydropower in Turkey. However, almost all the natural gas and high quality coal are imported. Thus, increasing the shares of both hydro and other renewables in energy supply is necessary to decrease dependency of the country on foreign sources. In 2008, the total installed capacity of Turkey was around 42000 MW and 66 % of this was from thermal sources. The remaining 33 % was from hydro, which leaves only one percent for the other renewable energy sources. The share of renewable energy in the energy budget of Turkey has increased in the last two decades; however, in 2008, only 17 % of the total electricity generation was realized from renewable sources most of which was hydro. According to State Hydraulic Works (SHW) which is the primary executive state agency responsible for the planning, operating and managing of Turkey's water resources, Turkey utilizes only around 35% of its economically viable hydro potential. The current situation clearly demonstrates the need for increasing the share of renewables in the energy budget. New laws, such as the Electricity Market Law, have been enacted and the following items were identified by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey among primary energy policies and priorities: (i) decreasing dependency on foreign resources by prioritizing utilization of natural resources, (ii) increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the energy budget of Turkey; (iii) minimization of adverse environmental impacts of production and utilization of natural resources. The government's energy policy increased investments in renewable energy resources; however lack of a needed legal framework brought various environmental and social problems with this fast development. The development of the share of renewable resources in the energy budget, current government policy, and environmental concerns related with renewables, and ideas to improve the overall benefits of

  15. CdTe Photovoltaics for Sustainable Electricity Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munshi, Amit; Sampath, Walajabad

    2016-09-01

    Thin film CdTe (cadmium telluride) is an important technology in the development of sustainable and affordable electricity generation. More than 10 GW of installations have been carried out using this technology around the globe. It has been demonstrated as a sustainable, green, renewable, affordable and abundant source of electricity. An advanced sublimation tool has been developed that allows highly controlled deposition of CdTe films onto commercial soda lime glass substrates. All deposition and treatment steps can be performed without breaking the vacuum within a single chamber in an inline process that can be conveniently scaled to a commercial process. In addition, an advanced cosublimation source has been developed to allow the deposition of ternary alloys such as Cd x Mg1- x Te to form an electron reflector layer which is expected to address the voltage deficits in current CdTe devices and to achieve very high efficiency. Extensive materials characterization, including but not limited to scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron back-scatter diffraction, has been performed to get a better understanding of the effects of processing conditions on CdTe thin film photovoltaics. This combined with computer modeling such as density function theory modeling gives a new insight into the mechanism of CdTe photovoltaic function. With all these efforts, CdTe photovoltaics has seen great progress in the last few years. Currently, it has been recorded as the cheapest source of electricity in the USA on a commercial scale, and further improvements are predicted to further reduce the cost while increasing its utilization. Here, we give an overview of the advantages of thin film CdTe photovoltaics as well as a brief review of the challenges that need to be addressed. Some fundamental studies of processing conditions for thin film CdTe are also presented

  16. Electrical Generation for More-Electric Aircraft Using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Whyatt, Greg A.; Chick, Lawrence A.

    2012-04-01

    This report examines the potential for Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to provide electrical generation on-board commercial aircraft. Unlike a turbine-based auxiliary power unit (APU) a solid oxide fuel cell power unit (SOFCPU) would be more efficient than using the main engine generators to generate electricity and would operate continuously during flight. The focus of this study is on more-electric aircraft which minimize bleed air extraction from the engines and instead use electrical power obtained from generators driven by the main engines to satisfy all major loads. The increased electrical generation increases the potential fuel savings obtainable through more efficient electrical generation using a SOFCPU. However, the weight added to the aircraft by the SOFCPU impacts the main engine fuel consumption which reduces the potential fuel savings. To investigate these relationships the Boeing 787­8 was used as a case study. The potential performance of the SOFCPU was determined by coupling flowsheet modeling using ChemCAD software with a stack performance algorithm. For a given stack operating condition (cell voltage, anode utilization, stack pressure, target cell exit temperature), ChemCAD software was used to determine the cathode air rate to provide stack thermal balance, the heat exchanger duties, the gross power output for a given fuel rate, the parasitic power for the anode recycle blower and net power obtained from (or required by) the compressor/expander. The SOFC is based on the Gen4 Delphi planar SOFC with assumed modifications to tailor it to this application. The size of the stack needed to satisfy the specified condition was assessed using an empirically-based algorithm. The algorithm predicts stack power density based on the pressure, inlet temperature, cell voltage and anode and cathode inlet flows and compositions. The algorithm was developed by enhancing a model for a well-established material set operating at atmospheric pressure to reflect the

  17. Electricity generation from rapeseed straw hydrolysates using microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Jablonska, Milena A; Rybarczyk, Maria K; Lieder, Marek

    2016-05-01

    Rapeseed straw is an attractive fuel material for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) due to its high content of carbohydrates (more than 60% carbohydrates). This study has demonstrated that reducing sugars can be efficiently extracted from raw rapeseed straw by combination of hydrothermal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis followed by utilization as a fuel in two-chamber MFCs for electrical power generation. The most efficient method of saccharification of this lignocellulosic biomass (17%) turned out hydrothermal pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Electricity was produced using hydrolysate concentrations up to 150 mg/dm(3). The power density reached 54 mW/m(2), while CEs ranged from 60% to 10%, corresponding to the initial reducing sugar concentrations of 10-150 mg/dm(3). The COD degradation rates based on charge calculation increased from 0.445 g COD/m(2)/d for the hydrolysate obtained with the microwave treatment to 0.602 g COD/m(2)/d for the most efficient combination of hydrothermal treatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis.

  18. Wind-assist irrigation and electrical-power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, V.; Starcher, K.

    1982-07-01

    A wind turbine is mechanically connected to an existing irrigation well. The system can be operated in three modes: electric motor driving the water turbine pump. Wind assist mode where wind turbine supplements power from the utility line to drive the water turbine pump. At wind speeds of 12 m/s and greater, the wind turbine can pump water (15 kW) and feed power (10 kW) back into the utility grid at the same time. Electrical generation mode where the water pump is disconnected and all power is fed back to the utility grid. The concept is technically viable as the mechanical connection allows for a smooth transfer of power in parallel with an existing power source. Minor problems caused delays and major problems of two rotor failures precluded enough operation time to obtain a good estimation of the economics. Because reliability and maintenance are difficult problems with prototype or limited production wind energy conversion systems, the expense of the demonstration project has exceeded the estimated cost by a large amount.

  19. Electricity generation from tetrathionate in microbial fuel cells by acidophiles.

    PubMed

    Sulonen, Mira L K; Kokko, Marika E; Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2015-03-02

    Inorganic sulfur compounds, such as tetrathionate, are often present in mining process and waste waters. The biodegradation of tetrathionate was studied under acidic conditions in aerobic batch cultivations and in anaerobic anodes of two-chamber flow-through microbial fuel cells (MFCs). All four cultures originating from biohydrometallurgical process waters from multimetal ore heap bioleaching oxidized tetrathionate aerobically at pH below 3 with sulfate as the main soluble metabolite. In addition, all cultures generated electricity from tetrathionate in MFCs at pH below 2.5 with ferric iron as the terminal cathodic electron acceptor. The maximum current and power densities during MFC operation and in the performance analysis were 79.6 mA m(-2) and 13.9 mW m(-2) and 433 mA m(-2) and 17.6 mW m(-2), respectively. However, the low coulombic efficiency (below 5%) indicates that most of the electrons were directed to other processes, such as aerobic oxidation of tetrathionate and unmeasured intermediates. The microbial community analysis revealed that the dominant species both in the anolyte and on the anode electrode surface of the MFCs were Acidithiobacillus spp. and Ferroplasma spp. This study provides a proof of concept that tetrathionate serves as electron donor for biological electricity production in the pH range of 1.2-2.5.

  20. Generation of a tunable environment for electrical oscillator systems.

    PubMed

    León-Montiel, R de J; Svozilík, J; Torres, Juan P

    2014-07-01

    Many physical, chemical, and biological systems can be modeled by means of random-frequency harmonic oscillator systems. Even though the noise-free evolution of harmonic oscillator systems can be easily implemented, the way to experimentally introduce, and control, noise effects due to a surrounding environment remains a subject of lively interest. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a setup that provides a unique tool to generate a fully tunable environment for classical electrical oscillator systems. We illustrate the operation of the setup by implementing the case of a damped random-frequency harmonic oscillator. The high degree of tunability and control of our scheme is demonstrated by gradually modifying the statistics of the oscillator's frequency fluctuations. This tunable system can readily be used to experimentally study interesting noise effects, such as noise-induced transitions in systems driven by multiplicative noise, and noise-induced transport, a phenomenon that takes place in quantum and classical coupled oscillator networks.

  1. Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tidball, Rick; Bluestein, Joel; Rodriguez, Nick; Knoke, Stu

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this project was to compare and contrast utility scale power plant characteristics used in data sets that support energy market models. Characteristics include both technology cost and technology performance projections to the year 2050. Cost parameters include installed capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Performance parameters include plant size, heat rate, capacity factor or availability factor, and plant lifetime. Conventional, renewable, and emerging electricity generating technologies were considered. Six data sets, each associated with a different model, were selected. Two of the data sets represent modeled results, not direct model inputs. These two data sets include cost and performance improvements that result from increased deployment as well as resulting capacity factors estimated from particular model runs; other data sets represent model input data. For the technologies contained in each data set, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was also evaluated, according to published cost, performance, and fuel assumptions.

  2. Solar salt pond potential site survey for electrical power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurick, M. G.

    1982-01-01

    A solar salt gradient pond acts as a passive heat sink or thermal battery in which energy can be recovered through the conversion of thermal energy into electrical energy. Here, a condensation of a larger report that focused on the identification of potential salt gradient pond sites in the United States using in-situ resources is presented. It is shown that there are at least 24 states that lie in a primary or secondary potential site category. Fourteen states are assigned as primary states and ten are assigned as secondary. The division is subjectively based on the severity of winter weather. The most promising states are those that lie in the southern half of the country. When the primary and secondary category states are combined with the other states that may be able to support a pond, a total of 38 states exhibit the possibility of supporting power generation sites of various size.

  3. Fast Reactor Subassembly Design Modifications for Increasing Electricity Generation Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; K. Hamman

    2009-09-01

    Suggested for Track 7: Advances in Reactor Core Design and In-Core Management _____________________________________________________________________________________ Fast Reactor Subassembly Design Modifications for Increasing Electricity Generation Efficiency R. Wigeland and K. Hamman Idaho National Laboratory Given the ability of fast reactors to effectively transmute the transuranic elements as are present in spent nuclear fuel, fast reactors are being considered as one element of future nuclear power systems to enable continued use and growth of nuclear power by limiting high-level waste generation. However, a key issue for fast reactors is higher electricity cost relative to other forms of nuclear energy generation. The economics of the fast reactor are affected by the amount of electric power that can be produced from a reactor, i.e., the thermal efficiency for electricity generation. The present study is examining the potential for fast reactor subassembly design changes to improve the thermal efficiency by increasing the average coolant outlet temperature without increasing peak temperatures within the subassembly, i.e., to make better use of current technology. Sodium-cooled fast reactors operate at temperatures far below the coolant boiling point, so that the maximum coolant outlet temperature is limited by the acceptable peak temperatures for the reactor fuel and cladding. Fast reactor fuel subassemblies have historically been constructed using a large number of small diameter fuel pins contained within a tube of hexagonal cross-section, or hexcan. Due to this design, there is a larger coolant flow area next to the hexcan wall as compared to flow area in the interior of the subassembly. This results in a higher flow rate near the hexcan wall, overcooling the fuel pins next to the wall, and a non-uniform coolant temperature distribution. It has been recognized for many years that this difference in sodium coolant temperature was detrimental to achieving

  4. Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tidball, R.; Bluestein, J.; Rodriguez, N.; Knoke, S.

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this project was to compare and contrast utility scale power plant characteristics used in data sets that support energy market models. Characteristics include both technology cost and technology performance projections to the year 2050. Cost parameters include installed capital costs and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Performance parameters include plant size, heat rate, capacity factor or availability factor, and plant lifetime. Conventional, renewable, and emerging electricity generating technologies were considered. Six data sets, each associated with a different model, were selected. Two of the data sets represent modeled results, not direct model inputs. These two data sets include cost and performance improvements that result from increased deployment as well as resulting capacity factors estimated from particular model runs; other data sets represent model input data. For the technologies contained in each data set, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) was also evaluated, according to published cost, performance, and fuel assumptions.

  5. Solar salt pond potential site survey for electrical power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurick, M. G.

    1982-01-01

    A solar salt gradient pond acts as a passive heat sink or thermal battery in which energy can be recovered through the conversion of thermal energy into electrical energy. Here, a condensation of a larger report that focused on the identification of potential salt gradient pond sites in the United States using in-situ resources is presented. It is shown that there are at least 24 states that lie in a primary or secondary potential site category. Fourteen states are assigned as primary states and ten are assigned as secondary. The division is subjectively based on the severity of winter weather. The most promising states are those that lie in the southern half of the country. When the primary and secondary category states are combined with the other states that may be able to support a pond, a total of 38 states exhibit the possibility of supporting power generation sites of various size.

  6. Current turbine for water pumping and electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, A.I.E.

    1983-12-01

    This paper describes work on Phase I of ''Mini Hydropower Research and Development Project'' in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Khartoum, in cooperation with the National Council for Research in Sudan. The main purpose of Phase I of the project has been to demonstrate and evaluate the use of water current energy for powering small-scale pumping units and for generating electricity. Power requirements for pumping water for irrigation on typical small land holdings in the Sudan will be of the order of 5-10 Kw. The same sizes of power should sufficiently meet power requirements of home factories for processing farm produce of these lands and of domestic uses. A vertical shaft impulse turbine of innovative design has been built in the Faculty of Engineering, University of Khartoum, to extract energy from water current of canals, rivers or streams. The useful shaft power from the turbine is used for pumping water or electricity generation. The turbine set is suspended from a floating pontoon (made from plastic drums) which is secured in the current by means of two horizontal supporting poles and steel cables. Field trials of a number of model turbine systems are currently being carried out and valuable findings are being obtained about the desirable features to be developed in these machines. However, concrete results are still to be finalized with a view to facilitating analytical design of pump-turbine and generatorturbine systems. Indications are that this work should lead to an efficient, cheap and simple-to-build current turbine. Detailed information on system design and performance are expected to be ready in time for the conference.

  7. Generation expansion planning in a competitive electric power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Angela Shu-Woan

    This work investigates the application of non-cooperative game theory to generation expansion planning (GEP) in a competitive electricity industry. We identify fundamental ways competition changes the nature of GEP, review different models of oligopoly behavior, and argue that assumptions of the Cournot model are compatible with GEP. Applying Cournot theory of oligopoly behavior, we formulate a GEP model that may characterize expansion in the new competitive regime, particularly in pool-dominated generation supply industries. Our formulation incorporates multiple markets and is patterned after the basic design of the California ISO/PX system. Applying the model, we conduct numerical experiments on a test system, and analyze generation investment and market participation decisions of different candidate expansion units that vary in costs and forced outage rates. Simulations are performed under different scenarios of competition. In particular, we observe higher probabilistic measures of reliability from Cournot expansion compared to the expansion plan of a monopoly with an equivalent minimum reserve margin requirement. We prove several results for a subclass of problems encompassed by our formulation. In particular, we prove that under certain conditions Cournot competition leads to greater total capacity expansion than a situation in which generators collude in a cartel. We also show that industry output after introduction of new technology is no less than monopoly output. So a monopoly may lack sufficient incentive to introduce new technologies. Finally, we discuss the association between capacity payments and the issue of pricing reliability. And we derive a formula for computing ideal capacity payment rates by extending the Value of Service Reliability technique.

  8. Topological charge transformation of beams with embedded fractional phase step in the process of second harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanislovaitis, Paulius; Matijosius, Aidas; Ivanov, Maksym; Smilgevicius, Valerijus

    2017-10-01

    We demonstrate collinear second harmonic generation performed with a beam with an embedded initial phase singularity of strength | l| =1/2. We examine the law of topological charge conservation during this process. Despite the instability of the initial singularity, we observe a counterintuitive topological charge doubling. In the second harmonic, we observe an optical vortex of strength (topological charge) | l| =1. The conservation of topological charge is confirmed by both numerical simulations and the experiment. We also provide a qualitative explanation of the process.

  9. PBFA Z: A 50 TW/5 MJ Electrical Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spielman, R. B.

    1997-05-01

    PBFA Z is a new 50 TW/5 MJ short electrical driver located at Sandia National Laboratories. We use PBFA Z to magnetically-implode solid or plasma shells. These configurations are historically known as z pinches. The pulsed power design of PBFA Z(R. B. Spielman, et al., Proc. of the Ninth IEEE Pulsed Power Conf., Albuquerque, NM 1995) is based on conventional single-pulse Marx generator, water-line pulse-forming technology used on the earlier Saturn (D. D. Bloomquist, et al., Proc. of the Sixth IEEE Pulsed Power Conf., Arlington, VA edited by P. J. Turchi and B. H. Bernstein (IEEE, New York, 1987), p. 310) and PBFA II(B. N. Turman, et al., Proc. of the Fifth IEEE Pulsed Power Conf., Arlington, VA 1985, pp. 155) accelerators. PBFA Z stores 11.4 MJ in its 36 Marx generators, couples 5 MJ in a 50 TW/100 ns pulse to the output water transmission lines, and delivers 3.4 MJ and 40 TW of electrical energy to the z-pinch load. Depending on the initial load inductance and the implosion time, we attain a peak current of 16-20 MA with a rise time of 105 ns. Current is fed to the z-pinch load through self magnetically-insulated transmission lines (MITLs). Peak electric fields in the MITLs exceed 2 MV /cm. The current from the four independent conical disk MITLs is combined together in a double post-hole vacuum convolute with an efficiency greater than 95%. The measured system performance of the water transmission lines, the vacuum insulator stack, the MITLs, and the double post-hole vacuum convolute differed from preshot predictions by ~ 5%. Using a 2-cm radius and a 2-cm length tungsten wire array with 240, 7.5-=B5m diameter wires (4.1-mg mass) as the z-pinch load, we achieved x-ray powers of 160 TW and x-ray energies of 1.85 MJ as measured by x-ray diodes and resistive bolometry.

  10. Electricity generation: options for reduction in carbon emissions.

    PubMed

    Whittington, H W

    2002-08-15

    largest developed source of renewable electricity, but future large-scale projects will probably be limited to the less-developed world: the best schemes in the developed countries have already been exploited. Wave and tidal can be looked on as medium- to long-term generators of electricity, as their respective industries are not as mature as competing renewable resources. Municipal solid-waste combustion and landfill gas technologies can also be seen as short term, as can their rural equivalents, agriculture and forestry waste. Any widespread exploitation of renewable energy will depend on being able to transmit the energy from source to point of use, so the implications for the electrical network from the penetration of substantial levels of renewable energy are presented. Effective management of renewable energy installations will require technical assessment of the range of exploitation strategies, to compare local production of, say, hydrogen and the more traditional transmission of electricity. Such resources will have to compete with others in any national, or grid, system and detailed economic analysis will be necessary to determine the deployment that best fits the trading regime under which the energy will be sold. Consideration will also be necessary to determine how best to control the introduction of this radically new resource such that it does not attract punitive cost overheads until it is mature enough to cope. Finally, it is inescapable that nuclear power is a proven technology that could take its place in any future generation portfolio. Unfortunately, suspicion and mistrust surround waste management and radioactivity release. Unless this is overcome, the lack of confidence engendered by this public mistrust may result in few, if any, new nuclear power stations being built. In the event of that decision, it is difficult to see how CO(2) levels can be significantly reduced: the irony is that nuclear energy may emerge as environmentally essential.

  11. A Theoretical Secure Enterprise Architecture for Multi Revenue Generating Smart Grid Sub Electric Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhry, Hina

    2013-01-01

    This study is a part of the smart grid initiative providing electric vehicle charging infrastructure. It is a refueling structure, an energy generating photovoltaic system and charge point electric vehicle charging station. The system will utilize advanced design and technology allowing electricity to flow from the site's normal electric service…

  12. A Theoretical Secure Enterprise Architecture for Multi Revenue Generating Smart Grid Sub Electric Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhry, Hina

    2013-01-01

    This study is a part of the smart grid initiative providing electric vehicle charging infrastructure. It is a refueling structure, an energy generating photovoltaic system and charge point electric vehicle charging station. The system will utilize advanced design and technology allowing electricity to flow from the site's normal electric service…

  13. 76 FR 11436 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Ontario Power Generation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Ontario Power Generation AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: Ontario Power Generation Inc. (OPG) has... authorized OPG to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a power marketer for a...

  14. 26. Photocopy of diagram (from Bernhardt Skrotzki's Electric GenerationSteam Stations, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopy of diagram (from Bernhardt Skrotzki's Electric Generation--Steam Stations, New York, New York, 1956, figure I-1) THE GENERAL WAY IN WHICH ELECTRICITY IS CREATED THROUGH THE STEAM GENERATION PROCESS - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  15. Digestion of algal biomass for electricity generation in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Koichi; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2013-01-01

    Algal biomass serves as a fuel for electricity generation in microbial fuel cells. This study constructed a model consortium comprised of an alga-digesting Lactobacillus and an iron-reducing Geobacter for electricity generation from photo-grown Clamydomonas cells. Total power-conversion efficiency (from Light to electricity) was estimated to be 0.47%.

  16. Electrically tunable terahertz metamaterials with embedded large-area transparent thin-film transistor arrays

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei-Zong; Ren, Fang-Fang; Ye, Jiandong; Lu, Hai; Liang, Lanju; Huang, Xiaoming; Liu, Mingkai; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Yu, Guang; Jin, Biaobing; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2016-01-01

    Engineering metamaterials with tunable resonances are of great importance for improving the functionality and flexibility of terahertz (THz) systems. An ongoing challenge in THz science and technology is to create large-area active metamaterials as building blocks to enable efficient and precise control of THz signals. Here, an active metamaterial device based on enhancement-mode transparent amorphous oxide thin-film transistor arrays for THz modulation is demonstrated. Analytical modelling based on full-wave techniques and multipole theory exhibits excellent consistent with the experimental observations and reveals that the intrinsic resonance mode at 0.75 THz is dominated by an electric response. The resonant behavior can be effectively tuned by controlling the channel conductivity through an external bias. Such metal/oxide thin-film transistor based controllable metamaterials are energy saving, low cost, large area and ready for mass-production, which are expected to be widely used in future THz imaging, sensing, communications and other applications. PMID:27000419

  17. Electrically tunable terahertz metamaterials with embedded large-area transparent thin-film transistor arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei-Zong; Ren, Fang-Fang; Ye, Jiandong; Lu, Hai; Liang, Lanju; Huang, Xiaoming; Liu, Mingkai; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Yu, Guang; Jin, Biaobing; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2016-03-01

    Engineering metamaterials with tunable resonances are of great importance for improving the functionality and flexibility of terahertz (THz) systems. An ongoing challenge in THz science and technology is to create large-area active metamaterials as building blocks to enable efficient and precise control of THz signals. Here, an active metamaterial device based on enhancement-mode transparent amorphous oxide thin-film transistor arrays for THz modulation is demonstrated. Analytical modelling based on full-wave techniques and multipole theory exhibits excellent consistent with the experimental observations and reveals that the intrinsic resonance mode at 0.75 THz is dominated by an electric response. The resonant behavior can be effectively tuned by controlling the channel conductivity through an external bias. Such metal/oxide thin-film transistor based controllable metamaterials are energy saving, low cost, large area and ready for mass-production, which are expected to be widely used in future THz imaging, sensing, communications and other applications.

  18. Electrically tunable terahertz metamaterials with embedded large-area transparent thin-film transistor arrays.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei-Zong; Ren, Fang-Fang; Ye, Jiandong; Lu, Hai; Liang, Lanju; Huang, Xiaoming; Liu, Mingkai; Shadrivov, Ilya V; Powell, David A; Yu, Guang; Jin, Biaobing; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2016-03-22

    Engineering metamaterials with tunable resonances are of great importance for improving the functionality and flexibility of terahertz (THz) systems. An ongoing challenge in THz science and technology is to create large-area active metamaterials as building blocks to enable efficient and precise control of THz signals. Here, an active metamaterial device based on enhancement-mode transparent amorphous oxide thin-film transistor arrays for THz modulation is demonstrated. Analytical modelling based on full-wave techniques and multipole theory exhibits excellent consistent with the experimental observations and reveals that the intrinsic resonance mode at 0.75 THz is dominated by an electric response. The resonant behavior can be effectively tuned by controlling the channel conductivity through an external bias. Such metal/oxide thin-film transistor based controllable metamaterials are energy saving, low cost, large area and ready for mass-production, which are expected to be widely used in future THz imaging, sensing, communications and other applications.

  19. Enhanced magnetoconductivity and electrical property of MWCNT-CdS nanocomposite embedded in polyaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, M.; Mukherjee, A.; Ghosh, R.; Basu, S.; Meikap, A. K.

    2016-10-01

    PANI/MWCNT-CdS nanocomposites with different content of CdS wt.% has been synthesized by the chemical oxidative in-situ polymerization reaction of aniline in the presence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). TEM, XRD, FTIR, and TGA studies were done for the structural and thermal characterization of the samples respectively. The particle size of CdS nanoparticles distributes in between 2.7 and 4.8 nm. XRD spectrum reveals that the co-existence of MWCNT, CdS in PANI matrix, where CdS forms a hexagonal structure. TGA result shows that nanocomposite becomes more thermally stable with the increase in CdS content. The dc electrical transport property of PANI/MWCNT-CdS nanocomposites has been investigated within a temperature range 77 ≤ T ≤ 300 K. The dc conductivity follows a 3D variable range hopping (VRH) model. A large magnetoconductivity change (19%) is observed for 2 wt% CdS content in PANI/MWCNT-CdS, which is explained by the wave function shrinkage model.

  20. Synthesis, characterization and electrical property of MWCNT-ZnS nanocomposite embedded in polyaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, M.; Mukherjee, A.; Das, A. K.; Ghosh, R.; Meikap, A. K.

    2017-06-01

    PANI/MWCNT-ZnS nanocomposites with different contents of ZnS wt.% have been synthesized by the chemical oxidative in situ polymerization reaction of aniline in the presence of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT). TEM, XRD, RAMAN and TGA studies have been done for the structural and thermal characterizations of the samples. The particle sizes of ZnS nanoparticles have the values in the range from 3.21 to 5.08 nm. XRD spectrum reveals the co-existence of MWCNT, ZnS in PANI matrix, where ZnS forms a hexagonal structure. TGA result shows that nanocomposite becomes more thermally stable with increase in ZnS content. The dc electrical transport property of PANI/MWCNT-ZnS nanocomposites has been investigated within a temperature range 77 K  ⩽  T  ⩽  300 K. The dc conductivity follows a 3D variable range hopping (VRH) model. A large magnetoconductivity change (23.1%) is observed for 2 wt.% ZnS content in PANI/MWCNT-ZnS, which is explained by the wave function shrinkage model.

  1. Generator voltage stabilisation for series-hybrid electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Stewart, P; Gladwin, D; Stewart, J; Cowley, R

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents a controller for use in speed control of an internal combustion engine for series-hybrid electric vehicle applications. Particular reference is made to the stability of the rectified DC link voltage under load disturbance. In the system under consideration, the primary power source is a four-cylinder normally aspirated gasoline internal combustion engine, which is mechanically coupled to a three-phase permanent magnet AC generator. The generated AC voltage is subsequently rectified to supply a lead-acid battery, and permanent magnet traction motors via three-phase full bridge power electronic inverters. Two complementary performance objectives exist. Firstly to maintain the internal combustion engine at its optimal operating point, and secondly to supply a stable 42 V supply to the traction drive inverters. Achievement of these goals minimises the transient energy storage requirements at the DC link, with a consequent reduction in both weight and cost. These objectives imply constant velocity operation of the internal combustion engine under external load disturbances and changes in both operating conditions and vehicle speed set-points. An electronically operated throttle allows closed loop engine velocity control. System time delays and nonlinearities render closed loop control design extremely problematic. A model-based controller is designed and shown to be effective in controlling the DC link voltage, resulting in the well-conditioned operation of the hybrid vehicle.

  2. Electrical neuroimaging reveals early generator modulation to emotional words.

    PubMed

    Ortigue, Stephanie; Michel, Christoph M; Murray, Micah M; Mohr, Christine; Carbonnel, Serge; Landis, Theodor

    2004-04-01

    Functional electrical neuroimaging investigated incidental emotional word processing. Previous research suggests that the brain may differentially respond to the emotional content of linguistic stimuli pre-lexically (i.e., before distinguishing that these stimuli are words). We investigated the spatiotemporal brain mechanisms of this apparent paradox and in particular whether the initial differentiation of emotional stimuli is marked by different brain generator configurations using high-density, event-related potentials. Such would support the existence of specific cerebral resources dedicated to emotional word processing. A related issue concerns the possibility of right-hemispheric specialization in the processing of emotional stimuli. Thirteen healthy men performed a go/no-go lexical decision task with bilateral word/non-word or non-word/non-word stimulus pairs. Words included equal numbers of neutral and emotional stimuli, but subjects made no explicit discrimination along this dimension. Emotional words appearing in the right visual field (ERVF) yielded the best overall performance, although the difference between emotional and neutral words was larger for left than for right visual field presentations. Electrophysiologically, ERVF presentations were distinguished from all other conditions over the 100-140 ms period by a distinct scalp topography, indicative of different intracranial generator configurations. A distributed linear source estimation (LAURA) of this distinct scalp potential field revealed bilateral lateral-occipital sources with a right hemisphere current density maximum. These data support the existence of a specialized brain network triggered by the emotional connotation of words at a very early processing stage.

  3. Electric utility second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion plants

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A. ); Bonk, D. )

    1992-01-01

    In the search for a more efficient, less costly, and more environmentally responsible method for generating electrical power from coal, research and development has turned to advanced pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) and coal gasification technologies. A logical extension of this work is the second-generation PFBC plant, which incorporates key components of each of these technologies. In this new type of plant, coal is devolatilized/carbonized before it is injected into the PFB combustor bed, and the low-Btu fuel gas produced by this process is burned in a gas turbine topping combustor. By integrating coal carbonization with PFB coal/char combustion, gas turbine inlet temperatures higher than 1149{degrees}C (2100{degrees}F) can be achieved. The carbonizer, PFB combustor, and particulate-capturing hot gas cleanup systems operate at 871{degrees}C (1600{degrees}F), permitting sulfur capture by lime-based sorbents and minimizing the release of coal contaminants to the gases. This paper presents the performance and economics of this new type of plant and provides a brief overview of the pilot plant test programs being conducted to support its development.

  4. Profiting from competition: Financial tools for electric generation companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Charles William, Jr.

    Regulations governing the operation of electric power systems in North America and many other areas of the world are undergoing major changes designed to promote competition. This process of change is often referred to as deregulation. Participants in deregulated electricity systems may find that their profits will greatly benefit from the implementation of successful bidding strategies. While the goal of the regulators may be to create rules which balance reliable power system operation with maximization of the total benefit to society, the goal of generation companies is to maximize their profit, i.e., return to their shareholders. The majority of the research described here is conducted from the point of view of generation companies (GENCOs) wishing to maximize their expected utility function, which is generally comprised of expected profit and risk. Strategies that help a GENCO to maximize its objective function must consider the impact of (and aid in making) operating decisions that may occur within a few seconds to multiple years. The work described here assumes an environment in which energy service companies (ESCOs) buy and GENCOs sell power via double auctions in regional commodity exchanges. Power is transported on wires owned by transmission companies (TRANSCOs) and distribution companies (DISTCOs). The proposed market framework allows participants to trade electrical energy contracts via the spot, futures, options, planning, and swap markets. An important method of studying these proposed markets and the behavior of participating agents is the field of experimental/computational economics. For much of the research reported here, the market simulator developed by Kumar and Sheble and similar simulators has been adapted to allow computerized agents to trade energy. Creating computerized agents that can react as rationally or irrationally as a human trader is a difficult problem for which we have turned to the field of artificial intelligence. Some of our

  5. Interaction between hollow needles - electric field, light emission and ozone generation study in multineedle to plate electrical discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriha, Vitezslav

    2004-09-01

    Multi hollow needle to plate electrical discharges in air are studied as ozone sources. Dependence of ozone concentration as an function of applied voltage, discharge current, mutual hollow needles position and electrical connection, working gas flow rate, distances between needles tips and plate electrode, visible light emission was measured experimentally in these systems. Electric field was numerically modeled. Light emission and electrical field distributions were compared. Coming from light emission and electric field a model of energy density spatial distribution was built. This model was finally compared with ozone generation.

  6. Structural and electrical properties of Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO{sub 2} by ion implantation and annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Duguay, S.; Grob, J.J.; Slaoui, A.; Le Gall, Y.; Amann-Liess, M.

    2005-05-15

    Silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) on Si layers with embedded germanium nanocrystals (Ge-ncs) were fabricated using Ge{sup +} implantation and subsequent annealing. Transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry have been used to study the Ge redistribution in the SiO{sub 2} films as a function of annealing temperature. A monolayer of Ge-ncs near the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface was formed under specific annealing conditions. This layer, with a nc density and mean size measured to be, respectively, 1.1x10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2} and 5 nm, is located at approximately 4 nm from the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface. Capacitance-voltage measurements were performed on metal-oxide-semiconductor structures containing such implanted SiO{sub 2} layers in order to study their electrical properties. The results indicate a strong memory effect at relatively low programming voltages (<5 V) due to the presence of Ge-ncs near the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface.

  7. 76 FR 50767 - Southern Nuclear Operating Co., et al.; Combined Licenses for Vogtle Electric Generating Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... COMMISSION Southern Nuclear Operating Co., et al.; Combined Licenses for Vogtle Electric Generating Plant... approval to construct and operate new nuclear power generation facilities at the Vogtle Electric Generating... (10 CFR) part 52 combined licenses (COLs), seeking approval to construct and operate new nuclear power...

  8. [The location of wind-mill electric generating plants: hygienic aspects].

    PubMed

    Kireeva, I S; Dumanskiĭ, Iu D; Semashko, P V

    2009-01-01

    The hygienic aspects of the location of wind-mill electric generating plants become more pressing due to the intensive development of wind-power engineering. Possible risk factors from wind-mill electric generating plants that can influence the environment and the population are considered. A 400-m control area is recommended on the basis of the made calculations of an acoustic and electromagnetic pollution area, an exposure area during emergency situations, as well the field measuring data on noise from wind-mill electric generating plants with a capacity of 20 MW, by applying 100-kW wind-mill electric generating units. Further studies are proposed to improve the differentiated sizes of control areas for wind-mill electric generating plants with wind-mill electric generating units of varying capacity.

  9. Linear magnetic motor/generator. [to generate electric energy using magnetic flux for spacecraft power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A linear magnetic motor/generator is disclosed which uses magnetic flux to provide mechanical motion or electrical energy. The linear magnetic motor/generator includes an axially movable actuator mechanism. A permament magnet mechanism defines a first magnetic flux path which passes through a first end portion of the actuator mechanism. Another permament magnet mechanism defines a second magnetic flux path which passes through a second end portion of the actuator mechanism. A drive coil defines a third magnetic flux path passing through a third central portion of the actuator mechanism. A drive coil selectively adds magnetic flux to and subtracts magnetic flux from magnetic flux flowing in the first and second magnetic flux path.

  10. Characterization of micro-generators embedded in commercial-off-the-shelf watches for wearable energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Tiancheng; Kakkar, Shantnu; Lin, Qianyu; Roundy, Shad

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the characterization of the micro-generators embedded in Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) watches based on a generalized rotational energy harvester model which predicts the upper bound on energy generation given certain system constraints and specific inputs. We augment this generalized model to represent the actual micro-generator used in the Seiko Kinetic watch with realistic damping coefficients which allow us to identify optimizations to move the system output towards the upper bound. We have developed a mobile data logging platform which captures 6 DOF inertia data and the voltage output from the micro-generator simultaneously. We have asked 6 subjects to conduct a series of daily activities with the platform worn on different locations of the body. This effort not only serves as the experimental validation of our model but also provides insight into the state of the art in wearable kinetic energy harvesting devices that are commercially available. Finally we identify the opportunity for improvement on energy generation and show that we can increase the power by reducing the mechanical damping in the system, which might require an alternative mechanism with inherent lower friction.

  11. Solar Electric Generating System II finite element analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dohner, J.L.; Anderson, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    On June 2, 1992, Landers` earthquake struck the Solar Electric Generating System II, located in Daggett, California. The 30 megawatt power station, operated by the Daggett Leasing Corporation (DLC), suffered substantial damage due to structural failures in the solar farm. These failures consisted of the separation of sliding joints supporting a distribution of parabolic glass mirrors. At separation, the mirrors fell to the ground and broke. It was the desire of the DLC and the Solar Thermal Design Assistance Center (STDAC) of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and to redesign these joints so that, in the event of future quakes, costly breakage will be avoided. To accomplish this task, drawings of collector components were developed by the STDAC, from which a detailed finite element computer model of a solar collector was produced. This nonlinear dynamic model, which consisted of over 8,560 degrees of freedom, underwent model reduction to form a low order nonlinear dynamic model containing only 40 degrees of freedom. This model was then used as a design tool to estimate joint dynamics. Using this design tool, joint configurations were modified, and an acceptable joint redesign determined. The results of this analysis showed that the implementation of metal stops welded to support shafts for the purpose of preventing joint separation is a suitable joint redesign. Moreover, it was found that, for quakes of Landers` magnitude, mirror breakage due to enhanced vibration in the trough assembly is unlikely.

  12. Evaluation of glare at the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System

    DOE PAGES

    Ho, C. K.; Sims, C. A.; Christian, J. M.

    2015-06-05

    The Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System (ISEGS), located on I-15 about 40 miles (60 km) south of Las Vegas, NV, consists of three power towers 459 ft (140 m) tall and over 170,000 reflective heliostats with a rated capacity of 390 MW. In addition, reports of glare from the plant have been submitted by pilots and air traffic controllers and recorded by the Aviation Safety Reporting System and the California Energy Commission since 2013. Aerial and ground-based surveys of the glare were conducted in April, 2014, to identify the cause and to quantify the irradiance and potential ocular impacts ofmore » the glare. Results showed that the intense glare viewed from the airspace above ISEGS was caused by heliostats in standby mode that were aimed to the side of the receiver. Evaluation of the glare showed that the retinal irradiance and subtended source angle of the glare from the heliostats in standby were sufficient to cause significant ocular impact (potential for after-image) up to a distance of ~6 miles (10 km), but the values were below the threshold for permanent eye damage. Glare from the receivers had a low potential for after-image at all ground-based monitoring locations outside of the site boundaries. A Letter to Airmen has been issued by the Federal Aviation Administration to notify pilots of the potential glare hazards. Additional measures to mitigate the potential impacts of glare from ISGES are also presented and discussed.« less

  13. Evaluation of glare at the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C. K.; Sims, C. A.; Christian, J. M.

    2015-06-05

    The Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System (ISEGS), located on I-15 about 40 miles (60 km) south of Las Vegas, NV, consists of three power towers 459 ft (140 m) tall and over 170,000 reflective heliostats with a rated capacity of 390 MW. In addition, reports of glare from the plant have been submitted by pilots and air traffic controllers and recorded by the Aviation Safety Reporting System and the California Energy Commission since 2013. Aerial and ground-based surveys of the glare were conducted in April, 2014, to identify the cause and to quantify the irradiance and potential ocular impacts of the glare. Results showed that the intense glare viewed from the airspace above ISEGS was caused by heliostats in standby mode that were aimed to the side of the receiver. Evaluation of the glare showed that the retinal irradiance and subtended source angle of the glare from the heliostats in standby were sufficient to cause significant ocular impact (potential for after-image) up to a distance of ~6 miles (10 km), but the values were below the threshold for permanent eye damage. Glare from the receivers had a low potential for after-image at all ground-based monitoring locations outside of the site boundaries. A Letter to Airmen has been issued by the Federal Aviation Administration to notify pilots of the potential glare hazards. Additional measures to mitigate the potential impacts of glare from ISGES are also presented and discussed.

  14. Evaluation of Glare at the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Clifford K.; Sims, Cianan; Christian, Joshua Mark

    2014-07-01

    The Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System (ISEGS), located on I - 15 about 40 miles (60 km) south of Las Vegas, NV, consists of three power towers 459 ft (140 m) tall and over 170,000 reflective heliostats with a rated capacity of 390 MW. Reports of glare from the plant have been submitted by pilots and air traffic controllers and recorded by the Aviation Safety Reporting System and the California Energy Commission since 2013. Aerial and ground - based surveys of the glare were conducted in April, 2014, to identify the cause and to quantify the irradiance and potential ocular impact s of the glare . Results showed that the intense glare viewed from the airspace above ISEGS was caused by he liostats in standby mode that were aimed to the side of the receiver. Evaluation of the glare showed that the retinal irradiance and subtended source angle of the glare from the heliostats in standby were sufficient to cause significant ocular impact (pot ential for after - image) up to a distance of %7E6 miles (10 km), but the values were below the threshold for permanent eye damage . Glare from the receivers had a low potential for after - image at all ground - based monitoring locations outside of the site bound aries. A Letter to Airmen has been issued by the Federal Aviation Administration to notify pilots of the potential glare hazards. Additional measures to mitigate the potential impacts of glare from ISGES are also presented and discussed. This page intentionally left blank

  15. Cost-effective reduction of NOx emissions from electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Burtraw, D.; Palmer, K.; Bharvirkar, R.; Paul, A.

    2001-07-15

    This paper analyzes the benefits and costs of policies to reduce NOx emissions from electricity generation in the United States. Because emissions of NOx contribute to the high concentration of atmospheric ozone in the eastern states associated with health hazards, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has called on eastern states to formulate state implementation plans (SIPs) for reducing NOx emissions. The analysis considers three NOx reduction scenarios: a summer seasonal cap in the eastern states covered by EPA's NOx SIP call, an annual cap in the same SIP Call region, and a national annual cap. All scenarios allow for emissions trading. Although EPA's current policy is to implement a seasonal cap in the SIP Call region, this analysis indicates that an annual cap in the SIP Call region would yield about 400 million dollars more in net benefits (benefits less costs) than would a seasonal policy, based on particulate-related health effects only. An annual cap in the SIP Call region is also the policy that is most likely to achieve benefits in excess of costs. Consideration of omissions from this accounting, including the potential benefits from reductions in ozone concentrations, strengthens the finding that an annual program offers greater net benefits than does a seasonal program. 22 refs., 1 fig., 10 tabs.

  16. Dynamic conversion of solar generated heat to electricity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. C.; Fourakis, E.; Hammer, J. M.; Smith, G. A.; Grosskreutz, J. C.; Mcbride, E.

    1974-01-01

    The effort undertaken during this program led to the selection of the water-superheated steam (850 psig/900 F) crescent central receiver as the preferred concept from among 11 candidate systems across the technological spectrum of the dynamic conversion of solar generated heat to electricity. The solar power plant designs were investigated in the range of plant capacities from 100 to 1000 Mw(e). The investigations considered the impacts of plant size, collector design, feed-water temperature ratio, heat rejection equipment, ground cover, and location on solar power technical and economic feasibility. For the distributed receiver systems, the optimization studies showed that plant capacities less than 100 Mw(e) may be best. Although the size of central receiver concepts was not parametrically investigated, all indications are that the optimal plant capacity for central receiver systems will be in the range from 50 to 200 Mw(e). Solar thermal power plant site selection criteria and methodology were also established and used to evaluate potentially suitable sites. The result of this effort was to identify a site south of Inyokern, California, as typically suitable for a solar thermal power plant. The criteria used in the selection process included insolation and climatological characteristics, topography, and seismic history as well as water availability.

  17. Tubular microbial fuel cells for efficient electricity generation.

    PubMed

    Rabaey, Korneel; Clauwaert, Peter; Aelterman, Peter; Verstraete, Willy

    2005-10-15

    A tubular, single-chambered, continuous microbial fuel cell (MFC) that generates high power outputs using a granular graphite matrix as the anode and a ferricyanide solution as the cathode is described. The maximal power outputs obtained were 90 and 66 W m(-3) net anodic compartment (NAC) (48 and 38 W m(-3) total anodic compartment (TAC)) for feed streams based on acetate and glucose, respectively, and 59 and 48 W m(-3) NAC for digester effluent and domestic wastewater, respectively. For acetate and glucose, the total Coulombic conversion efficiencies were 75 +/- 5% and 59 +/- 4%, respectively, at loading rates of 1.1 kg chemical oxygen demand m(-3) NAC volume day(-1). When wastewater was used, of the organic matter effectively removed (i.e., 22% at a loading of 2 kg organic matter m(-3) NAC day(-1)), up to 96% was converted to electricity on a Coulombic basis. The lower overall efficiency of the wastewater-treating reactors is related to the presence of nonreadily biodegradable organics and the interference of alternative electron acceptors such as sulfate present in the wastewater. To further improve MFCs, focus has to be placed on the enhanced conversion of nonrapidly biodegradable material and the better directing of the anode flow toward the electrode instead of to alternative electron acceptors. Also the use of sustainable, open-air cathodes is a critical issue for practical implementation.

  18. Air Quality Impact of Distributed Generation of Electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Qiguo

    This dissertation summarizes the results of a five-year investigation of the impact of distributed generation (DG) of electricity on air quality in urban areas. I focused on the impact of power plants with capacities of less than 50 MW, which is typical of DG units in urban areas. These power plants are modeled as buoyant emissions from stacks less than 10 m situated in the midst of urban buildings. Because existing dispersion models are not designed for such sources, the first step of the study involved the evaluation of AERMOD, USEPA's state-of-the art dispersion model, with data collected in a tracer study conducted in the vicinity of a DG unit. The second step of the study consisted of using AERMOD to compare the impact of DG penetration in the South Coast Air Basin of Los Angeles with the impact of replacing DG generation with expansion of current central power plant capacity. The third topic of my investigation is the development and application of a model to examine the impact of non-power plant sources in a large urban area such as Los Angeles. This model can be used to estimate the air quality impact of DG relative to other sources in an urban area. The first part of this dissertation describes a tracer study conducted in Palm Springs, CA. Concentrations observed during the nighttime experiments are generally higher than those measured during the daytime experiments. They fall off less rapidly with distance than during the daytime. AERMOD provides an adequate description of concentrations associated with the buoyant releases from the DG during the daytime when turbulence is controlled by convection induced by solar heating. However, AERMOD underestimates concentrations during the night when turbulence is generated by wind shear. Also, AERMOD predicts a decrease in concentrations with distance that is much more rapid than the relatively flat observed decrease. I have suggested modifications to AERMOD to improve the agreement between model estimates and

  19. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Electricity Generation and Fuel Consumption Models

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    The electricity generation and fuel consumption models of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model provide forecasts of electricity generation from various types of energy sources and forecasts of the quantities of fossil fuels consumed for power generation. The structure of the electricity industry and the behavior of power generators varies between different areas of the United States. In order to capture these differences, the STEO electricity supply and fuel consumption models are designed to provide forecasts for the four primary Census regions.

  20. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Electricity Generation and Fuel Consumption Models

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    The electricity generation and fuel consumption models of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model provide forecasts of electricity generation from various types of energy sources and forecasts of the quantities of fossil fuels consumed for power generation. The structure of the electricity industry and the behavior of power generators varies between different areas of the United States. In order to capture these differences, the STEO electricity supply and fuel consumption models are designed to provide forecasts for the four primary Census regions.

  1. AVESTAR Center for Operational Excellence of Electricity Generation Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, Stephen

    2012-08-29

    To address industry challenges in attaining operational excellence for electricity generation plants, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has launched a world-class facility for Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training and Research (AVESTARTM). This presentation will highlight the AVESTARTM Center simulators, facilities, and comprehensive training, education, and research programs focused on the operation and control of high-efficiency, near-zero-emission electricity generation plants. The AVESTAR Center brings together state-of-the-art, real-time, high-fidelity dynamic simulators with full-scope operator training systems (OTSs) and 3D virtual immersive training systems (ITSs) into an integrated energy plant and control room environment. AVESTAR’s initial offering combines--for the first time--a “gasification with CO2 capture” process simulator with a “combined-cycle” power simulator together in a single OTS/ITS solution for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. IGCC systems are an attractive technology option for power generation, especially when capturing and storing CO2 is necessary to satisfy emission targets. The AVESTAR training program offers a variety of courses that merge classroom learning, simulator-based OTS learning in a control-room operations environment, and immersive learning in the interactive 3D virtual plant environment or ITS. All of the courses introduce trainees to base-load plant operation, control, startups, and shutdowns. Advanced courses require participants to become familiar with coordinated control, fuel switching, power-demand load shedding, and load following, as well as to problem solve equipment and process malfunctions. Designed to ensure work force development, training is offered for control room and plant field operators, as well as engineers and managers. Such comprehensive simulator-based instruction allows

  2. Plasmonic ZnO/Ag embedded structures as collecting layers for photogenerating electrons in solar hydrogen generation photoelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao Ming; Chen, Chih Kai; Tseng, Ming Lun; Wu, Pin Chieh; Chang, Chia Min; Cheng, Liang-Chien; Huang, Hsin Wei; Chan, Ting Shan; Huang, Ding-Wei; Liu, Ru-Shi; Tsai, Din Ping

    2013-09-09

    A new fabrication strategy in which Ag plasmonics are embedded in the interface between ZnO nanorods and a conducting substrate is experimentally demonstrated using a femtosecond-laser (fs-laser)-induced plasmonic ZnO/Ag photoelectrodes. This fs-laser fabrication technique can be applied to generate patternable plasmonic nanostructures for improving their effectiveness in hydrogen generation. Plasmonic ZnO/Ag nanostructure photoelectrodes show an increase in the photocurrent of a ZnO nanorod photoelectrodes by higher than 85% at 0.5 V. Both localized surface plasmon resonance in metal nanoparticles and plasmon polaritons propagating at the metal/semiconductor interface are available for improving the capture of sunlight and collecting charge carriers. Furthermore, in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy is performed to monitor the plasmonic-generating electromagnetic field upon the interface between ZnO/Ag nanostructures. This can reveal induced vacancies on the conduction band of ZnO, which allow effective separation of charge carriers and improves the efficiency of hydrogen generation. Plasmon-induced effects enhance the photoresponse simultaneously, by improving optical absorbance and facilitating the separation of charge carriers.

  3. Electric generators in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akinson, G.

    1979-01-01

    The nature and cause of electric fields in the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system and their effects in the middle atmosphere are discussed. Electric fields induced by the solar wind are reported. The equivalence between forces and electric currents and also between current closure and stress balance is described. The motions of the magnetospheric and ionospheric fluids and the electric fields of interest were determined by the balance of these forces, or equivalently by the closure of the currents. The physical nature of stresses and currents was examined.

  4. For Future Generations: Funding Culturally Embedded Higher Education at Tribal Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clairmont, Tanksi

    2014-01-01

    From their inception, tribal colleges and universities (TCUs) have played a special cultural as well as educational role in Native communities. These dual roles are integral to the preservation of American Indian language and traditions, as they open the door for future generations to acquire and perpetuate cultural knowledge. The American Indian…

  5. For Future Generations: Funding Culturally Embedded Higher Education at Tribal Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clairmont, Tanksi

    2014-01-01

    From their inception, tribal colleges and universities (TCUs) have played a special cultural as well as educational role in Native communities. These dual roles are integral to the preservation of American Indian language and traditions, as they open the door for future generations to acquire and perpetuate cultural knowledge. The American Indian…

  6. Evaluation of electricity generation from lignin residue and biogas in cellulosic ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Bao, Jie

    2017-11-01

    This study takes the first insight on the rigorous evaluation of electricity generation based on the experimentally measured higher heating value (HHV) of lignin residue, as well as the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD5) of wastewater. For producing one metric ton of ethanol fuel from five typical lignocellulose substrates, including corn stover, wheat straw, rice straw, sugarcane bagasse and poplar sawdust, 1.26-1.85tons of dry lignin residue is generated from biorefining process and 0.19-0.27tons of biogas is generated from anaerobic digestion of wastewater, equivalent to 4335-5981kWh and 1946-2795kWh of electricity by combustion of the generated lignin residue and biogas, respectively. The electricity generation not only sufficiently meets the electricity needs of process requirement, but also generates more than half of electricity surplus selling to the grid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 78 FR 34431 - Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards for the Steam Electric Power Generating Point...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ...EPA is proposing a regulation that would strengthen the controls on discharges from certain steam electric power plants by revising technology-based effluent limitations guidelines and standards for the steam electric power generating point source category. Steam electric power plants alone contribute 50-60 percent of all toxic pollutants discharged to surface waters by all industrial......

  8. Method of generating electricity using an endothermic coal gasifier and MHD generator

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, David D.; Lytle, John M.

    1982-01-01

    A system and method of generating electrical power wherein a mixture of carbonaceous material and water is heated to initiate and sustain the endothermic reaction of carbon and water thereby providing a gasified stream containing carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrogen and waste streams of hydrogen sulfide and ash. The gasified stream and an ionizing seed material and pressurized air from a preheater go to a burner for producing ionized combustion gases having a temperature of about 5000.degree. to about 6000.degree. F. which are accelerated to a velocity of about 1000 meters per second and passed through an MHD generator to generate DC power and thereafter through a diffuser to reduce the velocity. The gases from the diffuser go to an afterburner and from there in heat exchange relationship with the gasifier to provide heat to sustain the endothermic reaction of carbon and water and with the preheater to preheat the air prior to combustion with the gasified stream. Energy from the afterburner can also be used to energize other parts of the system.

  9. Electrical Power Generation. A Basic Teaching Unit on Energy. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Hugh, Ed.; Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    Four classroom activities are included in this 8-10 period unit suitable for high school chemistry and physics classes. The first activity is a reading (12th-grade readability level determined by the Fry procedure) which explains electricity conversion, transportation, and efficiency ratings. The second and third activities are electrical energy…

  10. Electrical Power Generation. A Basic Teaching Unit on Energy. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Hugh, Ed.; Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    Four classroom activities are included in this 8-10 period unit suitable for high school chemistry and physics classes. The first activity is a reading (12th-grade readability level determined by the Fry procedure) which explains electricity conversion, transportation, and efficiency ratings. The second and third activities are electrical energy…

  11. A simulation of the measurement of electrical conductivity in randomly generated two-phase rocks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandolesi, Eric; Moorkamp, Max; Jones, Alan G.

    2014-05-01

    Geological models of the subsurface require detailed data, often unavailable from direct observation or well logs. Hence imaging the subsurface relies on models obtained by interpretation of geophysical data. Several electromagnetic (EM) geophysical methods focus on the EM properties of rocks and sediments to determine a reliable image of the subsurface, while the same electromagnetic properties are directly measured in laboratories. Often these laboratory measurements return equivocal results that are difficult to reconcile with field observations. Recently different numerical approaches have been investigated in order to understand the effects of the geometry and continuity of interconnected pathways of conductors on EM field measurements, often restricting the studies to direct current (DC) sources. Bearing in mind the time-varying nature of the natural electromagnetic sources that play a role in field measurements, we numerically simulate the effects of such EM sources on the conductivity measured on the surface of a randomly generated three-dimensional body embedded in a uniform host by using electromagnetic induction equations, thus simulating a magnetotelluric (MT) survey. A key point in such a simulation is the scalability of the problem: the deeper the target, the longer the period of the EM source is needed. On the other hand, a long period signal ignores small heterogeneous conductors in the target bulk of the material, averaging the different conductivities in a median value. Since most real rocks are poor conductors, we have modeled a two-phase mixture of rock and interconnected conductive elements (representing melts, saline fluids, sulphidic, carbonitic, or metallic sediments, etc.), randomly generated within the background host. We have compared the results from the simulated measurements with the target rock embedded at different depths with electrical conductivity predicted by both Hashin-Shtrikman (HS) bounds and an updated multi-phase Archie

  12. Optical second harmonic generation of single metallic nanoparticles embedded in a homogeneous medium.

    PubMed

    Butet, Jérémy; Duboisset, Julien; Bachelier, Guillaume; Russier-Antoine, Isabelle; Benichou, Emmanuel; Jonin, Christian; Brevet, Pierre-François

    2010-05-12

    We report the optical second harmonic generation from individual 150 nm diameter gold nanoparticles dispersed in gelatin. The quadratic hyperpolarizability of the particles is determined and the input polarization dependence of the second harmonic intensity obtained. These results are found in excellent agreement with ensemble measurements and finite element simulations. These results open up new perspectives for the investigation of the nonlinear optical properties of noble metal nanoparticles.

  13. Permanent computer-generated holograms embedded in silica glass by femtosecond laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Dou, Yanping; An, Ran; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang

    2005-04-04

    We present a novel technique to directly fabricate permanent computer-generated holograms inside silica glass with femtosecond laser pulses. The Fourier transform of an object is performed using a computer and the complex amplitude distribution is encoded by the detour phase method. The resulted cell-oriented hologram is directly written inside a bulk of silica glass by femtosecond laser-induced microexplosion. The image is then reconstructed with a collimated He-Ne laser beam.

  14. Embedded birefringent computer-generated holograms fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Papazoglou, Dimitris G; Loulakis, Michael J

    2006-05-15

    Birefringent computer-generated holograms are fabricated in bulk fused silica by tight focusing of infrared femtosecond laser pulses. The polarization properties of the elliptically polarized diffracted light are in excellent agreement with the theoretical model. We experimentally demonstrate that for such birefringent structures the signal-to-noise ratio increases by approximately 9 dB when polarization filtering is used to suppress the undiffracted beam.

  15. Diversity of fuel sources for electricity generation in an evolving U.S. power sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiLuccia, Janelle G.

    Policymakers increasingly have shown interest in options to boost the relative share of renewable or clean electricity generating sources in order to reduce negative environmental externalities from fossil fuels, guard against possible resource constraints, and capture economic advantages from developing new technologies and industries. Electric utilities and non-utility generators make decisions regarding their generation mix based on a number of different factors that may or may not align with societal goals. This paper examines the makeup of the electric power sector to determine how the type of generator and the presence (or lack) of competition in electricity markets at the state level may relate to the types of fuel sources used for generation. Using state-level electricity generation data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration from 1990 through 2010, this paper employs state and time fixed-effects regression modeling to attempt to isolate the impacts of state-level restructuring policies and the emergence of non-utility generators on states' generation from coal, from fossil fuel and from renewable sources. While the analysis has significant limitations, I do find that state-level electricity restructuring has a small but significant association with lowering electricity generation from coal specifically and fossil fuels more generally. Further research into the relationship between competition and fuel sources would aid policymakers considering legislative options to influence the generation mix.

  16. 29 CFR 1910.269 - Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. 1910.269 Section 1910.269 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.269 Electric power generation,...

  17. Properties of Retinal Precursor Cells Grown on Vertically Aligned Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Generated for the Modification of Retinal Implant-Embedded Microelectrode Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Johnen, Sandra; Meißner, Frank; Krug, Mario; Baltz, Thomas; Endler, Ingolf; Mokwa, Wilfried; Walter, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background. To analyze the biocompatibility of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), used as nanomodification to optimize the properties of prostheses-embedded microelectrodes that induce electrical stimulation of surviving retinal cells. Methods. MWCNT were synthesized on silicon wafers. Their growth was achieved by iron particles (Fe) or mixtures of iron-platinum (Fe-Pt) and iron-titanium (Fe-Ti) acting as catalysts. Viability, growth, adhesion, and gene expression of L-929 and retinal precursor (R28) cells were analyzed after nondirect and direct contact. Results. Nondirect contact had almost no influence on cell growth, as measured in comparison to reference materials with defined levels of cytotoxicity. Both cell types exhibited good proliferation properties on each MWCNT-coated wafer. Viability ranged from 95.9 to 99.8%, in which better survival was observed for nonfunctionalized MWCNT generated with the Fe-Pt and Fe-Ti catalyst mixtures. R28 cells grown on the MWCNT-coated wafers showed a decreased gene expression associated with neural and glial properties. Expression of the cell cycle-related genes CCNC, MYC, and TP53 was slightly downregulated. Cultivation on plasma-treated MWCNT did not lead to additional changes. Conclusions. All tested MWCNT-covered slices showed good biocompatibility profiles, confirming that this nanotechnology is a promising tool to improve prostheses bearing electrodes which connect with retinal tissue. PMID:27200182

  18. An Integrated Facility for Municipal Solid Waste Disposal, Electrical Generation, and Desalination.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary design was completed for a facility that uses municipal solid waste as file for generating electricity and cogeneration steam for a... municipal solid waste will provide nearly 2% of per capita electrical power needs and 7% of fresh water requirements. This thesis proposes a new arrangement... Municipal Solid Waste . Developing new power plant sources for electrical generation now requires searching for scarce energy resources and regularly

  19. Turbo-Electric Compressor/Generator Using Halbach Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kloesel, Kurt J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is a turbojet design that integrates power generation into the turbojet itself, rather than use separate generators attached to the turbojet for power generation. By integrating the power generation within the jet engine, the weight of the overall system is significantly reduced, increasing system efficiency. Also, by integrating the power generating elements of the system within the air flow of the jet engine, the present invention can use the heat generated by the power generating elements (which is simply expelled waste heat in current designs) to increase the engine performance.

  20. Mitigation of Shear-Induced Blood Damage of Mechanical Bileaflet Heart Valves using Embedded Vortex Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, Pablo; Arjunon, Sivakkumar; Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Yoganathan, Ajit; Glezer, Ari

    2012-11-01

    The strong transitory shear stress generated during the time-periodic closing of the mechanical prosthetic bileaflet aortic heart valve, is considered to be one of the main factors responsible for complications, associated with thrombosis and thromboembolism. These flow transients are investigated using phase and time-averaged PIV in a low-volume (about 150 ml) test setup that simulates the pulsatile physiological conditions associated with a 23 mm St. Jude Medical valve. The PIV measurements are accompanied by continuous monitoring of the ventricular and aortic pressures and valve flow rate. Following the valve closure, the leakage flow between the valve leaflets is caused by the pressure buildup across the leaflets, leading to the formation of a regurgitation jet starting from the BMHV B-datum line. As in a typical starting jet, a counter-rotating vortex pair is formed along each leaflet edge and the vorticity sheet is associated with high shear stress that may be result in blood platelet activation. The present investigation demonstrates that the placement of arrays of mm-scale vortex generators near the edges of the leaflets diffuses the vortex sheet and suppresses the formation of these vortices, weakening the local velocity gradients and small-scale vortical structures. Supported by NIH and NSF.

  1. Electric Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution (NAICS 2211)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find EPA regulatory information for electrical utilities, including coal-fired power plants. Includes links to NESHAPs for RICE, stationary combustion engines, fossil fuel waste, cooling water, effluent guidelines. Find information on the MATS rule.

  2. Evaluation of solar thermal storage for base load electricity generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adinberg, R.

    2012-10-01

    In order to stabilize solar electric power production during the day and prolong the daily operating cycle for several hours in the nighttime, solar thermal power plants have the options of using either or both solar thermal storage and fossil fuel hybridization. The share of solar energy in the annual electricity production capacity of hybrid solar-fossil power plants without energy storage is only about 20%. As it follows from the computer simulations performed for base load electricity demand, a solar annual capacity as high as 70% can be attained by use of a reasonably large thermal storage capacity of 22 full load operating hours. In this study, the overall power system performance is analyzed with emphasis on energy storage characteristics promoting a high level of sustainability for solar termal electricity production. The basic system parameters, including thermal storage capacity, solar collector size, and annual average daily discharge time, are presented and discussed.

  3. Transmission Pricing Issues for Electricity Generation From Renewable Resources

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses how the resolution of transmission pricing issues which have arisen under the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) open access environment may affect the prospects for renewable-based electricity.

  4. An electric generator using living Torpedo electric organs controlled by fluid pressure-based alternative nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yo; Funano, Shun-Ichi; Nishizawa, Yohei; Kamamichi, Norihiro; Nishinaka, Masahiro; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2016-05-31

    Direct electric power generation using biological functions have become a research focus due to their low cost and cleanliness. Unlike major approaches using glucose fuels or microbial fuel cells (MFCs), we present a generation method with intrinsically high energy conversion efficiency and generation with arbitrary timing using living electric organs of Torpedo (electric rays) which are serially integrated electrocytes converting ATP into electric energy. We developed alternative nervous systems using fluid pressure to stimulate electrocytes by a neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (Ach), and demonstrated electric generation. Maximum voltage and current were 1.5 V and 0.64 mA, respectively, with a duration time of a few seconds. We also demonstrated energy accumulation in a capacitor. The current was far larger than that using general cells other than electrocytes (~pA level). The generation ability was confirmed against repetitive cycles and also after preservation for 1 day. This is the first step toward ATP-based energy harvesting devices.

  5. An electric generator using living Torpedo electric organs controlled by fluid pressure-based alternative nervous systems

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yo; Funano, Shun-ichi; Nishizawa, Yohei; Kamamichi, Norihiro; Nishinaka, Masahiro; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Direct electric power generation using biological functions have become a research focus due to their low cost and cleanliness. Unlike major approaches using glucose fuels or microbial fuel cells (MFCs), we present a generation method with intrinsically high energy conversion efficiency and generation with arbitrary timing using living electric organs of Torpedo (electric rays) which are serially integrated electrocytes converting ATP into electric energy. We developed alternative nervous systems using fluid pressure to stimulate electrocytes by a neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (Ach), and demonstrated electric generation. Maximum voltage and current were 1.5 V and 0.64 mA, respectively, with a duration time of a few seconds. We also demonstrated energy accumulation in a capacitor. The current was far larger than that using general cells other than electrocytes (~pA level). The generation ability was confirmed against repetitive cycles and also after preservation for 1 day. This is the first step toward ATP-based energy harvesting devices. PMID:27241817

  6. An electric generator using living Torpedo electric organs controlled by fluid pressure-based alternative nervous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yo; Funano, Shun-Ichi; Nishizawa, Yohei; Kamamichi, Norihiro; Nishinaka, Masahiro; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2016-05-01

    Direct electric power generation using biological functions have become a research focus due to their low cost and cleanliness. Unlike major approaches using glucose fuels or microbial fuel cells (MFCs), we present a generation method with intrinsically high energy conversion efficiency and generation with arbitrary timing using living electric organs of Torpedo (electric rays) which are serially integrated electrocytes converting ATP into electric energy. We developed alternative nervous systems using fluid pressure to stimulate electrocytes by a neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (Ach), and demonstrated electric generation. Maximum voltage and current were 1.5 V and 0.64 mA, respectively, with a duration time of a few seconds. We also demonstrated energy accumulation in a capacitor. The current was far larger than that using general cells other than electrocytes (~pA level). The generation ability was confirmed against repetitive cycles and also after preservation for 1 day. This is the first step toward ATP-based energy harvesting devices.

  7. A novel geometric embedding algorithm for efficiently generating dense polymer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, M.; Nievergelt, J.; Santos, S.; Suter, U. W.

    2001-06-01

    A new algorithm for generating starting polymer structures for molecular simulations (e.g., MD) in dense phase is presented. The algorithm yields structures that fulfill to a large extent rotational isomeric state (RIS) probabilities and avoid atomic overlap. The heuristic search bases on the new parallel-rotation (ParRot) technique. We tested the performance of the algorithm on two polymeric systems: Atomistic polyethylene and polystyrene. The algorithm permits to tackle the problem of packing chains into large boxes of size up to 50 Å in a couple of hours on common workstations. Moreover, our packing algorithm is applicable for general polymer systems. The algorithm requires CPU effort scaling with a power 2.8 in the chain length, and with a power 1.5 in the number of chains.

  8. Embedded resource accounting for coupled natural-human systems: An application to water resource impacts of the western U.S. electrical energy trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddell, Benjamin L.; Adams, Elizabeth A.; Rushforth, Richard; Tidwell, Vincent C.

    2014-10-01

    In complex coupled natural-human systems (CNH), multitype networks link social, environmental, and economic systems with flows of matter, energy, information, and value. Embedded Resource Accounting (ERA) is a systems analysis framework that includes the indirect connections of a multitype CNH network. ERA is conditioned on perceived system boundaries, which may vary according to the accountant's point of view. Both direct and indirect impacts are implicit whenever two subnetworks interact in such a system; the ratio of two subnetworks' impacts is the embedded intensity. For trade in the services of water, this is understood as the indirect component of a water footprint, and as "virtual water" trade. ERA is a generalization of input-output, footprint, and substance flow methods, and is a type of life cycle analysis. This paper presents results for the water and electrical energy system in the western U.S. This system is dominated by California, which outsources the majority of its water footprint of electrical energy. Electricity trade increases total water consumption for electricity production in the western U.S. by 15% and shifts water use to water-stressed Colorado River Basin States. A systemic underaccounting for water footprints occurs because state-level processes discount a portion of the water footprint occurring outside of the state boundary.

  9. Modeling strategic competition in hydro-thermal electricity generation markets with cascaded reservoir-hydroelectric generation plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uluca, Basak

    This dissertation aims to achieve two goals. The first is to model the strategic interactions of firms that own cascaded reservoir-hydro plants in oligopolistic and mixed oligopolistic hydrothermal electricity generation markets. Although competition in thermal generation has been extensively modeled since the beginning of deregulation, the literature on competition in hydro generation is still limited; in particular, equilibrium models of oligopoly that study the competitive behavior of firms that own reservoir-hydro plants along the same river in hydrothermal electricity generation markets are still under development. In competitive markets, when the reservoirs are located along the same river, the water released from an upstream reservoir for electricity generation becomes input to the immediate downstream reservoir, which may be owned by a competitor, for current or future use. To capture the strategic interactions among firms with cascaded reservoir-hydro plants, the Upstream-Conjecture approach is proposed. Under the Upstream-Conjecture approach, a firm with an upstream reservoir-hydro plant assumes that firms with downstream reservoir-hydro plants will respond to changes in the upstream firm's water release by adjusting their water release by the same amount. The results of the Upstream Conjecture experiments indicate that firms that own upstream reservoirs in a cascade may have incentive to withhold or limit hydro generation, forcing a reduction in the utilization of the downstream hydro generation plants that are owned by competitors. Introducing competition to hydroelectricity generation markets is challenging and ownership allocation of the previously state-owned cascaded reservoir-hydro plants through privatization can have significant impact on the competitiveness of the generation market. The second goal of the dissertation is to extract empirical guidance about best policy choices for the ownership of the state-owned generation plants, including the

  10. Efficient simulation of voxelized phantom in GATE with embedded SimSET multiple photon history generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsin-Hon; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Lin, Yi-Hsing; Ni, Yu-Ching; Wu, Jay; Jan, Meei-Ling

    2014-10-01

    GEANT4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) is a powerful Monte Carlo simulator that combines the advantages of the general-purpose GEANT4 simulation code and the specific software tool implementations dedicated to emission tomography. However, the detailed physical modelling of GEANT4 is highly computationally demanding, especially when tracking particles through voxelized phantoms. To circumvent the relatively slow simulation of voxelized phantoms in GATE, another efficient Monte Carlo code can be used to simulate photon interactions and transport inside a voxelized phantom. The simulation system for emission tomography (SimSET), a dedicated Monte Carlo code for PET/SPECT systems, is well-known for its efficiency in simulation of voxel-based objects. An efficient Monte Carlo workflow integrating GATE and SimSET for simulating pinhole SPECT has been proposed to improve voxelized phantom simulation. Although the workflow achieves a desirable increase in speed, it sacrifices the ability to simulate decaying radioactive sources such as non-pure positron emitters or multiple emission isotopes with complex decay schemes and lacks the modelling of time-dependent processes due to the inherent limitations of the SimSET photon history generator (PHG). Moreover, a large volume of disk storage is needed to store the huge temporal photon history file produced by SimSET that must be transported to GATE. In this work, we developed a multiple photon emission history generator (MPHG) based on SimSET/PHG to support a majority of the medically important positron emitters. We incorporated the new generator codes inside GATE to improve the simulation efficiency of voxelized phantoms in GATE, while eliminating the need for the temporal photon history file. The validation of this new code based on a MicroPET R4 system was conducted for 124I and 18F with mouse-like and rat-like phantoms. Comparison of GATE/MPHG with GATE/GEANT4 indicated there is a slight difference in energy

  11. Automated high throughput nucleic acid purification from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples for next generation sequence analysis

    PubMed Central

    Haile, Simon; Pandoh, Pawan; McDonald, Helen; Corbett, Richard D.; Tsao, Philip; Kirk, Heather; MacLeod, Tina; Jones, Martin; Bilobram, Steve; Brooks, Denise; Smailus, Duane; Steidl, Christian; Scott, David W.; Bala, Miruna; Hirst, Martin; Miller, Diane; Moore, Richard A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Coope, Robin J.; Ma, Yussanne; Zhao, Yongjun; Holt, Rob A.; Jones, Steven J.

    2017-01-01

    Curation and storage of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples are standard procedures in hospital pathology laboratories around the world. Many thousands of such samples exist and could be used for next generation sequencing analysis. Retrospective analyses of such samples are important for identifying molecular correlates of carcinogenesis, treatment history and disease outcomes. Two major hurdles in using FFPE material for sequencing are the damaged nature of the nucleic acids and the labor-intensive nature of nucleic acid purification. These limitations and a number of other issues that span multiple steps from nucleic acid purification to library construction are addressed here. We optimized and automated a 96-well magnetic bead-based extraction protocol that can be scaled to large cohorts and is compatible with automation. Using sets of 32 and 91 individual FFPE samples respectively, we generated libraries from 100 ng of total RNA and DNA starting amounts with 95–100% success rate. The use of the resulting RNA in micro-RNA sequencing was also demonstrated. In addition to offering the potential of scalability and rapid throughput, the yield obtained with lower input requirements makes these methods applicable to clinical samples where tissue abundance is limiting. PMID:28570594

  12. Automated high throughput nucleic acid purification from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples for next generation sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Haile, Simon; Pandoh, Pawan; McDonald, Helen; Corbett, Richard D; Tsao, Philip; Kirk, Heather; MacLeod, Tina; Jones, Martin; Bilobram, Steve; Brooks, Denise; Smailus, Duane; Steidl, Christian; Scott, David W; Bala, Miruna; Hirst, Martin; Miller, Diane; Moore, Richard A; Mungall, Andrew J; Coope, Robin J; Ma, Yussanne; Zhao, Yongjun; Holt, Rob A; Jones, Steven J; Marra, Marco A

    2017-01-01

    Curation and storage of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples are standard procedures in hospital pathology laboratories around the world. Many thousands of such samples exist and could be used for next generation sequencing analysis. Retrospective analyses of such samples are important for identifying molecular correlates of carcinogenesis, treatment history and disease outcomes. Two major hurdles in using FFPE material for sequencing are the damaged nature of the nucleic acids and the labor-intensive nature of nucleic acid purification. These limitations and a number of other issues that span multiple steps from nucleic acid purification to library construction are addressed here. We optimized and automated a 96-well magnetic bead-based extraction protocol that can be scaled to large cohorts and is compatible with automation. Using sets of 32 and 91 individual FFPE samples respectively, we generated libraries from 100 ng of total RNA and DNA starting amounts with 95-100% success rate. The use of the resulting RNA in micro-RNA sequencing was also demonstrated. In addition to offering the potential of scalability and rapid throughput, the yield obtained with lower input requirements makes these methods applicable to clinical samples where tissue abundance is limiting.

  13. Simulation Tool to Assess Mechanical and Electrical Stresses on Wind Turbine Generators: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.; Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.; Jonkman, J.

    2013-10-01

    Wind turbine generators (WTGs) consist of many different components to convert kinetic energy of the wind into electrical energy for end users. Wind energy is accessed to provide mechanical torque for driving the shaft of the electrical generator. The conversion from wind power to mechanical power is governed by the aerodynamic conversion. The aerodynamic-electrical-conversion efficiency of a WTGis influenced by the efficiency of the blades, the gearbox, the generator, and the power converter. This paper describes the use of MATLAB/Simulink to simulate the electrical and grid-related aspects of a WTG coupled with the FAST aero-elastic wind turbine computer-aided engineering tool to simulate the aerodynamic and mechanical aspects of a WTG. The combination of the two enables studiesinvolving both electrical and mechanical aspects of a WTG. This digest includes some examples of the capabilities of the FAST and MATLAB coupling, namely the effects of electrical faults on the blade moments.

  14. Exploring Magnetic Nanostructures Embedded Within Single-Crystal Silicon for Generation Of Spin-Polarized Carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malladi, Machara Krishna Girish

    Integrating magnetic functionalities with silicon holds the promise of developing, in the most dominant semiconductor, a paradigm-shift information technology based on the manipulation and control of electron spin and charge. Here, we demonstrate an ion implantation approach enabling the synthesis of a ferromagnetic layer within a defect free Si environment by exploiting an additional implant of hydrogen in a region deep below the metal implanted layer. Upon post-implantation annealing, nanocavities created within the H-implanted region act as trapping sites for gettering the implanted metal species, resulting in the formation of metal nanoparticles in a Si region of excellent crystal quality. This is exemplified by the synthesis of magnetic nickel nanoparticles in Si implanted with H+(range: 850 nm; dose: 1.5x1016 cm-2) and Ni+ (range: 60 nm; dose: 2x10 15 cm-2). Following annealing, the H implanted region populated with Ni nanoparticles of size ( 10-25 nm) and density ( 1011/cm2) typical of those achievable via conventional thin film deposition and growth techniques. In particular, a maximum amount of gettered Ni atoms occurs after annealing at 900 ?C, yielding strong ferromagnetism persisting even at room temperature, as well as fully recovered crystalline Si environments adjacent to these Ni nanoparticles. Furthermore, Ni nanoparticles capsulated within a defect-free crystalline Si layer exhibit a very high magnetic switching energy barrier of 0.86 eV, an increase by about one order of magnitude as compared to their counterparts on a Si surface or in a highly defective Si environment. The electrical transport properties of the samples exhibiting room temperature ferromagnetism have been measured in an in-plane magnetic field and these samples show a high room temperature magnetoresistance ( 155% at 9T for p-Si and 80% at 9T for n-Si) which is dependent on the temperature and the applied current. The peak in the magnetoresistance occurs in the ohmic regime

  15. New Technology for Microfabrication and Testing of a Thermoelectric Device for Generating Mobile Electrical Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    New Technology for Microfabrication and Testing of a Thermoelectric Device for Generating Mobile Electrical Power by Patrick J. Taylor... Thermoelectric Device for Generating Mobile Electrical Power Patrick J. Taylor, Brian Morgan, and Bruce Geil Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL...testing of a thermoelectric power generation module. The module was fabricated using a new “flip-chip” module assembly technique that is scalable

  16. Annotating and embedding provenance in science data repositories to enable next generation science applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuinness, D. L.; Fox, P.; Pinheiro da Silva, P.; Zednik, S.; Del Rio, N.; Ding, L.; West, P.; Chang, C.

    2008-12-01

    Recognizing the increased need for knowledge provenance in interdisciplinary eScience efforts, we have begun an effort to enhance a real-world data production pipeline and the resulting data services with semantic provenance. This work designing and implementing in an existing fielded virtual observatory setting has allowed us to collect key provenance requirements for a broad variety of end users. We have documented several image data pipelines for solar physics instruments at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory and have documented almost 20 use cases covering usage from instrument scientists, observers, data analysts and managers, and end-user scientists. These use cases have guided our work developing an initial infrastructure that can be searched, queried, or browsed by these users. We use a multi-stage approach to provenance as data and information artifacts progress along processing pipelines. Our motivation, is that both the qualitative and quantitative measures of uncertainty may be vastly improved when treated in an end-to-end manner. This also reduces the likelihood that critical information is left behind or obscurely represented, making the later use of the data and information difficult or impossible. Another motivation is that provenance captured consistently at ingest time supports transparency of sources and propagation of credit for data generation, thereby increasing the likelihood of contribution and reuse. We present the current stages of implementation of our provenance infrastructure, tools and impact on what users are able to learn from the annotated information streams. The Semantic Provenance Capture in Data Ingest Systems (SPCDIS) project is an NSF/OCI/SDCI funded effort involving the High Altitude Observatory at NCAR, McGuinness Associates and the University of Michigan.

  17. Electrical characteristics of spark generators for automotive ignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brode, R B; Randolph, D W; Silsbee, F B

    1927-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an extensive program of measurements on 11 ignition systems differing widely in type. The results serve primarily to give representative data on the electric and magnetic constants of such systems, and on the secondary voltage produced by them under various conditions of speed, timing, shunting resistance, etc. They also serve to confirm certain of the theoretical formulas which have been proposed to connect the performance of such systems with their electrical constants, and to indicate the extent to which certain simplified model circuits duplicate the performance of the actual apparatus.

  18. Spatial characterization of electric potentials generated by pulsed microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Kandagor, V; Cela, C J; Sanders, C A; Greenbaum, E; Lazzi, G; Humayun, M S; Zhou, D M; Castro, R; Gaikwad, S; Little, J

    2010-01-01

    This presentation is a report on the in situ characterization of stimulating microelectrodes in the context of multielectrode retinal prosthetic implants. The experimental system approximately replicates the geometric and electrical parameters of Second Sight Medical Products' Argus II Retinal Implant. Topographic maps of electric potentials have been prepared for a 60 electrode structure in which selected electrodes were stimulated with biphasic repetitively pulsed charge densities at 100 microC·cm(-2). Surface contour maps were prepared using a 10 microm diameter recording electrode.

  19. Numerical Study of Plasma-Fluid Behavior and Generation Characteristics of the Closed Loop MHD Electrical Power Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Jun; Liberati, Alessandro; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Okuno, Yoshihiro

    Time dependent r-z two-dimensional numerical simulations with LES technique have been carried out in order to clarify the plasma fluid behavior and power generation characteristics of the disk MHD generator under the rated operation conditions demonstrated in the closed loop experimental facility at Tokyo Tech. The generator currently installed could suffer from the non-uniform and low electrical conductivity, and the boundary layer separation even under the rated operation conditions. The large amount of generated electric power is consumed in the boundary layer separation region, which reduces a net output power. Reducing the back pressure and improving the inlet plasma conditions surely provide the higher generator performance. The influence of 90 degree bend downstream duct on the generator performance is found to be not marked.

  20. Use of Geothermal Energy for Electric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mashaw, John M.; Prichett, III, Wilson

    1980-10-23

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association and its 1,000 member systems are involved in the research, development and utilization of many different types of supplemental and alternative energy resources. We share a strong commitment to the wise and efficient use of this country's energy resources as the ultimate answer to our national prosperity and economic growth. WRECA is indebted to the United States Department of Energy for funding the NRECA/DOE Geothermal Workshop which was held in San Diego, California in October, 1980. We would also like to express our gratitude to each of the workshop speakers who gave of their time, talent and experience so that rural electric systems in the Western U. S. might gain a clearer understanding of the geothermal potential in their individual service areas. The participants were also presented with practical, expert opinion regarding the financial and technical considerations of using geothermal energy for electric power production. The organizers of this conference and all of those involved in planning this forum are hopeful that it will serve as an impetus toward the full utilization of geothermal energy as an important ingredient in a more energy self-sufficient nation. The ultimate consumer of the rural electric system, the member-owner, expects the kind of leadership that solves the energy problems of tomorrow by fully utilizing the resources at our disposal today.

  1. Biomechanical energy harvesting: generating electricity during walking with minimal user effort.

    PubMed

    Donelan, J M; Li, Q; Naing, V; Hoffer, J A; Weber, D J; Kuo, A D

    2008-02-08

    We have developed a biomechanical energy harvester that generates electricity during human walking with little extra effort. Unlike conventional human-powered generators that use positive muscle work, our technology assists muscles in performing negative work, analogous to regenerative braking in hybrid cars, where energy normally dissipated during braking drives a generator instead. The energy harvester mounts at the knee and selectively engages power generation at the end of the swing phase, thus assisting deceleration of the joint. Test subjects walking with one device on each leg produced an average of 5 watts of electricity, which is about 10 times that of shoe-mounted devices. The cost of harvesting-the additional metabolic power required to produce 1 watt of electricity-is less than one-eighth of that for conventional human power generation. Producing substantial electricity with little extra effort makes this method well-suited for charging powered prosthetic limbs and other portable medical devices.

  2. The 400-Hertz constant-speed electrical generation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclung, R.

    1982-01-01

    Materials illustrating a presentation on 400 Hz constant speed generation systems are presented. The system features are outlined, components and functioning described, and display graphics illustrated.

  3. Numerical simulation of the leaky dielectric microdroplet generation in electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamali, Reza; Manshadi, Mohammad Karim Dehghan

    2016-07-01

    Microdroplet generation has a vast range of applications in the chemical, biomedical, and biological sciences. Several devices are applied to produce microdroplets, such as Co-flow, T-junction and Flow-focusing. The important point in the producing process is controlling the separated fluid volume in these devices. On the other hand, a large number of liquids, especially aqueous one, are influenced by electric or magnetic fields. As a consequence, an electric field could be used in order to affect the separated fluid volume. In this study, effects of an electric field on the microdroplet generation in a Co-flow device are investigated numerically. Furthermore, effects of some electrical properties such as permittivity on the separating process of microdroplets are studied. Leaky dielectric and perfect dielectric models are used in this investigation. According to the results, in the microdroplet generating process, leaky dielectric fluids show different behaviors, when an electric field is applied to the device. In other words, in a constant electric field strength, the volume of generated microdroplets can increase or decrease, in comparison with the condition without the electric field. However, for perfect dielectric fluids, droplet volume always decreases with increasing the electric field strength. In order to validate the numerical method of this study, deformation of a leaky dielectric droplet in an electric field is investigated. Results are compared with Taylor theoretical model.

  4. Ultrawideband monocycle pulse generation based on polarization modulator and low speed electrical NRZ signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guodan; Zhang, Qiufang; Wang, Quan

    2015-07-01

    A novel ultrawideband (UWB) monocycle pulse generation system by modulating a polarization modulator (PolM) with a low speed electrical nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) signal is proposed, which significantly reduce the bandwidth requirement of the driving signal. At each bit transition of the input NRZ signal, two polarity-reversed Gaussian pulses are generated. By properly setting the delay between these two Gaussian pulses, an optical UWB monocycle pulse can be generated. Biphase modulation (BPM) can be realized by electrically switching the polarization direction at the output of PolM, if an electrically tunable arbitrary wave plate (AWP) is employed.

  5. The California Climate Action Registry: Development of methodologies for calculating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Marnay, Chris; Sathaye, Jayant; Muritshaw, Scott; Fisher, Diane; Phadke, Amol; Franco, Guido

    2002-08-01

    The California Climate Action Registry, which will begin operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for California businesses and organizations to record annual greenhouse gas emissions. Reporting of emissions in the Registry by a participant involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and ''indirect'' emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is considered to be an indirect emission and must be included in the entity's report. Published electricity emissions factors for the State of California vary considerably due to differences in whether utility-owned out-of-state generation, non-utility generation, and electricity imports from other states are included. This paper describes the development of three methods for estimating electricity emissions factors for calculating the combined net carbon dioxide emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to Californians. We find that use of a statewide average electricity emissions factor could drastically under- or over-estimate an entity's emissions due to the differences in generating resources among the utility service areas and seasonal variations. In addition, differentiating between marginal and average emissions is essential to accurately estimate the carbon dioxide savings from reducing electricity use. Results of this work will be taken into consideration by the Registry when finalizing its guidance for use of electricity emissions factors in calculating an entity's greenhouse gas emissions.

  6. Transient Analysis Generator /TAG/ simulates behavior of large class of electrical networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, W. J.

    1967-01-01

    Transient Analysis Generator program simulates both transient and dc steady-state behavior of a large class of electrical networks. It generates a special analysis program for each circuit described in an easily understood and manipulated programming language. A generator or preprocessor and a simulation system make up the TAG system.

  7. Electric power generating plant having direct-coupled steam and compressed-air cycles

    DOEpatents

    Drost, M.K.

    1981-01-07

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  8. Electric power generating plant having direct coupled steam and compressed air cycles

    DOEpatents

    Drost, Monte K.

    1982-01-01

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  9. Photovoltaic electricity generation: Value for residential and commercial sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Ujjwal

    The photovoltaic (PV) industry in the US has seen an upsurge in recent years, and PV holds great promise as a renewable technology with no greenhouse gas emissions with its use. We aim to assess the value of PV based electricity for users in the residential and commercial sectors focusing on the financial impacts it has, which may not be greatly recognized. Specifically, we pursue two goals. First, the emerging 'renewable portfolio standard (RPS)' adopted in several states in the country has been a driving force for large scale PV deployment, but financial incentives offered to PV in different RPS states differ considerably. We use life cycle cost model to estimate the cost of PV based electricity for thirty-two RPS states in the country. Results indicate that the levelized cost of PV electricity is high (40 to 60 Cents/kWh). When the contribution of the financial incentives (along with the cost of energy saved) is taken into account, the cost of PV based electricity is negative in some RPS states such as California, New Jersey, New York, while for most of the RPS states the cost of PV electricity continues to remain high. In addition, the states with negative or low cost of PV electricity have been driving the PV diffusion in the residential sector. Therefore, a need to adjust the financial incentive structure in different RPS states is recommended for homogenous development of the residential PV market in the country. Second, we assess the value of the PV in reducing the highest peak load demand in commercial buildings and hence the high value demand charge. The Time-of-Use (TOU) based electricity tariff is widely used by electric utilities in the commercial sector. Energy and peak load are two important facets of the TOU tariff regime. Tools are well established to estimate the energy contribution from a PV system (installed in a commercial building), but not power output on a short time interval. A joint conditional probability model has been developed that

  10. Extreme Harmonic Generation in Electrically Driven Spin Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stehlik, Jiri

    2015-03-01

    InAs nanowire double quantum dots offer a rich platform for studying single spin physics in a material with large spin-orbit (SO) coupling. The large SO coupling allows all electrical control of the electron spin through electric dipole spin resonance (EDSR). Here an oscillating electric field of frequency f displaces the electron wave function, while a magnetic field with strength B is applied. Spin rotations occur when the resonance condition hf = gμB B is met. Here g is the electron g-factor, h is Planck's constant, and μB is the Bohr magneton. We find that near zero interdot detuning efficient spin rotations also occur when hf = ngμB B , with n being an integer as large as 8 in our system. The harmonics feature a striking odd/even dependence. While the odd harmonics show an enhancement of the leakage current, the even harmonics show a reduction. In contrast, we do not observe any measurable harmonics at large detuning. We link the presence of harmonics with additional anti-crossings present in the level diagram. This implies that harmonics are the result of Landau-Zener transitions occurring at multiple anti-crossings. Recent theoretical work supports this conclusion. Research performed in collaboration with M. D. Schroer, M. Z. Maialle, M. H. Degani, and J. R. Petta. Research was supported by the Sloan and Packard Foundations, Army Research Office, DARPA QuEST and the NSF.

  11. Generation of Electrical Power from Stimulated Muscle Contractions Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth; Kilgore, Kevin; Ercegovic, David B.

    2004-01-01

    This project is a collaborative effort between NASA Glenn Research Center's Revolutionary Aeropropulsion Concepts (RAC) Project, part of the NASA Aerospace Propulsion and Power Program of the Aerospace Technology Enterprise, and Case Western Reserve University's Cleveland Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) Center. The RAC Project foresees implantable power requirements for future applications such as organically based sensor platforms and robotics that can interface with the human senses. One of the goals of the FES Center is to develop a totally implantable neural prosthesis. This goal is based on feedback from patients who would prefer a system with an internal power source over the currently used system with an external power source. The conversion system under investigation would transform the energy produced from a stimulated muscle contraction into electrical energy. We hypothesize that the output power of the system will be greater than the input power necessary to initiate, sustain, and control the electrical conversion system because of the stored potential energy of the muscle. If the system can be made biocompatible, durable, and with the potential for sustained use, then the biological power source will be a viable solution.

  12. Contribution of anaerobic digesters to emissions mitigation and electricity generation under U.S. climate policy.

    PubMed

    Zaks, David P M; Winchester, Niven; Kucharik, Christopher J; Barford, Carol C; Paltsev, Sergey; Reilly, John M

    2011-08-15

    Livestock husbandry in the U.S. significantly contributes to many environmental problems, including the release of methane, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG). Anaerobic digesters (ADs) break down organic wastes using bacteria that produce methane, which can be collected and combusted to generate electricity. ADs also reduce odors and pathogens that are common with manure storage and the digested manure can be used as a fertilizer. There are relatively few ADs in the U.S., mainly due to their high capital costs. We use the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model to test the effects of a representative U.S. climate stabilization policy on the adoption of ADs which sell electricity and generate methane mitigation credits. Under such policy, ADs become competitive at producing electricity in 2025, when they receive methane reduction credits and electricity from fossil fuels becomes more expensive. We find that ADs have the potential to generate 5.5% of U.S. electricity.

  13. An integrated assessment of global and regional water demands for electricity generation to 2095

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, Evan; Kyle, G. Page; Edmonds, James A.

    2013-02-01

    Electric power plants currently account for approximately one-half of the global industrial water withdrawal. While continued expansion of the electric sector seems likely into the future, the consequent water demands are quite uncertain, and will depend on highly variable water intensities by electricity technologies, at present and in the future. Using GCAM, an integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, and climate change, we first establish lower-bound, median, and upper-bound estimates for present-day electric sector water withdrawals and consumption by individual electric generation technologies in each of 14 geopolitical regions, and compare them with available estimates of regional industrial or electric sector water use. We then explore the evolution of global and regional electric sector water use over the next century, focusing on uncertainties related to withdrawal and consumption intensities for a variety of electric generation technologies, rates of change of power plant cooling system types, and rates of adoption of a suite of water-saving technologies. Results reveal that the water withdrawal intensity of electricity generation is likely to decrease in the near term with capital stock turnover, as wet towers replace once-through flow cooling systems and advanced electricity generation technologies replace conventional ones. An increase in consumptive use accompanies the decrease in water withdrawal rates; however, a suite of water conservation technologies currently under development could compensate for this increase in consumption. Finally, at a regional scale, water use characteristics vary significantly based on characteristics of the existing capital stock and the selection of electricity generation technologies into the future.

  14. Economic analysis of the use of wind power for electrical generation on midwestern dairy farms

    SciTech Connect

    Reinemann, D.J.; Koegel, R.G.; Straub, R.J.

    1982-12-01

    The optimum size WECS for dairy farm electrical production, and return on investment thereof depend greatly on utility regulations, load management techniques, and the future of the economy. Seasonal and daily fluctuations in available wind power and electric demand together with existing or expected rate schedules must be considered in choosing an appropriate load management system. An economic analysis is done investigating optimal system size and use strategies for the use of wind generated electrical power on midwestern dairy farms.

  15. Electric Power Generation from Low to Intermediate Temperature Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Gosnold, William D.

    2015-06-18

    with ORC technology. Average co-produced water for 10,480 wells is 3.2 gallons per minute (gpm). Even excluding the tight formations, Bakken and Three Forks, average co-produced water for the remaining 3,337 is only 5 gpm. The output of the highest producing well is 184 gpm and the average of the top 100 wells is 52 gpm. Due to the depth of the oil producing formations in the Williston Basin, typically 3 km or greater, pumps are operated slowly to prevent watering out thus total fluid production is purposefully maintained at low volumes. There remain potential possibilities for development of geothermal fluids in the Williston Basin. Unitized fields in which water production from several tens of wells is collected at a single site are good possibilities for development. Water production in the unitized fields is greater than 1000 gpm is several areas. A similar possibility occurs where infill-drilling between Bakken and Three Forks horizontal wells has created areas where large volumes of geothermal fluids are available on multi-well pads and in unitized fields. Although the Bakken produces small amounts of water, the water/oil ration is typically less than 1, the oil and water mix produced at the well head can be sent through the heat exchanger on an ORC. It is estimated that several tens of MWh of power could be generated by a distributed system of ORC engines in the areas of high-density drilling in the Bakken Formation. Finally, horizontal drilling in water bearing formations is the other possibility. Several secondary recovery water-flood projects in the basin are producing water above 100 ⁰C at rates of 300 gpm to 850 gpm. Those systems also could produce several tens of MWh of power with ORC technology. Objective 3 of the project was highly successful. The program has produced 5 PhDs, 7 MS, and 3 BS students with theses in geothermal energy. The team has involved 7 faculty in 4 different engineering and science disciplines, ChE, EE, GE, and Geol. The team has

  16. MODULATING EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC GENERATING UNITS AS A FUNCTION OF METEOROLOGICAL VARIABLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electric Generating Units (EGUs) are an important source of emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), which react with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of sunlight to form ozone. Emissions from EGUs are believed to vary depending on short-term demands for electricity;...

  17. MODULATING EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC GENERATING UNITS AS A FUNCTION OF METEOROLOGICAL VARIABLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electric Generating Units (EGUs) are an important source of emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), which react with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of sunlight to form ozone. Emissions from EGUs are believed to vary depending on short-term demands for electricity;...

  18. Fact Sheet: Final Rule on Coal Combustion Residuals Generated by Electric Utilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet describes the final rule signed on December 19, 2014 establishing a comprehensive set of requirements for the disposal of coal combustion residuals generated by electric utilities in landfills and surface impoundments.

  19. Fiber optic sensor solutions for increase of efficiency and availability of electric power generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willsch, M.; Bosselmann, T.; Villnow, M.

    2010-09-01

    Multiple fiber optic sensors have been developed for strain, vibration, temperature, magnetic field and air flow measurement in electric power generators. This paper describes the recent state of development and reports about todays field experience.

  20. 78 FR 53483 - Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... COMMISSION Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Determination of inspections, tests, analyses, and..., tests, and analyses have been successfully completed, and that the specified acceptance criteria are...

  1. 78 FR 53484 - Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 4

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... COMMISSION Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 4 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Determination of inspections, tests, analyses, and..., tests, and analyses have been successfully completed, and that the specified acceptance criteria are...

  2. Systematic Review and Harmonization of Life Cycle GHG Emission Estimates for Electricity Generation Technologies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, G.

    2012-06-01

    This powerpoint presentation to be presented at the World Renewable Energy Forum on May 14, 2012, in Denver, CO, discusses systematic review and harmonization of life cycle GHG emission estimates for electricity generation technologies.

  3. Use of electrical or magnetic stimulation for generating hip flexion torque.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomotaka; Tsubahara, Akio; Watanabe, Susumu

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the most suitable site and method to effectively generate isometric hip flexion torque (torque value) using transcutaneous electrical or magnetic stimulation. Eleven healthy volunteers underwent torque value and pain degree measurements during magnetic stimulation of the iliopsoas using three coil placements. After that, the peak torque values generated under three conditions of electrical stimulation of the sartorius, the tensor fasciae latae, and the rectus femoris or that generated by magnetic stimulation of the iliopsoas were recorded at maximum tolerance intensity. No significant differences in torque values were observed among the three coil placements. Magnetic stimulation of the point below the inguinal ligament caused significantly more pain than the other points. Magnetic stimulation of the iliopsoas generated significantly higher torque values than did the electrical stimulation of the two hip flexor muscles together. The hip joint was one of the most suitable regions for application of magnetic stimulation as an alternative method to electrical stimulation.

  4. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Reporting for Electricity Generating Sites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides information on existing Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule requirements related to the reporting of chemical substances manufactured during operations conducted at electricity generating sites, such as utilities.

  5. Microbial electricity generation in rice paddy fields: recent advances and perspectives in rhizosphere microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Kouzuma, Atsushi; Kaku, Nobuo; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2014-12-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that use living microbes for the conversion of organic matter into electricity. MFC systems can be applied to the generation of electricity at water/sediment interfaces in the environment, such as bay areas, wetlands, and rice paddy fields. Using these systems, electricity generation in paddy fields as high as ∼80 mW m(-2) (based on the projected anode area) has been demonstrated, and evidence suggests that rhizosphere microbes preferentially utilize organic exudates from rice roots for generating electricity. Phylogenetic and metagenomic analyses have been conducted to identify the microbial species and catabolic pathways that are involved in the conversion of root exudates into electricity, suggesting the importance of syntrophic interactions. In parallel, pot cultures of rice and other aquatic plants have been used for rhizosphere MFC experiments under controlled laboratory conditions. The findings from these studies have demonstrated the potential of electricity generation for mitigating methane emission from the rhizosphere. Notably, however, the presence of large amounts of organics in the rhizosphere drastically reduces the effect of electricity generation on methane production. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the potential of these systems for mitigating methane emission from rice paddy fields. We suggest that paddy-field MFCs represent a promising approach for harvesting latent energy of the natural world.

  6. Parasitic current losses due to solar electric propulsion generated plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, I.; Parks, D. E.; Mandell, M. J.; Schnuelle, G. W.

    1981-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion is a leading candidate for many upcoming space missions. Under many circumstances plasma produced by charge-exchange reactions within the ion beam dominates the ambient environment near the spacecraft. The calculations presented here contain a predictive hydrodynamic model for the charge-exchange plasma expansion, and a fully three-dimensional model for the structure of the plasma sheath around the solar array wing. Results of calculations for several configurations and voltage levels indicate that with kilovolt biases power losses of approximately 10 percent or more are likely, even with only one engine in operation, and that ameliorative measures should focus on the inboard portion of the solar arrays.

  7. Solar central electric power generation - A baseline design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents the conceptual technical baseline design of a solar electric power plant using the central receiver concept, and derives credible cost estimates from the baseline design. The major components of the plant - heliostats, tower, receiver, tower piping, and thermal storage - are discussed in terms of technical and cost information. The assumed peak plant output is 215 MW(e), over 4000 daylight hours. The contribution of total capital investment to energy cost is estimated to be about 55 mills per kwh in mid-1974 dollars.

  8. Determining the operating performance through electrical measurements of a hydro generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haţiegan, C.; Chioncel, C. P.; Răduca, E.; Popescu, C.; Pădureanu, I.; Jurcu, M. R.; Bordeaşu, D.; Trocaru, S.; Dilertea, F.; Bădescu, O.; Terfăloagă, I. M.; Băra, A.; (Barboni Haţiegan, L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained by experimental measurements regarding the determining of the operating performance of a Hydro generator, through electrical measurements before the refurbishment of hydro aggregates. Experimental measurements were taken to determine the characteristic by putting off load and also by putting on load regimes for power between 1 and 5 MW of hydro generator. These electrical measurements are to establish appropriate measures in terms of constructive and functional in order to bring the nominal parameters of that hydro aggregate.

  9. Apparatus and Method for Generating Electric Energy in a Fluid Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-14

    IONISTATEIENT A Filing Date 14 March 2005 Approved for Public Release Distribution Unlimited Inventor Donald H. Steinbrecher If you have any questions...member, a gear system disposed 6 in the housing, and an axle interconnects each of the crank 7 members and the gear system. An electrical generator is...fixed to an axle extending into the housing 25 and connected to the gear system, and an electrical generator is 3 1 disposed in the housing and driven

  10. Investigation of a generator system for generating electrical power, to supply directly to the public network, using a windmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tromp, C.

    1979-01-01

    A windpowered generator system is described which uses a windmill to convert mechanical energy to electrical energy for a three phase (network) voltage of constant amplitude and frequency. The generator system controls the windmill by the number of revolutions so that the power drawn from the wind for a given wind velocity is maximum. A generator revolution which is proportional to wind velocity is achieved. The stator of the generator is linked directly to the network and a feed converter at the rotor takes care of constant voltage and frequency at the stator.

  11. Assessing the Long-Term System Value of Intermittent Electric Generation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lamont, A D

    2005-08-24

    This research investigates the economic penetration and system-wide effects of large-scale intermittent technologies in an electric generation system. The research extends the standard screening curve analysis to optimize the penetration and system structure with intermittent technologies. The analysis is based on hour-by-hour electric demands and intermittent generation. A theoretical framework is developed to find an expression for the marginal value of an intermittent technology as a function of the average system marginal cost, the capacity factor of the generator, and the covariance between the generator's hourly production and the hourly system marginal cost. A series of model runs are made examining the penetration of wind and photovoltaic in a simple electric generation system. These illustrate the conclusions in the theoretical analysis and illustrate the effects that large-scale intermittent penetration has on the structure of the generation system. In the long-term, adding intermittent generation to a system allows us to restructure the dispatchable generation capacity to a mix with lower capital cost. It is found that large scale intermittent generation tends to reduce the optimal capacity and production of baseload generators and increase the capacity and production of intermediate generators, although the extent to which this occurs depends strongly on the pattern of production from the intermediate generators. It is also shown that the marginal value of intermittent generation declines as it penetrates. The analysis investigates the specific mechanism through which this occurs.

  12. Development and bottlenecks of renewable electricity generation in China: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2013-04-02

    This review provides an overview on the development and status of electricity generation from renewable energy sources, namely hydropower, wind power, solar power, biomass energy, and geothermal energy, and discusses the technology, policy, and finance bottlenecks limiting growth of the renewable energy industry in China. Renewable energy, dominated by hydropower, currently accounts for more than 25% of the total electricity generation capacity. China is the world's largest generator of both hydropower and wind power, and also the largest manufacturer and exporter of photovoltaic cells. Electricity production from solar and biomass energy is at the early stages of development in China, while geothermal power generation has received little attention recently. The spatial mismatch in renewable energy supply and electricity demand requires construction of long-distance transmission networks, while the intermittence of renewable energy poses significant technical problems for feeding the generated electricity into the power grid. Besides greater investment in research and technology development, effective policies and financial measures should also be developed and improved to better support the healthy and sustained growth of renewable electricity generation. Meanwhile, attention should be paid to the potential impacts on the local environment from renewable energy development, despite the wider benefits for climate change.

  13. Effect of annealing treatment on the electrical characteristics of Pt/Cr-embedded ZnO/Pt resistance random access memory devices

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Li-Chun; Kao, Hsuan-Ling; Liu, Keng-Hao

    2014-03-15

    ZnO/Cr/ZnO trilayer films sandwiched with Pt electrodes were prepared for nonvolatile resistive memory applications. The threshold voltage of a ZnO device embedded with a 3-nm Cr interlayer was approximately 50% lower than that of a ZnO monolayer device. This study investigated threshold voltage as a function of Cr thickness. Both the ZnO monolayer device and the Cr-embedded ZnO device structures exhibited resistance switching under electrical bias both before and after rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treatment, but resistive switching effects in the two cases exhibited distinct characteristics. Compared with the as-fabricated device, the memory cell after RTA demonstrated remarkable device parameter improvements, including a lower threshold voltage, a lower write current, and a higher R{sub off}/R{sub on} ratio. Both transmission electron microscope observations and Auger electron spectroscopy revealed that the Cr charge trapping layer in Cr-embedded ZnO dispersed uniformly into the storage medium after RTA, and x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses demonstrated that the Cr atoms lost electrons to become Cr{sup 3+} ions after dispersion. These results indicated that the altered status of Cr in ZnO/Cr/ZnO trilayer films during RTA treatment was responsible for the switching mechanism transition.

  14. Electric field and image charge effects on impurity-bound polarons in a CdS colloidal quantum dot embedded in organic matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asatryan, A. L.; Vartanian, A. L.; Kirakosyan, A. A.; Vardanyan, L. A.

    2016-12-01

    An adiabatic variational approach is used to study the ground and first excited states of a hydrogen-like impurity bound polaron in a colloidal quantum dot (QD) under an external electric field, including image charge effect (ICE). The binding energy (BE) of donor impurity is calculated by taking into account the interaction of an electron with both bulk-type longitudinal optical (LO) phonons and interface optical phonons. Calculations have been carried out for CdS colloidal quantum dots embedded in thiophenol and oleic acid. Both parabolic confinement and electric field effects on the binding energy and its polaronic shift for 1s and 2s hydrogen-like states with and without ICE are investigated in detail.

  15. Electric Grid Expansion Planning with High Levels of Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W.; You, Shutang; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Liu, Yilu

    2016-02-01

    Renewables are taking a large proportion of generation capacity in U.S. power grids. As their randomness has increasing influence on power system operation, it is necessary to consider their impact on system expansion planning. To this end, this project studies the generation and transmission expansion co-optimization problem of the US Eastern Interconnection (EI) power grid with a high wind power penetration rate. In this project, the generation and transmission expansion problem for the EI system is modeled as a mixed-integer programming (MIP) problem. This study analyzed a time series creation method to capture the diversity of load and wind power across balancing regions in the EI system. The obtained time series can be easily introduced into the MIP co-optimization problem and then solved robustly through available MIP solvers. Simulation results show that the proposed time series generation method and the expansion co-optimization model and can improve the expansion result significantly after considering the diversity of wind and load across EI regions. The improved expansion plan that combines generation and transmission will aid system planners and policy makers to maximize the social welfare. This study shows that modelling load and wind variations and diversities across balancing regions will produce significantly different expansion result compared with former studies. For example, if wind is modeled in more details (by increasing the number of wind output levels) so that more wind blocks are considered in expansion planning, transmission expansion will be larger and the expansion timing will be earlier. Regarding generation expansion, more wind scenarios will slightly reduce wind generation expansion in the EI system and increase the expansion of other generation such as gas. Also, adopting detailed wind scenarios will reveal that it may be uneconomic to expand transmission networks for transmitting a large amount of wind power through a long distance

  16. Substrates and pathway of electricity generation in a nitrification-based microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Jiqiang; Xie, Zuofu; Ji, Junyuan; Ghulam, Abbas

    2014-06-01

    Nitrification-based microbial fuel cell (N-MFC) is a novel inorganic microbial fuel cell based on nitrification in the anode compartment. So far, little information is available on the substrates and pathway of N-MFC. The results of this study indicated that apart from the primary nitrification substrate (ammonium), the intermediates (hydroxylamine and nitrite) could also serve as anodic fuel to generate current, and the end product nitrate showed an inhibitory effect on electricity generation. Based on the research, a pathway of electricity generation was proposed for N-MFC: ammonium was oxidized first to nitrite by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), then the nitrite in anolyte and the potassium permanganate in catholyte constituted a chemical cell to generate current. In other words, the electricity generation in N-MFC was not only supported by microbial reaction as we expected, but both biological and electrochemical reactions contributed.

  17. Preliminary estimates of electrical generating capacity of slim holes--a theoretical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchett, John W.

    1995-01-26

    The feasibility of using small geothermal generators (< 1 MWe) for off-grid electrical power in remote areas or for rural electrification in developing nations would be enhanced if drilling costs could be reduced. This paper examines the electrical generating capacity of fluids which can be produced from typical slim holes (six-inch diameter or less), both by binary techniques (with downhole pumps) and, for hotter reservoir fluids, by conventional spontaneous-discharge flash-steam methods. Depending mainly on reservoir temperature, electrical capacities from a few hundred kilowatts to over one megawatt per slim hole appear to be possible.

  18. Solar thermal bowl concepts and economic comparisons for electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Brown, D.R.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Allemann, R.T.; Coomes, E.P.; Craig, S.N.; Drost, M.K.; Humphreys, K.K.; Nomura, K.K.

    1988-04-01

    This study is aimed at providing a relative comparison of the thermodynamic and economic performance in electric applications for fixed mirror distributed focus (FMDF) solar thermal concepts which have been studied and developed in the DOE solar thermal program. Following the completion of earlier systems comparison studies in the late 1970's there have been a number of years of progress in solar thermal technology. This progress includes developing new solar components, improving component and system design details, constructing working systems, and collecting operating data on the systems. This study povides an update of the expected performance and cost of the major components, and an overall system energy cost for the FMDDF concepts evaluated. The projections in this study are for the late 1990's and are based on the potential capabilities that might be achieved with further technology development.

  19. A Solar Thermophotovoltaic Electric Generator for Remote Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatemi, Navid S.

    1998-01-01

    We have successfully demonstrated that a solar thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system with a SiC graybody emitter and the monolithic interconnected module device technology can be realized. A custom-designed solar cavity was made to house the SiC emitter and the Monolithic Integrated Module (MIM) strings for testing in a Stirling dish solar concentrator. Five 1x1-cm MIMs, with a bandgap of 0.74 eV, were mounted on a specially designed water-cooled heatsink and were electrically connected in series to form a string. Two such strings were fabricated and tested, as well as high-performance 2x2-cm MIMs with a bandgap of 0.74 eV. Very high output power density values between 0.82 and 0.90 W/ square cm were observed for an average emitter temperature of 1501 K.

  20. A Solar Thermophotovoltaic Electric Generator for Remote Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fatemi, Navid S.

    1998-01-01

    We have successfully demonstrated that a solar thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system with a SiC graybody emitter and the monolithic interconnected module device technology can be realized. A custom-designed solar cavity was made to house the SiC emitter and the MIM strings for testing in a Stirling dish solar concentrator. Five 1x1-cm MIMs, with a bandgap of 0.74 eV,were mounted on a specially designed water-cooled heatsink and were electrically connected in series to form a string. Two such strings were fabricated and tested, as well as high-performance 2x2-cm MIMs with a bandgap of 0.74 eV. Very high output power density values between 0.82 and 0.90 W/sq cm were observed for an average emitter temperature of 1501 K.

  1. Aerodynamic platform comparison for jet-stream electricity generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, C. A. J.; Honan, A. J.; Sapuppo, J. S.

    1983-02-01

    Various aerodynamic platforms are considered for suitability for deriving electricity through wind turbines placed in the jet stream. Wind tunnel, economic, and performance analyses were performed for the integrated diffuser augmented wind turbine (IDAWT), the separated DAWT (SDAWT), a separated unshrouded wind turbine (SUWT), and a rotary wing concept (RWC). The wind tunnel trials were run with models and half models of the concepts to test the lift, static stability, and power extraction capability in a 25 m/sec flow. Variations in lift at varying angles of attack were also studied. The results indicated that the SDAWT and the IDAWT could be built at $650/kW and produce power at an operating cost of $.05/kWh. Improvements are projected to reduce the costs to $550/kW installed with operating costs less than $.04/kWh. The rotary wing concept was ruled out as a candidate.

  2. Water withdrawal and consumption reduction analysis for electrical energy generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri, Narjes

    There is an increasing concern over shrinking water resources. Water use in the energy sector primarily occurs in electricity generation. Anticipating scarcer supplies, the value of water is undoubtedly on the rise and design, implementation, and utilization of water saving mechanisms in energy generation systems are becoming inevitable. Most power plants generate power by boiling water to produce steam to spin electricity-generating turbines. Large quantities of water are often used to cool the steam in these plants. As a consequence, most fossil-based power plants in addition to consuming water, impact the water resources by raising the temperature of water withdrawn for cooling. A comprehensive study is conducted in this thesis to analyze and quantify water withdrawals and consumption of various electricity generation sources such as coal, natural gas, renewable sources, etc. Electricity generation for the state of California is studied and presented as California is facing a serious drought problem affecting more than 30 million people. Integrated planning for the interleaved energy and water sectors is essential for both water and energy savings. A linear model is developed to minimize the water consumption while considering several limitations and restrictions. California has planned to shut down some of its hydro and nuclear plants due to environmental concerns. Studies have been performed for various electricity generation and water saving scenarios including no-hydro and no-nuclear plant and the results are presented. Modifications to proposed different scenarios have been applied and discussed to meet the practical and reliability constraints.

  3. Generation of an ultra-short electrical pulse with width shorter than the excitation laser

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wei; Wang, Shaoqiang; Ma, Cheng; Xu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally a rare phenomenon that the width of an electrical response is shorter than that of the excitation laser. In this work, generation of an ultrashort electrical pulse is by a semi-insulating GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) and the generated electrical pulse width is shorter than that of the excitation laser from diode laser. When the pulse width and energy of the excitation laser are fixed at 25.7 ns and 1.6 μJ respectively, the width of the generated electrical pulse width by 3-mm-gap GaAs PCSS at the bias voltage of 9 kV is only 7.3 ns. The model of photon-activated charge domain (PACD) is used to explain the peculiar phenomenon in our experiment. The ultrashort electrical pulse width is mainly relevant to the time interval of PACD from occurrence to disappearance in the mode. The shorter the time interval is, the narrower the electrical pulse width will become. In more general terms, our result suggests that in nonlinear regime a response signal can have a much short width than the excitation pulses. The result clearly indicates that generating ultrashort electrical pulses can be achieved without the need of ultrashort lasers. PMID:27273512

  4. Role of Energy Storage with Renewable Electricity Generation (Report Summary) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.

    2010-03-01

    Renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, have vast potential to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions in the electric sector. Climate change concerns, state initiatives including renewable portfolio standards, and consumer efforts are resulting in increased deployments of both technologies. Both solar photovoltaics (PV) and wind energy have variable and uncertain (sometimes referred to as "intermittent") output, which are unlike the dispatchable sources used for the majority of electricity generation in the United States. The variability of these sources has led to concerns regarding the reliability of an electric grid that derives a large fraction of its energy from these sources as well as the cost of reliably integrating large amounts of variable generation into the electric grid. In this report, we explore the role of energy storage in the electricity grid, focusing on the effects of large-scale deployment of variable renewable sources (primarily wind and solar energy).

  5. Frictionless Linear Electrical Generator for Harvesting Motion Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    U.S. Government ROCKWELL SCIENTIFIC SC71222.RFRFTV Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction 2 2.0 Ultra Low Friction and Ferrofluid bearing 3 2-1 Properties...of Ferrofluid 3 2-2 Effect of Ultra Low Friction on Generator Performance ------------- 7 2.2.1 Low Frictional Loss and High Device Sensitivity...magnets through a set of induction coils, its competitive edge comes from the enabling technology of an ultra low friction ferrofluid bearing that

  6. Plant/microbe cooperation for electricity generation in a rice paddy field.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Nobuo; Yonezawa, Natsuki; Kodama, Yumiko; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2008-05-01

    Soils are rich in organics, particularly those that support growth of plants. These organics are possible sources of sustainable energy, and a microbial fuel cell (MFC) system can potentially be used for this purpose. Here, we report the application of an MFC system to electricity generation in a rice paddy field. In our system, graphite felt electrodes were used; an anode was set in the rice rhizosphere, and a cathode was in the flooded water above the rhizosphere. It was observed that electricity generation (as high as 6 mW/m(2), normalized to the anode projection area) was sunlight dependent and exhibited circadian oscillation. Artificial shading of rice plants in the daytime inhibited the electricity generation. In the rhizosphere, rice roots penetrated the anode graphite felt where specific bacterial populations occurred. Supplementation to the anode region with acetate (one of the major root-exhausted organic compounds) enhanced the electricity generation in the dark. These results suggest that the paddy-field electricity-generation system was an ecological solar cell in which the plant photosynthesis was coupled to the microbial conversion of organics to electricity.

  7. Implantable power generation system utilizing muscle contractions excited by electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sahara, Genta; Hijikata, Wataru; Tomioka, Kota; Shinshi, Tadahiko

    2016-06-01

    An implantable power generation system driven by muscle contractions for supplying power to active implantable medical devices, such as pacemakers and neurostimulators, is proposed. In this system, a muscle is intentionally contracted by an electrical stimulation in accordance with the demands of the active implantable medical device for electrical power. The proposed system, which comprises a small electromagnetic induction generator, electrodes with an electrical circuit for stimulation and a transmission device to convert the linear motion of the muscle contractions into rotational motion for the magneto rotor, generates electrical energy. In an ex vivo demonstration using the gastrocnemius muscle of a toad, which was 28 mm in length and weighed 1.3 g, the electrical energy generated by the prototype exceeded the energy consumed for electrical stimulation, with the net power being 111 µW. It was demonstrated that the proposed implantable power generation system has the potential to replace implantable batteries for active implantable medical devices.

  8. Generation of Unprecedented high Electric Fields with Pyroelectric Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crimi, Sarah; Tornow, Werner; Corse, Zach

    2009-10-01

    Since a few years pyroelectric crystals in a deuterium gas environment have been used to produce neutrons via the ^2H(d,n)^3He reaction. The figure-of-merit for neutron production in the energy region of interest is about IE^3/2, where I is the deuterium ion current and E is the associated ion energy. Therefore, it is important to maximize E. Using single and double crystal arrangements with electric field enhancing nano-tips, the highest positive potentials reported in the literature were 115 keV [1] and 250 keV [2], respectively. Using longer LiTaO3 crystals than commonly employed (2.5 cm versus 1.0 cm) and without attaching a nano-tip, we have produced positive deuterium ion beams of energies up to 325 keV with a single crystal during the cooling phase from 130 ^oC to 0 ^oC. In a double crystal arrangement we have obtained positive ion energies of up to 390 keV. Details of our experimental approach will be presented.[4pt] [1] B. Naranjo et al., Nature 434, 1115 (2005).[0pt] [2] D. Gillich et al., Nucl. Instr. Meth. in Phys. Res. A 602, 306 (2009).

  9. 77 FR 65545 - Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. v. Western Electric Coordinating Council...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. v. Western Electric... (2011), Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. (Complainants) filed a complaint and...

  10. Magnetohydrodynamic generator of electrical energy using gasification products of lignite coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derevianko, V. A.; Slavin, V. S.; Sokolov, V. S.

    1980-10-01

    An investigation is presented of an MHD generator of electrical energy fueled by gasification products of lignite coals using the T-layer effect which eliminates caustic additives. A quasi-one-dimensional theory of linear MHD processes is constructed on the basis of MHD equations; a design of an industrial generator is discussed.

  11. MHD generator of electrical energy working on the gasification products of lignites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derevianko, V. A.; Slavin, V. S.; Sokolov, V. S.

    1981-03-01

    An investigation is presented of an MHD generator of electrical energy fueled by gasification products of lignite coals using the T-layer effect which eliminates caustic additives. A quasi-one-dimensional theory of linear MHD processes is constructed on the basis of MHD equations; a design of an industrial generator is discussed.

  12. Effects of furan derivatives and phenolic compounds on electricity generation in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catal, Tunc; Fan, Yanzhen; Li, Kaichang; Bermek, Hakan; Liu, Hong

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive fuel source for MFCs due to its renewable nature and ready availability. Furan derivatives and phenolic compounds could be potentially formed during the pre-treatment process of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, voltage generation from these compounds and the effects of these compounds on voltage generation from glucose in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were examined. Except for 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), all the other compounds tested were unable to be utilized directly for electricity production in MFCs in the absence of other electron donors. One furan derivate, 5-HMF and two phenolic compounds, trans-cinnamic acid and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid did not affect electricity generation from glucose at a concentration up to 10 mM. Four phenolic compounds, including syringaldeyhde, vanillin, trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy, and 4-hydroxy cinnamic acids inhibited electricity generation at concentrations above 5 mM. Other compounds, including 2-furaldehyde, benzyl alcohol and acetophenone, inhibited the electricity generation even at concentrations less than 0.2 mM. This study suggests that effective electricity generation from the hydrolysates of lignocellulosic biomass in MFCs may require the employment of the hydrolysis methods with low furan derivatives and phenolic compounds production, or the removal of some strong inhibitors prior to the MFC operation, or the improvement of bacterial tolerance against these compounds through the enrichment of new bacterial cultures or genetic modification of the bacterial strains.

  13. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2013-01-01

    As clean energy increasingly becomes part of the national dialogue, lenders, utilities, and lawmakers need the most comprehensive and accurate information on GHG emissions from various sources of energy to inform policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that gives decision makers and investors more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for renewable and conventional generation, clarifying inconsistent and conflicting estimates in the published literature, and reducing uncertainty.

  14. Cooling of High Power Generators and Motors for Electric Propulsion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    June, 1926 10. Kostikov, 0.N. Malykhin , E. I us, Z.P., Yakovlev, A.I., a "I3nflaence of Internal Heat Transfer on the Therl State of Totally Enclosed...1111 a + lm+__. NAIN L 140 ll tAL -’- B1 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California j AUG 7 04;_) THESIS COOLING OF HIGH POWER GENERATORS AND MOTORS...OR GRANT NUMOER( a ) James LeRoy Szatkowski in conjunction with Paul J. Marto 9. PERFORUIN42 ORGANIZATION MAMIE AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM~ ELEMENT

  15. Feasibility Study of Biomass Electrical Generation on Tribal Lands

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Roche; Richard Hartmann; Joohn Luton; Warren Hudelson; Roger Blomguist; Jan Hacker; Colene Frye

    2005-03-29

    The goals of the St. Croix Tribe are to develop economically viable energy production facilities using readily available renewable biomass fuel sources at an acceptable cost per kilowatt hour ($/kWh), to provide new and meaningful permanent employment, retain and expand existing employment (logging) and provide revenues for both producers and sellers of the finished product. This is a feasibility study including an assessment of available biomass fuel, technology assessment, site selection, economics viability given the foreseeable fuel and generation costs, as well as an assessment of the potential markets for renewable energy.

  16. Assessment of a Solar Cell Panel Spatial Arrangement Influence on Electricity Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, I. A.; Burakova, L. N.; Burakova, A. D.; Burakova, O. D.

    2017-05-01

    The research evaluates the impact of the spatial arrangement of solar cell panels on the amount of electricity generated (power generated by solar cell panel) in Tyumen. Dependences of the power generated by the solar panel on the time of day, air temperature, weather conditions and the spatial arrangement are studied. Formulas for the calculation of the solar cell panel inclination angle which provides electricity to urban infrastructure are offered. Based on the data in the future, changing of inclination angle of solar cell panel will be confirmed experimentally during the year in Tyumen, and recommendations for installing solar cell panels in urban infrastructure will be developed.

  17. Native American Technical Assistance and Training for Renewable Energy Resource Development and Electrical Generation Facilities Management

    SciTech Connect

    A. David Lester

    2008-10-17

    The Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) will facilitate technical expertise and training of Native Americans in renewable energy resource development for electrical generation facilities, and distributed generation options contributing to feasibility studies, strategic planning and visioning. CERT will also provide information to Tribes on energy efficiency and energy management techniques.This project will provide facilitation and coordination of expertise from government agencies and private industries to interact with Native Americans in ways that will result in renewable energy resource development, energy efficiency program development, and electrical generation facilities management by Tribal entities. The intent of this cooperative agreement is to help build capacity within the Tribes to manage these important resources.

  18. Current and future greenhouse gas emissions associated with electricity generation in China: implications for electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Han, Weijian; Wallington, Timothy J

    2014-06-17

    China's oil imports and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have grown rapidly over the past decade. Addressing energy security and GHG emissions is a national priority. Replacing conventional vehicles with electric vehicles (EVs) offers a potential solution to both issues. While the reduction in petroleum use and hence the energy security benefits of switching to EVs are obvious, the GHG benefits are less obvious. We examine the current Chinese electric grid and its evolution and discuss the implications for EVs. China's electric grid will be dominated by coal for the next few decades. In 2015 in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, EVs will need to use less than 14, 19, and 23 kWh/100 km, respectively, to match the 183 gCO2/km WTW emissions for energy saving vehicles. In 2020, in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou EVs will need to use less than 13, 18, and 20 kWh/100 km, respectively, to match the 137 gCO2/km WTW emissions for energy saving vehicles. EVs currently demonstrated in China use 24-32 kWh/100 km. Electrification will reduce petroleum imports; however, it will be very challenging for EVs to contribute to government targets for GHGs emissions reduction.

  19. Electricity generation by anaerobic bacteria and anoxic sediments from hypersaline soda lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, L.G.; Oremland, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria and anoxic sediments from soda lakes produced electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). No electricity was generated in the absence of bacterial metabolism. Arsenate respiring bacteria isolated from moderately hypersaline Mono Lake (Bacillus selenitireducens), and salt-saturated Searles Lake, CA (strain SLAS-1) oxidized lactate using arsenate as the electron acceptor. However, these cultures grew equally well without added arsenate using the MFC anode as their electron acceptor, and in the process oxidized lactate more efficiently. The decrease in electricity generation by consumption of added alternative electron acceptors (i.e. arsenate) which competed with the anode for available electrons proved to be a useful indicator of microbial activity and hence life in the fuel cells. Shaken sediment slurries from these two lakes also generated electricity, with or without added lactate. Hydrogen added to sediment slurries was consumed but did not stimulate electricity production. Finally, electricity was generated in statically incubated "intact" sediment cores from these lakes. More power was produced in sediment from Mono Lake than from Searles Lake, however microbial fuel cells could detect low levels of metabolism operating under moderate and extreme conditions of salt stress. ?? 2008 US Government.

  20. Electricity generation by anaerobic bacteria and anoxic sediments from hypersaline soda lakes.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laurence G; Oremland, Ronald S

    2008-11-01

    Anaerobic bacteria and anoxic sediments from soda lakes produced electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). No electricity was generated in the absence of bacterial metabolism. Arsenate respiring bacteria isolated from moderately hypersaline Mono Lake (Bacillus selenitireducens), and salt-saturated Searles Lake, CA (strain SLAS-1) oxidized lactate using arsenate as the electron acceptor. However, these cultures grew equally well without added arsenate using the MFC anode as their electron acceptor, and in the process oxidized lactate more efficiently. The decrease in electricity generation by consumption of added alternative electron acceptors (i.e. arsenate) which competed with the anode for available electrons proved to be a useful indicator of microbial activity and hence life in the fuel cells. Shaken sediment slurries from these two lakes also generated electricity, with or without added lactate. Hydrogen added to sediment slurries was consumed but did not stimulate electricity production. Finally, electricity was generated in statically incubated "intact" sediment cores from these lakes. More power was produced in sediment from Mono Lake than from Searles Lake, however microbial fuel cells could detect low levels of metabolism operating under moderate and extreme conditions of salt stress.

  1. Dying to play video games: carbon monoxide poisoning from electrical generators used after hurricane Ike.

    PubMed

    Fife, Caroline E; Smith, Latisha A; Maus, Erik A; McCarthy, James J; Koehler, Michelle Z; Hawkins, Trina; Hampson, Neil B

    2009-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common after major storms because of loss of electrical power and use of alternate fuel sources for heat and electricity. In past epidemics of hurricane-related CO poisoning, the source has typically been gasoline-powered electrical generators. Although it is typically believed that generators were used to power air conditioning and refrigeration, this report demonstrates an unsuspected reason for their use. After Hurricane Ike's landfall in September 2008, major power outages were associated with an epidemic of CO poisoning from electrical generators, as expected. Staff at Memorial Hermann Hospital-Texas Medical Center treated or telephone-triaged cases from the Houston area. A review of the details of those cases forms the basis of this report. Memorial Hermann Hospital-Texas Medical Center staff treated or triaged 37 individuals exposed to CO from gasoline-powered electrical generators in 13 incidents in the first 36 hours after landfall of the hurricane. Notably, 54% (20 of 37) of the patients were under the age of 18 years. Symptoms ranged from mild to severe, with 1 child dying at the scene. Eleven patients were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Among 9 incidents in which the reason for generator use was determined, 5 were due to generators powering video games or televisions to watch movies or programs. These 5 incidents in which video games were being powered accounted for 75% (15 of 20) of the pediatric poisonings. Generator-related CO poisoning is indeed common during power outages after hurricanes. However, generators are commonly being used to provide electricity to power entertainment devices for children, such as video games. Additional public education about CO risk is needed, perhaps directed at older children and teenagers through the schools in regions susceptible to hurricanes.

  2. Method and apparatus for generating electric power by waves

    SciTech Connect

    Watabe, T.; Dote, Y.; Kondo, H.; Matsuda, T.; Takagi, M.; Yano, K.

    1984-12-25

    At least one caisson which is part or all of a breakwater forms a water chamber therein whose closure is a pendulum having a natural period in rocking or oscillating the same as a period of stationary wave surges caused in the water chamber by rocking movement of the pendulum owing to wave force impinging against the pendulum. At least one double-acting piston and cylinder assembly is connected to the pendulum, so that when a piston of the assembly is reciprocatively moved by the pendulum, pressure difference between cylinder chambers on both sides of the piston of the assembly controls a change-over valve which in turn controls hydraulic pressure discharged from the cylinder chambers to be supplied to a plurality of hydraulic motors respectively having accumulators of a type wherein accumulated pressure and volume of the hydraulic liquid are proportional to each other, whereby driving a common generator alternately by the hydraulic motors.

  3. Electric probe investigations of microwave generated, atmospheric pressure, plasma jets

    SciTech Connect

    Porteanu, H. E.; Kuehn, S.; Gesche, R.

    2010-07-15

    We examine the applicability of the Langmuir-type of characterization for atmospheric pressure plasma jets generated in a millimeter-size cavity microwave resonator at 2.45 GHz. Wide range I-V characteristics of helium, argon, nitrogen, air and oxygen are presented for different gas fluxes, distances probe-resonator, and microwave powers. A detailed analysis is performed for the fine variation in the current around the floating potential. A simplified theory specially developed for this case is presented, considering the ionic and electronic saturation currents and the floating potential. Based on this theory, we conclude that, while the charge carrier density depends on gas flow, distance to plasma source, and microwave absorbed power, the electron temperature is quite independent of these parameters. The resulting plasma parameters for helium, argon, and nitrogen are presented.

  4. Space shuttle electrical power generation and reactant supply system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    The design philosophy and development experience of fuel cell power generation and cryogenic reactant supply systems are reviewed, beginning with the state of technology at the conclusion of the Apollo Program. Technology advancements span a period of 10 years from initial definition phase to the most recent space transportation system (STS) flights. The development program encompassed prototype, verification, and qualification hardware, as well as post-STS-1 design improvements. Focus is on the problems encountered, the scientific and engineering approaches employed to meet the technological challenges, and the results obtained. Major technology barriers are discussed, and the evolving technology development paths are traced from their conceptual beginnings to the fully man-rated systems which are now an integral part of the shuttle vehicle.

  5. Technology survey of electrical power generation and distribution for MIUS application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, W. L.; Redding, T. E.

    1975-01-01

    Candidate electrical generation power systems for the modular integrated utility systems (MIUS) program are described. Literature surveys were conducted to cover both conventional and exotic generators. Heat-recovery equipment associated with conventional power systems and supporting equipment are also discussed. Typical ranges of operating conditions and generating efficiencies are described. Power distribution is discussed briefly. Those systems that appear to be applicable to MIUS have been indicated, and the criteria for equipment selection are discussed.

  6. Electric utility system benefits of factory packaged GE LM Modular Generator sets

    SciTech Connect

    West, G.

    1994-12-31

    Electric utility system benefits of factory packaged GE LM modular generator sets are outlined. The following topics are discussed: GE LM gas turbine history, operating experience, maintenance, gas turbine spare engines, modular gas turbine generator sets, typical LM2500 cogeneration plant and STIG cycle plant, factory packaging concept, gas turbine/generator package, performance, comparison, competitive capital cost, phased construction, comparison of revenue requirements, capacity evaluation, heat rate evaluation, fuel evaluation, startup, and dispatch flexibility without maintenance penalty.

  7. [Electricity generation and contaminants degradation performances of a microbial fuel cell fed with Dioscorea zingiberensis wastewater].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zhu, Xiu-Ping; Xu, Nan; Ni, Jin-Ren

    2011-01-01

    The electricity generation performance of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) utilizing Dioscorea zingiberensis wastewater was studied with an H-shape reactor. Indexes including pH, conductivity, oxidation peak potential and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the anolyte were monitored to investigate the contaminants degradation performance of the MFC during the electricity generation process, besides, contaminant ingredients in anodic influent and effluent were analyzed by GC-MS and IR spectra as well. The maximum power density of the MFC could achieve 118.1 mW/m2 and the internal resistance was about 480 omega. Connected with a 1 000 omega external resistance, the output potential was about 0.4 V. Fed with 5 mL Dioscorea zingiberensis wastewater, the electricity generation lasted about 133 h and the coulombic efficiency was about 3.93%. At the end of electricity generation cycle, COD decreased by 90.1% while NH4(+) -N decreased by 66.8%. Furfural compounds, phenols and some other complicated organics could be decomposed and utilized in the electricity generation process, and the residual contaminants in effluent included some long-chain fatty acids, esters, ethers, and esters with benzene ring, cycloalkanes, cycloolefins, etc. The results indicate that MFC, which can degrade and utilize the organic contaminants in Dioscorea zingiberensis wastewater simultaneously, provides a new approach for resource recovery treatment of Dioscorea zingiberensis wastewater.

  8. Geothermal electric power generation in Iceland for the proposed Iceland/United Kingdom HVDC power link

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J. ); Palmason, G.; Thorhallsson, S. )

    1991-06-01

    The paper reviews geothermal electric power potential in Iceland which could economically be developed to supplement hydro power for the proposed HVDC Power Link to the United Kingdom, and power intensive industries in Iceland, which are envisaged for development at this time. Technically harnessable energy for electricity generation taking account of geothermal resources down to an assumed base depth, temperature distribution in the crust, probable geothermal recovery factor, and accessibility of the field, has been assessed. Nineteen known high-temperature fields and 9 probable fields have been identified. Technically harnessable geo-heat for various areas is indicated. Data on high temperature fields suitable for geothermal electric power generation, and on harnessable energy for electric power generation within volcanic zones, is stated, and overall assessments are made. The paper then reviews how the potential might be developed, discussing preference of possible sites, and cost of the developments at todays prices. Cost of geothermal electric power generation with comparative costs for hydro generation are given. Possible transmission system developments to feed the power to the proposed HVDC Link converter stations are also discussed.

  9. Treatment of Solar Generation in Electric Utility Resource Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Sterling, J.; McLaren, J.; Taylor, M.; Cory, K.

    2013-10-01

    Today's utility planners have a different market and economic context than their predecessors, including planning for the growth of renewable energy. State and federal support policies, solar photovoltaic (PV) price declines, and the introduction of new business models for solar PV 'ownership' are leading to increasing interest in solar technologies (especially PV); however, solar introduces myriad new variables into the utility resource planning decision. Most, but not all, utility planners have less experience analyzing solar than conventional generation as part of capacity planning, portfolio evaluation, and resource procurement decisions. To begin to build this knowledge, utility staff expressed interest in one effort: utility exchanges regarding data, methods, challenges, and solutions for incorporating solar in the planning process. Through interviews and a questionnaire, this report aims to begin this exchange of information and capture utility-provided information about: 1) how various utilities approach long-range resource planning; 2) methods and tools utilities use to conduct resource planning; and, 3) how solar technologies are considered in the resource planning process.

  10. Electricity generation from carbon monoxide and syngas in a microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Abid; Guiot, Serge R; Mehta, Punita; Raghavan, Vijaya; Tartakovsky, Boris

    2011-05-01

    Electricity generation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has been a subject of significant research efforts. MFCs employ the ability of electricigenic bacteria to oxidize organic substrates using an electrode as an electron acceptor. While MFC application for electricity production from a variety of organic sources has been demonstrated, very little research on electricity production from carbon monoxide and synthesis gas (syngas) in an MFC has been reported. Although most of the syngas today is produced from non-renewable sources, syngas production from renewable biomass or poorly degradable organic matter makes energy generation from syngas a sustainable process, which combines energy production with the reprocessing of solid wastes. An MFC-based process of syngas conversion to electricity might offer a number of advantages such as high Coulombic efficiency and biocatalytic activity in the presence of carbon monoxide and sulfur components. This paper presents a discussion on microorganisms and reactor designs that can be used for operating an MFC on syngas.

  11. A review of utility issues for the integration of wind electric generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddoch, T. W.; Barnes, P. R.

    1982-01-01

    A review of issues and concerns of the electric utility industry for the integration of wind electric generation is offered. The issues have been categorized in three major areas: planning, operations, and dynamic interaction. Representative studies have been chosen for each area to illustrate problems and to alleviate some concerns. The emphasis of this paper is on individual large wind turbines (WTs) and WT arrays for deployment at the bulk level in a utility system.

  12. Numerical investigation of entropy generation in unsteady MHD generalized Couette flow with variable electrical conductivity.

    PubMed

    Chinyoka, T; Makinde, O D

    2013-01-01

    The thermodynamic second law analysis is utilized to investigate the inherent irreversibility in an unsteady hydromagnetic generalized Couette flow with variable electrical conductivity in the presence of induced electric field. Based on some simplified assumption, the model nonlinear governing equations are obtained and solved numerically using semidiscretization finite difference techniques. Effects of various thermophysical parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature, current density, skin friction, the Nusselt number, entropy generation number, and the Bejan number are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively.

  13. Numerical Investigation of Entropy Generation in Unsteady MHD Generalized Couette Flow with Variable Electrical Conductivity

    PubMed Central

    Chinyoka, T.; Makinde, O. D.

    2013-01-01

    The thermodynamic second law analysis is utilized to investigate the inherent irreversibility in an unsteady hydromagnetic generalized Couette flow with variable electrical conductivity in the presence of induced electric field. Based on some simplified assumption, the model nonlinear governing equations are obtained and solved numerically using semidiscretization finite difference techniques. Effects of various thermophysical parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature, current density, skin friction, the Nusselt number, entropy generation number, and the Bejan number are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively. PMID:23956691

  14. The generation of pollution-free electrical power from solar energy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Projections of the U.S. electrical power demands over the next 30 years indicate that the U.S. could be in grave danger from power shortages, undesirable effluence, and thermal pollution. An appraisal of nonconventional methods of producing electrical power is conducted, giving particular attention to the conversion of solar energy into commercial quantities of electrical power by solar cells. It is found that 1% of the land area of the 48 states could provide the total electrical power requirements of the U.S. in the year 1990. The ultimate method of generating vast quantities of electrical power would be from a series of synchronous satellites which beam microwave power back to earth to be used wherever needed. Present high manufacturing costs of solar cells could be substantially reduced by using massive automated techniques employing abundant low cost materials.

  15. The generation of pollution-free electrical power from solar energy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Projections of the U.S. electrical power demands over the next 30 years indicate that the U.S. could be in grave danger from power shortages, undesirable effluence, and thermal pollution. An appraisal of nonconventional methods of producing electrical power is conducted, giving particular attention to the conversion of solar energy into commercial quantities of electrical power by solar cells. It is found that 1% of the land area of the 48 states could provide the total electrical power requirements of the U.S. in the year 1990. The ultimate method of generating vast quantities of electrical power would be from a series of synchronous satellites which beam microwave power back to earth to be used wherever needed. Present high manufacturing costs of solar cells could be substantially reduced by using massive automated techniques employing abundant low cost materials.

  16. Evaluation and Ranking of Geothermal Resources for Electrical Generation or Electrical Offset in Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. Executive Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R. Gordon

    1985-06-01

    The objective was to consolidate and evaluate all geologic, environmental, legal, and institutional information in existing records and files, and to apply a uniform methodology to the evaluation and ranking of all known geothermal sites. This data base would enhance the making of credible forecasts of the supply of geothermal energy which could be available in the region over a 20 year planning horizon. The four states, working under a cooperative agreement, identified a total of 1265 potential geothermal sites. The 1265 sites were screened to eliminate those with little or no chance of providing either electrical generation and/or electrical offset. Two hundred and forty-five of the original 1265 sites were determined to warrant further study. On the basis of a developability index, 78 high temperature sites and 120 direct utilization sites were identified as having ''good'' or ''average'' potential for development and should be studied in detail. On the basis of cost, at least 29 of the high temperature sites appear to be technically capable of supporting a minimum total of at least 1000 MW of electrical generation which could be competitive with the busbar cost of conventional thermal generating technologies. Sixty direct utilization sites have a minimum total energy potential of 900+ MW and can be expected to provide substantial amounts of electrical offset at or below present conventional energy prices. Five direct utilization sites and eight high temperature sites were identified with both high development and economic potential. An additional 27 sites were shown to have superior economic characteristics, but development problems. 14 refs., 15 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Study of Electrical Conduction Mechanism of Organic Double-Layer Diode Using Electric Field Induced Optical Second Harmonic Generation Measurement.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Shohei; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2016-04-01

    By using electric field induced optical second harmonic generation (EFISHG) and current voltage (I-V) measurements, we studied the electrical transport mechanism of organic double-layer diodes with a structure of Au/N, N'-di-[(1-naphthyl)-N, N'-diphenyl]-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (a-NPD)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)/indium zinc oxide (IZO). Here the α-NPD is a carrier transport layer and the PMMA is an electrical insulating layer. The current level was very low, but the I-V characteristics showed a rectifying behavior. The EFISHG measurement selectively and directly probed the electric field across the α-NPD layer, and showed that the electric field across the a-NPD layer is completely relaxed owing to the charge accumulation at the a-NPD/PMMA interface in the region V > 0, whereas the carrier accumulation was not significant in the region V < 0. On the basis of these experimental results, we proposed a model of the rectification. Further, by coupling the I-V characteristics with the EFISHG measurement, the I-V characteristics of the diodes were well converted into the current-electric field (I-E) characteristics of the α-NPD layer and the PMMA layer. The I-E characteristics suggested the Schottky-type conduction governs the carrier transport. We conclude that the I-V measurement coupled with the EFISHG measurement is very useful to study carrier transport mechanism of the organic double-layer diodes.

  18. Equivalent circuit and characteristic simulation of a brushless electrically excited synchronous wind power generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Zhang, Fengge; Guan, Tao; Yu, Siyang

    2017-09-01

    A brushless electrically excited synchronous generator (BEESG) with a hybrid rotor is a novel electrically excited synchronous generator. The BEESG proposed in this paper is composed of a conventional stator with two different sets of windings with different pole numbers, and a hybrid rotor with powerful coupling capacity. The pole number of the rotor is different from those of the stator windings. Thus, an analysis method different from that applied to conventional generators should be applied to the BEESG. In view of this problem, the equivalent circuit and electromagnetic torque expression of the BEESG are derived on the basis of electromagnetic relation of the proposed generator. The generator is simulated and tested experimentally using the established equivalent circuit model. The experimental and simulation data are then analyzed and compared. Results show the validity of the equivalent circuit model.

  19. Microbial communities involved in electricity generation from sulfide oxidation in a microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Tong, Zhong-Hua; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Chen, Yong-Zhen; Zhang, Feng; Mu, Zhe-Xuan; Wang, Hua-Lin; Zeng, Raymond J; Liu, Xian-Wei; Yu, Han-Qing; Wei, Li; Ma, Fang

    2010-10-15

    Simultaneous electricity generation and sulfide removal can be achieved in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). In electricity harvesting from sulfide oxidation in such an MFC, various microbial communities are involved. It is essential to elucidate the microbial communities and their roles in the sulfide conversion and electricity generation. In this work, an MFC was constructed to enrich a microbial consortium, which could harvest electricity from sulfide oxidation. Electrochemical analysis demonstrated that microbial catalysis was involved in electricity output in the sulfide-fed MFC. The anode-attached and planktonic communities could perform catalysis independently, and synergistic interactions occurred when the two communities worked together. A 16S rRNA clone library analysis was employed to characterize the microbial communities in the MFC. The anode-attached and planktonic communities shared similar richness and diversity, while the LIBSHUFF analysis revealed that the two community structures were significantly different. The exoelectrogenic, sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing bacteria were found in the MFC anodic chamber. The discovery of these bacteria was consistent with the community characteristics for electricity generation from sulfide oxidation. The exoelectrogenic bacteria were found both on the anode and in the solution. The sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were present in greater abundance on the anode than in the solution, while the sulfate-reducing bacteria preferably lived in the solution.

  20. Developing a tool to estimate water withdrawal and consumption in electricity generation in the United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, M.; Peng, J.

    2011-02-24

    Freshwater consumption for electricity generation is projected to increase dramatically in the next couple of decades in the United States. The increased demand is likely to further strain freshwater resources in regions where water has already become scarce. Meanwhile, the automotive industry has stepped up its research, development, and deployment efforts on electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Large-scale, escalated production of EVs and PHEVs nationwide would require increased electricity production, and so meeting the water demand becomes an even greater challenge. The goal of this study is to provide a baseline assessment of freshwater use in electricity generation in the United States and at the state level. Freshwater withdrawal and consumption requirements for power generated from fossil, nonfossil, and renewable sources via various technologies and by use of different cooling systems are examined. A data inventory has been developed that compiles data from government statistics, reports, and literature issued by major research institutes. A spreadsheet-based model has been developed to conduct the estimates by means of a transparent and interactive process. The model further allows us to project future water withdrawal and consumption in electricity production under the forecasted increases in demand. This tool is intended to provide decision makers with the means to make a quick comparison among various fuel, technology, and cooling system options. The model output can be used to address water resource sustainability when considering new projects or expansion of existing plants.

  1. Exploration of the Feasibility of Present Generation Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    AD-A 24 098 EXPLORATION 0F THE FEASIBILT 0F PRESENT GENERATION 1/ LITHIUM BATTERIES FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES (U) EIC LABS INC NEWTON MA P B HARRIS ET AL...LITHIUM BATTERIES FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES by P. B. Harris, G. L. Holleck, J. Buzby, J. Avery, L. Pitts and K. M. Abraham EIC Laboratories, Inc. 67 Chapel...8217cathodes, 2Methyl-tetrahydrofuran/LiAsF6 electrolytes for cyclinq lithium, Use of ambient temperature lithium cells for electric vehicles . ’\\’U 9

  2. Electric field detection of coherent synchrotron radiation in a storage ring generated using laser bunch slicing

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, I.; Shimosato, H.; Bito, M.; Furusawa, K.; Adachi, M.; Zen, H.; Kimura, S.; Katoh, M.; Shimada, M.; Yamamoto, N.; Hosaka, M.; Ashida, M.

    2012-03-12

    The electric field of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) generated by laser bunch slicing in a storage ring has been detected by an electro-optic sampling method. The gate pulses for sampling are sent through a large-mode-area photonic-crystal fiber. The observed electric field profile of the CSR is in good agreement with the spectrum of the CSR observed using Fourier transform far-infrared spectrometry, indicating good phase stability in the CSR. The longitudinal density profiles of electrons modulated by laser pulses were evaluated from the electric field profile.

  3. Electricity generation from synthesis gas by microbial processes: CO fermentation and microbial fuel cell technology.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daehee; Chang, In Seop

    2009-10-01

    A microbiological process was established to harvest electricity from the carbon monoxide (CO). A CO fermenter was enriched with CO as the sole carbon source. The DGGE/DNA sequencing results showed that Acetobacterium spp. were enriched from the anaerobic digester fluid. After the fermenter was operated under continuous mode, the products were then continuously fed to the microbial fuel cell (MFC) to generate electricity. Even though the conversion yield was quite low, this study proved that synthesis gas (syn-gas) can be converted to electricity with the aid of microbes that do not possess the drawbacks of metal catalysts of conventional methods.

  4. Terahertz generation from laser filaments in the presence of a static electric field in a plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bhasin, Lalita; Tripathi, V. K.

    2011-12-15

    Two femtosecond laser pulses with frequencies {omega}{sub 1} and {omega}{sub 2} that undergo filamentation in a plasma couple nonlinearly in the presence of a transverse, static electric field to generate terahertz wave at the frequency {omega}{sub 1}-{omega}{sub 2}. The coupling is enhanced in the presence of the static electric field. We develop a theoretical model and observe over 30 times increase in the magnitude of normalized terahertz amplitude by applying a dc electric field ~50kV/cm.

  5. Parallel electric field generation in the ionosphere over thunderstorms and the interaction with ionospheric electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, D.; Wygant, J.; Pfaff, R.; Farrell, W.; Goetz, K.; Monson, S.

    Sounding rockets launched by Mike Kelley and his group at Cornell demonstrated the existence of transient (1 ms) electric fields associated with lightning strikes at high altitudes above active thunderstorms. These electric fields had a component parallel to the Earth's magnetic field, and were unipolar and large in amplitude. They were thought to be strong enough to energize electrons and generate strong turbulence as the beams thermalized. The parallel electric fields were observed on multiple flights, but high time resolution measurements were not made within 100 km horizontal distance of lightning strokes, where the electric fields are largest. In 2000 the ``Lightning Bolt'' sounding rocket (NASA 27.143) was launched directly over an active thunderstorm to an apogee near 300 km. The sounding rocket was equipped with sensitive electric and magnetic field instruments as well as a photometer and electrostatic analyser for measuring accelerated electrons. The electric and magnetic fields were sampled at 10 million samples per second, letting us fully resolve the structure of the parallel electric field pulse up to and beyond the plasma frequency. We will present results from the Lightning Bolt mission, concentrating on the parallel electric field pulses that arrive before the lower-frequency whistler wave modes. We observe pulses with peak electric fields of a few mV/m lasting for a substantial fraction of a millisecond. Superimposed on this is high-frequency turbulence, comparable in amplitude to the pulse itself. This is the first direct observation of this structure in the parallel electric field, within 100 km horizontal distance of the lightning stroke. We will present evidence for the method of generation of these parallel fields, and discuss their probable effect on ionospheric electrons.

  6. Simultaneous anaerobic sulfide and nitrate removal coupled with electricity generation in Microbial Fuel Cell.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jing; Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Jiqiang; Xie, Zuofu; Li, Wei; Sun, Peide

    2013-02-01

    Two-chamber Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC) using graphite rods as electrodes were operated for simultaneous anaerobic sulfide and nitrate removal coupled with electricity generation. The MFC showed good ability to remove substrates. When the influent sulfide and nitrate concentrations were 780 mg/L and 135.49 mg/L, respectively, the removal percentages of sulfide and nitrate were higher than 90% and the main end products were nitrogen and sulfate. The MFC also showed good ability to generate electricity, and the voltage went up with the rise of influent substrate concentrations. When the external resistance was 1000 Ω, its highest steady voltage was 71 mV. Based on the linear relationship between the electrons released by substrates and accepted by electrode, it was concluded that the electricity generation was coupled with the substrate conversion in the MFC.

  7. The second-harmonic generation susceptibility in semiparabolic quantum wells with applied electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jian-Hui; Zhang, Yan; Mo, Hua; Chen, Ni; Zhang, Zhihai

    2015-12-01

    The second-harmonic generation susceptibility in semiparabolic quantum wells with applied electric field is investigated theoretically. For the same topic studied by Zhang and Xie [Phys. Rev. B 68 (2003) 235315] [1], some new and reliable results are obtained by us. It is easily observed that the second harmonic generation susceptibility decreases and the blue shift of the resonance is induced with increasing of the frequencies of the confined potential. Moreover, a transition from a two-photon resonance to two single-photon resonances will appear adjusted by the frequencies of the confined potential. Similar results can also be obtained by controlling the applied electric field. Surprisingly, the second harmonic generation susceptibility is weakened in the presence of the electric field, which is in contrast to the conventional case. Finally, the resonant peak and its corresponding resonant energy are also taken into account.

  8. Variable Renewable Generation can Provide Balancing Control to the Electric Power System (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-09-01

    As wind and solar plants become more common in the electric power system, they may be called on to provide grid support services to help maintain system reliability. For example, through the use of inertial response, primary frequency response, and automatic generation control (also called secondary frequency response), wind power can provide assistance in balancing the generation and load on the system. These active power (i.e., real power) control services have the potential to assist the electric power system in times of disturbances and during normal conditions while also potentially providing economic value to consumers and variable renewable generation owners. This one-page, two-sided fact sheet discusses the grid-friendly support and benefits renewables can provide to the electric power system.

  9. Modeling electricity pricing in a deregulated generation industry: The potential for oligopoly pricing in a poolco

    SciTech Connect

    Rudkevich, A.; Duckworth, M.; Rosen, R. )

    1998-01-01

    The authors calculate the electricity prices that would result from a pure poolco market with identical profit-maximizing generating firms. They advance theoretical concepts developed by Klemperer and Meyer (1989) and Green and Newbery (1992), and propose a new formula for the instantaneous market clearing price when generating firms adopt bidding strategies given by the Nash Equilibrium. Applying his formula to empirical electricity supply and demand data, the authors find that even in markets with a relatively high number of firms, the price of electricity is significantly higher than the short-run marginal cost of generation. They express the average annual price mark-up with a Price-Cost Margin Index, and show how it varies with market concentration, as measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschmann Index (HHI). They conclude that the federal Energy Regulatory Commission's use of the HHI in its merger guidelines could prove inadequate in addressing market power concerns in deregulated poolco markets.

  10. Single channel double-duct liquid metal electrical generator using a magnetohydrodynamic device

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, Carsten M.; Deeds, W. Edward

    1999-01-01

    A single channel double-duct liquid metal electrical generator using a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) device. The single channel device provides useful output AC electric energy. The generator includes a two-cylinder linear-piston engine which drives liquid metal in a single channel looped around one side of the MHD device to form a double-duct contra-flowing liquid metal MHD generator. A flow conduit network and drive mechanism are provided for moving liquid metal with an oscillating flow through a static magnetic field to produce useful AC electric energy at practical voltages and currents. Variable stroke is obtained by controlling the quantity of liquid metal in the channel. High efficiency is obtained over a wide range of frequency and power output.

  11. Single channel double-duct liquid metal electrical generator using a magnetohydrodynamic device

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, C.M.; Deeds, W.E.

    1999-07-13

    A single channel double-duct liquid metal electrical generator using a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) device. The single channel device provides useful output AC electric energy. The generator includes a two-cylinder linear-piston engine which drives liquid metal in a single channel looped around one side of the MHD device to form a double-duct contra-flowing liquid metal MHD generator. A flow conduit network and drive mechanism are provided for moving liquid metal with an oscillating flow through a static magnetic field to produce useful AC electric energy at practical voltages and currents. Variable stroke is obtained by controlling the quantity of liquid metal in the channel. High efficiency is obtained over a wide range of frequency and power output. 5 figs.

  12. Excellent electrode material of carbon nanotube macro-fibers for electric arc generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping Wu, Zi; Bo Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Mang; Hong Yin, Yan; Yan Hu, Ying; Sheng Li, Ye; Gao Yang, Jian; Feng Xu, Qian

    2014-03-01

    Macroscopic carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers approximately 1 mm in diameter and 6 m long were prepared from CNT socks. The as-prepared macro-fiber exhibited excellent flexibility and manipulability. Microscopic examination showed that the fibers mainly consisted of CNTs with a fine graphitic structure and a large diameter (approximately 4.6 nm to 6.3 nm). Electric arcs were generated when the macro-fiber came in contact with a metallic electrode at a voltage as low as 30 V. These arcs had high intensity, and the generated temperature was sufficiently high such that the metallic anode electrode (stannum or copper wire) easily melted. CNT crystallinity was only slightly damaged after the electric circuit was discharged. The high intensity of the generated electric arcs suggested the potential applications of the macro-fiber in welding, melting metals, or other related fields.

  13. Assessing CO2 Mitigation Options Utilizing Detailed Electricity Characteristics and Including Renewable Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensaida, K.; Alie, Colin; Elkamel, A.; Almansoori, A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a novel techno-economic optimization model for assessing the effectiveness of CO2 mitigation options for the electricity generation sub-sector that includes renewable energy generation. The optimization problem was formulated as a MINLP model using the GAMS modeling system. The model seeks the minimization of the power generation costs under CO2 emission constraints by dispatching power from low CO2 emission–intensity units. The model considers the detailed operation of the electricity system to effectively assess the performance of GHG mitigation strategies and integrates load balancing, carbon capture and carbon taxes as methods for reducing CO2 emissions. Two case studies are discussed to analyze the benefits and challenges of the CO2 reduction methods in the electricity system. The proposed mitigations options would not only benefit the environment, but they will as well improve the marginal cost of producing energy which represents an advantage for stakeholders.

  14. Characteristics of electricity generation and biodegradation in tidal river sludge-used microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Touch, Narong; Hibino, Tadashi; Nagatsu, Yoshiyuki; Tachiuchi, Kouhei

    2014-04-01

    The electricity generation behavior of microbial fuel cell (MFC) using the sludge collected from the riverbank of a tidal river, and the biodegradation of the sludge by the electricity generation are evaluated. Although the maximum current density (150-300 mA/m(2)) was higher than that of MFC using freshwater sediment (30 mA/m(2)), the output current was greatly restricted by the mass transfer limitation. However, our results also indicate that placing the anode in different locations in the sludge could reduce the mass transfer limitation. After approximately 3 months, the removal efficiency of organic carbon was approximately 10%, demonstrated that MFC could also enhance the biodegradation of the sludge by nearly 10-fold comparing with the natural biodegradation. We also found that the biodegradation could be identified by the behavior of oxygen consumption of the sludge. Importantly, the oxygen consumption of the sludge became higher along with the electricity generation.

  15. Direct electrical power generation from urine, wastes and biomass with simultaneous photodecomposition and cleaning.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Masao; Ueno, Hirohito; Ohnuki, Keita; Horikawa, Mizuki; Saito, Rie; Nemoto, Junichi

    2007-08-30

    Electric power was for the first time generated directly from urine, wastes, and biomass with simultaneous photodecomposition and cleaning by using a biophotofuel cell (BPFC) composed of a nanoporous TiO2 film semiconductor photoanode and an O2-reducing cathode. Human urine exhibited a PFC characteristics with J(sc) 0.086 mA cm(-2), Voc 0.56 V, and fill factor (FF) 0.50 under irradiation by a solar simulator with AM 1.5 G and 100 mW cm(-2) incident light intensity. Both the soluble and residual parts of waste paper partially solubilized by a H3PO4 aqueous solution were also photodecomposed with simultaneous electrical power generation. As trials of various biomass materials, Coca-Cola (to test colored sample), Japanese rice wine (to test alcohol aqueous solution), and grated radish (to test slurry state sample) also generated effectively electrical power during photodecomposition by a solar simulator.

  16. Electricity generation from cattle manure slurry by cassette-electrode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kengo; Ito, Toshihiro; Kawano, Yoshihiro; Iguchi, Atsushi; Miyahara, Morio; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2013-11-01

    Cassette-electrode microbial fuel cells (CE-MFCs) are efficient and scalable devices for electricity production from organic waste. Previous studies have demonstrated that CE-MFCs are capable of generating electricity from artificial wastewater at relatively high efficiencies. In this study, a single-cassette CE-MFC was constructed, and its capacity for electricity generation from cattle manure suspended in water (solid to water ratio of 1:50) was examined. The CE-MFC reactor was operated in batch mode for 49 days; electricity generation became stable 2 weeks after initiating the operation. The maximum power density was measured at 16.3 W m⁻³ on day 26. Sequencing analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments obtained from the original manure and from anode biofilms suggested that Chloroflexi and Geobacteraceae were abundant in the anode biofilm (29% and 18%, respectively), whereas no Geobacteraceae sequences were detected in the original manure sample. The results of this study suggest that CE-MFCs can be used to generate electricity from water-suspended cattle manure in a scalable MFC system.

  17. Technical assessment of discarded tires gasification as alternative technology for electricity generation.

    PubMed

    Machin, Einara Blanco; Pedroso, Daniel Travieso; de Carvalho, João Andrade

    2017-10-01

    Concern about contamination associated with the disposal of tires has led to the search for technologies to reuse discarded tires, which include the use of Tire Derived Fuel (TDF) as fuel in advanced thermal-conversion processes, this allows the energy use of these wastes at affordable costs and reduces the environmental impact on scrap tires disposal. A theoretical assessment of the technical viability of TDF gasification for electric and thermal power generation, from the producer gas combustion in an internal combustion engine and in a gas turbine, was performed. The combustion of producer gas derived from the gasification of TDF in an internal combustion engine driving a generator (ICE-G) appears as the more efficient route for electricity generation when compared with the efficiency obtained with the use of gas turbine (GT-G). A higher global efficiency, considering the electric and thermal generation efficiency can be expected with the use of TDF producer gas in GT-G, where is expected an overall efficiency of 77.49%. The assessment shows that is possible produces up to 7.67MJ and 10.62MJ of electric and thermal energy per kilogram of TDF gasified using an ICE-G and up to 6.06MJ and 13.03MJ of electric and thermal energy respectively per kilogram of gasified TDF using a GT-G. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An economic analysis of the electricity generation potential from biogas resources in the state of Indiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, Juan S.

    Anaerobic digestion is a process that is a common part of organic waste management systems and is used in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The process produces biogas, which contains methane, and it can be burned to generate electricity. Previous reports have indicated that based on the availability of feedstocks there is a large potential for biogas production and use for electricity generation in the state of Indiana. However, these reports varied in their consideration of important factors that affect the technical and economic feasibility of being able to develop the resources available. The goal of this thesis is to make a more targeted assessment of the electricity generation potential from biogas resources at CAFOs, WWTPs, and MSW landfills in Indiana. A capital budgeting model is used to estimate the net present value (NPV) of biogas electricity projects at facilities that are identified as technically suitable. A statewide estimate of the potential generation capacity is made by estimating the number of facilities that could profitably undertake a biogas electricity project. In addition this thesis explored the impact that different incentive policies would have on the economic viability of these projects. The results indicated that the electricity generation potential is much smaller when technical and economic factors are taken into account in addition to feedstock availability. In particular it was found that projects at hog farms are unlikely to be economically feasible in the present even when financial incentives are considered. In total, 47.94 MW of potential generating capacity is estimated from biogas production at CAFOs, WWTPs, and MSW landfills. Though results indicated that 37.10 MW of capacity are economically feasible under current operating conditions, sensitivity analysis reveals that these projects are very sensitive to capital cost assumptions

  19. Air quality impacts of using overnight electricity generation to charge plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for daytime use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Tammy; Webber, Michael; Allen, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The air quality impacts of replacing 20% of the gasoline powered light duty vehicle miles traveled with plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the region served by the Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland classic grid are examined. Unutilized, base-load nighttime electricity generating capacity is assumed to charge PHEVs that would subsequently be used during urban commutes. The net impact of this scenario on the emissions of precursors to the formation of ozone is an increase in nitrogen oxide (NOx), volatile organic compound (VOC) and CO emissions from electricity generating units during nighttime hours, and a greater decrease in NOx, VOC and CO from mobile emissions in urban areas during daytime hours. The changes in maximum daily 8 h ozone concentrations, predicted using a regional photochemical model (CAMx), are decreases in ozone concentrations between 2 and 6 ppb that are widespread across the urban areas, and increases in ozone concentrations of up to 8 ppb in highly localized areas. Air quality indicators beyond maximum daily ozone concentration are also evaluated, and in general indicate air quality improvements associated with the use of PHEVs. However, a limited number of air quality indicators worsened with the use of PHEVs, suggesting that overall impacts of the use of PHEVs will be complex.

  20. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the electrical power distribution and control/electrical power generation subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patton, Jeff A.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results corresponding to the Orbiter Electrical Power Distribution and Control (EPD and C)/Electrical Power Generation (EPG) hardware. The EPD and C/EPG hardware is required for performing critical functions of cryogenic reactant storage, electrical power generation and product water distribution in the Orbiter. Specifically, the EPD and C/EPG hardware consists of the following components: Power Section Assembly (PSA); Reactant Control Subsystem (RCS); Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS); Water Removal Subsystem (WRS); and Power Reactant Storage and Distribution System (PRSDS). The IOA analysis process utilized available EPD and C/EPG hardware drawings and schematics for defining hardware assemblies, components, and hardware items. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode.

  1. Approaches for controlling air pollutants and their environmental impacts generated from coal-based electricity generation in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Ren, Yixin; Wang, Qingsong; Yuan, Xueliang

    2015-08-01

    This study aims at qualifying air pollutants and environmental impacts generated from coal-based power plants and providing useful information for decision makers on the management of coal-based power plants in China. Results showed that approximately 9.03, 54.95, 62.08, and 12.12% of the national carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter emissions, respectively, in 2011were generated from coal-based electricity generation. The air pollutants were mainly generated from east China because of the well-developed economy and energy-intensive industries in the region. Coal-washing technology can simply and significantly reduce the environmental burden because of the relativity low content of coal gangue and sulfur in washed coal. Optimizing the efficiency of raw materials and energy consumption is additional key factor to reduce the potential environmental impacts. In addition, improving the efficiency of air pollutants (e.g., dust, mercury, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) control system and implementing the strict requirements on air pollutants for power plants are important ways for reducing the potential environmental impacts of coal-based electricity generation in China.

  2. The second harmonic generation in symmetrical and asymmetrical Gaussian potential quantum wells with applied electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jian-Hui; Chen, Ni; Mo, Hua; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Hai

    2015-12-01

    A detailed investigation of the second harmonic generation in symmetrical and asymmetrical Gaussian potential quantum wells under the influence of applied electric field by using the compact-density-matrix approach and the finite difference method. The results show that the second-harmonic generation susceptibility obtained in two cases can reach the magnitude of 10-4 m/V, which depend dramatically on the applied electric field and the structural parameters. Finally, the resonant peak and its corresponding to the resonant energy are also taken into account.

  3. Marginal capacity costs of electricity distribution and demand for distributed generation

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Chi-Keung, Lloyd-Zanetti, D.; Orans, R.

    1995-12-31

    Marginal costs of electricity vary by time and location. Past researchers attributed these variations to factors related to electricity generation, transmission and distribution. Past authors, however, did not fully analyze the large variations in marginal distribution capacity costs (MDCC) by area and time. Thus, the objectives of this paper are as follows: (1) to show that large MDCC variations exist within a utility`s service territory; (2) to demonstrate inter-utility variations in MDCC; and (3) to demonstrate the usefulness of these costs in determining demand for distributed generation (DG). 27 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Evolution of Wholesale Electricity Market Design with Increasing Levels of Renewable Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Bloom, A.; Botterud, A.; Townsend, A.; Levin, T.

    2014-09-01

    Variable generation such as wind and photovoltaic solar power has increased substantially in recent years. Variable generation has unique characteristics compared to the traditional technologies that supply energy in the wholesale electricity markets. These characteristics create unique challenges in planning and operating the power system, and they can also influence the performance and outcomes from electricity markets. This report focuses on two particular issues related to market design: revenue sufficiency for long-term reliability and incentivizing flexibility in short-term operations. The report provides an overview of current design and some designs that have been proposed by industry or researchers.

  5. Microbial fuel cells - Applications for generation of electrical power and beyond.

    PubMed

    Mathuriya, Abhilasha Singh; Yakhmi, J V

    2016-01-01

    A Microbial Fuel Cell is a bioelectrochemical device that exploits metabolic activities of living microorganisms for generation of electric current. The usefulness and unique and exclusive architecture of this device has received wide attention recently of engineers and researchers of various disciplines such as microbiologists, chemical engineers, biotechnologists, environment engineers and mechanical engineers, and the subject of MFCs has thereby progressed as a well-developed technology. Sustained innovations and continuous development efforts have established the usefulness of MFCs towards many specialized and value-added applications beyond electricity generation, such as wastewater treatment and implantable body devices. This review is an attempt to provide an update on this rapidly growing technology.

  6. Electrical power systems (Dominican Republic). Generator sets, February 1991. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    The market for U.S. generators in the Dominican Republic from depressed 1991 levels and grow at a rate of 10% for the next three years. While the national power corporation has improved both supply and distribution of electricity, growth in manufacturing and tourism is expected to create more demand. Also, the dramatically reduced delivery of electricity by the power company in 1990-1991 caused such a strain on generators in place that much of the existing stock will need to be replaced. The U.S. with 54% of the total market dominates the large industrial market while Japan is most competitive with the small domestic use market.

  7. Photoinduced heat generation mechanism in Ag nanoparticles embedded in SiO2 and β-In2S3 matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrier, Anita R.; Vijayan, C.

    2017-05-01

    In this work we probe the photothermal conversion properties of individual metal (Ag) nanoparticle, semiconductor (β-In2S3) microflowers, dielectric (SiO2) nanostructures and Ag nanoparticles embedded in β-In2S3 and SiO2 matrix. The heat generated from the Ag nanoparticles is much higher when embedded inside polymer encapsulated SiO2 and β-In2S3 matrix than the individual nanoparticle assembly. The heat generation mechanism is shown to be an ultrafast process (picoseconds) when the Ag nanoparticles are embedded in a β-In2S3 complex, while for individual Ag nanoparticles and Ag: SiO2 matrix the process is shown to be time delayed. The change is attributed to the resonant heat transfer mechanism. The measurements were carried out by illuminating the samples with pump beam of 445 nm. The refractive index gradient produced in the surrounding air due to thermal waves emanating from the sample is measured using a probe beam of wavelength 546 nm and a position sensitive quadrant cell detector.

  8. Fully Electrical Modeling of Thermoelectric Generators with Contact Thermal Resistance Under Different Operating Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siouane, Saima; Jovanović, Slaviša; Poure, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The Seebeck effect is used in thermoelectric generators (TEGs) to supply electronic circuits by converting the waste thermal into electrical energy. This generated electrical power is directly proportional to the temperature difference between the TEG module's hot and cold sides. Depending on the applications, TEGs can be used either under constant temperature gradient between heat reservoirs or constant heat flow conditions. Moreover, the generated electrical power of a TEG depends not only on these operating conditions, but also on the contact thermal resistance. The influence of the contact thermal resistance on the generated electrical power have already been extensively reported in the literature. However, as reported in Park et al. (Energy Convers Manag 86:233, 2014) and Montecucco and Knox (IEEE Trans Power Electron 30:828, 2015), while designing TEG-powered circuit and systems, a TEG module is mostly modeled with a Thévenin equivalent circuit whose resistance is constant and voltage proportional to the temperature gradient applied to the TEG's terminals. This widely used simplified electrical TEG model is inaccurate and not suitable under constant heat flow conditions or when the contact thermal resistance is considered. Moreover, it does not provide realistic behaviour corresponding to the physical phenomena taking place in a TEG. Therefore, from the circuit designer's point of view, faithful and fully electrical TEG models under different operating conditions are needed. Such models are mainly necessary to design and evaluate the power conditioning electronic stages and the maximum power point tracking algorithms of a TEG power supply. In this study, these fully electrical models with the contact thermal resistance taken into account are presented and the analytical expressions of the Thévenin equivalent circuit parameters are provided.

  9. Anode macrostructures influence electricity generation in microbial fuel cells for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yoshikazu; Miyahara, Morio; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2017-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that exploit microbes for generating electricity from organic substrates, including waste biomass and wastewater pollutants. MFCs have the potential to treat wastewater and simultaneously generate electricity. The present study examined how anode macrostructure influences wastewater treatment, electricity generation and microbial communities in MFCs. Cassette-electrode MFCs were equipped with graphite-felt anodes with three different macrostructures, flat-plate (FP), vertical-fin (VF), and horizontal-fin (HF) structures (these were composed of a same amount of graphite felt), and were continuously supplied with artificial wastewater containing starch as the major organic constituent. Polarization analyses revealed that MFCs equipped with VF and HF anodes generated 33% and 21% higher volumetric power densities, respectively, than that of MFCs equipped with FP anodes. Organics were also more efficiently removed from wastewater in MFCs with VF and HF anodes compared to reactors containing FP anodes. In addition, pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments from microbial samples collected from the anodes showed that the presence of fins also affected the bacterial compositions in anode biofilms. Taken together, the findings presented here suggest that the modification of anodes with fins improves organics removal and electricity generation in MFCs. The optimization of anode macrostructure therefore appears to be a promising strategy for improving MFC performance without additional material costs.

  10. Effects of moving cloud shadows on electric utilities with dispersed solar photovoltaic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Jewell, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    Residential utility-interactive solar photovoltaic (PV) generators were simulated throughout the southeast Tulsa, Oklahoma area. As cloud shadows pass over such PV systems, their generation varies with the incident solar radiation (insolation), and the electric utility must follow these changes with its own generators, similar to how it now follows continuous changes in electrical loads. A two-dimensional simulation of time-varying incident solar radiation was developed and used to study the effect of moving cloud shadows on the Public Service Company of Oklahoma (PSO) electric utility system, to which the PV generator were connected. The insolation simulation was first combined with a distribution feeder model to estimate possible changes in PV generation over several time periods. The insolation and feeder models were then used to provide data to the PSO power-flow simulation to estimate the effects on the PSO system. During the worst cumulus cloud pattern at peak-solar-radiation times, PSO will begin to see significant effects from the dispersed PV generation when PV installed penetration in southeast Tulsa reaches approximately 15% (when PV represents approximately 15% of the installed generation in southeast Tulsa.

  11. Evaluation and Ranking of Geothermal Resources for Electrical Generation or Electrical Offset in Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Black, G.L.; Parker, D.S.; Sifford, A.; Simpson, S.J.; Street, L.V.

    1985-06-01

    In 1983, the Bonneville Power Administration contracted for an evaluation and ranking of all geothermal resource sites in the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington which have a potential for electrical generation and/or electrical offset through direct utilization of the resource. The objective of this program was to consolidate and evaluate all geologic, environmental, legal, and institutional information in existing records and files, and to apply a uniform methodology to the evaluation and ranking of all known geothermal sites. This data base would enhance the making of credible forecasts of the supply of geothermal energy which could be available in the region over a 20 year planning horizon. The four states, working together under a cooperative agreement, identified a total of 1,265 potential geothermal sites. The 1,265 sites were screened to eliminate those with little or no chance of providing either electrical generation and/or electrical offset. Two hundred and forty-five of the original 1,265 sites were determined to warrant further study. The Four-State team proceeded to develop a methodology which would rank the sites based upon an estimate of development potential and cost. Development potential was estimated through the use of weighted variables selected to approximate the attributes which a geothermal firm might consider in its selection of a site for exploration and possible development. Resource; engineering; and legal, institutional, and environmental factors were considered. Cost estimates for electrical generation and direct utilization sites were made using the computer programs CENTPLANT, WELLHEAD, and HEATPLAN. Finally, the sites were ranked utilizing a technique which allowed for the integration of development and cost information. On the basis of the developability index, 78 high temperature sites and 120 direct utilization sites were identified as having ''good'' or ''average'' potential for development and should be studied in

  12. A Novel Electro Conductive Graphene/Silicon-Dioxide Thermo-Electric Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Ataur; Abdi, Yusuf

    2017-03-01

    Thermoelectric generators are all solid-state devices that convert heat energy into electrical energy. The total energy (fuel) supplied to the engine, approximately 30 to 40% is converted into useful mechanical work; whereas the remaining is expelled to the environment as heat through exhaust gases and cooling systems, resulting in serious green house gas (GHG) emission. By converting waste energy into electrical energy is the aim of this manuscript. The technologies reported on waste heat recovery from exhaust gas of internal combustion engines (ICE) are thermo electric generators (TEG) with finned type, Rankine cycle (RC) and Turbocharger. This paper has presented an electro-conductive graphene oxide/silicon-dioxide (GO-SiO2) composite sandwiched by phosphorus (P) and boron (B) doped silicon (Si) TEG to generate electricity from the IC engine exhaust heat. Air-cooling and liquid cooling techniques adopted conventional TEG module has been tested individually for the electricity generation from IC engine exhausts heat at engine speed of 1000-3000rpm. For the engine speed of 7000 rpm, the maximum voltage was recorded as 1.12V and 4.00V for the air-cooling and liquid cooling respectively. The GO-SiO2 simulated result shows that it’s electrical energy generation is about 80% more than conventional TEG for the exhaust temperature of 500°C. The GO-SiO2 composite TEG develops 524W to 1600W at engine speed 1000 to 5000 rpm, which could contribute to reduce the 10-12% of engine total fuel consumption and improve emission level by 20%.

  13. Entanglement generation due to the background electric field and curvature of space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebadi, Zahra; Mirza, Behrouz

    2015-02-01

    In Schwinger effect, quantum vacuum instability under the influence of an electric field leads to decay of vacuum into pairs of charged particles. We consider the entanglement of pair produced particles. We will show that the measure of entanglement depends on the geometry of space-time. Using the Schwinger pair production in curved space-time, dS2 and AdS2, we propose and demonstrate that the electric field can generate entanglement. In dS2 space-time, we study entanglement for scalar particles with zero spin in the absence and presence of a constant electric field. We show that the entanglement entropy depends on the choice of the α-vacua. But, for some values of the related parameters (mass, charge, scalar curvature, electric field), the entanglement entropy is independent of α. Also, we consider the generation of entanglement in the presence of a constant electric field for anti-de Sitter space-time. We will show that the positive (negative) curvature of space-time upgrades (degrades) the generated entanglement.

  14. A generative modeling approach to connectivity-Electrical conduction in vascular networks.

    PubMed

    Hald, Bjørn Olav

    2016-06-21

    The physiology of biological structures is inherently dynamic and emerges from the interaction and assembly of large collections of small entities. The extent of coupled entities complicates modeling and increases computational load. Here, microvascular networks are used to present a novel generative approach to connectivity based on the observation that biological organization is hierarchical and composed of a limited set of building blocks, i.e. a vascular network consists of blood vessels which in turn are composed by one or more cell types. Fast electrical communication is crucial to synchronize vessel tone across the vast distances within a network. We hypothesize that electrical conduction capacity is delimited by the size of vascular structures and connectivity of the network. Generation and simulation of series of dynamical models of electrical spread within vascular networks of different size and composition showed that (1) Conduction is enhanced in models harboring long and thin endothelial cells that couple preferentially along the longitudinal axis. (2) Conduction across a branch point depends on endothelial connectivity between branches. (3) Low connectivity sub-networks are more sensitive to electrical perturbations. In summary, the capacity for electrical signaling in microvascular networks is strongly shaped by the morphology and connectivity of vascular (particularly endothelial) cells. While the presented software can be used by itself or as a starting point for more sophisticated models of vascular dynamics, the generative approach can be applied to other biological systems, e.g. nervous tissue, the lymphatics, or the biliary system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Contribution of Anaerobic Digesters to Emissions Mitigation and Electricity Generation Under U.S. Climate Policy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Livestock husbandry in the U.S. significantly contributes to many environmental problems, including the release of methane, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG). Anaerobic digesters (ADs) break down organic wastes using bacteria that produce methane, which can be collected and combusted to generate electricity. ADs also reduce odors and pathogens that are common with manure storage and the digested manure can be used as a fertilizer. There are relatively few ADs in the U.S., mainly due to their high capital costs. We use the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model to test the effects of a representative U.S. climate stabilization policy on the adoption of ADs which sell electricity and generate methane mitigation credits. Under such policy, ADs become competitive at producing electricity in 2025, when they receive methane reduction credits and electricity from fossil fuels becomes more expensive. We find that ADs have the potential to generate 5.5% of U.S. electricity. PMID:21761880

  16. Generator Bidding Strategies in a Competitive Electricity Market with Derating and Bid-Segment Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ning; Chow, Joe H.; Desrochers, Alan A.

    2009-07-31

    This paper develops optimal generator bidding strategies in a competitive electricity market. Starting from a generator’s cost curve, basic bidding concepts such as the break-even bid curve and the maximum profit bid curve can be readily derived. The maximum profit bid curve can be extended to account for generator availability and derating. In addition, multiple-segment block energy bids can be optimized based on the maximum profit curve and the probabilistic distribution of market clearing prices.

  17. Development of a quiet Stirling cycle multi-fuel engine for electric power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercer, J. E.; Emigh, S. G.; Riggle, P.; Tremoulet, O. L.; White, M. A.

    1982-08-01

    The work described in this report summarizes a six-month study to develop a lightweight, tactical electric power plant with a low level of aural, I. R., and visual detectability, based on a Stirling engine. The conceptual design presented was analyzed and predicted to have power output qualities exceeding those specified by the Army for tactical generators. The unit promises to have maintenance and overhaul requirement characteristics superior to any generator system in current use.

  18. Analysis of geothermal electric-power generation at Big Creek Hot Springs, Lemhi County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Struhsacker, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Big Creek Hot Springs was evaluated as a source of electrical power for the Blackbird Cobalt Mine, approximately 13 miles south of the hot spring. An evaluaton of the geothermal potential of Big Creek Hot Springs, a suggested exploration program and budget, an engineering feasibility study of power generation at Big Creek Hot Springs, an economic analysis of the modeled power generating system, and an appraisal of the institutional factors influencing development at Big Creek Hot Springs are included.

  19. Electricity generation directly using human feces wastewater for life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fangzhou, Du; Zhenglong, Li; Shaoqiang, Yang; Beizhen, Xie; Hong, Liu

    2011-05-01

    Wastewater reuse and power regeneration are key issues in the research of bioregeneration life support system (BLSS). Microbial fuel cell (MFC) can generate electricity during the process of wastewater treatment, which might be promising to solve the two problems simultaneously. We used human feces wastewater containing abundant organic compounds as the substrate of MFC to generate electricity, and the factors concerning electricity generation capacity were investigated. The removal efficiency of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), Soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and NH4+ reached 71%, 88% and 44%, respectively with two-chamber MFC when it was fed with the actual human feces wastewater and operated for 190 h. And the maximum power density reached 70.8 mW/m 2, which implicated that MFC technology was feasible and appropriate for treating human feces wastewater. In order to improve the power generation of MFC further, human feces wastewater were fermented before poured into MFC, and the result showed that fermentation pretreatment could improve the MFC output obviously. The maximum power density of MFC fed with pretreated human feces wastewater was 22 mW/m 2, which was 47% higher than that of the control without pretreatment (15 mW/m 2). Furthermore, the structure of MFC was studied and it was found that both enlarging the area of electrodes and shortening the distance between electrodes could increase the electricity generation capacity. Finally, an automatic system, controlled by time switches and electromagnetic valves, was established to process one person's feces wastewater (1 L/d) while generating electricity. The main parts of this system comprised a pretreatment device and 3 one-chamber air-cathode MFCs. The total power could reach 787.1 mW and power density could reach the maximum of about 240 mW/m 2.

  20. Continuous and embedded solutions for SHM of concrete structures using changing electrical potential in self-sensing cement-based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, Austin; Garcia-Macias, Enrique; D'Alessandro, Antonella; Laflamme, Simon; Castro-Triguero, Rafael; Ubertini, Filippo

    2017-04-01

    Interest in the concept of self-sensing structural materials has grown in recent years due to its potential to enable continuous low-cost monitoring of next-generation smart-structures. The development of cement-based smart sensors appears particularly well suited for monitoring applications due to their numerous possible field applications, their ease of use and long-term stability. Additionally, cement-based sensors offer a unique opportunity for structural health monitoring of civil structures because of their compatibility with new or existing infrastructure. Particularly, the addition of conductive carbon nanofillers into a cementitious matrix provides a self-sensing structural material with piezoresistive characteristics sensitive to deformations. The strain-sensing ability is achieved by correlating the external loads with the variation of specific electrical parameters, such as the electrical resistance or impedance. Selection of the correct electrical parameter for measurement to correlate with features of interest is required for the condition assessment task. In this paper, we investigate the potential of using altering electrical potential in cement-based materials doped with carbon nanotubes to measure strain and detect damage in concrete structures. Experimental validation is conducted on small-scale specimens including a steel-reinforced beam of conductive cement paste. Comparisons are made with constant electrical potential and current methods commonly found in the literature. Experimental results demonstrate the ability of the changing electrical potential at detecting features important for assessing the condition of a structure.