Science.gov

Sample records for embedded smart control

  1. A FPGA Embedded Web Server for Remote Monitoring and Control of Smart Sensors Networks

    PubMed Central

    Magdaleno, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Manuel; Pérez, Fernando; Hernández, David; García, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of a web server using an embedded Altera NIOS II IP core, a general purpose and configurable RISC processor which is embedded in a Cyclone FPGA. The processor uses the μCLinux operating system to support a Boa web server of dynamic pages using Common Gateway Interface (CGI). The FPGA is configured to act like the master node of a network, and also to control and monitor a network of smart sensors or instruments. In order to develop a totally functional system, the FPGA also includes an implementation of the time-triggered protocol (TTP/A). Thus, the implemented master node has two interfaces, the webserver that acts as an Internet interface and the other to control the network. This protocol is widely used to connecting smart sensors and actuators and microsystems in embedded real-time systems in different application domains, e.g., industrial, automotive, domotic, etc., although this protocol can be easily replaced by any other because of the inherent characteristics of the FPGA-based technology. PMID:24379047

  2. A FPGA embedded web server for remote monitoring and control of smart sensors networks.

    PubMed

    Magdaleno, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Manuel; Pérez, Fernando; Hernández, David; García, Enrique

    2013-12-27

    This article describes the implementation of a web server using an embedded Altera NIOS II IP core, a general purpose and configurable RISC processor which is embedded in a Cyclone FPGA. The processor uses the μCLinux operating system to support a Boa web server of dynamic pages using Common Gateway Interface (CGI). The FPGA is configured to act like the master node of a network, and also to control and monitor a network of smart sensors or instruments. In order to develop a totally functional system, the FPGA also includes an implementation of the time-triggered protocol (TTP/A). Thus, the implemented master node has two interfaces, the webserver that acts as an Internet interface and the other to control the network. This protocol is widely used to connecting smart sensors and actuators and microsystems in embedded real-time systems in different application domains, e.g., industrial, automotive, domotic, etc., although this protocol can be easily replaced by any other because of the inherent characteristics of the FPGA-based technology.

  3. Modeling, Identification, and Control Design for a Flexible Pointing System with Embedded Smart Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    The research effort emphasized system identification , decentralized control design, and their applications to smart structures and flexible pointing...systems. The research effort had both theoretical and experimental ingredients. On the theoretical side, new system identification techniques for

  4. Control of high-frequency smart structures through embedded NiTiNOL fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, A. V.; McFarland, D. Michael; Canistraro, Howard A.; Begg, Eric K.

    1996-04-01

    A method to increase the usable bandwidth of shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators for structural control is investigated. Because the change in material properties exploited in SMA components requires significant temperature variation, usually achieved through resistive heating, the response time of SMA actuators is ultimately limited by heat transfer in many applications. Typically, very rapid heating can be achieved but the time needed for cooling is long compared to the vibratory period of a mechanical or civil structure. By using several actuators in parallel and energizing subsets of these during successive cycles of structural motion, an effective bandwidth can be achieved that is greater than the bandwidth possible with a single actuator. This is demonstrated here for an active structural system comprised of SMA wires embedded in the outer laminae of a composite beam specimen. The beam was mounted as a cantilever and its first and second modes of vibration were excited by energizing the embedded wires.

  5. Embedment of silver into temperature- and pH-responsive microgel for the development of smart textiles with simultaneous moisture management and controlled antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Štular, Danaja; Jerman, Ivan; Naglič, Iztok; Simončič, Barbara; Tomšič, Brigita

    2017-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles were embedded into a temperature- and pH-responsive microgel based on poly-(N-isopropylacrylamide) and chitosan (PNCS) before or after its application to cotton fabric to create a smart stimuli-responsive textile with simultaneous moisture management and controlled antimicrobial activities. Two different methods of silver embedment into the PNCS microgel using two different forms of silver nanoparticles were studied, i.e., in-situ synthesis of AgCl nanocrystals into PNCS microgel particles that had previously been applied to cotton fabric, as well as the direct incorporation of colloidal silver into the microgel suspension prior to its deposition on cellulose fibres. SEM and FT-IR analysis were employed to determine the morphological and chemical changes of the modified cotton fibres, while EDS and ICP MS analysis were used to confirm the presence of the silver nanoparticles. The influence of silver embedment on the swelling/deswelling activity of the PNCS microgel was studied using the temperature- and pH-responsiveness, as determined by the moisture content, water vapour transmission rate and water uptake. The antimicrobial activity against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was assessed. Regardless of the embedment technique, the presence of silver nanoparticles resulted in impaired moisture management activity of the studied microgel. The PNCS microgel proved to be a suitable carrier of antimicrobial agents, assuring the effective controlled release of silver triggered by changes in the temperature and pH of the surroundings, which granted the cotton fabric excellent antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative E. coli (>99%) and Gram-positive S. aureus (>85%).

  6. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection. PMID:24961213

  7. Smart sensors enable smart air conditioning control.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-06-24

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.

  8. Strain characterization of embedded aerospace smart materials using shearography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, Andrei G.; Müller, Bernhard; Sinke, Jos; Groves, Roger M.

    2015-04-01

    The development of smart materials for embedding in aerospace composites provides enhanced functionality for future aircraft structures. Critical flight conditions like icing of the leading edges can affect the aircraft functionality and controllability. Hence, anti-icing and de-icing capabilities are used. In case of leading edges made of fibre metal laminates heater elements can be embedded between composite layers. However this local heating causes strains and stresses in the structure due to the different thermal expansion coefficients of the different laminated materials. In order to characterize the structural behaviour during thermal loading full-field strain and shape measurement can be used. In this research, a shearography instrument with three spatially-distributed shearing cameras is used to measure surface displacement gradients which give a quantitative estimation of the in- and out-of-plane surface strain components. For the experimental part, two GLARE (Glass Laminate Aluminum Reinforced Epoxy) specimens with six different embedded copper heater elements were manufactured: two copper mesh shapes (straight and S-shape), three connection techniques (soldered, spot welded and overlapped) and one straight heater element with delaminations. The surface strain behaviour of the specimens due to thermal loading was measured and analysed. The comparison of the connection techniques of heater element parts showed that the overlapped connection has the smallest effect on the surface strain distribution. Furthermore, the possibility of defect detection and defect depth characterisation close to the heater elements was also investigated.

  9. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals.

  10. Shape deposition manufacturing of smart metallic structures with embedded sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaochun; Golnas, Anastasios; Prinz, Fritz B.

    2000-06-01

    The need to obtain information on the performance and lifetime of a tool in service is of prime importance to many industries. It calls for on-line acquisition of information such as temperature and strain values from tools and structures. With embedded sensors, structures are capable of monitoring parameters at critical locations not accessible to ordinary sensors. To embed sensors in the functional structures, especially structures, Shape Deposition Manufacturing (SDM) is a methodology capable of integrating sensors during the production of tooling or structural components. Thin film sensors and fiber optic sensors have been identified as two promising candidates to be integrated in metallic structures. Embedded thin film strain gages have been characterized in a four-point bending test and the results, showing linearity and no hysteresis, match with those from the theoretical model and commercially available strain gages. Fiber optic sensors have been successfully embedded in nickel and stainless steel structures. The embedded fiber optic sensors have been used to measure temperatures and strains. They provide higher sensitivity, good accuracy, and high temperature capacity. Based on fiber optic sensor embedding techniques, a remote temperature/strain sensing system suitable rotating objects, such as turbine blades, has been developed. The developed techniques can be harnessed for rapid prototyping of smart metallic structures.

  11. Module Embedded Micro-inverter Smart Grid Ready Residential Solar Electric System

    SciTech Connect

    Agamy, Mohammed

    2015-10-27

    The “Module Embedded Micro-inverter Smart Grid Ready Residential Solar Electric System” program is focused on developing innovative concepts for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems with the following objectives: to create an Innovative micro-inverter topology that reduces the cost from the best in class micro-inverter and provides high efficiency (>96% CEC - California Energy Commission), and 25+ year warranty, as well as reactive power support; integrate micro-inverter and PV module to reduce system price by at least $0.25/W through a) accentuating dual use of the module metal frame as a large area heat spreader reducing operating temperature, and b) eliminating redundant wiring and connectors; and create micro-inverter controller handles smart grid and safety functions to simplify implementation and reduce cost.

  12. Active control of transmission loss with smart foams.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Abhishek; Berry, Alain

    2011-02-01

    Smart foams combine the complimentary advantages of passive foam material and spatially distributed piezoelectric actuator embedded in it for active noise control applications. In this paper, the problem of improving the transmission loss of smart foams using active control strategies has been investigated both numerically and experimentally inside a waveguide under the condition of plane wave propagation. The finite element simulation of a coupled noise control system has been undertaken with three different smart foam designs and their effectiveness in cancelling the transmitted wave downstream of the smart foam have been studied. The simulation results provide insight into the physical phenomenon of active noise cancellation and explain the impact of the smart foam designs on the optimal active control results. Experimental studies aimed at implementing the real-time control for transmission loss optimization have been performed using the classical single input/single output filtered-reference least mean squares algorithm. The active control results with broadband and single frequency primary source inputs demonstrate a good improvement in the transmission loss of the smart foams. The study gives a comparative description of the transmission and absorption control problems in light of the modification of the vibration response of the piezoelectric actuator under active control.

  13. Multiscale approach to the control of smart structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Kenneth C.; Flamm, David S.; Guthart, Gary S.; Ueberschaer, Ronald M.

    1996-05-01

    The development of control technology specifically for smart structures and materials has lagged substantially behind that of the base materials, transducers, and embedding techniques. Still, development of smart structures with ever-greater numbers of embedded elements continues, spurred by potential uses that require large arrays of sensors and actuators. For example, rather than implementing a control design that is sensitive to the particular device layout, a densely sampled array allows the controller to optimize the use of sensor information and actuator authority. No control technology suitable for such large arrays exists, however, and this presents a barrier to future applications. In this paper we report on recent progress in developing and demonstrating technology capable of controlling hundreds or thousands of sensors and actuators embedded in the base material. We have dubbed this the `KIKO control problem' (Kilo-Input/Kilo-Output) for smart materials. This paper focuses on a new multiscale/multirate theory of hierarchical design based on the wavelet transform. In the context of this theory, we develop efficient and highly scalable implementations of control systems using multiprocessor architectures. The paper describes our multiscale control approach and presents simulation results on a flexible plate.

  14. Smart material screening machines using smart materials and controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaei, Daryoush; Corradi, Gary; Waigand, Al

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this product is to address the specific need for improvements in the efficiency and effectiveness in physical separation technologies in the screening areas. Currently, the mining industry uses approximately 33 billion kW-hr per year, costing 1.65 billion dollars at 0.05 cents per kW-hr, of electrical energy for physical separations. Even though screening and size separations are not the single most energy intensive process in the mining industry, they are often the major bottleneck in the whole process. Improvements to this area offer tremendous potential in both energy savings and production improvements. Additionally, the vibrating screens used in the mining processing plants are the most costly areas from maintenance and worker health and safety point of views. The goal of this product is to reduce energy use in the screening and total processing areas. This goal is accomplished by developing an innovative screening machine based on smart materials and smart actuators, namely smart screen that uses advanced sensory system to continuously monitor the screening process and make appropriate adjustments to improve production. The theory behind the development of Smart Screen technology is based on two key technologies, namely smart actuators and smart Energy Flow ControlT (EFCT) strategies, developed initially for military applications. Smart Screen technology controls the flow of vibration energy and confines it to the screen rather than shaking much of the mass that makes up the conventional vibratory screening machine. Consequently, Smart Screens eliminates and downsizes many of the structural components associated with conventional vibratory screening machines. As a result, the surface area of the screen increases for a given envelope. This increase in usable screening surface area extends the life of the screens, reduces required maintenance by reducing the frequency of screen change-outs and improves throughput or productivity.

  15. PLCs used in smart home control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barz, C.; Deaconu, S. I.; Latinovic, T.; Berdie, A.; Pop-Vadean, A.; Horgos, M.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the realization of a smart home automation using Siemens PLCs. The smart home interface is realized using the HMI Weintek eMT3070a touchscreen, which shows the window for controlling and monitoring the lighting, room temperature, irrigation systems, swimming pool, etc. By using PLCs, the smart home can be controlled via Ethernet and it can be programmed to the needs of tenants.

  16. Development of smart textiles with embedded fiber optic chemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Saif E.; Yuan, Jianming; El-Sherif, Mahmoud A.

    2004-03-01

    Smart textiles are defined as textiles capable of monitoring their own health conditions or structural behavior, as well as sensing external environmental conditions. Smart textiles appear to be a future focus of the textile industry. As technology accelerates, textiles are found to be more useful and practical for potential advanced technologies. The majority of textiles are used in the clothing industry, which set up the idea of inventing smart clothes for various applications. Examples of such applications are medical trauma assessment and medical patients monitoring (heart and respiration rates), and environmental monitoring for public safety officials. Fiber optics have played a major role in the development of smart textiles as they have in smart structures in general. Optical fiber integration into textile structures (knitted, woven, and non-woven) is presented, and defines the proper methodology for the manufacturing of smart textiles. Samples of fabrics with integrated optical fibers were processed and tested for optical signal transmission. This was done in order to investigate the effect of textile production procedures on optical fiber performance. The tests proved the effectiveness of the developed methodology for integration of optical fibers without changing their optical performance or structural integrity.

  17. Multiscale approach to the control of smart materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Kenneth C.; Guthart, Gary S.; Flamm, David S.

    1995-05-01

    The development of control technology specifically for smart materials has lagged substantially behind that of the base materials, transducers and embedding techniques. Still, development of materials with ever- greater numbers of embedded elements continues, spurred by potential uses that require large arrays of sensors and actuators. No control technology suitable for such large arrays exists, however, and this presents a barrier to future applications. In this paper we report on work aimed at developing and demonstrating technology capable of controlling hundreds or thousands of sensors and actuators embedded in the base material. We have dubbed this the 'KIKO control problem' (Kilo- Input/Kilo-Output) for smart materials. This paper focuses on a new multiscale/multirate theory of hierarchical design based on the wavelet transform. In the context of this theory, we develop efficient and highly scalable implementations of control systems using multiprocessor architectures. The paper covers: a description of our multiscale control approach, simulation results on an Euler-Bernoulli beam, and open issues.

  18. Fabrication of a smart air intake structure using shape memory alloy wire embedded composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Beom-Seok; Kim, Min-Saeng; Kim, Ji-Soo; Kim, Yun-Mi; Lee, Woo-Yong; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2010-05-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have been actively studied in many fields utilizing their high energy density. Applying SMA wire-embedded composite to aerospace structures, such as air intake of jet engines and guided missiles, is attracting significant attention because it could generate a comparatively large actuating force. In this research, a scaled structure of SMA wire-embedded composite was fabricated for the air intake of aircraft. The structure was composed of several prestrained Nitinol (Ni-Ti) SMA wires embedded in ∩-shape glass fabric reinforced plastic (GFRP), and it was cured at room temperature for 72 h. The SMA wire-embedded GFRP could be actuated by applying electric current through the embedded SMA wires. The activation angle generated from the composite structure was large enough to make a smart air intake structure.

  19. Smart actuators for active vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourboghrat, Farzad; Daneshdoost, Morteza

    1998-07-01

    In this paper, the design and implementation of smart actuators for active vibration control of mechanical systems are considered. A smart actuator is composed of one or several layers of piezo-electric materials which work both as sensors and actuators. Such a system also includes micro- electronic or power electronic amplifiers, depending on the power requirements and applications, as well as digital signal processing systems for digital control implementation. In addition, PWM type micro/power amplifiers are used for control implementation. Such amplifiers utilize electronic switching components that allow for miniaturization, thermal efficiency, cost reduction, and precision controls that are robust to disturbances and modeling errors. An adaptive control strategy is then developed for vibration damping and motion control of cantilever beams using the proposed smart self-sensing actuators.

  20. Spacecraft attitude control using a smart control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Brian; Wheatcraft, Louis

    1992-01-01

    Traditionally, spacecraft attitude control has been implemented using control loops written in native code for a space hardened processor. The Naval Research Lab has taken this approach during the development of the Attitude Control Electronics (ACE) package. After the system was developed and delivered, NRL decided to explore alternate technologies to accomplish this same task more efficiently. The approach taken by NRL was to implement the ACE control loops using systems technologies. The purpose of this effort was to: (1) research capabilities required of an expert system in processing a classic closed-loop control algorithm; (2) research the development environment required to design and test an embedded expert systems environment; (3) research the complexity of design and development of expert systems versus a conventional approach; and (4) test the resulting systems against the flight acceptance test software for both response and accuracy. Two expert systems were selected to implement the control loops. Criteria used for the selection of the expert systems included that they had to run in both embedded systems and ground based environments. Using two different expert systems allowed a comparison of the real-time capabilities, inferencing capabilities, and the ground-based development environment. The two expert systems chosen for the evaluation were Spacecraft Command Language (SCL), and NEXTPERT Object. SCL is a smart control system produced for the NRL by Interface and Control Systems (ICS). SCL was developed to be used for real-time command, control, and monitoring of a new generation of spacecraft. NEXPERT Object is a commercially available product developed by Neuron Data. Results of the effort were evaluated using the ACE test bed. The ACE test bed had been developed and used to test the original flight hardware and software using simulators and flight-like interfaces. The test bed was used for testing the expert systems in a 'near-flight' environment

  1. Smart structures for rotorcraft control (SSRC) II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacot, A. Dean; Dadone, Leo

    1998-06-01

    The Smart Structures for Rotor Control (SSRC) is a consortium under the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Smart Structures program. Phase I of the program was administered by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, with Boeing Seattle as the consortium administrator, and MIT, PSU and Boeing Helicopters as the other principal consortium members. Phase II, renamed Smart Materials and Structures Demonstration Consortium (SMSDC), is a combination of the proposed Phase II efforts of SSRC and the Boeing MESA Smart Materials Actuated Rotor Technology (SMART) program. This paper summarizes the SSRC efforts, introduces the SMSDC program, and provides a framework for the relationships between specific SSRC technical papers in this conference. The SSRC objectives were to research smart structure methods to achieve reduced rotorcraft vibration, reduce acoustic noise, and increased performance. The SSRC program includes dynamic piezoelectric actuation of flaps on the rotor blades, distributed dynamic piezo actuation of the rotor twist, and quasi-steady rotor twist control using shape memory alloys. The objective of Phase II is then to fly a rotorcraft to demonstrate such a system.

  2. Cooperative object tracking and composite event detection with wireless embedded smart cameras.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youlu; Velipasalar, Senem; Casares, Mauricio

    2010-10-01

    Embedded smart cameras have limited processing power, memory, energy, and bandwidth. Thus, many system- and algorithm-wise challenges remain to be addressed to have operational, battery-powered wireless smart-camera networks. We present a wireless embedded smart-camera system for cooperative object tracking and detection of composite events spanning multiple camera views. Each camera is a CITRIC mote consisting of a camera board and wireless mote. Lightweight and robust foreground detection and tracking algorithms are implemented on the camera boards. Cameras exchange small-sized data wirelessly in a peer-to-peer manner. Instead of transferring or saving every frame or trajectory, events of interest are detected. Simpler events are combined in a time sequence to define semantically higher-level events. Event complexity can be increased by increasing the number of primitives and/or number of camera views they span. Examples of consistently tracking objects across different cameras, updating location of occluded/lost objects from other cameras, and detecting composite events spanning two or three camera views, are presented. All the processing is performed on camera boards. Operating current plots of smart cameras, obtained when performing different tasks, are also presented. Power consumption is analyzed based upon these measurements.

  3. Active vibration control of smart composite plates using LQR algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, R.; Venkateshwara Rao, G.

    2003-10-01

    The concept of using the actuators and sensors to form a self controlling and self monitoring smart system in advanced structural design has drawn considerable interest among the research community. The smart system has large number of active, light weight, distributed sensors and actuators either bonded or embedded in the structure for the purpose of vibration suppression, shape and acoustic controls as well as fault detection and mitigation. The present study addresses the issues related to the active vibration control schemes for the smart composite panels, with substrate as the fiber reinforced composite laminate and the piezo ceramic layers as the actuators and sensors, using LQR algorithm. The study involves the structural modelling, controller design, open and closed loop system response analysis. For this purpose, an eight noded isoparametric finite element with seven degrees of freedom, viz., three translations, two section rotations and two potential differences corresponding to the actuators and sensors is developed. The piezo-ceramic actuator and sensor layers are also considered as the load bearing components in the panel. The finite element equations are first transformed into the modal state space form and then are used to obtain the constant controller gains. These are used to obtain the closed loop responses.

  4. Constitutive modeling and control of 1D smart composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Jonathan P.; Ostrowski, James P.; Ponte-Castaneda, Pedro

    1998-07-01

    Homogenization techniques for determining effective properties of composite materials may provide advantages for control of stiffness and strain in systems using hysteretic smart actuators embedded in a soft matrix. In this paper, a homogenized model of a 1D composite structure comprised of shape memory alloys and a rubber-like matrix is presented. With proportional and proportional/integral feedback, using current as the input state and global strain as an error state, implementation scenarios include the use of tractions on the boundaries and a nonlinear constitutive law for the matrix. The result is a simple model which captures the nonlinear behavior of the smart composite material system and is amenable to experiments with various control paradigms. The success of this approach in the context of the 1D model suggests that the homogenization method may prove useful in investigating control of more general smart structures. Applications of such materials could include active rehabilitation aids, e.g. wrist braces, as well as swimming/undulating robots, or adaptive molds for manufacturing processes.

  5. Material property assessment and crack identification of recycled concrete with embedded smart cement modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Pizhong; Fan, Wei; Chen, Fangliang

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, the material property assessment and crack identification of concrete using embedded smart cement modules are presented. Both the concrete samples with recycled aggregates (RA) and natural aggregates (NA) were prepared. The smart cement modules were fabricated and embedded in concrete beams to serve as either the actuators or sensors, and the elastic wave propagation-based technique was developed to detect the damage (crack) in the recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) beams and monitor the material degradation of RAC beams due to the freeze/thaw (F/T) conditioning cycles. The damage detection results and elastic modulus reduction monitoring data demonstrate that the proposed smart cement modules and associated damage detection and monitoring techniques are capable of identifying crack-type damage and monitoring material degradation of the RAC beams. Both the RAC and natural aggregate concrete (NAC) beams degrade with the increased F/T conditioning cycles. Though the RAC shows a lower reduction percentage of the modulus of elasticity from both the dynamic modulus and wave propagation tests at the given maximum F/T conditioning cycle (i.e., 300 in this study), the RAC tends to degrade faster after the 180 F/T cycles. As observed in this study, the material properties and degradation rate of RAC are comparable to those of NAC, thus making the RAC suitable for transportation construction. The findings in development of damage detection and health monitoring techniques using embedded smart cement modules resulted from this study promote the widespread application of recycled concrete in transportation construction and provide viable and effective health monitoring techniques for concrete structures in general.

  6. Mobile monitoring and embedded control system for factory environment.

    PubMed

    Lian, Kuang-Yow; Hsiao, Sung-Jung; Sung, Wen-Tsai

    2013-12-17

    This paper proposes a real-time method to carry out the monitoring of factory zone temperatures, humidity and air quality using smart phones. At the same time, the system detects possible flames, and analyzes and monitors electrical load. The monitoring also includes detecting the vibrations of operating machinery in the factory area. The research proposes using ZigBee and Wi-Fi protocol intelligent monitoring system integration within the entire plant framework. The sensors on the factory site deliver messages and real-time sensing data to an integrated embedded systems via the ZigBee protocol. The integrated embedded system is built by the open-source 32-bit ARM (Advanced RISC Machine) core Arduino Due module, where the network control codes are built in for the ARM chipset integrated controller. The intelligent integrated controller is able to instantly provide numerical analysis results according to the received data from the ZigBee sensors. The Android APP and web-based platform are used to show measurement results. The built-up system will transfer these results to a specified cloud device using the TCP/IP protocol. Finally, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach is used to analyze the power loads in the factory zones. Moreover, Near Field Communication (NFC) technology is used to carry out the actual electricity load experiments using smart phones.

  7. Mobile Monitoring and Embedded Control System for Factory Environment

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Kuang-Yow; Hsiao, Sung-Jung; Sung, Wen-Tsai

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a real-time method to carry out the monitoring of factory zone temperatures, humidity and air quality using smart phones. At the same time, the system detects possible flames, and analyzes and monitors electrical load. The monitoring also includes detecting the vibrations of operating machinery in the factory area. The research proposes using ZigBee and Wi-Fi protocol intelligent monitoring system integration within the entire plant framework. The sensors on the factory site deliver messages and real-time sensing data to an integrated embedded systems via the ZigBee protocol. The integrated embedded system is built by the open-source 32-bit ARM (Advanced RISC Machine) core Arduino Due module, where the network control codes are built in for the ARM chipset integrated controller. The intelligent integrated controller is able to instantly provide numerical analysis results according to the received data from the ZigBee sensors. The Android APP and web-based platform are used to show measurement results. The built-up system will transfer these results to a specified cloud device using the TCP/IP protocol. Finally, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach is used to analyze the power loads in the factory zones. Moreover, Near Field Communication (NFC) technology is used to carry out the actual electricity load experiments using smart phones. PMID:24351642

  8. Embedded spacecraft thermal control using ultrasonic consolidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Jared W.

    Research has been completed in order to rapidly manufacture spacecraft thermal control technologies embedded in spacecraft structural panels using ultrasonic consolidation. This rapid manufacturing process enables custom thermal control designs in the time frame necessary for responsive space. Successfully embedded components include temperature sensors, heaters, wire harnessing, pre-manufactured heat pipes, and custom integral heat pipes. High conductivity inserts and custom integral pulsating heat pipes were unsuccessfully attempted. This research shows the viability of rapid manufacturing of spacecraft structures with embedded thermal control using ultrasonic consolidation.

  9. Damage evaluation of smart composite beams using embedded extrinsic Fabry Perot interferometric strain sensors: bending stiffness assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, G.; Sim, L. M.; Loughlan, J.

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports on research work which is a comprehensive study involving the design of an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric strain sensor (EFPI-SS), the manufacture of smart carbon/epoxy beams preconditioned with artificial delamination, and the testing of these beams in three-point bending. A loading applied to the beams was quasi-static in nature and this was selected in order to facilitate the accurate and reliable control of the beam deformations. The EFPI-SSs were validated for their sensing capacity and survivability via surface mounting and interior embedment. Artificial delaminations of two different sizes were embedded within the host beams to simulate damage. Their effect on the bending stiffness induced by quasi-static loading was examined using the embedded EFPI-SSs along with surface-mounted conventional strain gauges (SGs) on a comparative basis. A linear response was obtained from the EFPI-SSs up to a strain level of 0.5%, and this was in good agreement with interpolated strains as well as those from analytical prediction. It was shown that the embedded EFPI-SSs were able to differentiate the effect of the tensile delaminations on the bending stiffness when the level of strain was substantial. It was noted that the interior strain data from the EFPI-SSs in conjunction with the surface SG data were very useful for extrapolating the strain difference on both sides of the delaminations, so that the possibility of delamination propagation could be deduced.

  10. Embedded Acoustic Sensor Array for Engine Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Feasibility of Noise Telemetry via Wireless Smart Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Afroz; Bauch, Matthew; Raible, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft engines have evolved into a highly complex system to meet ever-increasing demands. The evolution of engine technologies has primarily been driven by fuel efficiency, reliability, as well as engine noise concerns. One of the sources of engine noise is pressure fluctuations that are induced on the stator vanes. These local pressure fluctuations, once produced, propagate and coalesce with the pressure waves originating elsewhere on the stator to form a spinning pressure pattern. Depending on the duct geometry, air flow, and frequency of fluctuations, these spinning pressure patterns are self-sustaining and result in noise which eventually radiate to the far-field from engine. To investigate the nature of vane pressure fluctuations and the resulting engine noise, unsteady pressure signatures from an array of embedded acoustic sensors are recorded as a part of vane noise source diagnostics. Output time signatures from these sensors are routed to a control and data processing station adding complexity to the system and cable loss to the measured signal. "Smart" wireless sensors have data processing capability at the sensor locations which further increases the potential of wireless sensors. Smart sensors can process measured data locally and transmit only the important information through wireless communication. The aim of this wireless noise telemetry task was to demonstrate a single acoustic sensor wireless link for unsteady pressure measurement, and thus, establish the feasibility of distributed smart sensors scheme for aircraft engine vane surface unsteady pressure data transmission and characterization.

  11. Multiple sensor smart robot hand with force control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killion, Richard R.; Robinson, Lee R.; Bejczy, Antal

    1987-01-01

    A smart robot hand developed at JPL for the Protoflight Manipulator Arm (PFMA) is described. The development of this smart hand was based on an integrated design and subsystem architecture by considering mechanism, electronics, sensing, control, display, and operator interface in an integrated design approach. The mechanical details of this smart hand and the overall subsystem are described elsewhere. The sensing and electronics components of the JPL/PFMA smart hand are summarized and it is described in some detail in control capabilities.

  12. Palo Alto Research Center - Smart Embedded Network of Sensors with an Optical Readout

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavan, Ajay; Sahu, Saroj; Bringans, Ross; Johnson, Noble; Kiesel, Peter; Saha, Bhaskar

    2014-03-07

    PARC is developing new fiber optic sensors that would be embedded into batteries to monitor and measure key internal parameters during charge and discharge cycles. Two significant problems with today's best batteries are their lack of internal monitoring capabilities and their design oversizing. The lack of monitoring interferes with the ability to identify and manage performance or safety issues as they arise, which are presently managed by very conservative design oversizing and protection approaches that result in cost inefficiencies. PARC's design combines low-cost, embedded optical battery sensors and smart algorithms to overcome challenges faced by today's best battery management systems. These advanced fiber optic sensing technologies have the potential to dramatically improve the safety, performance, and life-time of energy storage systems.

  13. Palo Alto Research Center - Smart Embedded Network of Sensors with an Optical Readout

    ScienceCinema

    Raghavan, Ajay; Sahu, Saroj; Bringans, Ross; Johnson, Noble; Kiesel, Peter; Saha, Bhaskar

    2016-07-12

    PARC is developing new fiber optic sensors that would be embedded into batteries to monitor and measure key internal parameters during charge and discharge cycles. Two significant problems with today's best batteries are their lack of internal monitoring capabilities and their design oversizing. The lack of monitoring interferes with the ability to identify and manage performance or safety issues as they arise, which are presently managed by very conservative design oversizing and protection approaches that result in cost inefficiencies. PARC's design combines low-cost, embedded optical battery sensors and smart algorithms to overcome challenges faced by today's best battery management systems. These advanced fiber optic sensing technologies have the potential to dramatically improve the safety, performance, and life-time of energy storage systems.

  14. Embedded Thermal Control for Spacecraft Subsystems Miniaturization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Didion, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of spacecraft size, weight and power (SWaP) resources is an explicit technical priority at Goddard Space Flight Center. Embedded Thermal Control Subsystems are a promising technology with many cross cutting NSAA, DoD and commercial applications: 1.) CubeSatSmallSat spacecraft architecture, 2.) high performance computing, 3.) On-board spacecraft electronics, 4.) Power electronics and RF arrays. The Embedded Thermal Control Subsystem technology development efforts focus on component, board and enclosure level devices that will ultimately include intelligent capabilities. The presentation will discuss electric, capillary and hybrid based hardware research and development efforts at Goddard Space Flight Center. The Embedded Thermal Control Subsystem development program consists of interrelated sub-initiatives, e.g., chip component level thermal control devices, self-sensing thermal management, advanced manufactured structures. This presentation includes technical status and progress on each of these investigations. Future sub-initiatives, technical milestones and program goals will be presented.

  15. Active metal-matrix composites with embedded smart materials by ultrasonic additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahnlen, Ryan; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents the development of active aluminum-matrix composites manufactured by Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM), an emerging rapid prototyping process based on ultrasonic metal welding. Composites created through this process experience temperatures as low as 25 °C during fabrication, in contrast to current metal-matrix fabrication processes which require temperatures of 500 °C and above. UAM thus provides unprecedented opportunities to develop adaptive structures with seamlessly embedded smart materials and electronic components without degrading the properties that make these materials and components attractive. This research focuses on developing UAM composites with aluminum matrices and embedded shape memory NiTi, magnetostrictive Galfenol, and electroactive PVDF phases. The research on these composites will focus on: (i) electrical insulation between NiTi and Al phases for strain sensors, investigation and modeling of NiTi-Al composites as tunable stiffness materials and thermally invariant structures based on the shape memory effect; (ii) process development and composite testing for Galfenol-Al composites; and (iii) development of PVDF-Al composites for embedded sensing applications. We demonstrate a method to electrically insulate embedded materials from the UAM matrix, the ability create composites containing up to 22.3% NiTi, and their resulting dimensional stability and thermal actuation characteristics. Also demonstrated is Galfenol-Al composite magnetic actuation of up to 54 μ(see manuscript), and creation of a PVDF-Al composite sensor.

  16. Real-time multiple objects tracking on Raspberry-Pi-based smart embedded camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziri, Aziz; Duranton, Marc; Chapuis, Roland

    2016-07-01

    Multiple-object tracking constitutes a major step in several computer vision applications, such as surveillance, advanced driver assistance systems, and automatic traffic monitoring. Because of the number of cameras used to cover a large area, these applications are constrained by the cost of each node, the power consumption, the robustness of the tracking, the processing time, and the ease of deployment of the system. To meet these challenges, the use of low-power and low-cost embedded vision platforms to achieve reliable tracking becomes essential in networks of cameras. We propose a tracking pipeline that is designed for fixed smart cameras and which can handle occlusions between objects. We show that the proposed pipeline reaches real-time processing on a low-cost embedded smart camera composed of a Raspberry-Pi board and a RaspiCam camera. The tracking quality and the processing speed obtained with the proposed pipeline are evaluated on publicly available datasets and compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  17. Embedding knowledge in robot controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Puttre, M.

    1994-06-01

    This article reports that finding the right robot for a task and programming it remain key issues facing the industry. Developers, meanwhile, are striving to embed more applications knowledge in robot controllers using high-level languages and autonomy. Although robot components such as motors, arms, and sensors have become highly advanced, the control software and systems integration necessary to support rapidly configurable factory settings have been slow to emerge. The requirements for industrial robots currently are geared more toward performance than autonomy. However, as agile manufacturing issues gain importance, robot flexibility will also become an important requirement.

  18. Electron gun controlled smart structure

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Jeffrey W.; Main, John Alan; Redmond, James M.; Henson, Tammy D.; Watson, Robert D.

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is a method and system for actively controlling the shape of a sheet of electroactive material; the system comprising: one or more electrodes attached to the frontside of the electroactive sheet; a charged particle generator, disposed so as to direct a beam of charged particles (e.g. electrons) onto the electrode; a conductive substrate attached to the backside of the sheet; and a power supply electrically connected to the conductive substrate; whereby the sheet changes its shape in response to an electric field created across the sheet by an accumulation of electric charge within the electrode(s), relative to a potential applied to the conductive substrate. Use of multiple electrodes distributed across on the frontside ensures a uniform distribution of the charge with a single point of e-beam incidence, thereby greatly simplifying the beam scanning algorithm and raster control electronics, and reducing the problems associated with "blooming". By placing a distribution of electrodes over the front surface of a piezoelectric film (or other electroactive material), this arrangement enables improved control over the distribution of surface electric charges (e.g. electrons) by creating uniform (and possibly different) charge distributions within each individual electrode. Removal or deposition of net electric charge can be affected by controlling the secondary electron yield through manipulation of the backside electric potential with the power supply. The system can be used for actively controlling the shape of space-based deployable optics, such as adaptive mirrors and inflatable antennae.

  19. A Laboratory Testbed for Embedded Fuzzy Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, S.; Sukumar, V.; Bhasin, P. S.; Arun Kumar, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel scheme called "Laboratory Testbed for Embedded Fuzzy Control of a Real Time Nonlinear System." The idea is based upon the fact that project-based learning motivates students to learn actively and to use their engineering skills acquired in their previous years of study. It also fosters initiative and focuses…

  20. Feasibility study of using smart aggregates as embedded acoustic emission sensors for health monitoring of concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weijie; Kong, Qingzhao; Ho, Siu Chun Michael; Lim, Ing; Mo, Y. L.; Song, Gangbing

    2016-11-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) is a nondestructive evaluation technique that is capable of monitoring the damage evolution of concrete structures in real time. Conventionally, AE sensors are surface mounted on the host structures, however, the AE signals attenuate quickly due to the high attenuation properties of concrete structures. This study conducts a feasibility study of using smart aggregates (SAs), which are a type of embedded piezoceramic transducers, as embedded AE sensors for the health monitoring of concrete structures. A plain concrete beam with two surface mounted AE sensors and two embedded SAs was fabricated in laboratory and loaded under a designed three-point-bending test. The performance of embedded SAs were compared with the traditional surface mounted AE sensors in their ability to detect and evaluate the damage to the concrete structure. The results verified the feasibility of using smart aggregates as embedded AE sensors for monitoring structural damage in concrete. Potentially, the low cost smart aggregates could function as embedded AE sensors, providing great sensitivity and high reliability in applications for the structural health monitoring of concrete structures.

  1. Control of complex components with Smart Flexible Phased Arrays.

    PubMed

    Casula, O; Poidevin, C; Cattiaux, G; Dumas, Ph

    2006-12-22

    The inspection is mainly performed in contact with ultrasonic wedge transducers; However, the shape cannot fit the changing geometries of components (butt weld, nozzle, elbow). The variable thickness of the coupling layer, between the wedge and the local surface, leads to beam distortions and losses of sensitivity. Previous studies have shown that these two phenomena contribute to reduce the inspection performances leading to shadow area, split beam.... Flexible phased arrays have been developed to fit the complex profile and improve such controls. The radiating surface is composed with independent piezoelectric elements mechanically assembled and a profilometer, embedded in the transducer, measures the local distortion. The computed shape is used by an algorithm to compute in real-time the adapted delay laws compensating the distortions of 2D or 3D profiles. Those delay laws are transferred to the real-time UT acquisition system, which applies them to the piezoelectric elements. This self-adaptive process preserves, during the scanning, the features of the focused beam (orientation and focal depth) in the specimen. To validate the concept of the Smart Flexible Phased Array Transducer, prototypes have been integrated to detect flaws machined in mock-ups with realistic irregular 2D and 3D shapes. Inspections have been carried out on samples showing the enhancement performances of the "Smart Flexible Phased Array" and validating the mechanical and acoustical behaviors of these probes.

  2. Smart Coat with a Fully-Embedded Textile Antenna for IoT Applications.

    PubMed

    Loss, Caroline; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Lopes, Catarina; Pinho, Pedro; Salvado, Rita

    2016-06-22

    The Internet of Things (IoT) scenario is strongly related with the advance of the development of wireless sensor networks (WSN) and radio frequency identification (RFID) systems. Additionally, in the WSN context, for a continuous feed, the integration of textile antennas for energy harvesting into smart clothing is a particularly interesting solution when the replacement of batteries is not easy to practice, such as in wearable devices. This paper presents the E-Caption: Smart and Sustainable Coat. It has an embedded dual-band textile antenna for electromagnetic energy harvesting, operating at global system for mobile communication (GSM) 900 and digital cellular system (DCS) 1800 bands. This printed antenna is fully integrated, as its dielectric is the textile material composing the coat itself. The E-Caption illustrates the innovative concept of textile antennas that can be manipulated as simple emblems. Seven prototypes of these "emblem" antennas, manufactured by lamination and embroidering techniques are also presented. It is shown that the orientation of the conductive fabric does not influence the performance of the antenna. It is also shown that the direction and number of the stitches in the embroidery may influence the performance of the antenna. Moreover, the comparison of results obtained before and after the integration of the antenna into cloth shows the integration does not affect the behavior of the antenna.

  3. Smart Coat with a Fully-Embedded Textile Antenna for IoT Applications

    PubMed Central

    Loss, Caroline; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Lopes, Catarina; Pinho, Pedro; Salvado, Rita

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) scenario is strongly related with the advance of the development of wireless sensor networks (WSN) and radio frequency identification (RFID) systems. Additionally, in the WSN context, for a continuous feed, the integration of textile antennas for energy harvesting into smart clothing is a particularly interesting solution when the replacement of batteries is not easy to practice, such as in wearable devices. This paper presents the E-Caption: Smart and Sustainable Coat. It has an embedded dual-band textile antenna for electromagnetic energy harvesting, operating at global system for mobile communication (GSM) 900 and digital cellular system (DCS) 1800 bands. This printed antenna is fully integrated, as its dielectric is the textile material composing the coat itself. The E-Caption illustrates the innovative concept of textile antennas that can be manipulated as simple emblems. Seven prototypes of these “emblem” antennas, manufactured by lamination and embroidering techniques are also presented. It is shown that the orientation of the conductive fabric does not influence the performance of the antenna. It is also shown that the direction and number of the stitches in the embroidery may influence the performance of the antenna. Moreover, the comparison of results obtained before and after the integration of the antenna into cloth shows the integration does not affect the behavior of the antenna. PMID:27338407

  4. Embedded systems for controlling LED matrix displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marghescu, Cristina; Drumea, Andrei

    2016-12-01

    LED matrix displays are a common presence in everyday life - they can be found in trains, buses, tramways, office information tables or outdoor media. The structure of the display unit is similar for all these devices, a matrix of light emitting diodes coupled between row and column lines, but there are many options for the display controller that switches these lines. Present paper analyzes different types of embedded systems that can control the LED matrix, based on single board computers, on microcontrollers with different peripheral devices or with programmable logic devices like field programmable gate arrays with implemented soft processor cores. Scalability, easiness of implementation and costs are analyzed for all proposed solutions.

  5. Control of Smart Building Using Advanced SCADA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, Vivin Thomas

    For complete control of the building, a proper SCADA implementation and the optimization strategy has to be build. For better communication and efficiency a proper channel between the Communication protocol and SCADA has to be designed. This paper concentrate mainly between the communication protocol, and the SCADA implementation, for a better optimization and energy savings is derived to large scale industrial buildings. The communication channel used in order to completely control the building remotely from a distant place. For an efficient result we consider the temperature values and the power ratings of the equipment so that while controlling the equipment, we are setting a threshold values for FDD technique implementation. Building management system became a vital source for any building to maintain it and for safety purpose. Smart buildings, refers to various distinct features, where the complete automation system, office building controls, data center controls. ELC's are used to communicate the load values of the building to the remote server from a far location with the help of an Ethernet communication channel. Based on the demand fluctuation and the peak voltage, the loads operate differently increasing the consumption rate thus results in the increase in the annual consumption bill. In modern days, saving energy and reducing the consumption bill is most essential for any building for a better and long operation. The equipment - monitored regularly and optimization strategy is implemented for cost reduction automation system. Thus results in the reduction of annual cost reduction and load lifetime increase.

  6. Launch Pad Coatings for Smart Corrosion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Bucherl, Cori N.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Curran, Jerome P.; Whitten, Mary C.

    2010-01-01

    Corrosion is the degradation of a material as a result of its interaction with the environment. The environment at the KSC launch pads has been documented by ASM International (formerly American Society for Metals) as the most corrosive in the US. The 70 tons of highly corrosive hydrochloric acid that are generated by the solid rocket boosters during a launch exacerbate the corrosiveness of the environment at the pads. Numerous failures at the pads are caused by the pitting of stainless steels, rebar corrosion, and the degradation of concrete. Corrosion control of launch pad structures relies on the use of coatings selected from the qualified products list (QPL) of the NASA Standard 5008A for Protective Coating of Carbon Steel, Stainless Steel, and Aluminum on Launch Structures, Facilities, and Ground Support Equipment. This standard was developed to establish uniform engineering practices and methods and to ensure the inclusion of essential criteria in the coating of ground support equipment (GSE) and facilities used by or for NASA. This standard is applicable to GSE and facilities that support space vehicle or payload programs or projects and to critical facilities at all NASA locations worldwide. Environmental regulation changes have dramatically reduced the production, handling, use, and availability of conventional protective coatings for application to KSC launch structures and ground support equipment. Current attrition rate of qualified KSC coatings will drastically limit the number of commercial off the shelf (COTS) products available for the Constellation Program (CxP) ground operations (GO). CxP GO identified corrosion detection and control technologies as a critical, initial capability technology need for ground processing of Ares I and Ares V to meet Constellation Architecture Requirements Document (CARD) CxP 70000 operability requirements for reduced ground processing complexity, streamlined integrated testing, and operations phase affordability

  7. Microstructured Optical Fiber Sensors Embedded in a Laminate Composite for Smart Material Applications

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenfeld, Camille; Sulejmani, Sanne; Geernaert, Thomas; Eve, Sophie; Lammens, Nicolas; Luyckx, Geert; Voet, Eli; Degrieck, Joris; Urbanczyk, Waclaw; Mergo, Pawel; Becker, Martin; Bartelt, Hartmut; Berghmans, Francis; Thienpont, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings written in highly birefringent microstructured optical fiber with a dedicated design are embedded in a composite fiber-reinforced polymer. The Bragg peak wavelength shifts are measured under controlled axial and transversal strain and during thermal cycling of the composite sample. We obtain a sensitivity to transversal strain that exceeds values reported earlier in literature by one order of magnitude. Our results evidence the relevance of using microstructured optical fibers for structural integrity monitoring of composite material structures. PMID:22163755

  8. Microstructured optical fiber sensors embedded in a laminate composite for smart material applications.

    PubMed

    Sonnenfeld, Camille; Sulejmani, Sanne; Geernaert, Thomas; Eve, Sophie; Lammens, Nicolas; Luyckx, Geert; Voet, Eli; Degrieck, Joris; Urbanczyk, Waclaw; Mergo, Pawel; Becker, Martin; Bartelt, Hartmut; Berghmans, Francis; Thienpont, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings written in highly birefringent microstructured optical fiber with a dedicated design are embedded in a composite fiber-reinforced polymer. The Bragg peak wavelength shifts are measured under controlled axial and transversal strain and during thermal cycling of the composite sample. We obtain a sensitivity to transversal strain that exceeds values reported earlier in literature by one order of magnitude. Our results evidence the relevance of using microstructured optical fibers for structural integrity monitoring of composite material structures.

  9. Decentralized vibration control of a multi-link flexible robotic manipulator using smart piezoelectric transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halim, Dunant; Luo, Xi; Trivailo, Pavel M.

    2014-11-01

    The work in this paper is aimed to investigate the use of a decentralized control system for suppressing vibration of a multi-link flexible robotic manipulator using embedded smart piezoelectric transducers. To achieve this, a non-linear dynamic model of a flexible robotic manipulator with smart piezoelectric actuators/sensors, is developed based on the co-rotational finite element method. The method incorporates multiple co-ordinate (co-rotational) systems which rotate and translate with each element, so that the geometric non-linearity present in rotating manipulator system can be dealt with efficiently. The placement of piezoelectric actuators and sensors over the flexible links are considered for the application of decentralized control system. A numerical study shows that the developed co-rotational finite element method can be utilized to investigate the piezoelectric actuator/sensor placement and vibration control performances for a multi-link flexible manipulator undertaking complicated motion.

  10. Toward embedded laboratory automation for smart Lab-on-a-Chip embryo arrays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kevin I-Kai; Salcic, Zoran; Yeh, Johnny; Akagi, Jin; Zhu, Feng; Hall, Chris J; Crosier, Kathryn E; Crosier, Philip S; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2013-10-15

    Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) biomicrofluidic technologies are rapidly emerging bioanalytical tools that can miniaturize and revolutionize in situ research on embryos of small vertebrate model organisms such as zebrafish (Danio rerio) and clawed African frog (Xenopus laevis). Despite considerable progress being made in fabrication techniques of chip-based devices, they usually still require excessive and manual actuation and data acquisition that significantly reduce throughput and introduce operator-related analytical bias. This work describes the development of a proof-of-concept embedded platform that integrates an innovative LOC zebrafish embryo array technology with an electronic interface to provide higher levels of laboratory automation for in situ biotests. The integrated platform was designed to perform automatic immobilization, culture and treatment of developing zebrafish embryos during fish embryo toxicity (FET) biotests. The system was equipped with a stepper motor driven stage, solenoid-actuated pinch valves, miniaturized peristaltic pumps as well as Peltier heating module. Furthermore, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) was used to implement an embedded hardware/software solution and interface to enable real-time control over embryo loading and immobilization; accurate microfluidic flow control; temperature stabilization and also automatic time-resolved image acquisition of developing zebrafish embryos. This work presents evidence that integration of embedded electronic interfaces with microfluidic chip-based technologies can bring the Lab-on-a-Chip a step closer to fully automated analytical systems.

  11. Feasibility of BCI Control in a Realistic Smart Home Environment.

    PubMed

    Kosmyna, Nataliya; Tarpin-Bernard, Franck; Bonnefond, Nicolas; Rivet, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Smart homes have been an active area of research, however despite considerable investment, they are not yet a reality for end-users. Moreover, there are still accessibility challenges for the elderly or the disabled, two of the main potential targets for home automation. In this exploratory study we design a control mechanism for smart homes based on Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) and apply it in the "Domus" smart home platform in order to evaluate the potential interest of users about BCIs at home. We enable users to control lighting, a TV set, a coffee machine and the shutters of the smart home. We evaluate the performance (accuracy, interaction time), usability and feasibility (USE questionnaire) on 12 healthy subjects and 2 disabled subjects. We find that healthy subjects achieve 77% task accuracy. However, disabled subjects achieved a better accuracy (81% compared to 77%).

  12. Feasibility of BCI Control in a Realistic Smart Home Environment

    PubMed Central

    Kosmyna, Nataliya; Tarpin-Bernard, Franck; Bonnefond, Nicolas; Rivet, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Smart homes have been an active area of research, however despite considerable investment, they are not yet a reality for end-users. Moreover, there are still accessibility challenges for the elderly or the disabled, two of the main potential targets for home automation. In this exploratory study we design a control mechanism for smart homes based on Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) and apply it in the “Domus”1 smart home platform in order to evaluate the potential interest of users about BCIs at home. We enable users to control lighting, a TV set, a coffee machine and the shutters of the smart home. We evaluate the performance (accuracy, interaction time), usability and feasibility (USE questionnaire) on 12 healthy subjects and 2 disabled subjects. We find that healthy subjects achieve 77% task accuracy. However, disabled subjects achieved a better accuracy (81% compared to 77%). PMID:27616986

  13. Java simulations of embedded control systems.

    PubMed

    Farias, Gonzalo; Cervin, Anton; Arzén, Karl-Erik; Dormido, Sebastián; Esquembre, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new Open Source Java library suited for the simulation of embedded control systems. The library is based on the ideas and architecture of TrueTime, a toolbox of Matlab devoted to this topic, and allows Java programmers to simulate the performance of control processes which run in a real time environment. Such simulations can improve considerably the learning and design of multitasking real-time systems. The choice of Java increases considerably the usability of our library, because many educators program already in this language. But also because the library can be easily used by Easy Java Simulations (EJS), a popular modeling and authoring tool that is increasingly used in the field of Control Education. EJS allows instructors, students, and researchers with less programming capabilities to create advanced interactive simulations in Java. The paper describes the ideas, implementation, and sample use of the new library both for pure Java programmers and for EJS users. The JTT library and some examples are online available on http://lab.dia.uned.es/jtt.

  14. Overview of control design methods for smart structural system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Vittal S.; Sana, Sridhar

    2001-08-01

    Smart structures are a result of effective integration of control system design and signal processing with the structural systems to maximally utilize the new advances in materials for structures, actuation and sensing to obtain the best performance for the application at hand. The research in smart structures is constantly driving towards attaining self adaptive and diagnostic capabilities that biological systems possess. This has been manifested in the number of successful applications in many areas of engineering such as aerospace, civil and automotive systems. Instrumental in the development of such systems are smart materials such as piezo-electric, shape memory alloys, electrostrictive, magnetostrictive and fiber-optic materials and various composite materials for use as actuators, sensors and structural members. The need for development of control systems that maximally utilize the smart actuators and sensing materials to design highly distributed and highly adaptable controllers has spurred research in the area of smart structural modeling, identification, actuator/sensor design and placement, control systems design such as adaptive and robust controllers with new tools such a neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms, linear matrix inequalities and electronics for controller implementation such as analog electronics, micro controllers, digital signal processors (DSPs) and application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) such field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and Multichip modules (MCMs) etc. In this paper, we give a brief overview of the state of control in smart structures. Different aspects of the development of smart structures such as applications, technology and theoretical advances especially in the area of control systems design and implementation will be covered.

  15. Integrated Design and Implementation of Embedded Control Systems with Scilab.

    PubMed

    Ma, Longhua; Xia, Feng; Peng, Zhe

    2008-09-05

    Embedded systems are playing an increasingly important role in control engineering. Despite their popularity, embedded systems are generally subject to resource constraints and it is therefore difficult to build complex control systems on embedded platforms. Traditionally, the design and implementation of control systems are often separated, which causes the development of embedded control systems to be highly timeconsuming and costly. To address these problems, this paper presents a low-cost, reusable, reconfigurable platform that enables integrated design and implementation of embedded control systems. To minimize the cost, free and open source software packages such as Linux and Scilab are used. Scilab is ported to the embedded ARM-Linux system. The drivers for interfacing Scilab with several communication protocols including serial, Ethernet, and Modbus are developed. Experiments are conducted to test the developed embedded platform. The use of Scilab enables implementation of complex control algorithms on embedded platforms. With the developed platform, it is possible to perform all phases of the development cycle of embedded control systems in a unified environment, thus facilitating the reduction of development time and cost.

  16. Integrated Design and Implementation of Embedded Control Systems with Scilab

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Longhua; Xia, Feng; Peng, Zhe

    2008-01-01

    Embedded systems are playing an increasingly important role in control engineering. Despite their popularity, embedded systems are generally subject to resource constraints and it is therefore difficult to build complex control systems on embedded platforms. Traditionally, the design and implementation of control systems are often separated, which causes the development of embedded control systems to be highly time-consuming and costly. To address these problems, this paper presents a low-cost, reusable, reconfigurable platform that enables integrated design and implementation of embedded control systems. To minimize the cost, free and open source software packages such as Linux and Scilab are used. Scilab is ported to the embedded ARM-Linux system. The drivers for interfacing Scilab with several communication protocols including serial, Ethernet, and Modbus are developed. Experiments are conducted to test the developed embedded platform. The use of Scilab enables implementation of complex control algorithms on embedded platforms. With the developed platform, it is possible to perform all phases of the development cycle of embedded control systems in a unified environment, thus facilitating the reduction of development time and cost. PMID:27873827

  17. Wind tunnel test of a smart rotor with individual blade twist control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peter C.; Chopra, Inderjit

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a smart rotor with active control of blade twist using embedded piezoceramic elements as sensors and actuators to minimize rotor vibrations. A 1/8-th Froude-scale (dynamically-scaled) bearingless helicopter rotor model was built with banks of torsional actuators capable of manipulating blade twist at frequencies from 5 to 100 Hz. To assess the effectiveness of the torsional actuators and vibration suppression capabilities, systematic wind tunnel testing was conducted in the Glenn L. Martin Wind Tunnel. Using accelerometers embedded in the blade tip, the oscillatory blade twist response was measured. The changes in rotor vibratory loads due to piezo- induced twist were determined using a rotating hub balance located at the rotor hub. Experimental test results show that tip twist amplitudes on the order of 0.5 deg are attainable by the current actuator configurations in forward flight. Although these amplitudes were less than the target value (1 - 2 deg for complete vibration suppression control), test results show that partial vibration reduction is possible. Using open-loop phase shift control of blade twist at the first four rotor harmonics, changes in rotor thrust of up to 9% of the steady-state values were measured, resulting in up to 3 and 8% reductions in rotor pitching and rolling moments, respectively. It is expected that the hub load control authority of the smart rotor can be improved in future models with refined actuator configurations and implementation of closed-loop feedback controls.

  18. Numerical analysis of a smart composite material mechanical component using an embedded long period grating fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savastru, Dan; Miclos, Sorin; Savastru, Roxana; Lancranjan, Ion I.

    2015-05-01

    Results obtained by FEM analysis of a smart mechanical part manufactured of reinforced composite materials with embedded long period grating fiber sensors (LPGFS) used for operation monitoring are presented. Fiber smart reinforced composite materials because of their fundamental importance across a broad range of industrial applications, as aerospace industry. The main purpose of the performed numerical analysis consists in final improved design of composite mechanical components providing a feedback useful for further automation of the whole system. The performed numerical analysis is pointing to a correlation of composite material internal mechanical loads applied to LPGFS with the NIR absorption bands peak wavelength shifts. One main idea of the performed numerical analysis relies on the observed fact that a LPGFS embedded inside a composite material undergoes mechanical loads created by the micro scale roughness of the composite fiber network. The effect of this mechanical load consists in bending of the LPGFS. The shifting towards IR and broadening of absorption bands appeared in the LPGFS transmission spectra is modeled according to this observation using the coupled mode approach.

  19. ETHERNET BASED EMBEDDED IOC FOR FEL CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Jianxun Yan; Daniel Sexton; Albert Grippo; Steven Moore; Kevin Jordan

    2008-01-23

    An Ethernet based embedded Input Output Controller (IOC) has been developed to upgrade the control system for the Free Electron Laser Project at Jefferson Lab. The embedded IOC, called the Single Board IOC (SBIOC), was integrated with a ColdFire embedded microprocessor and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) on a circuit board, which can be easily configured to control different kinds of I/O devices. The SBIOC provided features of a complete System-on-Module (SOM) as a stand alone system with abundant high speed I/O ports to couple with suitable devices. The software kits, Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) and Real Time Executive for Multiprocessor System (RTEMS), were chosen to work with our existing control system. The embedded IOC system has the features of a low cost IOC, free open source RTOS, plug-and-play-like ease of installation and flexibility.

  20. Smart building temperature control using occupant feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Santosh K.

    This work was motivated by the problem of computing optimal commonly-agreeable thermal settings in spaces with multiple occupants. In this work we propose algorithms that take into account each occupant's preferences along with the thermal correlations between different zones in a building, to arrive at optimal thermal settings for all zones of the building in a coordinated manner. In the first part of this work we incorporate active occupant feedback to minimize aggregate user discomfort and total energy cost. User feedback is used to estimate the users comfort range, taking into account possible inaccuracies in the feedback. The control algorithm takes the energy cost into account, trading it off optimally with the aggregate user discomfort. A lumped heat transfer model based on thermal resistance and capacitance is used to model a multi-zone building. We provide a stability analysis and establish convergence of the proposed solution to a desired temperature that minimizes the sum of energy cost and aggregate user discomfort. However, for convergence to the optimal, sufficient separation between the user feedback frequency and the dynamics of the system is necessary; otherwise, the user feedback provided do not correctly reflect the effect of current control input value on user discomfort. The algorithm is further extended using singular perturbation theory to determine the minimum time between successive user feedback solicitations. Under sufficient time scale separation, we establish convergence of the proposed solution. Simulation study and experimental runs on the Watervliet based test facility demonstrates performance of the algorithm. In the second part we develop a consensus algorithm for attaining a common temperature set-point that is agreeable to all occupants of a zone in a typical multi-occupant space. The information on the comfort range functions is indeed held privately by each occupant. Using occupant differentiated dynamically adjusted prices as

  1. Phase-diffractive coating for daylight control on smart window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perennes, Frederic; Twardowski, Patrice J.; Gesbert, D.; Meyrueis, Patrick

    1992-11-01

    Daylight can be processed by a smart window in a transmission, reflective, refractive, and diffractive mode. In the future an optimization will be realized by a mixing of these approaches depending on the applied cases. Non-imaging diffractive optics has its roots in the work done in holographic diffractive coating for head up displays (HUD) and helmet mounted displays. For having globally good results on smart window with diffractive coating, a very high diffraction efficiency must be reached close to 100% without having a too important lowering of the control of other parameters of the light processed by a smart window (direction and frequency control essentially). We propose a method for designing, realizing, and using diffractive coating for a smart window that is based on a new organic material and diffractive model that were already validated in HUD. Potential low cost is possible for mass production on a large surface with an adapted investment. We describe the present technology and its limits and the ones that can be reached in the future. In this work, we present a holographic way to modify the slant of sun rays through a window, and to filter infrared radiations by using dichromated gelatin material. In this way it would be able to ensure a more uniform lighting and a more pleasant temperature inside buildings or vehicles, without using dye or photochromics glasses.

  2. Optimal Operation Method of Smart House by Controllable Loads based on Smart Grid Topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoza, Akihiro; Uchida, Kosuke; Yona, Atsushi; Senju, Tomonobu

    2013-08-01

    From the perspective of global warming suppression and depletion of energy resources, renewable energy such as wind generation (WG) and photovoltaic generation (PV) are getting attention in distribution systems. Additionally, all electrification apartment house or residence such as DC smart house have increased in recent years. However, due to fluctuating power from renewable energy sources and loads, supply-demand balancing fluctuations of power system become problematic. Therefore, "smart grid" has become very popular in the worldwide. This article presents a methodology for optimal operation of a smart grid to minimize the interconnection point power flow fluctuations. To achieve the proposed optimal operation, we use distributed controllable loads such as battery and heat pump. By minimizing the interconnection point power flow fluctuations, it is possible to reduce the maximum electric power consumption and the electric cost. This system consists of photovoltaics generator, heat pump, battery, solar collector, and load. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, MATLAB is used in simulations.

  3. External Verification of SCADA System Embedded Controller Firmware

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Butts – thank you for being an inspirational educator and officer, and providing me with incredible opportunities. To my family – thank you for...modifiable. However in instances such as the Siemens ’ S7 modular embedded controllers which run embedded Windows XP, the BIOS is reprogrammable [13]. The... Siemens ’ SIMATIC STEP 7 software with specific PLC CPU types and with specific numeric values present in the system data blocks. Once in place on the

  4. Embedding human annoyance rate models in wireless smart sensors for assessing the influence of subway train-induced ambient vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ke; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Huaping; Kim, Robin E.; Spencer, Billie F., Jr.

    2016-10-01

    The operation of subway trains induces ambient vibrations, which may cause annoyance and other adverse effects on humans, eventually leading to physical, physiological, and psychological problems. In this paper, the human annoyance rate (HAR) models, used to assess the human comfort under the subway train-induced ambient vibrations, were deduced and the calibration curves for 5 typical use circumstances were addressed. An autonomous measurement system, based on the Imote2, wireless smart sensor (WSS) platform, plus the SHM-H, high-sensitivity accelerometer board, was developed for the HAR assessment. The calibration curves were digitized and embedded in the computational core of the WSS unit. Experimental validation was conducted, using the developed system on a large underground reinforced concrete frame structure adjoining the subway station. The ambient acceleration of both basement floors was measured; the embedded computation was implemented and the HAR assessment results were wirelessly transmitted to the central server, all by the WSS unit. The HAR distributions of the testing areas were identified, and the extent to which both basements will be influenced by the close-up subway-train’s operation, in term of the 5 typical use circumstances, were quantitatively assessed. The potential of the WSS-based autonomous system for the fast environment impact assessment of the subway train-induced ambient vibration was well demonstrated.

  5. Spindle position control by embedded electromagnetic poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, N.-C.; Lee, R.-M.

    2010-10-01

    A novel embedded cylindrical-array magnetic actuator (ECAMA) is proposed and verified by experiments to provide sufficient magnetic force for spindle deviation regulation of high-speed milling process. Four I-shape silicon steel columns enclosing the spindle constitute the backbone of the ECAMA. The shape of modified concave-type yokes is designed to reduce the average air gap between magnetic poles and the spindle. In contrast to the conventional AMB (active magnetic bearing) design for which coils are usually wound on the yokes, the copper wire is wound on the I-shape silicon steel columns. As a result, the overall wound coil turns can be much increased. In other words, stronger magnetic force can be induced by ECAMA. On the other hand, to reduce the cost of ECAMA, two pairs of self-sensing modules are employed to replace the gap sensors for measurement of spindle position deviation. In order to verify the efficacy of the proposed ECAMA and the self-sensing module, high-speed milling tests are undertaken. By inspection on the precision and quality of the finish surface of workpiece, the superiority of ECAMA and the self-sensing module are assured.

  6. Smart medical textiles with embedded optical fibre sensors for continuous monitoring of respiratory movements during MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, J.; Narbonneau, F.; Schukar, M.; Krebber, K.; De Jonckheere, J.; Jeanne, M.; Kinet, D.; Paquet, B.; Depré, A.; D'Angelo, L. T.; Thiel, T.; Logier, R.

    2010-09-01

    We report on three respiration sensors based on pure optical technologies developed during the FP6 EU project OFSETH. The developed smart medical textiles can sense elongation up to 3%, while maintaining the stretching properties of the textile substrates for a good comfort of the patient. The sensors, based on silica and polymer fibre, are developed for monitoring of patients during MRI examination. The OFSETH harness allows a continuous measurement of respiration movements while all vitals organs are free for medical staff actions. The sensors were tested in MRI environment and on healthy adults.

  7. Smart Materials, Structures, and Mathematical Issues for Active Damage Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    objective was to learn the state-of-the-art in smart structures and vibration control in the U.S. Dr. Zhongwei Jiang, Associate Professor...Chaudhry Dr. Victor Giurgiutiu Dr. Frederic Lalande Dr. 0. Song Mr. Fanping Sun Ms. Linda Vick Dr. J. H. Lee Dr. Chen Liang 30 Graduate Students...High- Displacement Induced-Strain Actuator (HAHDIS Actuator)," VTIP Disclosure No. 94-049. Fanping Sun, Zaffir Chaudhry, Chen Liang and Craig A

  8. Smart Engines Via Advanced Model Based Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Allain, Marc

    2000-08-20

    A ''new'' process for developing control systems - Less engine testing - More robust control system - Shorter development cycle time - ''Smarter'' approach to engine control - On-board models describe engine behavior - Shorter, systematic calibration process - Customer and legislative requirements designed-in.

  9. Vibration, buckling and smart control of microtubules using piezoelectric nanoshells under electric voltage in thermal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farajpour, A.; Rastgoo, A.; Mohammadi, M.

    2017-03-01

    Piezoelectric nanomaterials such as zinc oxide (ZnO) are of low toxicity and have many biomedical applications including optical imaging, drug delivery, biosensing and harvesting biomechanical energy using hybrid nanogenerators. In this paper, the vibration, buckling and smart control of microtubules (MTs) embedded in an elastic medium in thermal environment using a piezoelectric nanoshell (PNS) are investigated. The MT and PNS are considered to be coupled by a filament network. The PNS is subjected to thermal loads and an external electric voltage which operates to control the mechanical behavior of the MT. Using the nonlocal continuum mechanics, the governing differential equations are derived. An exact solution is presented for simply supported boundary conditions. The differential quadrature method is also used to solve the governing equations for other boundary conditions. A detailed parametric study is conducted to investigate the effects of the elastic constants of surrounding medium and internal filament matrix, scale coefficient, electric voltage, the radius-to-thickness ratio of PNSs and temperature change on the smart control of MTs. It is found that the applied electric voltage can be used as an effective controlling parameter for the vibration and buckling of MTs.

  10. Adaptive control design for hysteretic smart systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiang; Smith, Ralph C.

    2009-03-01

    Ferroelectric and ferromagnetic actuators are being considered for a range of industrial, aerospace, aeronautic and biomedical applications due to their unique transduction capabilities. However, they also exhibit hysteretic and nonlinear behavior that must be accommodated in models and control designs. If uncompensated, these effects can yield reduced system performance and, in the worst case, can produce unpredictable behavior of the control system. One technique for control design is to approximately linearize the actuator dynamics using an adaptive inverse compensator that is also able to accommodate model uncertainties and error introduced by the inverse algorithm. This paper describes the design of an adaptive inverse control technique based on the homogenized energy model for hysteresis. The resulting inverse filter is incorporated in an L1 control theory to provide a robust control algorithm capable of providing high speed, high accuracy tracking in the presence of actuator hysteresis and nonlinearities. Properties of the control design are illustrated through numerical examples.

  11. Embedded Thermal Control for Subsystems for Next Generation Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Didion, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, Silver Spring MD NCTS 21070-15. NASA, the Defense Department and commercial interests are actively engaged in developing miniaturized spacecraft systems and scientific instruments to leverage smaller cheaper spacecraft form factors such as CubeSats. This paper outlines research and development efforts among Goddard Space Flight Center personnel and its several partners to develop innovative embedded thermal control subsystems. Embedded thermal control subsystems is a cross cutting enabling technology integrating advanced manufacturing techniques to develop multifunctional intelligent structures to reduce Size, Weight and Power (SWaP) consumption of both the thermal control subsystem and overall spacecraft. Embedded thermal control subsystems permit heat acquisition and rejection at higher temperatures than state of the art systems by employing both advanced heat transfer equipment (integrated heat exchangers) and high heat transfer phenomena. The Goddard Space Flight Center Thermal Engineering Branch has active investigations seeking to characterize advanced thermal control systems for near term spacecraft missions. The embedded thermal control subsystem development effort consists of fundamental research as well as development of breadboard and prototype hardware and spaceflight validation efforts. This paper will outline relevant fundamental investigations of micro-scale heat transfer and electrically driven liquid film boiling. The hardware development efforts focus upon silicon based high heat flux applications (electronic chips, power electronics etc.) and multifunctional structures. Flight validation efforts include variable gravity campaigns and a proposed CubeSat based flight demonstration of a breadboard embedded thermal control system. The CubeSat investigation is technology demonstration will characterize in long-term low earth orbit a breadboard embedded thermal subsystem and its individual components to develop

  12. Strategy for the Development of a Smart NDVI Camera System for Outdoor Plant Detection and Agricultural Embedded Systems

    PubMed Central

    Dworak, Volker; Selbeck, Joern; Dammer, Karl-Heinz; Hoffmann, Matthias; Zarezadeh, Ali Akbar; Bobda, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    The application of (smart) cameras for process control, mapping, and advanced imaging in agriculture has become an element of precision farming that facilitates the conservation of fertilizer, pesticides, and machine time. This technique additionally reduces the amount of energy required in terms of fuel. Although research activities have increased in this field, high camera prices reflect low adaptation to applications in all fields of agriculture. Smart, low-cost cameras adapted for agricultural applications can overcome this drawback. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for each image pixel is an applicable algorithm to discriminate plant information from the soil background enabled by a large difference in the reflectance between the near infrared (NIR) and the red channel optical frequency band. Two aligned charge coupled device (CCD) chips for the red and NIR channel are typically used, but they are expensive because of the precise optical alignment required. Therefore, much attention has been given to the development of alternative camera designs. In this study, the advantage of a smart one-chip camera design with NDVI image performance is demonstrated in terms of low cost and simplified design. The required assembly and pixel modifications are described, and new algorithms for establishing an enhanced NDVI image quality for data processing are discussed. PMID:23348037

  13. Strategy for the development of a smart NDVI camera system for outdoor plant detection and agricultural embedded systems.

    PubMed

    Dworak, Volker; Selbeck, Joern; Dammer, Karl-Heinz; Hoffmann, Matthias; Zarezadeh, Ali Akbar; Bobda, Christophe

    2013-01-24

    The application of (smart) cameras for process control, mapping, and advanced imaging in agriculture has become an element of precision farming that facilitates the conservation of fertilizer, pesticides, and machine time. This technique additionally reduces the amount of energy required in terms of fuel. Although research activities have increased in this field, high camera prices reflect low adaptation to applications in all fields of agriculture. Smart, low-cost cameras adapted for agricultural applications can overcome this drawback. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for each image pixel is an applicable algorithm to discriminate plant information from the soil background enabled by a large difference in the reflectance between the near infrared (NIR) and the red channel optical frequency band. Two aligned charge coupled device (CCD) chips for the red and NIR channel are typically used, but they are expensive because of the precise optical alignment required. Therefore, much attention has been given to the development of alternative camera designs. In this study, the advantage of a smart one-chip camera design with NDVI image performance is demonstrated in terms of low cost and simplified design. The required assembly and pixel modifications are described, and new algorithms for establishing an enhanced NDVI image quality for data processing are discussed.

  14. Temperature controlling system using embedded equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rob, R.; Tirian, G. O.; Panoiu, C.

    2017-01-01

    Present paper describes the functionality of a temperature controlling system using PIC 18F45K22 microcontroller. The ambient temperature is acquired with LM35 analogue sensor. The microcontroller program is realized with MikroC compiler and it is able to control the speed of a cooling fan with dc motor. The speed can be increased in functioning with the increasing of the ambient temperature.

  15. Ubiquitous Wireless Smart Sensing and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Need new technologies to reliably and safely have humans interact within sensored environments (integrated user interfaces, physical and cognitive augmentation, training, and human-systems integration tools). Areas of focus include: radio frequency identification (RFID), motion tracking, wireless communication, wearable computing, adaptive training and decision support systems, and tele-operations. The challenge is developing effective, low cost/mass/volume/power integrated monitoring systems to assess and control system, environmental, and operator health; and accurately determining and controlling the physical, chemical, and biological environments of the areas and associated environmental control systems.

  16. Smart synthetic material arresting cable based on embedded distributed fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar; Prohaska, John; Kempen, Cornelia; Bentley, Douglas; Murdock, Chad; Piatkowski, David; White, Lonnie

    2007-07-01

    Redondo Optics Inc. in collaboration with the Cortland Cable Company and the US. Navy under a Navy sponsored SBIR program is in the process of developing an embedded distributed fiber optic sensor (EDIFOS TM) system for the real-time, structural health monitoring, damage assessment, and lifetime prediction of full scale synthetic material arresting gear cables. The EDIFOS TM system uses a distributed array of fiber Bragg grating sensors, sensitive to stress/strain, impact damage, kinking and bending, and temperature, embedded within the strands of a synthetic material arresting cable structure. Fiber Bragg grating sensors are a mature technology typically used for the in-situ structural health monitoring of advanced structures. The periodic grating produces an optical, wavelength-encoded signal whose properties are dependent on the structural, and mechanical environment of the sensor fiber. The FBG sensor interrogation system monitors the status of each of the individual FBG sensors distributed along the embedded sensor fibers and transforms this information in real-time in to a graphical display of the stress/strain and temperature state of the entire arresting gear cable. An alarm system triggers to pinpoint those locations of potential damage.

  17. Controllable tensegrity: a new class of smart structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skelton, Robert T.; Sultan, Cornel

    1997-06-01

    Tensegrity structures represent a special class of tendon space structures, whose members may simultaneously perform the functions of strength, sensing, actuating and feedback control. Thus, these structures ideally match the definition of smart structures. This paper introduces the concept of controllable tensegrity as a new class of smart structures capable of large displacement. The kinematics and nonlinear dynamics of one element of this class is derived and analyzed. Pre-stressability conditions are given and a particular equilibrium identified. The equations of motion are then linearized about this equilibrium and linear parametric models generated. These are next used for controller design. For control system design some of the tendons are chosen as actuators and some as sensors and a family of dynamic controllers designed such that the control energy is minimized while requiring output variance constraints to be satisfied. Another family of controllers is designed such that the output variance is minimized while requiring input variance constraints to be satisfied. The performances of these controllers are evaluated.

  18. Endoluminal dilatation for embedded hemodialysis catheters: A case-control study of factors associated with embedding and clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Talreja, Hari; Ryan, Stephen Edward; Graham, Janet; Sood, Manish M.; Hadziomerovic, Adnan; Clark, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Background With the increasing frequency of tunneled hemodialysis catheter use there is a parallel increase in the need for removal and/or exchange. A small but significant minority of catheters become embedded or ‘stuck’ and cannot be removed by traditional means. Management of embedded catheters involves cutting the catheter, burying the retained fragment with a subsequent increased risk of infections and thrombosis. Endoluminal dilatation may provide a potential safe and effective technique for removing embedded catheters, however, to date, there is a paucity of data. Objectives 1) To determine factors associated with catheters becoming embedded and 2) to determine outcomes associated with endoluminal dilatation Methods All patients with endoluminal dilatation for embedded catheters at our institution since Jan. 2010 were included. Patients who had an embedded catheter were matched 1:3 with patients with uncomplicated catheter removal. Baseline patient and catheter characteristics were compared. Outcomes included procedural success and procedure-related infection. Logistic regression models were used to determine factors associated with embedded catheters. Results We matched 15 cases of embedded tunneled catheters with 45 controls. Among patients with embedded catheters, there were no complications with endoluminal dilatation. Factors independently associated with embedded catheters included catheter dwell time (> 2 years) and history of central venous stenosis. Conclusion Embedded catheters can be successfully managed by endoluminal dilatation with minimal complications and factors associated with embedding include dwell times > 2 years and/or with a history of central venous stenosis. PMID:28346468

  19. Entry Vehicle Control System Design for the Mars Smart Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Philip C.; Queen, Eric M.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center, in cooperation with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, participated in a preliminary design study of the Entry, Descent and Landing phase for the Mars Smart Lander Project. This concept utilizes advances in Guidance, Navigation and Control technology to significantly reduce uncertainty in the vehicle landed location on the Mars surface. A candidate entry vehicle controller based on the Reaction Control System controller for the Apollo Lunar Excursion Module digital autopilot is proposed for use in the entry vehicle attitude control. A slight modification to the phase plane controller is used to reduce jet-firing chattering while maintaining good control response for the Martian entry probe application. The controller performance is demonstrated in a six-degree-of-freedom simulation with representative aerodynamics.

  20. Electrorheological fluid-controlled 'smart' journal bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimarogonas, Andrew D.; Kollias, Alexander

    1992-10-01

    The controllability of the stability properties of electrorheological (ER) fluid bearings is investigated using a specially developed solution of the lubricating equation for ER fluids. It was found that the properties of ER fluid bearings can be changed considerably by an applied electric field and that the stability region can be extended substantially.

  1. Control systems using modal domain optical fiber sensors for smart structure applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, Douglas K.; Reichard, Karl M.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, a new class of sensors has emerged for structural control which respond to environmental changes over a significant gauge length; these sensors are called distributed-effect sensors. These sensors can be fabricated with spatially varying sensitivity to the distributed measurand, and can be configured to measure a variety of structural parameters which can not be measured directly using point sensors. Examples of distributed-effect sensors include piezoelectric film, holographic sensors, and modal domain optical fiber sensors. Optical fiber sensors are particularly attractive for smart structure applications because they are flexible, have low mass, and can easily be embedded directly into materials. In this paper we describe the implementation of weighted modal domain optical fiber sensors. The mathematical model of the modal domain optical fiber sensor model is described and used to derive an expression for the sensor sensitivity. The effects of parameter variations on the sensor sensitivity are demonstrated to illustrate methods of spatially varying the sensor sensitivity.

  2. Progressive collapse of a two-story reinforced concrete frame with embedded smart aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskar, Arghadeep; Gu, Haichang; Mo, Y. L.; Song, Gangbing

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports the experimental and analytical results of a two-story reinforced concrete frame instrumented with innovative piezoceramic-based smart aggregates (SAs) and subjected to a monotonic lateral load up to failure. A finite element model of the frame is developed and analyzed using a computer program called Open system for earthquake engineering simulation (OpenSees). The finite element analysis (FEA) is used to predict the load-deformation curve as well as the development of plastic hinges in the frame. The load-deformation curve predicted from FEA matched well with the experimental results. The sequence of development of plastic hinges in the frame is also studied from the FEA results. The locations of the plastic hinges, as obtained from the analysis, were similar to those observed during the experiment. An SA-based approach is also proposed to evaluate the health status of the concrete frame and identify the development of plastic hinges during the loading procedure. The results of the FEA are used to validate the SA-based approach for detecting the locations and occurrence of the plastic hinges leading to the progressive collapse of the frame. The locations and sequential development of the plastic hinges obtained from the SA-based approach corresponds well with the FEA results. The proposed SA-based approach, thus validated using FEA and experimental results, has a great potential to be applied in the health monitoring of large-scale civil infrastructures.

  3. Integrated design of smart rotor and robust control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahasrabudhe, Vineet; Chen, Peter C.; Thompson, Peter M.; Aponso, Bimal L.

    1998-07-01

    Vibration and noise are two long-standing problems that have limited the expansion of military and commercial applications of rotorcraft. The source of these interrelated phenomena is the main rotor, which operates in an unsteady and complex aerodynamic environment. The trailing edge flap concept for smart blade control has been investigated by several researchers for possible use in noise and vibration reduction, and shows promise. The flaps are actuated using piezo-stack, bimorph or magnetostrictive actuators. It is however still unclear if there is a single actuation mechanism that addresses both noise and vibration reduction, while still having enough control authority available to act as an extra control effector in its own right. The uncertainty about the actuation mechanism, about the precise amount of flap deflection available, and about the accuracy of current constitutive models of the actuators lead to significant difficulties in analyzing the potential of the concept for helicopter applications. In this study we propose and execute an innovative approach to the above problem that consists of modeling the smart actuation mechanism using a simple low order linear model that matches test data (with an associated variation or uncertainty). We use this model in association with a helicopter flight dynamic model for carrying out an optimization of flap sizing and placement for minimum fixed frame vibration. Finally, we use the model to carry out an analysis of the effectiveness of the flap in reducing inter-axis coupling, and as a redundant control effector in case of primary actuator failure.

  4. Dynamic and structural control utilizing smart materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, C. A.; Robertshaw, H. H.

    1989-01-01

    An account is given of several novel 'smart material' structural control concepts that are currently under development. The thrust of these investigations is the evolution of intelligent materials and structures superceding the recently defined variable-geometry trusses and shape memory alloy-reinforced composites; the substances envisioned will be able to autonomously evaluate emergent environmental conditions and adapt to them, and even change their operational objectives. While until now the primary objective of the developmental efforts presently discussed has been materials that mimic biological functions, entirely novel concepts may be formulated in due course.

  5. REALIZATION OF A CUSTOM DESIGNED FPGA BASED EMBEDDED CONTROLLER.

    SciTech Connect

    SEVERINO,F.; HARVEY, M.; HAYES, T.; HOFF, L.; ODDO, P.; SMITH, K.S.

    2007-10-15

    As part of the Low Level RF (LLRF) upgrade project at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department (BNL C-AD), we have recently developed and tested a prototype high performance embedded controller. This controller is a custom designed PMC module employing a Xilinx V4FX60 FPGA with a PowerPC405 embedded processor, and a wide variety of on board peripherals (DDR2 SDRAM, FLASH, Ethernet, PCI, multi-gigabit serial transceivers, etc.). The controller is capable of running either an embedded version of LINUX or VxWorks, the standard operating system for RHIC front end computers (FECs). We have successfully demonstrated functionality of this controller as a standard RHIC FEC and tested all on board peripherals. We now have the ability to develop complex, custom digital controllers within the framework of the standard RHIC control system infrastructure. This paper will describe various aspects of this development effort, including the basic hardware, functional capabilities, the development environment, kernel and system integration, and plans for further development.

  6. A smart control system for electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Arikara, M.P.; Dickinson, B.E.; Branum, B.

    1993-12-31

    A smart control system for electric vehicle (EV) batteries was designed and its performance was evaluated. The hardware for the system was based on the Motorola MC68HC11ENB micro controller. A zinc bromide (Zn/Br{sub 2}) battery was chosen since it is a good candidate as an EV battery and has a large number of user variable parameters that affect its performance. The flexibility of the system arises from the fact that the system can be programmed to do a wide variety of jobs. The use of real time interrupts and other features makes the system safe for use along with the battery systems. Test data indicates that real time control of the different parameters can increase the performance of the battery by 15%. In addition to optimizing the performance of the battery the control system incorporates essential safety features.

  7. Extremum Seeking Control of Smart Inverters for VAR Compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Daniel; Negrete-Pincetic, Matias; Stewart, Emma; Auslander, David, M; Callaway, Duncan

    2015-09-04

    Reactive power compensation is used by utilities to ensure customer voltages are within pre-defined tolerances and reduce system resistive losses. While much attention has been paid to model-based control algorithms for reactive power support and Volt Var Optimization (VVO), these strategies typically require relatively large communications capabilities and accurate models. In this work, a non-model-based control strategy for smart inverters is considered for VAR compensation. An Extremum Seeking control algorithm is applied to modulate the reactive power output of inverters based on real power information from the feeder substation, without an explicit feeder model. Simulation results using utility demand information confirm the ability of the control algorithm to inject VARs to minimize feeder head real power consumption. In addition, we show that the algorithm is capable of improving feeder voltage profiles and reducing reactive power supplied by the distribution substation.

  8. Fiber optic smart structures and skins II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Boston, MA, Sept. 5-8, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Udd, Eric (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The present conference on embedded fiber-optics incorporating 'smart' structural systems and structural surfaces discusses topics in the nature and current status of university- and government-sponsored smart-structure development programs, manufacturing and cure-monitoring for composite smart structures, smart-structure damage assessment, smart-structure actuators, and smart-structure sensors and components. Attention is given to fiber-optic sensor selection, the optical properties of curing epoxies, the automated production of smart structures, damage-detection in composites with embedded fiber-optic interferometers, fiber-optic strain and impact sensors, dynamically-tunable smart composites, smart structures incorporating artificial neural networks, active structural acoustic control with smart structures, and fiber-optic shape sensing for flexible structures.

  9. Distributed Power Flow Control: Distributed Power Flow Control using Smart Wires for Energy Routing

    SciTech Connect

    2012-04-24

    GENI Project: Smart Wire Grid is developing a solution for controlling power flow within the electric grid to better manage unused and overall transmission capacity. The 300,000 miles of high-voltage transmission line in the U.S. today are congested and inefficient, with only around 50% of all transmission capacity utilized at any given time. Increased consumer demand should be met in part with more efficient and an economical power flow. Smart Wire Grid’s devices clamp onto existing transmission lines and control the flow of power within—much like how internet routers help allocate bandwidth throughout the web. Smart wires could support greater use of renewable energy by providing more consistent control over how that energy is routed within the grid on a real-time basis. This would lessen the concerns surrounding the grid’s inability to effectively store intermittent energy from renewables for later use.

  10. Topology optimization of embedded piezoelectric actuators considering control spillover effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Juliano F.; De Leon, Daniel M.; Perondi, Eduardo A.

    2017-02-01

    This article addresses the problem of active structural vibration control by means of embedded piezoelectric actuators. The topology optimization method using the solid isotropic material with penalization (SIMP) approach is employed in this work to find the optimum design of actuators taken into account the control spillover effects. A coupled finite element model of the structure is derived assuming a two-phase material and this structural model is written into the state-space representation. The proposed optimization formulation aims to determine the distribution of piezoelectric material which maximizes the controllability for a given vibration mode. The undesirable effects of the feedback control on the residual modes are limited by including a spillover constraint term containing the residual controllability Gramian eigenvalues. The optimization of the shape and placement of the conventionally embedded piezoelectric actuators are performed using a Sequential Linear Programming (SLP) algorithm. Numerical examples are presented considering the control of the bending vibration modes for a cantilever and a fixed beam. A Linear-Quadratic Regulator (LQR) is synthesized for each case of controlled structure in order to compare the influence of the additional constraint.

  11. A controlled biochemical release device with embedded nanofluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haifeng; Hong, Wei; Dong, Liang

    2012-04-01

    A controlled release device is developed by embedding nanofluidic biomolecule reservoirs into a polymer network of a stimuli-responsive hydrogel. The reservoirs are made of liquid core-polymer shell nanofibers using co-electrospinning. The mechanism of controlled release is based on buckling instability of the polymer shell under combined axial and radial compression, caused by volume changes of hydrogel responding to a specific stimulus. The device decouples releasable biomolecules from a hydrogel polymer matrix, avoiding chemical interactions between biomolecules and hydrogel polymer chains, and thus, alleviating nontrivial chemical and biological engineering design of hydrogel formulations. Temperature-sensitive hydrogel is used as a model hydrogel.

  12. Adaptive Proactive Inhibitory Control for Embedded Real-Time Applications

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shufan; McGinnity, T. Martin; Wong-Lin, KongFatt

    2012-01-01

    Psychologists have studied the inhibitory control of voluntary movement for many years. In particular, the countermanding of an impending action has been extensively studied. In this work, we propose a neural mechanism for adaptive inhibitory control in a firing-rate type model based on current findings in animal electrophysiological and human psychophysical experiments. We then implement this model on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) prototyping system, using dedicated real-time hardware circuitry. Our results show that the FPGA-based implementation can run in real-time while achieving behavioral performance qualitatively suggestive of the animal experiments. Implementing such biological inhibitory control in an embedded device can lead to the development of control systems that may be used in more realistic cognitive robotics or in neural prosthetic systems aiding human movement control. PMID:22701420

  13. Adaptive and controllable compliant systems with embedded actuators and sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trease, Brian; Kota, Sridhar

    2007-04-01

    We present a framework for the design of a compliant system; i.e. the concurrent design of a compliant mechanism with embedded actuators and embedded sensors. Our methods simultaneously synthesize optimal structural topology and placement of actuators and sensors for maximum energy efficiency and adaptive performance, while satisfying various weight and performance constraints. The goal of this research is to lay an algorithmic framework for distributed actuation and sensing within a compliant active structure. Key features of the methodology include (1) the simultaneous optimization of the location, orientation, and size of actuators concurrent with the compliant transmission topology and (2) the concepts of controllability and observability that arise from the consideration of control, and their implementation in compliant systems design. The methods used include genetic algorithms, graph searches for connectivity, and multiple load cases implemented with linear finite element analysis. Actuators, modeled as both force generators and structural compliant elements, are included as topology variables in the optimization. Results are provided for several studies, including: (1) concurrent actuator placement and topology design for a compliant amplifier and (2) a shape-morphing aircraft wing demonstration with three controlled output nodes. Central to this method is the concept of structural orthogonality, which refers to the unique system response for each actuator it contains. Finally, the results from the controllability problem are used to motivate and describe the analogous extension to observability for sensing.

  14. A Multifunctional Smart Coating for Autonomous Corrosion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Jolley, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Corrosion is a destructive process that often causes failure in metallic components and structures. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional, smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to control it. The multi-functionality of the coating is based on micro-encapsulation technology specifically designed for corrosion control applications. This design has, in addition to all the advantages of other existing microcapsules designs, the corrosion controlled release function that allows the delivery of corrosion indicators and inhibitors on demand only when and where needed. Corrosion indicators as well as corrosion inhibitors have been incorporated into microcapsules, blended into several paint systems, and tested for corrosion detection and protection efficacy. This

  15. Inlet Flow Control and Prediction Technologies for Embedded Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillan, Michelle L.; Mackie, Scott A.; Gissen, Abe; Vukasinovic, Bojan; Lakebrink, Matthew T.; Glezer, Ari; Mani, Mori; Mace, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Fail-safe, hybrid, flow control (HFC) is a promising technology for meeting high-speed cruise efficiency, low-noise signature, and reduced fuel-burn goals for future, Hybrid-Wing-Body (HWB) aircraft with embedded engines. This report details the development of HFC technology that enables improved inlet performance in HWB vehicles with highly integrated inlets and embedded engines without adversely affecting vehicle performance. In addition, new test techniques for evaluating Boundary-Layer-Ingesting (BLI)-inlet flow-control technologies developed and demonstrated through this program are documented, including the ability to generate a BLI-like inlet-entrance flow in a direct-connect, wind-tunnel facility, as well as, the use of D-optimal, statistically designed experiments to optimize test efficiency and enable interpretation of results. Validated improvements in numerical analysis tools and methods accomplished through this program are also documented, including Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes CFD simulations of steady-state flow physics for baseline, BLI-inlet diffuser flow, as well as, that created by flow-control devices. Finally, numerical methods were employed in a ground-breaking attempt to directly simulate dynamic distortion. The advances in inlet technologies and prediction tools will help to meet and exceed "N+2" project goals for future HWB aircraft.

  16. Comparison of individual pitch and smart rotor control strategies for load reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumley, C.; Leithead, W.; Jamieson, P.; Bossanyi, E.; Graham, M.

    2014-06-01

    Load reduction is increasingly seen as an essential part of controller and wind turbine design. On large multi-MW wind turbines that experience high levels of wind shear and turbulence across the rotor, individual pitch control and smart rotor control are being considered. While individual pitch control involves adjusting the pitch of each blade individually to reduce the cyclic loadings on the rotor, smart rotor control involves activating control devices distributed along the blades to alter the local aerodynamics of the blades. Here we investigate the effectiveness of using a DQ-axis control and a distributed (independent) control for both individual pitch and trailing edge flap smart rotor control. While load reductions are similar amongst the four strategies across a wide range of variables, including blade root bending moments, yaw bearing and shaft, the pitch actuator requirements vary. The smart rotor pitch actuator has reduced travel, rates, accelerations and power requirements than that of the individual pitch controlled wind turbines. This benefit alone however would be hard to justify the added design complexities of using a smart rotor, which can be seen as an alternative to upgrading the pitch actuator and bearing. In addition, it is found that the independent control strategy is apt at roles that the collective pitch usually targets, such as tower motion and speed control, and it is perhaps here, in supplementing other systems, that the future of the smart rotor lies.

  17. Smart microneedle coatings for controlled delivery and biomedical analysis.

    PubMed

    Khan, H; Mehta, P; Msallam, H; Armitage, D; Ahmad, Z

    2014-11-01

    The work presented demonstrates an unconventional approach in the preparation of smart microneedle (MN) coatings utilising electrohydrodynamic atomisation (EHDA) principles. Stainless steel (600-900 µm in height) MNs were coupled to a ground electrode (in the EHDA coating set-up) with the deposition distance and collecting methodology varied for an ethanol:methanol (50:50) vehicle system. The preparation of nano- and micrometre-scaled pharmaceutical coatings was achieved. Fluorescein dye (serving as potential drug, sensory materials or disease state markers) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, polymer matrix system) formed the remaining components of the coating formulation. Based on these excipients and by varying the coating process, particles (100 nm to 3 µm) and fibres (400 nm to 1 µm) were deposited directly on MNs in controlled and selectable fashion (flow rates variable ∼ 5-50 µL/min, applied voltage variable 6-19 kV). These demonstrated options for multiple targeting and analysis applications. The underlying EHDA process permits room temperature fabrication, controlled output and scale-up potential for emerging MN devices as drug systems or lab-chip testing devices.

  18. Study of sequential optimal control algorithm smart isolation structure based on Simulink-S function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaohuan; Liu, Yanhui

    2017-01-01

    The study of this paper focuses on smart isolation structure, a method for realizing structural vibration control by using Simulink simulation is proposed according to the proposed sequential optimal control algorithm. In the Simulink simulation environment, A smart isolation structure is used to compare the control effect of three algorithms, i.e., classical optimal control algorithm, linear quadratic gaussian control algorithm and sequential optimal control algorithm under the condition of sensor contaminated with noise. Simulation results show that this method can be applied to the simulation of sequential optimal control algorithm and the proposed sequential optimal control algorithm has a good ability of resisting the noise and better control efficiency.

  19. Distributed Smart Grid Asset Control Strategies for Providing Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Moya, Christian; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2013-10-30

    implementing real load control programs. The promise of autonomous, Grid Friendly™ response by smart appliances in the form of under-frequency load shedding was demonstrated in the GridWise Olympic Peninsula Demonstration in 2006. Each controller monitored the power grid voltage signal and requested that electrical load be shed by its appliance whenever electric power-grid frequency fell below 59.95 Hz. The controllers and their appliances responded reliably to each shallow under-frequency event, which was an average of one event per day and shed their loads for the durations of these events. Another objective of this project was to perform extensive simulation studies to investigate the impact of a population of Grid Friendly™ Appliances (GFAs) on the bulk power system frequency stability. The GFAs considered in this report are represented as demonstration units with water heaters individually modeled.

  20. Smart battery controller for lithium sulfur dioxide batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, Terrill; Bard, Arnold; Testa, Bruce; Shader, William

    1992-08-01

    Each year, the U.S. Army purchases millions of lithium sulfur dioxide batteries for use in portable electronics equipment. Because of their superior rate capability and service life over a wide variety of conditions, lithium batteries are the power source of choice for military equipment. There is no convenient method of determining the available energy remaining in partially used lithium batteries; hence, users do not take full advantage of all the available battery energy. Currently, users replace batteries before each mission, which leads to premature disposal, and results in the waste of millions of dollars in battery energy every year. Another problem of the lithium battery is that it is necessary to ensure complete discharge of the cells when the useful life of the battery has been expended, or when a hazardous condition exists; a hazardous condition may result in one or more of the cells venting. The Electronics Technology and Devices Laboratory has developed a working prototype of a smart battery controller (SBC) that addresses these problems.

  1. Matrix embedded microspherules containing indomethacin as controlled drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Swamy, K M Lokamatha; Satyanath, B; Shantakumar, S M; Manjula, D; Mohammedi, Hafsa; Farhana, Ayesha

    2008-10-01

    This work is focused on the development of controlled drug delivery systems using different wax/fat embedded indomethacin (IM). Discrete wax/fat embedded microspherules containing indomethacin were prepared by using cetostearyl alcohol, paraffin wax and stearic acid by employing emulsification-phase separation method. These matrices have been used as barrier coatings due to their hydrophobic nature. Chemically inert and tasteless nature of wax/fats promotes their use as taste masking agents for bitter drugs. Various waxes and fats are available having different physicochemical properties to suit the needs of formulation. Methyl cellulose (MC) 1% w/v, sodium alginate (SA) 0.5% w/v and Tween-80 (TW) 1% w/v were used as emulgents. The resulting microspherules were discrete, large, spherical and also free flowing. It is revealed from the literature that natures of wax/fat emulgents were found to influence the rate of drug release. In the present work the drug content in all the batches of microspherules were found to be uniform. The rate of drug release corresponded best to first order kinetics, followed by Higuchi and zero-order equations. The release of the model drug from these wax/fat microspherules was prolonged over an extended period of time and the drug release mechanism followed anomalous (non-Fickian) diffusion controlled as well as Super Case II transport. Among the three matrix materials used, paraffin wax retarded the drug release more than the other two. Surface characteristics of microspherules have been studied by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). A fair degree rank of correlation was found to exist between the size and release retardation in all the three-wax/fat emulgent combinations.

  2. Photoneuron: dynamically reconfigurable information processing control element utilizing embedded-fiber waveguide interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glista, Andrew S., Jr.

    1991-12-01

    The term `photoneuron' describes an electro-optic hardware element that permits an optical implementation of the postulated information transfer processes of the neurons in the human brain. The photoneuron provides a dynamic activation and control mechanism for highly parallel computers and permits immediate implementation of reconfigurable high speed optical interconnects. The suggested method for interconnecting processors in a photoneuronic network consists of embedded optical fibers in composite materials to form optical backplanes utilizing `smart skin' technology. This method eliminates the environmental concerns and technological barriers posed by free space optics and integrated optics, while providing a sound engineering approach leading to the all optical computer. This paper briefly reviews the physiological activity of neurons in the human brain. Optical analogies for processor activation in neural networks corresponding to the nerve impulse activation in the brain are then described. The paper then suggests the utilization of optical signal parameters and encoding to emulate the information exchange of neurotransmitters provided by first and second messenger molecular activity across the synaptic `connections' of neurons in the brain. This represents a departure from most neural networks which dwell on threshold processor activation and ignore the exceedingly complex molecular information exchange mechanisms of the brain. Digital, analog, and combinatorial alternatives are described.

  3. Upgrade of the HET segment control system, utilizing state-of-the-art, decentralized and embedded system controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häuser, Marco; Richter, Josef; Kriel, Herman; Turbyfill, Amanda; Buetow, Brent; Ward, Michael

    2016-07-01

    estimations are based on the current performance of the segment support mechanics. SMOCO's smart motion control allows for on-the-y correction of the move targets. Since SMOCO uses state-of-the-art motion control electronics and embedded decentralized controllers, we expect reduction in thermal emission as well as less maintenance time.

  4. Security Aspects of Smart Cards vs. Embedded Security in Machine-to-Machine (M2M) Advanced Mobile Network Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyerstein, Mike; Cha, Inhyok; Shah, Yogendra

    The Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standardisation group currently discusses advanced applications of mobile networks such as Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication. Several security issues arise in these contexts which warrant a fresh look at mobile networks’ security foundations, resting on smart cards. This paper contributes a security/efficiency analysis to this discussion and highlights the role of trusted platform technology to approach these issues.

  5. Fiber optic smart structures and skins III; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Jose, CA, Sept. 19-21, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Udd, E.; Claus, R.O. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg )

    1990-01-01

    The present conference on fiber-optically equipped 'smart' aerospace structures discusses topics in fiber-embedding in materials, the relationship of sensors to signal-processing capabilities, materials evaluation methods, active structural control, and damage assessment. Attention is given to the USAF Astronautics Laboratory's smart structures/skins program, on-orbit structural health monitoring, optimal coatings for smart structure fiber-optic sensors, a composite material-embedded fiber-optic Fabry-Perot strain rosette, and the embedding of fiber-optic sensors in Ti-matrix composites. Also discussed are neural-network processing of fiber-optic sensors and sensor arrays, the degradation of laminate composites by embedded fiber-optic sensors, a 'smart strut' interferometric differential-strain sensor, shape-memory alloys for flexible structure control, and the optical-signal analysis of impact-induced fracture in smart structures.

  6. Consensus positive position feedback control for vibration attenuation of smart structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omidi, Ehsan; Nima Mahmoodi, S.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a new network-based approach for active vibration control in smart structures. In this approach, a network with known topology connects collocated actuator/sensor elements of the smart structure to one another. Each of these actuators/sensors, i.e., agent or node, is enhanced by a separate multi-mode positive position feedback (PPF) controller. The decentralized PPF controlled agents collaborate with each other in the designed network, under a certain consensus dynamics. The consensus constraint forces neighboring agents to cooperate with each other such that the disagreement between the time-domain actuation of the agents is driven to zero. The controller output of each agent is calculated using state-space variables; hence, optimal state estimators are designed first for the proposed observer-based consensus PPF control. The consensus controller is numerically investigated for a flexible smart structure, i.e., a thin aluminum beam that is clamped at its both ends. Results demonstrate that the consensus law successfully imposes synchronization between the independently controlled agents, as the disagreements between the decentralized PPF controller variables converge to zero in a short time. The new consensus PPF controller brings extra robustness to vibration suppression in smart structures, where malfunctions of an agent can be compensated for by referencing the neighboring agents’ performance. This is demonstrated in the results by comparing the new controller with former centralized PPF approach.

  7. Controlled-Release Microcapsules for Smart Coatings for Corrosion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Corrosion is a serious problem that has enormous costs and serious safety implications. Localized corrosion, such as pitting, is very dangerous and can cause catastrophic failures. The NASA Corrosion Technology Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center is developing a smart coating based on pH-sensitive microcapsules for corrosion applications. These versatile microcapsules are designed to be incorporated into a smart coating and deliver their core content when corrosion starts. Corrosion indication was the first function incorporated into the microcapsules. Current efforts are focused on incorporating the corrosion inhibition function through the encapsulation of corrosion inhibitors into water core and oil core microcapsules. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of encapsulated corrosion inhibitors are shown.

  8. Development of a Framework for Model-Based Analysis, Uncertainty Quantification, and Robust Control Design of Nonlinear Smart Composite Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-04

    SMART COMPOSITE SYSTEMS Ralph Smith North Carolina State University at Raleigh Final Report 04/06/2015 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public...Analysis, Uncertainty Quantification, and Robust Control Design of Nonlinear Smart Composite Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-11...range of nonlinear and hysteretic smart composite systems. A major component of the program focused on the development of this framework in the context

  9. Membrane deformation controlled by monolayer composition of embedded amphiphilic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lehn, Reid; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    2014-03-01

    In recent work, we have shown that charged, amphiphilic nanoparticles (NPs) can spontaneously insert into lipid bilayers, embedding the NP in a conformation resembling a transmembrane protein. Many embedded membrane proteins exert an influence on surrounding lipids that lead to deformation and membrane-mediated interactions that may be essential for function. Similarly, embedded NPs will also induce membrane deformations related to the same physicochemical forces. Unlike many transmembrane proteins, however, the highly charged NPs may exert preferential interactions on surrounding lipid head groups. In this work, we use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to show that the membrane around embedded particles may experience local thinning, head group reorientation, and an increase in lipid density depending on the size and surface composition of the NP. We quantify the extent of these deformations and illustrate the complex interplay between lipid tail group and head group interactions that go beyond pure thickness deformations that may be expected from coarse-grained or continuum models. This work thus suggests guidelines for the design of particles that spontaneously partition into lipid bilayers and influence local membrane mechanical properties in a targeted manner.

  10. Active vibration control of a smart pultruded fiber-reinforced polymer I-beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, G.; Qiao, P.; Sethi, V.; Prasad, A.

    2004-08-01

    Advanced and innovative materials and structures are increasingly used in civil infrastructure applications. By combining the advantages of composites and smart sensors and actuators, active or smart composite structures can be created and be efficiently adopted in practical structural applications. This paper presents results on active vibration control of pultruded fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite thin-walled I-beams using smart sensors and actuators. The FRP I-beams are made of E-glass fibers and polyester resins. The FRP I-beam is in a cantilevered configuration. The PZT (lead zirconate titanate) type of piezoelectric ceramic patches are used as smart sensors and actuators. These patches are surface bonded near the cantilevered end of the I-beam. Utilizing results from modal analyses and experimental modal testing, several active vibration control methods, such as position feedback control, strain rate feedback control and lead compensation, are investigated. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods achieve effective vibration control of FRP I-beams. For instance, the modal damping ratio of the strong direction first bending mode increases by more than 1000% with positive position feedback control.

  11. Active vibration control of a smart pultruded fiber-reinforced polymer I-beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Gangbing; Qiao, Pizhong; Sethi, Vineet; Prasad, A.

    2002-06-01

    Advanced and innovative materials and structures are increasingly used in civil infrastructure applications. By combining the advantages of composites and smart sensors and actuators, active or smart composite structures can be created and be efficiently adopted in practical structural applications. This paper presents results of active vibration control of a pultruded fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites thin-walled I-beams using smart sensors and actuators. The FRP I-beams are made of E-glass fibers and polyester resins. The FRP I-beam is in a cantilevered configuration. PZT (Lead zirconate titanate) type of piezoelectric ceramic patches are used as smart sensors and actuators. These patches are surface-bonded near the cantilevered end of the I-beam. Utilizing results from modal analyses and experimental modal testing, several active vibration control methods, such as position feedback control, strain rate feedback control and lead compensator, are investigated. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods achieve effective vibration control of FRP I-beams. For instance, the modal damping ratio of the strong direction first bending mode increases by more than 1000 percent with a positive position feedback control.

  12. Smart materials optical mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peter C.; Rabin, Douglas M.

    2014-08-01

    We report the fabrication of imaging quality optical mirrors with smooth surfaces using carbon nanotubes embedded in an epoxy matrix. CNT/epoxy is a multifunctional or `smart' composite material that has sensing capabilities and can be made to incorporate self-actuation as well. Moreover, since the precursor is a low density liquid, large and lightweight mirrors can be fabricated by processes such as replication, spincasting, and 3D printing. The technology therefore holds promise for development of a new generation of lightweight, compact `smart' telescope mirrors with figure sensing and active or adaptive figure control. We report on measurements made of optical and mechanical characteristics. We discuss possible paths for future development.

  13. Mapping and navigational control for a “smart” wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Dana L; Shea, Kathleen M; Barrett, Steven F

    2012-01-01

    A “smart” wheelchair is in development to provide mobility to those unable to control a traditional wheelchair. A “smart” wheelchair is an autonomous machine with the ability to navigate a mapped environment while avoiding obstacles. The flexibility and complex design of “smart” wheelchairs have made those currently available expensive. Ongoing research at the University of Wyoming has been aimed at designing a cheaper, alternative control system that could be interfaced with a typical powered wheelchair. The goal of this project is to determine methods for mapping and navigational control for the wheelchair. The control system acquires data from eighteen sensors and uses the data to navigate around a pre-programmed map which is stored on a micro SD card. The control system also provides a user interface in the form of a touchscreen LCD. The designed system will be an easy-to-use and cost effective alternative to current “smart” wheelchair technology.

  14. Heliocentric trajectory analysis of Sun-pointing smart dust with electrochromic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengali, Giovanni; Quarta, Alessandro A.

    2016-02-01

    A smart dust is a micro spacecraft, with a characteristic side length on the order of a few millimeters, whose surface is coated with electrochromic material. Its orbital dynamics is controlled by exploiting the differential force due to the solar radiation pressure, which is obtained by modulating the reflectivity coefficient of the electrochromic material within a range of admissible values. A significant thrust level can be reached due to the high values of area-to-mass ratio of such a spacecraft configuration. Assuming that the smart dust is designed to achieve a passive Sun-pointing attitude, the propulsive acceleration due to the solar radiation pressure lies along the Sun-spacecraft direction. The aim of this paper is to study the smart dust heliocentric dynamics in order to find a closed form, analytical solution of its trajectory when the reflectivity coefficient of the electrochromic material can assume two values only. The problem is addressed by introducing a suitable transformation that regularizes the spacecraft motion and translates the smart-dust dynamics into that of a linear harmonic oscillator with unitary frequency, whose forcing input is a boxcar function. The solution is found using the Laplace transform method, and afterwards the problem is generalized by accounting for the degradation of the electrochromic material due to its exposition to the solar radiation. Three spacecraft configurations, corresponding to low, medium and high performance smart dusts, are finally used to quantify the potentialities of these advanced devices in an interplanetary mission scenario.

  15. Design and Control of an Embedded Vision Guided Robotic Fish with Multiple Control Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Tan, Min; Zhang, Jianwei

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development and control issues of a self-propelled robotic fish with multiple artificial control surfaces and an embedded vision system. By virtue of the hybrid propulsion capability in the body plus the caudal fin and the complementary maneuverability in accessory fins, a synthesized propulsion scheme including a caudal fin, a pair of pectoral fins, and a pelvic fin is proposed. To achieve flexible yet stable motions in aquatic environments, a central pattern generator- (CPG-) based control method is employed. Meanwhile, a monocular underwater vision serves as sensory feedback that modifies the control parameters. The integration of the CPG-based motion control and the visual processing in an embedded microcontroller allows the robotic fish to navigate online. Aquatic tests demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed mechatronic design and swimming control methods. Particularly, a pelvic fin actuated sideward swimming gait was first implemented. It is also found that the speeds and maneuverability of the robotic fish with coordinated control surfaces were largely superior to that of the swimming robot propelled by a single control surface. PMID:24688413

  16. Design and control of an embedded vision guided robotic fish with multiple control surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yu, Junzhi; Wang, Kai; Tan, Min; Zhang, Jianwei

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development and control issues of a self-propelled robotic fish with multiple artificial control surfaces and an embedded vision system. By virtue of the hybrid propulsion capability in the body plus the caudal fin and the complementary maneuverability in accessory fins, a synthesized propulsion scheme including a caudal fin, a pair of pectoral fins, and a pelvic fin is proposed. To achieve flexible yet stable motions in aquatic environments, a central pattern generator- (CPG-) based control method is employed. Meanwhile, a monocular underwater vision serves as sensory feedback that modifies the control parameters. The integration of the CPG-based motion control and the visual processing in an embedded microcontroller allows the robotic fish to navigate online. Aquatic tests demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed mechatronic design and swimming control methods. Particularly, a pelvic fin actuated sideward swimming gait was first implemented. It is also found that the speeds and maneuverability of the robotic fish with coordinated control surfaces were largely superior to that of the swimming robot propelled by a single control surface.

  17. Sensor technology for smart structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, R. S.; Heyman, J. S.; Holben, M. S., Jr.; Dehart, D. W.; Doederlein, T.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced aerospace structures are discussed that will very likely be fabricated with integral sensors, actuators, and microprocessors for monitoring and dynamic control of configuration. The concept of 'smart structures' integrates fiber-optic sensor technology with advanced composite materials, whereby the optical fibers are embedded in a composite material and provide internal sensing capability for monitoring parameters which are important for the safety, performance, and reliability of the material and the structure. Along with other research facilities, NASA has initiated a cooperative program to design, fabricate, and test composite trusses, tubes, and flat panels with embedded optical fibers for testing and developing prototype smart structures. It is shown that fiber-optic sensor technology can be combined with advanced material and structure concepts to produce a new class of materials with internal sensors for health monitoring of structures.

  18. Launch vehicle flight control augmentation using smart materials and advanced composites (CDDF Project 93-05)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, C.

    1995-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center has a rich heritage of launch vehicles that have used aerodynamic surfaces for flight stability such as the Saturn vehicles and flight control such as on the Redstone. Recently, due to aft center-of-gravity locations on launch vehicles currently being studied, the need has arisen for the vehicle control augmentation that is provided by these flight controls. Aerodynamic flight control can also reduce engine gimbaling requirements, provide actuator failure protection, enhance crew safety, and increase vehicle reliability, and payload capability. In the Saturn era, NASA went to the Moon with 300 sq ft of aerodynamic surfaces on the Saturn V. Since those days, the wealth of smart materials and advanced composites that have been developed allow for the design of very lightweight, strong, and innovative launch vehicle flight control surfaces. This paper presents an overview of the advanced composites and smart materials that are directly applicable to launch vehicle control surfaces.

  19. Behavior Computation for Smart Grid Software Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Linger, Richard C; Pleszkoch, Mark G; Prowell, Stacy J; Sayre, Kirk D

    2011-01-01

    Smart grid embedded software is subject to intrusion and compromise with potentially serious consequences. Current methods of cybersecurity analysis are increasingly challenged by the scope the problem. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is pioneering the new technology of software behavior computation to help address these risks. Software behavior computation and its instantiation in Function eXtraction (FX) systems apply mathematical foundations of denotational semantics to compute the behavior of software in all circumstances of use. Research has shown how to make the effects of recursion-theoretic limitations on this process arbitrarily small. Behavior computation operates on the functional semantics of programs, and is not subject to the limitations of syntactic recognition or testing. ORNL is applying FX technology to help evaluate cyber security properties in smart grid systems, with initial focus on vulnerabilities in embedded software that controls smart meters.

  20. The Smart Card concept applied to access control

    SciTech Connect

    Seidman, S.

    1986-01-01

    Passwords tend to be handled carelessly, and so are easily lost or stolen. Because they are intangible, their loss or theft generally goes unnoticed. Because they are constant, they may be used by anyone for as long as they remain in active use by a legitimate user. A step up in password security is offered by a new range of products which generate a new code each time the device is used. Devices are being produced in packages as small as a standard plastic credit card, including internal battery power, integral keyboard and LCD display. Security features of the Smart Card are reviewed, and several random access code generators currently available in the commercial marketplace are described.

  1. Design of an embedded PID controller applied to blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Anna G C D; Maitelli, André L; de M Valentim, Ricardo A; Leite, Cicília R M; Soares, Heliana B; de Almeida, Nathalee C; Sizilio, Gláucia R M A; Guerreiro, Ana M G

    2011-01-01

    Some diseases, such as hypertension, require a close control of the patient's blood pressure. This is even more critical when that patient is going through--or has just underwent--a surgical procedure In such situations, reducing blood pressure to normal levels is of paramount importance. Usually, this demanding and time consuming monitoring is done manually by clinical personnel and are subject to mistakes and inconsistent practices. In this paper, we propose a solution to the manual monitoring through the design and implementation of an embedded PID controller to handle blood pressure, integrated to an automated monitoring system to assist in detecting anomalies and to optimize the process of patient care.

  2. Promise of a Low Power Mobile CPU based Embedded System in Artificial Leg Control

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Robert; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xiaorong; Huang, He; Yang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a low power embedded system using mobile processor technology (Intel Atom™ Z530 Processor) specifically tailored for a neural-machine interface (NMI) for artificial limbs. This embedded system effectively performs our previously developed NMI algorithm based on neuromuscular-mechanical fusion and phase-dependent pattern classification. The analysis shows that NMI embedded system can meet real-time constraints with high accuracies for recognizing the user's locomotion mode. Our implementation utilizes the mobile processor efficiently to allow a power consumption of 2.2 watts and low CPU utilization (less than 4.3%) while executing the complex NMI algorithm. Our experiments have shown that the highly optimized C program implementation on the embedded system has superb advantages over existing PC implementations on MATLAB. The study results suggest that mobile-CPU-based embedded system is promising for implementing advanced control for powered lower limb prostheses. PMID:23367113

  3. Promise of a low power mobile CPU based embedded system in artificial leg control.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Robert; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xiaorong; Huang, He; Yang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a low power embedded system using mobile processor technology (Intel Atom™ Z530 Processor) specifically tailored for a neural-machine interface (NMI) for artificial limbs. This embedded system effectively performs our previously developed NMI algorithm based on neuromuscular-mechanical fusion and phase-dependent pattern classification. The analysis shows that NMI embedded system can meet real-time constraints with high accuracies for recognizing the user's locomotion mode. Our implementation utilizes the mobile processor efficiently to allow a power consumption of 2.2 watts and low CPU utilization (less than 4.3%) while executing the complex NMI algorithm. Our experiments have shown that the highly optimized C program implementation on the embedded system has superb advantages over existing PC implementations on MATLAB. The study results suggest that mobile-CPU-based embedded system is promising for implementing advanced control for powered lower limb prostheses.

  4. Distributed Smart Device for Monitoring, Control and Management of Electric Loads in Domotic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Ricardo; Badesa, Francisco J.; García-Aracil, Nicolas; Perez-Vidal, Carlos; Sabater, Jose María

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a microdevice for monitoring, control and management of electric loads at home. The key idea is to compact the electronic design as much as possible in order to install it inside a Schuko socket. Moreover, the electronic Schuko socket (electronic microdevice + Schuko socket) has the feature of communicating with a central unit and with other microdevices over the existing powerlines. Using the existing power lines, the proposed device can be installed in new buildings or in old ones. The main use of this device is to monitor, control and manage electric loads to save energy and prevent accidents produced by different kind of devices (e.g., iron) used in domestic tasks. The developed smart device is based on a single phase multifunction energy meter manufactured by Analog Devices (ADE7753) to measure the consumption of electrical energy and then to transmit it using a serial interface. To provide current measurement information to the ADE7753, an ultra flat SMD open loop integrated circuit current transducer based on the Hall effect principle manufactured by Lem (FHS-40P/SP600) has been used. Moreover, each smart device has a PL-3120 smart transceiver manufactured by LonWorks to execute the user's program, to communicate with the ADE7753 via serial interface and to transmit information to the central unit via powerline communication. Experimental results show the exactitude of the measurements made using the developed smart device. PMID:22778581

  5. Distributed smart device for monitoring, control and management of electric loads in domotic environments.

    PubMed

    Morales, Ricardo; Badesa, Francisco J; García-Aracil, Nicolas; Perez-Vidal, Carlos; Sabater, Jose María

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a microdevice for monitoring, control and management of electric loads at home. The key idea is to compact the electronic design as much as possible in order to install it inside a Schuko socket. Moreover, the electronic Schuko socket (electronic microdevice + Schuko socket) has the feature of communicating with a central unit and with other microdevices over the existing powerlines. Using the existing power lines, the proposed device can be installed in new buildings or in old ones. The main use of this device is to monitor, control and manage electric loads to save energy and prevent accidents produced by different kind of devices (e.g., iron) used in domestic tasks. The developed smart device is based on a single phase multifunction energy meter manufactured by Analog Devices (ADE7753) to measure the consumption of electrical energy and then to transmit it using a serial interface. To provide current measurement information to the ADE7753, an ultra flat SMD open loop integrated circuit current transducer based on the Hall effect principle manufactured by Lem (FHS-40P/SP600) has been used. Moreover, each smart device has a PL-3120 smart transceiver manufactured by LonWorks to execute the user's program, to communicate with the ADE7753 via serial interface and to transmit information to the central unit via powerline communication. Experimental results show the exactitude of the measurements made using the developed smart device.

  6. Cloud Computing for the Grid: GridControl: A Software Platform to Support the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-08

    GENI Project: Cornell University is creating a new software platform for grid operators called GridControl that will utilize cloud computing to more efficiently control the grid. In a cloud computing system, there are minimal hardware and software demands on users. The user can tap into a network of computers that is housed elsewhere (the cloud) and the network runs computer applications for the user. The user only needs interface software to access all of the cloud’s data resources, which can be as simple as a web browser. Cloud computing can reduce costs, facilitate innovation through sharing, empower users, and improve the overall reliability of a dispersed system. Cornell’s GridControl will focus on 4 elements: delivering the state of the grid to users quickly and reliably; building networked, scalable grid-control software; tailoring services to emerging smart grid uses; and simulating smart grid behavior under various conditions.

  7. OFSETH: optical technologies embedded in smart medical textile for continuous monitoring of respiratory motions under magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narbonneau, F.; De Jonckheere, J.; Jeanne, M.; Kinet, D.; Witt, J.; Krebber, K.; Paquet, B.; Depré, A.; D'Angelo, L. T.; Thiel, T.; Logier, R.

    2010-04-01

    The potential impact of optical fiber sensors embedded into medical textiles for the continuous monitoring of the patient during Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is now proved. We report how two pure optical technologies can successfully sense textile elongation between, 0% and 3%, while maintaining the stretching properties of the textile substrates for a good comfort of the patient. Investigating influence of different patients' morphology as well as textile integration issues to let free all vitals organs for medical staff actions, the OFSETH harness allows a continuous measurement of respiration movements. For example, anaesthesia for MRI examination uses the same drugs as for any surgical procedure. Even if spontaneous respiration can be preserved most of the time, spontaneous respiration is constantly at risk of being impaired by anaesthetic drugs or by upper airway obstruction. Monitoring of the breathing activity is needed to assess adequate ventilation or to detect specific obstruction patterns. Moreover artefacts due to physiological motions induce a blooming effect on the MRI result. The use of synchronisation devices allows reducing these effects. Positioned at certain strategic places according to the investigated organ, the presented sensors could constitute an efficient and adapted solution for respiratory synchronisation of the MRI acquisition.

  8. Real-time affine invariant gesture recognition for LED smart lighting control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xu; Liao, Miao; Feng, Xiao-Fan

    2015-03-01

    Gesture recognition has attracted extensive research interest in the field of human computer interaction. Realtime affine invariant gesture recognition is an important and challenging problem. This paper presents a robust affine view invariant gesture recognition system for realtime LED smart light control. As far as we know, this is the first time that gesture recognition has been applied for control LED smart light in realtime. Employing skin detection, hand blobs captured from a top view camera are first localized and aligned. Subsequently, SVM classifiers trained on HOG features and robust shape features are then utilized for gesture recognition. By accurately recognizing two types of gestures ("gesture 8" and a "5 finger gesture"), a user is enabled to toggle lighting on/off efficiently and control light intensity on a continuous scale. In each case, gesture recognition is rotation- and translation-invariant. Extensive evaluations in an office setting demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed gesture recognition algorithm.

  9. Feasibility study of an MR damper-based smart passive control system employing an electromagnetic induction device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kang-Min; Jung, Hyung-Jo; Lee, Heon-Jae; Cho, Sang-Won

    2007-12-01

    The feasibility of a newly developed smart passive control system equipped electromagnetic induction device is experimentally investigated. An electromagnetic induction device consists of a permanent magnet and a solenoid, which produces electrical energy (i.e. induced current) according to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. The produced energy is applied to the magnetorheological (i.e. MR) damper to change the damping characteristics by itself without any controller or corresponding sensors for reducing structural responses. Recently, the smart passive control system was conceptually and numerically introduced without consideration of its practical applicability. This paper describes the design of an electromagnetic inductive device which is composed of a permanent magnet and a solenoid, and experiments with the MR damper-based smart passive control system on a shaking table which produces various sinusoidal and random excitations. The experimental results demonstrate that it is feasible to apply the smart passive control system equipped electromagnetic induction device for changing the damping characteristics of an MR damper.

  10. An Overview of Distributed Microgrid State Estimation and Control for Smart Grids

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Md Masud; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Given the significant concerns regarding carbon emission from the fossil fuels, global warming and energy crisis, the renewable distributed energy resources (DERs) are going to be integrated in the smart grid. This grid can spread the intelligence of the energy distribution and control system from the central unit to the long-distance remote areas, thus enabling accurate state estimation (SE) and wide-area real-time monitoring of these intermittent energy sources. In contrast to the traditional methods of SE, this paper proposes a novel accuracy dependent Kalman filter (KF) based microgrid SE for the smart grid that uses typical communication systems. Then this article proposes a discrete-time linear quadratic regulation to control the state deviations of the microgrid incorporating multiple DERs. Therefore, integrating these two approaches with application to the smart grid forms a novel contributions in green energy and control research communities. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed KF based microgrid SE and control algorithm provides an accurate SE and control compared with the existing method. PMID:25686316

  11. An overview of distributed microgrid state estimation and control for smart grids.

    PubMed

    Rana, Md Masud; Li, Li

    2015-02-12

    Given the significant concerns regarding carbon emission from the fossil fuels, global warming and energy crisis, the renewable distributed energy resources (DERs) are going to be integrated in the smart grid. This grid can spread the intelligence of the energy distribution and control system from the central unit to the long-distance remote areas, thus enabling accurate state estimation (SE) and wide-area real-time monitoring of these intermittent energy sources. In contrast to the traditional methods of SE, this paper proposes a novel accuracy dependent Kalman filter (KF) based microgrid SE for the smart grid that uses typical communication systems. Then this article proposes a discrete-time linear quadratic regulation to control the state deviations of the microgrid incorporating multiple DERs. Therefore, integrating these two approaches with application to the smart grid forms a novel contributions in green energy and control research communities. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed KF based microgrid SE and control algorithm provides an accurate SE and control compared with the existing method.

  12. Active structural acoustic control of a smart cylindrical shell using a virtual microphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loghmani, Ali; Danesh, Mohammad; Kwak, Moon K.; Keshmiri, Mehdi

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the active structural acoustic control of sound radiated from a smart cylindrical shell. The cylinder is equipped with piezoelectric sensors and actuators to estimate and control the sound pressure that radiates from the smart shell. This estimated pressure is referred to as a virtual microphone, and it can be used in control systems instead of actual microphones to attenuate noise due to structural vibrations. To this end, the dynamic model for the smart cylinder is derived using the extended Hamilton’s principle, the Sanders shell theory and the assumed mode method. The simplified Kirchhoff-Helmholtz integral estimates the far-field sound pressure radiating from the baffled cylindrical shell. A modified higher harmonic controller that can cope with a harmonic disturbance is designed and experimentally evaluated. The experimental tests were carried out on a baffled cylindrical aluminum shell in an anechoic chamber. The frequency response for the theoretical virtual microphone and the experimental actual microphone are in good agreement with each other, and the results show the effectiveness of the designed virtual microphone and controller in attenuating the radiated sound.

  13. Smart mask ship to control for enhanced on wafer CD performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utzny, Clemens; Schumacher, Karl; Seltmann, Rolf

    2016-10-01

    In the process of semicondutcor fabrication the translation of the final product requirements into specific targets for each component of the manufacturing process is one of the most demanding tasks. This involves the careful assessment of the error budgets of each component as well as the sensible balancing of the costs implied by the requirements. Photolithographic masks play a pivotal role in the semiconductor fabrication. This attributes a crucial role to mask error budgeting within the overall wafer production process. Masks with borderline performance with respect to the wafer fabrication requirements have a detrimental effect on the wafer process window thus inducing delays and costs. However, prohibitively strict mask specifications will induce large costs and delays in the mask manufacturing process. Thus setting smart control mechanisms for mask quality assessment is highly relevant for an efficient production flow. To this end GLOBALFOUNDRIES and the AMTC have set up a new mask specification check to enable a smart ship to control process for mask manufacturing. Within this process the mask CD distribution is checked as to whether it is commensurable with the advanced dose control capabilities of the stepper in the wafer factory. If this is the case, masks with borderline CD performance will be usable within the manufacturing process as the signatures can be compensated. In this paper we give a detailed explanation of the smart ship control approach with its implications for mask quality.

  14. [Design and implementation of controlling smart car systems using P300 brain-computer interface].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinjia; Yang, Chengjie; Hu, Bei

    2013-04-01

    Using human electroencephalogram (EEG) to control external devices in order to achieve a variety of functions has been focus of the field of brain-computer interface (BCI) research. P300 is experiments which stimulate the eye to produce EEG by using letters flashing, and then identify the corresponding letters. In this paper, some improvements based on the P300 experiments were made??. Firstly, the matrix of flashing letters were modified into words which represent a certain sense. Secondly, the BCI2000 procedures were added with the corresponding source code. Thirdly, the smart car systems were designed using the radiofrequency signal. Finally it was realized that the evoked potentials were used to control the state of the smart car.

  15. Cognitive Symptom Management and Rehabilitation Therapy (CogSMART) for veterans with traumatic brain injury: pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Twamley, Elizabeth W; Jak, Amy J; Delis, Dean C; Bondi, Mark W; Lohr, James B

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in cognitive impairments and persistent postconcussive symptoms that limit functional recovery, including return to work. We evaluated a 12 wk compensatory cognitive training intervention (Cognitive Symptom Management and Rehabilitation Therapy [CogSMART]) in the context of supported employment for Veterans with mild to moderate TBI. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 12 wk of supported employment plus CogSMART or enhanced supported employment that controlled for therapist attention (control). CogSMART sessions were delivered by the employment specialist and included psychoeducation regarding TBI; strategies to improve sleep, fatigue, headaches, and tension; and compensatory cognitive strategies in the domains of prospective memory, attention, learning and memory, and executive functioning. Compared with controls, those assigned to supported employment plus CogSMART demonstrated significant reductions in postconcussive symptoms (Cohen d = 0.97) and improvements in prospective memory functioning (Cohen d = 0.72). Effect sizes favoring CogSMART for posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity, depressive symptom severity, and attainment of competitive work within 14 wk were in the small to medium range (Cohen d = 0.35-0.49). Those who received CogSMART rated the intervention highly. Results suggest that adding CogSMART to supported employment may improve postconcussive symptoms and prospective memory. These effects, as well as smaller effects on psychiatric symptoms and ability to return to work, warrant replication in a larger trial.

  16. Embedded intelligent adaptive PI controller for an electromechanical system.

    PubMed

    El-Nagar, Ahmad M

    2016-09-01

    In this study, an intelligent adaptive controller approach using the interval type-2 fuzzy neural network (IT2FNN) is presented. The proposed controller consists of a lower level proportional - integral (PI) controller, which is the main controller and an upper level IT2FNN which tuning on-line the parameters of a PI controller. The proposed adaptive PI controller based on IT2FNN (API-IT2FNN) is implemented practically using the Arduino DUE kit for controlling the speed of a nonlinear DC motor-generator system. The parameters of the IT2FNN are tuned on-line using back-propagation algorithm. The Lyapunov theorem is used to derive the stability and convergence of the IT2FNN. The obtained experimental results, which are compared with other controllers, demonstrate that the proposed API-IT2FNN is able to improve the system response over a wide range of system uncertainties.

  17. Control strategies for smart prosthetic hand technology: an overview.

    PubMed

    Naidu, D; Chen, Cheng-Hung; Perez, Alba; Schoen, Marco P

    2008-01-01

    A chronological overview of the applications of control theory to prosthetic hand is presented. The overview focuses on hard computing or control techniques such as multivariable feedback, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive and robust and soft computing or control techniques such as artificial intelligence, neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms and on the fusion of hard and soft control techniques. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive survey on this topic and any omissions of other works is purely unintentional.

  18. An Embedded Laser Marking Controller Based on ARM and FPGA Processors

    PubMed Central

    Dongyun, Wang; Xinpiao, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Laser marking is an important branch of the laser information processing technology. The existing laser marking machine based on PC and WINDOWS operating system, are large and inconvenient to move. Still, it cannot work outdoors or in other harsh environments. In order to compensate for the above mentioned disadvantages, this paper proposed an embedded laser marking controller based on ARM and FPGA processors. Based on the principle of laser galvanometer scanning marking, the hardware and software were designed for the application. Experiments showed that this new embedded laser marking controller controls the galvanometers synchronously and could achieve precise marking. PMID:24772028

  19. An embedded laser marking controller based on ARM and FPGA processors.

    PubMed

    Dongyun, Wang; Xinpiao, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Laser marking is an important branch of the laser information processing technology. The existing laser marking machine based on PC and WINDOWS operating system, are large and inconvenient to move. Still, it cannot work outdoors or in other harsh environments. In order to compensate for the above mentioned disadvantages, this paper proposed an embedded laser marking controller based on ARM and FPGA processors. Based on the principle of laser galvanometer scanning marking, the hardware and software were designed for the application. Experiments showed that this new embedded laser marking controller controls the galvanometers synchronously and could achieve precise marking.

  20. A scaleable integrated sensing and control system for NDE, monitoring, and control of medium to very large composite smart structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jerry; Rhoades, Valerie; Arner, Radford; Clem, Timothy; Cuneo, Adam

    2007-04-01

    NDE measurements, monitoring, and control of smart and adaptive composite structures requires that the central knowledge system have an awareness of the entire structure. Achieving this goal necessitates the implementation of an integrated network of significant numbers of sensors. Additionally, in order to temporally coordinate the data from specially distributed sensors, the data must be time relevant. Early adoption precludes development of sensor technology specifically for this application, instead it will depend on the ability to utilize legacy systems. Partially supported by the U.S. Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Advanced Technology Development Program (NIST-ATP), a scalable integrated system has been developed to implement monitoring of structural integrity and the control of adaptive/intelligent structures. The project, called SHIELD (Structural Health Identification and Electronic Life Determination), was jointly undertaken by: Caterpillar, N.A. Tech., Motorola, and Microstrain. SHIELD is capable of operation with composite structures, metallic structures, or hybrid structures. SHIELD consists of a real-time processing core on a Motorola MPC5200 using a C language based real-time operating system (RTOS). The RTOS kernel was customized to include a virtual backplane which makes the system completely scalable. This architecture provides for multiple processes to be operating simultaneously. They may be embedded as multiple threads on the core hardware or as separate independent processors connected to the core using a software driver called a NAT-Network Integrator (NATNI). NATNI's can be created for any communications application. In it's current embodiment, NATNI's have been created for CAN bus, TCP/IP (Ethernet) - both wired and 802.11 b and g, and serial communications using RS485 and RS232. Since SHIELD uses standard C language, it is easy to port any monitoring or control algorithm, thus providing for legacy

  1. Active Flap Control of the SMART Rotor for Vibration Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Steven R.; Anand, R. Vaidyanathan; Straub, Friedrich K.; Lau, Benton H.

    2009-01-01

    Active control methodologies were applied to a full-scale active flap rotor obtained during a joint Boeing/ DARPA/NASA/Army test in the Air Force National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex 40- by 80-foot anechoic wind tunnel. The active flap rotor is a full-scale MD 900 helicopter main rotor with each of its five blades modified to include an on-blade piezoelectric actuator-driven flap with a span of 18% of radius, 25% of chord, and located at 83% radius. Vibration control demonstrated the potential of active flaps for effective control of vibratory loads, especially normal force loads. Active control of normal force vibratory loads using active flaps and a continuous-time higher harmonic control algorithm was very effective, reducing harmonic (1-5P) normal force vibratory loads by 95% in both cruise and approach conditions. Control of vibratory roll and pitch moments was also demonstrated, although moment control was less effective than normal force control. Finally, active control was used to precisely control blade flap position for correlation with pretest predictions of rotor aeroacoustics. Flap displacements were commanded to follow specific harmonic profiles of 2 deg or more in amplitude, and the flap deflection errors obtained were less than 0.2 deg r.m.s.

  2. Progress in Aluminum Electrolysis Control and Future Direction for Smart Aluminum Electrolysis Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Li, Tianshuang; Li, Jie; Yang, Shuai; Zou, Zhong

    2016-10-01

    The industrial aluminum reduction cell is an electrochemistry reactor that operates under high temperatures and highly corrosive conditions. However, these conditions have restricted the measurement of key control parameters, making the control of aluminum reduction cells a difficult problem in the industry. Because aluminum electrolysis control systems have a significant economic influence, substantial research has been conducted on control algorithms, control systems and information systems for aluminum reduction cells. This article first summarizes the development of control systems and then focuses on the progress made since 2000, including alumina concentration control, temperature control and electrolyte molecular ratio control, fault diagnosis, cell condition prediction and control system expansion. Based on these studies, the concept of a smart aluminum electrolysis plant is proposed. The frame construction, key problems and current progress are introduced. Finally, several future directions are discussed.

  3. Progress in Aluminum Electrolysis Control and Future Direction for Smart Aluminum Electrolysis Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Li, Tianshuang; Li, Jie; Yang, Shuai; Zou, Zhong

    2017-02-01

    The industrial aluminum reduction cell is an electrochemistry reactor that operates under high temperatures and highly corrosive conditions. However, these conditions have restricted the measurement of key control parameters, making the control of aluminum reduction cells a difficult problem in the industry. Because aluminum electrolysis control systems have a significant economic influence, substantial research has been conducted on control algorithms, control systems and information systems for aluminum reduction cells. This article first summarizes the development of control systems and then focuses on the progress made since 2000, including alumina concentration control, temperature control and electrolyte molecular ratio control, fault diagnosis, cell condition prediction and control system expansion. Based on these studies, the concept of a smart aluminum electrolysis plant is proposed. The frame construction, key problems and current progress are introduced. Finally, several future directions are discussed.

  4. Smart structure control in matrix second order form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diwekar, Anjali M.; Yedavalli, Rama K.

    1995-05-01

    Matrix second order systems arise in a variety of structural dynamics and control problems. The analysis and design of such systems is traditionally done in frequency domain or in time domain (state space framework). The formulation of the control design problem in matrix second order form (i.e., configuration space framework) has many advantages over first order state space form. In this paper, a novel approach for designing a stabilizing controller in a second-order model of piezoelectrically controlled flexible beam is proposed.

  5. Smart structure control in matrix second-order form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diwekar, Anjali M.; Yedavalli, Rama K.

    1996-08-01

    Matrix second-order systems arise in a variety of structural dynamics and control problems. The analysis and design of such systems is traditionally done in the frequency domain or in the time domain (state space framework). The formulation of the control design problem in matrix second-order form (i.e. configuration space framework) has many advantages over first-order state-space form. In this paper, a novel approach for designing a stabilizing controller in a second-order model of a piezoelectrically controlled flexible beam is proposed.

  6. Vibration control in smart coupled beams subjected to pulse excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarski, Dominik; Bajer, Czesław I.; Dyniewicz, Bartłomiej; Bajkowski, Jacek M.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a control method to stabilize the vibration of adjacent structures is presented. The control is realized by changes of the stiffness parameters of the structure's couplers. A pulse excitation applied to the coupled adjacent beams is imposed as the kinematic excitation. For such a representation, the designed control law provides the best rate of energy dissipation. By means of a stability analysis, the performance in different structural settings is studied. The efficiency of the proposed strategy is examined via numerical simulations. In terms of the assumed energy metric, the controlled structure outperforms its passively damped equivalent by over 50 percent. The functionality of the proposed control strategy should attract the attention of practising engineers who seek solutions to upgrade existing damping systems.

  7. [Research of controlling of smart home system based on P300 brain-computer interface].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinjia; Yang, Chengjie

    2014-08-01

    Using electroencephalogram (EEG) signal to control external devices has always been the research focus in the field of brain-computer interface (BCI). This is especially significant for those disabilities who have lost capacity of movements. In this paper, the P300-based BCI and the microcontroller-based wireless radio frequency (RF) technology are utilized to design a smart home control system, which can be used to control household appliances, lighting system, and security devices directly. Experiment results showed that the system was simple, reliable and easy to be populirised.

  8. Knowledge Discovery for Smart Grid Operation, Control, and Situation Awareness -- A Big Data Visualization Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Yi; Jiang, Huaiguang; Zhang, Yingchen; Zhang, Jun Jason; Gao, Tianlu; Muljadi, Eduard

    2016-11-21

    In this paper, a big data visualization platform is designed to discover the hidden useful knowledge for smart grid (SG) operation, control and situation awareness. The spawn of smart sensors at both grid side and customer side can provide large volume of heterogeneous data that collect information in all time spectrums. Extracting useful knowledge from this big-data poll is still challenging. In this paper, the Apache Spark, an open source cluster computing framework, is used to process the big-data to effectively discover the hidden knowledge. A high-speed communication architecture utilizing the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model is designed to transmit the data to a visualization platform. This visualization platform uses Google Earth, a global geographic information system (GIS) to link the geological information with the SG knowledge and visualize the information in user defined fashion. The University of Denver's campus grid is used as a SG test bench and several demonstrations are presented for the proposed platform.

  9. Targeted Delivery by Smart Capsules for Controlling Two-phase Flow in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J.; Weitz, D.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding and controlling two-phase flow in porous media are of particular importance to the relevant industry applications, such as enhanced oil recovery, CO2 sequestration, and groundwater remediation. We develop a variety of smart microcapsules that can deliver and release specific substances to the target location in the porous medium, and therefore change the fluid property or medium geometry at certain locations. In this talk, I will present two types of smart capsules for (a) delivering surfactant to the vicinity of oil-water interface and (b) delivering microgels to the high permeability region and therefore blocking the pore space there, respectively. We also show that flooding these two capsules into porous media effectively reduces the trapped oil and improves the homogeneity of the medium, respectively. Besides of its industrial applications, this technique also opens a new window to study the mechanism of two-phase flow in porous media.

  10. Control and prediction for blackouts caused by frequency collapse in smart grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chengwei; Grebogi, Celso; Baptista, Murilo S.

    2016-09-01

    The electric power system is one of the cornerstones of modern society. One of its most serious malfunctions is the blackout, a catastrophic event that may disrupt a substantial portion of the system, playing havoc to human life and causing great economic losses. Thus, understanding the mechanisms leading to blackouts and creating a reliable and resilient power grid has been a major issue, attracting the attention of scientists, engineers, and stakeholders. In this paper, we study the blackout problem in power grids by considering a practical phase-oscillator model. This model allows one to simultaneously consider different types of power sources (e.g., traditional AC power plants and renewable power sources connected by DC/AC inverters) and different types of loads (e.g., consumers connected to distribution networks and consumers directly connected to power plants). We propose two new control strategies based on our model, one for traditional power grids and another one for smart grids. The control strategies show the efficient function of the fast-response energy storage systems in preventing and predicting blackouts in smart grids. This work provides innovative ideas which help us to build up a robuster and more economic smart power system.

  11. Control and prediction for blackouts caused by frequency collapse in smart grids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengwei; Grebogi, Celso; Baptista, Murilo S

    2016-09-01

    The electric power system is one of the cornerstones of modern society. One of its most serious malfunctions is the blackout, a catastrophic event that may disrupt a substantial portion of the system, playing havoc to human life and causing great economic losses. Thus, understanding the mechanisms leading to blackouts and creating a reliable and resilient power grid has been a major issue, attracting the attention of scientists, engineers, and stakeholders. In this paper, we study the blackout problem in power grids by considering a practical phase-oscillator model. This model allows one to simultaneously consider different types of power sources (e.g., traditional AC power plants and renewable power sources connected by DC/AC inverters) and different types of loads (e.g., consumers connected to distribution networks and consumers directly connected to power plants). We propose two new control strategies based on our model, one for traditional power grids and another one for smart grids. The control strategies show the efficient function of the fast-response energy storage systems in preventing and predicting blackouts in smart grids. This work provides innovative ideas which help us to build up a robuster and more economic smart power system.

  12. Optimization of control laws for damage detection in smart structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Laura R.; Marini, Solomon

    2000-06-01

    A prevalent method of damage detection is based on identifying changes in modal characteristics due to damage induced variations in stiffness or mass along a structure. It is known that modal frequencies can be insensitive to damage, and the open-loop sensitivity itself depends on modal properties and damage location. Here, we develop methods of designing control laws that enhance the sensitivity of modal characteristics to damage. Sensitivity enhancing control exploits the relationship between control gains and closed-loop dynamics in order to increase the observability of damage. The design methods are based on optimization of cost functions that involve the dependence of classic measures of sensitivity on design variables, which include placement of sensors and actuators and state feedback control gains. Due to the size of the design space and the unknown nature of the cost surface, genetic algorithms are used to find control laws that maximize sensitivity to specific damage types subject to control effort and stability constraints. Optimized control laws designed for sensitivity enhancement of stiffness damage in a cantilevered beam are demonstrated by numerical simulation.

  13. Overall design of actively controlled smart structures by the finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbert, Ulrich; Koeppe, Heinz; Seeger, Falko

    2001-08-01

    The design process of engineering smart structures requires a virtual overall model, which includes the main functional parts such as the passive structure, the actuators and sensors as well as the control algorithm. The objective of the paper is to pre-sent such a design concept for vibration suppression of thin-walled shell structures controlled by piezoelectric wafers and fi-bers. This concept is based on a recently developed finite element package for the simulation of multi-physics problems. At first a rough design of actuator and sensor distributions is estimated which is based on the controllability and observabilty indices. Then the Matlab/Simulink software tool is used for controller design. From the finite element model all required data and information are transferred to Matlab/Simulink via a data exchange interface. After having designed the controller the result in form of the controller matrices or as C-codes can be transferred back into the finite element simulation package. Within the finite element code the controlled structural behavior can be studied under different disturbances. The structural design can be improved in an iterative way, e.g. by changing the actuator and sensor positions based on a sensitivity analy-sis. As an example an actively controlled smart plate structure is designed and tested to demonstrate the proposed procedure.

  14. Periodic reference tracking control approach for smart material actuators with complex hysteretic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiyong; Hao, Lina; Song, Bo; Yang, Ruiguo; Cao, Ruimin; Cheng, Yu

    2016-10-01

    Micro/nano positioning technologies have been attractive for decades for their various applications in both industrial and scientific fields. The actuators employed in these technologies are typically smart material actuators, which possess inherent hysteresis that may cause systems behave unexpectedly. Periodic reference tracking capability is fundamental for apparatuses such as scanning probe microscope, which employs smart material actuators to generate periodic scanning motion. However, traditional controller such as PID method cannot guarantee accurate fast periodic scanning motion. To tackle this problem and to conduct practical implementation in digital devices, this paper proposes a novel control method named discrete extended unparallel Prandtl-Ishlinskii model based internal model (d-EUPI-IM) control approach. To tackle modeling uncertainties, the robust d-EUPI-IM control approach is investigated, and the associated sufficient stabilizing conditions are derived. The advantages of the proposed controller are: it is designed and represented in discrete form, thus practical for digital devices implementation; the extended unparallel Prandtl-Ishlinskii model can precisely represent forward/inverse complex hysteretic characteristics, thus can reduce modeling uncertainties and benefits controllers design; in addition, the internal model principle based control module can be utilized as a natural oscillator for tackling periodic references tracking problem. The proposed controller was verified through comparative experiments on a piezoelectric actuator platform, and convincing results have been achieved.

  15. Smart motor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, D.; Schmitt, D.

    1984-01-01

    Current spacecraft design relies upon microprocessor control; however, motors usually require extensive additional electronic circuitry to interface with these microprocessor controls. An improved control technique that allows a smart brushless motor to connect directly to a microprocessor control system is described. An actuator with smart motors receives a spacecraft command directly and responds in a closed loop control mode. In fact, two or more smart motors can be controlled for synchronous operation.

  16. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability -- Loop-scale Testbed Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Melin, Alexander M.; Kisner, Roger A.

    2016-09-01

    Embedded instrumentation and control systems that can operate in extreme environments are challenging to design and operate. Extreme environments limit the options for sensors and actuators and degrade their performance. Because sensors and actuators are necessary for feedback control these limitations mean that designing embedded instrumentation and control systems for the challenging environments of nuclear reactors requires advanced technical solutions that are not available commercially. This report details the development of testbed that will be used for cross-cutting embedded instrumentation and control research for nuclear power applications. This research is funded by the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Enabling Technology program's Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation topic. The design goal of the loop-scale testbed is to build a low temperature pump that utilizes magnetic bearing that will be incorporated into a water loop to test control system performance and self-sensing techniques. Specifically, this testbed will be used to analyze control system performance in response to nonlinear and cross-coupling fluid effects between the shaft axes of motion, rotordynamics and gyroscopic effects, and impeller disturbances. This testbed will also be used to characterize the performance losses when using self-sensing position measurement techniques. Active magnetic bearings are a technology that can reduce failures and maintenance costs in nuclear power plants. They are particularly relevant to liquid salt reactors that operate at high temperatures (700 C). Pumps used in the extreme environment of liquid salt reactors provide many engineering challenges that can be overcome with magnetic bearings and their associated embedded instrumentation and control. This report will give details of the mechanical design and electromagnetic design of the loop-scale embedded instrumentation and control testbed.

  17. A programmable controller based on CAN field bus embedded microprocessor and FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Qizhong; Guo, Yifeng; Chen, Wenhei; Wang, Mingtao

    2008-10-01

    One kind of new programmable controller(PLC) is introduced in this paper. The advanced embedded microprocessor and Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) device are applied in the PLC system. The PLC system structure was presented in this paper. It includes 32 bits Advanced RISC Machines (ARM) embedded microprocessor as control core, FPGA as control arithmetic coprocessor and CAN bus as data communication criteria protocol connected the host controller and its various extension modules. It is detailed given that the circuits and working principle, IiO interface circuit between ARM and FPGA and interface circuit between ARM and FPGA coprocessor. Furthermore the interface circuit diagrams between various modules are written. In addition, it is introduced that ladder chart program how to control the transfer info of control arithmetic part in FPGA coprocessor. The PLC, through nearly two months of operation to meet the design of the basic requirements.

  18. Embedding operational research into national disease control programme: lessons from 10 years of experience in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Mahendradhata, Yodi; Probandari, Ari; Widjanarko, Bagoes; Riono, Pandu; Mustikawati, Dyah; Tiemersma, Edine W.; Alisjahbana, Bachti

    2014-01-01

    There is growing recognition that operational research (OR) should be embedded into national disease control programmes. However, much of the current OR capacity building schemes are still predominantly driven by international agencies with limited integration into national disease control programmes. We demonstrated that it is possible to achieve a more sustainable capacity building effort across the country by establishing an OR group within the national tuberculosis (TB) control programme in Indonesia. Key challenges identified include long-term financial support, limited number of scientific publications, and difficulties in documenting impact on programmatic performance. External evaluation has expressed concerns in regard to utilisation of OR in policy making. Efforts to address this concern have been introduced recently and led to indications of increased utilisation of research evidence in policy making by the national TB control programme. Embedding OR in national disease control programmes is key in establishing an evidence-based disease control programme. PMID:25361728

  19. Inlet Flow Control and Prediction Technologies for Embedded Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillan, Michelle L.; Gissen, Abe; Vukasinovic, Bojan; Lakebrink, Matthew T.; Glezer, Ari; Mani, Mori; Mace, James

    2010-01-01

    Fail-safe inlet flow control may enable high-speed cruise efficiency, low noise signature, and reduced fuel-burn goals for hybrid wing-body aircraft. The objectives of this program are to develop flow control and prediction methodologies for boundary-layer ingesting (BLI) inlets used in these aircraft. This report covers the second of a three year program. The approach integrates experiments and numerical simulations. Both passive and active flow-control devices were tested in a small-scale wind tunnel. Hybrid actuation approaches, combining a passive microvane and active synthetic jet, were tested in various geometric arrangements. Detailed flow measurements were taken to provide insight into the flow physics. Results of the numerical simulations were correlated against experimental data. The sensitivity of results to grid resolution and turbulence models was examined. Aerodynamic benefits from microvanes and microramps were assessed when installed in an offset BLI inlet. Benefits were quantified in terms of recovery and distortion changes. Microvanes were more effective than microramps at improving recovery and distortion.

  20. Using System Dynamics to Define, Study, and Implement Smart Control Strategies on the Electric Power Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle G. Roybal; Robert F Jeffers

    2013-07-01

    The United States electric power grid is the most complex and expansive control system in the world. Local generation control occurs at individual units based on response time and unit economics, larger regional control coordinates unit response to error conditions, and high level large-area regional control is ultimately administered by a network of humans guided by economic and resiliency related factors. Under normal operating conditions, the grid is a relatively slow moving entity that exhibits high inertia to outside stimuli, and behaves along repeatable diurnal and seasonal patterns. However, that paradigm is quickly changing because of the increasing implementation of renewable generation sources. Renewable generators by nature cannot be tightly controlled or scheduled. They appear like a negative load to the system with all of the variability associated with load on a larger scale. Also, grid-reactive loads (i.e. smart devices) can alter their consumption based on price or demand rules adding more variability to system behavior. This paper demonstrates how a systems dynamic modeling approach capable of operating over multiple time scales, can provide valuable insight into developing new “smart-grid” control strategies and devices needed to accommodate renewable generation and regulate the frequency of the grid.

  1. Smart Sensors for Smart Hands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1978-01-01

    Proximity, force-torque, touch and slippage sensors developed or applied by the JPL Teleoperator Project for remote manipulator control are described, including sensor data handling by computers for display and control. Examples are quoted showing the significance of these sensors for manual or computer control of manipulators. An interesting example is a proximity sensor system implemented for a four-claw JSC end effector and tested at the Shuttle Manipulator Training Facility of JSC. New sensing concepts aimed at simplifying the implementation of 'Smart Sensors for Smart Hands' in the space environment are discussed.

  2. Innovative active control of gun barrels using smart materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattice, Michael S.; LaVigna, Chris

    1997-06-01

    The accuracy of stabilized, turreted gun systems like the 120mm gun on the M1A2 Abrams tank and the 30mm gun on the Apache helicopter are limited by, among other things, structural flexure of the gun barrel and support structure. An advanced actuation system based on piezoelectric translators and an optical fiber strain sensing system are described in conjunction with a rapid prototyping workstation for the design of distributed parameter control systems to actively minimize the effects of vibrations caused by traversing rough terrain or weapon firing.

  3. Active control of acoustic pressure fields using smart material technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Smith, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    An overview describing the use of piezoceramic patches in reducing noise in a structural acoustics setting is presented. The passive and active contributions due to patches which are bonded to an Euler-Bernoulli beam or thin shell are briefly discussed and the results are incorporated into a 2-D structural acoustics model. In this model, an exterior noise source causes structural vibrations which in turn lead to interior noise as a result of nonlinear fluid/structure coupling mechanism. Interior sound pressure levels are reduced via patches bonded to the flexible boundary (a beam in this case) which generate pure bending moments when an out-of-phase voltage is applied. Well-posedness results for the infinite dimensional system are discussed and a Galerkin scheme for approximating the system dynamics is outlined. Control is implemented by using linear quadratic regulator (LQR) optimal control theory to calculate gains for the linearized system and then feeding these gains back into the nonlinear system of interest. The effectiveness of this strategy for this problem is illustrated in an example.

  4. Controlled activation of protein rotational dynamics using smart hydrogel tethering.

    PubMed

    Beech, Brenda M; Xiong, Yijia; Boschek, Curt B; Baird, Cheryl L; Bigelow, Diana J; McAteer, Kathleen; Squier, Thomas C

    2014-09-24

    Stimulus-responsive hydrogel materials that stabilize and control protein dynamics have the potential to enable a range of applications that take advantage of the inherent specificity and catalytic efficiencies of proteins. Here we describe the modular construction of a hydrogel using an engineered calmodulin (CaM) within a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) matrix that involves the reversible tethering of proteins through an engineered CaM-binding sequence. For these measurements, maltose binding protein (MBP) was isotopically labeled with (13)C and (15)N, permitting dynamic structural measurements using TROSY-HSQC NMR spectroscopy. The protein dynamics is suppressed upon initial formation of hydrogels, with a concomitant increase in protein stability. Relaxation of the hydrogel matrix following transient heating results in enhanced protein dynamics and resolution of substrate-induced large-amplitude domain rearrangements.

  5. Controlled Activation of Protein Rotational Dynamics Using Smart Hydrogel Tethering

    SciTech Connect

    Beech, Brenda M.; Xiong, Yijia; Boschek, Curt B.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Bigelow, Diana J.; Mcateer, Kathleen; Squier, Thomas C.

    2014-09-05

    Stimulus-responsive hydrogel materials that stabilize and control protein dynamics have the potential to enable a range of applications to take advantage of the inherent specificity and catalytic efficiencies of proteins. Here we describe the modular construction of a hydrogel using an engineered calmodulin (CaM) within a polyethylene glycol (PEG) matrix that involves the reversible tethering of proteins through an engineered CaM-binding sequence. For these measurements, maltose binding protein (MBP) was isotopically labeled with [13C] and [15N], permitting dynamic structural measurements using TROSY-HSQC NMR spectroscopy. Upon initial formation of hydrogels protein dynamics are suppressed, with concomitant increases in protein stability. Relaxation of the hydrogel matrix following transient heating results in the activation of protein dynamics and restoration of substrate-induced large-amplitude domain motions necessary for substrate binding.

  6. Simple synthesis of smart magnetically driven fibrous films for remote controllable oil removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Nü; Zhao, Yong; Jiang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the marine mussel adhesive protein, smart, magnetically controllable, oil adsorption nanofibrous materials were successfully fabricated in this research. Taking advantage of the properties of dopamine whose molecular structure mimics the single unit of the marine mussel adhesive protein and can be polymerized in alkaline solution forming a ``glue'' layer on many kinds of material surfaces, magnetic iron(ii, iii) oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were easily and robustly anchored on to electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) fibrous films. After fluorination, the as-prepared hierarchical structured films exhibited superhydrophobicity, superoleophilicity and an excellent oil adsorption capacity from water. Importantly, because of the magnetically controllable property endowed by the Fe3O4 nanoparticles, such fibrous films act as a ``smart magnetically controlled oil removal carrier'', which effectively overcome the drawbacks of other in situ oil adsorbant materials and can also be easily recovered. This work provides a simple strategy to fabricate magnetic responsive intelligent oil removal materials, which will find broad applications in complex environment oil-water separation.Inspired by the marine mussel adhesive protein, smart, magnetically controllable, oil adsorption nanofibrous materials were successfully fabricated in this research. Taking advantage of the properties of dopamine whose molecular structure mimics the single unit of the marine mussel adhesive protein and can be polymerized in alkaline solution forming a ``glue'' layer on many kinds of material surfaces, magnetic iron(ii, iii) oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were easily and robustly anchored on to electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) fibrous films. After fluorination, the as-prepared hierarchical structured films exhibited superhydrophobicity, superoleophilicity and an excellent oil adsorption capacity from water. Importantly, because of the magnetically controllable property endowed by the Fe3

  7. A New Controller for a Smart Walker Based on Human-Robot Formation

    PubMed Central

    Valadão, Carlos; Caldeira, Eliete; Bastos-Filho, Teodiano; Frizera-Neto, Anselmo; Carelli, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a smart walker that uses a formation controller in its displacements. Encoders, a laser range finder and ultrasound are the sensors used in the walker. The control actions are based on the user (human) location, who is the actual formation leader. There is neither a sensor attached to the user’s body nor force sensors attached to the arm supports of the walker, and thus, the control algorithm projects the measurements taken from the laser sensor into the user reference and, then, calculates the linear and angular walker’s velocity to keep the formation (distance and angle) in relation to the user. An algorithm was developed to detect the user’s legs, whose distances from the laser sensor provide the information necessary to the controller. The controller was theoretically analyzed regarding its stability, simulated and validated with real users, showing accurate performance in all experiments. In addition, safety rules are used to check both the user and the device conditions, in order to guarantee that the user will not have any risks when using the smart walker. The applicability of this device is for helping people with lower limb mobility impairments. PMID:27447634

  8. Exponential time-differencing with embedded Runge–Kutta adaptive step control

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, P.; Brio, M.; Moloney, J.V.

    2015-01-01

    We have presented the first embedded Runge–Kutta exponential time-differencing (RKETD) methods of fourth order with third order embedding and fifth order with third order embedding for non-Rosenbrock type nonlinear systems. A procedure for constructing RKETD methods that accounts for both order conditions and stability is outlined. In our stability analysis, the fast time scale is represented by a full linear operator in contrast to particular scalar cases considered before. An effective time-stepping strategy based on reducing both ETD function evaluations and rejected steps is described. Comparisons of performance with adaptive-stepping integrating factor (IF) are carried out on a set of canonical partial differential equations: the shock-fronts of Burgers equation, interacting KdV solitons, KS controlled chaos, and critical collapse of two-dimensional NLS.

  9. Human-factors engineering for smart transport: design support for car drivers and train traffic controllers.

    PubMed

    Lenior, Dick; Janssen, Wiel; Neerincx, Mark; Schreibers, Kirsten

    2006-07-01

    The theme Smart Transport can be described as adequate human-system symbiosis to realize effective, efficient and human-friendly transport of goods and information. This paper addresses how to attune automation to human (cognitive) capacities (e.g. to take care of information uncertainty, operator trust and mutual man-machine adaptations). An introduction to smart transport is presented, including examples of best practice for engineering human factors in the vehicle ergonomics and train traffic control domain. The examples are representative of an ongoing trend in automation and they show how the human role changes from controller to supervisor. Section 2 focuses on the car driver and systems that support, or sometimes even take over, critical parts of the driving task. Due to the diversity of driver ability, driving context and dependence between driver and context factors, there is a need for personalised, adaptive and integrated support. Systematic research is needed to establish sound systems. Section 3 focuses on the train dispatcher support systems that predict train movements, detect potential conflicts and show the dispatcher the possibilities available to solve the detected problems. Via thorough analysis of both the process to be controlled and the dispatcher's tasks and cognitive needs, support functions were developed as part of an already very complex supervision and control system. The two examples, although from a different field, both show the need for further development in cognitive modelling as well as for the value of sound ergonomics task analysis in design practice.

  10. Interactive smart battery storage for a PV and wind hybrid energy management control based on conservative power theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoy Simões, Marcelo; Davi Curi Busarello, Tiago; Saad Bubshait, Abdullah; Harirchi, Farnaz; Antenor Pomilio, José; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents interactive smart battery-based storage (BBS) for wind generator (WG) and photovoltaic (PV) systems. The BBS is composed of an asymmetric cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter (ACMI) with staircase modulation. The structure is parallel to the WG and PV systems, allowing the ACMI to have a reduction in power losses compared to the usual solution for storage connected at the DC-link of the converter for WG or PV systems. Moreover, the BBS is embedded with a decision algorithm running real-time energy costs, plus a battery state-of-charge manager and power quality capabilities, making the described system in this paper very interactive, smart and multifunctional. The paper describes how BBS interacts with the WG and PV and how its performance is improved. Experimental results are presented showing the efficacy of this BBS for renewable energy applications.

  11. Developing smart lighting LED-based device by using light parameterization and control method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risteiu, Mircea; Ileana, Ioan; Marc, Gheorghe

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents a smart system for control of chromatic distribution of white light produced by LED sources in order to satisfy simultaneously physiological comfort and color rendering requests. In region of interest (ROI) lighted by an ensemble of RGB and white LED's, a system of appropriate light sensors (from UV to IR radiation) take the chromatic an intensity information and send them to a microcontroller based device. Following the actual state of illumination end the desired one, the microcontroller will command the LED drivers adequately to obtain the optimum situation.

  12. Practical issues in modelling the temperature for the control of smart buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorni, Domenico; Visioli, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we propose a technique for modelling the temperature of the rooms of a smart building for control purposes. The approach consists in determining an (black-box) ARMAX model based on the first-principle thermodynamics equations of the system. Then, the model parameters are estimated by initially employing an ad hoc procedure and then by using a self-calibration method when the performance deteriorates. The selection of the user defined parameters in the overall procedure is thoroughly discussed by means of simulation results in order to highlight the practical effectiveness of the methodology.

  13. Simple synthesis of smart magnetically driven fibrous films for remote controllable oil removal.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Nü; Zhao, Yong; Jiang, Lei

    2015-02-14

    Inspired by the marine mussel adhesive protein, smart, magnetically controllable, oil adsorption nanofibrous materials were successfully fabricated in this research. Taking advantage of the properties of dopamine whose molecular structure mimics the single unit of the marine mussel adhesive protein and can be polymerized in alkaline solution forming a "glue" layer on many kinds of material surfaces, magnetic iron(II, III) oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were easily and robustly anchored on to electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) fibrous films. After fluorination, the as-prepared hierarchical structured films exhibited superhydrophobicity, superoleophilicity and an excellent oil adsorption capacity from water. Importantly, because of the magnetically controllable property endowed by the Fe3O4 nanoparticles, such fibrous films act as a "smart magnetically controlled oil removal carrier", which effectively overcome the drawbacks of other in situ oil adsorbant materials and can also be easily recovered. This work provides a simple strategy to fabricate magnetic responsive intelligent oil removal materials, which will find broad applications in complex environment oil-water separation.

  14. Design of a mobile brain computer interface-based smart multimedia controller.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Kevin C; Lin, Bor-Shing; Wong, Alice May-Kuen; Lin, Bor-Shyh

    2015-03-06

    Music is a way of expressing our feelings and emotions. Suitable music can positively affect people. However, current multimedia control methods, such as manual selection or automatic random mechanisms, which are now applied broadly in MP3 and CD players, cannot adaptively select suitable music according to the user's physiological state. In this study, a brain computer interface-based smart multimedia controller was proposed to select music in different situations according to the user's physiological state. Here, a commercial mobile tablet was used as the multimedia platform, and a wireless multi-channel electroencephalograph (EEG) acquisition module was designed for real-time EEG monitoring. A smart multimedia control program built in the multimedia platform was developed to analyze the user's EEG feature and select music according his/her state. The relationship between the user's state and music sorted by listener's preference was also examined in this study. The experimental results show that real-time music biofeedback according a user's EEG feature may positively improve the user's attention state.

  15. Design of a Mobile Brain Computer Interface-Based Smart Multimedia Controller

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Kevin C.; Lin, Bor-Shing; Wong, Alice May-Kuen; Lin, Bor-Shyh

    2015-01-01

    Music is a way of expressing our feelings and emotions. Suitable music can positively affect people. However, current multimedia control methods, such as manual selection or automatic random mechanisms, which are now applied broadly in MP3 and CD players, cannot adaptively select suitable music according to the user’s physiological state. In this study, a brain computer interface-based smart multimedia controller was proposed to select music in different situations according to the user’s physiological state. Here, a commercial mobile tablet was used as the multimedia platform, and a wireless multi-channel electroencephalograph (EEG) acquisition module was designed for real-time EEG monitoring. A smart multimedia control program built in the multimedia platform was developed to analyze the user’s EEG feature and select music according his/her state. The relationship between the user’s state and music sorted by listener’s preference was also examined in this study. The experimental results show that real-time music biofeedback according a user’s EEG feature may positively improve the user’s attention state. PMID:25756862

  16. Parameter identification of aggregated thermostatically controlled loads for smart grids using PDE techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, Scott; Bendtsen, Jan; Ruiz, Victor

    2014-07-01

    This paper develops methods for model identification of aggregated thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) in smart grids, via partial differential equation (PDE) techniques. Control of aggregated TCLs provides a promising opportunity to mitigate the mismatch between power generation and demand, thus enhancing grid reliability and enabling renewable energy penetration. To this end, this paper focuses on developing parameter identification algorithms for a PDE-based model of aggregated TCLs. First, a two-state boundary-coupled hyperbolic PDE model for homogenous TCL populations is derived. This model is extended to heterogeneous populations by including a diffusive term, which provides an elegant control-oriented model. Next, a passive parameter identification scheme and a swapping-based identification scheme are derived for the PDE model structure. Simulation results demonstrate the efficacy of each method under various autonomous and non-autonomous scenarios. The proposed models can subsequently be employed to provide system critical information for power system monitoring and control.

  17. Dynamic characterization, monitoring and control of rotating flexible beam-mass structures via piezo-embedded techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, Steven H.-Y.

    1992-01-01

    A variational principle and a finite element discretization technique were used to derive the dynamic equations for a high speed rotating flexible beam-mass system embedded with piezo-electric materials. The dynamic equation thus obtained allows the development of finite element models which accommodate both the original structural element and the piezoelectric element. The solutions of finite element models provide system dynamics needed to design a sensing system. The characterization of gyroscopic effect and damping capacity of smart rotating devices are addressed. Several simulation examples are presented to validate the analytical solution.

  18. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability -- Bench-scale Testbed Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Melin, Alexander M.; Kisner, Roger A.; Drira, Anis; Reed, Frederick K.

    2015-09-01

    Embedded instrumentation and control systems that can operate in extreme environments are challenging due to restrictions on sensors and materials. As a part of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Enabling Technology cross-cutting technology development programs Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation topic, this report details the design of a bench-scale embedded instrumentation and control testbed. The design goal of the bench-scale testbed is to build a re-configurable system that can rapidly deploy and test advanced control algorithms in a hardware in the loop setup. The bench-scale testbed will be designed as a fluid pump analog that uses active magnetic bearings to support the shaft. The testbed represents an application that would improve the efficiency and performance of high temperature (700 C) pumps for liquid salt reactors that operate in an extreme environment and provide many engineering challenges that can be overcome with embedded instrumentation and control. This report will give details of the mechanical design, electromagnetic design, geometry optimization, power electronics design, and initial control system design.

  19. Smart CFRP systems for the controlled retrofitting of reinforced concrete members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, M.-B.; Käseberg, S.; Kuhne, M.

    2010-09-01

    During the last ten years an increasing amount of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) applications to rehabilitate damaged concrete elements was observed. Thereby some important disadvantages of the brittle materials must be considered, for example the low ductility of the bond between CFRP and concrete and brittle failure of FRP. With embedded sensor systems it is possible to measure crack propagation and strains. In this paper a sensor based CFRP system will be presented, that can be used for strengthening and measuring. The used optical fibers with Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG) have a large number of advantages in opposite to electrical measuring methods. Examples are small dimensions, low weight as well as high static and dynamic resolution of measured values. The main problem during the investigations was the fixing of the glass fiber and the small FBG at the designated position. In this paper the possibility of setting the glass fiber with embroidery at the reinforcing fiber material will be presented. On the basis of four point bending tests on beams (dimensions of 700 x 150 x 150 mm) and tests on wrapped columns the potential of the Smart CFRP system is introduced.

  20. DoD Comprehensive Military Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Smart Device Ground Control Station Threat Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    within the communication network , smart device hardware, software applications, as well as the insider threat. Additionally, this article provides...in the private sector to meet the rapidly evolving UAV communication requirements risking the use of unsecured networks . Commercial smart phones and...hardware and communication networks has increased significantly with the advancement in technology and popularity of smart mobile devices (Wang

  1. All-printed smart structures: a viable option?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, John; Ahmadkhanlou, Farzad; Yoon, Hwan-Sik; Washington, Gregory

    2014-03-01

    The last two decades have seen evolution of smart materials and structures technologies from theoretical concepts to physical realization in many engineering fields. These include smart sensors and actuators, active damping and vibration control, biomimetics, and structural health monitoring. Recently, additive manufacturing technologies such as 3D printing and printed electronics have received attention as methods to produce 3D objects or electronic components for prototyping or distributed manufacturing purposes. In this paper, the viability of manufacturing all-printed smart structures, with embedded sensors and actuators, will be investigated. To this end, the current 3D printing and printed electronics technologies will be reviewed first. Then, the plausibility of combining these two different additive manufacturing technologies to create all-printed smart structures will be discussed. Potential applications for this type of all-printed smart structures include most of the traditional smart structures where sensors and actuators are embedded or bonded to the structures to measure structural response and cause desired static and dynamic changes in the structure.

  2. A remotely driven and controlled micro-gripper fabricated from light-induced deformation smart material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chaolei; Lv, Jiu-an; Tian, Xiaojun; Wang, Yuechao; Liu, Jie; Yu, Yanlei

    2016-09-01

    Micro-gripper is an important tool to manipulate and assemble micro-scale objects. Generally, as micro-gripper is too small to be directly driven by general motors, it always needs special driving devices and suitable structure design. In this paper, two-finger micro-grippers are designed and fabricated, which utilize light-induced deformation smart material to make one of the two fingers. As the smart material is directly driven and controlled by remote lights instead of lines and motors, this light-driven mode simplifies the design of the two-finger micro-gripper and avoids special drivers and complex mechanical structure. In addition, a micro-manipulation experiment system is set up which is based on the light-driven micro-gripper. Experimental results show that this remotely light-driven micro-gripper has ability to manipulate and assemble micro-scale objects both in air and water. Furthermore, two micro-grippers can also work together for cooperation which can further enhance the assembly ability. On the other hand, this kind of remotely controllable micro-gripper that does not require on-board energy storage, can be used in mobile micro-robot as a manipulation hand.

  3. Smart Multifunctional Coatings for Corrosion Detection and Control in the Aerospace Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina

    2015-01-01

    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. It is essential to detect corrosion when it occurs, and preferably at its early stage, so that action can be taken to avoid structural damage or loss of function. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional, smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it.

  4. Closed loop control of a robot assisted smart flexible needle for percutaneous intervention.

    PubMed

    Maria Joseph, F O; Hutapea, P; Dicker, A; Yu, Y; Podder, T

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the experimental evaluation of a coordinated control system for a robot and robot-driven shape memory alloy (SMA) actuated smart flexible needle capable of following a curved path for percutaneous intervention. The robot driving the needle is considered the outer loop and the non-linear SMA actuated flexible needle system comprises the inner loop. The two feedback control loops are coordinated in such a way that the robot drives the needle while monitoring the needle's actual deflection against a preplanned ideal trajectory, so that the needle tip reaches the target location within an acceptable accuracy. In air and in water experimental results are presented to validate the ability of the proposed coordinated controller to track the overall desired trajectory which includes the combined trajectory of the robot driver and the needle.

  5. Design of an embedded inverse-feedforward biomolecular tracking controller for enzymatic reaction processes.

    PubMed

    Foo, Mathias; Kim, Jongrae; Sawlekar, Rucha; Bates, Declan G

    2017-04-06

    Feedback control is widely used in chemical engineering to improve the performance and robustness of chemical processes. Feedback controllers require a 'subtractor' that is able to compute the error between the process output and the reference signal. In the case of embedded biomolecular control circuits, subtractors designed using standard chemical reaction network theory can only realise one-sided subtraction, rendering standard controller design approaches inadequate. Here, we show how a biomolecular controller that allows tracking of required changes in the outputs of enzymatic reaction processes can be designed and implemented within the framework of chemical reaction network theory. The controller architecture employs an inversion-based feedforward controller that compensates for the limitations of the one-sided subtractor that generates the error signals for a feedback controller. The proposed approach requires significantly fewer chemical reactions to implement than alternative designs, and should have wide applicability throughout the fields of synthetic biology and biological engineering.

  6. Transition in Gas Turbine Control System Architecture: Modular, Distributed, and Embedded

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culley, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Controls systems are an increasingly important component of turbine-engine system technology. However, as engines become more capable, the control system itself becomes ever more constrained by the inherent environmental conditions of the engine; a relationship forced by the continued reliance on commercial electronics technology. A revolutionary change in the architecture of turbine-engine control systems will change this paradigm and result in fully distributed engine control systems. Initially, the revolution will begin with the physical decoupling of the control law processor from the hostile engine environment using a digital communications network and engine-mounted high temperature electronics requiring little or no thermal control. The vision for the evolution of distributed control capability from this initial implementation to fully distributed and embedded control is described in a roadmap and implementation plan. The development of this plan is the result of discussions with government and industry stakeholders

  7. Real-time head movement system and embedded Linux implementation for the control of power wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, H T; King, L M; Knight, G

    2004-01-01

    Mobility has become very important for our quality of life. A loss of mobility due to an injury is usually accompanied by a loss of self-confidence. For many individuals, independent mobility is an important aspect of self-esteem. Head movement is a natural form of pointing and can be used to directly replace the joystick whilst still allowing for similar control. Through the use of embedded LINUX and artificial intelligence, a hands-free head movement wheelchair controller has been designed and implemented successfully. This system provides for severely disabled users an effective power wheelchair control method with improved posture, ease of use and attractiveness.

  8. Implementing Smart Cards into the Air Force Reserve

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    Smart card technology is essentially about a credit card with a brain. Smart cards have an embedded microchip that allows the card to hold digital...gained favor in the United States. The Department of Defense (DoD) also saw the utility in using smart card technology. The DoD began tests with smart

  9. Smart materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, Robert S.; Heyman, Joseph S.

    1993-01-01

    Embedded optical fibers allow not only the cure-monitoring and in-service lifetime measurements of composite materials, but the NDE of material damage and degradation with aging. The capabilities of such damage-detection systems have been extended to allow the quantitative determination of 2D strain in materials by several different methods, including the interferometric and the numerical. It remains to be seen, what effect the embedded fibers have on the strength of the 'smart' materials created through their incorporation.

  10. Calcium-energized motor protein forisome controls damage in phloem: potential applications as biomimetic "smart" material.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Vineet Kumar; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-06-01

    Forisomes are ATP independent, mechanically active proteins from the Fabaceae family (also called Leguminosae). These proteins are located in sieve tubes of phloem and function to prevent loss of nutrient-rich photoassimilates, upon mechanical injury/wounding. Forisomes are SEO (sieve element occlusion) gene family proteins that have recently been shown to be involved in wound sealing mechanism. Recent findings suggest that forisomes could act as an ideal model to study self assembly mechanism for the development of nanotechnological devices like microinstruments, the microfluidic system frequently used in space exploration missions. Technology enabling improvement in micro instruments has been identified as a key technology by NASA in future space exploration missions. Forisomes are designated as biomimetic smart materials which are calcium-energized motor proteins. Since forisomes are biomolecules from plant systems it can be doctored through genetic engineering. In contrast, "smart" materials which are not derived from plants are difficult to modify in their properties. Current levels of understanding about forisomes conformational shifts with respect to calcium ions and pH changes requires supplement of future advances with relation to its 3D structure to understand self assembly processes. In plant systems it forms blood clots in the form of occlusions to prevent nutrient fluid leakage and thus proves to be a unique damage control system of phloem tissue.

  11. Smart HVAC Control in IoT: Energy Consumption Minimization with User Comfort Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Verikoukis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Smart grid is one of the main applications of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. Within this context, this paper addresses the efficient energy consumption management of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in smart grids with variable energy price. To that end, first, we propose an energy scheduling method that minimizes the energy consumption cost for a particular time interval, taking into account the energy price and a set of comfort constraints, that is, a range of temperatures according to user's preferences for a given room. Then, we propose an energy scheduler where the user may select to relax the temperature constraints to save more energy. Moreover, thanks to the IoT paradigm, the user may interact remotely with the HVAC control system. In particular, the user may decide remotely the temperature of comfort, while the temperature and energy consumption information is sent through Internet and displayed at the end user's device. The proposed algorithms have been implemented in a real testbed, highlighting the potential gains that can be achieved in terms of both energy and cost. PMID:25054163

  12. Smart HVAC control in IoT: energy consumption minimization with user comfort constraints.

    PubMed

    Serra, Jordi; Pubill, David; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Verikoukis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Smart grid is one of the main applications of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. Within this context, this paper addresses the efficient energy consumption management of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in smart grids with variable energy price. To that end, first, we propose an energy scheduling method that minimizes the energy consumption cost for a particular time interval, taking into account the energy price and a set of comfort constraints, that is, a range of temperatures according to user's preferences for a given room. Then, we propose an energy scheduler where the user may select to relax the temperature constraints to save more energy. Moreover, thanks to the IoT paradigm, the user may interact remotely with the HVAC control system. In particular, the user may decide remotely the temperature of comfort, while the temperature and energy consumption information is sent through Internet and displayed at the end user's device. The proposed algorithms have been implemented in a real testbed, highlighting the potential gains that can be achieved in terms of both energy and cost.

  13. Adaptive active vibration control to improve the fatigue life of a carbon-epoxy smart structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripamonti, Francesco; Cazzulani, Gabriele; Cinquemani, Simone; Resta, Ferruccio; Torti, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Active vibration controls are helpful in improving fatigue life of structures through limitation of absolute displacements. However, control algorithms are usually designed without explicitly taking into account the fatigue phenomenon. In this paper, an adaptive vibration controller is proposed to increase the fatigue life of a smart structure made of composite material and actuated with piezoelectric patches. The main innovation with respect to the most common solutions is that the control laws are directly linked to a damage driving force, which is correlated to a fatigue damage model for the specific material. The control logic is different depending on the damage state of the structure. If no significant damage affects the structure, the controller decreases the crack nucleation probability by limiting the driving forces in the overall structure. On the contrary, if initiated cracks are present, their further propagation is prevented by controlling the damage driving forces in the already damaged areas. The structural diagnostics is performed through a vibration-based health monitoring technique, while periodical adaptation of the controller is adopted to consider damage-induced changes on the structure state-space model and to give emphasis to the most excited modes. The control algorithm has been numerically validated on the finite element model of a cantilever plate.

  14. Smart photonic carbon brush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Oleg G.; Kuznetsov, Artem A.; Morozov, Gennady A.; Nureev, Ilnur I.; Sakhabutdinov, Airat Z.; Faskhutdinov, Lenar M.; Artemev, Vadim I.

    2016-03-01

    Aspects of the paper relate to a wear monitoring system for smart photonic carbon brush. There are many applications in which regular inspection is not feasible because of a number of factors including, for example, time, labor, cost and disruptions due to down time. Thus, there is a need for a system that can monitor the wear of a component while the component is in operation or without having to remove the component from its operational position. We propose a new smart photonic method for characterization of carbon brush wear. It is based on the usage of advantages of the multiplicative response of FBG and LPFG sensors and its double-frequency probing. Additional measuring parameters are the wear rate, the brush temperature, the engine rotation speed, the hangs control, and rotor speed. Sensor is embedded in brush. Firstly the change of sensor length is used to measure wear value and its central wavelength shift for temperature ones. The results of modeling and experiments are presented.

  15. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability - System Dynamics Modeling and Control System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Melin, Alexander M.; Kisner, Roger A.; Fugate, David L.

    2013-10-01

    This report documents the current status of the modeling, control design, and embedded control research for the magnetic bearing canned rotor pump being used as a demonstration platform for deeply integrating instrumentation and controls (I{\\&}C) into nuclear power plant components. This pump is a highly inter-connected thermo/electro/mechanical system that requires an active control system to operate. Magnetic bearings are inherently unstable system and without active, moment by moment control, the rotor would contact fixed surfaces in the pump causing physical damage. This report details the modeling of the pump rotordynamics, fluid forces, electromagnetic properties of the protective cans, active magnetic bearings, power electronics, and interactions between different dynamical models. The system stability of the unforced and controlled rotor are investigated analytically. Additionally, controllers are designed using proportional derivative (PD) control, proportional integral derivative (PID) control, voltage control, and linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control. Finally, a design optimization problem that joins the electrical, mechanical, magnetic, and control system design into one problem to balance the opposing needs of various design criteria using the embedded system approach is presented.

  16. Efficacy of SmartLoss℠, a smartphone-based weight loss intervention: Results from a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Corby K.; Miller, Anastasia C.; Thomas, Diana M.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Han, Hongmei; Church, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Objective Test the efficacy of SmartLoss℠, a smartphone-based weight loss intervention, in a pilot study. Design and Methods A 12-week randomized controlled trial. Adults (25SmartLoss (n=20) or an attention-matched Health Education control group (n=20). SmartLoss participants were prescribed a 1200-1400 kcal/d diet and were provided with a smartphone, body weight scale, and accelerometer that wirelessly transmitted body weight and step data to a website. In the SmartLoss Group, mathematical models were used to quantify dietary adherence based on body weight and counselors remotely delivered treatment recommendations based on these objective data. The Health Education group received health tips via smartphone. A mixed model determined if change in weight and other endpoints differed between the groups (baseline was a covariate). Results The sample was 82.5% female. Mean±SD baseline age, weight (kg), and BMI were −4.4±11.8 years, 80.0±11.2 kg, and 29.8±2.9 kg/m2, respectively. One participant was lost to follow-up in each group before week 4. Weight loss was significantly (P<.001) larger in the SmartLoss (Least Squares Mean±SEM: −9.4±0.5%) compared to the Health Education group (−0.6±0.5%). Conclusions SmartLoss efficaciously promote clinically meaningful weight loss compared to an attention-matched control group. Smartphone-based interventions might prove useful in intervention dissemination. PMID:25919921

  17. MatLab script to C code converter for embedded processors of FLASH LLRF control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bujnowski, K.; Siemionczyk, A.; Pucyk, P.; Szewiński, J.; Pożniak, K. T.; Romaniuk, R. S.

    2008-01-01

    The low level RF control system (LLRF) of FEL serves for stabilization of the electromagnetic (EM) field in the superconducting niobium, resonant, microwave cavities and for controlling high power (MW) klystron. LLRF system of FLASH accelerator bases on FPGA technology and embedded microprocessors. Basic and auxiliary functions of the systems are listed as well as used algorithms for superconductive cavity parameters identification. These algorithms were prepared originally in Matlab. The main part of the paper presents implementation of the cavity parameters identification algorithm in a PowerPC processor embedded in the FPGA circuit VirtexIIPro. A construction of a very compact Matlab script converter to C code was presented, referred to as M2C. The application is designed specifically for embedded systems of very confined resources. The generated code is optimized for the weight. The code should be transferable between different hardware platforms. The converter generates a code for Linux and for stand-alone applications. Functional structure of the program was described and the way it is acting. FLEX and BIZON tools were used for construction of the converter. The paper concludes with an example of the M2C application to convert a complex identification algorithm for superconductive cavities in FLASH laser.

  18. Novel bio-inspired smart control for hazard mitigation of civil structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeesock; Kim, Changwon; Langari, Reza

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, a new bio-inspired controller is proposed for vibration mitigation of smart structures subjected to ground disturbances (i.e. earthquakes). The control system is developed through the integration of a brain emotional learning (BEL) algorithm with a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller and a semiactive inversion (Inv) algorithm. The BEL algorithm is based on the neurologically inspired computational model of the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid BEL-PID-Inv control algorithm, a seismically excited building structure equipped with a magnetorheological (MR) damper is investigated. The performance of the proposed hybrid BEL-PID-Inv control algorithm is compared with that of passive, PID, linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG), and BEL control systems. In the simulation, the robustness of the hybrid BEL-PID-Inv control algorithm in the presence of modeling uncertainties as well as external disturbances is investigated. It is shown that the proposed hybrid BEL-PID-Inv control algorithm is effective in improving the dynamic responses of seismically excited building structure-MR damper systems.

  19. Active-passive hybrid vibration control study in plates using enhanced smart constrained layer damping (ESCLD) treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balamurugan, V.; Narayanan, S.

    2003-10-01

    In the present paper, the active-passive hybrid vibration control performance due to Enhanced Smart Constrained Layer Damping (ESCLD) treatment as proposed by Liao and Wang on plate like structures has been considered. This treatment consists of a viscoelastic layer constrained between a smart piezoelectric layer and the base structure being controlled. Also, the smart constraining layer is clamped to the base structure. This type of damping treatment has got both active and passive component of damping. The passive damping is through cyclic shearing of viscoelastic constrained layer which is further enhanced by activating the smart piezoelectric constraining layer and the active component of the damping is through the transfer of control moments from the piezoelectric layer to the base structure through the viscoelastic layer and also bypassed through the clamps. A plate finite element has been formulated using first order shear deformation theory, including the effect of transverse shear and rotary inertia. The effect of the viscoelastic shear layer and piezoelectric constraining layer on the mass and stiffness has been included in the model. The viscoelastic shear layer is modeled usig Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method, which is a time domain approach. The clamps (edge elements) are modeled as equivalent springs connecting the smart piezoelectric constraining layer with the structure to be controlled. LQR optimal control strategy is used to obtain optimal control gains. The effect of the viscoelastic material properties (shear modulus and loss factor) on the hybrid vibration control performance is studied for both SCLD (without edge elements) and ESCLD systems.

  20. Injectable hydrogels embedded with alginate microspheres for controlled delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Youjia; Wang, Jiulong; Wu, Jingjing; Zhang, Jun; Wan, Ying; Wu, Hua

    2016-03-23

    Some delivery carriers with injectable characteristics were built using the thermosensitive chitosan/dextran-polylactide/glycerophosphate hydrogel and selected alginate microspheres for the controllable release of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). BMP-2 was first loaded into the microspheres with an average size of around 20 μm and the resulting microspheres were then embedded into the gel in order to achieve well-controlled BMP-2 release. The microsphere-embedded gels show their incipient gelation temperature at around 32 °C and pH at about 7.1. Some gels had their elastic modulus close to 1400 Pa and the ratio of elastic modulus to viscous modulus at around 34, revealing that they behaved like mechanically strong gels. Optimized microsphere-embedded gels were found to be able to administer the BMP-2 release without significant initial burst release in an approximately linear manner over a period of time longer than four weeks. The release rate and the released amount of BMP-2 from these gels could be regulated individually or cooperatively by the initial BMP-2 load and the dextran-polylactide content in the gels. Measurements of the BMP-2 induced alkaline phosphatase activity in C2C12 cells confirmed that C2C12 cells responded to BMP-2 in a dose-dependent way and the released BMP-2 from the microsphere-embedded gels well retained their bioactivity. In vivo assessment of some gels revealed that the released BMP-2 maintained its osteogenesis functions.

  1. Precision Position Control of Pneumatic Servo Table Embedded with Aerostatic Bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ming-Hung; Hsu, Tzu-Yung; Pai, Kei-Ren; Shih, Ming-Chang

    This paper treats the control of a pneumatic servo table combining the air cylinders and sliding guides embedded with aerostatic bearing. Since compressed air flows into the small gap between the bearing and the sliding guide, the cylinder floats around the air film and on the guide surface of the table. The friction forces of the pneumatic servo table are measured, and the relation of frictional force and speed is plotted. The hybrid self-tuning fuzzy controller with the velocity compensators and dead-zone are proposed in this paper. From the experimental results, in case of different position, the positioning accuracy can reach the 0.04μm.

  2. The design of an embedded system for controlling humidity and temperature room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwi Teguh, R.; Didik Eko, S.; Laksono, Pringgo D.; Jamaluddin, Anif

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the system is to design an embedded system for maintenance confortable room. The confortable room was design by controlling temperature (on range 18 - 34 °C) and humidity (on range 40% - 70%.) of room condition. Temperature and humidity of room were maintained using four variable such as lamp for warm, water pump for distributing water vapour, a fan for air circullation and an exhaust-fan for air cleaner. The system was constucted both hardware (humidity sensor, microcontroller, pump, lamp, fan) and software (arduino IDE). The result shows that the system was perfectly performed to control room condition.

  3. Collaborative Research: Fundamental studies of plasma control using surface embedded electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Raja, Laxminarayan L.; PanneerChelvam, PremKumar; Levko, Dimtry

    2016-02-26

    The proposed study will investigate the effect of active electron injection of from electrode surfaces To the best of our knowledge, no such a study has ever been attempted even though it could lead to the formation of whole new classes of plasma based devices and systems. We are motivated by recent articles and simple theory which gives strong reason to believe that embedded electronic devices can be used to exert control over the SEE coefficient of semiconductor surfaces (and maybe other surface types as well). Furthermore, the research will explore how such sub-surface electronic devices can best be used to exert control over an associated plasma.

  4. An evaluation of different piezoelectric materials for `SMART' structural monitoring applications: The issue of structural integrity in the host structure and mechanical compatibility of embedded transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailu, B.; Hayward, G.; McNab, A.; Gachagan, A.; Farlow, R.

    2002-05-01

    A two-dimensional, finite-element model has been developed for calculating the performance of an embedded, pre-encapsulated, plate transducer for generating S0 Lamb waves in a uni-directional carbon-fiber plate. For optimum performance, the plate must be centrally positioned and tolerance to deviations away from this point is dependent upon the design of the embedded transducer. Another model was used to predict the relative values of the inter-laminar stresses developed at the interfaces of adjacent plies of the plate and the stress concentrations around the embedded device under a bending load.

  5. Active control of smart structures with optimal actuator and sensor locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pengxiang; Rao, Vittal S.; Derriso, Mark M.

    2002-07-01

    Sensors and actuators used in active control of smart structures have to be located appropriately in order to ensure maximum control and measurement effectiveness. Many placement techniques are based on the structure itself and overlook the effects of the applied control law. The optimal locations determined from open-loop system can not guarantee the best performance of the closed-loop system because the performance is closely related with the design requirements and applied controller. In this paper, we presented a method of obtaining the optimal locations of actuators/sensors by combining the open-loop and closed-loop optimal criterions. First, for open-loop system, location indices of the controlled modes are calculated on the basis of modal controllability and observability. The controlled modes are weighted based on the controller design requirements. To reduce the spill-over effect of uncontrolled modes, the location index values of uncontrolled modes are added as penalty terms. Locations with high index values are chosen as candidate locations of actuator/sensor for the next determining step on the closed-loop system. Three control techniques, optimal H2, H(infinity ) norms and optimal pole-placement, are utilized for two different control objectives, disturbance rejection and damping property enhancement. Linear matrix inequality (LMI) techniques are utilized to formulate the control problems and synthesize the controllers. For each candidate location of actuator/sensor, a controller is designed and the obtained performance is taken as location index. By solving the location problem in two steps, we reduced the computational burden and ensured good control performance of the closed-loop system. The proposed method is tested on a clamped plate with piezoelectric actuators and sensors.

  6. Smart monitoring system based on adaptive current control for superconducting cable test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arpaia, Pasquale; Ballarino, Amalia; Daponte, Vincenzo; Montenero, Giuseppe; Svelto, Cesare

    2014-12-01

    A smart monitoring system for superconducting cable test is proposed with an adaptive current control of a superconducting transformer secondary. The design, based on Fuzzy Gain Scheduling, allows the controller parameters to adapt continuously, and finely, to the working variations arising from transformer nonlinear dynamics. The control system is integrated in a fully digital control loop, with all the related benefits, i.e., high noise rejection, ease of implementation/modification, and so on. In particular, an accurate model of the system, controlled by a Fuzzy Gain Scheduler of the superconducting transformer, was achieved by an experimental campaign through the working domain at several current ramp rates. The model performance was characterized by simulation, under all the main operating conditions, in order to guide the controller design. Finally, the proposed monitoring system was experimentally validated at European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in comparison to the state-of-the-art control system [P. Arpaia, L. Bottura, G. Montenero, and S. Le Naour, "Performance improvement of a measurement station for superconducting cable test," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 095111 (2012)] of the Facility for the Research on Superconducting Cables, achieving a significant performance improvement: a reduction in the system overshoot by 50%, with a related attenuation of the corresponding dynamic residual error (both absolute and RMS) up to 52%.

  7. Smart monitoring system based on adaptive current control for superconducting cable test

    SciTech Connect

    Arpaia, Pasquale; Ballarino, Amalia; Montenero, Giuseppe; Daponte, Vincenzo; Svelto, Cesare

    2014-12-15

    A smart monitoring system for superconducting cable test is proposed with an adaptive current control of a superconducting transformer secondary. The design, based on Fuzzy Gain Scheduling, allows the controller parameters to adapt continuously, and finely, to the working variations arising from transformer nonlinear dynamics. The control system is integrated in a fully digital control loop, with all the related benefits, i.e., high noise rejection, ease of implementation/modification, and so on. In particular, an accurate model of the system, controlled by a Fuzzy Gain Scheduler of the superconducting transformer, was achieved by an experimental campaign through the working domain at several current ramp rates. The model performance was characterized by simulation, under all the main operating conditions, in order to guide the controller design. Finally, the proposed monitoring system was experimentally validated at European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in comparison to the state-of-the-art control system [P. Arpaia, L. Bottura, G. Montenero, and S. Le Naour, “Performance improvement of a measurement station for superconducting cable test,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 095111 (2012)] of the Facility for the Research on Superconducting Cables, achieving a significant performance improvement: a reduction in the system overshoot by 50%, with a related attenuation of the corresponding dynamic residual error (both absolute and RMS) up to 52%.

  8. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability: Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, Roger A; Melin, Alexander M; Burress, Timothy A; Fugate, David L; Holcomb, David Eugene; Wilgen, John B; Miller, John M; Wilson, Dane F; Silva, Pamela C; Whitlow, Lynsie J; Peretz, Fred J

    2012-10-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate improved reliability and increased performance made possible by deeply embedding instrumentation and controls (I&C) in nuclear power plant components. The project is employing a highly instrumented canned rotor, magnetic bearing, fluoride salt pump as its I&C technology demonstration vehicle. The project s focus is not primarily on pump design, but instead is on methods to deeply embed I&C within a pump system. However, because the I&C is intimately part of the basic millisecond-by-millisecond functioning of the pump, the I&C design cannot proceed in isolation from the other aspects of the pump. The pump will not function if the characteristics of the I&C are not embedded within the design because the I&C enables performance of the basic function rather than merely monitoring quasi-stable performance. Traditionally, I&C has been incorporated in nuclear power plant (NPP) components after their design is nearly complete; adequate performance was obtained through over-design. This report describes the progress and status of the project and provides a conceptual design overview for the embedded I&C pump.

  9. Modeling and distributed gain scheduling strategy for load frequency control in smart grids with communication topology changes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shichao; Liu, Xiaoping P; El Saddik, Abdulmotaleb

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the modeling and distributed control problems for the load frequency control (LFC) in a smart grid. In contrast with existing works, we consider more practical and real scenarios, where the communication topology of the smart grid changes because of either link failures or packet losses. These topology changes are modeled as a time-varying communication topology matrix. By using this matrix, a new closed-loop power system model is proposed to integrate the communication topology changes into the dynamics of a physical power system. The globally asymptotical stability of this closed-loop power system is analyzed. A distributed gain scheduling LFC strategy is proposed to compensate for the potential degradation of dynamic performance (mean square errors of state vectors) of the power system under communication topology changes. In comparison to conventional centralized control approaches, the proposed method can improve the robustness of the smart grid to the variation of the communication network as well as to reduce computation load. Simulation results show that the proposed distributed gain scheduling approach is capable to improve the robustness of the smart grid to communication topology changes.

  10. Design of smart composite platforms for adaptive trust vector control and adaptive laser telescope for satellite applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents design of smart composite platforms for adaptive trust vector control (TVC) and adaptive laser telescope for satellite applications. To eliminate disturbances, the proposed adaptive TVC and telescope systems will be mounted on two analogous smart composite platform with simultaneous precision positioning (pointing) and vibration suppression (stabilizing), SPPVS, with micro-radian pointing resolution, and then mounted on a satellite in two different locations. The adaptive TVC system provides SPPVS with large tip-tilt to potentially eliminate the gimbals systems. The smart composite telescope will be mounted on a smart composite platform with SPPVS and then mounted on a satellite. The laser communication is intended for the Geosynchronous orbit. The high degree of directionality increases the security of the laser communication signal (as opposed to a diffused RF signal), but also requires sophisticated subsystems for transmission and acquisition. The shorter wavelength of the optical spectrum increases the data transmission rates, but laser systems require large amounts of power, which increases the mass and complexity of the supporting systems. In addition, the laser communication on the Geosynchronous orbit requires an accurate platform with SPPVS capabilities. Therefore, this work also addresses the design of an active composite platform to be used to simultaneously point and stabilize an intersatellite laser communication telescope with micro-radian pointing resolution. The telescope is a Cassegrain receiver that employs two mirrors, one convex (primary) and the other concave (secondary). The distance, as well as the horizontal and axial alignment of the mirrors, must be precisely maintained or else the optical properties of the system will be severely degraded. The alignment will also have to be maintained during thruster firings, which will require vibration suppression capabilities of the system as well. The innovative platform has been

  11. Impact of rate control tools on very fast non-embedded wavelet image encoders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, O.; Martínez-Rach, M.; Oliver, J.; Malumbres, M. P.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the design of very fast wavelet image encoders focused on applications (interactive real-time image&video applications, GIS systems, etc) and devices (digital cameras, mobile phones, PDAs, etc) where coding delay and/or available computing resources (working memory and power processing) are critical for proper operation. Most of these fast wavelet image encoders are non-embedded in order to reduce complexity, so no rate control tools are available for scalable coding applications. In this work, we analyze the impact of simple rate control tools for these encoders in order to determine if the inclusion of rate control functionality is worth enough with respect to popular embedded encoders like SPIHT and JPEG2000. We perform the study by adding rate control to the nonembedded LTW encoder, showing that the increase in complexity still maintains LTW competitive with respect SPIHT and JPEG2000 in terms of R/D performance, coding delay and memory consumption.

  12. Flexible Time-Triggered Sampling in Smart Sensor-Based Wireless Control Systems

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Feng; Zhao, Wenhong

    2007-01-01

    Wireless control systems (WCSs) often have to operate in dynamic environments where the network traffic load may vary unpredictably over time. The sampling in sensors is conventionally time triggered with fixed periods. In this context, only worse-than-possible quality of control (QoC) can be achieved when the network is underloaded, while overloaded conditions may significantly degrade the QoC, even causing system instability. This is particularly true when the bandwidth of the wireless network is limited and shared by multiple control loops. To address these problems, a flexible time-triggered sampling scheme is presented in this work. Smart sensors are used to facilitate dynamic adjustment of sampling periods, which enhances the flexibility and resource efficiency of the system based on time-triggered sampling. Feedback control technology is exploited for adapting sampling periods in a periodic manner. The deadline miss ratio in each control loop is maintained at/around a desired level, regardless of workload variations. Simulation results show that the proposed sampling scheme is able to deal with dynamic and unpredictable variations in network traffic load. Compared to conventional time-triggered sampling, it leads to much better QoC in WCSs operating in dynamic environments.

  13. Active sound radiation control of a thick piezolaminated smart rectangular plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasheminejad, Seyyed M.; Keshavarzpour, Hemad

    2013-09-01

    A spatial state-space formulation based on the linear three-dimensional piezoelasticity theory in conjunction with the classical Rayleigh integral acoustic radiation model is employed to obtain a semi-analytic solution for the coupled vibroacoustic response of a simply supported, arbitrarily thick, piezolaminated rectangular plate, set in an infinite rigid baffle. The smart structure is composed of an orthotropic supporting core layer integrated with matched volume velocity spatially distributed piezoelectric sensor and uniform force actuator layers. To assist controller design, a frequency-domain subspace-based identification technique is applied to estimate the coupled fluid-structure dynamics of the system. A standard linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) optimal controller is subsequently synthesized and simulated based on the identified model and the optimal control input voltage for minimizing the estimated net volume velocity (total radiated power) of the panel is calculated in both frequency and time domains. Numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the adopted volumetric sensing/actuation technique in conjunction with the optimal control strategy for suppressing the predicted sound radiation response of a three-layered (NaNb5O15/Al/PZT4) sandwich panel in both frequency and time domains. The trade-off between dynamic performance and control effort penalty is examined for two different types of loading (i.e., impulsive and broadband random disturbances). Validity of the results is demonstrated by comparison with a commercial finite element package, as well as with the data available in the literature.

  14. Miniaturized Dual-Band Bandpass Filter Using Embedded Dual-Mode Resonator with Controllable Bandwidths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chuanming; Xu, Jin; Kang, Wei; Hu, Zhenxin; Wu, Wen

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a miniaturized dual-band bandpass filter (DB-BPF) using embedded dual-mode resonator (DMR) with controllable bandwidths is proposed. Two passbands are generated by two sets of resonators operating at two different frequencies. One set of resonators is utilized not only as the resonant elements that yield the lower passband, but also as the feeding structures with source-load coupling to excite the other to produce the upper passband. Sufficient degrees of freedom are achieved to control the center frequencies and bandwidths of two passbands. Moreover, multiple transmission zeros (TZs) are created to improve the passband selectivity of the filter. The design of the filter has been demonstrated by the measurement. The filter features not only miniaturized circuit sizes, low insertion loss, independently controllable central frequencies, but also controllable bandwidths and TZs.

  15. Embedded Web Technology: Internet Technology Applied to Real-Time System Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniele, Carl J.

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing software tools to bridge the gap between the traditionally non-real-time Internet technology and the real-time, embedded-controls environment for space applications. Internet technology has been expanding at a phenomenal rate. The simple World Wide Web browsers (such as earlier versions of Netscape, Mosaic, and Internet Explorer) that resided on personal computers just a few years ago only enabled users to log into and view a remote computer site. With current browsers, users not only view but also interact with remote sites. In addition, the technology now supports numerous computer platforms (PC's, MAC's, and Unix platforms), thereby providing platform independence.In contrast, the development of software to interact with a microprocessor (embedded controller) that is used to monitor and control a space experiment has generally been a unique development effort. For each experiment, a specific graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed. This procedure works well for a single-user environment. However, the interface for the International Space Station (ISS) Fluids and Combustion Facility will have to enable scientists throughout the world and astronauts onboard the ISS, using different computer platforms, to interact with their experiments in the Fluids and Combustion Facility. Developing a specific GUI for all these users would be cost prohibitive. An innovative solution to this requirement, developed at Lewis, is to use Internet technology, where the general problem of platform independence has already been partially solved, and to leverage this expanding technology as new products are developed. This approach led to the development of the Embedded Web Technology (EWT) program at Lewis, which has the potential to significantly reduce software development costs for both flight and ground software.

  16. Smart Structures for Vibration Control on Long-Term Space Exploration and Habitation Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gattis, Christy B.; Shepard, W. Steve, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    adapt. To address these needs, this work also examines the development and use of smart materials to tune the dynamic characteristics of the structure in a passive sense. One prime example is the use of an adaptive electrical shunt connected to a piezoelectric patch in order to provide tuned passive vibration damping. The work also examines the use of active vibration control, such as by applying power to that same piezoelectric patch. The overall goal is to examine the use of smart structures that can react to the environment thereby improving the overall living, working, and learning environment for these long-term missions.

  17. Photovoltaic Impact Assessment of Smart Inverter Volt-VAR Control on Distribution System Conservation Voltage Reduction and Power Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Fei; Nagarajan, Adarsh; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Baggu, Murali; Nguyen, Andu; Walinga, Sarah; McCarty, Michael; Bell, Frances

    2016-12-01

    This report presents an impact assessment study of distributed photovoltaic (PV) with smart inverter Volt-VAR control on conservation voltage reduction (CVR) energy savings and distribution system power quality. CVR is a methodology of flattening and lowering a distribution system voltage profile in order to conserve energy. Traditional CVR relies on operating utility voltage regulators and switched capacitors. However, with the increased penetration of distributed PV systems, smart inverters provide the new opportunity to control local voltage and power factor by regulating the reactive power output, leading to a potential increase in CVR energy savings. This report proposes a methodology to implement CVR scheme by operating voltage regulators, capacitors, and autonomous smart inverter Volt-VAR control in order to achieve increased CVR benefit. Power quality is an important consideration when operating a distribution system, especially when implementing CVR. It is easy to measure the individual components that make up power quality, but a comprehensive method to incorporate all of these values into a single score has yet to be undertaken. As a result, this report proposes a power quality scoring mechanism to measure the relative power quality of distribution systems using a single number, which is aptly named the 'power quality score' (PQS). Both the CVR and PQS methodologies were applied to two distribution system models, one obtained from the Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) and another obtained from Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E). These two models were converted to the OpenDSS platform using previous model conversion tools that were developed by NREL. Multiple scenarios including various PV penetration levels and smart inverter densities were simulated to analyze the impact of smart inverter Volt-VAR support on CVR energy savings and feeder power quality. In order to analyze the CVR benefit and PQS, an annual simulation was conducted for each scenario.

  18. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, R.; Melin, A.; Burress, T.; Fugate, D.; Holcomb, D.; Wilgen, J.; Miller, J.; Wilson, D.; Silva, P.; Whitlow, L.; Peretz, F.

    2012-09-15

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate improved reliability and increased performance made possible by deeply embedding instrumentation and controls (I&C) in nuclear power plant (NPP) components and systems. The project is employing a highly instrumented canned rotor, magnetic bearing, fluoride salt pump as its I&C technology demonstration platform. I&C is intimately part of the basic millisecond-by-millisecond functioning of the system; treating I&C as an integral part of the system design is innovative and will allow significant improvement in capabilities and performance. As systems become more complex and greater performance is required, traditional I&C design techniques become inadequate and more advanced I&C needs to be applied. New I&C techniques enable optimal and reliable performance and tolerance of noise and uncertainties in the system rather than merely monitoring quasistable performance. Traditionally, I&C has been incorporated in NPP components after the design is nearly complete; adequate performance was obtained through over-design. By incorporating I&C at the beginning of the design phase, the control system can provide superior performance and reliability and enable designs that are otherwise impossible. This report describes the progress and status of the project and provides a conceptual design overview for the platform to demonstrate the performance and reliability improvements enabled by advanced embedded I&C.

  19. An Active Smart Material Control System for F/A-18 Buffet Alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheta, Essam F.; Moses, Robert W.; Huttsell, Lawrence J.; Harrand, Vincent J.

    2003-01-01

    The vertical tail buffet problem of fighter aircraft occurs at high angles of attack when the vortical flow breaks down ahead of the vertical tails resulting in unsteady and unbalanced pressure loads on the vertical tails. The buffet loads imposed upon the vertical tails resulted in a premature fatigue failure of the tails, and consequently limits the performance and super maneuverability of twin-tail fighter aircraft. An active smart material control system using distributed piezoelectric actuators has been developed for buffet alleviation and is presented. The inboard and outboard surfaces of the vertical tail are equipped with piezoelectric actuators to control the buffet responses in the first bending and torsion modes. The electrodynamics of the piezoelectric actuators are expressed with a three-dimensional finite-element model. A single-input-single-output controller is designed to drive the active piezoelectric actuators. High-fidelity multidisciplinary analysis modules for the fluid dynamics, structure dynamics, electrodynamics of the piezoelectric actuators, control law, fluid structure interfacing, and grid motion are integrated into a multidisciplinary computing environment that controls the temporal synchronization of the analysis modules. At 30 degree angle of attack, RMS values of tip acceleration are reduced by as much as 12%. The peak values of the power spectral density of tail-tip acceleration are reduced by as much as 22% in the first bending mode and by as much as 82% in the first torsion mode. The actively controlled piezoelectric actuators were also effective in adding damping at wide range of angles of attack.

  20. Active control of the optical properties of nanoscale coatings using 'smart' nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortie, Michael B.; Barnett, Michael; Ford, Michael J.

    2007-09-01

    Coatings that can self-modulate their optical properties as a function of an external stimulus are of significant technological interest. In this regard, the possibilities for thermo- or electrochromic materials such as VO II and WO 3 are already comparatively well-known. Here, however, we explore a new kind of 'smart' coating, based on the active control of a plasmon resonance in nanoparticles. One possible system is based on the modulation of the plasmon resonance of a precious metal nanorod or nanosphere by an active dielectric shell. The active dielectric undergoes an insulator-to-metal transition on increase of temperature which modulates the plasmon resonance of the underlying precious metal nanoparticle, thereby changing the wavelength at which its optical extinction is maximum. In the case of nanorods, the absorption maximum of the longitudinal plasmon is particularly sensitive to the aspect ratio of the nanoparticle and the dielectric properties of the environment, and may be readily tuned across the visible and near-infrared portions of the spectrum. In addition, nanoparticles of certain thermochromic dielectrics, such as VO II, are expected to have a plasmon resonance of their own which can be switched on or off by control of the temperature. We consider some of the possibilities, using both the discrete dipole approximation and the exact analytical solution due to Mie to calculate the optical properties.

  1. A novel device based on smart textile to control heart's activity during exercise.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Marco; Alis, Rafael; Guillen, Javier; Basterra, Javier; Villacastin, J P; Guillen, Sergio

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, several systems have been developed to control cardiac function during exercise, and some are also capable of recording RR data to provide heart rate variability (HRV) analyses. In this study we compare time between heart beats and HRV parameters obtained with a smart textile system (GOW; Weartech sl., Spain) and an electrocardiogram machine commonly used in hospitals during continuous cycling tests. Twelve cardiology patients performed a 30-min cycling test at stable submaximal intensity. RR interval data were recorded during the test by both systems. 3-min RR segments were taken to compare the time intervals between beats and HRV variables using Bland-Altman analyses and intraclass correlation coefficients. Limits of agreement (LoAs) on RR intervals were stable at around 3 ms (widest LoAs -5.754 to 6.094 ms, tightest LoAs -2.557 to 3.105 ms, medium LoAs -3.638 ± 0.812 to 3.145 ± 0.539 ms). HRV parameters related to short-term change presented wide LoAs (RMSSD -0.17 to 18.41 %, HF -17.64 to 33.21 %, SD1 -0.50 to 17.54 %) as an effect of the error measurement of the GOW system. The GOW system is a valid tool for controlling HR during physical activity, although its use as a clinical tool for HRV cannot be supported.

  2. Stochastic control of smart home energy management with plug-in electric vehicle battery energy storage and photovoltaic array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Hu, Xiaosong; Moura, Scott; Yin, Xiaofeng; Pickert, Volker

    2016-11-01

    Energy management strategies are instrumental in the performance and economy of smart homes integrating renewable energy and energy storage. This article focuses on stochastic energy management of a smart home with PEV (plug-in electric vehicle) energy storage and photovoltaic (PV) array. It is motivated by the challenges associated with sustainable energy supplies and the local energy storage opportunity provided by vehicle electrification. This paper seeks to minimize a consumer's energy charges under a time-of-use tariff, while satisfying home power demand and PEV charging requirements, and accommodating the variability of solar power. First, the random-variable models are developed, including Markov Chain model of PEV mobility, as well as predictive models of home power demand and PV power supply. Second, a stochastic optimal control problem is mathematically formulated for managing the power flow among energy sources in the smart home. Finally, based on time-varying electricity price, we systematically examine the performance of the proposed control strategy. As a result, the electric cost is 493.6% less for a Tesla Model S with optimal stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) control relative to the no optimal control case, and it is by 175.89% for a Nissan Leaf.

  3. What are SMART COMPOSITES and where are they going?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, R.

    Smart materials are modeled upon biological systems with sensors acting as a nervous system, actuators acting as muscles and microprocessor controllers acting as a brain. These concepts are currently being applied to advanced composite materials where sensors and actuators can be embedded during fabrication. This paper reviews the progress made in developing these concepts into reality and attempts to define what the future applications are likely to be for these emerging multidisciplinary materials systems.

  4. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2013-01-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation’s electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments. PMID:25685516

  5. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2014-07-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation's electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments.

  6. A Web of Things-Based Emerging Sensor Network Architecture for Smart Control Systems.

    PubMed

    Khan, Murad; Silva, Bhagya Nathali; Han, Kijun

    2017-02-09

    The Web of Things (WoT) plays an important role in the representation of the objects connected to the Internet of Things in a more transparent and effective way. Thus, it enables seamless and ubiquitous web communication between users and the smart things. Considering the importance of WoT, we propose a WoT-based emerging sensor network (WoT-ESN), which collects data from sensors, routes sensor data to the web, and integrate smart things into the web employing a representational state transfer (REST) architecture. A smart home scenario is introduced to evaluate the proposed WoT-ESN architecture. The smart home scenario is tested through computer simulation of the energy consumption of various household appliances, device discovery, and response time performance. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme significantly optimizes the energy consumption of the household appliances and the response time of the appliances.

  7. A Web of Things-Based Emerging Sensor Network Architecture for Smart Control Systems

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Murad; Silva, Bhagya Nathali; Han, Kijun

    2017-01-01

    The Web of Things (WoT) plays an important role in the representation of the objects connected to the Internet of Things in a more transparent and effective way. Thus, it enables seamless and ubiquitous web communication between users and the smart things. Considering the importance of WoT, we propose a WoT-based emerging sensor network (WoT-ESN), which collects data from sensors, routes sensor data to the web, and integrate smart things into the web employing a representational state transfer (REST) architecture. A smart home scenario is introduced to evaluate the proposed WoT-ESN architecture. The smart home scenario is tested through computer simulation of the energy consumption of various household appliances, device discovery, and response time performance. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme significantly optimizes the energy consumption of the household appliances and the response time of the appliances.  PMID:28208787

  8. Flatness-based embedded adaptive fuzzy control of turbocharged diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigatos, Gerasimos; Siano, Pierluigi; Arsie, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    In this paper nonlinear embedded control for turbocharged Diesel engines is developed with the use of Differential flatness theory and adaptive fuzzy control. It is shown that the dynamic model of the turbocharged Diesel engine is differentially flat and admits dynamic feedback linearization. It is also shown that the dynamic model can be written in the linear Brunovsky canonical form for which a state feedback controller can be easily designed. To compensate for modeling errors and external disturbances an adaptive fuzzy control scheme is implemanted making use of the transformed dynamical system of the diesel engine that is obtained through the application of differential flatness theory. Since only the system's output is measurable the complete state vector has to be reconstructed with the use of a state observer. It is shown that a suitable learning law can be defined for neuro-fuzzy approximators, which are part of the controller, so as to preserve the closed-loop system stability. With the use of Lyapunov stability analysis it is proven that the proposed observer-based adaptive fuzzy control scheme results in H∞ tracking performance.

  9. A nonlinear Kalman filtering approach to embedded control of turbocharged diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigatos, Gerasimos; Siano, Pierluigi; Arsie, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    The development of efficient embedded control for turbocharged Diesel engines, requires the programming of elaborated nonlinear control and filtering methods. To this end, in this paper nonlinear control for turbocharged Diesel engines is developed with the use of Differential flatness theory and the Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter. It is shown that the dynamic model of the turbocharged Diesel engine is differentially flat and admits dynamic feedback linearization. It is also shown that the dynamic model can be written in the linear Brunovsky canonical form for which a state feedback controller can be easily designed. To compensate for modeling errors and external disturbances the Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter is used and redesigned as a disturbance observer. The filter consists of the Kalman Filter recursion on the linearized equivalent of the Diesel engine model and of an inverse transformation based on differential flatness theory which enables to obtain estimates for the state variables of the initial nonlinear model. Once the disturbances variables are identified it is possible to compensate them by including an additional control term in the feedback loop. The efficiency of the proposed control method is tested through simulation experiments.

  10. Smart Energy Management and Control for Fuel Cell Based Micro-Grid Connected Neighborhoods

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Mohammad S. Alam

    2006-03-15

    Fuel cell power generation promises to be an efficient, pollution-free, reliable power source in both large scale and small scale, remote applications. DOE formed the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance with the intention of breaking one of the last barriers remaining for cost effective fuel cell power generation. The Alliance’s goal is to produce a core solid-state fuel cell module at a cost of no more than $400 per kilowatt and ready for commercial application by 2010. With their inherently high, 60-70% conversion efficiencies, significantly reduced carbon dioxide emissions, and negligible emissions of other pollutants, fuel cells will be the obvious choice for a broad variety of commercial and residential applications when their cost effectiveness is improved. In a research program funded by the Department of Energy, the research team has been investigating smart fuel cell-operated residential micro-grid communities. This research has focused on using smart control systems in conjunction with fuel cell power plants, with the goal to reduce energy consumption, reduce demand peaks and still meet the energy requirements of any household in a micro-grid community environment. In Phases I and II, a SEMaC was developed and extended to a micro-grid community. In addition, an optimal configuration was determined for a single fuel cell power plant supplying power to a ten-home micro-grid community. In Phase III, the plan is to expand this work to fuel cell based micro-grid connected neighborhoods (mini-grid). The economic implications of hydrogen cogeneration will be investigated. These efforts are consistent with DOE’s mission to decentralize domestic electric power generation and to accelerate the onset of the hydrogen economy. A major challenge facing the routine implementation and use of a fuel cell based mini-grid is the varying electrical demand of the individual micro-grids, and, therefore, analyzing these issues is vital. Efforts are needed to determine

  11. Understanding The Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report provides an overview of what the Smart Grid is and what is being done to define and implement it. The electric industry is preparing to undergo a transition from a centralized, producer-controlled network to a decentralized, user-interactive one. Not only will the technology involved in the electric grid change, but the entire business model of the industry will change too. A major objective of the report is to identify the changes that the Smart Grid will bring about so that industry participants can be prepared to face them. A concise overview of the development of the Smart Grid is provided. It presents an understanding of what the Smart Grid is, what new business opportunities or risks might come about due to its introduction, and what activities are already taking place regarding defining or implementing the Smart Grid. This report will be of interest to the utility industry, energy service providers, aggregators, and regulators. It will also be of interest to home/building automation vendors, information technology vendors, academics, consultants, and analysts. The scope of the report includes an overview of the Smart Grid which identifies the main components of the Smart Grid, describes its characteristics, and describes how the Smart Grid differs from the current electric grid. The overview also identifies the key concepts involved in the transition to the Smart Grid and explains why a Smart Grid is needed by identifying the deficiencies of the current grid and the need for new investment. The report also looks at the impact of the Smart Grid, identifying other industries which have gone through a similar transition, identifying the overall benefits of the Smart Grid, and discussing the impact of the Smart Grid on industry participants. Furthermore, the report looks at current activities to implement the Smart Grid including utility projects, industry collaborations, and government initiatives. Finally, the report takes a look at key technology

  12. Smart microgels for controlling two-phase fluid structure in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jing; Weitz, David

    Understanding the transport of microgels in porous media directly benefits the conformance improvement technique using preformed gels in the oil industry. We develop a new type of microgels that can swell in response to specific stimuli in an aqueous environment. From a practical point of view, this enables us to deliver the microgels to the deep reservoir formation and control the permeability profile more effectively. With confocal microscopy imaging, we show that we can deliver such smart microgels to the high-permeability region in a stratified porous medium, which subsequently changes the two-phase fluid structure in the medium. From a scientific point of view, this allows for characterizing the permeability change due to homogeneous pore-clogging by soft particles instead of surface clogging; using the typical microgels this can hardly be done because we cannot place gel particles with comparable size to the pore uniformly into a porous medium. This study may shed light on understanding many other processes involving the transport of soft particles in porous structures. The authors acknowledge the financial support from Advanced Energy Consortium, BEG08-27.

  13. Gold nanocages covered by smart polymers for controlled release with near-infrared light

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Mustafa S.; Cheng, Yiyun; Chen, Jingyi; Cobley, Claire M.; Zhang, Qiang; Rycenga, Matthew; Xie, Jingwei; Kim, Chulhong; Schwartz, Andrea G.; Wang, Lihong V.; Xia, Younan

    2009-01-01

    Photosensitive caged compounds have enhanced our ability to address the complexity of biological systems by generating effectors with remarkable spatial/temporal resolutions1-3. The caging effect is typically removed by photolysis with ultraviolet light to liberate the bioactive species. Although this technique has been successfully applied to many biological problems, it suffers from a number of intrinsic drawbacks. For example, it requires dedicated efforts to design and synthesize a precursor compound to the effector. The ultraviolet light may cause damage to biological samples and is only suitable for in vitro studies because of its quick attenuation in tissue4. Here we address these issues by developing a platform based on the photothermal effect of gold nanocages. Gold nanocages represent a class of nanostructures with hollow interiors and porous walls5. They can have strong absorption (for the photothermal effect) in the near-infrared (NIR) while maintaining a compact size. When the surface of a gold nanocage is covered with a smart polymer, the pre-loaded effector can be released in a controllable fashion using a NIR laser. This system works well with various effectors without involving sophiscated syntheses, and is well-suited for in vivo studies due to the high transparency of soft tissue in NIR6. PMID:19881498

  14. Smart battery controller for lithium/sulfur dioxide batteries. Technical report, Jan 89-Apr 91

    SciTech Connect

    Atwater, T.; Bard, A.; Testa, B.; Shader, W.

    1992-08-01

    Each year, the U.S. Army purchases millions of lithium sulfur dioxide batteries for use in portable electronics equipment. Because of their superior rate capability and service life over a wide variety of conditions, lithium batteries are the power source of choice for military equipment. There is no convenient method of determining the available energy remaining in partially used lithium batteries; hence, users do not take full advantage of all the available battery energy. Currently, users replace batteries before each mission, which leads to premature disposal, and results in the waste of millions of dollars in battery energy every year. Another problem of the lithium battery is that it is necessary to ensure complete discharge of the cells when the useful life of the battery has been expended, or when a hazardous condition exists; a hazardous condition may result in one or more of the cells venting. The Electronics Technology and Devices Laboratory has developed a working prototype of a smart battery controller (SBC) that addresses these problems.

  15. Bioinspired Smart Gate-Location-Controllable Single Nanochannels: Experiment and Theoretical Simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huacheng; Tian, Ye; Hou, Jue; Hou, Xu; Hou, Guanglei; Ou, Ranwen; Wang, Huanting; Jiang, Lei

    2015-12-22

    pH-activated gates intelligently govern the ion transport behaviors of a wide range of bioinspired ion channels, but the mechanisms between the gate locations and the functionalities of the ion channels remain poorly understood. Here, we construct an artificial gate-location-tunable single-nanochannel system to systematically investigate the impact of the gate location on the ion transport property of the biomimetic ion channel. The gate-location-controllable single nanochannels are prepared by asymmetrically grafting pH-responsive polymer gates on one side of single nanochannels with gradual shape transformation. Experimental ion current measurements show that the gating abilities and rectification effects of the pH-gated nanochannels can be gradually altered by precisely locating the artificial pH gates on the different sites of the channels. The experimental gate-location-dependent gating and rectification of ion current in the bioinspired ion channel system is further well confirmed by theoretical simulation. This work, as an example, provides a new avenue to optimize the smart ion transport features of diverse artificial nanogate devices via precisely locating the gates on the appropriate sites of the artificial nanochannels.

  16. Active Fail-Safe Micro-Array Flow Control for Advanced Embedded Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.; Mace, James L.; Mani, Mori

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this research effort was to develop and analytically demonstrate enhanced first generation active "fail-safe" hybrid flow-control techniques to simultaneously manage the boundary layer on the vehicle fore-body and to control the secondary flow generated within modern serpentine or embedded inlet S-duct configurations. The enhanced first-generation technique focused on both micro-vanes and micro-ramps highly-integrated with micro -jets to provide nonlinear augmentation for the "strength' or effectiveness of highly-integrated flow control systems. The study focused on the micro -jet mass flow ratio (Wjet/Waip) range from 0.10 to 0.30 percent and jet total pressure ratios (Pjet/Po) from 1.0 to 3.0. The engine bleed airflow range under study represents about a 10 fold decrease in micro -jet airflow than previously required. Therefore, by pre-conditioning, or injecting a very small amount of high-pressure jet flow into the vortex generated by the micro-vane and/or micro-ramp, active flow control is achieved and substantial augmentation of the controlling flow is realized.

  17. Embedded resistance wire as a heating element for temperature control in microbioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazrul Hisham Zainal Alam, Muhd; Schäpper, Daniel; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents the technical realization of a low-cost heating element consisting of a resistance wire in a microbioreactor, as well as the implementation and performance assessment of an on/off controller for temperature control of the microbioreactor content based on this heating element. The microbioreactor (working volume of 100 µL) is designed to work bubble-free, and is fabricated out of the polymers poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). The temperature is measured with a Pt 100 sensor, and the resistance wires are embedded in the polymer such that they either surround the reactor chamber or are placed underneath it. The latter can achieve an even temperature distribution across the reactor chamber and direct heating of the reactor content. We show that an integrated resistance wire coupled to a simple on/off controller results in accurate temperature control of the reactor (±0.1 °C of the set point value) and provides a good disturbance rejection capability (corrective action for a sudden temperature drop of 2.5 °C at an operating temperature of 50 °C takes less than 30 s). Finally, we also demonstrate the workability of the established temperature control in a batch Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultivation in a microbioreactor.

  18. Controlling terahertz radiation with nanoscale metal barriers embedded in nano slot antennas.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyeong-Ryeol; Bahk, Young-Mi; Ahn, Kwang Jun; Park, Q-Han; Kim, Dai-Sik; Martín-Moreno, Luis; García-Vidal, Francisco J; Bravo-Abad, Jorge

    2011-10-25

    Nanoscale metallic barriers embedded in terahertz (THz) slot antennas are shown to provide unprecedented control of the transition state arising at the crossover between the full- and half-wavelength resonant modes of such antennas. We demonstrate strong near-field coupling between two paired THz slot antennas separated by a 5 nm wide nanobarrier, almost fully inducing the shift to the resonance of the double-length slot antenna. This increases by a factor of 50 the length-scale needed to observe similar coupling strengths in conventional air-gap antennas (around 0.1 nm), making the transition state readily accessible to experiment. Our measurements are in good agreement with a quantitative theoretical modeling, which also provides a simple physical picture of our observations.

  19. Design and implementation of a low power mobile CPU based embedded system for artificial leg control.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Robert; Yang, Qing; Huang, He; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xiaorong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a new neural-machine-interface (NMI) for control of artificial legs. The requirements of high accuracy, real-time processing, low power consumption, and mobility of the NMI place great challenges on the computation engine of the system. By utilizing the architectural features of a mobile embedded CPU, we are able to implement our decision-making algorithm, based on neuromuscular phase-dependant support vector machines (SVM), with exceptional accuracy and processing speed. To demonstrate the superiority of our NMI, real-time experiments were performed on an able bodied subject with a 20 ms window increment. The 20 ms testing yielded accuracies of 99.94% while executing our algorithm efficiently with less than 11% processor loads.

  20. Embedded reference electrodes for corrosion potential monitoring, electrochemical characterization, and controlled-potential cathodic protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merten, Bobbi Jo Elizabeth

    A thin wire Ag/AgCl reference electrode was prepared using 50 mum Ag wire in dilute FeCl3. The wire was embedded beneath the polyurethane topcoat of two sacrificial coating systems to monitor their corrosion potential. This is the first report of a reference electrode embedded between organic coating layers to monitor substrate health. The embedded reference electrode (ERE) successfully monitored the corrosion potential of Mg primer on AA 2024-T3 for 800 days of constant immersion in dilute Harrison's solution. Zn primer on steel had low accuracy in comparison. This is in part due to short circuiting by Zn oxidation products, which are much more conductive than Mg corrosion products. Data interpretation was improved through statistical analysis. On average, ERE corrosion potentials are 0.1 to 0.2 V and 0.2 to 0.3 V more positive than a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) in solution for AA 2024-T3 and steel coating systems, respectively. Further research may confirm that ERE obtains corrosion potential information not possible by an exterior, conventional reference electrode. The ERE is stable under polarization. AA 2024-T3 was polarized to -0.95 V vs ERE to emulate controlled potential cathodic protection (CPCP) applications. Polarizations of -0.75 V vs ERE are recommended for future experiments to minimize cathodic delamination. The ERE was utilized to analyze coating mixtures of lithium carbonate, magnesium nitrate, and Mg metal on AA2024-T3. Corrosion potential, low frequency impedance by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and noise resistance by electrochemical noise method (ENM) were reported. Coating performance ranking is consistent with standard electrochemical characterization and visual analyses. The results suggest anti-corrosion resistance superior to a standard Mg primer following 1600 hours of B117 salt spray. Both lithium carbonate and magnesium nitrate are necessary to achieve corrosion protection. Unique corrosion protective coatings for

  1. A neurochemical closed-loop controller for deep brain stimulation: toward individualized smart neuromodulation therapies.

    PubMed

    Grahn, Peter J; Mallory, Grant W; Khurram, Obaid U; Berry, B Michael; Hachmann, Jan T; Bieber, Allan J; Bennet, Kevin E; Min, Hoon-Ki; Chang, Su-Youne; Lee, Kendall H; Lujan, J L

    2014-01-01

    Current strategies for optimizing deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy involve multiple postoperative visits. During each visit, stimulation parameters are adjusted until desired therapeutic effects are achieved and adverse effects are minimized. However, the efficacy of these therapeutic parameters may decline with time due at least in part to disease progression, interactions between the host environment and the electrode, and lead migration. As such, development of closed-loop control systems that can respond to changing neurochemical environments, tailoring DBS therapy to individual patients, is paramount for improving the therapeutic efficacy of DBS. Evidence obtained using electrophysiology and imaging techniques in both animals and humans suggests that DBS works by modulating neural network activity. Recently, animal studies have shown that stimulation-evoked changes in neurotransmitter release that mirror normal physiology are associated with the therapeutic benefits of DBS. Therefore, to fully understand the neurophysiology of DBS and optimize its efficacy, it may be necessary to look beyond conventional electrophysiological analyses and characterize the neurochemical effects of therapeutic and non-therapeutic stimulation. By combining electrochemical monitoring and mathematical modeling techniques, we can potentially replace the trial-and-error process used in clinical programming with deterministic approaches that help attain optimal and stable neurochemical profiles. In this manuscript, we summarize the current understanding of electrophysiological and electrochemical processing for control of neuromodulation therapies. Additionally, we describe a proof-of-principle closed-loop controller that characterizes DBS-evoked dopamine changes to adjust stimulation parameters in a rodent model of DBS. The work described herein represents the initial steps toward achieving a "smart" neuroprosthetic system for treatment of neurologic and psychiatric disorders.

  2. Spacecraft Jitter Attenuation Using Embedded Piezoelectric Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, W. Keith

    1995-01-01

    Remote sensing from spacecraft requires precise pointing of measurement devices in order to achieve adequate spatial resolution. Unfortunately, various spacecraft disturbances induce vibrational jitter in the remote sensing instruments. The NASA Langley Research Center has performed analysis, simulations, and ground tests to identify the more promising technologies for minimizing spacecraft pointing jitter. These studies have shown that the use of smart materials to reduce spacecraft jitter is an excellent match between a maturing technology and an operational need. This paper describes the use of embedding piezoelectric actuators for vibration control and payload isolation. In addition, recent advances in modeling, simulation, and testing of spacecraft pointing jitter are discussed.

  3. Vehicular applications of smart material systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, Donald J.; Weddle, Craig; Naganathan, Ganapathy; Buckley, Stephen J.

    1998-06-01

    The results of an initial investigation in the use of smart material system for automobiles are presented. For this work, a smart material system is defined as a network of embedded electromechanical devices that are able to sense and affect their environment and autonomously adapt to changes in operating conditions. The development of smart material system for production vehicles has the potential for compact, lightweight subsystems that reduce vehicle weight and improve vehicle performance. This paper presents an overview of current technology and how it contrasts with the development of highly integrated smart material systems. Automotive design requirements are examined to highlight practical constraints associated with integrating smart material technology into automobiles. Representative examples of a embedded sensor-actuator system for camless engines and a smart automotive seat are presented to illustrate the design concepts.

  4. A field programmable gate array-based reconfigurable smart-sensor network for wireless monitoring of new generation computer numerically controlled machines.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Tapia, Sandra Veronica; Vera-Salas, Luis Alberto; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Aurelio; Stiharu, Ion; Romero-Troncoso, Rene de Jesus

    2010-01-01

    Computer numerically controlled (CNC) machines have evolved to adapt to increasing technological and industrial requirements. To cover these needs, new generation machines have to perform monitoring strategies by incorporating multiple sensors. Since in most of applications the online Processing of the variables is essential, the use of smart sensors is necessary. The contribution of this work is the development of a wireless network platform of reconfigurable smart sensors for CNC machine applications complying with the measurement requirements of new generation CNC machines. Four different smart sensors are put under test in the network and their corresponding signal processing techniques are implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based sensor node.

  5. Making the Grid "Smart" Through "Smart" Microgrids: Real-Time Power Management of Microgrids with Multiple Distributed Generation Sources Using Intelligent Control

    SciTech Connect

    Nehrir, M. Hashem

    2016-10-20

    In this Project we collaborated with two DOE National Laboratories, Pacific Northwest National Lab (PNNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBL). Dr. Hammerstrom of PNNL initially supported our project and was on the graduate committee of one of the Ph.D. students (graduated in 2014) who was supported by this project. He is also a committee member of a current graduate student of the PI who was supported by this project in the last two years (August 2014-July 2016). The graduate student is now supported be the Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) Department at Montana State University (MSU). Dr. Chris Marney of LBL provided actual load data, and the software WEBOPT developed at LBL for microgrid (MG) design for our project. NEC-Labs America, a private industry, also supported our project, providing expert support and modest financial support. We also used the software “HOMER,” originally developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the most recent version made available to us by HOMER Energy, Inc., for MG (hybrid energy system) unit sizing. We compared the findings from WebOpt and HOMER and designed appropriately sized hybrid systems for our case studies. The objective of the project was to investigate real-time power management strategies for MGs using intelligent control, considering maximum feasible energy sustainability, reliability and efficiency while, minimizing cost and undesired environmental impact (emissions). Through analytic and simulation studies, we evaluated the suitability of several heuristic and artificial-intelligence (AI)-based optimization techniques that had potential for real-time MG power management, including genetic algorithms (GA), ant colony optimization (ACO), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and multi-agent systems (MAS), which is based on the negotiation of smart software-based agents. We found that PSO and MAS, in particular, distributed MAS, were more efficient and better suited for our work. We

  6. Cluster filtering/control of bending/torsional vibrations of a tape tether using smart-film sensors/actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Hirohisa; Kunugi, Kouta; Trivailo, Pavel M.

    2016-06-01

    Tape tethers show great promise for application in space debris removal because they possess a large collecting area, which is crucial for the collection of electrons from a plasma environment in space. Tape tethers are therefore preferred over string tethers in electrodynamic tethered systems (EDTS), which operate based on the Lorentz force derived from the interaction between the electric current on the tether and the Earth's magnetic field. Vibrations of the tether may disturb the attitude of the mother satellite and the subsatellite, and are difficult to damp in space because the damping would be minimal owing to the almost zero drag force in space. Due to their relatively large width, tape tethers experience torsional deformation and therefore cannot be treated as a string tether. If torsional deformation of tape tethers is not avoided, the advantage of tape tethers as the materials for EDT systems will be deteriorated. Point-type sensors and actuators are usually used to sense and control vibrations. However, it is difficult to apply such sensors and actuators to tape tethers because of the substantial length of the tether as well as the need for a deployment mechanism, such as a reel. In order to overcome the difficulties related to vibrations, the use of smart-film sensors and actuators for sensing and controlling vibrations of tape tethers is considered in this study. In a previous study, we presented an application of smart film for sensing vibrations of tape tethers, but the actuation of tape tethers using smart-film actuators has not yet been reported. In the present paper, we mathematically derive suitable configurations of smart-film attachment to a tape tether for cluster filtering and actuation of bending and torsional vibrations of the tape tether, and carried out cluster actuation experiments. The experimental results reveal that the bending and torsional vibrations of a tape tether can be reduced by cluster actuation control based on direct

  7. Optical Control of Intersubband Absorption in a Multiple Quantum Well-Embedded Semiconductor Microcravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Ansheng; Ning, Cun-Zheng

    2000-01-01

    Optical intersubband response of a multiple quantum well (MQW)-embedded microcavity driven by a coherent pump field is studied theoretically. The n-type doped MQW structure with three subbands in the conduction band is sandwiched between a semi-infinite medium and a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). A strong pump field couples the two upper subbands and a weak field probes the two lower subbands. To describe the optical response of the MQW-embedded microcavity, we adopt a semi-classical nonlocal response theory. Taking into account the pump-probe interaction, we derive the probe-induced current density associated with intersubband transitions from the single-particle density-matrix formalism. By incorporating the current density into the Maxwell equation, we solve the probe local field exactly by means of Green's function technique and the transfer-matrix method. We obtain an exact expression for the probe absorption coefficient of the microcavity. For a GaAs/Al(sub x)Ga(sub 1-x)As MQW structure sandwiched between a GaAs/AlAs DBR and vacuum, we performed numerical calculations of the probe absorption spectra for different parameters such as pump intensity, pump detuning, and cavity length. We find that the probe spectrum is strongly dependent on these parameters. In particular, we find that the combination of the cavity effect and the Autler-Townes effect results in a triplet in the optical spectrum of the MQW system. The optical absorption peak value and its location can be feasibly controlled by varying the pump intensity and detuning.

  8. Microdialysis coupled with an embedded systems controller and CMOS image sensor.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Alan John; Gandhi, Heer Robin; Subrebost, George Lopez

    2009-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of specific metabolite and drug levels within a patient's blood can contribute to shorter hospital stays and more successful treatment of both chronic and acute diseases. Intravenous microdialysis is an attractive technology for continuous venous blood sampling that can be used to manage tight glucose control and to sample a large variety of molecules from human blood. In combination with lab-on-a-chip architectures, microdialysis could provide continuous monitoring of important diagnostic and therapeutic substances. Unfortunately, microdialysis is inherently variable and non-transparent, i.e., errors in sampling cannot be detected and corrected in real-time. A portable microdialysis system is presented that gauges membrane diffusive capacity by using a fluorescent tracer, providing a method to track the intrinsic variability. An embedded systems controller and CMOS image sensor is used to measure and wirelessly communicate fluorescent tracer levels. The controller has the capability to generate alarms when probe performance deteriorates, making microdialysis both more accurate and robust for clinical use. The potential to integrate a microparticle-based, turbidimetric vancomycin immunoassay with microdialysis is also demonstrated by using a CMOS image sensor to detect changes in turbidity.

  9. SMARTE 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools-electronic (SMARTe), is an open-source, web-based, decision support system for developing and evaluating future reuse scenarios for potentially contaminated land. SMARTe contains guidance and analysis tools for all aspect...

  10. SMARTe 2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools - electronic (SMARTe), is an open-source, web-based, decision support system for developing and evaluating future reuse scenarios for potentially contaminated land. SMARTe contains resources and analysis tools for all asp...

  11. SMARTe 2011

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable Management Approaches and Revitalization Tools - electronic (SMARTe), is an open-source, web-based, decisions support system for developing and evaluating future reuse scenarios for potentially contaminated land. SMARTe contains resources and analysis tools for all a...

  12. Use of Smart Structures for Control and Performance Improvement of Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    August, James A.; Joshi, Shiv

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this presentation was to point out the fact that there are many promising applications for smart structures technology on hypersonic vehicles. This is not inherently obvious due to the real and perceived operating environments of hypersonic vehicles. The idea behind this project was to talk to hypersonic vehicle designers and academics to find out what sort of problems could be solved with smart structures. Two main conclusions can be drawn: One is that the actual environment inside a hypersonic vehicle is not always as severe as it appears. The second is that the hypersonic community needs a different type of research done on a faster timetable in order to use smart structures technology. Vehicle design cycle times are such that a technology must be proven before the vehicle is designed.

  13. Enabling Smart Grid Cosimulation Studies: Rapid Design and Development of the Technologies and Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Timothy M.; Kadavil, Rahul; Palmintier, Bryan; Suryanarayanan, Siddharth; Maciejewski, Anthony A.; Siegel, Howard Jay; Chong, Edwin K. P.; Hale, Elaine

    2016-03-01

    The 21st century electric power grid is transforming with an unprecedented increase in demand and increase in new technologies. In the United States Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, Title XIII sets the tenets for modernizing the electricity grid through what is known as the 'Smart Grid Initiative.' This initiative calls for increased design, deployment, and integration of distributed energy resources, smart technologies and appliances, and advanced storage devices. The deployment of these new technologies requires rethinking and re-engineering the traditional boundaries between different electric power system domains.

  14. Decentralized control of units in smart grids for the support of renewable energy supply

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenschein, Michael; Lünsdorf, Ontje; Bremer, Jörg; Tröschel, Martin

    2015-04-15

    Due to the significant environmental impact of power production from fossil fuels and nuclear fission, future energy systems will increasingly rely on distributed and renewable energy sources (RES). The electrical feed-in from photovoltaic (PV) systems and wind energy converters (WEC) varies greatly both over short and long time periods (from minutes to seasons), and (not only) by this effect the supply of electrical power from RES and the demand for electrical power are not per se matching. In addition, with a growing share of generation capacity especially in distribution grids, the top-down paradigm of electricity distribution is gradually replaced by a bottom-up power supply. This altogether leads to new problems regarding the safe and reliable operation of power grids. In order to address these challenges, the notion of Smart Grids has been introduced. The inherent flexibilities, i.e. the set of feasible power schedules, of distributed power units have to be controlled in order to support demand–supply matching as well as stable grid operation. Controllable power units are e.g. combined heat and power plants, power storage systems such as batteries, and flexible power consumers such as heat pumps. By controlling the flexibilities of these units we are particularly able to optimize the local utilization of RES feed-in in a given power grid by integrating both supply and demand management measures with special respect to the electrical infrastructure. In this context, decentralized systems, autonomous agents and the concept of self-organizing systems will become key elements of the ICT based control of power units. In this contribution, we first show how a decentralized load management system for battery charging/discharging of electrical vehicles (EVs) can increase the locally used share of supply from PV systems in a low voltage grid. For a reliable demand side management of large sets of appliances, dynamic clustering of these appliances into uniformly

  15. The SmartHand transradial prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Prosthetic components and control interfaces for upper limb amputees have barely changed in the past 40 years. Many transradial prostheses have been developed in the past, nonetheless most of them would be inappropriate if/when a large bandwidth human-machine interface for control and perception would be available, due to either their limited (or inexistent) sensorization or limited dexterity. SmartHand tackles this issue as is meant to be clinically experimented in amputees employing different neuro-interfaces, in order to investigate their effectiveness. This paper presents the design and on bench evaluation of the SmartHand. Methods SmartHand design was bio-inspired in terms of its physical appearance, kinematics, sensorization, and its multilevel control system. Underactuated fingers and differential mechanisms were designed and exploited in order to fit all mechatronic components in the size and weight of a natural human hand. Its sensory system was designed with the aim of delivering significant afferent information to the user through adequate interfaces. Results SmartHand is a five fingered self-contained robotic hand, with 16 degrees of freedom, actuated by 4 motors. It integrates a bio-inspired sensory system composed of 40 proprioceptive and exteroceptive sensors and a customized embedded controller both employed for implementing automatic grasp control and for potentially delivering sensory feedback to the amputee. It is able to perform everyday grasps, count and independently point the index. The weight (530 g) and speed (closing time: 1.5 seconds) are comparable to actual commercial prostheses. It is able to lift a 10 kg suitcase; slippage tests showed that within particular friction and geometric conditions the hand is able to stably grasp up to 3.6 kg cylindrical objects. Conclusions Due to its unique embedded features and human-size, the SmartHand holds the promise to be experimentally fitted on transradial amputees and employed as a bi

  16. A Reinforcement Sensor Embedded Vertical Handoff Controller for Vehicular Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Limin; Xu, Yubin; Soong, Boon-Hee; Ma, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Vehicular communication platforms that provide real-time access to wireless networks have drawn more and more attention in recent years. IEEE 802.11p is the main radio access technology that supports communication for high mobility terminals, however, due to its limited coverage, IEEE 802.11p is usually deployed by coupling with cellular networks to achieve seamless mobility. In a heterogeneous cellular/802.11p network, vehicular communication is characterized by its short time span in association with a wireless local area network (WLAN). Moreover, for the media access control (MAC) scheme used for WLAN, the network throughput dramatically decreases with increasing user quantity. In response to these compelling problems, we propose a reinforcement sensor (RFS) embedded vertical handoff control strategy to support mobility management. The RFS has online learning capability and can provide optimal handoff decisions in an adaptive fashion without prior knowledge. The algorithm integrates considerations including vehicular mobility, traffic load, handoff latency, and network status. Simulation results verify that the proposed algorithm can adaptively adjust the handoff strategy, allowing users to stay connected to the best network. Furthermore, the algorithm can ensure that RSUs are adequate, thereby guaranteeing a high quality user experience. PMID:24193101

  17. Smart surgical tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei; Bai, Shuang; Liu, Jian

    2015-02-01

    A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) guided smart surgical tool using a femtosecond fiber laser is developed. This system provides real-time material identification by processing and analyzing the peak intensity and ratio of atomic emissions of LIBS signals. Algorithms to identify emissions of different tissues and metals are developed and implemented into the real-time control system. This system provides a powerful smart surgical tool for precise robotic microsurgery applications with real-time feedback and control.

  18. Smart surgical tool.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei; Bai, Shuang; Liu, Jian

    2015-02-01

    A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) guided smart surgical tool using a femtosecond fiber laser is developed. This system provides real-time material identification by processing and analyzing the peak intensity and ratio of atomic emissions of LIBS signals. Algorithms to identify emissions of different tissues and metals are developed and implemented into the real-time control system. This system provides a powerful smart surgical tool for precise robotic microsurgery applications with real-time feedback and control.

  19. SMART (Sandia's Modular Architecture for Robotics and Teleoperation) Ver. 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Robert

    2009-12-15

    . Each module must have at a minimum an initialization routine, a parameter adjustment routine, and an update routine. The SMART runtime kernel runs continuously within a real-time embedded system. Each module is first set-up by the kernel, initialized, and then updated at a fixed rate whenever it is in context. The kernel responds to operator directed commands by changing the state of the system, changing parameters on individual modules, and switching behavioral modes. The SMART Editor is a tool used to define, verify, configure and generate source code for a SMART control system. It uses icon representations of the modules, code patches from valid configurations of the modules, and configuration files describing how a module can be connected into a system to lead the end-user in through the steps needed to create a final system. The SMART Supervisor serves as an interface to a SMART run-time system. It provides an interface on a host computer that connects to the embedded system via TCPIIP ASCII commands. It utilizes a scripting language (Tel) and a graphics windowing environment (Tk). This system can either be customized to fit an end-user's needs or completely replaced as needed.

  20. Retropath: automated pipeline for embedded metabolic circuits.

    PubMed

    Carbonell, Pablo; Parutto, Pierre; Baudier, Claire; Junot, Christophe; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2014-08-15

    Metabolic circuits are a promising alternative to other conventional genetic circuits as modular parts implementing functionalities required for synthetic biology applications. To date, metabolic design has been mainly focused on production circuits. Emergent applications such as smart therapeutics, however, require circuits that enable sensing and regulation. Here, we present RetroPath, an automated pipeline for embedded metabolic circuits that explores the circuit design space from a given set of specifications and selects the best circuits to implement based on desired constraints. Synthetic biology circuits embedded in a chassis organism that are capable of controlling the production, processing, sensing, and the release of specific molecules were enumerated in the metabolic space through a standard procedure. In that way, design and implementation of applications such as therapeutic circuits that autonomously diagnose and treat disease, are enabled, and their optimization is streamlined.

  1. Smart polymers for the controlled delivery of drugs – a concise overview

    PubMed Central

    Priya James, Honey; John, Rijo; Alex, Anju; Anoop, K.R.

    2014-01-01

    Smart polymers have enormous potential in various applications. In particular, smart polymeric drug delivery systems have been explored as “intelligent” delivery systems able to release, at the appropriate time and site of action, entrapped drugs in response to specific physiological triggers. These polymers exhibit a non-linear response to a small stimulus leading to a macroscopic alteration in their structure/properties. The responses vary widely from swelling/contraction to disintegration. Synthesis of new polymers and crosslinkers with greater biocompatibility and better biodegradability would increase and enhance current applications. The most fascinating features of the smart polymers arise from their versatility and tunable sensitivity. The most significant weakness of all these external stimuli-sensitive polymers is slow response time. The versatility of polymer sources and their combinatorial synthesis make it possible to tune polymer sensitivity to a given stimulus within a narrow range. Development of smart polymer systems may lead to more accurate and programmable drug delivery. In this review, we discuss various mechanisms by which polymer systems are assembled in situ to form implanted devices for sustained release of therapeutic macromolecules, and we highlight various applications in the field of advanced drug delivery. PMID:26579373

  2. 'Like sugar and honey': the embedded ethics of a larval control project in The Gambia.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ann H; Ameh, David; Majambere, Silas; Lindsay, Steve; Pinder, Margaret

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes a malaria research project in The Gambia to provoke thinking on the social value of transnational research. The Larval Control Project (LCP) investigated the efficacy of a microbial insecticide to reduce vector density and, ultimately, clinical malaria in Gambian children. The LCP's protocol delineated a clinical surveillance scheme that involved Village Health Workers (VHWs) supported by project nurses. Combining insights from ethnographic fieldwork conducted at the Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratories in Farafenni from 2005 to 2009, open-ended interviews with project nurses, and eight focus group discussions held with participant mothers in October 2007, we consider the social impact of the LCP's investigative method against the backdrop of several years of research activity. We found that while participants associated the LCP with the clinical care it provided, they also regarded the collaboration between the nurses and VHWs added additional benefits. Organised around the operational functions of the trial, small-scale collaborations provided the platform from which to build local capacity. While ethical guidelines emphasise the considerations that must be added to experimental endeavour in southern countries (e.g. elaborating processes of informed consent, developing strategies of community engagement or providing therapeutic access to participants after the trial concludes), these findings suggest that shifting attention from supplementing ethical protocols to the everyday work of research -embedding ethics through scientific activity - may provide a sounder basis to reinforce the relationship between scientific rigour and social value.

  3. A virtual control room with an embedded, interactive nuclear reactor simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Markidis, S.; Rizwan, U.

    2006-07-01

    The use of virtual nuclear control room can be an effective and powerful tool for training personnel working in the nuclear power plants. Operators could experience and simulate the functioning of the plant, even in critical situations, without being in a real power plant or running any risk. 3D models can be exported to Virtual Reality formats and then displayed in the Virtual Reality environment providing an immersive 3D experience. However, two major limitations of this approach are that 3D models exhibit static textures, and they are not fully interactive and therefore cannot be used effectively in training personnel. In this paper we first describe a possible solution for embedding the output of a computer application in a 3D virtual scene, coupling real-world applications and VR systems. The VR system reported here grabs the output of an application running on an X server; creates a texture with the output and then displays it on a screen or a wall in the virtual reality environment. We then propose a simple model for providing interaction between the user in the VR system and the running simulator. This approach is based on the use of internet-based application that can be commanded by a laptop or tablet-pc added to the virtual environment. (authors)

  4. A simple strategy for in situ fabrication of a smart hydrogel microvalve within microchannels for thermostatic control.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuo; Wang, Wei; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Xie, Rui; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2014-08-07

    Self-regulation of temperature in microchip systems is crucial for their applications in biomedical fields such as cell culture and biomolecule synthesis as well as those cases that require constant temperature conditions. Here we report on a simple and versatile approach for in situ fabrication of a smart hydrogel microvalve within a microchip for thermostatic control. The thermo-responsive hydrogel microvalve enables the "on-off" switch by sensing temperature fluctuations to control the fluid flux as well as the fluid heat exchange for self-regulation of the temperature at a constant range. Such temperature self-regulation is demonstrated by integrating the microvalve-incorporated microchip into the flow circulation loop of a micro-heat-exchanging system for thermostatic control. Moreover, the microvalve-incorporated microchip is employed for culturing cells under temperature self-regulation. The smart microvalve shows great potential as a temperature controller for applications that require thermostatic conditions. This approach offers a facile and flexible strategy for in situ fabricating hydrogel microvalves within microchips as chemostats and microreactors for biomedical applications.

  5. IEEE 1451.2 based Smart sensor system using ADuc847

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreejithlal, A.; Ajith, Jose

    IEEE 1451 standard defines a standard interface for connecting transducers to microprocessor based data acquisition systems, instrumentation systems, control and field networks. Smart transducer interface module (STIM) acts as a unit which provides signal conditioning, digitization and data packet generation functions to the transducers connected to it. This paper describes the implementation of a microcontroller based smart transducer interface module based on IEEE 1451.2 standard. The module, implemented using ADuc847 microcontroller has 2 transducer channels and is programmed using Embedded C language. The Sensor system consists of a Network Controlled Application Processor (NCAP) module which controls the Smart transducer interface module (STIM) over an IEEE1451.2-RS232 bus. The NCAP module is implemented as a software module in C# language. The hardware details, control principles involved and the software implementation for the STIM are described in detail.

  6. Development of a mini-mobile digital radiography system by using wireless smart devices.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chang-Won; Joo, Su-Chong; Ryu, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Jinseok; Kim, Kyong-Woo; Yoon, Kwon-Ha

    2014-08-01

    The current technologies that trend in digital radiology (DR) are toward systems using portable smart mobile as patient-centered care. We aimed to develop a mini-mobile DR system by using smart devices for wireless connection into medical information systems. We developed a mini-mobile DR system consisting of an X-ray source and a Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) sensor based on a flat panel detector for small-field diagnostics in patients. It is used instead of the systems that are difficult to perform with a fixed traditional device. We also designed a method for embedded systems in the development of portable DR systems. The external interface used the fast and stable IEEE 802.11n wireless protocol, and we adapted the device for connections with Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) and smart devices. The smart device could display images on an external monitor other than the monitor in the DR system. The communication modules, main control board, and external interface supporting smart devices were implemented. Further, a smart viewer based on the external interface was developed to display image files on various smart devices. In addition, the advantage of operators is to reduce radiation dose when using remote smart devices. It is integrated with smart devices that can provide X-ray imaging services anywhere. With this technology, it can permit image observation on a smart device from a remote location by connecting to the external interface. We evaluated the response time of the mini-mobile DR system to compare to mobile PACS. The experimental results show that our system outperforms conventional mobile PACS in this regard.

  7. A Brief Review of the Need for Robust Smart Wireless Sensor Systems for Future Propulsion Systems, Distributed Engine Controls, and Propulsion Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Behbahani, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Smart Sensor Systems with wireless capability operational in high temperature, harsh environments are a significant component in enabling future propulsion systems to meet a range of increasingly demanding requirements. These propulsion systems must incorporate technology that will monitor engine component conditions, analyze the incoming data, and modify operating parameters to optimize propulsion system operations. This paper discusses the motivation towards the development of high temperature, smart wireless sensor systems that include sensors, electronics, wireless communication, and power. The challenges associated with the use of traditional wired sensor systems will be reviewed and potential advantages of Smart Sensor Systems will be discussed. A brief review of potential applications for wireless smart sensor networks and their potential impact on propulsion system operation, with emphasis on Distributed Engine Control and Propulsion Health Management, will be given. A specific example related to the development of high temperature Smart Sensor Systems based on silicon carbide electronics will be discussed. It is concluded that the development of a range of robust smart wireless sensor systems are a foundation for future development of intelligent propulsion systems with enhanced capabilities.

  8. Experimental applications of smart composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalamkarov, Alexander L.; Yang, Qiang; MacDonald, Douglas O.; Westhaver, Paul A. D.

    1997-03-01

    The issues of fabrication, evaluation and experimental testing of smart composites are discussed. The technology for the fabrication of fiber reinforced polymer composites with embedded fiber optic sensors is developed. Smart composites are produced by a custom built pultruder. It is shown that the mechanical properties of pultruded carbon reinforced composites with and without optical fiber are superior to that of pultruded glass analogue. The embedded optical fibers do not have significant effect on the tensile properties of pultruded FRP, but they deteriorate the shear strength of composites. Polyimide coating on optical fiber results in a good interface between optical fiber and host material; whereas acrylate coating cannot withstand the high production temperature and causes sever debonding of optical fiber and resin. The specific application in view is the use of smart reinforcements for innovative concrete structures.

  9. The Development of Smart Home System for Controlling and Monitoring Energy Consumption using WebSocket Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witthayawiroj, Niti; Nilaphruek, Pongpon

    2017-03-01

    Energy consumption especially electricity is considered one of the most serious problems in households these days. It is because the amount of electricity consumed is more than the amount that people actually need. This means that there is an overusing which resulted from the inconvenience of moving to the switch to turn off the light or any appliances and it is often that closing the light is forgettable, for instance; in addition, there are no tools for monitoring how much energy that is consumed in residents. From this, it can be easily seen that people are having a problem in energy usage monitor and control. There are two main objectives of this study including 1) creating the communication framework among server, clients and devices, and 2) developing the prototype system that try to solve the mentioned problems which gives the user an opportunity to know the amount of electricity they have used in their houses and also the ability to turn appliances on and off through the Internet on smart devices such as smart phones and tablets that support Android platform or any web browser. Raspberry Pi is used as a microcontroller and the data is transferred to the smart device by WebSocket protocol which is strongly recommended for real-time communication. The example features on the device’s screen are user management, controlling and monitoring of appliances. The result expresses that the system is very effective and not difficult to use from users’ satisfaction. However, current sensors may be used for a more accurate electricity measurement and Wi-Fi module for more appliances to calculate its power in the future.

  10. Targeted delivery by smart capsules for controlling two-phase flow in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jing; Abbaspourrad, Alireza; Weitz, David; Harvard Weitzgroup Team

    2015-11-01

    Two-phase flow in porous media is significantly influenced by the physical properties of the fluids and the geometry of the medium. We develop a variety of smart microcapsules that can deliver and release specific substances to the target location in the porous medium, and therefore change the fluid property or medium geometry at certain locations. In this talk, I will present two types of smart capsules for targeted surfactant delivery to the vicinity of oil-water interface and targeted microgel delivery for improving the homogeneity of the porous medium, respectively. We further prove the concept by monitoring the capsule location and the fluid structure in the porous media by micro-CT and confocal microscopy. This technique not only is of particular importance to the relevant industry applications especially in the oil industry but also opens a new window to study the mechanism of two-phase flow in porous media. Advanced Energy Consortium BEG08-027.

  11. Storage Free Smart Energy Management for Frequency Control in a Diesel-PV-Fuel Cell-Based Hybrid AC Microgrid.

    PubMed

    Sekhar, P C; Mishra, S

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes a novel, smart energy management scheme for a microgrid, consisting of a diesel generator and power electronic converter interfaced renewable energy-based generators, such as photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cell, for frequency regulation without any storage. In the proposed strategy, output of the PV is controlled in coordination with other generators using neurofuzzy controller, either only for transient frequency regulation or for both transient and steady-state frequency regulation, depending on the load demand, thereby eliminating the huge storage requirements. The option of demand response control is also explored along with the generation control. For accurate and quick tracking of maximum power point and its associated reserve power from the PV generator, this paper also proposes a novel adaptive-predictor-corrector-based tracking mechanism.

  12. SmartFoams with magneto-sensitive elastic behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorrentino, Luigi; D'Auria, Marco; Davino, Daniele; Visone, Ciro; Iannace, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    Polymeric foams with embedded magnetic particles can be considered as a new class of lightweight systems that could lead to relevant industrial applications both for their enhanced directional (anisotropic) mechanical properties and for their sensitivity to magnetic field that can be used to actively control their elastic modulus. A new polyurethane (PU)/magnetosensitive particles composite foam (SmartFoam) was prepared by applying a magnetic field during its in situ polymerization/foaming process. A chain-like structure of magneto-sensitive particles was induced along the magnetic field lines, in turn controlling the degree of both structural anisotropy and functional properties without affecting the foam cellular morphology. The anisotropic distribution of magnetic particles in the SmartFoam imparted the capability to real-time control its structural properties under working conditions.

  13. Smart textiles.

    PubMed

    Van Langenhove, Lieva; Hertleer, Carla; Catrysse, Michael; Puers, Robert; Van Egmond, Harko; Matthijs, Dirk

    2004-01-01

    After technical textiles and functional textiles, also smart textiles came into force a few years ago. The term 'smart textiles' covers a broad range. The application possibilities are only limited by our imagination and creativity. In this presentation, it is further explored what smart textiles precisely mean. In a second part, an analysis is made of the possibilities, the state of affairs and the needs for further research.

  14. "Smart pebble" designs for sediment transport monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Alexakis, Athanasios; Pavlovskis, Edgars

    2015-04-01

    Sediment transport, due to primarily the action of water, wind and ice, is one of the most significant geomorphic processes responsible for shaping Earth's surface. It involves entrainment of sediment grains in rivers and estuaries due to the violently fluctuating hydrodynamic forces near the bed. Here an instrumented particle, namely a "smart pebble", is developed to investigate the exact flow conditions under which individual grains may be entrained from the surface of a gravel bed. This could lead in developing a better understanding of the processes involved, focusing on the response of the particle during a variety of flow entrainment events. The "smart pebble" is a particle instrumented with MEMS sensors appropriate for capturing the hydrodynamic forces a coarse particle might experience during its entrainment from the river bed. A 3-axial gyroscope and accelerometer registers data to a memory card via a microcontroller, embedded in a 3D-printed waterproof hollow spherical particle. The instrumented board is appropriately fit and centred into the shell of the pebble, so as to achieve a nearly uniform distribution of the mass which could otherwise bias its motion. The "smart pebble" is powered by an independent power to ensure autonomy and sufficiently long periods of operation appropriate for deployment in the field. Post-processing and analysis of the acquired data is currently performed offline, using scientific programming software. The performance of the instrumented particle is validated, conducting a series of calibration experiments under well-controlled laboratory conditions.

  15. Finite Element Formulation and Active Vibration Control Study on Beams Using Smart Constrained Layer Damping (scld) Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BALAMURUGAN, V.; NARAYANAN, S.

    2002-01-01

    This work deals with the active vibration control of beams with smart constrained layer damping (SCLD) treatment. SCLD design consists of viscoelastic shear layer sandwiched between two layers of piezoelectric sensors and actuator. This composite SCLD when bonded to a vibrating structure acts as a smart treatment. The sensor piezoelectric layer measures the vibration response of the structure and a feedback controller is provided which regulates the axial deformation of the piezoelectric actuator (constraining layer), thereby providing adjustable and significant damping in the structure. The damping offered by SCLD treatment has two components, active action and passive action. The active action is transmitted from the piezoelectric actuator to the host structure through the viscoelastic layer. The passive action is through the shear deformation in the viscoelastic layer. The active action apart from providing direct active control also adjusts the passive action by regulating the shear deformation in the structure. The passive damping component of this design eliminates spillover, reduces power consumption, improves robustness and reliability of the system, and reduces vibration response at high-frequency ranges where active damping is difficult to implement. A beam finite element model has been developed based on Timoshenko's beam theory with partially covered SCLD. The Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method has been used to model the viscoelastic layer. The dissipation co-ordinates, defined using GHM approach, describe the frequency-dependent viscoelastic material properties. Models of PCLD and purely active systems could be obtained as a special case of SCLD. Using linear quadratic regulator (LQR) optimal control, the effects of the SCLD on vibration suppression performance and control effort requirements are investigated. The effects of the viscoelastic layer thickness and material properties on the vibration control performance are investigated.

  16. Embedded Real-Time Linux for Instrument Control and Data Logging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clanton, Sam; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    When I moved to the west. coast to take a job at NASA's Ames Research Center in Mountain View, CA, I was impressed with the variety of equipment and software which scientists at the center use to conduct their research. was happy to find that I was just as likely to see a machine running Lenox as one running Windows in the offices and laboratories of NASA Ames (although many people seem to use Moos around here). I was especially happy to find that the particular group with whom I was going to work, the Atmospheric Physics Branch at Ames, relied almost entirely on Lenox machines for their day-to-day work. So it was no surprise that when it was time to construct a new control system for one of their most important pieces of hardware, a switch from an unpredictable DOS-based platform to an Embedded Linux-based one was a decision easily made. The system I am working on is called the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR), a PC-104 based system custom-built by Dr. Warren Gore at Ames. Dr. Gore, Dr. Peter Pilewskie, Dr. Maura Robberies and Larry Pezzolo use the SSFR in their research. The team working on the controller project consists of Dr. Gore, John Pommier, and myself. The SSFR is used by the ,cities Atmospheric Radiation Group to measure solar spectral irradiance at moderate resolution to determine the radiative effect of clouds, aerosols, and gases on climate, and also to infer the physical properties of aerosols and clouds. Two identical SSFR's have been built and successfully deployed in three field missions: 1) the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) II in February/March, 2000; 2) the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRIDE) in July, 2000; and 3) the South African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI) in August/September, 2000. Additionally, the SSFR was used to acquire water vapor spectra using the Ames Diameter base-path multiple-reflection absorption cell in a laboratory experiment.

  17. Smart Homes for All: Collaborating Services in a for-All Architecture for Domotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catarci, Tiziana; Cincotti, Febo; de Leoni, Massimiliano; Mecella, Massimo; Santucci, Giuseppe

    Nowadays, control equipments such as automobiles, home appliances, communication, control and office machines, offer their functionalities in the form of services. Such service pervasivity is particularly evident in immersive realities, i.e., scenarios in which invisible embedded systems need to continuously interact with human users, in order to provide continuous sensed information and to react to service requests from the users themselves. The sm4all project, which will be presented in this paper, is investigating an innovative middleware platform for collaborating smart embedded services in immersive and person-centric environments, through the use of composability and semantic techniques.

  18. Study on active vibration control for high order mode of flexible beam using smart material piezoelectric ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Da-fang; Huang, Liang; Mu, Meng; Wang, Yue-wu; Wu, Shuang

    2011-11-01

    In order to reduce effective load and lower the launch cost, many light-weight flexible structures are employed in spacecraft. The research of active control on flexible structural vibration is very important in spacecraft design. Active vibration control on a flexible beam with smart material piezoelectric pieces bonded in surface is investigated experimentally using independent modal space control method, which is able to control the first three modes independently. A comparison between the systems responses before and after control indicates that the modal damping of flexible structure is greatly improved after active control is performed, indicating remarkable vibration suppression effect. Dynamic equation of the flexible beam is deducted by Hamilton principle, and numerical simulation of active vibration control on the first three order vibration modes is also conducted in this paper. The simulation result matches experimental result very well. Both experimental and numerical results indicate that the independent modal control method using piezoelectric patch as driving element is a very effective approach to realize vibration suppression, which has promising applications in aerospace field.

  19. Study on active vibration control for high order mode of flexible beam using smart material piezoelectric ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Da-fang; Huang, Liang; Mu, Meng; Wang, Yue-wu; Wu, Shuang

    2012-04-01

    In order to reduce effective load and lower the launch cost, many light-weight flexible structures are employed in spacecraft. The research of active control on flexible structural vibration is very important in spacecraft design. Active vibration control on a flexible beam with smart material piezoelectric pieces bonded in surface is investigated experimentally using independent modal space control method, which is able to control the first three modes independently. A comparison between the systems responses before and after control indicates that the modal damping of flexible structure is greatly improved after active control is performed, indicating remarkable vibration suppression effect. Dynamic equation of the flexible beam is deducted by Hamilton principle, and numerical simulation of active vibration control on the first three order vibration modes is also conducted in this paper. The simulation result matches experimental result very well. Both experimental and numerical results indicate that the independent modal control method using piezoelectric patch as driving element is a very effective approach to realize vibration suppression, which has promising applications in aerospace field.

  20. Single-photon emission from InAsP quantum dots embedded in density-controlled InP nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanase, Shougo; Sasakura, Hirotaka; Hara, Shinjiro; Motohisa, Junichi

    2017-04-01

    We attempted to control the density and size of InP-based nanowires (NWs) and nanowire quantum dots (NW-QDs) during selective-area metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. InP nanowire arrays with a 5 µm pitch and an average NW diameter d of 67 nm were successfully grown by optimization of growth conditions. InAsP quantum dots were embedded in these density-controlled InP NW arrays, and clear single-photon emission and exciton-biexciton cascaded emission were confirmed by excitation-dependent photoluminescence and photon correlation measurements.

  1. Initial Analyses and Demonstration of a Soil Moisture Smart Sensor Web Using Data Assimilation and Optimal Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, M.; Entekhabi, D.; Liu, M.; Teneketzid, D.; Goykhman, Y.; Shuman, D.; Mahajan, A.; Nayyar, A.

    2007-12-01

    We have developed a new concept for a smart sensor web technology for measurements of soil moisture that include spaceborne and in-situ assets. The objective of the technology is to enable a guided/adaptive sampling strategy for the in-situ sensor network to meet the measurement validation objectives of the spaceborne sensors with respect to resolution and accuracy. The sensor nodes are guided to perform as a macro-instrument measuring processes at the scale of the satellite footprint, hence meeting the requirements for the difficult problem of validation of satellite measurements. The science measurement considered is the surface-to-depth profiles of soil moisture estimated from satellite radars and radiometers, with calibration and validation using in- situ sensors. Satellites allow global mapping but with coarse footprints. The total variability in soil-moisture fields comes from variability in processes on various scales. Installing an in-situ network to sample the field for all ranges of variability is impractical. However, a sparser but smarter network can provide the validation estimates by operating in a guided fashion with guidance from its own sparse measurements. The feedback and control take place in the context of a dynamic data assimilation system. The overall design of the smart sensor web including the control architecture, assimilation framework, and actuation hardware will be presented in this paper. The results of initial numerical and laboratory demonstrations of the sensor web concept, which includes a small number of soil moisture sensors and their physical measurement model, a dynamic soil moisture time-evolution model (SWAP), and an optimal control strategy will then be shown.

  2. A Field Programmable Gate Array-Based Reconfigurable Smart-Sensor Network for Wireless Monitoring of New Generation Computer Numerically Controlled Machines

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Tapia, Sandra Veronica; Vera-Salas, Luis Alberto; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Aurelio; Stiharu, Ion; de Jesus Romero-Troncoso, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Computer numerically controlled (CNC) machines have evolved to adapt to increasing technological and industrial requirements. To cover these needs, new generation machines have to perform monitoring strategies by incorporating multiple sensors. Since in most of applications the online Processing of the variables is essential, the use of smart sensors is necessary. The contribution of this work is the development of a wireless network platform of reconfigurable smart sensors for CNC machine applications complying with the measurement requirements of new generation CNC machines. Four different smart sensors are put under test in the network and their corresponding signal processing techniques are implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based sensor node. PMID:22163602

  3. Integrated wireless sensor network and real time smart controlling and monitoring system for efficient energy management in standalone photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou-Elnour, Ali; Thabt, A.; Helmy, S.; Kashf, Y.; Hadad, Y.; Tarique, M.; Abo-Elnor, Ossama

    2014-04-01

    In the present work, wireless sensor network and smart real-time controlling and monitoring system are integrated for efficient energy management of standalone photovoltaic system. The proposed system has two main components namely the monitoring and controlling system and the wireless communication system. LabView software has been used in the implementation of the monitoring and controlling system. On the other hand, ZigBee wireless modules have been used to implement the wireless system. The main functions of monitoring and controlling unit is to efficiently control the energy consumption form the photovoltaic system based on accurate determination of the periods of times at which the loads are required to be operated. The wireless communication system send the data from the monitoring and controlling unit to the loads at which desired switching operations are performed. The wireless communication system also continuously feeds the monitoring and controlling unit with updated input data from the sensors and from the photovoltaic module send to calculate and record the generated, the consumed, and the stored energy to apply load switching saving schemes if necessary. It has to be mentioned that our proposed system is a low cost and low power system because and it is flexible to be upgraded to fulfill additional users' requirements.

  4. Wettability control and flow regulation using a nanostructure-embedded surface.

    PubMed

    Tafti, Ehsan Yakhshi; Londe, Ghanashyam; Chunder, Anindarupa; Zhai, Lei; Kumar, Ranganathan; Cho, Hyoung J

    2011-02-01

    This work addresses the synthesis, integration and characterization of a nanostructure-embedded thermoresponsive surface for flow regulation. In order to create a hierarchic structure which consists of microscale texture and nanoscale sub-texture, hybrid multilayers consisting of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and colloidal silica nanoparticles (average diameter = 22 nm and 7 nm) were used. Based on the electrostatic interactions between the polyelectrolytes and nanoparticles, a layer-by-layer deposition technique in combination with photolithography was employed to obtain a localized, conformally-coated patch in a microchannel. Grafted with the thermoresponsive polymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm), wettability of the surface could be tuned upon heating or cooling. The measurement of differential pressure at various stages of device verified the working conditions of the nanostructure-embedded surface for regulating a capillary flow in the microchannel.

  5. "Smart pebble" design for environmental monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Pavlovskis, Edgars

    2014-05-01

    Sediment transport, due to primarily the action of water, wind and ice, is one of the most significant geomorphic processes responsible for shaping Earth's surface. It involves entrainment of sediment grains in rivers and estuaries due to the violently fluctuating hydrodynamic forces near the bed. Here an instrumented particle, namely a "smart pebble", is developed to investigate the exact flow conditions under which individual grains may be entrained from the surface of a gravel bed. This could lead in developing a better understanding of the processes involved, while focusing on the response of the particle during a variety of flow entrainment events. The "smart pebble" is a particle instrumented with MEMS sensors appropriate for capturing the hydrodynamic forces a coarse particle might experience during its entrainment from the river bed. A 3-axial gyroscope and accelerometer registers data to a memory card via a microcontroller, embedded in a 3D-printed waterproof hollow spherical particle. The instrumented board is appropriately fit and centred into the shell of the pebble, so as to achieve a nearly uniform distribution of the mass which could otherwise bias its motion. The "smart pebble" is powered by an independent power to ensure autonomy and sufficiently long periods of operation appropriate for deployment in the field. Post-processing and analysis of the acquired data is currently performed offline, using scientific programming software. The performance of the instrumented particle is validated, conducting a series of calibration experiments under well-controlled laboratory conditions. "Smart pebble" allows for a wider range of environmental sensors (e.g. for environmental/pollutant monitoring) to be incorporated so as to extend the range of its application, enabling accurate environmental monitoring which is required to ensure infrastructure resilience and preservation of ecological health.

  6. Smart distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yazhou; Liu, Chen -Ching; Xu, Yin

    2016-04-19

    The increasing importance of system reliability and resilience is changing the way distribution systems are planned and operated. To achieve a distribution system self-healing against power outages, emerging technologies and devices, such as remote-controlled switches (RCSs) and smart meters, are being deployed. The higher level of automation is transforming traditional distribution systems into the smart distribution systems (SDSs) of the future. The availability of data and remote control capability in SDSs provides distribution operators with an opportunity to optimize system operation and control. In this paper, the development of SDSs and resulting benefits of enhanced system capabilities are discussed. A comprehensive survey is conducted on the state-of-the-art applications of RCSs and smart meters in SDSs. Specifically, a new method, called Temporal Causal Diagram (TCD), is used to incorporate outage notifications from smart meters for enhanced outage management. To fully utilize the fast operation of RCSs, the spanning tree search algorithm is used to develop service restoration strategies. Optimal placement of RCSs and the resulting enhancement of system reliability are discussed. Distribution system resilience with respect to extreme events is presented. Furthermore, test cases are used to demonstrate the benefit of SDSs. Active management of distributed generators (DGs) is introduced. Future research in a smart distribution environment is proposed.

  7. Smart distribution systems

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Yazhou; Liu, Chen -Ching; Xu, Yin

    2016-04-19

    The increasing importance of system reliability and resilience is changing the way distribution systems are planned and operated. To achieve a distribution system self-healing against power outages, emerging technologies and devices, such as remote-controlled switches (RCSs) and smart meters, are being deployed. The higher level of automation is transforming traditional distribution systems into the smart distribution systems (SDSs) of the future. The availability of data and remote control capability in SDSs provides distribution operators with an opportunity to optimize system operation and control. In this paper, the development of SDSs and resulting benefits of enhanced system capabilities are discussed. Amore » comprehensive survey is conducted on the state-of-the-art applications of RCSs and smart meters in SDSs. Specifically, a new method, called Temporal Causal Diagram (TCD), is used to incorporate outage notifications from smart meters for enhanced outage management. To fully utilize the fast operation of RCSs, the spanning tree search algorithm is used to develop service restoration strategies. Optimal placement of RCSs and the resulting enhancement of system reliability are discussed. Distribution system resilience with respect to extreme events is presented. Furthermore, test cases are used to demonstrate the benefit of SDSs. Active management of distributed generators (DGs) is introduced. Future research in a smart distribution environment is proposed.« less

  8. Smart Grid Integration Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Troxell, Wade

    2011-12-22

    The initial federal funding for the Colorado State University Smart Grid Integration Laboratory is through a Congressionally Directed Project (CDP), DE-OE0000070 Smart Grid Integration Laboratory. The original program requested in three one-year increments for staff acquisition, curriculum development, and instrumentation all which will benefit the Laboratory. This report focuses on the initial phase of staff acquisition which was directed and administered by DOE NETL/ West Virginia under Project Officer Tom George. Using this CDP funding, we have developed the leadership and intellectual capacity for the SGIC. This was accomplished by investing (hiring) a core team of Smart Grid Systems engineering faculty focused on education, research, and innovation of a secure and smart grid infrastructure. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory will be housed with the separately funded Integrid Laboratory as part of CSU's overall Smart Grid Integration Center (SGIC). The period of performance of this grant was 10/1/2009 to 9/30/2011 which included one no cost extension due to time delays in faculty hiring. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory's focus is to build foundations to help graduate and undergraduates acquire systems engineering knowledge; conduct innovative research; and team externally with grid smart organizations. Using the results of the separately funded Smart Grid Workforce Education Workshop (May 2009) sponsored by the City of Fort Collins, Northern Colorado Clean Energy Cluster, Colorado State University Continuing Education, Spirae, and Siemens has been used to guide the hiring of faculty, program curriculum and education plan. This project develops faculty leaders with the intellectual capacity to inspire its students to become leaders that substantially contribute to the development and maintenance of Smart Grid infrastructure through topics such as: (1) Distributed energy systems modeling and control; (2) Energy and power conversion; (3) Simulation of

  9. A Smart City Application: A Fully Controlled Street Lighting Isle Based on Raspberry-Pi Card, a ZigBee Sensor Network and WiMAX

    PubMed Central

    Leccese, Fabio; Cagnetti, Marco; Trinca, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    A smart city application has been realized and tested. It is a fully remote controlled isle of lamp posts based on new technologies. It has been designed and organized in different hierarchical layers, which perform local activities to physically control the lamp posts and transmit information with another for remote control. Locally, each lamp post uses an electronic card for management and a ZigBee tlc network transmits data to a central control unit, which manages the whole isle. The central unit is realized with a Raspberry-Pi control card due to its good computing performance at very low price. Finally, a WiMAX connection was tested and used to remotely control the smart grid, thus overcoming the distance limitations of commercial Wi-Fi networks. The isle has been realized and tested for some months in the field. PMID:25529206

  10. A smart city application: a fully controlled street lighting isle based on Raspberry-Pi card, a ZigBee sensor network and WiMAX.

    PubMed

    Leccese, Fabio; Cagnetti, Marco; Trinca, Daniele

    2014-12-18

    A smart city application has been realized and tested. It is a fully remote controlled isle of lamp posts based on new technologies. It has been designed and organized in different hierarchical layers, which perform local activities to physically control the lamp posts and transmit information with another for remote control. Locally, each lamp post uses an electronic card for management and a ZigBee tlc network transmits data to a central control unit, which manages the whole isle. The central unit is realized with a Raspberry-Pi control card due to its good computing performance at very low price. Finally, a WiMAX connection was tested and used to remotely control the smart grid, thus overcoming the distance limitations of commercial Wi-Fi networks. The isle has been realized and tested for some months in the field.

  11. Implementation of an Embedded Web Server Application for Wireless Control of Brain Computer Interface Based Home Environments.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Eda Akman; Bay, Ömer Faruk; Güler, İnan

    2016-01-01

    Brain Computer Interface (BCI) based environment control systems could facilitate life of people with neuromuscular diseases, reduces dependence on their caregivers, and improves their quality of life. As well as easy usage, low-cost, and robust system performance, mobility is an important functionality expected from a practical BCI system in real life. In this study, in order to enhance users' mobility, we propose internet based wireless communication between BCI system and home environment. We designed and implemented a prototype of an embedded low-cost, low power, easy to use web server which is employed in internet based wireless control of a BCI based home environment. The embedded web server provides remote access to the environmental control module through BCI and web interfaces. While the proposed system offers to BCI users enhanced mobility, it also provides remote control of the home environment by caregivers as well as the individuals in initial stages of neuromuscular disease. The input of BCI system is P300 potentials. We used Region Based Paradigm (RBP) as stimulus interface. Performance of the BCI system is evaluated on data recorded from 8 non-disabled subjects. The experimental results indicate that the proposed web server enables internet based wireless control of electrical home appliances successfully through BCIs.

  12. Preserving Smart Objects Privacy through Anonymous and Accountable Access Control for a M2M-Enabled Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ramos, José L; Bernabe, Jorge Bernal; Moreno, M Victoria; Skarmeta, Antonio F

    2015-07-01

    As we get into the Internet of Things era, security and privacy concerns remain as the main obstacles in the development of innovative and valuable services to be exploited by society. Given the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) nature of these emerging scenarios, the application of current privacy-friendly technologies needs to be reconsidered and adapted to be deployed in such global ecosystem. This work proposes different privacy-preserving mechanisms through the application of anonymous credential systems and certificateless public key cryptography. The resulting alternatives are intended to enable an anonymous and accountable access control approach to be deployed on large-scale scenarios, such as Smart Cities. Furthermore, the proposed mechanisms have been deployed on constrained devices, in order to assess their suitability for a secure and privacy-preserving M2M-enabled Internet of Things.

  13. Preserving Smart Objects Privacy through Anonymous and Accountable Access Control for a M2M-Enabled Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ramos, José L.; Bernabe, Jorge Bernal; Moreno, M. Victoria; Skarmeta, Antonio F.

    2015-01-01

    As we get into the Internet of Things era, security and privacy concerns remain as the main obstacles in the development of innovative and valuable services to be exploited by society. Given the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) nature of these emerging scenarios, the application of current privacy-friendly technologies needs to be reconsidered and adapted to be deployed in such global ecosystem. This work proposes different privacy-preserving mechanisms through the application of anonymous credential systems and certificateless public key cryptography. The resulting alternatives are intended to enable an anonymous and accountable access control approach to be deployed on large-scale scenarios, such as Smart Cities. Furthermore, the proposed mechanisms have been deployed on constrained devices, in order to assess their suitability for a secure and privacy-preserving M2M-enabled Internet of Things. PMID:26140349

  14. Smart Structures, An Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    USE ONLY (Leave ank ) COERD 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Smart Structures, An Overview F33615-90-C-321 I PE: 62201F PR: 2401 L AUTHOR(S) TA...Aeroelastic Control with Control Surface and Strain Actuation," Proceedings of the 33rd SDM Conference, Baltimore, MD, April 1991, pages 1817-1831. 2’ Ehlers

  15. Distribution Locational Real-Time Pricing Based Smart Building Control and Management

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Jun; Dai, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yingchen; Zhang, Jun; Gao, Wenzhong

    2016-11-21

    This paper proposes an real-virtual parallel computing scheme for smart building operations aiming at augmenting overall social welfare. The University of Denver's campus power grid and Ritchie fitness center is used for demonstrating the proposed approach. An artificial virtual system is built in parallel to the real physical system to evaluate the overall social cost of the building operation based on the social science based working productivity model, numerical experiment based building energy consumption model and the power system based real-time pricing mechanism. Through interactive feedback exchanged between the real and virtual system, enlarged social welfare, including monetary cost reduction and energy saving, as well as working productivity improvements, can be achieved.

  16. Smart windows with functions of reflective display and indoor temperature-control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, I.-Hui; Chao, Yu-Ching; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Liang-Chao; Chiu, Tien-Lung; Lee, Jiunn-Yih; Kao, Fu-Jen; Lee, Chih-Kung; Lee, Jiun-Haw

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, a switchable window based on cholestreric liquid crystal (CLC) was demonstrated. Under different applied voltages, incoming light at visible and infrared wavelengths was modulated, respectively. A mixture of CLC with a nematic liquid crystal and a chiral dopant selectively reflected infrared light without bias, which effectively reduced the indoor temperature under sunlight illumination. At this time, transmission at visible range was kept at high and the windows looked transparent. With increasing the voltage to 15V, CLC changed to focal conic state and can be used as a reflective display, a privacy window, or a screen for projector. Under a high voltage (30V), homeotropic state was achieved. At this time, both infrared and visible light can transmit which acted as a normal window, which permitted infrared spectrum of winter sunlight to enter the room so as to reduce the heating requirement. Such a device can be used as a switchable window in smart buildings, green houses and windshields.

  17. Implementing Smart Cards into the Air Force Reserve

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    Smart card technology is essentially about a credit card with a brain, Smart cards have an embedded microchip that allows the card to hold digital...gained favor in the United States. The Department of Defense (DoD) also saw the utility in using smart card technology, The DoD began tests with smart...research paper is to explore the smart card story, with a particular emphasis on how implementation is effecting DoD, the Air Force, and the RC.

  18. Decreasing the damage in smart structures using integrated online DDA/ISMP and semi-active control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, K.; Amini, F.

    2012-10-01

    Integrated structural health monitoring (SHM) and vibration control has been considered recently by researchers. Up to now, all of the research in the field of integrated SHM and vibration control has been conducted using control devices and control algorithms to enhance system identification and damage detection. In this study, online SHM is used to improve the performance of structural vibration control, unlike previous research. Also, a proposed algorithm including integrated online SHM and a semi-active control strategy is used to reduce both damage and seismic response of the main structure due to strong seismic disturbance. In the proposed algorithm the nonlinear behavior of the building structure is simulated during the excitation. Then, using the measured data and the damage detection algorithm based on identified system Markov parameters (DDA/ISMP), a method proposed by the authors, damage corresponding to axial and bending stiffness of all structural elements is identified. In this study, a 20 t MR damper is employed as a control device to mitigate both damage and dynamic response of the building structure. Also, the interaction between SHM and a semi-active control strategy is assessed. To illustrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, a two bay two story steel braced frame structure is used. By defining the damage index and damage rate index, the input current of the MR damper is generated using a fuzzy logic controller. The obtained results show that the possibility of smart building creation is provided using the proposed algorithm. In comparison to the widely used strategy of only vibration control, it is shown that the proposed algorithm is more effective. Furthermore, in the proposed algorithm, the total consumed current intensity and generated control forces are considerably less than for the strategy of only vibration control.

  19. Sensor technology for smart homes.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dan; Cooper, Rory A; Pasquina, Paul F; Fici-Pasquina, Lavinia

    2011-06-01

    A smart home is a residence equipped with technology that observes the residents and provides proactive services. Most recently, it has been introduced as a potential solution to support independent living of people with disabilities and older adults, as well as to relieve the workload from family caregivers and health providers. One of the key supporting features of a smart home is its ability to monitor the activities of daily living and safety of residents, and in detecting changes in their daily routines. With the availability of inexpensive low-power sensors, radios, and embedded processors, current smart homes are typically equipped with a large amount of networked sensors which collaboratively process and make deductions from the acquired data on the state of the home as well as the activities and behaviors of its residents. This article reviews sensor technology used in smart homes with a focus on direct environment sensing and infrastructure mediated sensing. The article also points out the strengths and limitations of different sensor technologies, as well as discusses challenges and opportunities from clinical, technical, and ethical perspectives. It is recommended that sensor technologies for smart homes address actual needs of all stake holders including end users, their family members and caregivers, and their doctors and therapists. More evidence on the appropriateness, usefulness, and cost benefits analysis of sensor technologies for smart homes is necessary before these sensors should be widely deployed into real-world residential settings and successfully integrated into everyday life and health care services.

  20. Genetic algorithm based active vibration control for a moving flexible smart beam driven by a pneumatic rod cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zhi-cheng; Shi, Ming-li; Wang, Bin; Xie, Zhuo-wei

    2012-05-01

    A rod cylinder based pneumatic driving scheme is proposed to suppress the vibration of a flexible smart beam. Pulse code modulation (PCM) method is employed to control the motion of the cylinder's piston rod for simultaneous positioning and vibration suppression. Firstly, the system dynamics model is derived using Hamilton principle. Its standard state-space representation is obtained for characteristic analysis, controller design, and simulation. Secondly, a genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to optimize and tune the control gain parameters adaptively based on the specific performance index. Numerical simulations are performed on the pneumatic driving elastic beam system, using the established model and controller with tuned gains by GA optimization process. Finally, an experimental setup for the flexible beam driven by a pneumatic rod cylinder is constructed. Experiments for suppressing vibrations of the flexible beam are conducted. Theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed pneumatic drive scheme and the adopted control algorithms are feasible. The large amplitude vibration of the first bending mode can be suppressed effectively.

  1. Securing smart grid technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaitanya Krishna, E.; Kosaleswara Reddy, T.; Reddy, M. YogaTeja; Reddy G. M., Sreerama; Madhusudhan, E.; AlMuhteb, Sulaiman

    2013-03-01

    In the developing countries electrical energy is very important for its all-round improvement by saving thousands of dollars and investing them in other sector for development. For Growing needs of power existing hierarchical, centrally controlled grid of the 20th Century is not sufficient. To produce and utilize effective power supply for industries or people we should have Smarter Electrical grids that address the challenges of the existing power grid. The Smart grid can be considered as a modern electric power grid infrastructure for enhanced efficiency and reliability through automated control, high-power converters, modern communications infrastructure along with modern IT services, sensing and metering technologies, and modern energy management techniques based on the optimization of demand, energy and network availability and so on. The main objective of this paper is to provide a contemporary look at the current state of the art in smart grid communications as well as critical issues on smart grid technologies primarily in terms of information and communication technology (ICT) issues like security, efficiency to communications layer field. In this paper we propose new model for security in Smart Grid Technology that contains Security Module(SM) along with DEM which will enhance security in Grid. It is expected that this paper will provide a better understanding of the technologies, potential advantages and research challenges of the smart grid and provoke interest among the research community to further explore this promising research area.

  2. Study of Mental Activity and Regular Training (SMART) in at risk individuals: A randomised double blind, sham controlled, longitudinal trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The extent to which mental and physical exercise may slow cognitive decline in adults with early signs of cognitive impairment is unknown. This article provides the rationale and methodology of the first trial to investigate the isolated and combined effects of cognitive training (CT) and progressive resistance training (PRT) on general cognitive function and functional independence in older adults with early cognitive impairment: Study of Mental and Regular Training (SMART). Our secondary aim is to quantify the differential adaptations to these interventions in terms of brain morphology and function, cardiovascular and metabolic function, exercise capacity, psychological state and body composition, to identify the potential mechanisms of benefit and broader health status effects. Methods SMART is a double-blind randomized, double sham-controlled trial. One hundred and thirty-two community-dwelling volunteers will be recruited. Primary inclusion criteria are: at risk for cognitive decline as defined by neuropsychology assessment, low physical activity levels, stable disease, and age over 55 years. The two active interventions are computerized CT and whole body, high intensity PRT. The two sham interventions are educational videos and seated calisthenics. Participants are randomized into 1 of 4 supervised training groups (2 d/wk × 6 mo) in a fully factorial design. Primary outcomes measured at baseline, 6, and 18 months are the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog), neuropsychological test scores, and Bayer Informant Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (B-IADLs). Secondary outcomes are psychological well-being, quality of life, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal function, body composition, insulin resistance, systemic inflammation and anabolic/neurotrophic hormones, and brain morphology and function via Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Spectroscopy (fMRS). Discussion SMART will provide a novel evaluation of the immediate and long term

  3. Controlling the set of carbon-fiber embedded cement with electric current

    DOEpatents

    Mattus, Alfred J.

    2004-06-15

    A method for promoting cement or concrete set on demand for concrete that has been chemically retarded by adding carbon fiber to the concrete, which enables it to become electrically conductive, sodium tartrate retardant, and copper sulfate which forms a copper tartrate complex in alkaline concrete mixes. Using electricity, the concrete mix anodically converts the retarding tartrate to an insoluble polyester polymer. The carbon fibers act as a continuous anode surface with a counter electrode wire embedded in the mix. Upon energizing, the retarding effect of tartrate is defeated by formation of the polyester polymer through condensation esterification thereby allowing the normal set to proceed unimpeded.

  4. Controllable transport mean free path of light in xerogel matrixes embedded with polystyrene spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bret, Boris P.; Couto, Nuno J.; Amaro, Mariana; Nunes-Pereira, Eduardo J.; Belsley, Michael

    2009-04-01

    Xerogel matrices, made by sol-gel techniques, are embedded with polystyrene spheres to promote multiple scattering of light. Varying the concentration of the spheres inside the matrix allows one to adjust the transport mean free path of light inside the material. Coherent backscattering measurements show that a range of transport mean free paths from 90 to 600 nm is easily achieved. The determination of the matrix refractive index permits a direct comparison to multiple scattering and Mie theory. Such tunable diffusive sol-gel derived samples can be further optimized as random laser materials.

  5. Promise of embedded system with GPU in artificial leg control: enabling time-frequency feature extraction from electromyography.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Weijun; Huang, He; Sun, Yan; Yang, Qing

    2009-01-01

    Applying electromyographic (EMG) signal pattern recognition to artificial leg control is challenging because leg EMGs are non-stationary. Time-frequency features are suitable for representing non-stationary signals; however, the computational complexity to extract time-frequency features is too high and current embedded systems used for artificial limb control are inadequate for real-time computing. The aim of this study was to quantify the computational speed of a novel embedded system, the Graphic Processor Unit (GPU), on EMG time-frequency feature extraction. The computational time derived from a GPU was compared to that derived from a general purpose CPU. The results indicated that the GPU significantly increased the computational speed. When the size of EMG analysis window was set to 100 ms, the GPU extracted EMG time-frequency features over 50 times faster than the CPU setting. Therefore, high performance GPU shows a great promise for EMG-controlled artificial legs and other medical applications that need high-speed and real-time computation.

  6. Magnetically responsive smart nanoparticles for cancer treatment with a combination of magnetic hyperthermia and remote-control drug release.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Koichiro; Nakamura, Michihiro; Miki, Hirokazu; Ozaki, Shuji; Abe, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Toshio; Sakamoto, Wataru; Yogo, Toshinobu; Ishimura, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    We report the synthesis of smart nanoparticles (NPs) that generate heat in response to an alternating current magnetic field (ACMF) and that sequentially release an anticancer drug (doxorubicin, DOX). We further study the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of the combination of magnetic hyperthermia (MHT) and chemotherapy using the smart NPs for the treatment of multiple myeloma. The smart NPs are composed of a polymer with a glass-transition temperature (T g) of 44°C, which contains clustered Fe3O4 NPs and DOX. The clustered Fe3O4 NPs produce heat when the ACMF is applied and rise above 44°C, which softens the polymer phase and leads to the release of DOX. The combination of MHT and chemotherapy using the smart NPs destroys cancer cells in the entire tumor and achieves a complete cure in one treatment without the recurrence of malignancy. Furthermore, the smart NPs have no significant toxicity.

  7. Analysis of Smart Composite Structures Including Debonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Seeley, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    Smart composite structures with distributed sensors and actuators have the capability to actively respond to a changing environment while offering significant weight savings and additional passive controllability through ply tailoring. Piezoelectric sensing and actuation of composite laminates is the most promising concept due to the static and dynamic control capabilities. Essential to the implementation of these smart composites are the development of accurate and efficient modeling techniques and experimental validation. This research addresses each of these important topics. A refined higher order theory is developed to model composite structures with surface bonded or embedded piezoelectric transducers. These transducers are used as both sensors and actuators for closed loop control. The theory accurately captures the transverse shear deformation through the thickness of the smart composite laminate while satisfying stress free boundary conditions on the free surfaces. The theory is extended to include the effect of debonding at the actuator-laminate interface. The developed analytical model is implemented using the finite element method utilizing an induced strain approach for computational efficiency. This allows general laminate geometries and boundary conditions to be analyzed. The state space control equations are developed to allow flexibility in the design of the control system. Circuit concepts are also discussed. Static and dynamic results of smart composite structures, obtained using the higher order theory, are correlated with available analytical data. Comparisons, including debonded laminates, are also made with a general purpose finite element code and available experimental data. Overall, very good agreement is observed. Convergence of the finite element implementation of the higher order theory is shown with exact solutions. Additional results demonstrate the utility of the developed theory to study piezoelectric actuation of composite

  8. NSTAR Smart Grid Pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Rabari, Anil; Fadipe, Oloruntomi

    2014-03-31

    NSTAR Electric & Gas Corporation (“the Company”, or “NSTAR”) developed and implemented a Smart Grid pilot program beginning in 2010 to demonstrate the viability of leveraging existing automated meter reading (“AMR”) deployments to provide much of the Smart Grid functionality of advanced metering infrastructure (“AMI”), but without the large capital investment that AMI rollouts typically entail. In particular, a central objective of the Smart Energy Pilot was to enable residential dynamic pricing (time-of-use “TOU” and critical peak rates and rebates) and two-way direct load control (“DLC”) by continually capturing AMR meter data transmissions and communicating through customer-sited broadband connections in conjunction with a standardsbased home area network (“HAN”). The pilot was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (“DOE”) through the Smart Grid Demonstration program. NSTAR was very pleased to not only receive the funding support from DOE, but the guidance and support of the DOE throughout the pilot. NSTAR is also pleased to report to the DOE that it was able to execute and deliver a successful pilot on time and on budget. NSTAR looks for future opportunities to work with the DOE and others in future smart grid projects.

  9. SMART Solar Sail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    A report summarizes the design concept of a super miniaturized autonomous reconfigurable technology (SMART) solar sail a proposed deployable, fully autonomous solar sail for use in very fine station keeping of a spacecraft. The SMART solar sail would include a reflective film stretched among nodes of a SMART space frame made partly of nanotubule struts. A microelectromechanical system (MEMS) at each vertex of the frame would spool and unspool nanotubule struts between itself and neighboring nodes to vary the shape of the frame. The MEMSs would be linked, either wirelessly or by thin wires within the struts, to an evolvable neural software system (ENSS) that would control the MEMSs to reconfigure the sail as needed. The solar sail would be highly deformable from an initially highly compressed configuration, yet also capable of enabling very fine maneuvering of the spacecraft by means of small sail-surface deformations. The SMART Solar Sail would be connected to the main body of the spacecraft by a SMART multi-tether structure, which would include MEMS actuators like those of the frame plus tethers in the form of longer versions of the struts in the frame.

  10. Simple, heart-smart substitutions

    MedlinePlus

    Coronary artery disease - heart smart substitutions; Atherosclerosis - heart smart substitutions; Cholesterol - heart smart substitutions; Coronary heart disease - heart smart substitutions; Healthy diet - heart smart substitutions; Wellness - heart smart substitutions

  11. Health smart cards: merging technology and medical information.

    PubMed

    Ward, Sherry R

    2003-01-01

    Smart cards are credit card-sized plastic cards, with an embedded dime-sized Integrated Circuit microprocessor chip. Smart cards can be used for keyless entry, electronic medical records, etc. Health smart cards have been in limited use since 1982 in Europe and the United States, and several barriers including lack of infrastructure, low consumer confidence, competing standards, and cost continue to be addressed.

  12. Medical smart cards: health care access in your pocket.

    PubMed

    Krohn, R W

    2000-01-01

    The wallet-sized medical smart card, embedded with a programmable computer chip, stores and transmits a cardholder's clinical, insurance coverage and biographical information. When fully deployed, smart cards will conduct many functions at the point of care, from claims submission to medical records updates in real time. Ultimately, the smart card will make the individual patient record and all clinical and economic transactions within that patient log as portable, accessible and secure as an ATM account.

  13. Introduction to smart card technology and initial medical application.

    PubMed

    Quick, G

    1994-10-01

    Smart card technology is the name applied to the use of a plastic card with an embedded computer chip. Recent development of smart card software has allowed storage and retrieval of medical information, affording the opportunity to provide a standardized, portable, accessible medical record for use in prehospital and emergency department patient encounters. We describe the smart card concept and its initial deployment in a section of a large Midwestern urban area.

  14. Rate-based congestion control in networks with smart links, revision. B.S. Thesis - May 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heybey, Andrew Tyrrell

    1990-01-01

    The author uses a network simulator to explore rate-based congestion control in networks with smart links that can feed back information to tell senders to adjust their transmission rates. This method differs in a very important way from congestion control in which a congested network component just drops packets - the most commonly used method. It is clearly advantageous for the links in the network to communicate with the end users about the network capacity, rather than the users unilaterally picking a transmission rate. The components in the middle of the network, not the end users, have information about the capacity and traffic in the network. The author experiments with three different algorithms for calculating the control rate to feed back to the users. All of the algorithms exhibit problems in the form of large queues when simulated with a configuration modeling the dynamics of a packet-voice system. However, the problems are not with the algorithms themselves, but with the fact that feedback takes time. If the network steady-state utilization is low enough that it can absorb transients in the traffic through it, then the large queues disappear. If the users are modified to start sending slowly, to allow the network to adapt to a new flow without causing congestion, a greater portion of the network's bandwidth can be used.

  15. Position-controlled data acquisition embedded system for magnetic NDE of bridge stay cables.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Lopez, Rocio; Christen, Rouven

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a custom-tailored sensing and data acquisition embedded system, designed to be integrated in a new magnetic NDE inspection device under development at Empa, a device intended for routine testing of large diameter bridge stay cables. The data acquisition (DAQ) system fulfills the speed and resolution requirements of the application and is able to continuously capture and store up to 2 GB of data at a sampling rate of 27 kS/s, with 12-bit resolution. This paper describes the DAQ system in detail, including both hardware and software implementation, as well as the key design challenges and the techniques employed to meet the specifications. Experimental results showing the performance of the system are also presented.

  16. Process Control and Development for Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing with Embedded Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hehr, Adam J.

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a recent additive manufacturing technology which combines ultrasonic metal welding, CNC machining, and mechanized foil layering to create large gapless near net-shape metallic parts. The process has been attracting much attention lately due to its low formation temperature, the capability to join dissimilar metals, and the ability to create complex design features not possible with traditional subtractive processes alone. These process attributes enable light-weighting of structures and components in an unprecedented way. However, UAM is currently limited to niche areas due to the lack of quality tracking and inadequate scientific understanding of the process. As a result, this thesis work is focused on improving both component quality tracking and process understanding through the use of average electrical power input to the welder. Additionally, the understanding and application space of embedding fibers into metals using UAM is investigated, with particular focus on NiTi shape memory alloy fibers.

  17. Embedded parallel processing based ground control systems for small satellite telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, Michael L.; Hazra, Tushar K.; Troendly, Gregory M.; Nickum, William G.

    1994-01-01

    The use of networked terminals which utilize embedded processing techniques results in totally integrated, flexible, high speed, reliable, and scalable systems suitable for telemetry and data processing applications such as mission operations centers (MOC). Synergies of these terminals, coupled with the capability of terminal to receive incoming data, allow the viewing of any defined display by any terminal from the start of data acquisition. There is no single point of failure (other than with network input) such as exists with configurations where all input data goes through a single front end processor and then to a serial string of workstations. Missions dedicated to NASA's ozone measurements program utilize the methodologies which are discussed, and result in a multimission configuration of low cost, scalable hardware and software which can be run by one flight operations team with low risk.

  18. Hybrid dispersive media with controllable wave propagation: A new take on smart materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamini, Andrea E.; Zündel, Manuel; Flores Parra, Edgar A.; Delpero, Tommaso; Ruzzene, Massimo; Ermanni, Paolo

    2015-10-01

    approach to smart materials.

  19. Hybrid dispersive media with controllable wave propagation: A new take on smart materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bergamini, Andrea E.; Zündel, Manuel; Flores Parra, Edgar A.; Ermanni, Paolo; Delpero, Tommaso; Ruzzene, Massimo

    2015-10-21

    approach to smart materials.

  20. The smart highway project: Smart highways, smart vehicles, smart engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pethtel, Ray D.

    1996-01-01

    The Smart Highway project is a six mile, limited access roadway being built between Interstate 81 and Blacksburg, Virginia. The initial construction segment will be two miles long and is designed to serve as a test bed and test track for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) research. The Center for Transportation Research (CTR) at Virginia Tech is developing three evaluation tools for its ITS research including DYNAVIMTS (a software framework), and the FLASH Lab (a 1/15th scale model highway and vehicle system). The Smart Highway rounds out the Center's evaluation methodology by allowing full scale operational tests, evaluations, and research under both experimental and conventional traffic conditions. Currently under development is a concept for a fully automated highway using a 'Cooperative Infrastructure Managed System' which involves ultra wide band communication beacons installed in the infrastructure with appropriate sensors, receivers and processors on board the vehicles. The project is part of the research program funded by the National Automated Highway System Consortium. The CTR hopes to develop the automated concept to prototype status by 1997. Other smart transportation and smart engineering concepts are proposed. This presentation will address the goals and objectives of the Smart Highway project, overview its status and importance to the region, and identify some of the transportation technology now under development and planned in the future.

  1. Smart sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsi, Carlo

    2006-08-01

    The term "Smart Sensors" refer to sensors which contain both sensing and signal processing capabilities with objectives ranging from simple viewing to sophisticated remote sensing, surveillance, search/track, weapon guidance, robotics, perceptronics and intelligence applications. In a broad sense, they include any sensor systems covering the whole electromagnetic spectrum: this paper deals specifically with a new class of smart sensors in infrared spectral bands whose developments started some years ago, when it was recognized that the rapid advances of "very large scale integration" (VLSI) processor technology and mosaic infrared detector array technology could be combined to develop new generations of infrared smart sensor systems with much improved performance. So, sophisticated signal processing operations have been developed for these new systems by integrating microcomputers and other VLSI signal processors within or next to the sensor arrays on the same focal plane avoiding complex computing located far away from the sensors. Recently this approach is achieving higher goals by a new and revolutionary sensors concept which introduce inside the sensor some of the basic function of living eyes, such as dynamic stare, dishomogenity compensation, spatial and temporal filtering. New objectives and requirements of these new focal plane processors are presented for this type of new infrared smart sensor systems. This paper is concerned with the processing techniques for only the front end of the focal plane processing, namely, the enhancement of target-to-noise ratio by background clutter suppression and the improvement in target detection by "smart" and pattern correlation threshold.

  2. Smart sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsi, Carlo

    1991-09-01

    The term 'smart sensors' refers to sensors which contain both sensing and signal processing capabilities with objectives ranging from simple viewing to sophisticated remote sensing, surveillance, search/track, weapon guidance, robotics, perceptronics, and intelligence applications. In a broad sense, they include any sensor system covering the whole electromagnetic spectrum: this paper deals specifically with a new class of smart sensors in infrared spectral bands whose developments started some years ago, when it was recognized that the rapid advances of very large scale integration (VLSI) processor technology and mosaic infrared detector array technology could be combined to develop new generations of infrared smart sensor systems with much improved performances. Thus, sophisticated signal processing operations will be developed for these new systems by integrating microcomputers and other VLSI signal processors within or next to the sensor arrays, on the same focal plane, avoiding complex computing located far away from the sensors. Recently this approach has achieved higher goals by a new and revolutionary sensor concept which introduces inside the sensor some of the basic functions of living eyes, such as dynamic stare, dishomogeneity compensation, spatial and temporal filtering. New objectives and requirements of these new focal plane processors are presented for this type of new infrared smart sensor system. This paper concerns the processing techniques limited to the front end of the focal plane processing, namely, the enhancement of target-to-noise ratio by background clutter suppression and the improvement in target detection by a smart pattern correlation thresholding.

  3. Smart Home Test Bed: Examining How Smart Homes Interact with the Power Grid

    SciTech Connect

    2016-11-01

    This fact sheet highlights the Smart Home Test Bed capability at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working on one of the new frontiers of smart home research: finding ways for smart home technologies and systems to enhance grid operations in the presence of distributed, clean energy technologies such as photovoltaics (PV). To help advance this research, NREL has developed a controllable, flexible, and fully integrated Smart Home Test Bed.

  4. Smart Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsi, C.

    2007-01-01

    The term "Smart Sensors" refers to sensors which contain both sensing and signal processing capabilities with objectives ranging from simple viewing to sophisticated remote sensing, surveillance, search/track, weapon guidance, robotics, perceptronics and intelligence applications. Recently this approach is achieving higher goals by a new and revolutionary sensors concept which introduced inside the sensor some of the basic functions of living eyes, such as dynamic stare, non-uniformity compensation, spatial and temporal filtering. New objectives and requirements are presented for this type of new infrared smart sensor systems. This paper is concerned with the front end of FPA microbolometers processing, namely, the enhancement of target-to-noise ratio by background clutter suppression and the improvement in target detection by "smart" and pattern correlation thresholding.

  5. Improvement of reliability of welding by in-process sensing and control (development of smart welding machines for girth welding of pipes). Third progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Converti, J.; Dror, Y.; Hardt, D.; Liang, S.; Masubuchi, K.; Moore, J.; Paynter, H.; Unkel, W.; Zacksenhouse, M.

    1981-06-01

    This two part progress report covers work from March 16, 1980 to March 15, 1981. The overall objective of this program is to improve the reliability of welding by developing smart welding machines. In addition to exercising strict control of the welding machinery, the smart welding machine exercises real-time, closed-loop control of the weld itself. The weld quality, for the work to date, has been defined in terms of acceptable (full) penetration and weld bead width. Metallurgical defects, gas inclusions and oxidation/wetting problems have not been considered explicitly. Although the concepts and techniques developed have general application to the welding field, the program is focused specifically toward the welding of pipes. Further, the present work condentrates on the root pass(es) using GTAW rather than on the filling process using GMAW.

  6. Shape control of composite plates and shells with embedded actuators. 2: Desired shape specified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koconis, David B.; Kollar, Laszlo P.; Springer, George S.

    The changes in shapes of fiber-reinforced composite beams, plates and shells affected by embedded piezoelectric actuators were investigated. An analytical method was developed to determine the voltages needed to achieve a specified desired shape. The method is formulated on the basis of mathematical models using two-dimensional, linear, shallow shell theory including transverse shear effects which are important in the case of sandwich construction. The solution technique is a minimization of an error function which is a measure of the difference between the deformed shape caused by the application of voltages and the desired shape. A computationally efficient, user-friendly computer code was written which is suitable for performing the numerical calculations. The code, designated as SHAPE2, gives the voltages needed to achieve specified changes in shape. To validate the method and the computer code, results generated by the code were compared to existing analytical and experimental results. The predictions provided by the SHAPE2 code were in excellent agreement with the results of the other analyses and data.

  7. Shape control of composite plates and shells with embedded actuators. 1: Voltages specified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koconis, David B.; Kollar, Laszlo P.; Springer, George S.

    The changes in shapes of fiber-reinforced composite beams, plates and shells affected by embedded piezoelectric actuators were investigated. An analytical method was developed which can be used to calculate the changes in shapes for specified applied voltages to the actuators. The method is formulated on the basis of mathematical models using two-dimensional, linear, shallow shell theory including transverse shear effects which are important in the case of sandwich construction. Solutions to the governing equations were obtained via the Ritz method. A computationally efficient computer code with a user-friendly interface was written which is suitable for performing the numerical calculations. The code, designated as SHAPE1, provides the change in shape for specified applied voltages. To validate the method and the computer code, results generated by the code were compared to existing analytical and experimental results and to test data obtained during the course of the present investigation. The predictions provided by the SHAPE1 code were in excellent agreement with the results of the other analyses and data.

  8. Ambient Agents: Embedded Agents for Remote Control and Monitoring Using the PANGEA Platform

    PubMed Central

    Villarrubia, Gabriel; De Paz, Juan F.; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    Ambient intelligence has advanced significantly during the last few years. The incorporation of image processing and artificial intelligence techniques have opened the possibility for such aspects as pattern recognition, thus allowing for a better adaptation of these systems. This study presents a new model of an embedded agent especially designed to be implemented in sensing devices with resource constraints. This new model of an agent is integrated within the PANGEA (Platform for the Automatic Construction of Organiztions of Intelligent Agents) platform, an organizational-based platform, defining a new sensor role in the system and aimed at providing contextual information and interacting with the environment. A case study was developed over the PANGEA platform and designed using different agents and sensors responsible for providing user support at home in the event of incidents or emergencies. The system presented in the case study incorporates agents in Arduino hardware devices with recognition modules and illuminated bands; it also incorporates IP cameras programmed for automatic tracking, which can connect remotely in the event of emergencies. The user wears a bracelet, which contains a simple vibration sensor that can receive notifications about the emergency situation. PMID:25090416

  9. Ambient agents: embedded agents for remote control and monitoring using the PANGEA platform.

    PubMed

    Villarrubia, Gabriel; De Paz, Juan F; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan M

    2014-07-31

    Ambient intelligence has advanced significantly during the last few years. The incorporation of image processing and artificial intelligence techniques have opened the possibility for such aspects as pattern recognition, thus allowing for a better adaptation of these systems. This study presents a new model of an embedded agent especially designed to be implemented in sensing devices with resource constraints. This new model of an agent is integrated within the PANGEA (Platform for the Automatic Construction of Organiztions of Intelligent Agents) platform, an organizational-based platform, defining a new sensor role in the system and aimed at providing contextual information and interacting with the environment. A case study was developed over the PANGEA platform and designed using different agents and sensors responsible for providing user support at home in the event of incidents or emergencies. The system presented in the case study incorporates agents in Arduino hardware devices with recognition modules and illuminated bands; it also incorporates IP cameras programmed for automatic tracking, which can connect remotely in the event of emergencies. The user wears a bracelet, which contains a simple vibration sensor that can receive notifications about the emergency situation.

  10. A smart sensor system for trace organic vapor detection using a temperature-controlled array of surface acoustic wave vapor sensors, automated preconcentrator tubes, and pattern recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, J.W.; Rose-Pehrsson, S.L.; Klusty, M.; Wohltjen, H.

    1993-05-01

    A smart sensor system for the detection, of toxic organophosphorus and toxic organosulfur vapors at trace concentrations has been designed, fabricated, and tested against a wide variety of vapor challenges. The key features of the system are: An array of four surface acoustic wave (SAW) vapor sensors, temperature control of the vapor sensors, the use of pattern recognition to analyze the sensor data, and an automated sampling system including thermally-desorbed preconcentrator tubes (PCTs).

  11. Open-phase operating modes of power flow control topologies in a Smart Grid Distribution Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astashev, M. G.; Novikov, M. A.; Panfilov, D. I.; Rashitov, P. A.; Remizevich, T. V.; Fedorova, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    The power flow regulating circuit node in an alternating current system is reviewed. The circuit node is accomplished based on a thyristor controlled phase angle regulator (TCPAR) with controlled thyristor switch. Research results of the individual phase control of the output voltage for the TCPAR are presented. Analytical expressions for the overvoltage factor calculation in the thyristor switch circuit for open-phase operating modes are received. Based on evaluation of overvoltage in operational and emergency modes, the implementability conditions of the individual phase control of the output voltage are determined. Under these conditions, maximal performance and complete controllability are provided.

  12. Model Development and Model-Based Control Design for Nonlinear Smart Composite Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-22

    kpe(t)− kI ∫ t 0 e(s)ds, 7 0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01!50 0 50 100 Time (s) Di sp la ce m en t ( µm ) Reference Displacement PI Control Nonlinear...trajectory and experimental tracking performance obtained with PI control , optimal open loop control and perturbation control at 1000 Hz. (b...significant improvement over PI control at this frequency while operating in a highly hysteretic and nonlinear regime. Further details are provided in

  13. Acoustic emission sensor system using a chirped fiber-Bragg-grating Fabry-Perot interferometer and smart feedback control.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Zhu, Yupeng; Luo, Xiangyu; Liu, Guigen; Han, Ming

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate a fiber-optic acoustic emission (AE) sensor system that is capable of performing AE detection, even when the sensor is experiencing large quasi-static strains. The sensor is a Fabry-Perot interferometer formed by cascaded chirped fiber-Bragg gratings (CFBGs). The reflection spectrum of the sensor features a number of narrow spectral notches equally spaced within the reflection bandwidth of the CFBG. A semiconductor laser whose wavelength can be fast tuned through current injection is used to lock the laser line to the center of a slope of a spectral notch. When the notch is knocked out of the tuning range of the laser, a neighboring notch moves into the range. Through a smart feedback control scheme, the laser is unlocked from the current spectral lock and relocked to the desired point of the new notch. The fast speed of the unlocking/relocking process (<1  ms) ensures that the AE signal is monitored without significant disruption.

  14. Eye-based Direct Interaction for Environmental Control in Heterogeneous Smart Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corno, Fulvio; Gale, Alastair; Majaranta, Päivi; Räihä, Kari-Jouko

    environmental control is the control, operation, and monitoring of an environment via intermediary technology such as a computer. Typically this means control of a domestic home.Within the scope of COGAIN, this environmental control concerns the control of the personal environment of a person (with or without a disability). This defines environmental control as the control of a home or domestic setting and those objects that are within that setting. Thus, we may say that environmental control systems enable anyone to operate a wide range of domestic appliances and other vital functions in the home by remote control. In recent years the problem of self-sufficiency for older people and people with a disability has attracted increasing attention and resources. The search for new solutions that can guarantee greater autonomy and a better quality of life has begun to exploit easily available state-of-the-art technology. Personal environmental control can be considered to be a comprehensive and effective aid, adaptable to the functional possibilities of the user and to their desired actions.

  15. Smart Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Rhea, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    What makes a classroom "smart"? Presentation technologies such as projectors, document cameras, and LCD panels clearly fit the bill, but when considering other technologies for teaching, learning, and developing content, the possibilities become limited only by the boundaries of an institution's innovation. This article presents 32 best practices…

  16. Embedded MicroHeating Elements in Polymeric MicroChannels for Temperature Control and Fluid Flow Sensing.

    PubMed

    Gaitan, Michael; Locascio, Laurie E

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the first demonstration of temperature control and flow sensing of fluids using integrated circuit (IC)-based microheating elements embedded in microchannels molded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Fluid channels and connections to capillary tubing are molded in PDMS using a silicon wafer template. The PDMS film is then bonded to an IC that contains the micromachined microheating elements. Capillary tubes are inserted and fluids are externally pumped through the channels. Heating of the fluid is observed by the formation of bubbles on the microheating element. Sensing of fluid flow is demonstrated by measuring a change in the large signal resistance of the microheater analogous to a hot wire anemometer with a detection limit of ± 320 pL/s.

  17. Method and apparatus for smart battery charging including a plurality of controllers each monitoring input variables

    DOEpatents

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2013-10-15

    A method for managing the charging and discharging of batteries wherein at least one battery is connected to a battery charger, the battery charger is connected to a power supply. A plurality of controllers in communication with one and another are provided, each of the controllers monitoring a subset of input variables. A set of charging constraints may then generated for each controller as a function of the subset of input variables. A set of objectives for each controller may also be generated. A preferred charge rate for each controller is generated as a function of either the set of objectives, the charging constraints, or both, using an algorithm that accounts for each of the preferred charge rates for each of the controllers and/or that does not violate any of the charging constraints. A current flow between the battery and the battery charger is then provided at the actual charge rate.

  18. A smart sensor using a mechanical memory for structural health monitoring of a damage-controlled building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mita, Akira; Takhira, Shinpei

    2003-04-01

    A smart sensor using a mechanical memory that can monitor peak strain or displacement was developed. The mechanism of the mechanical memory relies on the pure plastic extension of the sensing section that is realized by elastic buckling of a thin wire. The change in length of the sensing section is detected via a change in resistance, inductance or capacitance. In addition, by introducing an LC-circuit into the sensor we can add a capability for wireless retrieval of the measured data. Basically, the sensor does not need any power supply for measurements. A small power supply is required only when the data retrieval becomes necessary. Theoretical and experimental studies show the feasibility of using the sensor developed for structural health monitoring of damage-controlled structures. Though the sensor is designed to memorize the peak strain or displacement only, it can be easily modified to measure other damage indices that are physical values well correlated with the critical damage in a structure. Typical damage indices include peak strain, peak displacement, peak acceleration, absorbed energy and accumulated plastic deformation. Simple and inexpensive passive sensors that can monitor such damage indices are particularly useful for quantifying the performance of a damage-controlled building, as most damaging energy due to a large earthquake is taken care of by structural control devices. The devices are usually covered by a wall or a fire-protection material, so a simple inspection by eye is not possible without removing cover materials. We believe the installation of the sensors developed will ensure the safety of such a building with minimal cost.

  19. Comparison of embedded and added motor imagery training in patients after stroke: results of a randomised controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Motor imagery (MI) when combined with physiotherapy can offer functional benefits after stroke. Two MI integration strategies exist: added and embedded MI. Both approaches were compared when learning a complex motor task (MT): 'Going down, laying on the floor, and getting up again'. Methods Outpatients after first stroke participated in a single-blinded, randomised controlled trial with MI embedded into physiotherapy (EG1), MI added to physiotherapy (EG2), and a control group (CG). All groups participated in six physiotherapy sessions. Primary study outcome was time (sec) to perform the motor task at pre and post-intervention. Secondary outcomes: level of help needed, stages of MT-completion, independence, balance, fear of falling (FOF), MI ability. Data were collected four times: twice during one week baseline phase (BL, T0), following the two week intervention (T1), after a two week follow-up (FU). Analysis of variance was performed. Results Thirty nine outpatients were included (12 females, age: 63.4 ± 10 years; time since stroke: 3.5 ± 2 years; 29 with an ischemic event). All were able to complete the motor task using the standardised 7-step procedure and reduced FOF at T0, T1, and FU. Times to perform the MT at baseline were 44.2 ± 22s, 64.6 ± 50s, and 118.3 ± 93s for EG1 (N = 13), EG2 (N = 12), and CG (N = 14). All groups showed significant improvement in time to complete the MT (p < 0.001) and degree of help needed to perform the task: minimal assistance to supervision (CG) and independent performance (EG1+2). No between group differences were found. Only EG1 demonstrated changes in MI ability over time with the visual indicator increasing from T0 to T1 and decreasing from T1 to FU. The kinaesthetic indicator increased from T1 to FU. Patients indicated to value the MI training and continued using MI for other difficult-to-perform tasks. Conclusions Embedded or added MI training combined with physiotherapy seem to be feasible and benefi

  20. Multi-Core Processors: An Enabling Technology for Embedded Distributed Model-Based Control (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    Senior Aerospace Engineer , Propulsion Directorate, 1950 Fifth St., Bldg 18D-133. 2 Military Controls Program Leader, One Neumann Way MD BBC-5. 3...Behbahani, Nathan Gibson, Murali Rangarajan, and Dewey Benson Structures and Controls Branch Turbine Engine Division JULY 2008... PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62203F 6. AUTHOR(S) Alireza Behbahani (AFRL/RZTS) Nathan Gibson (GE Aviation) Murali Rangarajan (Honeywell Aerospace

  1. Hierarchical, decentralized control system for large-scale smart-structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algermissen, Stephan; Fröhlich, Tim; Monner, Hans Peter

    2014-08-01

    Active control of sound and vibration has gained much attention in all kinds of industries in the past decade. Future prospects for maximizing airline passenger comfort are especially promising. The objectives of recent research projects in this area are the reduction of noise transmission through thin walled structures such as fuselages, linings or interior elements. Besides different external noise sources, such as the turbulent boundary layer, rotor or jet noise, the actuator and sensor placement as well as different control concepts are addressed. Mostly, the work is focused on a single panel or section of the fuselage, neglecting the fact that for effective noise reduction the entire fuselage has to be taken into account. Nevertheless, extending the scope of an active system from a single panel to the entire fuselage increases the effort for control hardware dramatically. This paper presents a control concept for large structures using distributed control nodes. Each node has the capability to execute a vibration or noise controller for a specific part or section of the fuselage. For maintenance, controller tuning or performance measurement, all nodes are connected to a host computer via Universal Serial Bus (USB). This topology allows a partitioning and distributing of tasks. The nodes execute the low-level control functions. High-level tasks like maintenance, system identification and control synthesis are operated by the host using streamed data from the nodes. By choosing low-price nodes, a very cost effective way of implementing an active system for large structures is realized. Besides the system identification and controller synthesis on the host computer, a detailed view on the hardware and software concept for the nodes is given. Finally, the results of an experimental test of a system running a robust vibration controller at an active panel demonstrator are shown.

  2. Flatness-based embedded control of air-fuel ratio in combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigatos, Gerasimos; Siano, Pierluigi; Arsie, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    A nonlinear controller is designed for air-fuel ratio control in combustion engines, making use of differential flatness theory and of the Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter. It is proven that the air-fuel ratio system is a differentially flat one and admits dynamic feedback linearization. Using a change of variables that is based on differential flatness theory it is shown that the air-fuel ratio system can be transformed to the linear canonical form, for which the design of a state feedback controller is easier. Moreover, to compensate for modeling uncertainties and external disturbances the Derivative-free nonlinear Kalman Filter is designed as a disturbance observer. The estimation of the perturbations that effect the air-fuel systems enables their compensation through the inclusion of an additional term in the feedback control law. The efficiency of the proposed nonlinear feedback control scheme is tested through simulation experiments.

  3. Design of a telescope control system using an ARM microcontroller with embedded RTOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peñuela Pico, Cristian R.; Atara Montañez, Fabian A.; Cuervo, Juan C.; Gonzalez-Llorente, Jesus

    2014-08-01

    This work presents the design of a wireless control system that allows driving all the necessary instruments to control the orientation of an equatorial mounting telescope through a real time operative system (RTOS) that runs over ARM microcontroller. The control system is commanded through a user-interface which works under Android platform giving the user the option to control the tracking mode, right ascension, and declination. The system was successfully deployed and tested during a one-hour observation of the Moon. The frequency measured by the oscilloscope is 66.67 Hz which equals the sidereal speed. The telescope control systems allows the user to have a better precision when locating a star but also to cover long-duration tracking processes

  4. Data embedding

    DOEpatents

    Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.

    1997-08-19

    A method is disclosed for embedding auxiliary information into a set of host data, such as a photograph, television signal, facsimile transmission, or identification card. All such host data contain intrinsic noise, allowing pixels in the host data which are nearly identical and which have values differing by less than the noise value to be manipulated and replaced with auxiliary data. As the embedding method does not change the elemental values of the host data, the auxiliary data do not noticeably affect the appearance or interpretation of the host data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user. 19 figs.

  5. Data embedding

    DOEpatents

    Sandford, II, Maxwell T.; Handel, Theodore G.

    1997-01-01

    A method of embedding auxiliary information into a set of host data, such as a photograph, television signal, facsimile transmission, or identification card. All such host data contain intrinsic noise, allowing pixels in the host data which are nearly identical and which have values differing by less than the noise value to be manipulated and replaced with auxiliary data. As the embedding method does not change the elemental values of the host data, the auxiliary data do not noticeably affect the appearance or interpretation of the host data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user.

  6. Nonhazardous Chemical Treatments and Smart Monitoring and Control System for Heating and Cooling Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    inhibitors based on actual corrosion results. This report addresses five important HVAC issues: scale protection, control of algae and bacteria , cycles of... bacteria ....................................................................................................19 Effect of cycles of concentration on...19 Table 4. Control levels for algae and bacteria . ......................................................................................22 Table

  7. Stall Flutter Control of a Smart Blade Section Undergoing Asymmetric Limit Oscillations

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Nailu; Balas, Mark J.; Nikoueeyan, Pourya; ...

    2016-01-01

    Stall flutter is an aeroelastic phenomenon resulting in unwanted oscillatory loads on the blade, such as wind turbine blade, helicopter rotor blade, and other flexible wing blades. Although the stall flutter and related aeroelastic control have been studied theoretically and experimentally, microtab control of asymmetric limit cycle oscillations (LCOs) in stall flutter cases has not been generally investigated. This paper presents an aeroservoelastic model to study the microtab control of the blade section undergoing moderate stall flutter and deep stall flutter separately. The effects of different dynamic stall conditions and the consequent asymmetric LCOs for both stall cases are simulatedmore » and analyzed. Then, for the design of the stall flutter controller, the potential sensor signal for the stall flutter, the microtab control capability of the stall flutter, and the control algorithm for the stall flutter are studied. The improvement and the superiority of the proposed adaptive stall flutter controller are shown by comparison with a simple stall flutter controller.« less

  8. Deformation measurements of smart aerodynamic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Gary A.; Burner, Alpheus W.

    1999-10-01

    Video Model Deformation (VMD) and Projection Moire Interferometry (PMI) were used to acquire wind tunnel model deformation measurements of the Northrop Grumman-built Smart Wing tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The F18-E/F platform Smart Wing was outfitted with embedded shape memory alloys to actuate a seamless trailing edge aileron and flat, and an embedded torque tube to generate wing twist. The VMD system was used to obtain highly accurate deformation measurements at three spanwise locations along the main body of the wing, and at spanwise locations on the flap and aileron. The PMI system was used to obtain full-field wing shape and deformation measurements over the entire wing lower surface. Although less accurate than the VMD system, the PMI system revealed deformations occurring between VMD target rows indistinguishable by VMD. This paper presents the VMD and PMI techniques and discusses their application in the Smart Wing test.

  9. Deformation Measurements of Smart Aerodynamic Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A.; Burner, Alpheus

    2005-01-01

    Video Model Deformation (VMD) and Projection Moire Interferometry (PMI) were used to acquire wind tunnel model deformation measurements of the Northrop Grumman-built Smart Wing tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The F18-E/F planform Smart Wing was outfitted with embedded shape memory alloys to actuate a seamless trailing edge aileron and flap, and an embedded torque tube to generate wing twist. The VMD system was used to obtain highly accurate deformation measurements at three spanwise locations along the main body of the wing, and at spanwise locations on the flap and aileron. The PMI system was used to obtain full-field wing shape and deformation measurements over the entire wing lower surface. Although less accurate than the VMD system, the PMI system revealed deformations occurring between VMD target rows indistinguishable by VMD. This paper presents the VMD and PMI techniques and discusses their application in the Smart Wing test.

  10. Ubiquitous Wireless Smart Sensing and Control. Pumps and Pipes JSC: Uniquely Houston

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Need new technologies to reliably and safely have humans interact within sensored environments (integrated user interfaces, physical and cognitive augmentation, training, and human-systems integration tools).Areas of focus include: radio frequency identification (RFID), motion tracking, wireless communication, wearable computing, adaptive training and decision support systems, and tele-operations. The challenge is developing effective, low cost/mass/volume/power integrated monitoring systems to assess and control system, environmental, and operator health; and accurately determining and controlling the physical, chemical, and biological environments of the areas and associated environmental control systems.

  11. Embedded computer controlled premixing inline injection system for air-assisted variable-rate sprayers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvements to reduce chemical waste and environmental pollution for variable-rate sprayers used in orchards and ornamental nurseries require inline injection techniques. A microprocessor controlled premixing inline injection system implementing a ceramic piston chemical metering pump and two small...

  12. Smart fabrics: integrating fiber optic sensors and information networks.

    PubMed

    El-Sherif, Mahmoud

    2004-01-01

    "Smart Fabrics" are defined as fabrics capable of monitoring their own "health", and sensing environmental conditions. They consist of special type of sensors, signal processing, and communication network embedded into textile substrate. Available conventional sensors and networking systems are not fully technologically mature for such applications. New classes of miniature sensors, signal processing and networking systems are urgently needed for such application. Also, the methodology for integration into textile structures has to be developed. In this paper, the development of smart fabrics with embedded fiber optic systems is presented for applications in health monitoring and diagnostics. Successful development of such smart fabrics with embedded sensors and networks is mainly dependent on the development of the proper miniature sensors technology, and on the integration of these sensors into textile structures. The developed smart fabrics will be discussed and samples of the results will be presented.

  13. Application of fuzzy GA for optimal vibration control of smart cylindrical shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Zhanli; Yang, Yaowen; Kiong Soh, Chee

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, a fuzzy-controlled genetic-based optimization technique for optimal vibration control of cylindrical shell structures incorporating piezoelectric sensor/actuators (S/As) is proposed. The geometric design variables of the piezoelectric patches, including the placement and sizing of the piezoelectric S/As, are processed using fuzzy set theory. The criterion based on the maximization of energy dissipation is adopted for the geometric optimization. A fuzzy-rule-based system (FRBS) representing expert knowledge and experience is incorporated in a modified genetic algorithm (GA) to control its search process. A fuzzy logic integrated GA is then developed and implemented. The results of three numerical examples, which include a simply supported plate, a simply supported cylindrical shell, and a clamped simply supported plate, provide some meaningful and heuristic conclusions for practical design. The results also show that the proposed fuzzy-controlled GA approach is more effective and efficient than the pure GA method.

  14. Integrated structures/controls optimization of a smart composite plate with segmented active constrained layer damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beri, Rajan; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Nam, Changho

    2000-06-01

    A rigorous multi-objective optimization procedure, is developed to address the integrated structures/control design of composite plates with surface bonded segmented active constrained layer (ACL) damping treatment. The Kresselmeier- Steinhauser function approach is used to formulate this multidisciplinary problem. The goal is to control vibration without incorporating a weight penalty. Objective functions and constraints include damping ratios, structural weight and natural frequencies. Design variables include the ply stacking sequence, dimensions and placement of segmented ACL. The optimal designs show improved plate vibratory characteristics and reduced structural weight. The results of the multi- objective optimization problem are compared to those of a single objective optimization with vibration control as the objective. Results establish the necessity for developing the integrated structures/controls optimization procedure.

  15. Model Development and Model-Based Control Design for High Performance Nonlinear Smart Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-20

    implementation capabilities. As detailed in [4], these inverse algorithms employ either lookup tables or rational function approximations in the forward...FPGA yields speedups of approximately 100-fold for the thermal relaxation model as compared with optimized C implementations . Depending on the number of... Optimal Control The second main thrust of the control component of the program has focused on the formulation, numerical implementation , and experimental

  16. Complex IoT Systems as Enablers for Smart Homes in a Smart City Vision.

    PubMed

    Lynggaard, Per; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2016-11-02

    The world is entering a new era, where Internet-of-Things (IoT), smart homes, and smart cities will play an important role in meeting the so-called big challenges. In the near future, it is foreseen that the majority of the world's population will live their lives in smart homes and in smart cities. To deal with these challenges, to support a sustainable urban development, and to improve the quality of life for citizens, a multi-disciplinary approach is needed. It seems evident, however, that a new, advanced Information and Communications Technology ICT infrastructure is a key feature to realize the "smart" vision. This paper proposes a specific solution in the form of a hierarchical layered ICT based infrastructure that handles ICT issues related to the "big challenges" and seamlessly integrates IoT, smart homes, and smart city structures into one coherent unit. To exemplify benefits of this infrastructure, a complex IoT system has been deployed, simulated and elaborated. This simulation deals with wastewater energy harvesting from smart buildings located in a smart city context. From the simulations, it has been found that the proposed infrastructure is able to harvest between 50% and 75% of the wastewater energy in a smart residential building. By letting the smart city infrastructure coordinate and control the harvest time and duration, it is possible to achieve considerable energy savings in the smart homes, and it is possible to reduce the peak-load for district heating plants.

  17. Vibration characteristics in a smart bridge model using shape-memory alloy fiber reinforced composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamoto, A.; Zhao, H.; Abe, H.

    2005-05-01

    A smart bridge model was proposed for active control on strength and vibration by changing material properties of shape memory alloy embedded in the bridge structure using TiNi/acrylic composite. A systemic experimental study was carried out to investigate the self-strengthening effect by shape recovery of pre-strained TiNi wires as well as vibration control by stiffness changing with direct electric heating method. The deflection and vibration responses are measured by electric strain gages affixed on the bridge floor on which the model train goes through. From these results, we know the smart bridge model of composite material beam has not only been able to reduce the vibration response, but also change the frequency of the structure. The damping and vibration control for the bridge model is confirmed by the measurement.

  18. A pilot study: locus of control and spiritual beliefs in alcoholics anonymous and smart recovery members.

    PubMed

    Li, E C; Feifer, C; Strohm, M

    2000-01-01

    To investigate whether Alcoholics Anonymous' (AA's) "higher power" concept encourages externally dependent behavior, this pilot study tested whether AA and Self Management and Recovery Training (SR) members are equal on measures of external locus of control. The AA sample (N = 48) and SR sample (N = 33) were similar in age, gender, and education levels, and both required a minimum of 8 weeks group involvement. A modified spiritual beliefs questionnaire (SBQ) was first administered to each sample to compare them on spiritual beliefs, and the drinking-related locus of control scale (DRIE) was then conducted to compare each sample on locus of control. Significant differences were found between both samples on five out of seven spiritual measures, with the AA group scoring consistently higher on these factors (p < .01). In addition, the AA sample was significantly more external on the DRIE scale than the SR sample (p = .00003). These findings suggest that AA members are generally more spiritually oriented and exhibit greater external locus of control relative to SR members. Future controlled trials are necessary to confirm whether these results are caused by particular programs or primarily due to a self-selective process.

  19. Gerontechnology for demented patients: smart homes for smart aging.

    PubMed

    Frisardi, Vincenza; Imbimbo, Bruno P

    2011-01-01

    In an aging world, maintaining good health and independence for as long as possible is essential. Instead of hospitalization or institutionalization, the elderly with chronic conditions, especially those with cognitive impairment, can be assisted in their own environment with numerous 'smart' devices that support them in their activity of daily living. A "smart home" is a residence equipped with technology that facilitates monitoring of residents to improve quality of life and promote physical independence, as well as to reduce caregiver burden. Several projects worldwide have been conducted, but some ethical and legal issues are still unresolved and, at present, there is no evidence of the effects of smart homes on health outcomes. Randomized controlled trials are needed to understand the plus and minuses of these projects, but this will only be possible with a widespread proliferation and penetration of smart homes in the social network.

  20. Long Island Smart Energy Corridor

    SciTech Connect

    Mui, Ming

    2015-02-04

    The Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) has teamed with Stony Brook University (Stony Brook or SBU) and Farmingdale State College (Farmingdale or FSC), two branches of the State University of New York (SUNY), to create a “Smart Energy Corridor.” The project, located along the Route 110 business corridor on Long Island, New York, demonstrated the integration of a suite of Smart Grid technologies from substations to end-use loads. The Smart Energy Corridor Project included the following key features: -TECHNOLOGY: Demonstrated a full range of smart energy technologies, including substations and distribution feeder automation, fiber and radio communications backbone, advanced metering infrastructure (AM”), meter data management (MDM) system (which LIPA implemented outside of this project), field tools automation, customer-level energy management including automated energy management systems, and integration with distributed generation and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. -MARKETING: A rigorous market test that identified customer response to an alternative time-of-use pricing plan and varying levels of information and analytical support. -CYBER SECURITY: Tested cyber security vulnerabilities in Smart Grid hardware, network, and application layers. Developed recommendations for policies, procedures, and technical controls to prevent or foil cyber-attacks and to harden the Smart Grid infrastructure. -RELIABILITY: Leveraged new Smart Grid-enabled data to increase system efficiency and reliability. Developed enhanced load forecasting, phase balancing, and voltage control techniques designed to work hand-in-hand with the Smart Grid technologies. -OUTREACH: Implemented public outreach and educational initiatives that were linked directly to the demonstration of Smart Grid technologies, tools, techniques, and system configurations. This included creation of full-scale operating models demonstrating application of Smart Grid technologies in business and residential

  1. Characterization on Smart Optics Using Ellipsometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Kyo D.

    2002-01-01

    Recently, NASA Langley Research Center developed a smart active optical concept to filter narrow band pass or to control optical intensity. To characterize developed smart optics materials, we have measured thickness and reflection properties of the materials using a WVASE32 ellipsometry. This project allowed us to: (1) prepare the smart optical materials for measurement of thickness and optical properties at NASA Langley Research Center; (2) measure thickness and optical properties of the smart optical materials; (3) evaluate the measured properties in terms of applications for narrow band-pass filters. The outcomes of this research provide optical properties and physical properties of the smart optics on a selected spectral range. The applications of this development were used for field-controlled spectral smart filters.

  2. A community empowerment strategy embedded in a routine dengue vector control programme: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Castro, Marta; Sánchez, Lizet; Pérez, Dennis; Carbonell, Nestor; Lefèvre, Pierre; Vanlerberghe, Veerle; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2012-05-01

    The non-sustainability of vertically organised dengue vector control programmes led to pleas for changing the emphasis towards community-based strategies. We conducted a cluster randomised controlled trial with 16 intervention and 16 control clusters to test the effectiveness of a community empowerment strategy intertwined with the routine dengue vector control programme in La Lisa, Havana City, Cuba. The intervention included four components on top of routine control: organisation and management; entomological risk surveillance; capacity building; and community work for vector control. In the control clusters, routine activities continued without interference. The community participation score increased from 1.4 to 3.4. Good knowledge of breeding sites increased by 52.8% and 27.5% in the intervention and control clusters, respectively. There were no changes in adequate Aedes aegypti control practices at household level in the control clusters, but in the intervention clusters adequacy increased by 36.2%. At baseline, the Breteau indices (BI) were approximately 0.1 and were comparable; they fluctuated over time but became different with the launch of the community-based dengue control activities in the intervention clusters. Over the intervention period, the BI remained 53% (95% CI 22-92%) lower in these clusters than in the control clusters. The empowerment strategy increased community involvement and added effectiveness to routine A. aegypti control.

  3. Smart card technology

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.A.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes smart card techonology and applications, including the use of smart cards as smart badges. The paper illustrates that smart cards are designed with security features, which makes them suitable for security applications. But smart cards also provide multiple functions, so they can support additional applications. The goal of this paper is to inform about the technology, and to inspire thought about possible applications that would benefit if a smart badge were implemented.

  4. Feedback Control for a Smart Wheelchair Trainer Based on the Kinect Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, Aurelia McLaughlin

    This thesis describes a Microsoft Kinect-based feedback controller for a robot-assisted powered wheelchair trainer for children with a severe motor and/or cognitive disability. In one training mode, "computer gaming" mode, the wheelchair is allowed to rotate left and right while the children use a joystick to play video games shown on a screen in front of them. This enables them to learn the use of the joystick in a motivating environment, while experiencing the sensation and dynamics of turning in a safe setting. During initial pilot testing of the device, it was found that the wheelchair would creep forward while children were playing the games. This thesis presents a mathematical model of the wheelchair dynamics that explains the origin of the creep as a center of gravity offset from the wheel axis or a mismatch of the torques applied to the chair. Given these possible random perturbations, a feedback controller was developed to cancel these effects, correcting the system creep. The controller uses a Microsoft Kinect sensor to detect the distance to the screen displaying the computer game, as well as the left-right position (parallel parking concept) with respect to the screen, and then adjusts the wheel torque commands based on this measurement. We show through experimental testing that this controller effectively stops the creep. An added benefit of the feedback controller is that it approximates a washout filter, such as those used in aircraft simulators, to convey a more realistic sense of forward/backward motion during game play.

  5. Vibration suppression control of smart piezoelectric rotating truss structure by parallel neuro-fuzzy control with genetic algorithm tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Zheng, Y. B.

    2012-07-01

    The main goal of this paper is to develop a novel approach for vibration control on a piezoelectric rotating truss structure. This study will analyze the dynamics and control of a flexible structure system with multiple degrees of freedom, represented in this research as a clamped-free-free-free truss type plate rotated by motors. The controller has two separate feedback loops for tracking and damping, and the vibration suppression controller is independent of position tracking control. In addition to stabilizing the actual system, the proposed proportional-derivative (PD) control, based on genetic algorithm (GA) to seek the primary optimal control gain, must supplement a fuzzy control law to ensure a stable nonlinear system. This is done by using an intelligent fuzzy controller based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with GA tuning to increase the efficiency of fuzzy control. The PD controller, in its assisting role, easily stabilized the linear system. The fuzzy controller rule base was then constructed based on PD performance-related knowledge. Experimental validation for such a structure demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed controller. The broad range of problems discussed in this research will be found useful in civil, mechanical, and aerospace engineering, for flexible structures with multiple degree-of-freedom motion.

  6. Park Smart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Parking Garage Automation System (PGAS) is based on a technology developed by a NASA-sponsored project called Robot sensorSkin(TM). Merritt Systems, Inc., of Orlando, Florida, teamed up with NASA to improve robots working with critical flight hardware at Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The system, containing smart sensor modules and flexible printed circuit board skin, help robots to steer clear of obstacles using a proximity sensing system. Advancements in the sensor designs are being applied to various commercial applications, including the PGAS. The system includes a smartSensor(TM) network installed around and within public parking garages to autonomously guide motorists to open facilities, and once within, to free parking spaces. The sensors use non-invasive reflective-ultrasonic technology for high accuracy, high reliability, and low maintenance. The system is remotely programmable: it can be tuned to site-specific requirements, has variable range capability, and allows remote configuration, monitoring, and diagnostics. The sensors are immune to interference from metallic construction materials, such as rebar and steel beams. Inside the garage, smart routing signs mounted overhead or on poles in front of each row of parking spots guide the motorist precisely to free spaces.

  7. Designing power system simulators for the smart grid: combining controls, communications, and electro-mechanical dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Nutaro, James J

    2011-01-01

    Open source software has a leading role in research on simulation technology for electrical power systems. Research simulators demonstrate new features for which there is nascent but growing demand not yet provided for by commercial simulators. Of particular interest is the inclusion of models of software-intensive and communication-intensive controls in simulations of power system transients. This paper describes two features of the ORNL power system simulator that help it meet this need. First is its use of discrete event simulation for all aspects of the model: control, communication, and electro-mechanical dynamics. Second is an interoperability interface that enables the ORNL power system simulator to be integrated with existing, discrete event simulators of digital communication systems. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of how these aspects of the ORNL power system simulator might be inserted into production-grade simulation tools.

  8. Bio-inspired smart single asymmetric hourglass nanochannels for continuous shape and ion transport control.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huacheng; Hou, Xu; Yang, Zhe; Yan, Dadong; Li, Lin; Tian, Ye; Wang, Huanting; Jiang, Lei

    2015-02-18

    Inspired by biological asymmetric ion channels, new shape-tunable and pH-responsive asymmetric hourglass single nanochannel systems demonstrate unique ion-transport properties. It is found that the change in shape and pH cooperatively control the ion transport within the nanochannel ranging from asymmetric shape with asymmetric ion transport, to asymmetric shape with symmetric ion transport and symmetric shape with symmetric ion transport.

  9. Algorithms and software for modules of automatic neurocomputer control of smart electromechanical system such as hexapods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanchuk, V. A.

    2015-10-01

    The article discusses issues in developing algorithms and software for specialized computing devices based on neuroprocessors, to be used in automatic control of electric- mechanical system modules (in this case study, a hexapod) in a mode that is close to real-time. The practical implementation employed an NM6406 neuroprocessor based on an MC 51.03 tool module and an MB 77.07 microcomputer, developed by the Module Research Centre.

  10. Smart Growth and Transportation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the relationship between smart growth and transportation, focusing smart and sustainable street design, transit-oriented development, parking management, sustainable transportation planning, and related resources.

  11. Optimal Scheduling Method of Controllable Loads in DC Smart Apartment Building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoji, Tsubasa; Tahara, Hayato; Matayoshi, Hidehito; Yona, Atsushi; Senjyu, Tomonobu

    2015-12-01

    From the perspective of global warming suppression and the depletion of energy resources, renewable energies, such as the solar collector (SC) and photovoltaic generation (PV), have been gaining attention in worldwide. Houses or buildings with PV and heat pumps (HPs) are recently being used in residential areas widely due to the time of use (TOU) electricity pricing scheme which is essentially inexpensive during middle-night and expensive during day-time. If fixed batteries and electric vehicles (EVs) can be introduced in the premises, the electricity cost would be even more reduced. While, if the occupants arbitrarily use these controllable loads respectively, power demand in residential buildings may fluctuate in the future. Thus, an optimal operation of controllable loads such as HPs, batteries and EV should be scheduled in the buildings in order to prevent power flow from fluctuating rapidly. This paper proposes an optimal scheduling method of controllable loads, and the purpose is not only the minimization of electricity cost for the consumers, but also suppression of fluctuation of power flow on the power supply side. Furthermore, a novel electricity pricing scheme is also suggested in this paper.

  12. Smart earthquake-resistant materials: using time-released adhesives for damping, stiffening, and deflection control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dry, Carolyn M.

    1996-04-01

    Preventing buildings and bridges from damage from severe dynamic loading events is a primary goal of civil infrastructure. Present designs attempt to control structural response by making the structures more massive, by increasing lateral stiffness through bracing, and by damping technology such as mass damping and base-isolation. These attempts affect portions of the governing equation: for an idealized building frame or bridge, the free vibrational behavior is described by Mu + cu + ku equals -mug(t) where m equals mass, c equals damping coefficient, k equals lateral stiffness, u equals deflection, and ug(t) equals ground acceleration. The use of adhesive released internally in a material based way of addressing the problem. The time release of low modulus adhesive chemicals would assist the damping characteristics of the structure, use of a stiffer adhesive would allow the damaged structure to regain some lateral stiffness (k) and adjustment of the set times of the adhesives would act to control the deflection. These can be thought of as potential new method of controlling vibration of behavior in case of a dynamic loading event. In past experiments, self-healing concrete matrices were shown to increase post-yield deflection and load carrying capability by the release and setting of adhesives. The results were promising in resisting damage of dynamic loads applied to frames. This indicates that self-healing concrete would be extremely valuable in civil engineering structures that were subjected to failure-inducing loads such as earthquakes.

  13. Active-passive hybrid piezoelectric network-based smart structures for vibration controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Meng-Shiun

    1998-12-01

    This thesis investigates the active-passive hybrid piezoelectric network (APPN) based adaptive structures for vibration and noise controls. It consists of three parts: (1) investigation of active piezoelectric actuators with passive networks to achieve hybrid damping; (2) integration of active-passive hybrid piezoelectric networks with active constrained layer treatments; (3) development of a coupled robust control/optimization process for the active-passive adaptive structures. The partial differential equations of motion of a beam structure with piezoelectric network are derived via Hamilton's principle. The Galerkin's method is employed to discretize and analyze the model in time domain. The open loop analysis shows that the shunt circuit can provide passive damping as well as enhance the active action around the tuned frequency. Therefore, the integrated APPN design is more effective than a system with separated active and passive elements. A bench top test is performed to verify the open loop behavior of the APPN, purely active and separated systems. It is shown that the experimental observations agree with the analytical findings. It is also recognized that a concurrent design/control method is needed to ensure that the passive and active actions are optimally synthesized. Such a method is developed and presented. The characteristics of the closed-loop system are analyzed. The APPN concepts are further illustrated on a ring structure with multiple actuators and sensors. The concurrent design/control method is modified to include a Kalman filter, which is employed to estimate the states from piezoelectric sensor measurements. Analysis results indicate that the APPN approach can suppress vibration and noise radiation effectively, and it can achieve better performance with less control effort as compared to a purely active system. It is illustrated that the performance difference between the APPN and purely active cases becomes smaller as the excitation

  14. Transition in Gas Turbine Engine Control System Architecture: Modular, Distributed, Embedded

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    Controls Issues ENGINE MANUFACTURES FACE DEMANDS TO• MEET THE INCREASING REQUIREMENTS FOR REDUCED EMISSIONS , REDUCED FUEL BURN, AND INCREASED...capable of prolonged operation Supreme Challenge 1600 °C Key compressor and exhaust regions beyond realm of silicon Measure combustor exit...temperatures, pressure, & emissions 800°Ce r a t u r e , C 300 °C Combustora s P a t h T e m p e 600 °C Silicon (SOI) WBG (SiC) Inlet Compressor

  15. Scheduling of network access for feedback-based embedded systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberatore, Vincenzo

    2002-07-01

    nd communication capabilities. Examples range from smart dust embedded in building materials to networks of appliances in the home. Embedded devices will be deployed in unprecedented numbers, will enable pervasive distributed computing, and will radically change the way people interact with the surrounding environment [EGH00a]. The paper targets embedded systems and their real-time (RT) communication requirements. RT requirements arise from the

  16. Deep smarts.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Dorothy; Swap, Walter

    2004-09-01

    When a person sizes up a complex situation and rapidly comes to a decision that proves to be not just good but brilliant, you think, "That was smart." After you watch him do this a few times, you realize you're in the presence of something special. It's not raw brainpower, though that helps. It's not emotional intelligence, either, though that, too, is often involved. It's deep smarts. Deep smarts are not philosophical--they're not"wisdom" in that sense, but they're as close to wisdom as business gets. You see them in the manager who understands when and how to move into a new international market, in the executive who knows just what kind of talk to give when her organization is in crisis, in the technician who can track a product failure back to an interaction between independently produced elements. These are people whose knowledge would be hard to purchase on the open market. Their insight is based on know-how more than on know-what; it comprises a system view as well as expertise in individual areas. Because deep smarts are experienced based and often context specific, they can't be produced overnight or readily imported into an organization. It takes years for an individual to develop them--and no time at all for an organization to lose them when a valued veteran walks out the door. They can be taught, however, with the right techniques. Drawing on their forthcoming book Deep Smarts, Dorothy Leonard and Walter Swap say the best way to transfer such expertise to novices--and, on a larger scale, to make individual knowledge institutional--isn't through PowerPoint slides, a Web site of best practices, online training, project reports, or lectures. Rather, the sage needs to teach the neophyte individually how to draw wisdom from experience. Companies have to be willing to dedicate time and effort to such extensive training, but the investment more than pays for itself.

  17. A phase-lock-loop-based control system for suppressing periodic vibration in smart structural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algrain, Marcelo; Hardt, Steve; Ehlers, Douglas

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents a simple, effective and economical system capable of suppressing periodic vibration (external or self-induced) affecting a structure or payload. The approach used integrates piezoelectric materials/actuators, sensors and low-cost electronics in a novel way. The key innovation is the use of phase-lock loops (PLLs) and switch-capacitor filters (SCFs) for the on-line identification, tracking and control of periodic vibration. This method concentrates its control action at those frequencies where periodic vibration is detected. Among the advantages of this approach are the following: it is conceptually simple, easily expandable and modular; the controller does not rely on a model of the structure and it only needs some approximate notion of the frequency range where the periodic disturbances are expected to occur; it is robust and can be operated at high gain without loss of stability; it is not significantly affected by the presence of random vibration or sensor noise and it can be implemented with inexpensive electronics. The effectiveness of this new approach was experimentally evaluated using a test unit consisting of a simple structure, accelerometers and Terfenol-D actuators. The structure was excited by driving one of the actuators with sinusoidal and random signals. The resulting periodic disturbances were measured using the accelerometers. The acceleration signals were passed though a bank of PLLs and associated SCFs to detect the fundamental frequency and harmonics. This information was used to drive another actuator that rejected the original disturbances, and attenuation levels as high as 30 dB were achieved.

  18. A neurochemical closed-loop controller for deep brain stimulation: toward individualized smart neuromodulation therapies

    PubMed Central

    Grahn, Peter J.; Mallory, Grant W.; Khurram, Obaid U.; Berry, B. Michael; Hachmann, Jan T.; Bieber, Allan J.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Min, Hoon-Ki; Chang, Su-Youne; Lee, Kendall H.; Lujan, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Current strategies for optimizing deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy involve multiple postoperative visits. During each visit, stimulation parameters are adjusted until desired therapeutic effects are achieved and adverse effects are minimized. However, the efficacy of these therapeutic parameters may decline with time due at least in part to disease progression, interactions between the host environment and the electrode, and lead migration. As such, development of closed-loop control systems that can respond to changing neurochemical environments, tailoring DBS therapy to individual patients, is paramount for improving the therapeutic efficacy of DBS. Evidence obtained using electrophysiology and imaging techniques in both animals and humans suggests that DBS works by modulating neural network activity. Recently, animal studies have shown that stimulation-evoked changes in neurotransmitter release that mirror normal physiology are associated with the therapeutic benefits of DBS. Therefore, to fully understand the neurophysiology of DBS and optimize its efficacy, it may be necessary to look beyond conventional electrophysiological analyses and characterize the neurochemical effects of therapeutic and non-therapeutic stimulation. By combining electrochemical monitoring and mathematical modeling techniques, we can potentially replace the trial-and-error process used in clinical programming with deterministic approaches that help attain optimal and stable neurochemical profiles. In this manuscript, we summarize the current understanding of electrophysiological and electrochemical processing for control of neuromodulation therapies. Additionally, we describe a proof-of-principle closed-loop controller that characterizes DBS-evoked dopamine changes to adjust stimulation parameters in a rodent model of DBS. The work described herein represents the initial steps toward achieving a “smart” neuroprosthetic system for treatment of neurologic and psychiatric disorders

  19. Iron-oxide embedded solid lipid nanoparticles for magnetically controlled heating and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ming-Huang; Su, Yu-Chuan

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents the development of magnetic lipid nanoparticles that could serve as controlled delivery vehicles for releasing encapsulated drugs in a desired manner. The nanoparticles are composed of multiple drugs in lipid matrices, which are solid at body temperature and melt around 45 degrees C to 55 degrees C. In addition, super-paramagnetic gamma-Fe2O3 particles with sizes ranging from 5 to 25 nm are surface modified and dispersed uniformly in the lipid nanoparticles. In the prototype demonstration, lipid nanoparticles with average sizes between 100 and 180 nm were fabricated by high-pressure homogenization at elevated temperatures. When exposed to an alternating magnetic field of 60 kA/m at 25 kHz, a solution containing 2 g/L encapsulated gamma-Fe2O3 particles showed a temperature increase from 37 degrees C to 50 degrees C in 20 min. Meanwhile, the dissipated heat melted the surrounding lipid matrices and resulted in an accelerated release of the encapsulated drugs. Within 20 min, approximately 35% of the encapsulated drug molecules were released from the lipid nanoparticles through diffusion. As such, the presented lipid nanoparticles enable a new scheme that combines magnetic control of heating and drug delivery, which could greatly enhance the performance of encapsulated drugs.

  20. An Intelligent Automated Door Control System Based on a Smart Camera

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jie-Ci; Lai, Chin-Lun; Sheu, Hsin-Teng; Chen, Jiann-Jone

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative access control system, based on human detection and path analysis, to reduce false automatic door system actions while increasing the added values for security applications. The proposed system can first identify a person from the scene, and track his trajectory to predict his intention for accessing the entrance, and finally activate the door accordingly. The experimental results show that the proposed system has the advantages of high precision, safety, reliability, and can be responsive to demands, while preserving the benefits of being low cost and high added value. PMID:23666125

  1. Evaluation of SMART sensor displays for multidimensional precision control of Space Shuttle remote manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Brown, J. W.; Lewis, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    An enhanced proximity sensor and display system was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and tested on the full scale Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Manipulator Development Facility (MDF). The sensor system, integrated with a four-claw end effector, measures range error up to 6 inches, and pitch and yaw alignment errors within + or 15 deg., and displays error data on both graphic and numeric displays. The errors are referenced to the end effector control axes through appropriate data processing by a dedicated microcomputer acting on the sensor data in real time. Both display boxes contain a green lamp which indicates whether the combination of range, pitch and yaw errors will assure a successful grapple. More than 200 test runs were completed in early 1980 by three operators at JSC for grasping static and capturing slowly moving targets. The tests have indicated that the use of graphic/numeric displays of proximity sensor information improves precision control of grasp/capture range by more than a factor of two for both static and dynamic grapple conditions.

  2. Optimal decentralized charging control algorithm for electrified vehicles connected to smart grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Changsun; Li, Chiao-Ting; Peng, Huei

    Electrified vehicles (EV) and renewable power sources are two important technologies for sustainable ground transportation. If left unmitigated, the additional electric load could over-burden the electric grid. Meanwhile, a challenge for integrating renewable power sources into the grid lies in the fact their intermittency requires more regulation services which makes them expensive to deploy. Fortunately, EVs are controllable loads and the charging process can be interrupted. This flexibility makes it possible to manipulate EV charging to reduce the additional electric load and accommodate the intermittency of renewable power sources. To illustrate this potential, a two-level optimal charging algorithm is designed, which achieves both load shifting and frequency regulation. Load shifting can be realized through coordination of power generation and vehicle charging while reducing power generation cost and carbon dioxide emissions. To ensure practicality, a decentralized charging algorithm for load shifting is formulated by emulating the charging pattern identified through linear programming optimization solutions. The frequency regulation is also designed based on frequency droop that can be implemented in a decentralized way. The two control objectives can be integrated because they are functionally separated by time scale. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed decentralized algorithm.

  3. Nanopatterned smart polymer surfaces for controlled attachment, killing, and release of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qian; Cho, Janghwan; Shivapooja, Phanindhar; Ista, Linnea K; López, Gabriel P

    2013-10-09

    Model surfaces with switchable functionality based on nanopatterned, thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) brushes were fabricated using interferometric lithography combined with surface-initiated polymerization. The temperature-triggered hydration and conformational changes of nanopatterned PNIPAAm brushes reversibly modulate the spatial concealment and exposure of molecules that are immobilized in the intervals between nanopatterned brushes. A biocidal quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) was used to demonstrate the utility of nanopatterned PNIPAAm brushes to control biointerfacial interactions with bacteria. QAS was integrated into polymer-free regions of the substrate between nanopatterned PNIPAAm brushes. The biocidal efficacy and release properties of these surfaces were tested against Escherichia coli K12. Above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of PNIPAAm, desolvated, collapsed polymer chains facilitate the attachment of bacteria and expose QAS moieties that kill attached bacteria. Upon a reduction of the temperature below the LCST, swollen PNIPAAm chains promote the release of dead bacteria. These results demonstrate that nanopatterned PNIPAAm/QAS hybrid surfaces are model systems that exhibit an ability to undergo noncovalent, dynamic, and reversible changes in structure that can be used to control the attachment, killing, and release of bacteria in response to changes in temperature.

  4. Control of silicon nanoparticle size embedded in silicon oxynitride dielectric matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrhardt, F.; Ferblantier, G.; Muller, D.; Slaoui, A.; Ulhaq-Bouillet, C.; Rinnert, H.

    2013-07-21

    In this study, silicon rich silicon oxynitride layers containing more than 15% nitrogen were deposited by electron cyclotron resonance assisted plasma enhanced vapor deposition in order to form silicon nanoparticles after a high temperature thermal annealing. The effect of the flows of the precursor gases on the composition and the structural properties of the layers was assessed by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, elastic recoil detection analysis, and infrared spectroscopic measurements. The morphological and crystallinity properties were investigated by energy filtered transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. We show that the excess of silicon in the silicon oxynitride layer controls the silicon nanoparticles size. On the other hand, the crystalline fraction of particles is found to be strongly correlated to the nanoparticle size. Finally, the photoluminescence measurements show that it is also possible to tune the photoluminescence peak position between 400 and 800 nm and its intensity by changing the silicon excess in the silicon rich silicon oxynitride matrix.

  5. Electrically controlled plasmonic lasing resonances with silver nanoparticles embedded in amplifying nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chin; Deng, Luogen

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrated an electrical control of coherent plasmonic random lasing with very diluted Ag nanoparticles dispersed in a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal (NLC), in which the external electric field dependent emission intensity and frequency-splitting were recorded. A modified rate equation model is proposed to interpret the observed coherent lasing, which is a manifestation of the double enhancements caused by the plasmon-polariton near-fields of Ag particles on the population inversion of laser dye molecules and on the optical energy density of lasing modes. The featured laser quenching as weakening the applied field indicates that the present lasing resonances are very sensitive to the fluctuant dielectric perturbations in the NLC host, and are thus most likely associated with some coupled plasmonic oscillations among the metal nanoparticles.

  6. Failure and deformation analyses of smart laminated composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Z.; Muliana, A.

    2012-09-01

    The present study focuses on the failure analysis and shape control of smart composite laminates under coupled thermal (hygro), electric, and mechanical stimuli. A linear thermo(hygro)electroelastic constitutive model for transversely isotropic materials is used for each ply in the composite laminate and for the piezoelectric materials that are integrated with laminates of the composite. Piezoelectric materials, such as lead zirconate titanate, and piezoelectric fiber composites, such as an active fiber composite or a microfiber composite, are considered as actuators for controlling unwanted bending deformations to avoid failure in such composite laminates. Due to the high stress concentrations at the interfaces between an active layer and the host structure, which may cause debonding, embedded actuators in which the active material is placed as part of the plies to form geometrically continuous plies are considered in order to minimize the stress concentration while improving the actuation capability. The first-ply failure and the ultimate laminate failure criteria of composite laminates are used to predict the failure stress and mode of the smart composite laminates, where commonly known macroscopic failure criteria, such as the Tsai-Hill, Tsai-Wu, and maximum stress criteria, are employed for each lamina. Piezoelectric materials can be used to prevent the failure from hygrothermal and mechanical loadings by applying an electric voltage in order to counteract laminate deformations. Based on the deformation and failure analyzes of smart composite laminates having various stacking sequences, fiber and matrix constituents, and piezoelectric materials, we could estimate the overall properties and failure envelopes of the laminates, which is useful in the preliminary design of smart composite structures.

  7. Master-Slave Control Scheme in Electric Vehicle Smart Charging Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ching-Yen; Chynoweth, Joshua; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

    2014-01-01

    WINSmartEV is a software based plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) monitoring, control, and management system. It not only incorporates intelligence at every level so that charge scheduling can avoid grid bottlenecks, but it also multiplies the number of PEVs that can be plugged into a single circuit. This paper proposes, designs, and executes many upgrades to WINSmartEV. These upgrades include new hardware that makes the level 1 and level 2 chargers faster, more robust, and more scalable. It includes algorithms that provide a more optimal charge scheduling for the level 2 (EVSE) and an enhanced vehicle monitoring/identification module (VMM) system that can automatically identify PEVs and authorize charging. PMID:24982956

  8. Master-slave control scheme in electric vehicle smart charging infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ching-Yen; Chynoweth, Joshua; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

    2014-01-01

    WINSmartEV is a software based plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) monitoring, control, and management system. It not only incorporates intelligence at every level so that charge scheduling can avoid grid bottlenecks, but it also multiplies the number of PEVs that can be plugged into a single circuit. This paper proposes, designs, and executes many upgrades to WINSmartEV. These upgrades include new hardware that makes the level 1 and level 2 chargers faster, more robust, and more scalable. It includes algorithms that provide a more optimal charge scheduling for the level 2 (EVSE) and an enhanced vehicle monitoring/identification module (VMM) system that can automatically identify PEVs and authorize charging.

  9. Collaborative Research: Fundamental Studies of Plasma Control Using Surface Embedded Electronic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Overzet, Lawrence J.; Raja, L.

    2015-06-06

    The research program was collaborative between the researchers at the University of Texas at Dallas and the University of Texas at Austin. The primary subject of this program was to investigate the possibility of active control of secondary electron emission (SEE) from surfaces in contact with plasmas and thereby actively control plasmas. Very few studies of ion-induced electron emission (IIEE) from semiconductors exist, and those that do exist primarily used high-energy ion beams in the experiments. Furthermore, those few studies took extreme measures to ensure that the measurements were performed on atomically clean surfaces because of the surface sensitivity of the IIEE process. Even a small exposure to air can change the IIEE yield significantly. In addition, much of the existing data for IIEE from semiconductors was obtained in the 1950s and ‘60s, when semiconductor materials were first being refined. As a result, nearly all of that data is for p-type Ge and Si. Before this investigation, experimental data on n-type materials was virtually non-existent. While the basic theory assumed that IIEE yields ought to be substantially independent of doping type and concentration, recent measurements of near atmospheric pressure plasmas and of breakdown suggested otherwise. These indirect measurements were made on surfaces that were not atomically clean and seemed to indicate that deep sub-surface changes to the bulk conduction band electron density could lead to substantial variations in the IIEE yield. Exactly in contradiction to the generally accepted theory. Insufficient direct data existed to settle the matter. We performed both experimental measurements and theoretical calculations of IIEE yields from both Si and Ge in order to help clarify whether or not conduction band electrons substantially change the IIEE yield. We used three wafers of each material to carry out the investigation: a heavily doped p-type, an intrinsic and a heavily doped n-type wafer. There

  10. Electric-field controlled liposome formation with embedded superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Eleršič, Kristina; Pavlič, Janez I; Iglič, Aleš; Vesel, Alenka; Mozetič, Miran

    2012-01-01

    Liposomes are one of the most promising biomaterial carriers to deliver DNA,(1) proteins, drugs and medicine in human bodies. However, artificially formed liposomes have to satisfy some crucial functions such as: (i) to efficiently carry drugs to targeted systems, (ii) to be biologically stable until they are removed from human body, (iii) to be biodegradable, and (iv) to be sufficiently small in size for effective drug delivery. Here, we report an efficient and novel method to simultaneously manufacture and incorporate super-paramagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (efficient target finder in the presence of external magnetic field) into the liposome's interior and its bilayer. In this technique, we use electric field to control the formation of liposomes and the incorporation of iron oxide nanoparticles. Our preparation procedure does not require any chemical or ultrasound treatments. Apart from that, we also provide further experimental investigations on the role of electric fields on the formation of liposomes using XPS(2) and the magnetic-optical microscope.

  11. Evaluation of Manufacturability of Embedded Sensors and Controls with Canned Rotor Pump System

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, Roger A; Fugate, David L; Melin, Alexander M; Holcomb, David Eugene; Wilson, Dane F; Silva, Pamela C; Cruz Molina, Carola

    2013-07-01

    This report documents the current status of fabrication and assembly planning for the magnetic bearing, canned rotor pump being used as a demonstration platform for deeply integrating I&C into nuclear power plant components. The report identifies material choices and fabrication sequences for all of the required parts and the issues that need to be either resolved or accommodated during the manufacturing process. Down selection between material options has not yet been performed. Potential suppliers for all of the necessary materials have also been identified. The assembly evaluation begins by logically subdividing the pump into modules, which are themselves decomposed into individual parts. Potential materials and fabrication processes for each part in turn are then evaluated. The evaluation process includes assessment of the environmental compatibility requirements and the tolerances available for the selected fabrication processes. A description of the pump power/control electronics is also provided. The report also includes exploded views of the modules that show the integration of the various parts into modules that are then assembled to form the pump. Emphasis has been placed on thermal environment compatibility and the part dimensional changes during heat-up. No insurmountable fabrication or assembly challenges have been identified.

  12. Design, Fabrication, and Calibration of an Embedded Piezoceramic Actuator for Active Control Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koopmann, Gary H.; Lesieutre, George A.; Yoshikawa, Shoko; Chen, Weicheng; Fahnline, John B.; Pai, Suresh; Dershem, Brian

    1996-01-01

    In this presentation, the authors describe the design and fabrication processes for a PZT strain actuator that evolved during the initial stages of a research effort to synthesize and process intelligent, cost effective structures (SPICES). The actuator performance requirements were similar to those of conventional actuators, e.g., it had to be robust, highly efficient with adequate force and stroke, as lightweight as possible, and most importantly, affordable. Further, since the actuator was to be integrated within a composite structure, it had to be compatible with the host material and easily embeddable during the fabrication process. In control applications employing strain devices as actuators, a good bond between this actuator and host material is critical to their successful operation. This criterion is often difficult to achieve when attempting to join ceramics with metals or polymers with dissimilar properties such as Young's moduli, thermal expansion coefficients, etc. One unique feature of the actuator design that evolved in this project is that the need for direct bonding between the PZT ceramic and polymers was circumvented, i.e. the strain transfer to the host material was achieved via a frame surrounding the ceramic. Consequently, the frame material could be selected (or coated) for compatibility with the host material. A second feature is that the frame enclosed a co-fired, multilayered, PZT stack that was used to minimize the voltage requirements while maximizing the output strain.

  13. Multi-agent coordination algorithms for control of distributed energy resources in smart grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortes, Andres

    Sustainable energy is a top-priority for researchers these days, since electricity and transportation are pillars of modern society. Integration of clean energy technologies such as wind, solar, and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), is a major engineering challenge in operation and management of power systems. This is due to the uncertain nature of renewable energy technologies and the large amount of extra load that PEVs would add to the power grid. Given the networked structure of a power system, multi-agent control and optimization strategies are natural approaches to address the various problems of interest for the safe and reliable operation of the power grid. The distributed computation in multi-agent algorithms addresses three problems at the same time: i) it allows for the handling of problems with millions of variables that a single processor cannot compute, ii) it allows certain independence and privacy to electricity customers by not requiring any usage information, and iii) it is robust to localized failures in the communication network, being able to solve problems by simply neglecting the failing section of the system. We propose various algorithms to coordinate storage, generation, and demand resources in a power grid using multi-agent computation and decentralized decision making. First, we introduce a hierarchical vehicle-one-grid (V1G) algorithm for coordination of PEVs under usage constraints, where energy only flows from the grid in to the batteries of PEVs. We then present a hierarchical vehicle-to-grid (V2G) algorithm for PEV coordination that takes into consideration line capacity constraints in the distribution grid, and where energy flows both ways, from the grid in to the batteries, and from the batteries to the grid. Next, we develop a greedy-like hierarchical algorithm for management of demand response events with on/off loads. Finally, we introduce distributed algorithms for the optimal control of distributed energy resources, i

  14. Area-Selective Atomic Layer Deposition: Conformal Coating, Subnanometer Thickness Control, and Smart Positioning.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ming; Ho, Johnny C

    2015-09-22

    Transistors have already been made three-dimensional (3D), with device channels (i.e., fins in trigate field-effect transistor (FinFET) technology) that are taller, thinner, and closer together in order to enhance device performance and lower active power consumption. As device scaling continues, these transistors will require more advanced, fabrication-enabling technologies for the conformal deposition of high-κ dielectric layers on their 3D channels with accurate position alignment and thickness control down to the subnanometer scale. Among many competing techniques, area-selective atomic layer deposition (AS-ALD) is a promising method that is well suited to the requirements without the use of complicated, complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-incompatible processes. However, further progress is limited by poor area selectivity for thicker films formed via a higher number of ALD cycles as well as the prolonged processing time. In this issue of ACS Nano, Professor Stacy Bent and her research group demonstrate a straightforward self-correcting ALD approach, combining selective deposition with a postprocess mild chemical etching, which enables selective deposition of dielectric films with thicknesses and processing times at least 10 times larger and 48 times shorter, respectively, than those obtained by conventional AS-ALD processes. These advances present an important technological breakthrough that may drive the AS-ALD technique a step closer toward industrial applications in electronics, catalysis, and photonics, etc. where more efficient device fabrication processes are needed.

  15. Preliminary efficacy and feasibility of embedding high intensity interval training into the school day: A pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Costigan, S.A.; Eather, N.; Plotnikoff, R.C.; Taaffe, D.R.; Pollock, E.; Kennedy, S.G.; Lubans, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    Current physical activity and fitness levels among adolescents are low, increasing the risk of chronic disease. Although the efficacy of high intensity interval training (HIIT) for improving metabolic health is now well established, it is not known if this type of activity can be effective to improve adolescent health. The primary aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of embedding HIIT into the school day. A 3-arm pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted in one secondary school in Newcastle, Australia. Participants (n = 65; mean age = 15.8(0.6) years) were randomized into one of three conditions: aerobic exercise program (AEP) (n = 21), resistance and aerobic exercise program (RAP) (n = 22) and control (n = 22). The 8-week intervention consisted of three HIIT sessions per week (8–10 min/session), delivered during physical education (PE) lessons or at lunchtime. Assessments were conducted at baseline and post-intervention to detect changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (multi-stage shuttle-run), muscular fitness (push-up, standing long jump tests), body composition (Body Mass Index (BMI), BMI-z scores, waist circumference) and physical activity motivation (questionnaire), by researchers blinded to treatment allocation. Intervention effects for outcomes were examined using linear mixed models, and Cohen's d effect sizes were reported. Participants in the AEP and RAP groups had moderate intervention effects for waist circumference (p = 0.024), BMI-z (p = 0.037) and BMI (not significant) in comparison to the control group. A small intervention effect was also evident for cardiorespiratory fitness in the RAP group. PMID:26844177

  16. Smart Grid Communications System Blueprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Adrian; Pavlovski, Chris

    2010-10-01

    Telecommunications operators are well versed in deploying 2G and 3G wireless networks. These networks presently support the mobile business user and/or retail consumer wishing to place conventional voice calls and data connections. The electrical power industry has recently commenced transformation of its distribution networks by deploying smart monitoring and control devices throughout their networks. This evolution of the network into a `smart grid' has also motivated the need to deploy wireless technologies that bridge the communication gap between the smart devices and information technology systems. The requirements of these networks differ from traditional wireless networks that communications operators have deployed, which have thus far forced energy companies to consider deploying their own wireless networks. We present our experience in deploying wireless networks to support the smart grid and highlight the key properties of these networks. These characteristics include application awareness, support for large numbers of simultaneous cell connections, high service coverage and prioritized routing of data. We also outline our target blueprint architecture that may be useful to the industry in building wireless and fixed networks to support the smart grid. By observing our experiences, telecommunications operators and equipment manufacturers will be able to augment their current networks and products in a way that accommodates the needs of the emerging industry of smart grids and intelligent electrical networks.

  17. ‘Like sugar and honey’: The embedded ethics of a larval control project in The Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Ann H.; Ameh, David; Majambere, Silas; Lindsay, Steve; Pinder, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a malaria research project in The Gambia to provoke thinking on the social value of transnational research. The Larval Control Project (LCP) investigated the efficacy of a microbial insecticide to reduce vector density and, ultimately, clinical malaria in Gambian children. The LCP’s protocol delineated a clinical surveillance scheme that involved Village Health Workers (VHWs) supported by project nurses. Combining insights from ethnographic fieldwork conducted at the Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratories in Farafenni from 2005 to 2009, open-ended interviews with project nurses, and eight focus group discussions held with participant mothers in October 2007, we consider the social impact of the LCP’s investigative method against the backdrop of several years of research activity. We found that while participants associated the LCP with the clinical care it provided, they also regarded the collaboration between the nurses and VHWs added additional benefits. Organised around the operational functions of the trial, small-scale collaborations provided the platform from which to build local capacity. While ethical guidelines emphasise the considerations that must be added to experimental endeavour in southern countries (e.g. elaborating processes of informed consent, developing strategies of community engagement or providing therapeutic access to participants after the trial concludes), these findings suggest that shifting attention from supplementing ethical protocols to the everyday work of research – embedding ethics through scientific activity – may provide a sounder basis to reinforce the relationship between scientific rigour and social value. PMID:20362381

  18. NREL Smart Grid Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Hambrick, J.

    2012-01-01

    Although implementing Smart Grid projects at the distribution level provides many advantages and opportunities for advanced operation and control, a number of significant challenges must be overcome to maintain the high level of safety and reliability that the modern grid must provide. For example, while distributed generation (DG) promises to provide opportunities to increase reliability and efficiency and may provide grid support services such as volt/var control, the presence of DG can impact distribution operation and protection schemes. Additionally, the intermittent nature of many DG energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) can present a number of challenges to voltage regulation, etc. This presentation provides an overview a number of Smart Grid projects being performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) along with utility, industry, and academic partners. These projects include modeling and analysis of high penetration PV scenarios (with and without energy storage), development and testing of interconnection and microgrid equipment, as well as the development and implementation of advanced instrumentation and data acquisition used to analyze the impacts of intermittent renewable resources. Additionally, standards development associated with DG interconnection and analysis as well as Smart Grid interoperability will be discussed.

  19. Real-Time Smart Grids Control for Preventing Cascading Failures and Blackout using Neural Networks: Experimental Approach for N-1-1 Contingency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarrabian, Sina; Belkacemi, Rabie; Babalola, Adeniyi A.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a novel intelligent control is proposed based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to mitigate cascading failure (CF) and prevent blackout in smart grid systems after N-1-1 contingency condition in real-time. The fundamental contribution of this research is to deploy the machine learning concept for preventing blackout at early stages of its occurrence and to make smart grids more resilient, reliable, and robust. The proposed method provides the best action selection strategy for adaptive adjustment of generators' output power through frequency control. This method is able to relieve congestion of transmission lines and prevent consecutive transmission line outage after N-1-1 contingency condition. The proposed ANN-based control approach is tested on an experimental 100 kW test system developed by the authors to test intelligent systems. Additionally, the proposed approach is validated on the large-scale IEEE 118-bus power system by simulation studies. Experimental results show that the ANN approach is very promising and provides accurate and robust control by preventing blackout. The technique is compared to a heuristic multi-agent system (MAS) approach based on communication interchanges. The ANN approach showed more accurate and robust response than the MAS algorithm.

  20. DARPA/AFRL/NASA Smart Wing Second Wind Tunnel Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherer, L. B.; Martin, C. A.; West, M.; Florance, J. P.; Wieseman, C. D.; Burner, A. W.; Fleming, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    To quantify the benefits of smart materials and structures adaptive wing technology, Northrop Grumman Corp. (NGC) built and tested two 16% scale wind tunnel models (a conventional and a "smart" model) of a fighter/attack aircraft under the DARPA/AFRL/NASA Smart Materials and Structures Development - Smart Wing Phase 1. Performance gains quantified included increased pitching moment (C(sub M)), increased rolling moment (C(subl)) and improved pressure distribution. The benefits were obtained for hingeless, contoured trailing edge control surfaces with embedded shape memory alloy (SMA) wires and spanwise wing twist effected by SMA torque tube mechanisms, compared to conventional hinged control surfaces. This paper presents an overview of the results from the second wind tunnel test performed at the NASA Langley Research Center s (LaRC) 16ft Transonic Dynamic Tunnel (TDT) in June 1998. Successful results obtained were: 1) 5 degrees of spanwise twist and 8-12% increase in rolling moment utilizing a single SMA torque tube, 2) 12 degrees of deflection, and 10% increase in rolling moment due to hingeless, contoured aileron, and 3) demonstration of optical techniques for measuring spanwise twist and deflected shape.

  1. A rhythm-based authentication scheme for smart media devices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Dong; Jeong, Young-Sik; Park, Jong Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, ubiquitous computing has been rapidly emerged in our lives and extensive studies have been conducted in a variety of areas related to smart devices, such as tablets, smartphones, smart TVs, smart refrigerators, and smart media devices, as a measure for realizing the ubiquitous computing. In particular, smartphones have significantly evolved from the traditional feature phones. Increasingly higher-end smartphone models that can perform a range of functions are now available. Smart devices have become widely popular since they provide high efficiency and great convenience for not only private daily activities but also business endeavors. Rapid advancements have been achieved in smart device technologies to improve the end users' convenience. Consequently, many people increasingly rely on smart devices to store their valuable and important data. With this increasing dependence, an important aspect that must be addressed is security issues. Leaking of private information or sensitive business data due to loss or theft of smart devices could result in exorbitant damage. To mitigate these security threats, basic embedded locking features are provided in smart devices. However, these locking features are vulnerable. In this paper, an original security-locking scheme using a rhythm-based locking system (RLS) is proposed to overcome the existing security problems of smart devices. RLS is a user-authenticated system that addresses vulnerability issues in the existing locking features and provides secure confidentiality in addition to convenience.

  2. A Rhythm-Based Authentication Scheme for Smart Media Devices

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Dong; Park, Jong Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, ubiquitous computing has been rapidly emerged in our lives and extensive studies have been conducted in a variety of areas related to smart devices, such as tablets, smartphones, smart TVs, smart refrigerators, and smart media devices, as a measure for realizing the ubiquitous computing. In particular, smartphones have significantly evolved from the traditional feature phones. Increasingly higher-end smartphone models that can perform a range of functions are now available. Smart devices have become widely popular since they provide high efficiency and great convenience for not only private daily activities but also business endeavors. Rapid advancements have been achieved in smart device technologies to improve the end users' convenience. Consequently, many people increasingly rely on smart devices to store their valuable and important data. With this increasing dependence, an important aspect that must be addressed is security issues. Leaking of private information or sensitive business data due to loss or theft of smart devices could result in exorbitant damage. To mitigate these security threats, basic embedded locking features are provided in smart devices. However, these locking features are vulnerable. In this paper, an original security-locking scheme using a rhythm-based locking system (RLS) is proposed to overcome the existing security problems of smart devices. RLS is a user-authenticated system that addresses vulnerability issues in the existing locking features and provides secure confidentiality in addition to convenience. PMID:25110743

  3. Sliding mode fault detection and fault-tolerant control of smart dampers in semi-active control of building structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeganeh Fallah, Arash; Taghikhany, Touraj

    2015-12-01

    Recent decades have witnessed much interest in the application of active and semi-active control strategies for seismic protection of civil infrastructures. However, the reliability of these systems is still in doubt as there remains the possibility of malfunctioning of their critical components (i.e. actuators and sensors) during an earthquake. This paper focuses on the application of the sliding mode method due to the inherent robustness of its fault detection observer and fault-tolerant control. The robust sliding mode observer estimates the state of the system and reconstructs the actuators’ faults which are used for calculating a fault distribution matrix. Then the fault-tolerant sliding mode controller reconfigures itself by the fault distribution matrix and accommodates the fault effect on the system. Numerical simulation of a three-story structure with magneto-rheological dampers demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed fault-tolerant control system. It was shown that the fault-tolerant control system maintains the performance of the structure at an acceptable level in the post-fault case.

  4. Smart Board in the Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Jean

    2007-01-01

    A Smart Board is an interactive whiteboard connected to a computer and a data projector. Images can be projected on the board, and the Smart Board can be used as a computer. A person can control the computer using his finger, and can mark directly on the screen using various colors. Best of all, users can easily import many types of information,…

  5. Controlled Release of Chitosan and Sericin from the Microspheres-Embedded Wound Dressing for the Prolonged Anti-microbial and Wound Healing Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Aramwit, Pornanong; Yamdech, Rungnapha; Ampawong, Sumate

    2016-05-01

    One approach in wound dressing development is to incorporate active molecules or drugs in the dressing. In order to reduce the frequency of dressing changes as well as to prolong wound healing efficacy, wound dressings that can sustain the release of the active molecules should be developed. In our previous work, we developed chitosan/sericin (CH/SS) microspheres that released sericin in a controlled rate. However, the difficulty of applying the microspheres that easily diffuse and quickly degrade onto the wound was its limitations. In this study, we aimed to develop wound dressing materials which are easier to apply and to provide extended release of sericin. Different amounts of CH/SS microspheres were embedded into various compositions of polyvinyl alcohol/gelatin (PVA/G) scaffolds and fabricated using freeze-drying and glutaraldehyde crosslinking techniques. The obtained CH/SS microspheres-embedded scaffolds with appropriate design and formulation were introduced as a wound dressing material. Sericin was released from the microspheres and the scaffolds in a sustained manner. Furthermore, an optimized formation of the microspheres-embedded scaffolds (2PVA2G+2CHSS) was shown to possess an effective antimicrobial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. These microspheres-embedded scaffolds were not toxic to L929 mouse fibroblast cells, and they did not irritate the tissue when applied to the wound. Finally, probably by the sustained release of sericin, these microspheres-embedded scaffolds could promote wound healing as well as or slightly better than a clinically used wound dressing (Allevyn®) in a mouse model. The antimicrobial CH/SS microspheres-embedded PVA/G scaffolds with sustained release of sericin would appear to be a promising candidate for wound dressing application.

  6. Survey of cyber security issues in smart grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Thomas M.

    2010-04-01

    The future smart grid will enable cost savings and lower energy use by means of smart appliances and smart meters which support dynamic load management and real-time monitoring of energy use and distribution. The introduction of two-way communications and control into power grid introduces security and privacy concerns. This talk will survey the security and privacy issues in smart grids using the NIST reference model, and relate these issues to cyber security in the Internet.

  7. Being smart about writing SMART objectives.

    PubMed

    Bjerke, May Britt; Renger, Ralph

    2017-04-01

    This article challenges the conventional wisdom in mainstream evaluation regarding the process for developing specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) objectives. The article notes several advantages of mainstreaming the SMART method including program capacity building and being able to independently monitor progress toward process and outcome objectives. It is argued the one size fits all approach for writing SMART objectives is misleading. The context in which the evaluation is conducted is a key deciding factor in how and when the SMART criteria should be applied. Without an appreciation of the evaluation context, mainstream users may be developing objectives that are far from smart. A case example is presented demonstrating a situation where a stepwise, rather than simultaneous application of the SMART criteria was necessary. Learning from this case, recommendations are forwarded for adjusting how SMART criteria should be presented in mainstream evaluation manuals/guides.

  8. Controllability of self-aligned four-terminal planar embedded metal double-gate low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors on a glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohsawa, Hiroki; Sasaki, Shun; Hara, Akito

    2016-03-01

    Self-aligned four-terminal n-channel (n-ch) and p-channel (p-ch) planar embedded metal double-gate polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs) were fabricated on a glass substrate at a low temperature of 550 °C. This device includes a metal top gate (TG) and a metal bottom gate (BG), which are used as the drive and control gates or vice versa. The BG was embedded in a glass substrate, and a poly-Si channel with large lateral grains was fabricated by continuous-wave laser lateral crystallization. The threshold voltage modulation factors under various control gate voltages (γ = ΔVth/ΔVCG) were nearly equal to the theoretical predictions in both the n- and p-ch TFTs. By exploiting this high controllability, an enhancement depletion (ED) inverter was fabricated, and successful operation at 2.0 V was confirmed.

  9. Probabilistic Dynamic Buckling of Smart Composite Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Abumeri, Galib H.

    2007-01-01

    A computational simulation method is presented to evaluate the deterministic and nondeterministic dynamic buckling of smart composite shells. The combined use of intraply hybrid composite mechanics, finite element computer codes, and probabilistic analysis enable the effective assessment of the dynamic buckling load of smart composite shells. A universal plot is generated to estimate the dynamic buckling load of composite shells at various load rates and probabilities. The shell structure is also evaluated with smart fibers embedded in the plies right next to the outer plies. The results show that, on the average, the use of smart fibers improved the shell buckling resistance by about 10% at different probabilities and delayed the buckling occurrence time. The probabilistic sensitivities results indicate that uncertainties in the fiber volume ratio and ply thickness have major effects on the buckling load while uncertainties in the electric field strength and smart material volume fraction have moderate effects. For the specific shell considered in this evaluation, the use of smart composite material is not recommended because the shell buckling resistance can be improved by simply re-arranging the orientation of the outer plies, as shown in the dynamic buckling analysis results presented in this report.

  10. Probabilistic Dynamic Buckling of Smart Composite Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abumeri, Galib H.; Chamis, Christos C.

    2003-01-01

    A computational simulation method is presented to evaluate the deterministic and nondeterministic dynamic buckling of smart composite shells. The combined use of composite mechanics, finite element computer codes, and probabilistic analysis enable the effective assessment of the dynamic buckling load of smart composite shells. A universal plot is generated to estimate the dynamic buckling load of composite shells at various load rates and probabilities. The shell structure is also evaluated with smart fibers embedded in the plies right below the outer plies. The results show that, on the average, the use of smart fibers improved the shell buckling resistance by about 10 percent at different probabilities and delayed the buckling occurrence time. The probabilistic sensitivities results indicate that uncertainties in the fiber volume ratio and ply thickness have major effects on the buckling load while uncertainties in the electric field strength and smart material volume fraction have moderate effects. For the specific shell considered in this evaluation, the use of smart composite material is not recommended because the shell buckling resistance can be improved by simply re-arranging the orientation of the outer plies, as shown in the dynamic buckling analysis results presented in this report.

  11. Compression embedding

    DOEpatents

    Sandford, II, Maxwell T.; Handel, Theodore G.; Bradley, Jonathan N.

    1998-01-01

    A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique. The method applies to data compressed with lossy algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty in value by one unit. Indices which are adjacent in value are manipulated to encode auxiliary data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compressions known also as entropy coding, to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the compression entropy coding, known also as entropy coding is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage in the manner taught by the method.

  12. Compression embedding

    DOEpatents

    Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Bradley, J.N.

    1998-03-10

    A method of embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique is disclosed. The method applies to data compressed with lossy algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty in value by one unit. Indices which are adjacent in value are manipulated to encode auxiliary data. By a substantially reverse process, the embedded auxiliary data can be retrieved easily by an authorized user. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compressions known also as entropy coding, to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the compression entropy coding, known also as entropy coding is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage in the manner taught by the method. 11 figs.

  13. Adjustment method for embedded metrology engine in an EM773 series microcontroller.

    PubMed

    Blazinšek, Iztok; Kotnik, Bojan; Chowdhury, Amor; Kačič, Zdravko

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the problems of implementation and adjustment (calibration) of a metrology engine embedded in NXP's EM773 series microcontroller. The metrology engine is used in a smart metering application to collect data about energy utilization and is controlled with the use of metrology engine adjustment (calibration) parameters. The aim of this research is to develop a method which would enable the operators to find and verify the optimum parameters which would ensure the best possible accuracy. Properly adjusted (calibrated) metrology engines can then be used as a base for variety of products used in smart and intelligent environments. This paper focuses on the problems encountered in the development, partial automatisation, implementation and verification of this method.

  14. Design and Implementation of a Randomized Controlled Social and Mobile Weight Loss Trial for Young Adults (project SMART)

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, K; Marshall, SJ; Davila, EP; Kolodziejczyk, JK; Fowler, J; Calfas, KJ; Huang, J; Rock, CL; Griswold, W; Gupta, A; Merchant, G; Norman, GJ; Raab, F; Donohue, M; Fogg, BJ; Robinson, TN

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe the theoretical rationale, intervention design, and clinical trial of a two-year weight control intervention for young adults deployed via social and mobile media. Methods A total of 404 overweight or obese college students from three Southern California universities (Mage = 22(±4) years; MBMI=29(±2.8); 70% female) were randomized to participate in the intervention or to receive an informational web-based weight loss program. The intervention is based on behavioral theory and integrates intervention elements across multiple touch points, including Facebook, SMS, smartphone applications, blogs, and e-mail. Participants are encouraged to seek social support among their friends, self-monitor their weight weekly, post their health behaviors on Facebook, and e-mail their weight loss questions/concerns to a health coach. The intervention is adaptive because new theory-driven and iteratively tailored intervention elements are developed and released over the course of the two-year intervention in response to patterns of use and user feedback. Measures of body mass index, waist circumference, physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SED), diet, weight management practices, smoking, alcohol, sleep, body image, self-esteem, and depression occur at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Currently, all participants have been recruited, and all are in the final year of the trial. Conclusion Theory-driven, evidence-based strategies for PA, SED, and dietary intake can be embedded in an intervention using social and mobile technologies to promote healthy weight-related behaviors in young adults. PMID:24215774

  15. Radiation Tolerant Embedded Memory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 ...currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1 . REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 27-06-2003 2. REPORT TYPE SBIR...Tolerant Embedded Memory 1 Table of Contents: Table of Contents

  16. Smart Houses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    GWS takes plans for a new home and subjects them to intensive computerized analysis that does 10,000 calculations relative to expected heat loss and heat gain, then provides specifications designed specifically for each structure as to heating, cooling, ventilation and insulation. As construction progresses, GWS inspects the work of the electrical, plumbing and insulation contractors and installs its own Smart House Radiant Barrier. On completion of the home, GWS technicians use a machine that creates a vacuum in the house and enables computer calculation of the air exchanged, a measure of energy efficiency. Key factor is the radiant barrier, borrowed from the Apollo program. This is an adaptation of a highly effective aluminized heat shield as a radiation barrier holding in or keeping out heat, cold air and water vapor.

  17. Smart Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  18. Air Force Astronautics Laboratory smart structures and skins program overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehart, Douglas W.

    1990-02-01

    The smart structure/skins systems envisioned by the USAF Astronautics Laboratory for such future spacecraft as the Space Based Radar and Space Based Laser will employ embedded sensors, actuators, and microprocessors to sense, evaluate, and damp, all natural and spurious vibrations; the health-monitoring system also figured by the smart structure will sense any deterioration of structural soundness. Fiber-optics constitutes the sensor technology of choice, due to its lightness, immunity to EM interference, and easy incorporation into composite materials.

  19. Smart and Intelligent Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansaw, John; Schmalzel, John; Figueroa, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) provides rocket engine propulsion testing for NASA's space programs. Since the development of the Space Shuttle, every Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has undergone acceptance testing at SSC before going to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for integration into the Space Shuttle. The SSME is a large cryogenic rocket engine that uses Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) as the fuel. As NASA moves to the new ARES V launch system, the main engines on the new vehicle, as well as the upper stage engine, are currently base lined to be cryogenic rocket engines that will also use LH2. The main rocket engines for the ARES V will be larger than the SSME, while the upper stage engine will be approximately half that size. As a result, significant quantities of hydrogen will be required during the development, testing, and operation of these rocket engines.Better approaches are needed to simplify sensor integration and help reduce life-cycle costs. 1.Smarter sensors. Sensor integration should be a matter of "plug-and-play" making sensors easier to add to a system. Sensors that implement new standards can help address this problem; for example, IEEE STD 1451.4 defines transducer electronic data sheet (TEDS) templates for commonly used sensors such as bridge elements and thermocouples. When a 1451.4 compliant smart sensor is connected to a system that can read the TEDS memory, all information needed to configure the data acquisition system can be uploaded. This reduces the amount of labor required and helps minimize configuration errors. 2.Intelligent sensors. Data received from a sensor be scaled, linearized; and converted to engineering units. Methods to reduce sensor processing overhead at the application node are needed. Smart sensors using low-cost microprocessors with integral data acquisition and communication support offer the means to add these capabilities. Once a processor is embedded, other features can be added; for example, intelligent sensors can make

  20. A randomised control trial to determine if use of the iResus© application on a smart phone improves the performance of an advanced life support provider in a simulated medical emergency.

    PubMed

    Low, D; Clark, N; Soar, J; Padkin, A; Stoneham, A; Perkins, G D; Nolan, J

    2011-04-01

    This study sought to determine whether using the Resuscitation Council UK's iResus© application on a smart phone improves the performance of doctors trained in advanced life support in a simulated emergency. Thirty-one doctors (advanced life support-trained within the previous 48 months) were recruited. All received identical training using the smart phone and the iResus application. The participants were randomly assigned to a control group (no smart phone) and a test group (access to iResus on smart phone). Both groups were tested using a validated extended cardiac arrest simulation test (CASTest) scoring system. The primary outcome measure was the overall cardiac arrest simulation test score; these were significantly higher in the smart phone group (median (IQR [range]) 84.5 (75.5-92.5 [64-96])) compared with the control group (72 (62-87 [52-95]); p=0.02). Use of the iResus application significantly improves the performance of an advanced life support-certified doctor during a simulated medical emergency. Further studies are needed to determine if iResus can improve care in the clinical setting.

  1. An embedded omnidirectional vision navigator for automatic guided vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Weijia; Zhang, Baofeng; Röning, Juha; Cao, Zuoliang; Zong, Xiaoning

    2011-01-01

    Omnidirectional vision appears the definite significance since its advantage of acquiring full 360° horizontal field of vision information simultaneously. In this paper, an embedded original omnidirectional vision navigator (EOVN) based on fish-eye lens and embedded technology has been researched. Fish-eye lens is one of the special ways to establish omnidirectional vision. However, it appears with an unavoidable inherent and enormous distortion. A unique integrated navigation method which is conducted on the basis of targets tracking has been proposed. It is composed of multi-target recognition and tracking, distortion rectification, spatial location and navigation control. It is called RTRLN. In order to adapt to the different indoor and outdoor navigation environments, we implant mean-shift and dynamic threshold adjustment into the Particle Filter algorithm to improve the efficiency and robustness of tracking capability. RTRLN has been implanted in an independent development embedded platform. EOVN likes a smart crammer based on COMS+FPGA+DSP. It can guide various vehicles in outdoor environments by tracking the diverse marks hanging in the air. The experiments prove that the EOVN is particularly suitable for the guidance applications which need high requirements on precision and repeatability. The research achievements have a good actual applied inspection.

  2. ShopSmart 4 Health – Protocol of a skills-based randomised controlled trial promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among socioeconomically disadvantaged women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a need for evidence on the most effective and cost-effective approaches for promoting healthy eating among groups that do not meet dietary recommendations for good health, such as those with low incomes or experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage. This paper describes the ShopSmart 4 Health study, a randomised controlled trial conducted by Deakin University, Coles Supermarkets and the Heart Foundation, to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a skill-building intervention for promoting increased purchasing and consumption of fruits and vegetables amongst women of low socioeconomic position (SEP). Methods/design ShopSmart 4 Health employed a randomised controlled trial design. Women aged 18–60 years, holding a Coles store loyalty card, who shopped at Coles stores within socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods and met low-income eligibility criteria were invited to participate. Consenting women completed a baseline survey assessing food shopping and eating habits and food-related behaviours and attitudes. On receipt of their completed survey, women were randomised to either a skill-building intervention or a wait-list control condition. Intervention effects will be evaluated via self-completion surveys and using supermarket transaction sales data, collected at pre- and post-intervention and 6-month follow-up. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective using a cost-consequences approach will compare the costs and outcomes between intervention and control groups. Process evaluation will be undertaken to identify perceived value and effects of intervention components. Discussion This study will provide data to address the currently limited evidence base regarding the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of skill-building intervention strategies aimed at increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among socioeconomically disadvantaged women, a target group at high risk of poor diets. Trial registration Current

  3. Smart Buildings: Business Case and Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, Paul; Diamond, Rick

    2009-04-01

    General Services Administration (GSA) has been a pioneer in using Smart Building technologies but it has yet to achieve the full benefits of an integrated, enterprise-wide Smart Building strategy. In July 2008, GSA developed an initial briefing memorandum that identified five actions for a Smart Buildings feasibility study: (1) Identify and cluster the major building systems under consideration for a Smart Buildings initiative; (2) Identify GSA priorities for these clusters; (3) Plan for future adoption of Smart Building strategies by identifying compatible hardware; (4) Develop a framework for implementing and testing Smart Building strategies and converged networks; and (5) Document relevant GSA and industry initiatives in this arena. Based on this briefing memorandum, PBS and FAS retained consultants from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Noblis, and the Building Intelligence Group to evaluate the potential for Smart Buildings within GSA, and to develop this report. The project has included extensive interviews with GSA staff (See Appendix A), a review of existing GSA standards and documents, and an examination of relevant GSA and industry initiatives. Based on interviews with GSA staff and a review of GSA standards and documents, the project team focused on four goals for evaluating how Smart Building technology can benefit GSA: (1) Achieve Energy Efficiency Mandates--Use Smart Building technology as a tool to meet EISA 2007 and EO 13423 goals for energy efficiency. (2) Enhance Property Management--Deploy enterprise tools for improved Operations and Maintenance (O&M) performance and verification. (3) Implement Network as the Fourth Utility--Utilize a converged broadband network to support Smart Building systems and provide GSA clients with connectivity for voice, data and video. (4) Enhance Safety and Security--Harmonize Physical Access Control Systems (PACS) with Smart Building Systems.

  4. Manufacturing of Smart Structures Using Fiber Placement Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Matthew M.; Glowasky, Robert A.; McIlroy, Bruce E.; Story, Todd A.

    1996-01-01

    Smart structures research and development, with the ultimate aim of rapid commercial and military production of these structures, are at the forefront of the Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost-Effective Structures (SPICES) program. As part of this ARPA-sponsored program, MDA-E is using fiber placement processes to manufacture integrated smart structure systems. These systems comprise advanced composite structures with embedded fiber optic sensors, shape memory alloys, piezoelectric actuators, and miniature accelerometers. Cost-effective approaches and solutions to smart material synthesis in the fiber-placement process, based upon integrated product development, are discussed herein.

  5. From Secure Memories to Smart Card Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handschuh, Helena; Trichina, Elena

    Non-volatile memory is essential in most embedded security applications. It will store the key and other sensitive materials for cryptographic and security applications. In this chapter, first an overview is given of current flash memory architectures. Next the standard security features which form the basis of so-called secure memories are described in more detail. Smart cards are a typical embedded application that is very vulnerable to attacks and that at the same time has a high need for secure non-volatile memory. In the next part of this chapter, the secure memories of so-called flash-based high-density smart cards are described. It is followed by a detailed analysis of what the new security challenges for such objects are.

  6. Forisome as biomimetic smart materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Amy; Hamlington, Benjamin; Knoblauch, Michael; Peters, Winfried; Pickard, William

    2005-05-01

    With the discovery in plants of the proteinaceous forisome crystalloid (Knoblauch et al. 2003), a novel nastic non-living, ATP-independent biological material became available to the designer of smart materials for advanced actuating and sensing. The in vitro studies of Knoblauch et al. show that forisomes (1-3 micron wide and 10-30 micron long) can be repeatedly stimulated to contract and expand anisotropically by shifting either the ambient pH or the ambient calcium ion concentration. In a device, the energy required for the transformations would be provided electrochemically by mini-electrodes inducing pH variation. Because of their unique abilities to develop and reverse strains greater than 20% in time periods less than 1s , forisomes have the potential to outperform current smart materials (such as ATP-dependent actuators or synthetic hydrogels/polymers) as advanced, biomimetic, multi-functional, smart sensors or valves or actuators. To date, studies have been limited to questions of protein engineering explored by Knaublach et al. Probing forisome material properties is therefore an immediate need to lay the foundation for synthesizing forisome-based smart materials for health monitoring of structural integrity in civil infrastructure and aerospace hardware. Here, we use microfluidics to study the surface interaction between forisome and substrate and the conformational dynamics of forisomes within a confined geometry to lay the foundation for forisome-based smart materials synthesis with controlled and repeatable environment.

  7. Compression embedding

    DOEpatents

    Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Bradley, J.N.

    1998-07-07

    A method and apparatus for embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique and a method and apparatus for constructing auxiliary data from the correspondence between values in a digital key-pair table with integer index values existing in a representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique are disclosed. The methods apply to data compressed with algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as ordered sequences of blocks containing integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty of value by one unit, allowing indices which are adjacent in value to be manipulated to encode auxiliary data. Also included is a method to improve the efficiency of lossy compression algorithms by embedding white noise into the integer indices. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compression to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the loss-less compression, known also as entropy coding compression, is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage. Manipulation of the intermediate representation improves lossy compression performance by 1 to 10%. 21 figs.

  8. Compression embedding

    DOEpatents

    Sandford, II, Maxwell T.; Handel, Theodore G.; Bradley, Jonathan N.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique and a method and apparatus for constructing auxiliary data from the correspondence between values in a digital key-pair table with integer index values existing in a representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique. The methods apply to data compressed with algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as ordered sequences of blocks containing integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty of value by one unit, allowing indices which are adjacent in value to be manipulated to encode auxiliary data. Also included is a method to improve the efficiency of lossy compression algorithms by embedding white noise into the integer indices. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compression to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the loss-less compression, known also as entropy coding compression, is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage. Manipulation of the intermediate representation improves lossy compression performance by 1 to 10%.

  9. A robust smart window: reversibly switching from high transparency to angle-independent structural color display.

    PubMed

    Ge, Dengteng; Lee, Elaine; Yang, Lili; Cho, Yigil; Li, Min; Gianola, Daniel S; Yang, Shu

    2015-04-17

    A smart window is fabricated from a composite consisting of elastomeric poly(dimethylsiloxane) embedded with a thin layer of quasi-amorphous silica nanoparticles. The smart window can be switched from the initial highly transparent state to opaqueness and displays angle-independent structural color via mechanical stretching. The switchable optical property can be fully recovered after 1000 stretching/releasing cycles.

  10. Smart Houses and Uncomfortable Homes.

    PubMed

    Alm, Norman; Arnott, John

    2015-01-01

    In order for smart houses to achieve acceptance from potential beneficiaries they will need to match the users' expectation that their house is also their home, with the sense of privacy and control that this implies. Designers of this technology will need to be aware of findings in this regard from fields such as architecture and design ethnography.

  11. Smart cities of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batty, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Giannotti, F.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Bazzani, A.; Wachowicz, M.; Ouzounis, G.; Portugali, Y.

    2012-11-01

    Here we sketch the rudiments of what constitutes a smart city which we define as a city in which ICT is merged with traditional infrastructures, coordinated and integrated using new digital technologies. We first sketch our vision defining seven goals which concern: developing a new understanding of urban problems; effective and feasible ways to coordinate urban technologies; models and methods for using urban data across spatial and temporal scales; developing new technologies for communication and dissemination; developing new forms of urban governance and organisation; defining critical problems relating to cities, transport, and energy; and identifying risk, uncertainty, and hazards in the smart city. To this, we add six research challenges: to relate the infrastructure of smart cities to their operational functioning and planning through management, control and optimisation; to explore the notion of the city as a laboratory for innovation; to provide portfolios of urban simulation which inform future designs; to develop technologies that ensure equity, fairness and realise a better quality of city life; to develop technologies that ensure informed participation and create shared knowledge for democratic city governance; and to ensure greater and more effective mobility and access to opportunities for urban populations. We begin by defining the state of the art, explaining the science of smart cities. We define six scenarios based on new cities badging themselves as smart, older cities regenerating themselves as smart, the development of science parks, tech cities, and technopoles focused on high technologies, the development of urban services using contemporary ICT, the use of ICT to develop new urban intelligence functions, and the development of online and mobile forms of participation. Seven project areas are then proposed: Integrated Databases for the Smart City, Sensing, Networking and the Impact of New Social Media, Modelling Network Performance

  12. SmartCard Prototype

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    prototype. ............................................................................................. 7 Figure 6 Smart Card Prototype main window...a data explorer. Intervention costs Database with a single instance (i.e. one data set). User help framework Figure 6 Smart Card Prototype

  13. Smart Grid Enabled EVSE

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-01-12

    The combined team of GE Global Research, Federal Express, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Consolidated Edison has successfully achieved the established goals contained within the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment funding opportunity. The final program product, shown charging two vehicles in Figure 1, reduces by nearly 50% the total installed system cost of the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) as well as enabling a host of new Smart Grid enabled features. These include bi-directional communications, load control, utility message exchange and transaction management information. Using the new charging system, Utilities or energy service providers will now be able to monitor transportation related electrical loads on their distribution networks, send load control commands or preferences to individual systems, and then see measured responses. Installation owners will be able to authorize usage of the stations, monitor operations, and optimally control their electricity consumption. These features and cost reductions have been developed through a total system design solution.

  14. Development of intelligent instruments with embedded HTTP servers for control and data acquisition in a cryogenic setup—The hardware, firmware, and software implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Antony, Joby; Mathuria, D. S.; Datta, T. S.; Maity, Tanmoy

    2015-12-15

    The power of Ethernet for control and automation technology is being largely understood by the automation industry in recent times. Ethernet with HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is one of the most widely accepted communication standards today. Ethernet is best known for being able to control through internet from anywhere in the globe. The Ethernet interface with built-in on-chip embedded servers ensures global connections for crate-less model of control and data acquisition systems which have several advantages over traditional crate-based control architectures for slow applications. This architecture will completely eliminate the use of any extra PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) or similar control hardware in any automation network as the control functions are firmware coded inside intelligent meters itself. Here, we describe the indigenously built project of a cryogenic control system built for linear accelerator at Inter University Accelerator Centre, known as “CADS,” which stands for “Complete Automation of Distribution System.” CADS deals with complete hardware, firmware, and software implementation of the automated linac cryogenic distribution system using many Ethernet based embedded cryogenic instruments developed in-house. Each instrument works as an intelligent meter called device-server which has the control functions and control loops built inside the firmware itself. Dedicated meters with built-in servers were designed out of ARM (Acorn RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) Machine) and ATMEL processors and COTS (Commercially Off-the-Shelf) SMD (Surface Mount Devices) components, with analog sensor front-end and a digital back-end web server implementing remote procedure call over HTTP for digital control and readout functions. At present, 24 instruments which run 58 embedded servers inside, each specific to a particular type of sensor-actuator combination for closed loop operations, are now deployed and distributed across control LAN

  15. Development of intelligent instruments with embedded HTTP servers for control and data acquisition in a cryogenic setup—The hardware, firmware, and software implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, Joby; Mathuria, D. S.; Datta, T. S.; Maity, Tanmoy

    2015-12-01

    The power of Ethernet for control and automation technology is being largely understood by the automation industry in recent times. Ethernet with HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is one of the most widely accepted communication standards today. Ethernet is best known for being able to control through internet from anywhere in the globe. The Ethernet interface with built-in on-chip embedded servers ensures global connections for crate-less model of control and data acquisition systems which have several advantages over traditional crate-based control architectures for slow applications. This architecture will completely eliminate the use of any extra PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) or similar control hardware in any automation network as the control functions are firmware coded inside intelligent meters itself. Here, we describe the indigenously built project of a cryogenic control system built for linear accelerator at Inter University Accelerator Centre, known as "CADS," which stands for "Complete Automation of Distribution System." CADS deals with complete hardware, firmware, and software implementation of the automated linac cryogenic distribution system using many Ethernet based embedded cryogenic instruments developed in-house. Each instrument works as an intelligent meter called device-server which has the control functions and control loops built inside the firmware itself. Dedicated meters with built-in servers were designed out of ARM (Acorn RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) Machine) and ATMEL processors and COTS (Commercially Off-the-Shelf) SMD (Surface Mount Devices) components, with analog sensor front-end and a digital back-end web server implementing remote procedure call over HTTP for digital control and readout functions. At present, 24 instruments which run 58 embedded servers inside, each specific to a particular type of sensor-actuator combination for closed loop operations, are now deployed and distributed across control LAN (Local

  16. Development of intelligent instruments with embedded HTTP servers for control and data acquisition in a cryogenic setup--The hardware, firmware, and software implementation.

    PubMed

    Antony, Joby; Mathuria, D S; Datta, T S; Maity, Tanmoy

    2015-12-01

    The power of Ethernet for control and automation technology is being largely understood by the automation industry in recent times. Ethernet with HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) is one of the most widely accepted communication standards today. Ethernet is best known for being able to control through internet from anywhere in the globe. The Ethernet interface with built-in on-chip embedded servers ensures global connections for crate-less model of control and data acquisition systems which have several advantages over traditional crate-based control architectures for slow applications. This architecture will completely eliminate the use of any extra PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) or similar control hardware in any automation network as the control functions are firmware coded inside intelligent meters itself. Here, we describe the indigenously built project of a cryogenic control system built for linear accelerator at Inter University Accelerator Centre, known as "CADS," which stands for "Complete Automation of Distribution System." CADS deals with complete hardware, firmware, and software implementation of the automated linac cryogenic distribution system using many Ethernet based embedded cryogenic instruments developed in-house. Each instrument works as an intelligent meter called device-server which has the control functions and control loops built inside the firmware itself. Dedicated meters with built-in servers were designed out of ARM (Acorn RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) Machine) and ATMEL processors and COTS (Commercially Off-the-Shelf) SMD (Surface Mount Devices) components, with analog sensor front-end and a digital back-end web server implementing remote procedure call over HTTP for digital control and readout functions. At present, 24 instruments which run 58 embedded servers inside, each specific to a particular type of sensor-actuator combination for closed loop operations, are now deployed and distributed across control LAN (Local

  17. Smart Textiles: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Langenhove, Lieva; Hertleer, Carla; Schwarz, Anne

    This chapter introduces smart textiles and explains how textile materials and structures can be used as sensors, actuators, communication devices, energy sources and storage tools, and even processors. Conductive materials serve as the base for smart textiles. There are several advantages of using textiles as a substrate for smart functions; this chapter explains their important role in thermoregulation and highlights a smart suit for rescue workers.

  18. Near Infrared-Guided Smart Nanocarriers for MicroRNA-Controlled Release of Doxorubicin/siRNA with Intracellular ATP as Fuel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Penghui; Wang, Chen; Zhao, Jingjing; Xiao, Anqi; Shen, Qi; Li, Linting; Li, Jianxin; Zhang, Junfeng; Min, Qianhao; Chen, Jiangning; Chen, Hong-Yuan; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2016-03-22

    In chemotherapy, it is a great challenge to recruit endogenous stimuli instead of external intervention for targeted delivery and controlled release; microRNAs are the most promising candidates due to their vital role during tumorigenesis and significant expression difference. Herein, to amplify the low abundant microRNAs in live cells, we designed a stimuli-responsive DNA Y-motif for codelivery of siRNA and Dox, in which the cargo release was achieved via enzyme-free cascade amplification with endogenous microRNA as trigger and ATP (or H(+)) as fuel through toehold-mediated strand displacement. Furthermore, to realize controlled release in tumor cells, smart nanocarriers were constructed with stimuli-responsive Y-motifs, gold nanorods, and temperature-sensitive polymers, whose surfaces could be reversibly switched between PEG and RGD states via photothermal conversion. The PEG corona kept the nanocarriers stealth during blood circulation to protect the Y-motifs against nuclease digestion and enhance passive accumulation, whereas the exposed RGD shell under near-infrared (NIR) irradiation at tumor sites facilitated the specific receptor-mediated endocytosis by tumor cells. Through modulating NIR laser, microRNA, or ATP expressions, the therapy efficacies to five different cell lines were finely controlled, presenting NIR-guided accumulation, massive release, efficient gene silence, and severe apoptosis in HeLa cells; in vivo study showed that a low dosage of nanocarriers synergistically inhibited the tumor growth by silencing gene expression and inducing cell apoptosis under mild NIR irradiation, though they only brought minimum damage to normal organs. The combination of nanomaterials, polymers, and DNA nanomachines provided a promising tool for designing smart nanodevices for disease therapy.

  19. Development of high-rate large-deflection hingeless trailing-edge control surface for the Smart Wing wind tunnel model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Donny P.; Bartley-Cho, Jonathan D.; Martin, Christopher A.; Hallam, Brian J.

    2001-06-01

    A key objective of the Smart Wing Phase 2, Test 2 is to demonstrate high-rate actuation of hingeless control surfaces using smart material-based actuators. Actuation rates resulting in a minimum of 20 degree(s) flap deflection in 0.33 sec, producing a sweep rate of at least 60 degree(s)/sec, are desired. This sweep rate is similar to those specified for many of the existing military platforms with hinged control surfaces. The ability to deploy control surfaces without discrete hingeline would, however, enhance platform mission by reducing radar cross section and improving aerodynamic performance. Studies on numerous actuation concepts and flexible structures were executed during the early and mid phase of the program in an effort to satisfy these goals. In the first study, several actuation concepts with different transducers were modeled and analyzed. These concepts included distributed piezoelectric stack actuators with and without hydraulic amplifiers and pumps, antagonistic tendon actuation, and eccentuation. The transducers selected for the trade studies included piezoelectric ultrasonic motors, actively cooled SMA, ferromagnetic SMA, and stacks made from piezoelectric ceramic wafer, piezoelectric single crystal wafer, irradiated PVDF-TrFE film, and dielectric elastomer film. Although many of the technologies are not fully mature, they provide a glimpse of what improvements could be possible with their successful development. The studies showed that distributed polymer stacks provided the most elegant solution, but eccentuation was deemed the most realistic and lowest risk approach to attaining the program goals. A common issue to all the concepts was the structural stiffness that the actuators worked against. This was resolved in the second study by developing a flexcore- elastomeric skin trailing edge structure with eccentuation using high power ultrasonic motors. This paper describes the two studies and the final concept in detail.

  20. Ten questions concerning integrating smart buildings into the smart grid

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Thomas M.; Boudreau, Marie-Claude; Helsen, Lieve; Henze, Gregor; Mohammadpour, Javad; Noonan, Doug; Patteeuw, Dieter; Pless, Shanti; Watson, Richard T.

    2016-11-01

    Recent advances in information and communications technology (ICT) have initiated development of a smart electrical grid and smart buildings. Buildings consume a large portion of the total electricity production worldwide, and to fully develop a smart grid they must be integrated with that grid. Buildings can now be 'prosumers' on the grid (both producers and consumers), and the continued growth of distributed renewable energy generation is raising new challenges in terms of grid stability over various time scales. Buildings can contribute to grid stability by managing their overall electrical demand in response to current conditions. Facility managers must balance demand response requests by grid operators with energy needed to maintain smooth building operations. For example, maintaining thermal comfort within an occupied building requires energy and, thus an optimized solution balancing energy use with indoor environmental quality (adequate thermal comfort, lighting, etc.) is needed. Successful integration of buildings and their systems with the grid also requires interoperable data exchange. However, the adoption and integration of newer control and communication technologies into buildings can be problematic with older legacy HVAC and building control systems. Public policy and economic structures have not kept up with the technical developments that have given rise to the budding smart grid, and further developments are needed in both technical and non-technical areas.

  1. Vehicle Fault Diagnose Based on Smart Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhining, Li; Peng, Wang; Jianmin, Mei; Jianwei, Li; Fei, Teng

    In the vehicle's traditional fault diagnose system, we usually use a computer system with a A/D card and with many sensors connected to it. The disadvantage of this system is that these sensor can hardly be shared with control system and other systems, there are too many connect lines and the electro magnetic compatibility(EMC) will be affected. In this paper, smart speed sensor, smart acoustic press sensor, smart oil press sensor, smart acceleration sensor and smart order tracking sensor were designed to solve this problem. With the CAN BUS these smart sensors, fault diagnose computer and other computer could be connected together to establish a network system which can monitor and control the vehicle's diesel and other system without any duplicate sensor. The hard and soft ware of the smart sensor system was introduced, the oil press, vibration and acoustic signal are resampled by constant angle increment to eliminate the influence of the rotate speed. After the resample, the signal in every working cycle could be averaged in angle domain and do other analysis like order spectrum.

  2. Analyzing Resiliency of the Smart Grid Communication Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2016-08-01

    Smart grids are susceptible to cyber-attack as a result of new communication, control and computation techniques employed in the grid. In this paper, we characterize and analyze the resiliency of smart grid communication architecture, specifically an RF mesh based architecture, under cyber attacks. We analyze the resiliency of the communication architecture by studying the performance of high-level smart grid functions such as metering, and demand response which depend on communication. Disrupting the operation of these functions impacts the operational resiliency of the smart grid. Our analysis shows that it takes an attacker only a small fraction of meters to compromise the communication resiliency of the smart grid. We discuss the implications of our result to critical smart grid functions and to the overall security of the smart grid.

  3. Smart patch piezoceramic actuator issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Steven F.; Denoyer, Keith K.; Yost, Brad

    1993-01-01

    The Phillips Laboratory is undertaking the challenge of finding new and innovative ways to integrate sensing, actuation, and the supporting control and power electronics into a compact self-contained unit to provide vibration suppression for a host structure. This self-contained unit is commonly referred to as a smart patch. The interfaces to the smart patch will be limited to standard spacecraft power and possibly a communications line. The effort to develop a smart patch involves both contractual and inhouse programs which are currently focused on miniaturization of the electronics associated with vibrational control using piezoceramic sensors and actuators. This paper is comprised of two distinct parts. The first part examines issues associated with bonding piezoceramic actuators to a host structure. Experimental data from several specimens with varying flexural stiffness are compared to predictions from two piezoelectric/substructure coupling models, the Blocked Force Model and the Uniform Strain Model with Perfect Bonding. The second part of the paper highlights a demonstration article smart patch created using the insights gained from inhouse efforts at the Phillips Laboratory. This demonstration article has self contained electronics on the same order of size as the actuator powered by a voltage differential of approximately 32 volts. This voltage is provided by four rechargeable 8 volt batteries.

  4. Smart Structures with Fibre-Optic Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grosso, Andrea; Zangani, Donato; Messervey, Thomas

    2008-07-08

    A number of smart structures have been proposed, and some of them realized, to reduce the effect that seismic motions induce on the structure themselves. In particular, active and semi-active control devices have been studied for being applied to buildings and bridges in seismic prone regions. The heart of the application for these devices consists of a network of sensors and computational nodes that produces the input to the actuating mechanisms. Despite the initial enthusiasm for these developments, only a few practical applications involving active devices have been implemented to-date, the main reason residing in questions concerning the reliability of active systems over time. Nevertheless, the allocation of sensory systems and computational intelligence in structures subjected to earthquakes can provide very important information on the real structural behavior, provide self-diagnosis functions after events, and allow for reliability estimates of critical components. The paper reviews several recently developed sensory devices and diagnostic algorithms that may be applied to existing structures or embedded in new ones for the above purpose. Special emphasis will be given to fibre optic technology and its applications.

  5. Smart homes to improve the quality of life for all.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Marco; Aloise, Fabio; Baldoni, Roberto; Cincotti, Febo; Guger, Christoph; Lazovik, Alexander; Mecella, Massimo; Pucci, Paolo; Rinsma, Johanna; Santucci, Giuseppe; Taglieri, Massimiliano

    2011-01-01

    A home is smart when, being aware of its own state and that of its users, is capable of controlling itself in order to support the user wishes and thus improving their quality of life. This holds both for users with special needs and for those with ordinary domestic needs. In this paper, we overview the Smart Homes for All project which represents the current state of the art with respect to software control and user interfaces in the smart homes arena.

  6. Application of Smart Infrastructure Systems approach to precision medicine

    PubMed Central

    Govindaraju, Diddahally R.; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.

    2015-01-01

    All biological variation is hierarchically organized dynamic network system of genomic components, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, individuals, families, populations and metapopulations. Individuals are axial in this hierarchy, as they represent antecedent, attendant and anticipated aspects of health, disease, evolution and medical care. Humans show individual specific genetic and clinical features such as complexity, cooperation, resilience, robustness, vulnerability, self-organization, latent and emergent behavior during their development, growth and senescence. Accurate collection, measurement, organization and analyses of individual specific data, embedded at all stratified levels of biological, demographic and cultural diversity – the big data – is necessary to make informed decisions on health, disease and longevity; which is a central theme of precision medicine initiative (PMI). This initiative also calls for the development of novel analytical approaches to handle complex multidimensional data. Here we suggest the application of Smart Infrastructure Systems (SIS) approach to accomplish some of the goals set forth by the PMI on the premise that biological systems and the SIS share many common features. The latter has been successfully employed in managing complex networks of non-linear adaptive controls, commonly encountered in smart engineering systems. We highlight their concordance and discuss the utility of the SIS approach in precision medicine programs. PMID:27054084

  7. Smart Material Demonstrators Based on Shape Memory Alloys and Electroceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Arther V.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the development and characterization of two technology demonstrators that were produced under the auspices of an ARPA sponsored smart materials synthesis and processing effort. The ARPA Smart Materials and Synthesis (SMS) Program was a 2 year, $10M partnership led by Martin Marietta Laboratories - Baltimore and included Lockheed Missiles & Space Co., NRL, AVX Corp., Martin Marietta Astronautics Groups, BDM Federal, Inc., Virginia Tech, Clemson, University of Maryland, Denver University, and The Johns Hopkins University. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of magnetron sputtered shape memory foil and the manufacturability of reliable, reproducible electrostrictive actuators, the team designed a broadband active vibration cancellation device for suppressing the vibration load on delicate instruments and precision pointing devices mounted on orbiting satellites and spacecraft. The results of extensive device characterization and bench testing are discussed. Initial simulation results show excellent control authority and amplitude attenuation over the range of anticipated disturbance frequencies. The SMS Team has also developed an active 1-3 composite comprising micro-electrostrictive actuators embedded in a polymeric matrix suitable for underwater applications such as sonar quieting and listening arrays, and for medical imaging. Follow-on programs employing these technologies are also described.

  8. Application of Smart Infrastructure Systems approach to precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Govindaraju, Diddahally R; Annaswamy, Anuradha M

    2015-12-01

    All biological variation is hierarchically organized dynamic network system of genomic components, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, individuals, families, populations and metapopulations. Individuals are axial in this hierarchy, as they represent antecedent, attendant and anticipated aspects of health, disease, evolution and medical care. Humans show individual specific genetic and clinical features such as complexity, cooperation, resilience, robustness, vulnerability, self-organization, latent and emergent behavior during their development, growth and senescence. Accurate collection, measurement, organization and analyses of individual specific data, embedded at all stratified levels of biological, demographic and cultural diversity - the big data - is necessary to make informed decisions on health, disease and longevity; which is a central theme of precision medicine initiative (PMI). This initiative also calls for the development of novel analytical approaches to handle complex multidimensional data. Here we suggest the application of Smart Infrastructure Systems (SIS) approach to accomplish some of the goals set forth by the PMI on the premise that biological systems and the SIS share many common features. The latter has been successfully employed in managing complex networks of non-linear adaptive controls, commonly encountered in smart engineering systems. We highlight their concordance and discuss the utility of the SIS approach in precision medicine programs.

  9. Smart Test Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Vern Wedeven, president of Wedeven Associates, developed the WAM4, a computer-aided "smart" test machine for simulating stress on equipment, based on his bearing lubrication expertise gained while working for Lewis Research Center. During his NASA years from the 1970s into the early 1980s, Wedeven initiated an "Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Tribology," an effort that involved NASA, six universities, and several university professors. The NASA-sponsored work provided foundation for Wedeven in 1983 to form his own company. Several versions of the smart test machine, the WAM1, WAM2, and WAM3, have proceeded the current version, WAM4. This computer-controlled device can provide detailed glimpses at gear and bearing points of contact. WAM4 can yield a three-dimensional view of machinery as an operator adds "what-if" thermal and lubrication conditions, contact stress, and surface motion. Along with NASA, a number of firms, including Pratt & Whitney, Caterpillar Tractor, Exxon, and Chevron have approached Wedeven for help on resolving lubrication problems.

  10. DARPA/ARFL/NASA Smart Wing second wind tunnel test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Lewis B.; Martin, Christopher A.; West, Mark N.; Florance, Jennifer P.; Wieseman, Carol D.; Burner, Alpheus W.; Fleming, Gary A.

    1999-07-01

    To quantify the benefits of smart materials and structures adaptive wing technology. Northrop Grumman Corp. built and tested two 16 percent scale wind tunnel models of a fighter/attach aircraft under the DARPA/AFRL/NASA Smart Materials and Structures Development - Smart Wing Phase 1. Performance gains quantified included increased pitching moment, increased rolling moment and improved pressure distribution. The benefits were obtained for hingeless, contoured trailing edge control surfaces with embedded shape memory alloy wires and spanwise wing twist effected by SMA torque tube mechanism, compared to convention hinged control surfaces. This paper presents an overview of the results from the second wind tunnel test performed at the NASA Langley Research Center's 16 ft Transonic Dynamic Tunnel in June 1998. Successful results obtained were: 1) 5 degrees of spanwise twist and 8-12 percent increase in rolling moment utilizing a single SMA torque tube, 2) 12 degrees of deflection, and 10 percent increase in rolling moment due to hingeless, contoured aileron, and 3) demonstration of optical techniques for measuring spanwise twist and deflected shape.

  11. Towards In Situ-Process Control in Tribological or Tool Applications: A Material Concept for the Design of Smart Thin Film Wear Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Sven; Klever, C.; Leiste, H.; Seemann, K.; Stüber, M.

    The optimization of processes for tribological or machining applications requires the development of (i) high performance substrate materials, especially ultra fine grain cemented carbides for cutting tools, (ii) complex tool geometries and (iii) innovative, nano-scaled hard and tough multi-functional protective coatings. Very important is also the in-situ process control which can be realized with (i) sensors which are embedded in the protective coating using microsystem technology or (ii) if possible, by using tailored coating designs which show itself both protective and sensor functionality.

  12. Complex IoT Systems as Enablers for Smart Homes in a Smart City Vision

    PubMed Central

    Lynggaard, Per; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2016-01-01

    The world is entering a new era, where Internet-of-Things (IoT), smart homes, and smart cities will play an important role in meeting the so-called big challenges. In the near future, it is foreseen that the majority of the world’s population will live their lives in smart homes and in smart cities. To deal with these challenges, to support a sustainable urban development, and to improve the quality of life for citizens, a multi-disciplinary approach is needed. It seems evident, however, that a new, advanced Information and Communications Technology ICT infrastructure is a key feature to realize the “smart” vision. This paper proposes a specific solution in the form of a hierarchical layered ICT based infrastructure that handles ICT issues related to the “big challenges” and seamlessly integrates IoT, smart homes, and smart city structures into one coherent unit. To exemplify benefits of this infrastructure, a complex IoT system has been deployed, simulated and elaborated. This simulation deals with wastewater energy harvesting from smart buildings located in a smart city context. From the simulations, it has been found that the proposed infrastructure is able to harvest between 50% and 75% of the wastewater energy in a smart residential building. By letting the smart city infrastructure coordinate and control the harvest time and duration, it is possible to achieve considerable energy savings in the smart homes, and it is possible to reduce the peak-load for district heating plants. PMID:27827851

  13. Attack Classification Schema for Smart City WSNs.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Font, Victor; Garrigues, Carles; Rifà-Pous, Helena

    2017-04-05

    Urban areas around the world are populating their streets with wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in order to feed incipient smart city IT systems with metropolitan data. In the future smart cities, WSN technology will have a massive presence in the streets, and the operation of municipal services will be based to a great extent on data gathered with this technology. However, from an information security point of view, WSNs can have failures and can be the target of many different types of attacks. Therefore, this raises concerns about the reliability of this technology in a smart city context. Traditionally, security measures in WSNs have been proposed to protect specific protocols in an environment with total control of a single network. This approach is not valid for smart cities, as multiple external providers deploy a plethora of WSNs with different security requirements. Hence, a new security perspective needs to be adopted to protect WSNs in smart cities. Considering security issues related to the deployment of WSNs as a main data source in smart cities, in this article, we propose an intrusion detection framework and an attack classification schema to assist smart city administrators to delimit the most plausible attacks and to point out the components and providers affected by incidents. We demonstrate the use of the classification schema providing a proof of concept based on a simulated selective forwarding attack affecting a parking and a sound WSN.

  14. Renewable energy sources, the internet of things and the third industrial revolution: Smart grid and contemporary information and communication technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitsios, Aristidis; Bousakas, Konstantinos; Salame, Takla; Bogno, Bachirou; Papageorgas, Panagiotis; Vokas, Georgios A.; Mauffay, Fabrice; Petit, Pierre; Aillerie, Michel; Charles, Jean-Pierre

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the energy efficiency of a contemporary Smart Grid that is based on Distributed Renewable Energy Sources (DRES) is examined under the scope of the communication systems utilized between the energy loads and the energy sources. What is evident is that the Internet of Things (IoT) technologies that are based on the existing Web infrastructure can be heavily introduced in this direction especially when combined with long range low bandwidth networking technologies, power line communication technologies and optimization methodologies for renewable energy generation. The renewable energy generation optimization will be based on devices embedded in the PV panels and the wind power generators, which will rely on bidirectional communications with local gateways and remote control stations for achieving energy efficiency. Smart meters and DRES combined with IoT communications will be the enabling technologies for the ultimate fusion of Internet technology and renewable energy generation realizing the Energy Internet.

  15. Gesture recognition on smart cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziri, Aziz; Chevobbe, Stephane; Darouich, Mehdi

    2013-02-01

    Gesture recognition is a feature in human-machine interaction that allows more natural interaction without the use of complex devices. For this reason, several methods of gesture recognition have been developed in recent years. However, most real time methods are designed to operate on a Personal Computer with high computing resources and memory. In this paper, we analyze relevant methods found in the literature in order to investigate the ability of smart camera to execute gesture recognition algorithms. We elaborate two hand gesture recognition pipelines. The first method is based on invariant moments extraction and the second on finger tips detection. The hand detection method used for both pipeline is based on skin color segmentation. The results obtained show that the un-optimized versions of invariant moments method and finger tips detection method can reach 10 fps on embedded processor and use about 200 kB of memory.

  16. Embedded systems engineering for products and services design.

    PubMed

    Ahram, Tareq Z; Karwowski, Waldemar; Soares, Marcelo M

    2012-01-01

    Systems engineering (SE) professionals strive to develop new techniques to enhance the value of contributions to multidisciplinary smart product design teams. Products and services designers challenge themselves to search beyond the traditional design concept of addressing the physical, social, and cognitive factors. This paper covers the application of embedded user-centered systems engineering design practices into work processes based on the ISO 13407 framework [20] to support smart systems and services design and development. As practitioners collaborate to investigate alternative smart product designs, they concentrate on creating valuable products which will enhance positive interaction. This paper capitalizes on the need to follow a user-centered SE approach to smart products design [4, 22]. Products and systems intelligence should embrace a positive approach to user-centered design while improving our understanding of usable value-adding, experience and extending our knowledge of what inspires others to design enjoyable services and products.

  17. Controlled co-deposition of FePt nanoparticles embedded in MgO: a detailed investigation of structure and electronic and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Addato, S.; Grillo, V.; di Bona, A.; Luches, P.; Frabboni, S.; Valeri, S.; Lupo, P.; Casoli, F.; Albertini, F.

    2013-12-01

    Films of FePt nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in MgO were obtained by controlled co-deposition of FePt NPs pre-formed by a gas aggregation source and of Mg evaporated in an oxygen atmosphere. Assemblies of core-shell FePt@MgO NPs and films of FePt NPs embedded in MgO matrix could be obtained by varying FePt and Mg deposition rates. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution-TEM revealed the core-shell structure of the NPs, with an FePt core (of average diameter = 4.75 nm) presenting a multitwinned icosahedral structure, and MgO partially in crystalline form. The functional effect of the MgO shell in shielding the FePt core from external oxidation was shown with XPS. Upon controlled annealing, a transition from A1 to L10 ordering could be obtained, with structural and morphological re-arrangement. The magnetic hysteresis loops obtained from alternating gradient field magnetometry at room temperature show a ‘wasp-waist’ shape, with small values of coercive field (Hc = 300-1400 Oe), decreasing at increasing amounts of co-deposited MgO.

  18. Controlled co-deposition of FePt nanoparticles embedded in MgO: a detailed investigation of structure and electronic and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    D'Addato, S; Grillo, V; di Bona, A; Luches, P; Frabboni, S; Valeri, S; Lupo, P; Casoli, F; Albertini, F

    2013-12-13

    Films of FePt nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in MgO were obtained by controlled co-deposition of FePt NPs pre-formed by a gas aggregation source and of Mg evaporated in an oxygen atmosphere. Assemblies of core-shell FePt@MgO NPs and films of FePt NPs embedded in MgO matrix could be obtained by varying FePt and Mg deposition rates. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution-TEM revealed the core-shell structure of the NPs, with an FePt core (of average diameter (d) = 4.75 nm) presenting a multitwinned icosahedral structure, and MgO partially in crystalline form. The functional effect of the MgO shell in shielding the FePt core from external oxidation was shown with XPS. Upon controlled annealing, a transition from A1 to L10 ordering could be obtained, with structural and morphological re-arrangement. The magnetic hysteresis loops obtained from alternating gradient field magnetometry at room temperature show a 'wasp-waist' shape, with small values of coercive field (Hc = 300-1400 Oe), decreasing at increasing amounts of co-deposited MgO.

  19. This Is Smart Growth - Publication

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Is Smart Growth illustrates how communities can turn their visions into reality, using smart growth techniques to improve development. The report features 40 places around the country that have found success by implementing smart growth principles.

  20. "Smart" Sensor Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahajan, Ajay

    2007-01-01

    An assembly that contains a sensor, sensor-signal-conditioning circuitry, a sensor-readout analog-to-digital converter (ADC), data-storage circuitry, and a microprocessor that runs special-purpose software and communicates with one or more external computer(s) has been developed as a prototype of "smart" sensor modules for monitoring the integrity and functionality (the "health") of engineering systems. Although these modules are now being designed specifically for use on rocket-engine test stands, it is anticipated that they could also readily be designed to be incorporated into health-monitoring subsystems of such diverse engineering systems as spacecraft, aircraft, land vehicles, bridges, buildings, power plants, oilrigs, and defense installations. The figure is a simplified block diagram of the "smart" sensor module. The analog sensor readout signal is processed by the ADC, the digital output of which is fed to the microprocessor. By means of a standard RS-232 cable, the microprocessor is connected to a local personal computer (PC), from which software is downloaded into a randomaccess memory in the microprocessor. The local PC is also used to debug the software. Once the software is running, the local PC is disconnected and the module is controlled by, and all output data from the module are collected by, a remote PC via an Ethernet bus. Several smart sensor modules like this one could be connected to the same Ethernet bus and controlled by the single remote PC. The software running in the microprocessor includes driver programs for operation of the sensor, programs that implement self-assessment algorithms, programs that implement protocols for communication with the external computer( s), and programs that implement evolutionary methodologies to enable the module to improve its performance over time. The design of the module and of the health-monitoring system of which it is a part reflects the understanding that the main purpose of a health

  1. Smart materials in dentistry.

    PubMed

    McCabe, J F; Yan, Z; Al Naimi, O T; Mahmoud, G; Rolland, S L

    2011-06-01

    Most dental materials are designed to have a relatively 'neutral' existence in the mouth. It is considered that if they are 'passive' and do not react with the oral environment they will be more stable and have a greater durability. At the same time, it is hoped that our materials will be well accepted and will cause neither harm nor injury. This is an entirely negative approach to material tolerance and biocompatibility and hides the possibility that some positive gains can be achieved by using materials which behave in a more dynamic fashion in the environment in which they are placed. An example of materials which have potential for 'dynamic' behaviour exists with structures which are partly water-based or have phases or zones with significant water content and for which the water within the material can react to changes in the ambient conditions. Such materials may even be said to have the potential for 'smart' behaviour, i.e. they can react to changes in the environment to bring about advantageous changes in properties, either within the material itself or in the material-tooth complex. The controlled movement of water or aqueous media through the material may cause changes in dimensions, may be the carrier for various dissolved species, and may influence the potential for the formation of biofilms at the surface. Some of these issues may be closely interrelated. Clearly, materials which do not have the capacity for water transport or storage do not have the potential for this sort of behaviour. Some materials which are normally resistant to the healthy oral environment can undergo controlled degradation at low pH in order to release ions which may prove beneficial or protective. It is doubtful whether such behaviour should be classified as 'smart' because the material cannot readily return to its original condition when the stimulus is removed. Other materials, such as certain alloys, having no means of transporting water through their structure, can display

  2. A technique to evaluate the good operation of FBG sensors embedded in a carbon fiber beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzulani, Gabriele; Cinquemani, Simone; Comolli, Lorenzo

    2013-05-01

    Embedding FBG sensors in carbon fiber structures is a very attractive solution, due to the small fiber diameter, and the possibility to manufacture arrays of many gratings into a single optical fiber. These embedding is particularly useful for the manufacturing of smart structures, able to improve their characteristics thanks to embedded sensors and actuators. In this work a carbon fiber beam of 3 m length, with an array of 30 FBG sensors and 3 piezoelectric actuators, is described. The focus of the work is on the evaluation of the good operation of embedded FBG sensors, that is not easy due to the microstructure of woven carbon fiber layers, producing non-homogeneous strain field, a well known problem for the reliability of FBG strain measurements. The proposed technique looks at the standard deviation of the full width at -6 dB of the spectra of each FBG sensors, during a quasi-static motion producing quasi-static strains. 37% of the 30 FBG sensors have been found to produce measurements corrupted by a small error. At the end, vibration control of the described structure is shown.

  3. Does LearnSmart Connect Students to Textbook Content in an Interpersonal Communication Course?: Assessing the Effectiveness of and Satisfaction with LearnSmart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearhart, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This study examines McGraw-Hill Higher Education's LearnSmart online textbook supplement and its effect on student exam performance in an interpersonal communication course. Students (N = 62) in two sections were either enrolled in a control group with no required LearnSmart usage or a treatment group with requisite LearnSmart assignments.…

  4. Smart Electronic Textiles.

    PubMed

    Weng, Wei; Chen, Peining; He, Sisi; Sun, Xuemei; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-05-17

    This Review describes the state-of-the-art of wearable electronics (smart textiles). The unique and promising advantages of smart electronic textiles are highlighted by comparing them with the conventional planar counterparts. The main kinds of smart electronic textiles based on different functionalities, namely the generation, storage, and utilization of electricity, are then discussed with an emphasis on the use of functional materials. The remaining challenges are summarized together with important new directions to provide some useful clues for the future development of smart electronic textiles.

  5. Anatomy of a Smart house

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, L.

    1988-07-01

    The author describes the Gas Laboratory House in Bowie, MD. It is being built as a SMART HOUSE. This means it will contain a whole-house control system made up of communication chips, computer programs and microprocessor-based controllers. A single cable carries signals from the chips to many different types of appliances. Flexible gas piping forms a ''circulatory system'' that makes the house completely compatible with natural gas appliances. The SMART HOUSE is fully programmable so that appliances can be told when to turn on and off. It can also have a zoned space-conditioning system, allowing sections of the house to be heated or cooled independently. The authors explains how the system works and the project's development schedule.

  6. Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Clements, Samuel L.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Kirkham, Harold; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Smith, David L.; Weimar, Mark R.; Gardner, Chris; Varney, Jeff

    2014-07-01

    A smart grid uses digital power control and communication technology to improve the reliability, security, flexibility, and efficiency of the electric system, from large generation through the delivery systems to electricity consumers and a growing number of distributed generation and storage resources. To convey progress made in achieving the vision of a smart grid, this report uses a set of six characteristics derived from the National Energy Technology Laboratory Modern Grid Strategy. The Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report defines and examines 21 metrics that collectively provide insight into the grid’s capacity to embody these characteristics. This appendix presents papers covering each of the 21 metrics identified in Section 2.1 of the Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report. These metric papers were prepared in advance of the main body of the report and collectively form its informational backbone.

  7. Electricity Markets, Smart Grids and Smart Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcey, Jonathan M.

    A smart grid is an electricity network that accommodates two-way power flows, and utilizes two-way communications and increased measurement, in order to provide more information to customers and aid in the development of a more efficient electricity market. The current electrical network is outdated and has many shortcomings relating to power flows, inefficient electricity markets, generation/supply balance, a lack of information for the consumer and insufficient consumer interaction with electricity markets. Many of these challenges can be addressed with a smart grid, but there remain significant barriers to the implementation of a smart grid. This paper proposes a novel method for the development of a smart grid utilizing a bottom up approach (starting with smart buildings/campuses) with the goal of providing the framework and infrastructure necessary for a smart grid instead of the more traditional approach (installing many smart meters and hoping a smart grid emerges). This novel approach involves combining deterministic and statistical methods in order to accurately estimate building electricity use down to the device level. It provides model users with a cheaper alternative to energy audits and extensive sensor networks (the current methods of quantifying electrical use at this level) which increases their ability to modify energy consumption and respond to price signals The results of this method are promising, but they are still preliminary. As a result, there is still room for improvement. On days when there were no missing or inaccurate data, this approach has R2 of about 0.84, sometimes as high as 0.94 when compared to measured results. However, there were many days where missing data brought overall accuracy down significantly. In addition, the development and implementation of the calibration process is still underway and some functional additions must be made in order to maximize accuracy. The calibration process must be completed before a reliable

  8. A Low-Power High-Speed Smart Sensor Design for Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Wai-Chi

    1997-01-01

    A low-power high-speed smart sensor system based on a large format active pixel sensor (APS) integrated with a programmable neural processor for space exploration missions is presented. The concept of building an advanced smart sensing system is demonstrated by a system-level microchip design that is composed with an APS sensor, a programmable neural processor, and an embedded microprocessor in a SOI CMOS technology. This ultra-fast smart sensor system-on-a-chip design mimics what is inherent in biological vision systems. Moreover, it is programmable and capable of performing ultra-fast machine vision processing in all levels such as image acquisition, image fusion, image analysis, scene interpretation, and control functions. The system provides about one tera-operation-per-second computing power which is a two order-of-magnitude increase over that of state-of-the-art microcomputers. Its high performance is due to massively parallel computing structures, high data throughput rates, fast learning capabilities, and advanced VLSI system-on-a-chip implementation.

  9. An RFID Based Smart Feeder for Hummingbirds

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra, Vicente; Araya-Salas, Marcelo; Tang, Yu-ping; Park, Charlie; Hyde, Anthony; Wright, Timothy F.; Tang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We present an interdisciplinary effort to record feeding behaviors and control the diet of a hummingbird species (Phaethornis longirostris, the long-billed hermit or LBH) by developing a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) based smart feeder. The system contains an RFID reader, a microcontroller, and a servo-controlled hummingbird feeder opener; the system is presented as a tool for studying the cognitive ability of the LBH species. When equipped with glass capsule RFID tags (which are mounted on the hummingbird), the smart feeder can provide specific diets for predetermined sets of hummingbirds at the discretion of biologists. This is done by reading the unique RFID tag on the hummingbirds and comparing the ID number with the pre-programmed ID numbers stored in the smart feeder. The smart feeder records the time and ID of each hummingbird visit. The system data is stored in a readily available SD card and is powered by two 9 V batteries. The detection range of the system is approximately 9–11 cm. Using this system, biologists can assign the wild hummingbirds to different experimental groups and monitor their diets to determine if they develop a preference to any of the available nectars. During field testing, the smart feeder system has demonstrated consistent detection (when compared to detections observed by video-recordings) of RFID tags on hummingbirds and provides pre-designed nectars varying water and sugar concentrations to target individuals. The smart feeder can be applied to other biological and environmental studies in the future. PMID:26694402

  10. An RFID Based Smart Feeder for Hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Vicente; Araya-Salas, Marcelo; Tang, Yu-ping; Park, Charlie; Hyde, Anthony; Wright, Timothy F; Tang, Wei

    2015-12-16

    We present an interdisciplinary effort to record feeding behaviors and control the diet of a hummingbird species (Phaethornis longirostris, the long-billed hermit or LBH) by developing a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) based smart feeder. The system contains an RFID reader, a microcontroller, and a servo-controlled hummingbird feeder opener; the system is presented as a tool for studying the cognitive ability of the LBH species. When equipped with glass capsule RFID tags (which are mounted on the hummingbird), the smart feeder can provide specific diets for predetermined sets of hummingbirds at the discretion of biologists. This is done by reading the unique RFID tag on the hummingbirds and comparing the ID number with the pre-programmed ID numbers stored in the smart feeder. The smart feeder records the time and ID of each hummingbird visit. The system data is stored in a readily available SD card and is powered by two 9 V batteries. The detection range of the system is approximately 9-11 cm. Using this system, biologists can assign the wild hummingbirds to different experimental groups and monitor their diets to determine if they develop a preference to any of the available nectars. During field testing, the smart feeder system has demonstrated consistent detection (when compared to detections observed by video-recordings) of RFID tags on hummingbirds and provides pre-designed nectars varying water and sugar concentrations to target individuals. The smart feeder can be applied to other biological and environmental studies in the future.

  11. Probabilistic assessment of smart composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Shiao, Michael C.

    1994-01-01

    A composite wing with spars and bulkheads is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of probabilistic assessment of smart composite structures to control uncertainties in distortions and stresses. Results show that a smart composite wing can be controlled to minimize distortions and to have specified stress levels in the presence of defects. Structural responses such as changes in angle of attack, vertical displacements, and stress in the control and controlled plies are probabilistically assessed to quantify their respective uncertainties. Sensitivity factors are evaluated to identify those parameters that have the greatest influence on a specific structural response. Results show that smart composite structures can be configured to control both distortions and ply stresses to satisfy specified design requirements.

  12. [A preliminary research on wireless distribution and tele-diagnosis of medical images using a smart phone].

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Zhai, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Wei

    2008-05-01

    A mini wireless PACS has been built with the client/sever method, the smart phone is selected as an image workstation. By embedding the third party's software in the smart phone, the medical image can be viewed, listed and processed on the phone. Without changing its hardware, the system can fulfill tele-diagnosis by wireless communication.

  13. Prevention of Information Leakage by Photo-Coupling in Smart Card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Sung-Shiou; Chiu, Jung-Hui

    Advances in smart card technology encourages smart card use in more sensitive applications, such as storing important information and securing application. Smart cards are however vulnerable to side channel attacks. Power consumption and electromagnetic radiation of the smart card can leak information about the secret data protected by the smart card. Our paper describes two possible hardware countermeasures that protect against side channel information leakage. We show that power analysis can be prevented by adopting photo-coupling techniques. This method involves the use of LED with photovoltaic cells and photo-couplers on the power, reset, I/O and clock lines of the smart card. This method reduces the risk of internal data bus leakage on the external data lines. Moreover, we also discuss the effectiveness of reducing electromagnetic radiation by using embedded metal plates.

  14. Redox-Robust Pentamethylferrocene Polymers and Supramolecular Polymers, and Controlled Self-Assembly of Pentamethylferricenium Polymer-Embedded Ag, AgI, and Au Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gu, Haibin; Ciganda, Roberto; Castel, Patricia; Vax, Amélie; Gregurec, Danijela; Irigoyen, Joseba; Moya, Sergio; Salmon, Lionel; Zhao, Pengxiang; Ruiz, Jaime; Hernández, Ricardo; Astruc, Didier

    2015-12-07

    We report the first pentamethylferrocene (PMF) polymers and the redox chemistry of their robust polycationic pentamethylferricenium (PMFium) analogues. The PMF polymers were synthesized by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of a PMF-containing norbornene derivative by using the third-generation Grubbs ruthenium metathesis catalyst. Cyclic voltammetry studies allowed us to determine confidently the number of monomer units in the polymers through the Bard-Anson method. Stoichiometric oxidation by using ferricenium hexafluorophosphate quantitatively and instantaneously provided fully stable (even in aerobic solutions) blue d(5) Fe(III) metallopolymers. Alternatively, oxidation of the PMF-containing polymers was conducted by reactions with Ag(I) or Au(III) , to give PMFium polymer-embedded Ag and Au nanoparticles (NPs). In the presence of I2 , oxidation by using Ag(I) gave polymer-embedded Ag/AgI NPs and AgNPs at the surface of AgI NPs. Oxidation by using Au(III) also produced an Au(I) intermediate that was trapped and characterized. Engineered single-electron transfer reactions of these redox-robust nanomaterial precursors appear to be a new way to control their formation, size, and environment in a supramolecular way.

  15. Fabrication and characterization of a rapid prototyped tissue engineering scaffold with embedded multicomponent matrix for controlled drug release

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Muwan; Le, Dang QS; Hein, San; Li, Pengcheng; Nygaard, Jens V; Kassem, Moustapha; Kjems, Jørgen; Besenbacher, Flemming; Bünger, Cody

    2012-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering implants with sustained local drug delivery provide an opportunity for better postoperative care for bone tumor patients because these implants offer sustained drug release at the tumor site and reduce systemic side effects. A rapid prototyped macroporous polycaprolactone scaffold was embedded with a porous matrix composed of chitosan, nanoclay, and β-tricalcium phosphate by freeze-drying. This composite scaffold was evaluated on its ability to deliver an anthracycline antibiotic and to promote formation of mineralized matrix in vitro. Scanning electronic microscopy, confocal imaging, and DNA quantification confirmed that immortalized human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC-TERT) cultured in the scaffold showed high cell viability and growth, and good cell infiltration to the pores of the scaffold. Alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin staining showed that the scaffold was osteoinductive. The drug-release kinetics was investigated by loading doxorubicin into the scaffold. The scaffolds comprising nanoclay released up to 45% of the drug for up to 2 months, while the scaffold without nanoclay released 95% of the drug within 4 days. Therefore, this scaffold can fulfill the requirements for both bone tissue engineering and local sustained release of an anticancer drug in vitro. These results suggest that the scaffold can be used clinically in reconstructive surgery after bone tumor resection. Moreover, by changing the composition and amount of individual components, the scaffold can find application in other tissue engineering areas that need local sustained release of drug. PMID:22904634

  16. Remotely Controlled Micromanipulation by Buckling Instabilities in Fe3O4 Nanoparticle Embedded Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Surface Arrays.

    PubMed

    Carias, Vinicio; Nemati Porshokouh, Zohreh; Stojak Repa, Kristen; Alonso, Javier; Srikanth, Hariharan; Rühe, Jürgen; Toomey, Ryan; Wang, Jing

    2016-10-05

    The micromanipulation of biological samples is important for microbiology, pharmaceutical science, and related bioengineering fields. In this work, we report the fabrication and characterization of surface-attached microbeam arrays of 20 μm width and 25 μm height made of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), a thermoresponsive polymer, with embedded spherical or octopod Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Below 32 °C, the microbeams imbibe water and buckle with an amplitude of approximately 20 μm. Turning on an AC-magnetic field induces the microbeam array to expel water due to the heating effect of the nanoparticles (magnetic hyperthermia), leading to a reversible transition from a buckled to nonbuckled state. It is observed that the octopod nanoparticles have a heating rate 30% greater (specific absorption rate, SAR) than that of the spherical nanoparticles, which shortens the time scale of the transition from the buckled and nonbuckled state. The return of the microbeams to the buckled state is accomplished by turning off the AC magnetic field, the rate of which is dictated by dissipation of heat and is independent of the type of nanoparticle. It is further demonstrated that this transition can be used to propel 50 μm spherical objects along a surface. While the motion is random, this study shows the promise of harnessing shape-shifting patterns in microfluidics for object manipulation.

  17. Smart Buying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Steven A.

    2003-01-01

    When it came time to buy the next-generation data storage system for the Mission Control Center at Johnson Space Center, we asked our contractor who provides Control Center support to come up with a solution that would consolidate three current storage systems, as well as provide additional capability and functionality - all without spending vast amounts of money. Eventually, the contractor's report arrived at my office. To my great disappointment, the proposed system came along with a multi-million dollar price tag. And, even more disappointing, the system relied on the same technology we already had in place and wouldn't deliver much additional functionality. It was clear that we needed to come up with a better solution-the best we could buy. But how do you buy the best technology, when you don't even know what technology is out there?

  18. Playing the Smart Card.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuzack, Christine A.

    1997-01-01

    Enhanced magnetic strip cards and "smart cards" offer varied service options to college students. Enhanced magnetic strip cards serve as cash cards and provide access to services. Smart cards, which resemble credit cards but contain a microchip, can be used as phone cards, bus passes, library cards, admission tickets, point-of-sale debit…

  19. Smart Icon Cards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Icons are frequently used in the music classroom to depict concepts in a developmentally appropriate way for students. SmartBoards provide music educators yet another way to share these manipulatives with students. This article provides a step-by-step tutorial to create Smart Icon Cards using the folk song "Lucy Locket."

  20. SMART Boards Rock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Rebecca M.; Shaw, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    SMART Board is a technology that combines the functionality of a whiteboard, computer, and projector into a single system. The interactive nature of the SMART Board offers many practical uses for providing an introduction to or review of material, while the large work area invites collaboration through social interaction and communication. As a…

  1. Smart Fabrics Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Cory; Potter, Elliott; Potter, Elliott; McCabe, Mary; Baggerman, Clint

    2010-01-01

    Advances in Smart Fabrics technology are enabling an exciting array of new applications for NASA exploration missions, the biomedical community, and consumer electronics. This report summarizes the findings of a brief investigation into the state of the art and potential applications of smart fabrics to address challenges in human spaceflight.

  2. Making Smart Food Choices

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthy Aging Making Smart Food Choices Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents Everyday ... NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Making Smart Food Choices To maintain a healthy weight, balance the calories ...

  3. SMARTE TUTORIAL CD

    EPA Science Inventory

    SMARTe is a web-based decision support tool intended to help revitalization practitioners find information, perform data analysis, communicate, and evaluate future reuse options for a site or area. A tutorial was developed to help users navigate SMARTe. This tutorial is approxima...

  4. Smart Clothing Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    As sensors and computers become smaller and smaller, it becomes possible to add intelligence or smartness to common items. This is already seen in smart appliances, cars that diagnose their own maintenance problems, and military hardware that is something straight out of a science fiction book. In this article, the author looks at a design…

  5. Space smarts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, Frank

    1991-02-01

    A review is presented of design and development work in space data processors at the Honeywell Space Systems Group in Florida. Space computers, some hardened for the first time against radiation from both man-made nuclear events and the natural space environment, are described. A specific illustration of this is the Space Shuttle main engine control which monitors some 120 engine parameters 50 times per second and operates the actuators that control the liquid-fueled engine through its eight minute burn. It is further pointed out that Space Station processors will be tied together by three different data buses, each with its own protocol, while the backbone of the data management system will be an optical fiber distributed data interface handling up to 100 Mbits/sec. Radiation hardening without heavy shielding can be accomplished in several ways, i.e., at the materials level, by insulating substrates which can limit the photo-currents generated by a nuclear event, and at the topological level, by spacing transistors so that photocurrents cannot concentrate at any particular node.

  6. Stimuli-responsive smart gating membranes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhuang; Wang, Wei; Xie, Rui; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2016-02-07

    Membranes are playing paramount roles in the sustainable development of myriad fields such as energy, environmental and resource management, and human health. However, the unalterable pore size and surface properties of traditional porous membranes restrict their efficient applications. The performances of traditional membranes will be weakened upon unavoidable membrane fouling, and they cannot be applied to cases where self-regulated permeability and selectivity are required. Inspired by natural cell membranes with stimuli-responsive channels, artificial stimuli-responsive smart gating membranes are developed by chemically/physically incorporating stimuli-responsive materials as functional gates into traditional porous membranes, to provide advanced functions and enhanced performances for breaking the bottlenecks of traditional membrane technologies. Smart gating membranes, integrating the advantages of traditional porous membrane substrates and smart functional gates, can self-regulate their permeability and selectivity via the flexible adjustment of pore sizes and surface properties based on the "open/close" switch of the smart gates in response to environmental stimuli. This tutorial review summarizes the recent developments in stimuli-responsive smart gating membranes, including the design strategies and the fabrication strategies that are based on the introduction of the stimuli-responsive gates after or during membrane formation, and the positively and negatively responsive gating models of versatile stimuli-responsive smart gating membranes, as well as the advanced applications of smart gating membranes for regulating substance concentration in reactors, controlling the release rate of drugs, separating active molecules based on size or affinity, and the self-cleaning of membrane surfaces. With self-regulated membrane performances, smart gating membranes show great power for use in global sustainable development.

  7. Making a Smart Campus in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abuelyaman, Eltayab Salih

    2008-01-01

    Prince Sultan University (PSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, has conceptualized what it means to be a smart campus after surveying similar notions worldwide. A "smart" campus requires smart teachers, smart technology, and smart pedagogical centers. It deploys smart teachers and gives them smart tools and ongoing support to do their jobs…

  8. Smart Microgrid Energy Management Controls for Improved Energy Efficiency and Renewables Integration at DoD Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Device JCI: Johnson Conrols, Inc. LAN : Local Area Network MCAGCC: Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center MCS: Microgrid Control System Multilin...distribution losses. Microgrids are envisioned as local power networks that utilize distributed energy resources (DER) and manage the local energy...Platforms (supervisory controller, the HMI, the BEM, and certified network communications) hardware and software tailored for the Twentynine Palms

  9. Active vibration mitigation of distributed parameter, smart-type structures using Pseudo-Feedback Optimal Control (PFOC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patten, W. N.; Robertshaw, H. H.; Pierpont, D.; Wynn, R. H.

    1989-01-01

    A new, near-optimal feedback control technique is introduced that is shown to provide excellent vibration attenuation for those distributed parameter systems that are often encountered in the areas of aeroservoelasticity and large space systems. The technique relies on a novel solution methodology for the classical optimal control problem. Specifically, the quadratic regulator control problem for a flexible vibrating structure is first cast in a weak functional form that admits an approximate solution. The necessary conditions (first-order) are then solved via a time finite-element method. The procedure produces a low dimensional, algebraic parameterization of the optimal control problem that provides a rigorous basis for a discrete controller with a first-order like hold output. Simulation has shown that the algorithm can successfully control a wide variety of plant forms including multi-input/multi-output systems and systems exhibiting significant nonlinearities. In order to firmly establish the efficacy of the algorithm, a laboratory control experiment was implemented to provide planar (bending) vibration attenuation of a highly flexible beam (with a first clamped-free mode of approximately 0.5 Hz).

  10. Embedding Optical Fibers In Cast Metal Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibler, William N.; Atkins, Robert A.; Lee, Chung E.; Taylor, Henry F.

    1995-01-01

    Use of metal strain reliefs eliminates breakage of fibers during casting process. Technique for embedding fused silica optical fibers in cast metal parts devised. Optical fiber embedded in flange, fitting, or wall of vacuum or pressure chamber, to provide hermetically sealed feedthrough for optical transmission of measurement or control signals. Another example, optical-fiber temperature sensor embedded in metal structural component to measure strain or temperature inside component.

  11. Energy Efficiency of Task Allocation for Embedded JPEG Systems

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Embedded system works everywhere for repeatedly performing a few particular functionalities. Well-known products include consumer electronics, smart home applications, and telematics device, and so forth. Recently, developing methodology of embedded systems is applied to conduct the design of cloud embedded system resulting in the applications of embedded system being more diverse. However, the more energy consumes result from the more embedded system works. This study presents hyperrectangle technology (HT) to embedded system for obtaining energy saving. The HT adopts drift effect to construct embedded systems with more hardware circuits than software components or vice versa. It can fast construct embedded system with a set of hardware circuits and software components. Moreover, it has a great benefit to fast explore energy consumption for various embedded systems. The effects are presented by assessing a JPEG benchmarks. Experimental results demonstrate that the HT, respectively, achieves the energy saving by 29.84%, 2.07%, and 68.80% on average to GA, GHO, and Lin. PMID:24982983

  12. Energy efficiency of task allocation for embedded JPEG systems.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yang-Hsin; Wu, Jan-Ou; Wang, San-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Embedded system works everywhere for repeatedly performing a few particular functionalities. Well-known products include consumer electronics, smart home applications, and telematics device, and so forth. Recently, developing methodology of embedded systems is applied to conduct the design of cloud embedded system resulting in the applications of embedded system being more diverse. However, the more energy consumes result from the more embedded system works. This study presents hyperrectangle technology (HT) to embedded system for obtaining energy saving. The HT adopts drift effect to construct embedded systems with more hardware circuits than software components or vice versa. It can fast construct embedded system with a set of hardware circuits and software components. Moreover, it has a great benefit to fast explore energy consumption for various embedded systems. The effects are presented by assessing a JPEG benchmarks. Experimental results demonstrate that the HT, respectively, achieves the energy saving by 29.84%, 2.07%, and 68.80% on average to GA, GHO, and Lin.

  13. Development of a smart DC grid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalimunthe, Amty Ma'rufah Ardhiyah; Mindara, Jajat Yuda; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made

    2016-03-01

    Smart grid and distributed generation should be the solution of the global climate change and the crisis energy of the main source of electrical power generation which is fossil fuel. In order to meet the rising electrical power demand and increasing service quality demands, as well as reduce pollution, the existing power grid infrastructure should be developed into a smart grid and distributed power generation which provide a great opportunity to address issues related to energy efficiency, energy security, power quality and aging infrastructure systems. The conventional of the existing distributed generation system is an AC grid while for a renewable resources requires a DC grid system. This paper explores the model of smart DC grid by introducing a model of smart DC grid with the stable power generation give a minimal and compressed circuitry that can be implemented very cost-effectively with simple components. The PC based application software for controlling was developed to show the condition of the grid and to control the grid become `smart'. The model is then subjected to a severe system perturbation, such as incremental change in loads to test the performance of the system again stability. It is concluded that the system able to detect and controlled the voltage stability which indicating the ability of power system to maintain steady voltage within permissible rangers in normal condition.

  14. SMART: The Future of Spaceflight Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C.; Howard, David E.

    2010-01-01

    A novel avionics approach is necessary to meet the future needs of low cost space and lunar missions that require low mass and low power electronics. The current state of the art for avionics systems are centralized electronic units that perform the required spacecraft functions. These electronic units are usually custom-designed for each application and the approach compels avionics designers to have in-depth system knowledge before design can commence. The overall design, development, test and evaluation (DDT&E) cycle for this conventional approach requires long delivery times for space flight electronics and is very expensive. The Small Multi-purpose Advanced Reconfigurable Technology (SMART) concept is currently being developed to overcome the limitations of traditional avionics design. The SMART concept is based upon two multi-functional modules that can be reconfigured to drive and sense a variety of mechanical and electrical components. The SMART units are key to a distributed avionics architecture whereby the modules are located close to or right at the desired application point. The drive module, SMART-D, receives commands from the main computer and controls the spacecraft mechanisms and devices with localized feedback. The sensor module, SMART-S, is used to sense the environmental sensors and offload local limit checking from the main computer. There are numerous benefits that are realized by implementing the SMART system. Localized sensor signal conditioning electronics reduces signal loss and overall wiring mass. Localized drive electronics increase control bandwidth and minimize time lags for critical functions. These benefits in-turn reduce the main processor overhead functions. Since SMART units are standard flight qualified units, DDT&E is reduced and system design can commence much earlier in the design cycle. Increased production scale lowers individual piece part cost and using standard modules also reduces non-recurring costs. The benefit list

  15. The smart Peano fluidic muscle: a low profile flexible orthosis actuator that feels pain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veale, Allan J.; Anderson, Iain A.; Xie, Shane Q.

    2015-03-01

    Robotic orthoses have the potential to provide effective rehabilitation while overcoming the availability and cost constraints of therapists. These orthoses must be characterized by the naturally safe, reliable, and controlled motion of a human therapist's muscles. Such characteristics are only possible in the natural kingdom through the pain sensing realized by the interaction of an intelligent nervous system and muscles' embedded sensing organs. McKibben fluidic muscles or pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs) are a popular orthosis actuator because of their inherent compliance, high force, and muscle-like load-displacement characteristics. However, the circular cross-section of PMA increases their profile. PMA are also notoriously unreliable and difficult to control, lacking the intelligent pain sensing systems of their biological muscle counterparts. Here the Peano fluidic muscle, a new low profile yet high-force soft actuator is introduced. This muscle is smart, featuring bioinspired embedded pressure and soft capacitive strain sensors. Given this pressure and strain feedback, experimental validation shows that a lumped parameter model based on the muscle geometry and material parameters can be used to predict its force for quasistatic motion with an average error of 10 - 15N. Combining this with a force threshold pain sensing algorithm sets a precedent for flexible orthosis actuation that uses embedded sensors to prevent damage to the actuator and its environment.

  16. A double responsive smart upconversion fluorescence sensing material for glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ting; Deng, Qiliang; Fang, Guozhen; Yun, Yaguang; Hu, Yongjin; Wang, Shuo

    2016-11-15

    A novel strategy was developed to prepare double responsive smart upconversion fluorescence material for highly specific enrichment and sensing of glycoprotein. The novel double responsive smart sensing material was synthesized by choosing Horse radish peroxidase (HRP) as modal protein, the grapheme oxide (GO) as support material, upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) as fluorescence signal reporter, N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAAM) and 4-vinylphenylboronic acid (VPBA) as functional monomers. The structure and component of smart sensing material was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), respectively. These results illustrated the smart sensing material was prepared successfully. The recognition characterizations of smart sensing material were evaluated, and results showed that the fluorescence intensity of smart sensing material was reduced gradually, as the concentration of protein increased, and the smart sensing material showed selective recognition for HRP among other proteins. Furthermore, the recognition ability of the smart sensing material for glycoprotein was regulated by controlling the pH value and temperature. Therefore, this strategy opens up new way to construct smart material for detection of glycoprotein.

  17. Authentication techniques for smart cards

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.A.

    1994-02-01

    Smart card systems are most cost efficient when implemented as a distributed system, which is a system without central host interaction or a local database of card numbers for verifying transaction approval. A distributed system, as such, presents special card and user authentication problems. Fortunately, smart cards offer processing capabilities that provide solutions to authentication problems, provided the system is designed with proper data integrity measures. Smart card systems maintain data integrity through a security design that controls data sources and limits data changes. A good security design is usually a result of a system analysis that provides a thorough understanding of the application needs. Once designers understand the application, they may specify authentication techniques that mitigate the risk of system compromise or failure. Current authentication techniques include cryptography, passwords, challenge/response protocols, and biometrics. The security design includes these techniques to help prevent counterfeit cards, unauthorized use, or information compromise. This paper discusses card authentication and user identity techniques that enhance security for microprocessor card systems. It also describes the analysis process used for determining proper authentication techniques for a system.

  18. Integrated microelectronics for smart textiles.

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, Christl; Glaser, Rupert; Savio, Domnic; Schnell, Markus; Weber, Werner

    2005-01-01

    The combination of textile fabrics with microelectronics will lead to completely new applications, thus achieving elements of ambient intelligence. The integration of sensor or actuator networks, using fabrics with conductive fibres as a textile motherboard enable the fabrication of large active areas. In this paper we describe an integration technology for the fabrication of a "smart textile" based on a wired peer-to-peer network of microcontrollers with integrated sensors or actuators. A self-organizing and fault-tolerant architecture is accomplished which detects the physical shape of the network. Routing paths are formed for data transmission, automatically circumventing defective or missing areas. The network architecture allows the smart textiles to be produced by reel-to-reel processes, cut into arbitrary shapes subsequently and implemented in systems at low installation costs. The possible applications are manifold, ranging from alarm systems to intelligent guidance systems, passenger recognition in car seats, air conditioning control in interior lining and smart wallpaper with software-defined light switches.

  19. Double-Walled Microparticles-Embedded Self-Cross-Linked, Injectable, and Antibacterial Hydrogel for Controlled and Sustained Release of Chemotherapeutic Agents.

    PubMed

    Davoodi, Pooya; Ng, Wei Cheng; Yan, Wei Cheng; Srinivasan, Madapusi P; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2016-09-07

    First-line cancer chemotherapy has been prescribed for patients suffered from cancers for many years. However, conventional chemotherapy provides a high parenteral dosage of anticancer drugs over a short period, which may cause serious toxicities and detrimental side effects in healthy tissues. This study aims to develop a new drug delivery system (DDS) composed of double-walled microparticles and an injectable hydrogel for localized dual-agent drug delivery to tumors. The uniform double-walled microparticles loaded with cisplatin (Cis-DDP) and paclitaxel (PTX) were fabricated via coaxial electrohydrodynamic atomization (CEHDA) technique and subsequently were embedded into injectable alginate-branched polyethylenimine. The findings show the uniqueness of CEHDA technique for simply swapping the place of drugs to achieve a parallel or a sequential release profile. This study also presents the simulation of CEHDA technique using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) that will help in the optimization of CEHDA's operating conditions prior to large-scale production of microparticles. The new synthetic hydrogel provides an additional diffusion barrier against Cis-DDP and confines premature release of drugs. In addition, the hydrogel can provide a versatile tool for retaining particles in the tumor resected cavity during the injection after debulking surgery and preventing surgical site infection due to its inherent antibacterial properties. Three-dimensional MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer) spheroid studies demonstrate a superior efficacy and a greater reduction in spheroid growth for drugs released from the proposed composite formulation over a prolonged period, as compared with free drug treatment. Overall, the new core-shell microparticles embedded into injectable hydrogel can serve as a flexible controlled release platform for modulating the release profiles of anticancer drugs and subsequently providing a superior anticancer response.

  20. Ces locus embedded proteins control the non-ribosomal synthesis of the cereulide toxin in emetic Bacillus cereus on multiple levels

    PubMed Central

    Lücking, Genia; Frenzel, Elrike; Rütschle, Andrea; Marxen, Sandra; Stark, Timo D.; Hofmann, Thomas; Scherer, Siegfried; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The emetic toxin cereulide produced by Bacillus cereus is synthesized by the modular enzyme complex Ces that is encoded on a pXO1-like megaplasmid. To decipher the role of the genes adjacent to the structural genes cesA/cesB, coding for the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), gene inactivation- and overexpression mutants of the emetic strain F4810/72 were constructed and their impact on cereulide biosynthesis was assessed. The hydrolase CesH turned out to be a part of the complex regulatory network controlling cereulide synthesis on a transcriptional level, while the ABC transporter CesCD was found to be essential for post-translational control of cereulide synthesis. Using a gene inactivation approach, we show that the NRPS activating function of the phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPtase) embedded in the ces locus was complemented by a chromosomally encoded Sfp-like PPtase, representing an interesting example for the functional interaction between a plasmid encoded NRPS and a chromosomally encoded activation enzyme. In summary, our results highlight the complexity of cereulide biosynthesis and reveal multiple levels of toxin formation control. ces operon internal genes were shown to play a pivotal role by acting at different levels of toxin production, thus complementing the action of the chromosomal key transcriptional regulators AbrB and CodY. PMID:26528255