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Sample records for embelin striking discrepancy

  1. Striking Discrepancy of Anomalous Body Experiences with Normal Interoceptive Accuracy in Depersonalization-Derealization Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Michal, Matthias; Reuchlein, Bettina; Adler, Julia; Reiner, Iris; Beutel, Manfred E.; Vögele, Claus; Schächinger, Hartmut; Schulz, André

    2014-01-01

    Background Disembodiment is a core feature of depersonalization disorder (DPD). Given the narratives of DPD patients about their disembodiment and emotional numbing and neurobiological findings of an inhibition of insular activity, DPD may be considered as a mental disorder with specific impairments of interoceptive awareness and body perception. Methods We investigated cardioceptive accuracy (CA) of DPD patients (n = 24) as compared to healthy controls (n = 26) with two different heartbeat detection tasks (“Schandry heartbeat counting task” and “Whitehead heartbeat discrimination task”). Self-rated clearness of body perception was measured by questionnaire. Results Contrary to our hypothesis, DPD patients performed similarly to healthy controls on the two different heartbeat detection tasks, and they had equal scores regarding their self-rated clearness of body perception. There was no correlation of the severity of “anomalous body experiences” and depersonalization with measures of interoceptive accuracy. Only among healthy controls CA in the Schandry task was positively correlated with self-rated clearness of body perception. Depersonalization was unrelated to severity of depression or anxiety, while depression and anxiety were highly correlated. Anxiety and depression did not modify the associations of depersonalization with interoceptive accuracy. Conclusions Our main findings highlight a striking discrepancy of normal interoception with overwhelming experiences of disembodiment in DPD. This may reflect difficulties of DPD patients to integrate their visceral and bodily perceptions into a sense of their selves. This problem may be considered an important target for psychotherapeutic treatment approaches. PMID:24587061

  2. Embelin accelerates cutaneous wound healing in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Pradeep T; Gupta, Vipin B

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the effect of embelin (1) on cutaneous wound in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The effect was studied using excision, incision, and dead space models. In diabetic rats, topical application of embelin 5% (w/w) ointment showed a significant increase in wound contraction and better epithelialization, thereby facilitating the healing. Embelin was also active by the oral route (25 and 50 mg/kg) in the incision and dead space wound models. In incision wound model, wound granulation tissues were removed on 8th post-wounding day, and the hydroxyproline, hexosamine, total protein, and DNA contents were determined. In STZ diabetic rats, topical and oral applications of embelin showed an increase in hydroxyproline, hexosamine, total protein, and DNA contents. It also showed a significant increase in wound breaking strength. Embelin significantly increased granuloma tissue weight and breaking strength in dead space model. These results indicated that embelin accelerated wound healing in diabetic rat.

  3. Micellar delivery of bicalutamide and embelin for treating prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Danquah, Michael; Li, Feng; Duke, Charles B; Miller, Duane D; Mahato, Ram I

    2009-09-01

    To examine the effect of bicalutamide and embelin on the growth of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Micelles were fabricated with polyethylene glycol-b-polylactic acid (PEG-PLA) copolymer and characterized in terms of particle size, micellar solubilization and drug loading, followed by evaluation in nude mice bearing LNCaP xenografts. Embelin induced caspase 3 and 9 activation in LNCaP and C4-2 cells by decreasing XIAP expression and was more potent than bicalutamide in killing prostate tumor cells irrespective of their androgen status. As analyzed by isobologram analysis the combination of bicalutamide and embelin was synergistic for C4-2 but additive and slightly antagonistic for LNCaP cells. Micellar formulation resulted in at least 60-fold increase in the aqueous solubility of bicalutamide and embelin. Tumor growth was effectively regressed upon treatment with bicalutamide, but the extent of tumor regression was significantly higher when bicalutamide was formulated in micelles. However, tumor response to bicalutamide stopped after prolonged treatment and began to grow. Sequential treatment with XIAP inhibitor embelin resulted in regression of these hormone refractory tumors. Combined treatment with bicalutamide and embelin may be an effective strategy for treating hormone refractory prostate cancer.

  4. Development of enteric-coated microspheres of embelin for their beneficial pharmacological potential in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Nidhi; Dadwal, Ankita; Hallan, Supandeep Singh; Sharma, Saurabh; Mishra, Neeraj

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to develop embelin-loaded enteric-coated microspheres and investigate their pharmacological potential in acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis. The optimized formulation of embelin-loaded microspheres has shown significant sustained release of embelin. Further this formulation significantly reduced the ulcer activity score and oxidative stress, and attenuated the inflammatory changes. Thus it may be concluded that embelin-loaded enteric-coated microspheres have shown delayed release capacity than plain embelin and exerts colon ulcer protective effect in rats.

  5. Embelin lipid nanospheres for enhanced treatment of ulcerative colitis - Preparation, characterization and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Badamaranahalli, Shivaram Shivakumar; Kopparam, Manjunath; Bhagawati, Siddalingappa Tippanna; Durg, Sharanbasappa

    2015-08-30

    Aim of the present study is to develop embelin lipid nanospheres (LNE) for better treatment of ulcerative colitis. Embelin LNs were developed using soya bean oil/virgin coconut oil as liquid lipid carrier and soya/egg lecithin as stabilizer by hot homogenization followed by ultrasonication technique. The particle size of LNEs ranged from 196.1±3.57 to 269.2±1.05nm with narrow polydispersity index values whereas zeta potential was from -36.6 to -62.0mV. Embelin was successfully incorporated into lipid nanospheres with entrapment efficiency about 99%. There was no interaction between embelin and selected liquid lipids which was confirmed by FTIR studies. In vitro drug release studies performed using Franz diffusion cell and results showed sustained release of embelin. Embelin LNs were stabilized with egg and soya lecithin, embelin release from these LNs followed Higuchi model and first order model, respectively, however mechanism of drug release in both LNs was non-Fickian. In vivo studies were carried out using acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis rat model and results revealed that treatment with embelin LNs significantly reduced clinical activity and macroscopic scores compared to embelin conventional suspension. Treatment with embelin LNs decreased MPO, LDH and LPO levels, increased reduced GSH levels which indicated better treatment of ulcerative colitis was achieved. This was also confirmed by improved histopathological conditions. Thus embelin LNs could be favourably used for treatment of ulcerative colitis.

  6. Plant Derived Phytocompound, Embelin in CNS Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Kundap, Uday P; Bhuvanendran, Saatheeyavaane; Kumari, Yatinesh; Othman, Iekhsan; Shaikh, Mohd Farooq

    2017-01-01

    A Central nervous system (CNS) disease is the one which affects either the spinal cord or brain and causing neurological or psychiatric complications. During the nineteenth century, modern medicines have occupied the therapy for many ailments and are widely used these days. Herbal medicines have often maintained popularity for historical and cultural reasons and also considered safer as they originate from natural sources. Embelin is a plant-based benzoquinone which is the major active constituent of the fruits of Embelia ribes Burm. It is an Indo-Malaysian species, extensively used in various traditional medicine systems for treating various diseases. Several natural products including quinone derivatives, which are considered to possess better safety and efficacy profile, are known for their CNS related activity. The bright orange hydroxybenzoquinone embelin-rich fruits of E. ribes have become popular in ethnomedicine. The present systematic review summarizes the effects of embelin on central nervous system and related diseases. A PRISMA model for systematic review was utilized for search. Various electronic databases such as Pubmed, Springer, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar were searched between January 2000 and February 2016. Based on the search criteria for the literature, 13 qualified articles were selected and discussed in this review. The results of the report showed that there is a lack of translational research and not a single study was found in human. This report gives embelin a further way to be explored in clinical trials for its safety and efficacy.

  7. Plant Derived Phytocompound, Embelin in CNS Disorders: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kundap, Uday P.; Bhuvanendran, Saatheeyavaane; Kumari, Yatinesh; Othman, Iekhsan; Shaikh, Mohd. Farooq

    2017-01-01

    A Central nervous system (CNS) disease is the one which affects either the spinal cord or brain and causing neurological or psychiatric complications. During the nineteenth century, modern medicines have occupied the therapy for many ailments and are widely used these days. Herbal medicines have often maintained popularity for historical and cultural reasons and also considered safer as they originate from natural sources. Embelin is a plant-based benzoquinone which is the major active constituent of the fruits of Embelia ribes Burm. It is an Indo-Malaysian species, extensively used in various traditional medicine systems for treating various diseases. Several natural products including quinone derivatives, which are considered to possess better safety and efficacy profile, are known for their CNS related activity. The bright orange hydroxybenzoquinone embelin-rich fruits of E. ribes have become popular in ethnomedicine. The present systematic review summarizes the effects of embelin on central nervous system and related diseases. A PRISMA model for systematic review was utilized for search. Various electronic databases such as Pubmed, Springer, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar were searched between January 2000 and February 2016. Based on the search criteria for the literature, 13 qualified articles were selected and discussed in this review. The results of the report showed that there is a lack of translational research and not a single study was found in human. This report gives embelin a further way to be explored in clinical trials for its safety and efficacy. PMID:28289385

  8. Chemical and Biological Aspects of the Natural 1,4-Benzoquinone Embelin and its (semi-)Synthetic Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Shuveksh, Priti Singh; Ahmed, Khursheed; Padhye, Subhash; Schobert, Rainer; Biersack, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    Like the impressive biological properties of embelin, its chemical aspects have raised the interest of scientists in the field as well. A detailed understanding of the chemistry of embelin is necessary to fully exploit it medicinally. Search for embelin isolation and its chemical modifications was carried out using web-based literature searching tools such as Pubmed and Scifinder. Pertinent literature is covered up to 2016. Structures of bioactive embelin derivatives are provided. Pure embelin, obtained from Embelia ribes berries extraction or by total synthesis, was applied for a number of biological assays. Semi-synthetic and total synthetic approaches led to new high affinity embelin-derived inhibitors of crucial protein targets and to new embelin derivatives with improved pharmacological properties (e.g., with better water-solubility or as applications for drug carrier systems). This review provides a summary of the rich chemistry of embelin and the latest developments in the field of optimized (semi-)synthetic embelin derivatives including their biological activities. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Ellagic Acid and Embelin Affect Key Cellular Components of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma, Cancer and Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Edderkaoui, Mouad; Lugea, Aurelia; Hui, Hongxiang; Eibl, Guido; Lu, Qing-Yi; Moro, Aune; Lu, Xuyang; Li, Gang; Go, Vay-Liang; Pandol, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Ellagic acid is a polyphenolic phytochemical present in many fruits and nuts with anti-cancer properties demonstrated in experimental tumor studies. Embelin is a benzoquinone phytochemical isolated from the Japanese herb Ardisiae Japonicae and has been shown to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. We found that ellagic acid and embelin each dose-dependently increased apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in human pancreatic cancer cells, MIA PaCa-2 and HPAF-II cells, and in pancreatic stellate cells (PaSCs) which are progenitors of pancreatic cancer desmoplasia. In each of these cell types, combinations of ellagic acid and embelin at low micromolar concentrations (0.5–3 μM) induced synergistic increases in apoptosis and decreases in proliferation. Ellagic acid decreased NF-κB transcriptional activity, whereas embelin decreased STAT-3 phosphorylation and protein expression of its downstream target survivin, in cancer cells. In vivo dietary ellagic acid alone or in combination with embelin decreased tumor size and tumor cellularity in a subcutaneous (s.c.) xenograft mouse model of pancreatic cancer. These results show that ellagic acid and embelin interact with divergent intracellular signaling pathways resulting in augmentation of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation at low micromolar concentrations for the key cellular components of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:24127740

  10. Antidiabetic activity of Embelia ribes, embelin and its derivatives: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Durg, Sharanbasappa; Veerapur, Veeresh P; Neelima, Satrasala; Dhadde, Shivsharan B

    2017-02-01

    Embelia ribes (ER) has been documented in Ayurveda for treating various diseases, including diabetes mellitus (DM). The present systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy and safety of ER and its active bio-marker, embelin and its derivatives in the treatment of DM. Literature search was performed in PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Scifinder, and Google Scholar. Using Review Manager, meta-analysis of ER/embelin/derivatives of embelin versus diabetic control was performed with inverse-variance model, providing mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was determined by I(2) statistic. A total of 13 studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis, and were conducted in experimental rats. ER and embelin significantly (P≤0.01) resorted blood glucose (MD, -231.30; CI, -256.79, -205.82; and MD, -154.70; CI, -168.65, -140.74) and glycosylated haemoglobin (MD, -6.36; CI, -8.33, -4.39; and MD,-4.68; CI, -7.76, -1.60), respectively. Meta-analysis findings also reported considerable restoration of insulin, lipid profile, haemodynamic parameters, serum and oxidative stress markers. The derivatives of embelin, 6-bromoembelin and vilangin, also improved diabetic condition. In addition, treatments also ameliorated body weight changes due to diabetes. The present systematic review and meta-analysis supports scientific evidence for the antidiabetic activity of ER/embelin/derivatives of embelin. However, further research is warranted in clinical trials to validate the present findings.

  11. Embelin binds to human neuroserpin and impairs its polymerisation

    PubMed Central

    Saga, Giorgia; Sessa, Fabio; Barbiroli, Alberto; Santambrogio, Carlo; Russo, Rosaria; Sala, Michela; Raccosta, Samuele; Martorana, Vincenzo; Caccia, Sonia; Noto, Rosina; Moriconi, Claudia; Miranda, Elena; Grandori, Rita; Manno, Mauro; Bolognesi, Martino; Ricagno, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Neuroserpin (NS) is a serpin inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in the brain. The polymerisation of NS pathologic mutants is responsible for a genetic dementia known as familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies (FENIB). So far, a pharmacological treatment of FENIB, i.e. an inhibitor of NS polymerisation, remains an unmet challenge. Here, we present a biophysical characterisation of the effects caused by embelin (EMB a small natural compound) on NS conformers and NS polymerisation. EMB destabilises all known NS conformers, specifically binding to NS molecules with a 1:1 NS:EMB molar ratio without unfolding the NS fold. In particular, NS polymers disaggregate in the presence of EMB, and their formation is prevented. The NS/EMB complex does not inhibit tPA proteolytic activity. Both effects are pharmacologically relevant: firstly by inhibiting the NS polymerisation associated to FENIB, and secondly by potentially antagonizing metastatic processes facilitated by NS activity in the brain. PMID:26732982

  12. Estimation of Embelin in Embelia tsjeriam-cottam Fruits by HPLC to Standardize Harvesting Time

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, A. K.; Ojha, Vijayalakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Embelin (2,5-dihydroxy-3-undecyl-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-benzoquinone) is a phenolic compound found in the fruits of Embelia tsjeriam-cottam and is responsible for the medicinal properties of the plant Thus the fruits are harvested at a large scale before maturity leading to depletion of population. Since the chemical constituents of medicinal plants are directly associated with the harvesting time, a study was conducted in different forest areas of Chhattisgarh, India, to standardize the harvesting time of Baividang fruits on the basis of their embelin content during 2005-08. The embelin content was determined by RP-HPLC and varied from 1.09 to 5.21% (w/w). The immature fruits collected in October contain an average of 1.67% embelin whereas mature fruits collected in December on an average contain 4.64% embelin. On the basis of our findings it can be concluded that fruits should be harvested after attaining maturity to get better quality produce and also to maintain the sustainability of plant. PMID:22303066

  13. Embelin Attenuates Intracerebroventricular Streptozotocin-Induced Behavioral, Biochemical, and Neurochemical Abnormalities in Rats.

    PubMed

    Arora, Rimpi; Deshmukh, Rahul

    2016-10-15

    Embelin, the main active constituent of Embelia ribes, has been reported to possess various pharmacological actions, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, and neuroprotective. The present study was designed to investigate neuroprotective mechanisms and therapeutic potential of embelin against intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)-induced experimental sporadic dementia in rats. STZ was infused bilaterally at the dose of (3 mg/kg/1 μl/1 min) ICV on day first and third. Spatial and non-spatial memory was evaluated using Morris water maze and object recognition task in rats. Embelin (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) was administrated for 14 days from seventh day onwards after first ICV-STZ infusion in rats. On day 22, rats were sacrificed and hippocampal brain regions were used to identify biochemical, neurochemical, and neuroinflammatory alterations. STZ-infused rats showed significant learning and memory deficit which was associated with an increase in oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation and nitrite), compromised antioxidant defense (reduced glutathione), neurotransmitter alterations (AChE, dopamine, noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine, gama amino butyric acid, and glutamate), and elevation in neuroinflammatory cytokine (IL-1 β, IL-6, and TNF-α) levels. Embelin dose dependently attenuated STZ-induced cognitive deficit and biochemical alterations and restored hippocampal neurochemical levels. The observed protective effect might be attributed to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of embelin and its ability to restore hippocampal neurochemistry. Thus, the outcomes of the current study suggest therapeutic potential of embelin in cognitive disorders such as sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD).

  14. Embelin (2,5-Dihydroxy-3-undecyl-p-benzoquinone) for photodynamic therapy: study of their cytotoxicity in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Joy, Beena; Kumar, S N; Radhika, A R; Abraham, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the use of photochemical reactions mediated through the interaction of photosensitizing agent for the treatment of malignant tumor. The present study was carried out to evaluate the photosensitizing potential of embelin isolated from Embelia ribes. For PDT study, cells were grouped into four groups. Two types of control were used, one with Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells alone (group 1) and one which received the illumination alone (group 2). Group 3 contains cells treated with different concentrations of embelin for 1 h at 37 °C. Another set of cells (group 4) after treatment with different concentrations of embelin was illuminated in ice for 4 min with a 1000-W halogen lamp. To study the mechanism of cell death, the following parameters such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), caspase-3, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were analyzed both in the absence and presence of light after the treatment of embelin. PDT study clearly indicated that embelin alone recorded no cytotoxicity, but for light treatment alone with the different concentrations of embelin, there was a significant induction of cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. Level of ROS and LDH increased in cells treated with embelin. Moreover, caspase-3 also increased which clearly indicated that cell death is through caspase-dependent apoptosis. This is the first report on PDT, a novel modality, using embelin for cancer therapy in vitro. The novelty of the study depends on the fact that cytotoxicity was produced by the synergistic effect of the embelin and light.

  15. Embelin Reduces Systemic Inflammation and Ameliorates Organ Injuries in Septic Rats Through Downregulating STAT3 and NF-κB Pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xian-Long; Huang, Lei; Cao, Jun

    2015-08-01

    Current evidence shows that the majority of the damage induced during sepsis is pursuant to induction and overproduction of endogenous cytokines. Embelin has been reported to suppress cytokine expressions in inflammatory disorders. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of embelin on cecal and ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced rat sepsis. Single-dose administration of embelin 1 h after surgery significantly improved survival of rats with CLP-induced sepsis. In addition, embelin treatment reduced the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 and decreased organ inflammation and injuries. Moreover, embelin suppressed the activation of p65 subunit of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). Collectively, these results indicated that embelin ameliorates sepsis in rats through suppressing STAT3 and NF-κB pathways.

  16. In Vitro Antistaphylococcal Effects of Embelia schimperi Extracts and Their Component Embelin with Oxacillin and Tetracycline

    PubMed Central

    Rondevaldova, Johana; Leuner, Olga; Teka, Alemtshay; Lulekal, Ermias; Havlik, Jaroslav; Van Damme, Patrick; Kokoska, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infections are in less-developed countries traditionally treated by remedies prepared from medicinal plants. Embelia schimperi (Vatke) is a plant used as a taenicide or disinfectant in Ethiopia, very often taken mixed with another plant species. In the present study, we examined two extracts prepared from seeds and twigs with leaves of E. schimperi and its main present secondary metabolite embelin for their antibacterial combinatory effect with oxacillin and tetracycline against sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined through the broth microdilution method, whereas the combinatory effect was evaluated through fractional inhibitory concentration sum (ΣFIC) indices. Results show many positive interactions and synergy occurring in embelin and oxacillin combinations against 4 out of 9 strains (ΣFIC 0.203–0.477) and for embelin and tetracycline combination against 3 out of 9 strains (ΣFIC 0.400–0.496). Moreover, the resistance to oxacillin has been overcome in 2 strains and to tetracycline in 3 strains. According to our knowledge, this is the first study showing antimicrobial combinatory effect of E. schimperi as well as of embelin. These findings can be used for the further research targeted on the development of new antistaphylococcal agents. PMID:25802535

  17. Cardioprotective effect of embelin on isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury in rats: possible involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Bidya Dhar; Anubolu, Harika; Koneru, Meghana; Kumar, Jerald Mahesh; Kuncha, Madhusudana; Rachamalla, Shyam Sunder; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2014-06-27

    Preventive and/or therapeutic interventions using natural products for ischemic heart disease have gained considerable attention worldwide. This study investigated the cardioprotective effect and possible mechanism of embelin, a major constituent of Embelia ribes Burm, using isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction model in rats. Rats were pretreated for three days with embelin (50mg/kg, p.o) before inducing myocardial injury by administration of ISO (85 mg/kg) subcutaneously at an interval of 24h for 2 consecutive days. Serum was analyzed for cardiac specific injury biomarkers, lipids and lipoprotein content. Heart tissues were isolated and were used for histopathology, antioxidant and mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activity assays and western blot analysis. Results showed that pretreatment with embelin significantly decreased the elevated levels of serum specific cardiac injury biomarkers (CK-MB, LDH and AST), serum levels of lipids and lipoproteins and histopathological changes when compared to ISO-induced controls. Exploration of the underlying mechanisms of embelin action revealed that embelin pretreatment restored the myocardial mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activities (NADH dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, cytochrome c oxidase and mitochondrial redox activity), strengthened antioxidant status and attenuated ISO-induced myocardial lipid peroxidation. Immunoblot analysis revealed that embelin interrupted mitochondria dependent apoptotic damage by increasing the myocardial expression of Bcl-2 and downregulating the expression of Bax, cytochrome c, cleaved-caspase-3 & 9 and PARP. Histopathology findings further strengthened the cardioprotective findings of embelin. Result suggested that embelin may have a potential benefit in preventing ischemic heart disease like myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of response surface methodology for optimization of extraction parameters and quantitative estimation of embelin from Embelia ribes Burm by high performance liquid chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Md. Shamsir; Damanhouri, Zoheir A.; Ahmad, Aftab; Abidin, Lubna; Amir, Mohd; Aqil, Mohd; Khan, Shah Alam; Mujeeb, Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Background: Embelia ribes Burm is widely used medicinal plant for the treatment of different types of disorders in the Indian traditional systems of medicine. Objective: The present work was aimed to optimize the extraction parameters of embelin from E. ribes fruits and also to quantify embelin content in different extracts of the plant. Materials and Methods: Optimization of extraction parameters such as solvent: drug ratio, temperature and time were carried out by response surface methodology (RSM). Quantitative estimation of embelin in different extracts of E. ribes fruits was done through high performance liquid chromatography. Results: The optimal conditions determined for extraction of embelin through RSM were; extraction time (27.50 min), extraction temperature 45°C and solvent: drug ratio (8:1). Under the optimized conditions, the embelin yield (32.71%) was equitable to the expected yield (31.07%, P > 0.05). These results showed that the developed model is satisfactory and suitable for the extraction process of embelin. The analysis of variance showed a high goodness of model fit and the accomplishment of the RSM method for improving embelin extraction from the fruits of E. ribes. Conclusion: It is concluded that this may be a useful method for the extraction and quantitative estimation of embelin from the fruits of E. ribes. PMID:26109763

  19. Targeting Mortalin by Embelin Causes Activation of Tumor Suppressor p53 and Deactivation of Metastatic Signaling in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nigam, Nupur; Grover, Abhinav; Goyal, Sukriti; Katiyar, Shashank P.; Bhargava, Priyanshu; Wang, Pi-Chao; Sundar, Durai; Kaul, Sunil C.; Wadhwa, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Embelin, a natural quinone found in the fruits of Embelia ribes, is commonly used in Ayurvedic home medicine for a variety of therapeutic potentials including anti-inflammation, anti-fever, anti-bacteria and anti-cancer. Molecular mechanisms of these activities and cellular targets have not been clarified to-date. We demonstrate that the embelin inhibits mortalin-p53 interactions, and activates p53 protein in tumor cells. We provide bioinformatics, molecular docking and experimental evidence to the binding affinity of embelin with mortalin and p53. Binding of embelin with mortalin/p53 abrogates their complex resulted in nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation function of p53 causing growth arrest in cancer cells. Furthermore, analyses of growth factors and metastatic signaling using antibody membrane array revealed their downregulation in embelin-treated cells. We also found that the embelin causes transcriptional attenuation of mortalin and several other proteins involved in metastatic signaling in cancer cells. Based on these molecular dynamics and experimental data, it is concluded that the anticancer activity of embelin involves targeting of mortalin, activation of p53 and inactivation of metastatic signaling. PMID:26376435

  20. Potent inhibition of human 5-lipoxygenase and microsomal prostaglandin E₂ synthase-1 by the anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory agent embelin.

    PubMed

    Schaible, Anja M; Traber, Heidi; Temml, Veronika; Noha, Stefan M; Filosa, Rosanna; Peduto, Antonella; Weinigel, Christina; Barz, Dagmar; Schuster, Daniela; Werz, Oliver

    2013-08-15

    Embelin (2,5-dihydroxy-3-undecyl-1,4-benzoquinone) possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties in vivo, and these features have been related to interference with multiple targets including XIAPs, NFκB, STAT-3, Akt and mTOR. However, interference with these proteins requires relatively high concentrations of embelin (IC₅₀>4 μM) and cannot fully explain its bioactivity observed in several functional studies. Here we reveal human 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and microsomal prostaglandin E₂ synthase (mPGES)-1 as direct molecular targets of embelin. Thus, embelin potently suppressed the biosynthesis of eicosanoids by selective inhibition of 5-LO and mPGES-1 with IC₅₀=0.06 and 0.2 μM, respectively. In intact human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes, embelin consistently blocked the biosynthesis of various 5-LO products regardless of the stimulus (fMLP or A23187) with IC₅₀=0.8-2 μM. Neither the related human 12- and 15-LO nor the cyclooxygenases-1 and -2 or cytosolic phospholipase A₂ were significantly affected by 10 μM embelin. Inhibition of 5-LO and mPGES-1 by embelin was (I) essentially reversible after wash-out, (II) not impaired at higher substrate concentrations, (III) unaffected by inclusion of Triton X-100, and (IV) did not correlate to its proposed antioxidant properties. Docking simulations suggest concrete binding poses in the active sites of both 5-LO and mPGES-1. Because 5-LO- and mPGES-1-derived eicosanoids play roles in inflammation and cancer, the interference of embelin with these enzymes may contribute to its biological effects and suggests embelin as novel chemotype for development of dual 5-LO/mPGES-1 inhibitors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of the natural compounds embelin and piperine on the biofilm-producing property of Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Deepak; Singh, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of the natural compounds embelin and piperine on the biofilm-formation property of Streptococcus mutans. A total of 30 clinical isolates were identified as S. mutans and screened for biofilm formation using the microtiter plate method. The strongest biofilm producer (SM03) was used for identifying both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC). We subsequently used this concentration against each of the strong biofilm producer isolates at A492 < 0.5 optical density (OD). Of the 30 isolates screened for biofilm formation, 18 isolates showed strong biofilm formation, 09 isolates showed moderate formation, and 03 isolates showed poor/nonbiofilm formation. The MIC of embelin for the strongest biofilm producer (SM03) was 0.55 ± 0.02, whereas that of piperine was 0.33 ± 0.02. The MBIC of embelin was 0.0620 ± 0.03, whereas that of piperine was 0.0407 ± 0.03, which was lower than that of embelin. At OD492 < 0.5, the MBIC of both compounds significantly inhibited biofilm formation of all the 18 strong biofilm-forming isolates. The results of this study demonstrate a significant antibiofilm effect of the natural compounds embelin and piperine, which can contribute towards the development of a database for novel drug candidates for treating oral infections caused by S. mutans. PMID:26870681

  2. Striking Clepsydras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Moon-Hyon

    The term "Striking Clepsydra" is a shortened translation of the Korean name Jagyeongnu (自擊漏, tzu-chi lou in Chinese, literally "automatic-striking water-clock"). It was given to the two monumental time-keeping installations built by chief court engineer Yeong-sil Jang in AD 1432-38 under King Sejong (r. AD 1418-50) of the Joseon dynasty (1392-1910) in Seoul. These were housed separately in the Gyeongbok palace complex as major installations of the Royal Observatory Ganuidae equipped during 1432-38. One was the Striking Palace Clepsydra Borugangnu that was employed as the standard time-keeper from 1434, and the other was the Striking Heavenly Clepsydra Heumgyeonggangnu that was put into use not only as the symbol of Neo-Confucian ideology from 1438, but also as a demonstrational orrery and time-keeper. These were restored several times through the dynasty after loss by fires and warfare, and clepsydra-making technologies were succeeded by the development of armillary clocks in 1669. The National Palace Museum of Korea recreated the 1434 Striking Palace Clepsydra of King Sejong, and the replica was installed for permanent exhibition from November 2007.

  3. Insulin sensitization via partial agonism of PPARγ and glucose uptake through translocation and activation of GLUT4 in PI3K/p-Akt signaling pathway by embelin in type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Gopalsamy Rajiv; Stalin, Antony; Balakrishna, Kedike; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Vishal, Rajagopal

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed at isolating an antidiabetic molecule from a herbal source and assessing its mechanism of action. Embelin, isolated from Embelia ribes Burm. (Myrsinaceae) fruit, was evaluated for its potential to regulate insulin resistance, alter β-cell dysfunction and modulate key markers involved in insulin sensitivity and glucose transport using high-fat diet (HFD) fed-streptozotocin (STZ) (40mg/kg)-induced type 2 diabetic rats. Molecular-dockings were performed to investigate the binding modes of embelin into PPARγ, PI3K, p-Akt and GLUT4 active sites. Embelin (50mg/kg b wt.) reduced body weight gain, blood glucose and plasma insulin in treated diabetic rats. It further modulated the altered lipid profiles and antioxidant enzymes with cytoprotective action on β-cell. Embelin significantly increased the PPARγ expression in epididymal adipose tissue compared to diabetic control group; it also inhibited adipogenic activity; it mildly activated PPARγ levels in the liver and skeletal muscle. It also regulated insulin mediated glucose uptake in epididymal adipose tissue through translocation and activation of GLUT4 in PI3K/p-Akt signaling cascade. Embelin bound to PPARγ; it disclosed stable binding affinities to the active sites of PI3K, p-Akt and GLUT4. These findings show that embelin could improve adipose tissue insulin sensitivity without increasing weight gain, enhance glycemic control, protect β-cell from damage and maintain glucose homeostasis in adipose tissue. Embelin can be used in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus caused due to obesity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. PEG-Derivatized Embelin as a Nanomicellar Carrier For Delivery of Paclitaxel to Breast and Prostate Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jianqin; Huang, Yixian; Zhao, Wenchen; Marquez, Rebecca T.; Meng, Xiaojie; Li, Jiang; Gao, Xiang; Venkataramanan, Raman; Wang, Zhou; Li, Song

    2012-01-01

    Paclitaxel (PTX) is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents for a wide spectrum of cancers, but its therapeutic benefit is often limited by severe side effects. We have developed a micelle-based PTX formulation based on a simple conjugate derived from polyethylene glycol 5000 (PEG5K) and embelin (EB). Embelin is a natural product and exhibits antitumor activity through blocking the activity of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). PEG5K-EB2 conjugate self-assembles to form stable micelles in aqueous solution and efficiently encapsulates hydrophobic drugs such as PTX. PEG5K-EB2 micelles have a relatively low CMC of 0.002mg/mL (0.35μM) with sizes in the range of 20 ~ 30 nm with or without loaded PTX. In vitro cell uptake study showed that the PEG5K-EB2 micelles were efficiently taken up by tumor cells. In vitro release study showed that PTX formulated in PEG5K-EB2 micelles was slowly released over 5 days with much slower release kinetics than that of Taxol formulation. PTX formulated in PEG5K-EB2 micelles exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than Taxol in several cultured tumor cell lines. Total body near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging showed that PEG5K-EB2 micelles were selectively accumulated at tumor site with minimal uptake in major organs including liver and spleen. PTX-loaded PEG5K-EB2 micelles demonstrated an excellent safety profile with a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of 100–120 mg PTX/kg in mice, which was significantly higher than that for Taxol (15–20 mg PTX/kg). Finally, PTX formulated in PEG5K-EB2 micelles showed superior anti-tumor activity compared to Taxol in murine models of breast and prostate cancers. PMID:23182923

  5. Limb length discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Blake, R L; Ferguson, H

    1992-01-01

    Examining for a possible limb length discrepancy is an important part of the podiatric biomechanical examination. The authors present a review of the literature pertaining to the definition of and examination for a limb length discrepancy. They present a typical rationale for lift therapy in the treatment of this pathology.

  6. Rattlesnake strike behavior: kinematics

    PubMed

    Kardong; v

    1998-03-01

    The predatory behavior of rattlesnakes includes many distinctive preparatory phases leading to an extremely rapid strike, during which venom is injected. The rodent prey is then rapidly released, removing the snake's head from retaliation by the prey. The quick action of the venom makes possible the recovery of the dispatched prey during the ensuing poststrike period. The strike is usually completed in less than 0.5 s, placing a premium on an accurate strike that produces no significant errors in fang placement that could result in poor envenomation and subsequent loss of the prey. To clarify the basis for effective strike performance, we examined the basic kinematics of the rapid strike using high-speed film analysis. We scored numerous strike variables. Four major results were obtained. (1) Neurosensory control of the strike is based primarily upon sensory inputs via the eyes and facial pits to launch the strike, and upon tactile stimuli after contact. Correction for errors in targeting occurs not by a change in strike trajectory, but by fang repositioning after the jaws have made contact with the prey. (2) The rattlesnake strike is based upon great versatility and variation in recruitment of body segments and body postures. (3) Forces generated during acceleration of the head are transferred to posterior body sections to decelerate the head before contact with the prey, thereby reducing impact forces upon the snake's jaws. (4) Body acceleration is based on two patterns of body displacement, one in which acute sections of the body open like a gate, the other in which body segments flow around postural curves similar to movements seen during locomotion. There is one major implication of these results: recruitment of body segments, launch postures and kinematic features of the strike may be quite varied from strike to strike, but the overall predatory success of each strike by a rattlesnake is very consistent.

  7. Lightning Often Strikes Twice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Contrary to popular misconception, lightning often strikes the same place twice. Certain conditions are just ripe for a bolt of electricity to come zapping down; and a lightning strike is powerful enough to do a lot of damage wherever it hits. NASA created the Accurate Location of Lightning Strikes technology to determine the ground strike point of lightning and prevent electrical damage in the immediate vicinity of the Space Shuttle launch pads at Kennedy Space Center. The area surrounding the launch pads is enmeshed in a network of electrical wires and components, and electronic equipment is highly susceptible to lightning strike damage. The accurate knowledge of the striking point is important so that crews can determine which equipment or system needs to be retested following a strike. Accurate to within a few yards, this technology can locate a lightning strike in the perimeter of the launch pad. As an added bonus, the engineers, then knowing where the lightning struck, can adjust the variables that may be attracting the lightning, to create a zone that will be less susceptible to future strikes.

  8. Radial arm strike rail

    DOEpatents

    McKeown, Mark H.; Beason, Steven C.

    1991-01-01

    The radial arm strike rail assembly is a system for measurement of bearings, directions, and stereophotography for geologic mapping, particularly where magnetic compasses are not appropriate. The radial arm, pivoting around a shaft axis, provides a reference direction determination for geologic mapping and bearing or direction determination. The centerable and levelable pedestal provide a base for the radial arm strike rail and the telescoping camera pedestal. The telescoping feature of the radial arm strike rail allows positioning the end of the rail for strike direction or bearing measurement with a goniometer.

  9. Improved limited discrepancy search

    SciTech Connect

    Korf, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    We present an improvement to Harvey and Ginsberg`s limited discrepancy search algorithm, which eliminates much of the redundancy in the original, by generating each path from the root to the maximum search depth only once. For a complete binary tree of depth d this reduces the asymptotic complexity from O(d+2/2 2{sup d}) to O(2{sup d}). The savings is much less in a partial tree search, or in a heavily pruned tree. The overhead of the improved algorithm on a complete binary tree is only a factor of b/(b - 1) compared to depth-first search. While this constant factor is greater on a heavily pruned tree, this improvement makes limited discrepancy search a viable alternative to depth-first search, whenever the entire tree may not be searched. Finally, we present both positive and negative empirical results on the utility of limited discrepancy search, for the problem of number partitioning.

  10. Discrepancy Reporting Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Tonja M.; Lin, James C.; Chatillon, Mark L.

    2004-01-01

    Discrepancy Reporting Management System (DRMS) is a computer program designed for use in the stations of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) to help establish the operational history of equipment items; acquire data on the quality of service provided to DSN customers; enable measurement of service performance; provide early insight into the need to improve processes, procedures, and interfaces; and enable the tracing of a data outage to a change in software or hardware. DRMS is a Web-based software system designed to include a distributed database and replication feature to achieve location-specific autonomy while maintaining a consistent high quality of data. DRMS incorporates commercial Web and database software. DRMS collects, processes, replicates, communicates, and manages information on spacecraft data discrepancies, equipment resets, and physical equipment status, and maintains an internal station log. All discrepancy reports (DRs), Master discrepancy reports (MDRs), and Reset data are replicated to a master server at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory; Master DR data are replicated to all the DSN sites; and Station Logs are internal to each of the DSN sites and are not replicated. Data are validated according to several logical mathematical criteria. Queries can be performed on any combination of data.

  11. Hunger strike for science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    Lamenting the degenerating working conditions for scientists in Russia, geophysicist Vladimir Strakhov and physicist Igor Naumenko-Bondarenko of the United Institute of Physics of the Earth (UIPE) at the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) have begun a hunger strike. Strakhov is General Director of UIPE, and Naumenko-Bondarenko is chairman of the Trade Union Committee of UIPE.In a press statement released on September 30 in Moscow, the geophysicists stated that they are striking to “protest the policy of the Government of the Russian Federation with regard to Russian science in general and to the Russian Academy of Sciences in particular.” They blame governmental neglect and, specifically, “the non-payment of funds that were in the 1996 budget” for the “virtual collapse of Russian science.”

  12. Should junior doctors strike?

    PubMed

    Toynbee, Mark; Al-Diwani, Adam Aj; Clacey, Joe; Broome, Matthew R

    2016-03-01

    An impasse in negotiations between the Department of Health (DoH) and the British Medical Association in November this year led to an overwhelming vote for industrial action (IA) by junior doctors. At the time of writing, a last minute concession by DoH led to a deferment of IA to allow further negotiations mediated by the Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service. However, IA by junior doctors remains a possibility if these negotiations stall again. Would the proposed action be ethically justifiable? Furthermore, is IA by doctors ever ethically defendable? Building on previous work, we explore important ethical considerations for doctors considering IA. The primary moral objection to doctors striking is often claimed to be risk of harm to patients. Other common arguments against IA by doctors include breaching their vocational responsibilities and possible damage to their relationship with patients and the public in general. These positions are in turn countered by claims of a greater long-term good and the legal and moral rights of employees to strike. Absolute restrictions appear to be hard to justify in the modern context, as does an unrestricted right to IA. We review these arguments, find that some common moral objections to doctors striking may be less relevant to the current situation, that a stronger contemporary objection to IA might be from a position of social justice and suggest criteria for ethically permissible doctor IA.

  13. Discrepancies in discrepancy meetings: results of the UK national discrepancy meeting survey.

    PubMed

    Prowse, S J; Pinkey, B; Etherington, R

    2014-01-01

    To present the findings of the UK national discrepancy meeting survey of radiology departments across England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland regarding the way in which discrepancy meetings are currently conducted. This is in the setting of impending changes required for revalidation. One hundred and fourteen (114) out of 195 (55%) of departments surveyed replied to an anonymous survey of 10 questions requesting information regarding the proportion of departments adopting a regular meeting, the consultant hours spent at the meeting, the system used and people involved in the identification of discrepancies, whether a grading system was used, and whether discrepancies were recorded on consultants appraisals. Ninety-seven percent of responders reported that their department has a regular discrepancy meeting. Among the responders, the average consultant attendance was 68%. Seven percent of departments did not record attendance. In departments that conduct discrepancy meetings, the number of cases discussed per month averaged 10. The average time spent per case was 6 min. Seventeen percent of departments ensure discrepancies form part of a consultant's appraisal. Twenty-seven percent reported not having a grading system, whereas those that do, use varying systems. Ninety-four percent reported that the majority of errors were identified by radiologists. Ten percent of departments undertake a systematic consultant review of random reported cases. Discrepancy meetings provide a crucial role in clinical governance by facilitating an improvement in the quality of service provided by the radiology department. After more than a decade since the introduction of discrepancy meetings in the UK, there remains a great variety in implementation across the country, and important considerations, such as the need for grading and recording discrepancies in consultant appraisals. Reflection on discrepancies and also attendance at discrepancy meetings is required for impending

  14. Philosophical methodology and strikes.

    PubMed

    Thomasma, David C

    1991-01-01

    ...how do we train residents to employ ethical reasoning? This is a good question, not only for the problem of strikes, but also for all medical training. The best method is inductive, since that most closely parallels the clinical reasoning processes that define the reality of medical practice. The strengths of inductive reasoning are that it most closely matches the realities of practice, it arises from the particular circumstances of the case, and it leads to a casuistic conclusion that applies more directly than abstract reasoning models to the problem at hand. The weaknesses, though, require that inductive models include a check and balance.

  15. [Neurological diseases after lightning strike : Lightning strikes twice].

    PubMed

    Gruhn, K M; Knossalla, Frauke; Schwenkreis, Peter; Hamsen, Uwe; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Tegenthoff, Martin; Sczesny-Kaiser, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Lightning strikes rarely occur but 85 % of patients have lightning-related neurological complications. This report provides an overview about different modes of energy transfer and neurological conditions related to lightning strikes. Moreover, two case reports demonstrate the importance of interdisciplinary treatment and the spectrum of neurological complications after lightning strikes.

  16. Infant Attention to Auditory Discrepancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Dennis K.; Kagan, Jerome

    1976-01-01

    Groups of 7 1/2-month-old infants heard 1 of 8 episodes consisting of no, slight, moderate, or large discrepancy between a habituated standard and a transformed auditory stimulus. Patterns of cardiac deceleration supported the hypothesis that attentiveness is an inverted-U function of the degree of discrepancy between stimulus event and schema.…

  17. The Pullman Strike of 1894.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassett, Jonathan

    1997-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan focused on the events surrounding the 1894 Pullman railroad car strike. Reviews the particulars of the strike (the federal government used armed force to end the strike) and then presents a simulation where students role play members of the investigating presidential commission. Includes related documents. (MJP)

  18. Diagnostic discrepancies in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Victor Sarli; Dinardi, Layara Fernanda Lipari; Pereira, Thiago Vicente; de Almeida, Lyna Kyria Rodrigues; Barbosa, Thaisa Silveira; Benvenutti, Luiz Alberto; Ayub-Ferreira, Silvia Moreira; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Autopsies are the gold standard for diagnostic accuracy; however, no recent study has analyzed autopsies in heart failure (HF). We reviewed 1241 autopsies (January 2000–May 2005) and selected 232 patients with HF. Clinical and autopsy diagnoses were analyzed and discrepancies categorized according to their importance regarding therapy and prognosis. Mean age was 63.3 ± 15.9 years; 154 (66.4%) patients were male. The causes of death at autopsy were end-stage HF (40.9%), acute myocardial infarction (17.2%), infection (15.9), and pulmonary embolism 36 (15.5). Diagnostic discrepancies occurred in 191 (82.3%) cases; in 56 (24.1%), discrepancies were related to major diagnoses with potential influence on survival or treatment; pulmonary embolism was the cause of death for 24 (42.9%) of these patients. In 35 (15.1%), discrepancies were related to a major diagnosis with equivocal influence on survival or treatment; in 100 (43.1%), discrepancies did not influence survival or treatment. In multivariate analysis, age (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.008–1.052, P = 0.007) and presence of diabetes mellitus (OR: 0.359, 95% CI: 0.168–0.767, P = 0.008) influenced the occurrence discrepancies. Diagnostic discrepancies with a potential impact on prognosis are frequent in HF. These findings warrant reconsideration in diagnostic and therapeutic practices with HF patients. PMID:28121951

  19. Ophthalmic manifestations postlightning strike.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Permesh Singh; Gupta, Mohit

    2015-03-31

    Various ophthalmic complications affecting the anterior and posterior segments have been identified due to lightning strike. We report the first case of an indirect lightning-induced full thickness macular hole formation in the UK as evidenced by slit lamp examination and optical coherence tomography (OCT) scan in a 77-year-old woman presenting with sudden visual loss in her right eye and thermal skin injury affecting her scalp. Her best corrected visual acuities were LogMAR 0.46 and 0.12 in the right and left eyes, respectively. There were no other ocular manifestations observed in either eye. She was initially managed conservatively with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug eye drops but surgery was later advised due to minimal changes in the visual acuity and macular hole on follow-up. OCT scanning is important in diagnosing macular holes, which usually warrant surgical intervention. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  20. Ophthalmic manifestations postlightning strike

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Permesh Singh; Gupta, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Various ophthalmic complications affecting the anterior and posterior segments have been identified due to lightning strike. We report the first case of an indirect lightning-induced full thickness macular hole formation in the UK as evidenced by slit lamp examination and optical coherence tomography (OCT) scan in a 77-year-old woman presenting with sudden visual loss in her right eye and thermal skin injury affecting her scalp. Her best corrected visual acuities were LogMAR 0.46 and 0.12 in the right and left eyes, respectively. There were no other ocular manifestations observed in either eye. She was initially managed conservatively with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug eye drops but surgery was later advised due to minimal changes in the visual acuity and macular hole on follow-up. OCT scanning is important in diagnosing macular holes, which usually warrant surgical intervention. PMID:25827914

  1. Strike Back Against Snake Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_166748.html Strike Back Against Snake Bites Expert advice on what to do if ... News) -- With summer comes a higher risk of snake bites, but emergency doctors have some advice on ...

  2. New Metrics for Comparison of Taxonomies Reveal Striking Discrepancies among Species Delimitation Methods in Madascincus Lizards

    PubMed Central

    Miralles, Aurélien; Vences, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Delimiting and describing species is fundamental to numerous biological disciplines such as evolution, macroecology, and conservation. Delimiting species as independent evolutionary lineages may and often does yield different outcomes depending on the species criteria applied, but methods should be chosen that minimize the inference of objectively erroneous species limits. Several protocols exploit single-gene or multi-gene coalescence statistics, assignment tests or other rationales related to nuclear DNA (nDNA) allele sharing to automatically delimit species. We apply seven different species delimitation protocols to a taxonomically confusing group of Malagasy lizards (Madascincus), and compare the resulting taxonomies with two newly developed metrics: the Taxonomic index of congruence Ctax which quantifies the congruence between two taxonomies, and the Relative taxonomic resolving power index Rtax which quantifies the potential of an approach to capture a high number of species boundaries. The protocols differed in the total number of species proposed, between 9 and 34, and were also highly incongruent in placing species boundaries. The Generalized Mixed Yule-Coalescent approach captured the highest number of potential species boundaries but many of these were clearly contradicted by extensive nDNA admixture between sympatric mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype lineages. Delimiting species as phenotypically diagnosable mtDNA clades failed to detect two cryptic species that are unambiguous due to a lack of nDNA gene flow despite sympatry. We also consider the high number of species boundaries and their placement by multi-gene Bayesian species delimitation as poorly reliable whereas the Bayesian assignment test approach provided a species delimitation highly congruent with integrative taxonomic practice. The present study illustrates the trade-off in taxonomy between reliability (favored by conservative approaches) and resolving power (favored by inflationist approaches). Quantifying excessive splitting is more difficult than quantifying excessive lumping, suggesting a priority for conservative taxonomies in which errors are more liable to be detected and corrected by subsequent studies. PMID:23874561

  3. Modern Protection Against Lightning Strikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C.

    2005-05-01

    The application of science to provide protection against lightning strikes began around 1750 when Benjamin Franklin who invented the lightning rod in an effort to discharge thunderclouds. Instead of preventing lightning as he expected, his rods have been quite successful as strike receptors, intercepting cloud-to ground discharges and conducting them to Earth without damage to the structures on which they are mounted. In the years since Franklin's invention there has been little attention paid to the rod configuration that best serves as a strike receptor but Franklin's original ideas continue to be rediscovered and promoted. Recent measurements of the responses of variously configured rods to nearby strikes indicate that sharp-tipped rods are not the optimum configuration to serve as strike receptors since the ionization of the air around their tips limits the strength of the local electric fields created by an approaching lightning leader. In these experiments, fourteen blunt-tipped rods exposed in strike-reception competitions with nearby sharp-tipped rods were struck by lightning but none of the sharp-tipped rods were struck.

  4. Effective discrepancy and numerical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varet, Suzanne; Lefebvre, Sidonie; Durand, Gérard; Roblin, Antoine; Cohen, Serge

    2012-12-01

    Many problems require the computation of a high dimensional integral, typically with a few tens of input factors, with a low number of integrand evaluations. To avoid the curse of dimensionality, we reduce the dimension before applying the Quasi-Monte Carlo method. We will show how to reduce the dimension by computing approximate Sobol indices of the variables with a two-levels fractional factorial design. Then, we will use the Sobol indices to define the effective discrepancy, which turns out to be correlated with the QMC error and thus enables one to choose a good sequence for the integral estimation.

  5. Lightning strike protection of composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagné, Martin; Therriault, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft structures are being redesigned to use fiber-reinforced composites mainly due to their high specific stiffness and strength. One of the main drawbacks from changing from electrically conductive metals to insulating or semi-conducting composites is the higher vulnerability of the aircraft to lightning strike damage. The current protection approach consists of bonding a metal mesh to the surface of the composite structure, but this weight increase negatively impact the fuel efficiency. This review paper presents an overview of the lightning strike problematic, the regulations, the lightning damage to composite, the current protection solutions and other material or technology alternatives. Advanced materials such as polymer-based nanocomposites and carbon nanotube buckypapers are promising candidates for lightweight lightning strike protection technology.

  6. Fatal lightning strikes in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Murty, O P; Kian, Chong Kah; Ari Husin, Mohammed Husrul; Nanta Kumar, Ranjeev Kumar; Mohammed Yusuf, Wan Yuhana W

    2009-09-01

    Lightning strike is a natural phenomenon with potentially devastating effects and represents one of the important causes of deaths from environmental phenomena. Almost every organ system may be affected as lightning current passes through the human body taking the shortest pathways between the contact points. A 10 years retrospective study (1996-2005) was conducted at University Hospital Kuala Lumpur (20 cases) also including cases during last 3 years from Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah, Klang (7 cases) from the autopsy reports at Forensic Pathology Units of these 2 hospitals. Both these hospitals are attached to University of Malaya. There were 27 fatal cases of lightning strike with male preponderance(92.59%) and male to female ratio of 12.5:1. Majority of victims of lightning strike were from the age group between 30 and 39 years old. Most of the victims were foreign workers. Indonesians workers contributed to 59.26% of overall cases. Majority of them were construction workers who attributed i.e.11 of 27 cases (40.74%). Most of the victims were brought in dead (37.04%). In majority of the cases the lightning incidence occurred in the evenings, with the frequency of 15 of 27 cases (62.5%). The month of December represented with the highest number of cases (5 cases of 23 cases); 2004 had the highest incidence of lightning strike which was 5 (19.23%). Lightning strike incidence occurred when victims had taken shelter (25.9%) under trees or shades. Lightning strike in open areas occurred in 10 of 27 cases (37.0%). Head and neck were the most commonly affected sites with the incidence of 77.78% and 74% respectively in all the victims. Only 29.63% of the cases presented with ear bleeding.

  7. Discrepant Events: Why They Fascinate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shrigley, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes how discrepant events can be employed as a viable teaching strategy. Reviews the theory of cognitive dissonance and provides examples and approaches in its resolution. Offers samples of discrepancy events and unexpected situations. (ML)

  8. Discrepancies in Goldmann tonometer readings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui, Marie; Tahi, Hassan; Nose, Izuru; Fantes, Francisco; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

    1999-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate discrepancies in Goldmann tonometer readings in eyes with varying degrees of corneal hydration and stromal amount. Methods. 6 Eye Bank eyes, donated by Florida Lion's Eye Bank, were evaluated. Each eye was affixed to a customized artificial orbit system with intraocular pressure (IOP) measured directly by a pressure transducer inserted into the vitreous and with a Goldmann tonometric readings. The eyes were dehydrated for 5-minute intervals in a 30% Dextran-BSS solution, with readings taken between each submersion. Once corneal thickness stabilized, a corneal trephination of 6mm was made. The corneal buttons were frozen and dehydrated by lyophilization and weighed. Results. Preliminary results show a possible overestimation in thicker corneas and an underestimation in thinner corneas, as previously published. Corresponding data on the weight of corneal material is provided. Further studies need to be conducted to determine statistical significance of the data. Conclusion. This study uses Eye Bank eyes with a protocol that produces results similar to previously published results. Further studies in correlating the amount of corneal stroma and discrepancies in Goldmann tonometer readings of intraocular pressure are important especially with the increasing acceptance of corneal refractive surgeries.

  9. Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone

    MedlinePlus

    ... 690; deaths: 9,480. Read More "Skin Cancer" Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & ... and Sun – Safety First / Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ Summer 2013 Issue: Volume 8 Number ... Us | Viewers & Players Friends of the National Library of Medicine (FNLM)

  10. Eyeing New York's Newspaper Strike.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishleder, Paul

    The New York newspaper strike of 1978 was the direct result of a series of events that started in 1923 when the pressmen's union established a system that provided a minimum fixed number of pressmen per press unit and legitimized a loose labor pool. From that time, the number of pressmen increased through family-dominated union management that…

  11. Soviet KIROV class strike cruiser

    SciTech Connect

    Kehoe, J.W.; Brower, K.S.; Meier, H.A.

    1981-04-01

    The major design concepts and basic characteristics of the Soviet KIROV Class ship, an impressive nuclear-powered Strike Cruiser which recently appeared while undergoing sea trials in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, are discussed. Highlights are presented of the KIROV's hull form, the weapons, electronics and aviation systems, machinery, as well as the cruiser's speed and range.

  12. Blind Deconvolution With Model Discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Kotera, Jan; Smidl, Vaclav; Sroubek, Filip

    2017-05-01

    Blind deconvolution is a strongly ill-posed problem comprising of simultaneous blur and image estimation. Recent advances in prior modeling and/or inference methodology led to methods that started to perform reasonably well in real cases. However, as we show here, they tend to fail if the convolution model is violated even in a small part of the image. Methods based on variational Bayesian inference play a prominent role. In this paper, we use this inference in combination with the same prior for noise, image, and blur that belongs to the family of independent non-identical Gaussian distributions, known as the automatic relevance determination prior. We identify several important properties of this prior useful in blind deconvolution, namely, enforcing non-negativity of the blur kernel, favoring sharp images over blurred ones, and most importantly, handling non-Gaussian noise, which, as we demonstrate, is common in real scenarios. The presented method handles discrepancies in the convolution model, and thus extends applicability of blind deconvolution to real scenarios, such as photos blurred by camera motion and incorrect focus.

  13. Lightning strike at Bryan, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, B. E.

    1980-02-01

    A week before the 29 August 1979 dedication of the photovoltaic power system at daytime AM radio station WBNO, in Bryan, Ohio, a lightning superbolt struck the FM radio tower, one of two towers at the station. Minor damage to the station and to components of the photovoltaic system, the latter designed by MIT Lincoln Laboratory under US Department of Energy sponsorship, is described. This rare strike suggested the need for increased protection and more voltage-transient suppressors were added to those already in place as a preventive measure in the event that such a phenomenon reoccurs.

  14. Self-Esteem Discrepancies and Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Robert B.; Keith, Patricia M.

    1981-01-01

    Examined the relationship between self-esteem discrepancies and depression in a long-term intimate relationship. Findings supported the hypothesis that depression is associated with discrepancies between married partners' self-appraisals, perceptions of spouse's appraisal, and spouse's actual appraisal. (Author/DB)

  15. Attraction, Discrepancy and Responses to Psychological Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Michael J.

    The responses of a laboratory subject (S) to a counselor-accomplice and to the psychological treatment situation are examined by manipulating experimentally interpersonal attraction and communication discrepancy. Four treatment conditions were set up: (1) topic similarity and positive attraction for counselor, (2) topic discrepancy and positive…

  16. Belief Discrepancy Reasoning in the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, Robert D.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined the development of belief discrepancy reasoning, or how people evaluate disagreeing others, with 44 college and elderly respondents. Results showed the elderly were significantly lower in belief discrepancy reasoning and higher in dogmatism than the college sample. The elderly sample did not evidence intolerance, but rather relativism.…

  17. 40 CFR 761.210 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 761.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.210 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest discrepancies are differences between the quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or...

  18. 40 CFR 761.210 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 761.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.210 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest discrepancies are differences between the quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or...

  19. 40 CFR 761.210 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 761.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.210 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest discrepancies are differences between the quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or...

  20. Doctors' strikes and mortality: a review.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu; Mitchell, Kristina; Narayan, K M; Yusuf, Salim

    2008-12-01

    A paradoxical pattern has been suggested in the literature on doctors' strikes: when health workers go on strike, mortality stays level or decreases. We performed a review of the literature during the past forty years to assess this paradox. We used PubMed, EconLit and Jstor to locate all peer-reviewed English-language articles presenting data analysis on mortality associated with doctors' strikes. We identified 156 articles, seven of which met our search criteria. The articles analyzed five strikes around the world, all between 1976 and 2003. The strikes lasted between nine days and seventeen weeks. All reported that mortality either stayed the same or decreased during, and in some cases, after the strike. None found that mortality increased during the weeks of the strikes compared to other time periods. The paradoxical finding that physician strikes are associated with reduced mortality may be explained by several factors. Most importantly, elective surgeries are curtailed during strikes. Further, hospitals often re-assign scarce staff and emergency care was available during all of the strikes. Finally, none of the strikes may have lasted long enough to assess the effects of long-term reduced access to a physician. Nonetheless, the literature suggests that reductions in mortality may result from these strikes.

  1. 14 CFR 35.38 - Lightning strike.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lightning strike. 35.38 Section 35.38... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.38 Lightning strike. The applicant must demonstrate, by... lightning strike without causing a major or hazardous propeller effect. The limit to which the propeller...

  2. 14 CFR 35.38 - Lightning strike.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lightning strike. 35.38 Section 35.38... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.38 Lightning strike. The applicant must demonstrate, by... lightning strike without causing a major or hazardous propeller effect. The limit to which the propeller...

  3. 14 CFR 35.38 - Lightning strike.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lightning strike. 35.38 Section 35.38... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.38 Lightning strike. The applicant must demonstrate, by... lightning strike without causing a major or hazardous propeller effect. The limit to which the propeller...

  4. 14 CFR 35.38 - Lightning strike.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lightning strike. 35.38 Section 35.38... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.38 Lightning strike. The applicant must demonstrate, by... lightning strike without causing a major or hazardous propeller effect. The limit to which the propeller...

  5. Estimation of Lightning Striking Points Based on Measurements of Vertical E-Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michishita, Koji; Nishihira, Takayuki; Hongo, Yasuji; Yokoyama, Shigeru

    Accurate estimation of the lightning striking points is practically important to find the fault location of the power line. Recent progress of the lightning locating technique has made it possible to estimate the striking points with the accuracy of less than 1km. To enhance the location accuracy, the authors measure the vertical electric field at six points around Shirakawa area in Fukushima prefecture. The distance between measuring points is about 10km, which is less than one tenth of the distance of the direction finders (DF) of the lightning location system. In this paper, the authors estimated the location of the lightning striking points by using the time of arrival technique and compared with the results obtained by the lightning location system. Furthermore, the cause of the discrepancy between estimated lightning striking points is discussed, and the location accuracy by the authors' method is evaluated.

  6. Functional scoliosis caused by leg length discrepancy

    PubMed Central

    Daniszewska, Barbara; Zolynski, Krystian

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Leg length discrepancy (LLD) causes pelvic obliquity in the frontal plane and lumbar scoliosis with convexity towards the shorter extremity. Leg length discrepancy is observed in 3-15% of the population. Unequalized lower limb length discrepancy leads to posture deformation, gait asymmetry, low back pain and discopathy. Material and methods In the years 1998-2006, 369 children, aged 5 to 17 years (209 girls, 160 boys) with LLD-related functional scoliosis were treated. An external or internal shoe lift was applied. Results Among 369 children the discrepancy of 0.5 cm was observed in 27, 1 cm in 329, 1.5 cm in 9 and 2 cm in 4 children. During the first follow-up examination, within 2 weeks, the adjustment of the spine to new static conditions was noted and correction of the curve in 316 examined children (83.7%). In 53 children (14.7%) the correction was observed later and was accompanied by slight low back pain. The time needed for real equalization of limbs was 3 to 24 months. The time needed for real equalization of the discrepancy was 11.3 months. Conclusions Leg length discrepancy equalization results in elimination of scoliosis. Leg length discrepancy < 2 cm is a static disorder; that is why measurements should be performed in a standing position using blocks of adequate thickness and the position of the posterior superior iliac spine should be estimated. PMID:22371777

  7. Third-party support for strike action.

    PubMed

    Kelloway, E Kevin; Francis, Lori; Catano, Victor M; Dupré, Kathryne E

    2008-07-01

    Labor strikes are often seen as battles for public support. Members of the public are asked to show respect for a strike by refusing to cross the picket line or by joining strikers on the picket line. Such public support may affect the morale of strikers and influence the strike's duration. Despite the perceived importance of the public in labor disputes, members of third parties have not been considered in previous strike research. In 2 studies, the authors show that a new measure of third-party strike support is unidimensional and highly reliable. In both cases, union attitudes and perceptions of distributive justice were significant predictors of support for strike action. Those who are more supportive of unions in general and believe that the contract offered to the strikers was unfair were more likely to support the strike by engaging in such actions as conversing with strikers, writing letters, and refusing to cross the picket line.

  8. Discrepant Events: A Challenge to Students' Intuition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Espada, Wilson J.; Birriel, Jennifer; Birriel, Ignacio

    2010-11-01

    Studies on cognitive aspects of science education, especially how students achieve conceptual change, have been a focus of interest for many years. Researchers of student learning and conceptual change have developed several easily applicable teaching strategies. One of these strategies is known as discrepant events. Discrepant events are very powerful ways to stimulate interest, motivate students to challenge their covert science misconceptions, and promote higher-order thinking skills. The key point is that directly challenging students' naive ideas will lead to more quality science learning going on in the classroom. In this paper, we summarize the research-based role of discrepant events in conceptual change and we share several highly successful discrepant events we use in our own classes.

  9. Preemptive strikes: Fear, hope, and defensive aggression.

    PubMed

    Halevy, Nir

    2017-02-01

    Preemptive strikes are costly and harmful. Existing models of defensive aggression focus narrowly on the role fear plays in motivating preemptive strikes. Theoretically integrating the literatures on conflict, decision making, and emotion, the current research investigated how specific emotions associated with certainty or uncertainty, including fear, anger, disgust, hope, and happiness, influence preemptive strikes. Study 1 demonstrated that hope negatively predicts defensive exits from relationships in choice dilemmas. Studies 2 and 3 experimentally manipulated risk of being attacked in an incentivized, interactive decision making task-the Preemptive Strike Game. Risk of being attacked fueled preemptive strikes; reduced feelings of hope partially mediated this effect in Study 3. Studies 4 and 5 investigated preemptive strikes under uncertainty (rather than risk). In Study 4, reasoning about the factors that make one trustful of others curbed preemptive strikes; cogitating about the factors that underlie discrete emotions, however, did not influence defensive aggression. Study 5 demonstrated that the valence and uncertainty appraisals of incidental emotions interact in shaping preemptive strikes. Specifically, recalling an autobiographical emotional experience that produced hope significantly decreased attack rates relative to fear, happiness, and a control condition. Fear, anger, disgust, and happiness were either unrelated to preemptive strikes or showed inconsistent relationships with preemptive strikes across the 5 studies. These findings shed light on how emotions shape defensive aggression, advance knowledge on strategic choice under risk and uncertainty, and demonstrate hope's positive effects on social interactions and relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. The 1982 direct strike lightning data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, M. E.; Pitts, F. L.

    1983-01-01

    Wideband waveforms data which were obtained during the 1982 direct-strike lightning tests utilizing the NASA F106-B aircraft specially instrumented for lightning electromagnetic measurements. The aircraft was operated in a thunderstorm environment to elicit strikes to the aircraft during this testing period. Electromagnetic field data were recorded to both attached lightning and free field excitation of the aircraft.

  11. From Teachers' Strike to Teacher Empowerment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirois, Herman A.; Smith, Ronald

    1989-01-01

    Reports how the prolonged 1978 Levittown (New York) teachers strike initially depleted resources and created problems but proved to be the impetus for development of an effective school system. Reviews sources of conflict that led to the strike, reactions of community and teachers, and reforms focused on teacher empowerment. (FMW)

  12. Higher Education Negotiations and Strikes in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loehr, Peter; Livingston-Webber, Joan

    1992-01-01

    In 1991-92, there were two strikes at community colleges in Illinois. Interviews were conducted with representatives of the faculty unions and management at both colleges, regarding the relationship between negotiation processes and strikes. Study findings included the following: (1) both management and union spokespersons felt that strikes…

  13. 14 CFR 29.631 - Bird strike.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bird strike. 29.631 Section 29.631... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.631 Bird strike. The... safe landing (for Category B) after impact with a 2.2-lb (1.0 kg) bird when the velocity of the...

  14. 14 CFR 29.631 - Bird strike.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bird strike. 29.631 Section 29.631... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.631 Bird strike. The... safe landing (for Category B) after impact with a 2.2-lb (1.0 kg) bird when the velocity of the...

  15. 14 CFR 29.631 - Bird strike.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bird strike. 29.631 Section 29.631... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.631 Bird strike. The... safe landing (for Category B) after impact with a 2.2-lb (1.0 kg) bird when the velocity of the...

  16. 14 CFR 29.631 - Bird strike.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bird strike. 29.631 Section 29.631... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.631 Bird strike. The... safe landing (for Category B) after impact with a 2.2-lb (1.0 kg) bird when the velocity of the...

  17. 14 CFR 29.631 - Bird strike.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bird strike. 29.631 Section 29.631... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.631 Bird strike. The... safe landing (for Category B) after impact with a 2.2-lb (1.0 kg) bird when the velocity of the...

  18. Strike Planning: A Management Team Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magmer, Jeanne

    A strike by teachers in the David Douglas School District of suburban Portland, Oregon, in 1978 lasted only a week and was unsuccessful in obtaining contract concessions. This document describes how the district's administration, board, building principals, and public relations specialist cooperated as a team to limit the strike's effects. Key…

  19. Basal ganglia hemorrhage related to lightning strike.

    PubMed

    Ozgun, B; Castillo, M

    1995-01-01

    We describe a case of bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage after a lightning strike to the head documented by a CT scan. Review of the literature shows this to be the most common brain imaging finding that can be attributed to a lightning strike. Several mechanistic theories are discussed, with the most plausible one being related to preferential conduction pathways through the brain.

  20. Lightning strike to the head: case report.

    PubMed

    Steinbaum, S; Harviel, J D; Jaffin, J H; Jordan, M H

    1994-01-01

    A case is presented of a teen-aged athlete who sustained a direct lightning strike to the head while wearing a football helmet. The helmet, the presence of sweat, and aggressive resuscitation were instrumental in his survival and complete recovery. This appears to be the first documentation of a lightning strike to an individual wearing protective headgear.

  1. Parent-Child Discrepancies in Educational Expectations: Differential Effects of Actual versus Perceived Discrepancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yijie; Benner, Aprile D.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored how discrepancies between parents' and adolescents' educational expectations influenced adolescents' achievement using a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of 14,041 students (14 years old at baseline). "Actual" discrepancies (i.e., those between parents' and adolescents' actual…

  2. Parent-Child Discrepancies in Educational Expectations: Differential Effects of Actual versus Perceived Discrepancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yijie; Benner, Aprile D.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored how discrepancies between parents' and adolescents' educational expectations influenced adolescents' achievement using a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of 14,041 students (14 years old at baseline). "Actual" discrepancies (i.e., those between parents' and adolescents' actual…

  3. Toward Reconciling Magnitude Discrepancies Estimated from Paleoearthquake Data

    SciTech Connect

    N. Seth Carpenter; Suzette J. Payne; Annette L. Schafer

    2012-06-01

    We recognize a discrepancy in magnitudes estimated for several Basin and Range, U.S.A. faults. For example, magnitudes predicted for the Wasatch (Utah), Lost River (Idaho), and Lemhi (Idaho) faults from fault segment lengths (L{sub seg}) where lengths are defined between geometrical, structural, and/or behavioral discontinuities assumed to persistently arrest rupture, are consistently less than magnitudes calculated from displacements (D) along these same segments. For self-similarity, empirical relationships (e.g. Wells and Coppersmith, 1994) should predict consistent magnitudes (M) using diverse fault dimension values for a given fault (i.e. M {approx} L{sub seg}, should equal M {approx} D). Typically, the empirical relationships are derived from historical earthquake data and parameter values used as input into these relationships are determined from field investigations of paleoearthquakes. A commonly used assumption - grounded in the characteristic-earthquake model of Schwartz and Coppersmith (1984) - is equating L{sub seg} with surface rupture length (SRL). Many large historical events yielded secondary and/or sympathetic faulting (e.g. 1983 Borah Peak, Idaho earthquake) which are included in the measurement of SRL and used to derive empirical relationships. Therefore, calculating magnitude from the M {approx} SRL relationship using L{sub seg} as SRL leads to an underestimation of magnitude and the M {approx} L{sub seg} and M {approx} D discrepancy. Here, we propose an alternative approach to earthquake magnitude estimation involving a relationship between moment magnitude (Mw) and length, where length is L{sub seg} instead of SRL. We analyze seven historical, surface-rupturing, strike-slip and normal faulting earthquakes for which segmentation of the causative fault and displacement data are available and whose rupture included at least one entire fault segment, but not two or more. The preliminary Mw {approx} L{sub seg} results are strikingly consistent

  4. Real vs. Ideal Self Discrepancy in Bulimics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosak, Karen

    Bulimia is an eating disorder prevalent among young women, characterized by binge eating episodes followed by purging with subsequent depressive moods and self-deprecating thoughts. To determine whether bulimic women exhibit a greater discrepancy between their perceived and ideal selves than do nonbulimics, three samples of women were assessed.…

  5. 40 CFR 267.72 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the discrepancy with the waste generator or transporter (e.g., with telephone conversations). If the... 267.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED...

  6. 40 CFR 267.72 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the discrepancy with the waste generator or transporter (e.g., with telephone conversations). If the... 267.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED...

  7. 40 CFR 761.215 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... delivery of the waste to the first transporter designated on the manifest prepared under paragraph (e) or... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.215 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest... quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or shipping paper, and the quantity and type...

  8. 40 CFR 267.72 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the discrepancy with the waste generator or transporter (e.g., with telephone conversations). If the... 267.72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED...

  9. 40 CFR 761.215 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 761.215 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.215 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest... quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or shipping paper, and the quantity and type...

  10. Discrepancy between Snack Choice Intentions and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weijzen, Pascalle L. G.; de Graaf, Cees; Dijksterhuis, Garmt B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate dietary constructs that affect the discrepancy between intentioned and actual snack choice. Design: Participants indicated their intentioned snack choice from a set of 4 snacks (2 healthful, 2 unhealthful). One week later, they actually chose a snack from the same set. Within 1 week after the actual choice, they completed…

  11. System and Method of Locating Lightning Strikes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A system and method of determining locations of lightning strikes has been described. The system includes multiple receivers located around an area of interest, such as a space center or airport. Each receiver monitors both sound and electric fields. The detection of an electric field pulse and a sound wave are used to calculate an area around each receiver in which the lighting is detected. A processor is coupled to the receivers to accurately determine the location of the lighting strike. The processor can manipulate the receiver data to compensate for environmental variables such as wind, temperature, and humidity. Further, each receiver processor can discriminate between distant and local lightning strikes.

  12. Beyond the basics: lightning-strike injuries.

    PubMed

    Mistovich, Joseph J; Krost, William S; Limmer, Daniel D

    2008-03-01

    It is estimated that a lightning flash occurs approximately 8 million times per day throughout the world. Most strikes are benign and cause little damage to property and physical structures; however, when lightning strikes a person or group of people, it is a significant medical and potentially traumatic event that could lead to immediate death or permanent disability. By understanding some basic physics of lightning and pathophysiology of injuries associated with lightning strikes, EMS providers will be better prepared to identify assessment findings, anticipate complications and provide effective emergency care.

  13. Tsunami Hazards From Strike-Slip Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legg, M. R.; Borrero, J. C.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2003-12-01

    Strike-slip faulting is often considered unfavorable for tsunami generation during large earthquakes. Although large strike-slip earthquakes triggering landslides and then generating substantial tsunamis are now recognized hazards, many continue to ignore the threat from submarine tectonic displacement during strike-slip earthquakes. Historical data record the occurrence of tsunamis from strike-slip earthquakes, for example, 1906 San Francisco, California, 1994 Mindoro, Philippines, and 1999 Izmit, Turkey. Recognizing that strike-slip fault zones are often curved and comprise numerous en echelon step-overs, we model tsunami generation from realistic strike-slip faulting scenarios. We find that tectonic seafloor uplift, at a restraining bend or"pop-up" structure, provides an efficient mechanism to generate destructive local tsunamis; likewise for subsidence at divergent pull-apart basin structures. Large earthquakes on complex strike-slip fault systems may involve both types of structures. The California Continental Borderland is a high-relief submarine part of the active Pacific-North America transform plate boundary. Natural harbors and bays created by long term vertical motion associated with strike-slip structural irregularities are now sites of burgeoning population and major coastal infrastructure. Significant local tsunamis generated by large strike-slip earthquakes pose a serious, and previously unrecognized threat. We model several restraining bend pop-up structures offshore southern California to quantify the local tsunami hazard. Maximum runup derived in our scenarios ranges from one to several meters, similar to runup observed from the 1994 Mindoro, Philippines, (M=7.1) earthquake. The runup pattern is highly variable, with local extremes along the coast. We only model the static displacement field for the strike-slip earthquake source; dynamic effects of moving large island or submerged banks laterally during strike-slip events remains to be examined

  14. Biology of the Lucky Strike hydrothermal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee Van Dover, Cindy; Desbruyères, Daniel; Segonzac, Michel; Comtet, Thierry; Saldanha, Luiz; Fiala-Medioni, Aline; Langmuir, Charles

    1996-09-01

    Newly discovered hydrothermal vent communities at Lucky Strike on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (37°18'N, 32°16'W) are comprised of an invertebrate fauna sufficiently different from known vent faunas of TAG and Snake Pit to consider Lucky Strike part of a new biogeographic province. The dominant component of the fauna is a new species of mussel, and the most unusual feature of the fauna is an echinoid echinoderm, Echinus sp. An abundance of small mussels (< 5 mm) indicates a recent recruitment event at Lucky Strike, and modal analysis of length-frequency data indicate a discontinuous recruitment process in space and time.

  15. Physeal injury in a lightning strike survivor.

    PubMed

    Lim, J K; Lee, E H; Chhem, R K

    2001-01-01

    Electrical injuries resulting in physeal injury in children are an uncommon but well-recognized clinical entity. Almost all these injuries are sustained from man-made electrical sources. To date, there have been no published cases of growth arrest after lightning strike. The authors report the case of a 12-year-old girl who survived a lightning strike 2 years ago and who presented with asymmetric growth arrest in both legs. The authors discuss the pathophysiology of lightning strike and consider the evidence for direct electrical injury versus ischemic insult to the physis as explanations for the cause of the growth arrest observed in this patient.

  16. Lightning Strike in Pregnancy With Fetal Injury.

    PubMed

    Galster, Kellen; Hodnick, Ryan; Berkeley, Ross P

    2016-06-01

    Injuries from lightning strikes are an infrequent occurrence, and are only rarely noted to involve pregnant victims. Only 13 cases of lightning strike in pregnancy have been previously described in the medical literature, along with 7 additional cases discovered within news media reports. This case report presents a novel case of lightning-associated injury in a patient in the third trimester of pregnancy, resulting in fetal ischemic brain injury and long-term morbidity, and reviews the mechanics of lightning strikes along with common injury patterns of which emergency providers should be aware.

  17. Late Cretaceous through Cenozoic strike-slip tectonics of southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.L.; Bradley, D.C.; Bundtzen, T.K.; McClelland, W.

    2002-01-01

    New geologic mapping and geochronology show that margin-parallel strike-slip faults on the western limb of the southern Alaska orocline have experienced multiple episodes of dextral motion since ~100 Ma. These faults are on the upper plate of a subduction zone ~350-450 km inboard of the paleotrench. In southwestern Alaska, dextral displacement is 134 km on the Denali fault, at least 88-94 km on the Iditarod-Nixon Fork fault, and perhaps tens of kilometers on the Dishna River fault. The strike-slip regime coincided with Late Cretaceous sedimentation and then folding in the Kuskokwim basin, and with episodes of magmatism and mineralization at ~70, ~60, and ~30 Ma. No single driving mechanism can explain all of the ~95 million-year history of strike-slip faulting. Since ~40 Ma, the observed dextral sense of strike slip has run contrary to the sense of subduction obliquity. This may be explained by northward motion of the Pacific plate driving continental margin slivers into and/or around the oroclinal bend. From 44 to 66 Ma, oroclinal rotation, perhaps involving large-scale flexural slip, may have been accompanied by westward escape of crustal blocks along strike-slip faults. However, reconstructions of this period involve unproven assumptions about the identity of the subducting plate, the position of subducting ridges, and the exact timing of oroclinal bending, thus obscuring the driving mechanisms of strike slip. Prior to 66 Ma, oblique subduction is the most plausible driving mechanism for dextral strike slip. Cumulative displacement on all faults of the western limb of the orocline is at least 400 km, about half that on the eastern limb; this discrepancy might be explained by a combination of thrusting and unrecognized strike-slip faulting.

  18. The Chicago Teachers Strike and Its Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuffelton, Amy B.

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the 2012 Chicago Teachers Strike in light of John Dewey's "The Public and Its Problems." It engages Dewey's conceptualization of practical reason to challenge the educational reform movement's commitment to technocratic decision-making.

  19. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... from all walks of life are affected by hepatitis, especially hepatitis C, the most common form of ...

  20. The Chicago Teachers Strike and Its Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuffelton, Amy B.

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the 2012 Chicago Teachers Strike in light of John Dewey's "The Public and Its Problems." It engages Dewey's conceptualization of practical reason to challenge the educational reform movement's commitment to technocratic decision-making.

  1. Lightning Science: Five Ways Lightning Strikes People

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products and Services Careers Contact Us Glossary Lightning Science: Five Ways Lightning Strikes People It is not ... of a streamer injury. For more on the science of lightning: National Severe Storms Laboratory NWS Colorado ...

  2. Association between Bolton discrepancy and Angle malocclusions.

    PubMed

    Cançado, Rodrigo Hermont; Gonçalves Júnior, Waldir; Valarelli, Fabrício Pinelli; Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore de; Crêspo, Janaina Aparecida Lima

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess and compare the overall and anterior ratios of tooth size discrepancies in all Angle malocclusion groups. The following null hypothesis (H0) was tested: no difference between tooth size discrepancies (overall and anterior) would be observed among Angle malocclusion groups. The sample comprised of 711 pre-orthodontic treatment study casts of Brazilian patients with a mean age of 17.42 years selected from private practices in Brazil. The casts were divided into 3 groups according to the type of malocclusion: Class I (n = 321), Class II (n = 324), and Class III patients (n = 66). The measurement of the greatest mesiodistal width of the teeth was performed using a centesimal precision digital caliper directly on the study casts, from the distal surface of the left first molar to the distal surface of the right first molar. The overall and anterior ratios between the maxillary and mandibular teeth were evaluated using Bolton's method. The following statistical tests were applied: chi-square, independent t-test, and one-way ANOVA. Results showed that all Angle malocclusions groups exhibited a ratio compatible with those recommended by Bolton. With respect to the overall and anterior ratios among the malocclusion groups, no statistically significant differences were found. The null hypothesis was accepted because the results showed no differences in the overall and anterior ratios of tooth size discrepancies among different Angle malocclusion groups.

  3. Frequency based localization of structural discrepancies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, G. D.; Milani, J.

    1988-01-01

    The intent of modal analysis is to develop a reliable model of a structure by working with the analytical and experimental modal properties of frequency, damping and mode shape. In addition to identifying these modal properties, it would be desirable to determine spatially which parts of the structure are modelled poorly or well. It is shown how the pattern of discrepancies in the analytical and experimental test values for the pole and the driving point zero frequencies of a structure can be linked to discrepancies in the mass or stiffness of the structural elements. The success of the procedure depends on the numerical conditioning of a modal reference matrix. Strategies to insure adequate numerical conditioning require a formulation which avoids geometric and energy storage symmetries of the structure, and ignores structural elements which contribute negligibly small potential or kinetic energy to the excited modes. Physical insight into the numerical conditioning problem is provided by a numerical example and by localization of a mass discrepancy in a real structure based on lab tests.

  4. Issues and Outcomes of Teachers' Strikes, 1955-65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goergen, Joseph H.; Keough, John J.

    This study analyzes the patterns of 40 teacher strikes between 1955 and 1965 by looking at (1) the issues and demands and (2) the outcomes and settlements. It is hypothesized that (1) teacher strikes fall into discernible patterns, (2) functional relationships exist between certain strike issues and outcomes and the strike itself, (3) strikes can…

  5. Issues and Outcomes of Teachers' Strikes, 1955-65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goergen, Joseph H.; Keough, John J.

    This study analyzes the patterns of 40 teacher strikes between 1955 and 1965 by looking at (1) the issues and demands and (2) the outcomes and settlements. It is hypothesized that (1) teacher strikes fall into discernible patterns, (2) functional relationships exist between certain strike issues and outcomes and the strike itself, (3) strikes can…

  6. Discrepancies between film and digital mammography interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, Poonam; Kallergi, Maria; Alexander, Dominik; Berman, Claudia G.; Gardner, Mary; Hersh, Marla R.; Hooper, Lisa; Kim, Jihai J.; Venugopal, Priya

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency and reasons of disagreement between film and full-field digital mammography (FFDM) interpretations observed in a prospective clinical trial performed with the GE Senographe 2000D system. The data from 643 mammography examinations comprising both digital and film mammograms were analyzed for this purpose. Reports indicated that 455 findings were identified on the digital softcopy reading and 457 findings on the standard film mammography with 408 discrepancies. Findings with discrepancies were matched and analyzed. A reason was identified and a relative conspicuity score of 0 to 10 was assigned to each finding at the time of resolution; 0 corresponded to a finding highly conspicuous on digital, 10 to a finding highly conspicuous on film, and 5 denoted equal visibility on both. After review, agreement was established between the two modalities in 73.3% of the findings; 13.5% of findings were seen better on digital and 13.2% of the findings were seen better on film. Approximately 63% of the discrepancies occurred due to variability in the reporting style of the radiologists and/or unavailability of prior films for comparison. Three cancer cases were identified in this study; two were seen on both modalities and one only on film. In conclusion, no statistically significant differences were observed between digital and film mammography, a result that despite the small size of our dataset is in agreement with previous reports. Inter-observer variability, display differences, and presentation disagreements are the main reasons for interpretation differences that are primarily identified in the classification and BIRADS assignment.

  7. 14 CFR 60.20 - Logging FSTD discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... training, evaluation, or flight experience, and each person conducting the preflight inspection who... write or cause to be written a description of that discrepancy into the discrepancy log at the end...

  8. 41 CFR 128-50.103 - Investigation of any discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... discrepancy cannot be eliminated and involves a shortage, the bureau shall notify the U.S. attorney in charge... discrepancy cannot be eliminated and involves an overage, the bureau shall determine if the property has any...

  9. 41 CFR 128-50.103 - Investigation of any discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... discrepancy cannot be eliminated and involves a shortage, the bureau shall notify the U.S. attorney in charge... discrepancy cannot be eliminated and involves an overage, the bureau shall determine if the property has any...

  10. Parent-child discrepancies in educational expectations: differential effects of actual versus perceived discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yijie; Benner, Aprile D

    2014-01-01

    This study explored how discrepancies between parents' and adolescents' educational expectations influenced adolescents' achievement using a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of 14,041 students (14 years old at baseline). Actual discrepancies (i.e., those between parents' and adolescents' actual educational expectations) and perceived discrepancies (i.e., those between adolescents' perceptions of their parents' educational expectations and adolescents' own) were examined. Achievement was higher when parents actually held higher expectations than adolescents held or when adolescents perceived that their parents' expectations were lower than their own. In contrast, achievement was lower when parents actually held lower expectations than adolescents held or when adolescents believed that their parents' expectations exceeded their own. Implications for identifying adolescents at risk and promoting adaptive parent-child educational expectations are discussed. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  11. 14 CFR 35.38 - Lightning strike.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.38 Lightning strike. The applicant must demonstrate, by tests, analysis based on tests, or experience on similar designs, that the propeller can withstand...

  12. Public Sector Bargaining and Strikes. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Service Research Council, Vienna, VA.

    It is the opinion of the authors of this position paper that collective bargaining in the public sector causes an increase in strikes and employee unrest, resulting in a diminution of public services. The authors assert that public employee collective bargaining means giving unions the power to control government through intimidation of the…

  13. Prompt Global Strike: China and the Spear

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    boost-glide technologies. The amount of this research dwarfs that heretofore available on their ballistic missile defense (BMD)-related technologies...flexible time use, and hypersonic flight (within one hour it can strike any target on the planet ), [in other words] strategic conventional weapons

  14. Impact of lightning strikes on hospital functions.

    PubMed

    Mortelmans, Luc J M; Van Springel, Gert L J; Van Boxstael, Sam; Herrijgers, Jan; Hoflacks, Stefaan

    2009-01-01

    Two regional hospitals were struck by lightning during a one-month period. The first hospital, which had 236 beds, suffered a direct strike to the building. This resulted in a direct spread of the power peak and temporary failure of the standard power supply. The principle problems, after restoring standard power supply, were with the fire alarm system and peripheral network connections in the digital radiology systems. No direct impact on the hardware could be found. Restarting the servers resolved all problems. The second hospital, which had 436 beds, had a lightning strike on the premises and mainly experienced problems due to induction. All affected installations had a cable connection from outside in one way or another. The power supplies never were endangered. The main problem was the failure of different communication systems (telephone, radio, intercom, fire alarm system). Also, the electronic entrance control went out. During the days after the lightening strike, multiple software problems became apparent, as well as failures of the network connections controlling the technical support systems. There are very few ways to prepare for induction problems. The use of fiber-optic networks can limit damage. To the knowledge of the authors, these are the first cases of lightning striking hospitals in medical literature.

  15. When Lightning Strikes a Second Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kent

    2017-01-01

    The chances of lightning striking twice are infinitesimal, at best. What are the odds, in middle age, of being struck with a jarring bolt of figurative lightning, then a few months later being an eyewitness as the same sizzle in the sky jolts a group of students--those decision-makers of tomorrow? The author describes two experiences that proved…

  16. Endgame Is Eyed in Chicago Strike

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A strike last week by some 29,000 teachers in Chicago pushed long-simmering tensions over deeply divisive school improvement ideas--including changes in teacher evaluation and the takeover or closure of underperforming schools--into the national spotlight. A framework for a tentative agreement emerged last Friday, and the union's house of…

  17. Protecting Your Park When Lightning Strikes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frydenlund, Marvin M.

    1987-01-01

    A formula for assessing specific risk of lightning strikes is provided. Recent legal cases are used to illustrate potential liability. Six actions park managers can take to minimize danger from lightning are presented, and commonsense rules which should be publicly posted are listed. (MT)

  18. Teaching Striking/Fielding Concepts in Cricket

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Adrian P.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents activities for developing striking/fielding concepts in modified cricket games. Though not as familiar to American children, cricket is emerging as the second (to soccer) most popular game in the world. The novelty of the skills provides an appropriate learning challenge for all students while reinforcing concepts and…

  19. When Lightning Strikes a Second Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kent

    2017-01-01

    The chances of lightning striking twice are infinitesimal, at best. What are the odds, in middle age, of being struck with a jarring bolt of figurative lightning, then a few months later being an eyewitness as the same sizzle in the sky jolts a group of students--those decision-makers of tomorrow? The author describes two experiences that proved…

  20. STS-135 Launch Pad Lightning Strike

    NASA Image and Video Library

    A pair of lightning strikes occurred near launch pad 39-A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center at 12:31 p.m. and 12:40 p.m. EDT on July 7. The first struck the water tower 515 feet from the pad and the s...

  1. What to Expect During a Teachers' Strike.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Jerri

    1987-01-01

    This two-page table charts the range of union activities, their adversarial intent, and possible administrative counterstrategies during a typical teacher strike. Twenty-four activities are covered, from peaceful demonstrations (like picketing), marches, and candlelight vigils, to harassments like nails in tires and telephone threats. (MLH)

  2. Severe stunned myocardium after lightning strike.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Jaime; Romero, Karla Alejandra; González-Chon, Octavio; Uruchurtu, Eduardo; Márquez, Manlio Fabio; Guevara, Milton

    2007-01-01

    To report the development of myocardial stunning and severe heart failure after lightning strike with total recovery of function. Case report. Coronary care unit at Medica Sur Clinic, Mexico. A 42-yr-old woman who was hit by lightning developed rapid and progressive hemodynamic deterioration manifested by cardiogenic shock that required invasive monitoring. Twenty-four hours after the strike, intravenous levosimendan and intra-aortic balloon pump were initiated because the patient demonstrated no significant response to management with conventional inotropic agents. Two days later, echocardiographic signs of systolic and diastolic dysfunction improved markedly. Dual-isotope-imaging myocardial perfusion testing with technetium-99m-sestamibi and thallium-201, performed 9 days after admission, showed normal perfusion and normal left ventricular systolic function. The patient exhibited complete recovery of function. The exact mechanism of abnormal contractility in the absence of direct electrofulguration is unknown but may be explained by release of oxygen free radicals, proteolysis of the contractile apparatus, and cytosolic overload of intracellular calcium, followed by reduced myofilament sensitivity to calcium. These abnormalities are consistent with stunned myocardium. Lightning strike may cause serious contractile dysfunction in the absence of irreversible myocardial injury, but the exact mechanism of this phenomenon remains unknown. We propose that lighting strike can cause myocardial stunning resulting in severe but reversible left ventricular dysfunction. The patient's recovery was facilitated by support treatment including administration of levosimendan, which increases the intracellular sensitivity to calcium, a mechanism disturbed in patients with myocardial stunning.

  3. Protecting Your Park When Lightning Strikes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frydenlund, Marvin M.

    1987-01-01

    A formula for assessing specific risk of lightning strikes is provided. Recent legal cases are used to illustrate potential liability. Six actions park managers can take to minimize danger from lightning are presented, and commonsense rules which should be publicly posted are listed. (MT)

  4. Endgame Is Eyed in Chicago Strike

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A strike last week by some 29,000 teachers in Chicago pushed long-simmering tensions over deeply divisive school improvement ideas--including changes in teacher evaluation and the takeover or closure of underperforming schools--into the national spotlight. A framework for a tentative agreement emerged last Friday, and the union's house of…

  5. Teaching Striking/Fielding Concepts in Cricket

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Adrian P.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents activities for developing striking/fielding concepts in modified cricket games. Though not as familiar to American children, cricket is emerging as the second (to soccer) most popular game in the world. The novelty of the skills provides an appropriate learning challenge for all students while reinforcing concepts and…

  6. The 1980 direct strike lightning data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, F. L.; Thomas, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    Data waveforms are presented which were obtained utilizing the NASA F-106B aircraft specially instrumented for lightning electromagnetic measurements. The aircraft was operated in a thunderstorm environment to elicit strikes. Concurrently recorded electric and magnetic field and lightning current data were obtained.

  7. Analysis of F-16 radar discrepancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riche, K. A.

    1982-12-01

    One hundred and eight aircraft were randomly selected from three USAF F-16 bases and examined. These aircraft included 63 single-seat F-16As and 45 two-seat F-16Bs and encompassed 8,525 sorties and 748 radar system write-ups. Programs supported by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) were run on the data. Of the 748 discrepancies, over one-third of them occurred within three sorties of each other and half within six sorties. Sixteen percent of all aircraft which had a discrepancy within three sorties had another write-up within the next three sorties. Designated repeat/recurring write-ups represented one-third of all the instances in which the write-up separation interval was three sorties or less. This is an indication that maintenance is unable to correct equipment failures as they occur, most likely because the false alarm rate is too high and maintenance is unable to duplicate the error conditions on the ground for correct error diagnosis.

  8. 31 CFR 306.44 - Discrepancies in names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrepancies in names. 306.44.... SECURITIES Assignments of Registered Securities-General § 306.44 Discrepancies in names. The Department will ordinarily require an explanation of discrepancies in the names which appear in inscriptions,...

  9. Discrepancy Score Reliabilities in the WISC-IV Standardization Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Laura A.; Ryan, Joseph J.; Charter, Richard A.; Bartels, Jared M.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation provides internal consistency reliabilities for Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) subtest and index discrepancy scores using the standardization sample as the data source. Reliabilities range from 0.50 to 0.82 for subtest discrepancy scores and from 0.78 to 0.88 for index discrepancy scores.…

  10. Discrepancy Score Reliabilities in the WISC-IV Standardization Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Laura A.; Ryan, Joseph J.; Charter, Richard A.; Bartels, Jared M.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation provides internal consistency reliabilities for Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) subtest and index discrepancy scores using the standardization sample as the data source. Reliabilities range from 0.50 to 0.82 for subtest discrepancy scores and from 0.78 to 0.88 for index discrepancy scores.…

  11. Further Investigations of NIST Water Sphere Discrepancies

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhead, B.L.

    2001-01-11

    Measurements have been performed on a family of water spheres at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) facilities. These measurements are important for criticality safety studies in that, frequently, difficulties have arisen in predicting the reactivity of individually subcritical components assembled in a critical array. It has been postulated that errors in the neutron leakage from individual elements in the array could be responsible for these problems. In these NIST measurements, an accurate determination of the leakage from a fission spectrum, modified by water scattering, is available. Previously, results for 3-, 4-, and 5-in. diam. water-filled spheres, both with and without cadmium covers over the fission chambers, were presented for four fissionable materials: {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 239}Pu. Results were also given for ''dry'' systems, in which the water spheres were drained of water, with the results corresponding to essentially measurements of unmoderated {sup 252}Cf spontaneous-fission neutrons. The calculated-to-experimental (C/E) values ranged from 0.94 to 1.01 for the dry systems and 0.93 to 1.05 for the wet systems, with experimental uncertainties ranging from 1.5 to 1.9%. These results indicated discrepancies that were clearly outside of the experimental uncertainties, and further investigation was suggested. This work updates the previous calculations with a comparison of the predicted C/E values with ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI transport cross sections. Variations in the predicted C/E values that arise from the use of ENDF/B-V, ENDF/B-VI, ENDL92, and LLLDOS for the response fission cross sections are also tabulated. The use of both a 45-group NIST fission spectrum and a continuous-energy fission spectrum for {sup 252}Cf are evaluated. The use of the generalized-linear-least-squares (GLLSM) procedures to investigate the reported discrepancies in the water sphere results for {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu

  12. Before the Strike: Planning Ahead in Difficult Negotiations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Diane

    This publication offers guidance to school-board members, superintendents, and district staff in the planning, implementation, and rebuilding phases of a faculty or staff strike. It is intended to be used before a strike is imminent so that a strike plan can be implemented and the effects during and after a strike can be mitigated. The handbook…

  13. Discrepancies in parents' and children's reports of child emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Hourigan, Shannon E; Goodman, Kimberly L; Southam-Gerow, Michael A

    2011-10-01

    The ability to regulate one's emotions effectively has been linked with many aspects of well-being. The current study examined discrepancies between mothers' and children's reports of child emotion regulation. This investigation examined patterns of discrepancies for key aspects of emotion regulation (i.e., inhibition and dysregulated expression) and for three emotions (anger, sadness, worry). A total of 61 mother-child dyads (mean children's age=9.3 years) participated. As hypothesized, discrepancies for inhibition subscales were of a larger magnitude than those for dysregulated expression subscales. Furthermore, age was related to discrepancies in both anger subscales, parent reports of child externalizing symptoms were related to anger dysregulated expression discrepancies, and child reports of internalizing symptoms were related to sadness dysregulated expression discrepancies. Overall, the findings suggest that patterns of discrepant reports are not random but rather may provide meaningful and useful information about the nature of emotion regulation.

  14. Central Hyperadrenergic State After Lightning Strike

    PubMed Central

    Parsaik, Ajay K.; Ahlskog, J. Eric; Singer, Wolfgang; Gelfman, Russell; Sheldon, Seth H.; Seime, Richard J.; Craft, Jennifer M.; Staab, Jeffrey P.; Kantor, Birgit; Low, Phillip A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe and review autonomic complications of lightning strike. Methods Case report and laboratory data including autonomic function tests in a subject who was struck by lightning. Results A 24-year-old man was struck by lightning. Following that, he developed dysautonomia, with persistent inappropriate sinus tachycardia and autonomic storms, as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and functional neurologic problems. Interpretation The combination of persistent sinus tachycardia and episodic exacerbations associated with hypertension, diaphoresis, and agitation were highly suggestive of a central hyperadrenergic state with superimposed autonomic storms. Whether the additional PTSD and functional neurologic deficits were due to a direct effect of the lightning strike on the CNS or a secondary response is open to speculation. PMID:23761114

  15. Costs of strikes between vulnerable missile forces

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-02-01

    This note derives the first and second strike magnitudes and costs for strikes between vulnerable missile forces with multiple warheads. The extension to mixes with invulnerable missiles is performed in a companion note. Stability increases as the number of weapons per missile is reduced. The optimal allocation of weapons between missiles and value is significant in predicting the stability impact of the reduction of the number of weapons per missile at large numbers of missiles, less significant in reducing the number of missiles for fixed weapons per missile. At low numbers of missiles, the stability indices for singlet and triplet configurations are comparable, as are the number of weapons each would deliver on value targets.

  16. Informative Disagreements: Associations Between Relationship Distress, Depression, and Discrepancy in Interpersonal Perception Within Couples.

    PubMed

    Knobloch-Fedders, Lynne M; Critchfield, Kenneth L; Staab, Erin M

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated the associations between relationship distress, depression symptoms, and discrepancy in interpersonal perception within couples. After completing a series of discussion tasks, couples (N = 88) rated their behavior using the circumplex-based Structural Analysis of Social Behavior Model (SASB; Benjamin, 1979, 1987, 2000). Overall, couple members were strikingly similar in their interpersonal perceptions, and tended to see themselves as friendly, reciprocal in their focus, and balanced between connection and separateness. As hypothesized, however, perceptual discrepancy was related to relationship distress and depression. Relationship distress was associated with discrepancy regarding transitive behavior focused on the partner, while depression was associated with disagreement about intransitive, self-focused behavior. Analysis of affiliation and autonomy revealed that relationship distress was associated with seeing oneself as reacting with more hostility than the partner sees, and perceiving one's partner as more hostile, more controlling, and less submissive than he or she does. Partners of depressed individuals viewed themselves as more controlling than their mate did. Men's depression was associated with disagreement between partners regarding men's self-focused behavior. Results underscore the importance of considering interpersonal perception when conceptualizing relationship distress and depression within intimate relationships. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  17. Systems tunnel linear shaped charge lightning strike

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    Simulated lightning strike testing of the systems tunnel linear shaped charge (LSC) was performed at the Thiokol Lightning Test Complex in Wendover, Utah, on 23 Jun. 1989. The test article consisted of a 160-in. section of the LSC enclosed within a section of the systems tunnel. The systems tunnel was bonded to a section of a solid rocket motor case. All test article components were full scale. The systems tunnel cover of the test article was subjected to three discharges (each discharge was over a different grounding strap) from the high-current generator. The LSC did not detonate. All three grounding straps debonded and violently struck the LSC through the openings in the systems tunnel floor plates. The LSC copper surface was discolored around the areas of grounding strap impact, and arcing occurred at the LSC clamps and LSC ends. This test verified that the present flight configuration of the redesigned solid rocket motor systems tunnel, when subjected to simulated lightning strikes with peak current levels within 71 percent of the worst-case lightning strike condition of NSTS-07636, is adequate to prevent LSC ignition. It is therefore recommended that the design remain unchanged.

  18. Preemptive Striking in Individual and Group Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Mifune, Nobuhiro; Hizen, Yoichi; Kamijo, Yoshio; Okano, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a laboratory experiment to assess preemptive striking by and towards individuals or groups. In the framework of a preemptive strike game, we set the following four conditions: one person faced another person, one person faced a three-person group, a three-person group faced an individual, and a three-person group faced another three-person group. Previous studies have revealed that greed is activated when participants belong to a group, while fear is activated when participants interact with a group, and further, that attacking behaviors in the preemptive strike game are driven by fear. These observations led to a hypothesis that high attack rates would be realized when participants interact with a group, regardless of whether the participants make decisions as individuals or a group. The results of our experiment, however, rejected this hypothesis. Among the four conditions, the attack rate was highest when a three-person group faced an individual. As possible reasons for our observation, we discuss the potential threat stemming from the imbalance in the effectiveness of attack between individuals and groups, and the (incorrect) belief by groups that single individuals would be more likely to attack out of fear. PMID:27148871

  19. Preemptive Striking in Individual and Group Conflict.

    PubMed

    Mifune, Nobuhiro; Hizen, Yoichi; Kamijo, Yoshio; Okano, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a laboratory experiment to assess preemptive striking by and towards individuals or groups. In the framework of a preemptive strike game, we set the following four conditions: one person faced another person, one person faced a three-person group, a three-person group faced an individual, and a three-person group faced another three-person group. Previous studies have revealed that greed is activated when participants belong to a group, while fear is activated when participants interact with a group, and further, that attacking behaviors in the preemptive strike game are driven by fear. These observations led to a hypothesis that high attack rates would be realized when participants interact with a group, regardless of whether the participants make decisions as individuals or a group. The results of our experiment, however, rejected this hypothesis. Among the four conditions, the attack rate was highest when a three-person group faced an individual. As possible reasons for our observation, we discuss the potential threat stemming from the imbalance in the effectiveness of attack between individuals and groups, and the (incorrect) belief by groups that single individuals would be more likely to attack out of fear.

  20. [Assistance in hunger strikes: legal guidelines].

    PubMed

    Gevers, J K

    2000-05-20

    Hunger strikes raise ethical and legal issues, in addition to societal and medical ones. The World Medical Association adopted resolutions in 1975 (Declaration of Tokyo) and 1991 (Declaration of Malta) in which respect for the decision to refuse food was confirmed. A survey of the relevant international and national standards shows that in the Netherlands law and policy are more supportive of respect for food refusal (and against forced feeding) than would seem to be the case at the international level. However, respect for the decision of the hunger striker requires that it is well-considered, informed, and free from group coercion. The existence of an unambiguous legal framework will not save the advising physician from difficult dilemmas which will in particular occur in case of a protracted hunger strike. In anticipation of expected loss of judgement capacities in protracted hunger strikers it is advisable that the wishes of the striker and the professional policy that the physician will adopt are written down. In case of hunger strike legal standards cannot fully replace psychological insight, professional ethics and conscience, however.

  1. Cultural estrangement: the role of personal and societal value discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Mark M; Gebauer, Jochen E; Maio, Gregory R

    2006-01-01

    Study 1 examined whether cultural estrangement arises from discrepancies between personal and societal values (e.g., freedom) rather than from discrepancies in attitudes toward political (e.g., censorship) or mundane (e.g., pizza) objects. The relations between different types of value discrepancies, estrangement, subjective well-being, and need for uniqueness also were examined. Results indicated that personal-societal discrepancies in values and political attitudes predicted estrangement, whereas mundane attitude discrepancies were not related to estrangement. As expected, value discrepancies were the most powerful predictor of estrangement. Value discrepancies were not related to subjective well-being but fulfilled a need for uniqueness. Study 2 replicated the relations between value discrepancies, subjective well-being, and need for uniqueness while showing that a self-report measure of participants' values and a peer-report measure of the participants' values yielded the same pattern of value discrepancies. Together, the studies reveal theoretical and empirical benefits of conceptualizing cultural estrangement in terms of value discrepancies.

  2. Prevalence and prediction of positive discrepancy creation: examining a discrepancy between two self-regulation theories.

    PubMed

    Phillips, J M; Hollenbeck, J R; Ilgen, D R

    1996-10-01

    The conflicting perspectives of control theory (CT) and self-efficacy theory (SET) concerning positive discrepancy creation (PDC) were tested and are discussed. According to CT, discrepancies between past performance and future goals are continually reduced. This is contrary to SET's focus on setting future goals higher than past performance levels. Participants performed several trials in a multitask environment, during which they did as many or as few problems as they chose on each of 4 intellectual tasks. Results suggest that PDC is not uncommon in a multitask environment, even after extensive task experience. Regression decomposition techniques identified 2 types of PDC: goal driven and performance driven. Need for achievement, instrumentality, and expectancy predicted the 2 types of PDC with varying success across the 4 tasks. The 2 types of PDC reflect the different theoretical approaches and these 2 self-regulation theories.

  3. Methods for Assessing Leg Length Discrepancy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ajay

    2008-01-01

    The use of accurate and reliable clinical and imaging modalities for quantifying leg-length discrepancy (LLD) is vital for planning appropriate treatment. While there are several methods for assessing LLD, we questioned how these compared. We therefore evaluated the reliability and accuracy of the different methods and explored the advantages and limitations of each method. Based on a systematic literature search, we identified 42 articles dealing with various assessment tools for measuring LLD. Clinical methods such as use of a tape measure and standing blocks were noted as useful screening tools, but not as accurate as imaging modalities. While several studies noted that the scanogram provided reliable measurements with minimal magnification, a full-length standing AP computed radiograph (teleoroentgenogram) is a more comprehensive assessment technique, with similar costs at less radiation exposure. We recommend use of a CT scanogram, especially the lateral scout view in patients with flexion deformities at the knee. Newer modalities such as MRI are promising but need further investigation before being routinely employed for assessment of LLD. Level of Evidence: Level IV, diagnostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18836788

  4. Acute transient hemiparesis induced by lightning strike.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Seyed Hesam; Faridaalaee, Gholamreza; Jahangard, Samira

    2015-07-01

    According to data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,in the years from 1959 to 1994, lightning was responsible for more than 3000 deaths and nearly 10,000 casualties. The most important characteristic features of lightning injuries are multisystem involvement and widely variable severity. Lightning strikes are primarily a neurologic injury that affects all 3 components of the nervous system: central, autonomic,and peripheral. Neurologic complications of lightning strikes vary from transient benign symptoms to permanent disability. Many patients experience a temporary paralysis called keraunoparalysis. Here we reported a 22-year-old mountaineer man with complaining of left sided hemiparesis after being hit by a lightning strike in the mountain 3 hours ago. There was no loss of consciousness at hitting time. On arrival the patient was alert, awake and hemodynamically stable. In neurologic examination cranial nerves were intact, left sided upper and lower extremity muscle force was I/V with a combination of complete sensory loss, and right-sided muscle force and sensory examination were normal. There is not any evidence of significant vascular impairment in the affected extremities. Brain MRI and CT scan and cervical MRI were normal. During 2 days of admission, with intravenous hydration, heparin 5000 unit SC q12hr and physical therapy of the affected limbs, motor and sensory function improved and was normal except mild paresthesia. He was discharged 1 day later for outpatient follow up while vitamin B1 100mg orally was prescribed.Paresthesia improved after 3 days without further sequels.

  5. Identifying discrepancies in electronic medical records through pharmacist medication reconciliation.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Autumn L; Lynch, Kevin J

    2012-01-01

    To describe the types and causes of medication discrepancies in the electronic medical record identified by pharmacist medication reconciliation during outpatient medical visits and to identify patient characteristics associated with the presence of discrepancies. Observational case series study. Indigent primary care clinic in Pittsburgh, PA, from April 2009 to May 2010. 219 adults presenting for follow-up medical visits and self-reporting medication use. Medication reconciliation as part of patient interview and concurrent chart review. Frequency, types, and reasons for medication discrepancies and demographic variables, patient knowledge, and adherence. Of 219 patients interviewed, 162 (74%) had at least one discrepancy. The most common type of discrepancy was an incorrect medication documented on the chart. The most common reasons included over-the-counter (OTC) use of medications and patients not reporting use of medications. The presence of one or more medication discrepancies was associated with the use of three or more medications. Patient factors such as gender, age, and race were not associated with discrepancies. Patients able to recall the strength for more than 75% of their medications had fewer discrepancies, while knowledge of the medication name, indication, or regimen had no association with discrepancies. Pharmacists play a critical role in identifying discrepancies between charted medication lists and self-reported medication use, independent of adherence. Inaccuracies in charted medications are frequent and often are related to use of OTC therapies and lack of communication and documentation during physician office visits. Knowledge of patient-related variables and other reasons for discrepancies may be useful in identifying patients at greatest risk for discrepancies and interventions to prevent and resolve them.

  6. Direct strike lightning measurement system. [for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    A research data system developed for in-flight measurement of direct and nearby lightning-strike characteristics is described. The measurement system consists of a wide-band analog recorder which records the continuous lightning scenario and fast sample-rate digital transient recorders with augmented memory capacity for increased time resolution of specific times of interest. Electromagnetic sensors with bandwidths exceeding 100 MHz are used which respond to rates of change of the quantities being measured. Data system immunity from electromagnetic interference is accomplished by the use of a dynamotor for power isolation, shielded system enclosure and fiber-optic data links.

  7. Lightning strike-induced brachial plexopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Amita N.; Kasundra, Gaurav M.; Khichar, Subhakaran; Bhushan, Bharat S. K.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a patient who presented with a history of lightning strike injury. Following the injury, he sustained acute right upper limb weakness with pain. Clinically, the lesion was located to the upper and middle trunk of the right brachial plexus, and the same confirmed with electrophysiological studies. Nerve damage due to lightning injuries is considered very rare, and a plexus damage has been described infrequently, if ever. Thus, the proposed hypothesis that lightning rarely causes neuropathy, as against high-voltage electric current, due to its shorter duration of exposure not causing severe burns which lead to nerve damage, needs to be reconsidered. PMID:25288846

  8. Lightning strike-induced brachial plexopathy.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Amita N; Kasundra, Gaurav M; Khichar, Subhakaran; Bhushan, Bharat S K

    2014-10-01

    We describe a patient who presented with a history of lightning strike injury. Following the injury, he sustained acute right upper limb weakness with pain. Clinically, the lesion was located to the upper and middle trunk of the right brachial plexus, and the same confirmed with electrophysiological studies. Nerve damage due to lightning injuries is considered very rare, and a plexus damage has been described infrequently, if ever. Thus, the proposed hypothesis that lightning rarely causes neuropathy, as against high-voltage electric current, due to its shorter duration of exposure not causing severe burns which lead to nerve damage, needs to be reconsidered.

  9. Suppression of strike-slip fault systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curren, I. S.

    2012-12-01

    In orogens elongated parallel to a great circle about the Euler pole for the two bounding plates, theory requires simple-shear deformation in the form of distributed deformation or velocity discontinuities across strike-slip faults. This type of deformation, however, does not develop at all plate boundaries requiring toroidal motion. Using the global plate boundary model, PB2002 [Bird, 2003], as the basis for identifying areas where expected simple-shear deformation is absent or underdeveloped, it was also possible to identify two potential causes for this behavior: (1) the presence of extensive fracturing at right angles to the shear plane and (2) regional cover of flood basalts or andesites with columnar joints. To test this hypothesis, a new plane-stress finite-strain model was developed to study the effects of such pre-existing structures on the development of simple shear in a clay cake. A homogenous kaolinite-water mixture was poured into a deforming parallelogram box and partially dried to allow for brittle and plastic deformation at and below the surface of the clay, respectively. This was floated on a dense fluid foundation, effectively removing basal friction, and driven by a motor in a sinistral direction from the sides of the box. Control experiments produced classic Riedel model fault assemblages and discrete, through-going primary deformation zones (PDZs); experiments with pre-existing structures developed the same, though subdued and distributed, fault assemblages but did not develop through-going PDZs. Although formation of strike-slip faults was underdeveloped at the surface in clay with pre-existing structures, offset within the clay cake (measured, with respect to a fixed point, by markers on the clay surface) as a fraction of total offset of the box was consistently larger than that of the control experiments. This suggests that while the extent of surface faulting was lessened in clay with pre-existing structures, slip was still occurring at

  10. Discrepancies Between Prescribed and Actual Pediatric Home Parenteral Nutrition Solutions.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Bram P; Murphy, Margaret; Gura, Kathleen M; Litman, Heather; Dalton, Meghan K; Finkelstein, Jonathan A; Lightdale, Jenifer R

    2016-10-01

    Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is increasingly prescribed for pediatric patients with complex medical conditions. Commercial vendors are widely available to compound HPN. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of discrepancies between written HPN prescriptions and commercially compounded solutions, as well as to record the associated severity of harm from discrepancies. From January to April 2013, 2 clinical pharmacists independently and prospectively reconciled HPN compounding records with electronic prescriptions (gold standard) during all routine ambulatory encounters to a multidisciplinary HPN program. Types, severity, and causes of discrepancies were recorded. Sixty-one unique patients were identified for inclusion during 117 visits. HPN solutions were compounded at 13 unique vendors across 14 states. Of all 100 compounding records, 46 (46%) contained at least 1 discrepancy, with a total of 60 discrepancies identified, affecting 34 of 61 (56%) patients. There was at least 1 discrepancy in solutions originating from 10 of 13 (77%) home infusion companies. Discrepancies were classified as Medication Error Reporting and Prevention levels C (n = 37) and D (n = 23; ie, all reaching patient but not causing harm). We found an alarmingly high rate of preparation discrepancies in a cohort of pediatric patients receiving HPN. Routine reconciliation of HPN compounds with intended prescriptions may be critical for ambulatory patients receiving this high-risk therapy. While home infusion commercial vendors provide an indispensable function, discrepancies and errors with potential for harm may be more common than previously appreciated. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  11. Neurological complications of prolonged hunger strike.

    PubMed

    Başoğlu, M; Yetimalar, Y; Gürgör, N; Büyükçatalbaş, S; Kurt, T; Seçil, Y; Yeniocak, A

    2006-10-01

    We investigated neurological findings in 41 prisoners (mean age: 28.6) who participated in a hunger strike between 2000 and 2002. All cases were evaluated using neuropsychological, neuroradiological, and electrophysiological methods. The total duration of fasting ranged from 130 to 324 days (mean 199 days). All cases had 200-600 mg/day thiamine orally for 60-294 days (mean 156) during the hunger strike, and had neurological findings consistent with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. All 41 patients exhibited altered consciousness which lasted from 3 to 31 days. All patients also presented gaze-evoked horizontal nystagmus and truncal ataxia. Paralysis of lateral rectus muscles was found in 14. Amnesia was apparent in all cases. Abnormal nerve conduction study parameters were not found in the patient group, but the amplitude of compound muscle action potential of the median and fibular nerves and sensory nerve action potential amplitude of the sural nerve were lower than the control group, and distal motor latency of the posterior tibial nerve was significantly prolonged as compared with the control group. The latency of visual evoked potential was prolonged in 22 cases. Somatosensory evoked potential (P37) was prolonged but not statistically significant. Our most significant finding was that the effect of hunger was more prominent on the central nervous system than on the neuromuscular system, despite the fact that all patients were taking thiamine. In our opinion, partial recovery of neurological, and neurocognitive signs in prolonged hunger could be a result of permanent neurological injury.

  12. Temporary epiphyseodesis for limb-length discrepancy

    PubMed Central

    Siedhoff, Markus; Ridderbusch, Karsten; Breyer, Sandra; Stücker, Ralf; Rupprecht, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose — For the treatment of leg-length discrepancies (LLDs) of between 2 and 5 cm in adolescent patients, several epiphyseodesis options exist and various complications have been reported. We reviewed the 8- to 15-year outcome after temporary epiphyseodesis in patients with LLD. Patients and methods — 34 children with LLD of up to 5 cm were included in the study. Mean age at epiphyseodesis was 12.8 (10–16) years. Temporary epiphyseodesis was performed with Blount staples or 8-plates. The LLD was reviewed preoperatively, at the time of implant removal, and at follow-up. Every child had reached skeletal maturity at follow-up. Long-standing anteroposterior radiographs were analyzed with respect to the mechanical axis and remaining LLD at the time of follow-up. Possible complications were noted. Results — The mean LLD changed from 2.3 (0.9–4.5) cm to 0.8 (–1.0 to 2.6) cm at follow-up (p < 0.001). 21 patients had a final LLD of < 1 cm, and 10 had LLD of < 0.5 cm. At the time of follow-up, in 32 patients the mechanical axis crossed within Steven’s zone 1. No deep infections or neurovascular lesions were seen. 4 implant failures occurred, which were managed by revision. Interpretation — Temporary epiphyseodesis is an effective and safe option for the treatment of LLD. The timing of the procedure has to be chosen according to the remaining growth, facilitating a full correction of the LLD. If inaccurate placement of staples is avoided, substantial differences between the mechanical axes of both legs at skeletal maturity are rare. PMID:25191935

  13. Properties of Lightning Strike Protection Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, Martin

    Composite materials are being increasingly used by many industries. In the case of aerospace companies, those materials are installed on their aircraft to save weight, and thus, fuel costs. These aircraft are lighter, but the loss of electrical conductivity makes aircraft vulnerable to lightning strikes, which hit commercial aircrafts on average once per year. This makes lightning strike protection very important, and while current metallic expanded copper foils offer good protection, they increase the weight of composites. Therefore, under the CRIAQ COMP-502 project, a team of industrial partners and academic researchers are investigating new conductive coatings with the following characteristics: High electromagnetic protection, high mechanical resistance, good environmental protection, manufacturability and moderate cost. The main objectives of this thesis, as part of this project, was to determine the main characteristics, such as electrical and tribomechanical properties, of conductive coatings on composite panels. Their properties were also to be tested after destructive tests such as current injection and environmental testing. Bombardier Aerospace provided the substrate, a composite of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy matrix, and the current commercial product, a surfacing film that includes an expanded copper foil used to compare with the other coatings. The conductive coatings fabricated by the students are: silver nanoparticles inside a binding matrix (PEDOT:PSS or a mix of Epoxy and PEDOT:PSS), silvered carbon nanofibers embedded in the surfacing film, cold sprayed tin, graphene oxide functionalized with silver nanowires, and electroless plated silver. Additionally as part of the project and thesis, magnetron sputtered aluminum coated samples were fabricated. There are three main types of tests to characterize the conductive coatings: electrical, mechanical and environmental. Electrical tests consist of finding the sheet resistance and specific resistivity

  14. Principles Governing the Mechanics and Control of Snake Strikes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-26

    during a cantil strike along the snake (vertical axis) over time (horizontal axis). D) Body curvature during an Amazon tree boa strike. E) Forward...employing high forces and powers to achieve spectacular accelerations and velocities of all or part of the animal’s body. The strikes of snakes are one of... Snakes must rapidly accelerate a large fraction of their body mass using an extremely complex musculo-skeletal system in order to accurately strike a

  15. 20 CFR 345.402 - Strikes or work stoppages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Strikes or work stoppages. 345.402 Section... INSURANCE ACT EMPLOYERS' CONTRIBUTIONS AND CONTRIBUTION REPORTS Benefit Charging § 345.402 Strikes or work stoppages. If benefits are payable to an employee for days of unemployment resulting from a strike or work...

  16. 41 CFR 101-26.803-1 - Reporting discrepancies or deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Billings § 101-26.803-1 Reporting discrepancies or deficiencies. Discrepancies or deficiencies in shipments..., transportation discrepancies, and billing discrepancies. When discrepancies or deficiencies occur, activities... publication, Discrepancies or Deficiencies in GSA or DOD Shipments, Material, or Billings, issued by...

  17. 41 CFR 101-26.803-1 - Reporting discrepancies or deficiencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Billings § 101-26.803-1 Reporting discrepancies or deficiencies. Discrepancies or deficiencies in shipments..., transportation discrepancies, and billing discrepancies. When discrepancies or deficiencies occur, activities... publication, Discrepancies or Deficiencies in GSA or DOD Shipments, Material, or Billings, issued by...

  18. Discrepancies between L2 Teacher and L2 Learner Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabillon, Zehra

    2012-01-01

    This state of the art article overviews the literature on discrepancies between foreign language teacher and learner beliefs. In the first section, the author draws the reader's attention to the significance of discrepancies between the L2 teacher and L2 learner perceptions and provides a synopsis of both practical-anecdotal and empirical evidence…

  19. Role of Discrepant Questioning Leading to Model Element Modification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rea-Ramirez, Mary Anne; Nunez-Oviedo, Maria Cecilia; Clement, John

    2009-01-01

    Discrepant questioning is a teaching technique that can help students "unlearn" misconceptions and process science ideas for deep understanding. Discrepant questioning is a technique in which teachers question students in a way that requires them to examine their ideas or models, without giving information prematurely to the student or passing…

  20. Discrepancy Score Reliabilities in the WAIS-IV Standardization Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Laura A.; Ryan, Joseph J.; Charter, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    In the present investigation, the authors provide internal consistency reliabilities for Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtest and Index discrepancy scores using the standardization sample as the data source. Reliabilities ranged from 0.55 to 0.88 for subtest discrepancy scores and 0.80 to 0.91 for Index discrepancy…

  1. 41 CFR 128-50.103 - Investigation of any discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investigation of any discrepancy. 128-50.103 Section 128-50.103 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Care of Seized Personal Property § 128-50.103 Investigation of any discrepancy. (a) Upon discovery...

  2. A Discrepancy-Based Methodology for Nuclear Training Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Jeffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    A three-phase comprehensive process for commercial nuclear power training program evaluation is presented. The discrepancy-based methodology was developed after the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident. It facilitates analysis of program components to identify discrepancies among program specifications, actual outcomes, and industry…

  3. A Discrepancy-Based Methodology for Nuclear Training Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Jeffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    A three-phase comprehensive process for commercial nuclear power training program evaluation is presented. The discrepancy-based methodology was developed after the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident. It facilitates analysis of program components to identify discrepancies among program specifications, actual outcomes, and industry…

  4. Role of Discrepant Questioning Leading to Model Element Modification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rea-Ramirez, Mary Anne; Nunez-Oviedo, Maria Cecilia; Clement, John

    2009-01-01

    Discrepant questioning is a teaching technique that can help students "unlearn" misconceptions and process science ideas for deep understanding. Discrepant questioning is a technique in which teachers question students in a way that requires them to examine their ideas or models, without giving information prematurely to the student or passing…

  5. Discrepancy Score Reliabilities in the WAIS-IV Standardization Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Laura A.; Ryan, Joseph J.; Charter, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    In the present investigation, the authors provide internal consistency reliabilities for Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtest and Index discrepancy scores using the standardization sample as the data source. Reliabilities ranged from 0.55 to 0.88 for subtest discrepancy scores and 0.80 to 0.91 for Index discrepancy…

  6. Discrepancies in Parents' and Children's Reports of Child Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hourigan, Shannon E.; Goodman, Kimberly L.; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to regulate one's emotions effectively has been linked with many aspects of well-being. The current study examined discrepancies between mothers' and children's reports of child emotion regulation. This investigation examined patterns of discrepancies for key aspects of emotion regulation (i.e., inhibition and dysregulated expression)…

  7. Lightning-strike disaster among children.

    PubMed

    Dollinger, S J

    1985-12-01

    Thirty-eight children playing or observing a soccer game were the victims of a lightning strike which killed one other child. Interviews with the children and their families documented a number of emotional effects of this disaster, chiefly situational adjustment reactions. The most common reactions involved anxiety, particularly at times of storms. However, the most severely upset children exhibited sleep disturbances, separation anxiety, and nocturnal enuresis. One of two side-flash victims experienced depression for several months; the other experienced no significant emotional upset. Both suffered medical complications and had no memory for the incident. While all children reached at follow-up were doing quite well, those who were most upset by the incident were more likely to refuse to play soccer during the follow-up interval. Stories told to pictures of lightning revealed projections of the children's emotional upset, various defensive reactions to the incident and an increased sense of subjective probability for lightning injuries.

  8. Charon and Pluto: Strikingly Different Worlds

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-01

    A composite of enhanced color images of Pluto (lower right) and Charon (upper left), taken by NASA's New Horizons spacecraft as it passed through the Pluto system on July 14, 2015. This image highlights the striking differences between Pluto and Charon. The color and brightness of both Pluto and Charon have been processed identically to allow direct comparison of their surface properties, and to highlight the similarity between Charon's polar red terrain and Pluto's equatorial red terrain. Pluto and Charon are shown with approximately correct relative sizes, but their true separation is not to scale. The image combines blue, red and infrared images taken by the spacecraft's Ralph/Multispectral Visual Imaging Camera (MVIC). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19966

  9. Strike Point Control for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    SciTech Connect

    Kolemen, E.; Gates, D. A.; Rowley, C. W.; Kasdin, N. J.; Kallman, J.; Gerhardt, S.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Mueller, D.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents the first control algorithm for the inner and outer strike point position for a Spherical Torus (ST) fusion experiment and the performance analysis of the controller. A liquid lithium divertor (LLD) will be installed on NSTX which is believed to provide better pumping than lithium coatings on carbon PFCs. The shape of the plasma dictates the pumping rate of the lithium by channeling the plasma to LLD, where strike point location is the most important shape parameter. Simulations show that the density reduction depends on the proximity of strike point to LLD. Experiments were performed to study the dynamics of the strike point, design a new controller to change the location of the strike point to desired location and stabilize it. The most effective PF coils in changing inner and outer strike points were identified using equilibrium code. The PF coil inputs were changed in a step fashion between various set points and the step response of the strike point position was obtained. From the analysis of the step responses, PID controllers for the strike points were obtained and the controller was tuned experimentally for better performance. The strike controller was extended to include the outer-strike point on the inner plate to accommodate the desired low outer-strike points for the experiment with the aim of achieving "snowflake" divertor configuration in NSTX.

  10. Searching Evidences of Stroke in Animal Models: A Review of Discrepancies A Review of Discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Ahmet Hilmi; Erdogan, Hakan; Tasdemiroglu, Erol

    2017-01-01

    So far, animal models have helped us better understand the pathophysiology of the ischemic brain damage but they could not contribute so much to clinical practice. The discrepancies in results regarding neuroprotective agents in animal experiments compared to clinical trials have not been solved. Various animal models of ischemic stroke have proven efficacy of many neuroprotective agents without any considerable result in phase III clinical trials. As is well known, stroke-related focal cerebral ischemia or cardiac arrest related global cerebral ischemia are major causes of disability and death among human subjects. Animal models are essential to evaluate the therapeutic approaches for humans. In this review, we will try to answer two important questions: 1) Which factors endanger the reliability of experimental studies of stroke on animal models? 2) How can we design our experiments to reflect the neurorestoration and/or neuroprotection mechanisms following ischemic injury, when it comes to human disease?

  11. The Seesaw Technique for Correction of Vertical Alar Discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Sang Min; Medikeri, Gaurav Shankar; Jung, Dong-Hak

    2015-09-01

    Alar vertical discrepancy including alar base has been viewed as one of the most challenging reconstructive problems in rhinoplasty. The authors have created a simple technique that consistently gives aesthetically acceptable results. The authors have designed the seesaw technique to correct alar discrepancy (type 1 to 3). Type 1 has been used in 14 patients, type 2 has been used in three patients, and type 3 has been used in seven patients. Alar discrepancy was corrected satisfactorily in all cases, with good cosmetic outcome. One case required scar revision and another case required revision for overcorrection; satisfactory results were ultimately achieved in both cases. This new technique is quite easy to design and is effective in the correction of alar discrepancy. It yields good postoperative results along with satisfactory aesthetic outcomes.

  12. Anxiety, self-discrepancy, and regulatory focus theory: acculturation matters.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Cheri A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L

    2013-03-01

    Previous research has found that Asians (vs. Caucasians) exhibit higher levels of ought and undesired self-discrepancies and prevention focus, all of which have been linked with anxiety. We examined these ethnic differences in the context of acculturation. Participants (N=155) completed two sessions scheduled a week apart. In Session 1, participants completed a computer task to measure self-discrepancy and prevention focus. In Session 2, participants' ought self-discrepancies and closeness to an undesired self were primed. Moderation analyses indicated that Asian participants who were highly assimilated to an Asian culture exhibited higher levels of a prevention focus. Acculturation also had significant moderation effects for affect when self-discrepancies were primed. Our results suggest that interventions based on these systems (i.e., self-system therapy) should consider acculturation when treating diverse individuals.

  13. Path discrepancies between great circle and rhumb line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Rajan

    1987-01-01

    A simulation of a mathematical model to compute path discrepancies between great circle and rhumb line flight paths is presented. The model illustrates that the path errors depend on the latitude, the bearing, and the trip length of the flight.

  14. Isospin Breaking in the Goldberger-Treiman Discrepancies

    SciTech Connect

    Jose Goity; Jordi Saez

    2002-09-01

    Effects of isospin breaking at the level of the Goldberger-Treiman discrepancies involving the neutral isotriplet axial and pion-nucleon couplings are analyzed to leading non-trivial order in chiral perturbation theory.

  15. Entropy discrepancy and total derivatives in trace anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astaneh, Amin Faraji; Patrushev, Alexander; Solodukhin, Sergey N.

    2015-12-01

    In this note we address the discrepancy found by Hung, Myers and Smolkin between the holographic calculation of entanglement entropy (using the Jacobson-Myers functional for the holographic minimal surface) and the CFT trace anomaly calculation if one uses the Wald prescription to compute the entropy in six dimensions. As anticipated in our previous work [1] the discrepancy originates entirely from a total derivative term present in the trace anomaly in six dimensions.

  16. Computational investigations of low-discrepancy point sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warnock, T. T.

    1971-01-01

    The quasi-Monte Carlo method of integration offers an attractive solution to the problem of evaluating integrals in a large number of dimensions; however, the associated error bounds are difficult to obtain theoretically. Since these bounds are associated with the L2 discrepancy of the set of points used in the integration. Numerical calculations of the L2 discrepancy for several types of quasi-Monte Carlo formulae are presented.

  17. Discrepancies between Radar Data and the Lunar Ephemeris.

    PubMed

    Smith, C R; Pettengill, G H; Shapiro, I I; Weinstein, F S

    1968-05-24

    Precise measurements of the Doppler shift of radar waves reflected from Moon disclose unexpectedly large discrepancies-averaging about 0.6 centimeter per second-between the radial velocities and the predictions based on the Eckert-Brown lunar ephemeris. These residuals have a rapidly changing component corresponding to a relatively large, variable, and unexplained discrepancy in radial acceleration of about 10(-4) centimeter per second, per second, in magnitude and about 1 day in period.

  18. Multiple constraints in inverse problems: The importance of model discrepancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wutzler, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In model-data integration it is important to acknowledge model discrepancy, the difference between the process underlying the observations and the prediction of a calibrated model. This becomes especially important when using multiple data streams that strongly differ in their number of records. By using a basic example we illustrate that without precautions, posterior uncertainty is underestimated and parameters are adjusted so that model predictions match the richest data stream, i.e the stream with most records. Model discrepancy is preferentially allocated to sparse data streams. This impedes both, the inference about the model parameters, and the identification of process formulations that need to be improved. Here we show that explicitly modelling discrepancies by Gaussian processes (GP) is a natural approach of penalizing those discrepancies in a balanced way across imbalanced data streams. The GP-approach correctly attributed the discrepancy to the rich data stream in a basic example. We present an model-data-integration of the DALEC terrestrial biogeochemical model with 10 year of observations of NEE, respiration and litter fall at the Howland forest site. The GP approach balances model discrepancy across multiple data streams. Its allows improved inference on model parameters and model processes.

  19. The 1983 direct strike lightning data, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Mitchel E.

    1985-01-01

    Data waveforms are presented which were obtained during the 1983 direct strike lightning tests utilizing the NASA F106-B aircraft specially instrumented for lightning electromagnetic measurements. The aircraft was operated in the vicinity of the NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, in a thunderstorm environment to elicit strikes. Electromagnetic field data and conduction currents on the aircraft were recorded for attached lightning. Part 1 contains 435 pages of lightning strike data in chart form.

  20. The effect of hand dominance on martial arts strikes.

    PubMed

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Silva, Jansen Henrique; Marzullo, Ana Carolina de Miranda; Bolander, Richard P; Bir, Cynthia A

    2012-08-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare dominant and non-dominant martial arts palm strikes under different circumstances that usually happen during martial arts and combative sports applications. Seven highly experienced (10±5 years) right hand dominant Kung Fu practitioners performed strikes with both hands, stances with left or right lead legs, and with the possibility or not of stepping towards the target (moving stance). Peak force was greater for the dominant hand strikes (1593.76±703.45 N vs. 1042.28±374.16 N; p<.001), whereas no difference was found in accuracy between the hands (p=.141). Additionally, peak force was greater for the strikes with moving stance (1448.75±686.01 N vs. 1201.80±547.98 N; p=.002) and left lead leg stance (1378.06±705.48 N vs. 1269.96±547.08 N). Furthermore, the difference in peak force between strikes with moving and stationary stances was statistically significant only for the strikes performed with a left lead leg stance (p=.007). Hand speed was higher for the dominant hand strikes (5.82±1.08 m/s vs. 5.24±0.78 m/s; p=.001) and for the strikes with moving stance (5.79±1.01 m/s vs. 5.29±0.90 m/s; p<.001). The difference in hand speed between right and left hand strikes was only significant for strikes with moving stance. In summary, our results suggest that the stronger palm strike for a right-handed practitioner is a right hand strike on a left lead leg stance moving towards the target.

  1. THE EFFECT OF HAND DOMINANCE ON MARTIAL ARTS STRIKES

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Silva, Jansen Henrique; de Miranda Marzullo, Ana Carolina; Bolander, Richard P.; Bir, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare dominant and non-dominant martial arts palm strikes under different circumstances that usually happen during martial arts and combative sports applications. Seven highly experienced (10 ± 5 years) right hand dominant Kung Fu practitioners performed strikes with both hands, stances with left or right lead legs, and with the possibility or not of stepping towards the target (moving stance). Peak force was greater for the dominant hand strikes (1593.76 ± 703.45 N vs. 1042.28 ± 374.16 N; p < .001), whereas no difference was found in accuracy between the hands (p = .141). Additionally, peak force was greater for the strikes with moving stance (1448.75 ± 686.01 N vs. 1201.80 ± 547.98 N; p = .002) and left lead leg stance (1378.06 ± 705.48 N vs.1269.96 ± 547.08 N). Furthermore, the difference in peak force between strikes with moving and stationary stances was statistically significant only for the strikes performed with a left lead leg stance (p = .007). Hand speed was higher for the dominant hand strikes (5.82 ± 1.08 m/s vs. 5.24 ± 0.78 m/s; p = 0.001) and for the strikes with moving stance (5.79 ± 1.01 m/s vs. 5.29 ± 0.90 m/s; p < .001). The difference in hand speed between right and left hand strikes was only significant for strikes with moving stance. In summary, our results suggest that the stronger palm strike for a right-handed practitioner is a right hand strike on a left lead leg stance moving towards the target. PMID:22047701

  2. "Thunderstruck": penetrating thoracic injury from lightning strike.

    PubMed

    van Waes, Oscar J F; van de Woestijne, Pieter C; Halm, Jens A

    2014-04-01

    Lightning strike victims are rarely presented at an emergency department. Burns are often the primary focus. This case report describes the improvised explosive device like-injury to the thorax due to lightning strike and its treatment, which has not been described prior in (kerauno)medicine. Penetrating injury due to blast from lightning strike is extremely rare. These "shrapnel" injuries should however be ruled out in all patients struck by lightning.

  3. The 1983 direct strike lightning data, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Mitchel E.

    1985-01-01

    Data waveforms are presented which were obtained during the 1983 direct strike lightning tests utilizing the NASA F106-B aircraft specially instrumented for lightning electromagnetic measurements. The aircraft was operated in the vicinity of the NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, in a thunderstorm environment to elicit strikes. Electromagnetic field data and conduction currents on the aircraft were recorded for attached lightning. Part 2 contains 443 pages of lightning strike data in chart form.

  4. Lightning strike: a rare cause of bilateral ossicular disruption.

    PubMed

    Offiah, C; Heran, M; Graeb, D

    2007-05-01

    Otologic injury associated with fatal and nonfatal lightning strikes has been sporadically reported in the literature. The most common acoustic insult is a conductive hearing loss secondary to rupture of the tympanic membrane. Although conjecture has been made of the theoretic possibility of ossicular injury from lightning strike, to our knowledge, none has been demonstrated intraoperatively or postmortem. We report the first documented case of ossicular disruption in a lightning-strike victim.

  5. Maximizing Strike Planning Efficiency for a Given Class of Targets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    at the same time. In general, the aircraft attack target groups and the target groups contain several single targets. In this research, it is assumed...that every strike package attacks a 4 single target in a target group and returns to base. Therefore, aircraft do not carry different types of weapons...However, different strike packages from different bases can be assigned to a target group containing several single targets where each strike package may

  6. A decade of U.S. Air Force bat strikes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peurach, Suzanne C.; Dove, Carla J.; Stepko, Laura

    2009-01-01

    From 1997 through 2007, 821 bat strikes were reported to the U.S. Air Force (USAF) Safety Center by aircraft personnel or ground crew and sent to the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, for identification. Many samples were identified by macroscopic and or microscopic comparisons with bat specimens housed in the museum and augmented during the last 2 years by DNA analysis. Bat remains from USAF strikes during this period were received at the museum from 40 states in the United States and from 20 countries. We confirmed that 46% of the strikes were caused by bats, but we did not identify them further; we identified 5% only to the family or genus level, and 49% to the species level. Fifty-five of the 101 bat-strike samples submitted for DNA analysis have been identified to the species level. Twenty-five bat species have been recorded striking USAF planes worldwide. The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis; n = 173) is the species most commonly identified in USAF strike impacts, followed by the red bat (Lasiurus borealis; n = 83). Bat strikes peak during the spring and fall, with >57% occurring from August through October; 82% of the reports that included time of strike were recorded between 2100 and 0900 hours. More than 12% of the bat strikes were reported at >300 m above ground level (AGL). Although <1% of the bat-strike reports indicated damage to USAF aircraft, cumulative damage for 1997 through 2007 totaled >$825,000 and >50% of this sum was attributable to 5 bat-strike incidents. Only 5 bats from the 10 most damaging bat strikes were identified to the species level, either because we did not receive remains with the reports or the sample was insufficient for identification.

  7. Debunking the viper's strike: harmless snakes kill a common assumption

    PubMed Central

    Sawvel, Baxter; Moon, Brad R.

    2016-01-01

    To survive, organisms must avoid predation and acquire nutrients and energy. Sensory systems must correctly differentiate between potential predators and prey, and elicit behaviours that adjust distances accordingly. For snakes, strikes can serve both purposes. Vipers are thought to have the fastest strikes among snakes. However, strike performance has been measured in very few species, especially non-vipers. We measured defensive strike performance in harmless Texas ratsnakes and two species of vipers, western cottonmouths and western diamond-backed rattlesnakes, using high-speed video recordings. We show that ratsnake strike performance matches or exceeds that of vipers. In contrast with the literature over the past century, vipers do not represent the pinnacle of strike performance in snakes. Both harmless and venomous snakes can strike with very high accelerations that have two key consequences: the accelerations exceed values that can cause loss of consciousness in other animals, such as the accelerations experienced by jet pilots during extreme manoeuvres, and they make the strikes faster than the sensory and motor responses of mammalian prey and predators. Both harmless and venomous snakes can strike faster than the blink of an eye and often reach a target before it can move. PMID:26979562

  8. [Lightning strike to a vehicle causing acute acoustic trauma].

    PubMed

    Angerer, F; Hoppe, U; Schick, B

    2009-10-01

    The cochlea and vestibular organ is often affected in lightning strikes. A lightning strike to a motor vehicle with cochlear injury has not been described hitherto in the literature. We report the case of a 44-year-old male patient with sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus after his car was struck by lightning. While hearing loss recovered using intravenous therapy, tinnitus persisted 6 months after the lightning strike. Cochlear injuries as an acute acoustic trauma have to be considered in lightning strikes and can occur when a car is struck by lightning.

  9. Manifestations of Strike-Slip Faulting on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeRemer, Lindsay C.; Pappalardo, Robert T.

    2003-01-01

    Voyager images of Ganymede suggested that strike-slip faulting may have taken place [1, 2], but the role of this process in shaping grooved terrain was uncertain. In Galileo high-resolution images of Ganymede's surface, we recognize three signature features of strike-slip faulting: (1) en echelon structures, (2) strike-slip duplexes, and (3) offset preexisting features. We have undertaken a study to recognize and map these features, and identify any morphological progressions of strike-slip features. This will allow a better understanding of the structural history of Ganymede, and the formation and evolution of grooved terrain.

  10. Debunking the viper's strike: harmless snakes kill a common assumption.

    PubMed

    Penning, David A; Sawvel, Baxter; Moon, Brad R

    2016-03-01

    To survive, organisms must avoid predation and acquire nutrients and energy. Sensory systems must correctly differentiate between potential predators and prey, and elicit behaviours that adjust distances accordingly. For snakes, strikes can serve both purposes. Vipers are thought to have the fastest strikes among snakes. However, strike performance has been measured in very few species, especially non-vipers. We measured defensive strike performance in harmless Texas ratsnakes and two species of vipers, western cottonmouths and western diamond-backed rattlesnakes, using high-speed video recordings. We show that ratsnake strike performance matches or exceeds that of vipers. In contrast with the literature over the past century, vipers do not represent the pinnacle of strike performance in snakes. Both harmless and venomous snakes can strike with very high accelerations that have two key consequences: the accelerations exceed values that can cause loss of consciousness in other animals, such as the accelerations experienced by jet pilots during extreme manoeuvres, and they make the strikes faster than the sensory and motor responses of mammalian prey and predators. Both harmless and venomous snakes can strike faster than the blink of an eye and often reach a target before it can move. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Gratifications Lost: The 1985 Philadelphia Newspaper Strike and Media Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, William R.; Rosenberg, William L.

    A study examined the relationship between newspaper gratifications sought and media use during and after a 1985 strike by unions of two Philadelphia newspapers, and the compensatory media behaviors, if any, people adopted to make up for the loss of their daily newspaper(s). It was hypothesized that during the strike, people would read more…

  12. Strategic strike management helps hospital to carry on.

    PubMed

    Huber, G A; Forsythe, R J

    1979-05-01

    During a strike, a hospital's administration has the responsibility for minimizing disruption of patient care. Preparation for a strike should include development of a contingency plan whereby additional duties are assigned equitably among staff members, lines of communication are reinforced, and services are shared with neighboring hospitals.

  13. Targeted Strikes in the "Global War on Terror"

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-18

    therefore, a valid military target. 21Anthony Dworkin , "The Yemen Strike: The War On Terrorism Goes Global,ൖ November 2002, Global Policy Forum...belligerent" subject to prosecution for war crimes (i.e., murder)? Anthony Dworkin , "The Yemen Strike: The War On Terrorism Goes Global,ൖ November

  14. Desperate Measures: Strikes and Wages in Post-Accord America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Jake

    2006-01-01

    Using previously unreleased data on nearly every authorized work stoppage that occurred between 1984 and 2002, this paper tests whether the positive wage-strike relationship held following the breakdown of the post-war labor-capital accord. Unlike in decades past, these findings indicate a complete decoupling of the wage-strike relationship. Even…

  15. Martial arts striking hand peak acceleration, accuracy and consistency.

    PubMed

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Marzullo, Ana Carolina De Miranda; Bolander, Richard P; Bir, Cynthia A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to investigate the possible trade-off between peak hand acceleration and accuracy and consistency of hand strikes performed by martial artists of different training experiences. Ten male martial artists with training experience ranging from one to nine years volunteered to participate in the experiment. Each participant performed 12 maximum effort goal-directed strikes. Hand acceleration during the strikes was obtained using a tri-axial accelerometer block. A pressure sensor matrix was used to determine the accuracy and consistency of the strikes. Accuracy was estimated by the radial distance between the centroid of each subject's 12 strikes and the target, whereas consistency was estimated by the square root of the 12 strikes mean squared distance from their centroid. We found that training experience was significantly correlated to hand peak acceleration prior to impact (r(2)=0.456, p =0.032) and accuracy (r(2)=0. 621, p=0.012). These correlations suggest that more experienced participants exhibited higher hand peak accelerations and at the same time were more accurate. Training experience, however, was not correlated to consistency (r(2)=0.085, p=0.413). Overall, our results suggest that martial arts training may lead practitioners to achieve higher striking hand accelerations with better accuracy and no change in striking consistency.

  16. Reporting the Great Railroad Strike: How Ideology Shaped the News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coward, John

    The Great Railroad Strike of 1877, a national catastrophe and the major news story of the year, was the first national labor strike in U.S. history. Because of the ideological bias of the press, specifically its implicit commitment to capitalism and to objectivity (itself a "myth" of social order), newspapers of the period could be…

  17. 14 CFR 25.631 - Bird strike damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bird strike damage. 25.631 Section 25.631... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction General § 25.631 Bird strike damage. The... airplane after impact with an 8-pound bird when the velocity of the airplane (relative to the bird along...

  18. 14 CFR 25.631 - Bird strike damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bird strike damage. 25.631 Section 25.631... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction General § 25.631 Bird strike damage. The... airplane after impact with an 8-pound bird when the velocity of the airplane (relative to the bird along...

  19. 14 CFR 25.631 - Bird strike damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bird strike damage. 25.631 Section 25.631... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction General § 25.631 Bird strike damage. The... airplane after impact with an 8-pound bird when the velocity of the airplane (relative to the bird along...

  20. 14 CFR 25.631 - Bird strike damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bird strike damage. 25.631 Section 25.631... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction General § 25.631 Bird strike damage. The... airplane after impact with an 8-pound bird when the velocity of the airplane (relative to the bird along...

  1. 14 CFR 25.631 - Bird strike damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bird strike damage. 25.631 Section 25.631... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction General § 25.631 Bird strike damage. The... airplane after impact with an 8-pound bird when the velocity of the airplane (relative to the bird along...

  2. Gratifications Lost: The 1985 Philadelphia Newspaper Strike and Media Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, William R.; Rosenberg, William L.

    A study examined the relationship between newspaper gratifications sought and media use during and after a 1985 strike by unions of two Philadelphia newspapers, and the compensatory media behaviors, if any, people adopted to make up for the loss of their daily newspaper(s). It was hypothesized that during the strike, people would read more…

  3. Direct Seafloor Imaging of the 2012 Wharton Basin Great Strike-slip Earthquakes rupture zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. C.; Hananto, N.; Leclerc, F.; Wei, S.; Carton, H. D.; Tapponnier, P.; Sieh, K.; Qin, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The 2012 Wharton Basin earthquakes (Mw=8.6 and Mw=8.2) were the largest intra-plate strike-slip earthquakes ever recorded. Based on seismological and geodetic studies, different, and partly contradictory, models have been proposed for the fault geometry requiring a complex faulting mechanism with several faults, oblique to one-another. These earthquakes occurred in the Wharton Basin, which is considered to be a broad diffuse zone of intra-plate deformation with deformation taking place along re-activated N5ºE striking fracture zones, which was inconsistent with most of the seismology or geodesy based rupture models. In May-June 2015, we acquired 13 high-resolution seismic reflection profiles and more than 8500 km2 of bathymetric data to the south and southwest of the main N-S segment of the Mw=8.6 earthquake rupture and across the Mw=8.2 earthquake rupture zone. We find that the epicenter of the Mw=8.2 earthquake lies on a re-activated fracture zone, expressed as a ~50-km wide region with four N5ºE striking left-lateral sub-faults. The easternmost sub-fault is most active and might be the master fault, where the maximum deformation might be taking place. The deformation along the other sub-faults becomes more diffuse moving westward. We also imaged a set of N110ºE trending 2-km wide right-lateral shear zones, which might act as transfer zones between the re-activated N5ºE striking fracture zones, and have orientations in agreement with aftershock focal mechanisms. We suggest that the 2012 great Wharton Basin earthquakes ruptured N5ºE re-activated fractures. Furthermore, the rupture of the Mw=8.6 event proceeded in en échelon fashion with this suite of N110ºE striking shear zones connecting the re-activated fracture zone imaged in this study with another N5ºE trending re-activated fracture zone on the Ninety East Ridge. Our model explains the discrepancy between direct observations on the seafloor and distant seismological and geodetic results.

  4. Discrepancy analysis and Australian norms for the Trail Making Test.

    PubMed

    Senior, Graeme; Piovesana, Adina; Beaumont, Patricia

    2017-07-28

    Discrepancy analyses refer to comparison methods that evaluate the relationship or differences between two measures in the same individual. A common type of discrepancy analysis involves the comparison of two trials within a measure, such as, Trails A and B of the Trail Making Test (TMT). The TMT is well-suited to this role as the two measures are highly correlated, assess similar underlying constructs, and most importantly demonstrate differential vulnerability to the impact of pathology. While the inclusion of these types of data in the form of difference scores or ratios has become more frequent, this information has been presented only for demographically adjusted subgroups and has not taken into account the level of performance of the comparison trial, Trails A. The role and advantages of discrepancy analysis with the TMT stratified by level of Trails A performance were demonstrated with an Australian normative sample of 647 participants and a heterogeneous clinical sample consisting of 2,292 Australian and U.S. The ability to differentiate between the influence of slowed visual scanning and/or graphomotor speed, and reduced mental flexibility was demonstrated by applying the normative data to clinical case discrepancies. The importance of accounting for the variability in discrepancy scores associated with the level of performance of Trails A was also highlighted. A simple, efficient, and effective approach to examining the basis for differences between TMT-A and TMT-B performances is provided to examine the relative contributions of perceptual/motor abilities, and mental flexibility.

  5. Strike Point Control on EAST Using an Isoflux Control Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Zhe; Xiao, Bingjia; Luo, Zhengping; L. Walker, M.; A. Humphreys, D.

    2015-09-01

    For the advanced tokamak, the particle deposition and thermal load on the divertor is a big challenge. By moving the strike points on divertor target plates, the position of particle deposition and thermal load can be shifted. We could adjust the Poloidal Field (PF) coil current to achieve the strike point position feedback control. Using isoflux control method, the strike point position can be controlled by controlling the X point position. On the basis of experimental data, we establish relational expressions between X point position and strike point position. Benchmark experiments are carried out to validate the correctness and robustness of the control methods. The strike point position is successfully controlled following our command in the EAST operation. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2012GB105000 and 2014GB103000)

  6. Risk Considerations of Bird Strikes to Space Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Christy; Ring, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Within seconds after liftoff of the Space Shuttle during mission STS-114, a turkey vulture impacted the vehicle's external tank. The contact caused no apparent damage to the Shuttle, but the incident led NASA to consider the potential consequences of bird strikes during a Shuttle launch. The environment at Kennedy Space Center provides unique bird strike challenges due to the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge and the Atlantic Flyway bird migration routes. NASA is currently refining risk assessment estimates for the probability of bird strike to space launch vehicles. This paper presents an approach for analyzing the risks of bird strikes to space launch vehicles and presents an example. The migration routes, types of birds present, altitudes of those birds, exposed area of the launch vehicle, and its capability to withstand impacts affect the risk due to bird strike. A summary of significant risk contributors is discussed.

  7. Wavelet Transform Analysis of Electromyography Kung Fu Strikes Data

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Marzullo, Ana Carolina de Miranda

    2009-01-01

    In martial arts and contact sports strikes are performed at near maximum speeds. For that reason, electromyography (EMG) analysis of such movements is non-trivial. This paper has three main goals: firstly, to investigate the differences in the EMG activity of muscles during strikes performed with and without impacts; secondly, to assess the advantages of using Sum of Significant Power (SSP) values instead of root mean square (rms) values when analyzing EMG data; and lastly to introduce a new method of calculating median frequency values using wavelet transforms (WMDF). EMG data of the deltoid anterior (DA), triceps brachii (TB) and brachioradialis (BR) muscles were collected from eight Kung Fu practitioners during strikes performed with and without impacts. SSP results indicated significant higher muscle activity (p = 0.023) for the strikes with impact. WMDF results, on the other hand, indicated significant lower values (p = 0. 007) for the strikes with impact. SSP results presented higher sensitivity than rms to quantify important signal differences and, at the same time, presented lower inter-subject coefficient of variations. The result of increase in SSP values and decrease in WMDF may suggest better synchronization of motor units for the strikes with impact performed by the experienced Kung Fu practitioners. Key Points The results show higher muscle activity and lower electromyography median frequencies for strikes with impact compared to strikes without. SSP results presented higher sensitivity and lower inter-subject coefficient of variations than rms results. Kung Fu palm strikes with impact may present better motor units’ synchronization than strikes without. PMID:24474883

  8. The Goldberger-Treiman Discrepancy in SU(3)

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Goity; R. Lewis; M. Schvellinger; L. Zhang

    1999-01-01

    The Goldberger-Treiman discrepancy in SU(3) is analyzed in the framework of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory (HBChPT). It is shown that the discrepancy at leading order is entirely given by counterterms from the order p{sup 3} Lagrangian, and that the first subleading corrections are suppressed by two powers in the HBChPT expansion. These subleading corrections include meson-loop contributions as well as counterterms from the order p{sup 5} Lagrangian. Some one-loop contributions are calculated and found to be small. Using the three discrepancies ({pi}NN, KN{Lambda} and KN{Sigma}) which can be extracted from existing experimental data, the authors find that the HBChPT calculation favors the smaller g({pi}NN) values obtained in recent partial wave analyses.

  9. The muon g-2 discrepancy: errors or new physics?

    SciTech Connect

    Passera, M.; Martiano, W. J.; Sirlin, A.

    2008-11-23

    After a brief review of the muon g-2 status, we discuss hypothetical errors in the Standard Model prediction that could explain the present discrepancy with the experimental value. None of them looks likely. In particular, an hypothetical increase of the hadroproduction cross section in low-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions could bridge the muon g-2 discrepancy, but is shown to be unlikely in view of current experimental error estimates. If, nonetheless, this turns out to be the explanation of the discrepancy, then the 95% CL upper bound on the Higgs boson mass is reduced to about 130 GeV which, in conjunction with the experimental 114.4 GeV 95% CL lower bound, leaves a narrow window for the mass of this fundamental particle.

  10. Role of Discrepant Questioning Leading to Model Element Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea-Ramirez, Mary Anne; Nunez-Oviedo, Maria Cecilia; Clement, John

    2009-04-01

    Discrepant questioning is a teaching technique that can help students “unlearn” misconceptions and process science ideas for deep understanding. Discrepant questioning is a technique in which teachers question students in a way that requires them to examine their ideas or models, without giving information prematurely to the student or passing judgment on the student’s model. This strategy prompts students to see the contradictions in their own model. This study focused on the analysis of small group tutoring sessions on human respiration. Individual and small group construction of mental models was analyzed after instructed with a standardized teaching sequence based on model construction and criticism theory (Rea-Ramirez in Model of conceptual understanding in human respiration and strategies for instruction, Dissertation Abstracts International, 59 (10), 5196B, 1998). Analysis provided deeper understanding of the role discrepant questioning played in this construction of understanding and suggested new models of learning.

  11. Striking Out on Their Own: Lessons Learned from Student Teaching during and after the Chicago Teachers Union Strike

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Brian

    2017-01-01

    This study looks at the experiences of pre-service teachers who began their student teaching assignments amidst the 2012 Chicago Teachers Union strike. Four yearlong student teachers reflected on their understandings of teaching, unionism, and activism before, during, and after the strike. Findings suggest pre-service teachers need greater…

  12. The Teacher Strike: School District Protection Procedures. A Manual for School District Officials on How to Handle a Teachers' Strike.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igoe, Joseph A.; DiRocco, Anthony P.

    This booklet is designed to give practical and realistic advice to school district officials faced with the possibility of a teachers' strike. It is intended for use both by school district administrators and school board members. The booklet is organized into four sections that focus in turn on signs of a pending teachers' strike, union…

  13. Dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in male university students.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Ligia; Grunert, Klaus G; Sepúlveda, José; Lobos, Germán; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Mora, Marcos; Etchebarne, Soledad; Salinas-Oñate, Natalia; Schnettler, Berta

    2016-04-01

    Self-discrepancy describes the distance between an ideal and the actual self. Research suggests that self-discrepancy and dietary restraint are related, causing a significant impact on the person's well-being. However, this relationship has been mostly reported in female and mixed populations. In order to further explore dietary behaviors and their relations to self-discrepancy and well-being-related variables in men, a survey was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 119 male students from five Chilean state universities (mean age=21.8, SD=2.75). The questionnaire included the Revised Restraint Scale (RRS) with the subscales weight fluctuations (WF) and diet concern (DC), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Satisfaction with Food-Related Life Scale (SWFL), the Nutrition Interest Scale (NIS), and the Self-discrepancy Index (SDI). Questions were asked about socio-demographic characteristics, eating and drinking habits, and approximate weight and height. A cluster analysis applied to the Z-scores of the RRS classified the following typologies: Group 1 (22.7%), men concerned about weight fluctuations; Group 2 (37.0%), men concerned about diet and weight fluctuations; Group 3 (40.3%), unconcerned about diet and weight fluctuations. The typologies differed in their SDI score, restriction on pastry consumption and reported body mass index (BMI). Students with higher DC and WF scores had a higher BMI, and tended to report high self-discrepancy not only on a physical level, but also on social, emotional, economic and personal levels. This study contributes to the literature on subjective well-being, dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in men from non-clinical samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Medication discrepancies at discharge from an internal medicine service.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Herrero, José-Ignacio; García-Aparicio, Judit

    2011-02-01

    Medication errors most commonly occur at the time of medication prescribing and particularly at the moment of the transitions of care. The objectives of this study were to identify and characterize the discrepancies between the physicians' discharge medication orders and the medication lists at admission obtained by an internal medicine specialist physician in a general internal medicine service. This descriptive, retrospective, study was carried out at a tertiary care university teaching hospital in Spain. It was based on the review of non selected, consecutive, hospital discharge reports. Discrepancies were identified, categorized and characterized through the analysis of the information (medication lists, laboratory tests results, diagnosis, and clinical evolution) contained in them. We analyzed 954 discharge reports. In the medication reconciliation process, we find discrepancies in 832 (87.2%) of them. Justified discrepancies were found in 828 (86.8%) reports and unjustified discrepancies in 52 (5.4%). Omission of a medication was the most frequent medication error detected in 86.4% of cases, followed by incomplete prescription (9.6%). The number of diagnosis, the length of hospital stay and the number of permanent medications at admission were the characteristics of cases associated with medication discrepancies in multivariate linear regression (P<0.01). Although considering the limitations in its design, it is remarkable the low number of medication errors detected in our study. Appropriate routines to ensure an accurate medication history collection and a methodical elaboration of the medication list at discharge, when performed by trained internists, are important for an adequate medication reconciliation process. Copyright © 2010 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Will the real discrepant learning disability please stand up?

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, Wim

    2002-01-01

    Willson and Reynolds (in this issue) challenged my thesis that the regression-based discrepancy method (RDM) is not a valid tool to detect aptitude-achievement discrepancies. In this response, I show that the statistical and theoretical counterarguments of Willson and Reynolds are based on a misreading of the statistical models presented. Furthermore, I demonstrate that the regression adjustment, which is largest for lower correlations, is the direct source of the lack of validity of the RDM procedure. Nevertheless, RDM can be considered a valid method to measure an achievement component that is unrelated to intelligence.

  16. [Physicians' strikes and health services: an ethical perspective].

    PubMed

    Goić, A

    1996-07-01

    For the public opinion, medical strikes are a controversial issue; physician's ethical judgments are also different. The present article analyses the requisites to consider legitimate a strike and, based on these, the ethical duties of physicians; the features of medical unionism; the ethical duties of authority; the manipulation of ill people by the strike and the social factors that may cause these conflicts. In a medical strike, universal ethical values based on the Hyppocratic oath and promoted by the profession, are endangered. This article concludes that a medical strike may be explainable due to different reasons, but it is not ethically justifiable beyond any doubt. The health profession that is not prepared to give up strikes as gremial pressure tool, should not choose a profession that takes care of the ill. The best way to avoid medical strike is to prevent them: the society and the authority have the ethical obligation to create work conditions that elude conflicts. To settle disputes between physicians and health institutions, the creation of a permanent arbitral instance agreed by physicians and the authority, i.e. a high level committee integrated by respected individuals and physicians, could be necessary. This committee should send forth veredicts that would be obeyed by the contending parties.

  17. Local avian density influences risk of mortality from window strikes

    PubMed Central

    Sabo, Ann M.; Hagemeyer, Natasha D.G.; Lahey, Ally S.

    2016-01-01

    Up to a billion birds die per year in North America as a result of striking windows. Both transparent and reflective glass panes are a cause for concern, misleading birds by either acting as invisible, impenetrable barriers to desired resources, or reflecting those resources over a large surface area. A high number of window strikes occur during migration, but little is known about the factors of susceptibility, or whether particular avian taxa are more vulnerable than others. We report on a study of window strikes and mist-netting data at the Virginia Zoological Park (Norfolk, Virginia, USA), conducted in the autumn of 2013 and 2014. We focused on three factors likely to contribute to an individual’s predisposition to collide with windows: (i) taxonomic classification, (ii) age, and (iii) migrant vs. resident status. Thrushes, dominated by the partial migrant American Robin (Turdus migratorius), were significantly less likely to strike glass than be sampled in mist nets (χ2 = 9.21, p = 0.002), while wood-warblers (Parulidae) were more likely to strike than expected (χ2 = 13.55, p < 0.001). The proportion of juveniles striking windows (45.4%) was not significantly different (χ2 = 0.05, p = 0.827) than the population of juvenile birds naturally occurring at the zoo (48.8%). Migrants, however, were significantly more susceptible to window strikes than residents (χ2 = 6.35, p = 0.012). Our results suggest that resident birds are able to learn to avoid and thus reduce their likelihood of striking windows; this intrinsic risk factor may help explain the apparent susceptibility of certain taxa to window strikes. PMID:27366656

  18. Exhumation and continental strike-slip fault systems: Introduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roeske, S.M.; Till, A.B.; Foster, D.A.; Sample, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Metamorphic rocks adjacent to and within strike-slip faultsystems occur in a wide range of tectonic settings. Detailed studies show that for a number of these locales a significant part of the exhumation occurred during strike-slip fault motion, but the specific processes involved are often cryptic. Although some sites share characteristic features, such as metamorphic rocks exhumed in extensional step-overs within overall transtensional systems, no one common theme emerges from all of the studies. Our understanding of the variables that control continental strike-slip faults' interaction with mid- to lower-crustal structures is still primitive.

  19. Physicians' strikes and the competing bases of physicians' moral obligations.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, D Robert

    2013-09-01

    Many authors have addressed the morality of physicians' strikes on the assumption that medical practice is morally different from other kinds of occupations. This article analyzes three prominent theoretical accounts that attempt to ground such special moral obligations for physicians--practice-based accounts, utilitarian accounts, and social contract accounts--and assesses their applicability to the problem of the morality of strikes. After critiquing these views, it offers a fourth view grounding special moral obligations in voluntary commitments, and explains why this is a preferable basis for understanding physicians' moral obligations in general and especially as pertaining to strikes.

  20. Hunger strike among detainees: guidance for good medical practice.

    PubMed

    Gétaz, Laurent; Rieder, Jean-Pierre; Nyffenegger, Laurent; Eytan, Ariel; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Wolff, Hans

    2012-09-17

    Hunger strike is a regularly reported problem in prison. Although clinical situations are rarely severe, hospitalisation is often considered. In consequence, it is not only physicians working in prisons, but also hospital medical teams who face challenges related to hunger strike, involving somatic, psychological, legal and human rights aspects. Furthermore, deontological rules must be strictly respected when delivering care, particularly in prison setting. Starvation involves metabolic changes and can cause severe, and sometimes even irreversible or fatal complications. Moreover, the phase of re-alimentation should not be trivialised, as re-feeding syndrome is a potentially fatal phenomenon. This article provides guidance for monitoring and management of patients on hunger strike.

  1. Comparing Multiple Discrepancies Theory to Affective Models of Subjective Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blore, Jed D.; Stokes, Mark A.; Mellor, David; Firth, Lucy; Cummins, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The Subjective Wellbeing (SWB) literature is replete with competing theories detailing the mechanisms underlying the construction and maintenance of SWB. The current study aimed to compare and contrast two of these approaches: multiple discrepancies theory (MDT) and an affective-cognitive theory of SWB. MDT posits SWB to be the result of perceived…

  2. Discrepancies between Parents' and Children's Attitudes toward TV Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baiocco, Roberto; D'Alessio, Maria; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2009-01-01

    The authors conducted a study with 500 parent-child dyads. The sample comprised 254 boys and 246 girls. The children were grouped into 5 age groups (1 group for each age from 7 to 11 years), with each group comprising 100 children. The survey regards discrepancies between children and their parents on attitudes toward TV advertising to determine…

  3. Revisiting "Discrepancy Analysis in Continuing Medical Education: A Conceptual Model"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Based upon a review and analysis of selected literature, the author presents a conceptual model of discrepancy analysis evaluation for planning, implementing, and assessing the impact of continuing medical education (CME). The model is described in terms of its value as a means of diagnosing errors in the development and implementation of CME. The…

  4. The Discrepancy Evaluation Model. I. Basic Tenets of the Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinmetz, Andres

    1976-01-01

    The basic principles of the discrepancy evaluation model (DEM), developed by Malcolm Provus, are presented. The three concepts which are essential to DEM are defined: (1) the standard is a description of how something should be; (2) performance measures are used to find out the actual characteristics of the object being evaluated; and (3) the…

  5. Measuring grade inflation: a clinical grade discrepancy score.

    PubMed

    Paskausky, Anna L; Simonelli, M Colleen

    2014-08-01

    Grade inflation presents pedagogical and safety concerns for nursing educators and is defined as a "greater percentage of excellent scores than student performances warrant" (Speer et al., 2000, p. 112). This descriptive correlational study evaluated the relationship of licensure exam-style final written exams and faculty assigned clinical grades from undergraduate students (N = 281) for evidence of grade inflation at a private undergraduate nursing program in the Northeast of the United States and developed a new measurement of grade inflation, the clinical grade discrepancy score. This measurement can be used in programs where clinical competency is graded on a numeric scale. Evidence suggested grade inflation was present and the clinical grade discrepancy score was an indicator of the severity of grade inflation. The correlation between licensure-style final written exams and faculty assigned clinical grades was moderate to low at 0.357. The clinical grade discrepancy scores were 98% positive indicating likely grade inflation. Some 70% of clinical grade discrepancy scores indicated a difference of student licensure-style final written exams and faculty assigned clinical grades of at least one full letter grade (10 points out of 100). Use of this new measure as a tool in exploring the prevalence of grade inflation and implications for patient safety are discussed.

  6. Grading Leniency, Grade Discrepancy, and Student Ratings of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Bryan W.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how grading leniency and grade discrepancy (the difference between expected grades and deserved grades) were associated with various dimensions of student ratings of instruction. A sample of 754 undergraduate college students completed a student ratings of instruction instrument and provided responses to a…

  7. Gender Discrepancies and Victimization of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Cynthia G.; Rose, Chad A.; Ellis, Stephanie K.

    2016-01-01

    Students with disabilities have been recognized as disproportionately involved within the bullying dynamic. However, few studies have examined the interaction between disability status, gender, and grade level. The current study explored the gender discrepancies among students with and without disabilities in middle and high school on bullying,…

  8. Gender-Related Self-Discrepancies and Bulimic Eating Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingenspor, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Explored the link between development of bulimic eating behavior and suppression of masculine traits in adolescence. German high school students completed a sex role inventory. Among girls, higher risk of developing bulimia appeared to be caused by increasing discrepancies between actual and ideal self-concept on masculine-typed personality…

  9. Discrepancies between cognition and decision making in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Patricia A.; James, Bryan D.; Yu, Lei; Barnes, Lisa L.; Bennett, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims There is increasing clinical and legal interest in discrepancies between decision-making ability and cognition in old age, a stage of life when decisions have major ramifications. We investigated the frequency and correlates of such discrepancies in non-demented older adults participating in a large community-based cohort study of aging, the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Methods Participants [n = 689, mean age 81.8 (SD 7.6), mean education 15.2 (SD 3.1), 76.8 % female and 93.3 % white] completed a measure of financial and healthcare decision making (DM) and a battery of 19 neuropsychological tests from which a composite measure of global cognition (COG) was derived. Results Results indicated that 23.9 % of the sample showed a significant discrepancy between DM and COG abilities. Of these, 12.9 % showed DM < COG, while 11.0 % showed DM > COG. Logistic regression models showed older age, being non-white, greater temporal discounting, and greater risk aversion were associated with higher odds of being in the DM < COG group. Being male was associated with higher odds of being in the DM > COG group. Education, income, depressive symptoms, and impulsivity were not associated with a discrepancy. Only demographic associations (age, sex, and race) remained significant in a fully adjusted model with terms included for all factors. Conclusion These results support the consideration of decision making and cognition as potentially separate constructs. PMID:25995167

  10. Gender-Related Self-Discrepancies and Bulimic Eating Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingenspor, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Explored the link between development of bulimic eating behavior and suppression of masculine traits in adolescence. German high school students completed a sex role inventory. Among girls, higher risk of developing bulimia appeared to be caused by increasing discrepancies between actual and ideal self-concept on masculine-typed personality…

  11. Discrepancy Dinosaurs and the Evolution of Specific Learning Disability Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moores-Abdool, Whitney; Unzueta, Caridad H.; Vazquez Donet, Dolores; Bijlsma, Eduard

    2008-01-01

    Identifying Specific Learning Disability (SLD) has been an arduous task. Until IDEA 2004, diagnosing SLD was limited to IQ discrepancy models lacking in both empirical evidence and contributing to minority over-representation. This paper examines the history of SLD assessment, the phenomena of minority over-representation, and the implementation…

  12. Questioning Research with Children: Discrepancy between Theory and Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uprichard, Emma

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that current child and childhood research is problematical in as much as there is a discrepancy between theory and research practice. Although in theory, children are conceptualised as active agents in the social world, the type of research that children are typically involved in implies that children are competent, knowledgeable…

  13. Discrepancies between Parents' and Children's Attitudes toward TV Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baiocco, Roberto; D'Alessio, Maria; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2009-01-01

    The authors conducted a study with 500 parent-child dyads. The sample comprised 254 boys and 246 girls. The children were grouped into 5 age groups (1 group for each age from 7 to 11 years), with each group comprising 100 children. The survey regards discrepancies between children and their parents on attitudes toward TV advertising to determine…

  14. Sex Differences in Children's Discrepant Perceptions of Peer Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stephanie D.; Van Gessel, Christine A.; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kistner, Janet A.

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in children's play patterns during middle childhood are thought to promote greater awareness of social acceptance among girls compared with boys. The present study posited that girls are more discerning of peer acceptance than are boys; however, these sex differences were predicted to vary depending on how discrepant perceptions…

  15. Gender Discrepancies and Victimization of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Cynthia G.; Rose, Chad A.; Ellis, Stephanie K.

    2016-01-01

    Students with disabilities have been recognized as disproportionately involved within the bullying dynamic. However, few studies have examined the interaction between disability status, gender, and grade level. The current study explored the gender discrepancies among students with and without disabilities in middle and high school on bullying,…

  16. Learning Discrepancy in Relation to Personality Factors among Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravi, R.

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on discrepant achievers, that is, overachiever and underachiever in relation to certain personality factors among the primary school students. In the present study, the investigator has adopted the correlation method of normative survey research design. The data were collected into two phases for the present study. In the first…

  17. Revisiting "Discrepancy Analysis in Continuing Medical Education: A Conceptual Model"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Based upon a review and analysis of selected literature, the author presents a conceptual model of discrepancy analysis evaluation for planning, implementing, and assessing the impact of continuing medical education (CME). The model is described in terms of its value as a means of diagnosing errors in the development and implementation of CME. The…

  18. Comparing Multiple Discrepancies Theory to Affective Models of Subjective Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blore, Jed D.; Stokes, Mark A.; Mellor, David; Firth, Lucy; Cummins, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The Subjective Wellbeing (SWB) literature is replete with competing theories detailing the mechanisms underlying the construction and maintenance of SWB. The current study aimed to compare and contrast two of these approaches: multiple discrepancies theory (MDT) and an affective-cognitive theory of SWB. MDT posits SWB to be the result of perceived…

  19. 14 CFR 60.20 - Logging FSTD discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Logging FSTD discrepancies. 60.20 Section 60.20 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.20 Logging...

  20. 14 CFR 60.20 - Logging FSTD discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Logging FSTD discrepancies. 60.20 Section 60.20 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.20 Logging...

  1. 14 CFR 60.20 - Logging FSTD discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Logging FSTD discrepancies. 60.20 Section 60.20 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.20 Logging...

  2. Aptitude-Achievement Discrepancy Scores: Accuracy in Analysis Ignored.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Roslyn P.

    1992-01-01

    Reacts to response of Barnett and Macmann concerning Ross's investigation into whether psychologists possess psychometric knowledge necessary to evaluate discrepancies within individual's test performace with sufficient accuracy to ensure reliable decision making. Contends that ways need to be found to implement and evaluate promising…

  3. Binarity and the Abundance Discrepancy Problem in Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradi, Romano L. M.; García-Rojas, Jorge; Jones, David; Rodríguez-Gil, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    The discrepancy between abundances computed using optical recombination lines and collisionally excited lines is a major unresolved problem in nebular astrophysics. Here, we show that the largest abundance discrepancies are reached in planetary nebulae with close binary central stars. We illustrate this using deep spectroscopy of three nebulae with a post common-envelope (CE) binary star. Abell 46 and Ou 5 have O2+/H+ abundance discrepancy factors larger than 50, and as high as 300 in the inner regions of Abell 46. Abell 63 has a smaller discrepancy factor around 10, which is still above the typical values in ionized nebulae. Our spectroscopic analysis supports previous conclusions that, in addition to “standard” hot ({{T}e} ˜ 104 K) gas, there exists a colder ({{T}e} ˜ 103 K), ionized component that is highly enriched in heavy elements. These nebulae have low ionized masses, between 10-3 and 10-1 M⊙ depending on the adopted electron densities and temperatures. Since the much more massive red giant envelope is expected to be entirely ejected in the CE phase, the currently observed nebulae would be produced much later, during post-CE mass loss episodes when the envelope has already dispersed. These observations add constraints to the abundance discrepancy problem. We revise possible explanations. Some explanations are naturally linked to binarity such as, for instance, high-metallicity nova ejecta, but it is difficult at this stage to depict an evolutionary scenario consistent with all of the observed properties. We also introduce the hypothesis that these nebulae are the result of tidal destruction, accretion, and ejection of Jupiter-like planets.

  4. Hey Fellas, Depression Can Strike New Dads, Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163626.html Hey Fellas, Depression Can Strike New Dads, Too Men who are stressed or in ... often associated with moms-to-be, but a new study shows expectant dads can have similar symptoms. ...

  5. Ethical and legal consideration of prisoner's hunger strike in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Alempijevic, Djordje; Pavlekic, Snezana; Jecmenica, Dragan; Nedeljkov, Aleksandra; Jankovic, Milos

    2011-03-01

    Hunger strike of prisoners and detainees remains a major human rights and ethical issue for medical professionals. We are reporting on a case of a 48-year-old male sentenced prisoner, intravenous heroin user, who went on a hunger strike and died 15 days later. Throughout the fasting period, the prisoner, who was capable of decision making, refused any medical examination. Autopsy findings were not supporting prolonged starvation, while toxicology revealed benzodiazepines and opiates in blood and urine. Cause of death was given as "heroin intoxication" in keeping with detection of 6-MAM. Legal and ethical issues pertinent to medical examination and treatment of prisoners on hunger strike are explored in accordance with legislation and professional ethical standards in Serbia. A recommendation for the best autopsy practice in deaths following hunger strike has been made.

  6. When Disaster Strikes, Don't Forget Your Pets

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167495.html When Disaster Strikes, Don't Forget Your Pets Prepare kit ... HealthDay News) -- People are urged to prepare for disasters by having an emergency plan, and animal experts ...

  7. Pathognomonic symptom associated with lightning strike: Lichtenberg figure.

    PubMed

    Yigit, Mehmet; Tanrikulu, Nazmiye; Turkdogan, Kenan Ahmet; Yigit, Eda

    2015-02-01

    Lightning strikes especially occur during spring and summer months in the afternoons when there is heavy rain. In deaths resulting from lightning strike, there may either be no evidence on the dead person's clothes or body, or there may be burnt or torn patches on their clothes and lichtenberg figures specific to lightning strikes on their bodies. In such cases that also have a comorbid of cognitive dysfunction, since there is generally amnesia, having these figures during the physical examination has a valuable place in early diagnosis and quick treatment. This paper presents a case of lightning strike that was found to have Lichtenberg figures on the back and right leg after secondary examination.

  8. Measurements of lightning rod responses to nearby strikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. B.; Aulich, G. D.; Rison, W.

    2000-05-01

    Following Benjamin Franklin's invention of the lightning rod, based on his discovery that electrified objects could be discharged by approaching them with a metal needle in hand, conventional lightning rods in the U.S. have had sharp tips. In recent years, the role of the sharp tip in causing a lightning rod to act as a strike receptor has been questioned leading to experiments in which pairs of various sharp-tipped and blunt rods have been exposed beneath thunderclouds to determine the better strike receptor. After seven years of tests, none of the sharp Franklin rods or of the so-called “early streamer emitters” has been struck, but 12 blunt rods with tip diameters ranging from 12.7 mm to 25.4 mm have taken strikes. Our field experiments and our analyses indicate that the strike-reception probabilities of Franklin's rods are greatly increased when their tips are made moderately blunt.

  9. Newspapers and Crime: What Happens During Strike Periods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, David E.

    1974-01-01

    Refutes the thesis that relates various types of mass media, especially the newspaper, to rates of aggression, violence, and deviance by comparing crime statistics during strike and nonstrike periods.

  10. A Faculty Strike in Hawaii Shuts Down Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallwood, Scott

    2001-01-01

    Describes how unprecedented joint strikes by unions representing faculty members at public colleges and teachers in public schools shut down education in Hawaii. Discusses the settlement reached and potential repercussions. (EV)

  11. Student Involvement in and Information about a University Strike

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Robert G.; Marcuse, F. L.

    1972-01-01

    The present study was directed toward studying the relationship for male and female students between participation in a collective social action and the amount of information they possessed about that action-in this instance a university strike. (Author)

  12. Comparison of force, power, and striking efficiency for a Kung Fu strike performed by novice and experienced practitioners: preliminary analysis.

    PubMed

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Magini, Marcio; Saba, Marcelo M F; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a comparison of force, power, and efficiency values calculated from Kung Fu Yau-Man palm strikes, when performed by 7 experienced and 6 novice men. They performed 5 palm strikes to a freestanding basketball, recorded by high-speed camera at 1000 Hz. Nonparametric comparisons and correlations showed experienced practitioners presented larger values of mean muscle force, mean impact force, mean muscle power, mean impact power, and mean striking efficiency, as is noted in evidence obtained for other martial arts. Also, an interesting result was that for experienced Kung Fu practitioners, muscle power was linearly correlated with impact power (p = .98) but not for the novice practitioners (p = .46).

  13. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter: Observations on Program Progress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-14

    F - 35 JOINT STRIKE FIGHTER Observations on Program Progress Statement of Michael J. Sullivan, Director Acquisition...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE F - 35 Joint Strike Fighter: Observations on Program Progress 5a...15-429T Chairman Turner, Ranking Member Sanchez, and Members of the Subcommittee: Thank you for the opportunity to discuss our work on the F - 35

  14. Language-Related Differences between Discrepancy-Defined and Non-Discrepancy-Defined Poor Readers: A Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia in New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunmer, William E.; Chapman, James W.

    2007-01-01

    Language-related differences between discrepancy-defined and non-discrepancy-defined poor readers were examined in a three-year longitudinal study that began at school entry. The discrepancy-defined (dyslexic) poor readers (n = 19) were identified in terms of poor reading comprehension and average or above average listening comprehension…

  15. Fault connectivity, distributed shortening, and impacts on geologic- geodetic slip rate discrepancies in the central Mojave Desert, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selander, J.; Oskin, M. E.; Cooke, M. L.; Grette, K.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding off-fault deformation and distribution of displacement rates associated with disconnected strike-slip faults requires a three-dimensional view of fault geometries. We address problems associated with distributed faulting by studying the Mojave segment of the East California Shear Zone (ECSZ), a region dominated by northwest-directed dextral shear along disconnected northwest- southeast striking faults. We use a combination of cross-sectional interpretations, 3D Boundary Element Method (BEM) models, and slip-rate measurements to test new hypothesized fault connections. We find that reverse faulting acts as an important means of slip transfer between strike-slip faults, and show that the impacts of these structural connections on shortening, uplift, strike-slip rates, and off-fault deformation, help to reconcile the overall strain budget across this portion of the ECSZ. In detail, we focus on the Calico and Blackwater faults, which are hypothesized to together represent the longest linked fault system in the Mojave ECSZ, connected by a restraining step at 35°N. Across this restraining step the system displays a pronounced displacement gradient, where dextral offset decreases from ~11.5 to <2 km from south to north. Cross-section interpretations show that ~40% of this displacement is transferred from the Calico fault to the Harper Lake and Blackwater faults via a set of north-dipping thrust ramps. Late Quaternary dextral slip rates follow a similar pattern, where 1.4 +0.8/-0.4 mm/yr of slip along the Calico fault south of 35°N is distributed to the Harper Lake, Blackwater, and Tin Can Alley faults. BEM model results using revised fault geometries for the Mojave ECSZ show areas of uplift consistent with contractional structures, and fault slip-rates that more closely match geologic data. Overall, revised fault connections and addition of off-fault deformation greatly reduces the discrepancy between geodetic and geologic slip rates.

  16. Whose Depression Relates to Discrepancies? Testing Relations between Informant Characteristics and Informant Discrepancies from Both Informants' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Goodman, Kimberly L.; Kliewer, Wendy; Reid-Quinones, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether mothers' and children's depressive symptoms were each uniquely related to mother-child rating discrepancies on a multidimensional dyadic construct: domains associated with parental monitoring (i.e., Child Disclosure, Parental Knowledge, and Parental Solicitation). Participants included a community sample of 335…

  17. Self-awareness and the emotional consequences of self-discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Ann G; Silvia, Paul J

    2005-05-01

    Several self theories explore the effects of discrepant self-beliefs on motivation and emotion. This research intersected two self theories: self-discrepancy theory and objective self-awareness theory. Self-discrepancy theory predicts that ideal and ought discrepancies cause different negative emotions; objective self-awareness theory predicts that high self-awareness will strengthen the relationship between self-discrepancies and emotions. People (N =112) completed measures of self-discrepancies and emotions (dejection, agitation, positive affect, and negative affect). Self-focused attention was manipulated with a large mirror. When self-awareness was low, self-discrepancies had weak, nonsignificant relations to emotion. When self-awareness was high, however, self-discrepancies strongly predicted emotional experience. These effects were general-ideal and ought discrepancies affected emotions because of their substantial shared variance, not their unique variance. Implications for theories of self-discrepancies and emotions are considered.

  18. The Hiroshima/Nagasaki Survivor Studies: Discrepancies Between Results and General Perception.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Bertrand R

    2016-08-01

    The explosion of atom bombs over the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 resulted in very high casualties, both immediate and delayed but also left a large number of survivors who had been exposed to radiation, at levels that could be fairly precisely ascertained. Extensive follow-up of a large cohort of survivors (120,000) and of their offspring (77,000) was initiated in 1947 and continues to this day. In essence, survivors having received 1 Gy irradiation (∼1000 mSV) have a significantly elevated rate of cancer (42% increase) but a limited decrease of longevity (∼1 year), while their offspring show no increased frequency of abnormalities and, so far, no detectable elevation of the mutation rate. Current acceptable exposure levels for the general population and for workers in the nuclear industry have largely been derived from these studies, which have been reported in more than 100 publications. Yet the general public, and indeed most scientists, are unaware of these data: it is widely believed that irradiated survivors suffered a very high cancer burden and dramatically shortened life span, and that their progeny were affected by elevated mutation rates and frequent abnormalities. In this article, I summarize the results and discuss possible reasons for this very striking discrepancy between the facts and general beliefs about this situation.

  19. The Hiroshima/Nagasaki Survivor Studies: Discrepancies Between Results and General Perception

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The explosion of atom bombs over the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 resulted in very high casualties, both immediate and delayed but also left a large number of survivors who had been exposed to radiation, at levels that could be fairly precisely ascertained. Extensive follow-up of a large cohort of survivors (120,000) and of their offspring (77,000) was initiated in 1947 and continues to this day. In essence, survivors having received 1 Gy irradiation (∼1000 mSV) have a significantly elevated rate of cancer (42% increase) but a limited decrease of longevity (∼1 year), while their offspring show no increased frequency of abnormalities and, so far, no detectable elevation of the mutation rate. Current acceptable exposure levels for the general population and for workers in the nuclear industry have largely been derived from these studies, which have been reported in more than 100 publications. Yet the general public, and indeed most scientists, are unaware of these data: it is widely believed that irradiated survivors suffered a very high cancer burden and dramatically shortened life span, and that their progeny were affected by elevated mutation rates and frequent abnormalities. In this article, I summarize the results and discuss possible reasons for this very striking discrepancy between the facts and general beliefs about this situation. PMID:27516613

  20. Volcano instability induced by strike-slip faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagmay, A. M. F.; van Wyk de Vries, B.; Kerle, N.; Pyle, D. M.

    2000-09-01

    Analogue sand cone experiments were conducted to study instability generated on volcanic cones by basal strike-slip movement. The results of the analogue models demonstrate that edifice instability may be generated when strike-slip faults underlying a volcano move as a result of tectonic adjustment. This instability occurs on flanks of the volcano above the strike-slip shear. On the surface of the volcano this appears as a pair of sigmoids composed of one reverse and one normal fault. In the interior of the cone the faults form a flower structure. Two destabilised regions are created on the cone flanks between the traces of the sigmoidal faults. Bulging, intense fracturing and landsliding characterise these unstable flanks. Additional analogue experiments conducted to model magmatic intrusion show that fractures and faults developed within the volcanic cone due to basal strike-slip motions strongly control the path of the intruding magma. Intrusion is diverted towards the areas where previous development of reverse and normal faults have occurred, thus causing further instability. We compare our model results to two examples of volcanoes on strike-slip faults: Iriga volcano (Philippines), which underwent non-magmatic collapse, and Mount St. Helens (USA), where a cryptodome was emplaced prior to failure. In the analogue and natural examples, the direction of collapse takes place roughly parallel to the orientation of the underlying shear. The model presented proposes one mechanism for strike-parallel breaching of volcanoes, recently recognised as a common failure direction of volcanoes found in regions with transcurrent and transtensional deformation. The recognition of the effect of basal shearing on volcano stability enables prediction of the likely direction of eventual flank failure in volcanoes overlying strike-slip faults.

  1. Structure and deformational character of strike-slip fault zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Qidong; Wu, Daning; Zhang, Peizhen; Chen, Shefa

    1986-01-01

    Strike-slip fault zones observed either in the field or in model experiments generally consist of several subparallel faults which make these zones complicated in geometry and kinematics. The geometry of a strike-slip fault or shear zone is dependent on arrangement (pinnate or en echelon), on step (left step or right step), and on the rank )smaller faults within larger faults) of the subparallel fault. The relations and interactions of these three factors create a variety of dynamic circumstances and tectonic settings within the strike-slip fault zones. These include pull-aparts in the release area between subparallel faults, push-ups in the jogs where the subparallel faults overlap, and pivotal movements, or rotation, of single faults along the whole fault zone. Each kind of tectonic setting is in itself characteristic, each setting consists of many subtypes, which are controlled chiefly by the geometric parameters of the subparallel faults. One of the most important phenomena revealed in the field work is two different kinds of evolution of strike-slip fault zones: one is the evolution of a zone with a tensile component, which is related to the growth of rock bridges, and the other, of one with a compressional component, which develops by the destruction of rock bridges. In this paper we discuss, on the basis of recent research on four strike-slip fault zones in China, the essential characteristics of strike-slip faults and the possible causes of the observed structural phenomena. Attention is focussed on the deformation, development, and distribution of horizontal displacements within strike-slip fault zones.

  2. Interdisciplinary team training identifies discrepancies in institutional policies and practices.

    PubMed

    Andreatta, Pamela; Frankel, Jennifer; Boblick Smith, Sara; Bullough, Alexandra; Marzano, David

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of an interdisciplinary team-training program in obstetric emergencies on identifying unsupportive institutional policies and systems-based practices. We implemented a qualitative study design with a purposive sample of interdisciplinary physicians, nurses, and ancillary allied health professionals from 4 specialties (n = 79) to conduct a 6-month, weekly simulation-based intervention for managing obstetric emergencies. Debriefing focused on identifying discrepancies between clinical practice and institutional policies. Our data yielded 5 categories of discrepancies between institutional or departmental policy and actual clinical practice. Specific institutional policies and system-based practices were recommended to health system administration for reevaluation. Simulation-based interdisciplinary team training can inform system-wide quality improvement objectives that could lead to increased patient safety.

  3. Discrepancy and Disliking Do Not Induce Negative Opinion Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Flache, Andreas; Mäs, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both classical social psychological theories and recent formal models of opinion differentiation and bi-polarization assign a prominent role to negative social influence. Negative influence is defined as shifts away from the opinion of others and hypothesized to be induced by discrepancy with or disliking of the source of influence. There is strong empirical support for the presence of positive social influence (a shift towards the opinion of others), but evidence that large opinion differences or disliking could trigger negative shifts is mixed. We examine positive and negative influence with controlled exposure to opinions of other individuals in one experiment and with opinion exchange in another study. Results confirm that similarities induce attraction, but results do not support that discrepancy or disliking entails negative influence. Instead, our findings suggest a robust positive linear relationship between opinion distance and opinion shifts. PMID:27333160

  4. Outcome Discrepancies and Selective Reporting: Impacting the Leading Journals?

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Padhraig S.; Koletsi, Despina; Dwan, Kerry; Pandis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Background Selective outcome reporting of either interesting or positive research findings is problematic, running the risk of poorly-informed treatment decisions. We aimed to assess the extent of outcome and other discrepancies and possible selective reporting between registry entries and published reports among leading medical journals. Methods Randomized controlled trials published over a 6-month period from July to December 31st, 2013, were identified in five high impact medical journals: The Lancet, British Medical Journal, New England Journal of Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine and Journal of American Medical Association were obtained. Discrepancies between published studies and registry entries were identified and related to factors including registration timing, source of funding and presence of statistically significant results. Results Over the 6-month period, 137 RCTs were found. Of these, 18% (n = 25) had discrepancies related to primary outcomes with the primary outcome changed in 15% (n = 20). Moreover, differences relating to non-primary outcomes were found in 64% (n = 87) with both omission of pre-specified non-primary outcomes (39%) and introduction of new non-primary outcomes (44%) common. No relationship between primary or non-primary outcome change and registration timing (prospective or retrospective; P = 0.11), source of funding (P = 0.92) and presence of statistically significant results (P = 0.92) was found. Conclusions Discrepancies between registry entries and published articles for primary and non-primary outcomes were common among trials published in leading medical journals. Novel approaches are required to address this problem. PMID:25996928

  5. Discrepancies in reporting the CAG repeat lengths for Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Quarrell, Oliver W; Handley, Olivia; O'Donovan, Kirsty; Dumoulin, Christine; Ramos-Arroyo, Maria; Biunno, Ida; Bauer, Peter; Kline, Margaret; Landwehrmeyer, G Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Huntington's disease results from a CAG repeat expansion within the Huntingtin gene; this is measured routinely in diagnostic laboratories. The European Huntington's Disease Network REGISTRY project centrally measures CAG repeat lengths on fresh samples; these were compared with the original results from 121 laboratories across 15 countries. We report on 1326 duplicate results; a discrepancy in reporting the upper allele occurred in 51% of cases, this reduced to 13.3% and 9.7% when we applied acceptable measurement errors proposed by the American College of Medical Genetics and the Draft European Best Practice Guidelines, respectively. Duplicate results were available for 1250 lower alleles; discrepancies occurred in 40% of cases. Clinically significant discrepancies occurred in 4.0% of cases with a potential unexplained misdiagnosis rate of 0.3%. There was considerable variation in the discrepancy rate among 10 of the countries participating in this study. Out of 1326 samples, 348 were re-analysed by an accredited diagnostic laboratory, based in Germany, with concordance rates of 93% and 94% for the upper and lower alleles, respectively. This became 100% if the acceptable measurement errors were applied. The central laboratory correctly reported allele sizes for six standard reference samples, blind to the known result. Our study differs from external quality assessment (EQA) schemes in that these are duplicate results obtained from a large sample of patients across the whole diagnostic range. We strongly recommend that laboratories state an error rate for their measurement on the report, participate in EQA schemes and use reference materials regularly to adjust their own internal standards.

  6. Discrepancies in reporting the CAG repeat lengths for Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Quarrell, Oliver W; Handley, Olivia; O'Donovan, Kirsty; Dumoulin, Christine; Ramos-Arroyo, Maria; Biunno, Ida; Bauer, Peter; Kline, Margaret; Landwehrmeyer, G Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Huntington's disease results from a CAG repeat expansion within the Huntingtin gene; this is measured routinely in diagnostic laboratories. The European Huntington's Disease Network REGISTRY project centrally measures CAG repeat lengths on fresh samples; these were compared with the original results from 121 laboratories across 15 countries. We report on 1326 duplicate results; a discrepancy in reporting the upper allele occurred in 51% of cases, this reduced to 13.3% and 9.7% when we applied acceptable measurement errors proposed by the American College of Medical Genetics and the Draft European Best Practice Guidelines, respectively. Duplicate results were available for 1250 lower alleles; discrepancies occurred in 40% of cases. Clinically significant discrepancies occurred in 4.0% of cases with a potential unexplained misdiagnosis rate of 0.3%. There was considerable variation in the discrepancy rate among 10 of the countries participating in this study. Out of 1326 samples, 348 were re-analysed by an accredited diagnostic laboratory, based in Germany, with concordance rates of 93% and 94% for the upper and lower alleles, respectively. This became 100% if the acceptable measurement errors were applied. The central laboratory correctly reported allele sizes for six standard reference samples, blind to the known result. Our study differs from external quality assessment (EQA) schemes in that these are duplicate results obtained from a large sample of patients across the whole diagnostic range. We strongly recommend that laboratories state an error rate for their measurement on the report, participate in EQA schemes and use reference materials regularly to adjust their own internal standards. PMID:21811303

  7. Discrepancies between proceedings abstracts and posters at a scientific meeting.

    PubMed

    Zelle, Boris A; Zlowodzki, Michael; Bhandari, Mohit

    2005-06-01

    The proceedings handbook of abstracts from scientific meetings aims to provide meeting attendees with an accurate summary of scientific presentations. Given that posters are prepared closer to the meeting than the abstracts for the proceedings book, we hypothesized that there is a high rate of inconsistency between abstracts in the proceedings handbook and the corresponding posters. We compared the poster abstracts printed in the proceedings handbook with the actual posters at the 71st annual meeting of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons in 2004. Our comparison included all 50 trauma posters and 52 adult reconstruction knee posters. This comparison revealed discrepancies in 76% of the presented posters. These changes were detected in all parts of the posters including titles (33%), authorship (49%), methods (8%), results (30%), and conclusions (2%). The sample size changed in 15% of the studies. Discrepancies between the trauma posters versus the adult reconstruction knee posters were similar. Our findings suggest that discrepancies between the poster abstracts in the proceedings handbook and actual poster presentations are common, but changes in conclusions are rare. Meeting attendees should not assume that the proceedings handbook provides an accurate reflection of poster presentations. Visiting the poster section is recommended.

  8. Discrepancies in Communication Versus Documentation of Weight-Management Benchmarks

    PubMed Central

    Turer, Christy B.; Barlow, Sarah E.; Montaño, Sergio; Flores, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    To examine gaps in communication versus documentation of weight-management clinical practices, communication was recorded during primary care visits with 6- to 12-year-old overweight/obese Latino children. Communication/documentation content was coded by 3 reviewers using communication transcripts and health-record documentation. Discrepancies in communication/documentation content codes were resolved through consensus. Bivariate/multivariable analyses examined factors associated with discrepancies in benchmark communication/documentation. Benchmarks were neither communicated nor documented in up to 42% of visits, and communicated but not documented or documented but not communicated in up to 20% of visits. Lowest benchmark performance rates were for laboratory studies (35%) and nutrition/weight-management referrals (42%). In multivariable analysis, overweight (vs obesity) was associated with 1.6 more discrepancies in communication versus documentation (P = .03). Many weight-management benchmarks are not met, not documented, or performed without being communicated. Enhanced communication with families and documentation in health records may promote lifestyle changes in overweight children and higher quality care for overweight children in primary care. PMID:28239625

  9. CAN SOLID BODY DESTRUCTION EXPLAIN ABUNDANCE DISCREPANCIES IN PLANETARY NEBULAE?

    SciTech Connect

    Henney, William J.; Stasinska, Grazyna E-mail: grazyna.stasinska@obspm.f

    2010-03-10

    In planetary nebulae (PNe), abundances of oxygen and other heavy elements derived from optical recombination lines are systematically higher than those derived from collisionally excited lines. We investigate the hypothesis that the destruction of solid bodies may produce pockets of cool, high-metallicity gas that could explain these abundance discrepancies. Under the assumption of maximally efficient radiative ablation, we derive two fundamental constraints that the solid bodies must satisfy in order that their evaporation during the PN phase should generate a high enough gas-phase metallicity. A local constraint implies that the bodies must be larger than tens of meters, while a global constraint implies that the total mass of the solid body reservoir must exceed a few hundredths of a solar mass. This mass greatly exceeds the mass of any population of comets or large debris particles expected to be found orbiting evolved low- to intermediate-mass stars. We therefore conclude that contemporaneous solid body destruction cannot explain the observed abundance discrepancies in PNe. However, similar arguments applied to the sublimation of solid bodies during the preceding asymptotic giant branch phase do not lead to such a clear-cut conclusion. In this case, the required reservoir of volatile solids is only one ten-thousandth of a solar mass, which is comparable to the most massive debris disks observed around solar-type stars, implying that this mechanism may contribute to abundance discrepancies in at least some PNe, so long as mixing of the high-metallicity gas is inefficient.

  10. Isolated Sensorineural Hearing Loss as a Sequela after Lightning Strike

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Mahfuz; Kalkan, Ferhat; Bozan, Nazım; Özçalimli, İsa; Zeki Erdem, Mehmet; Yalınkılıç, Abdülaziz; Garca, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-01-01

    In most of the surviving patients after a lightning strike, audiovestibular abnormalities have been reported. The most frequently reported type of abnormalities is a tympanic membrane perforation with hearing loss and external ear canal burn. However a sensor neural hearing loss and mixed type hearing loss can also occur, but these occur rarely. A nineteen-year-old female patient had, after a lightning strike, serious burns on the left ear, behind the ear, and on the chest and neck. She also had in her left ear 108 dB hearing loss with irregular central perforation and in her right ear 52 dB sensorineural hearing loss. There was no hearing loss before the strike. A hearing aid was recommended for the right ear and good care and follow-up were recommended for the left ear. A lightning strike can cause serious audiological damage. Therefore, it is necessary to make a careful audiovestibular evaluation of the patients. Although there exist rarely healed cases from sensorineural hearing loss after lightning strike in literature, in our case hearing loss occurred bilaterally and then it healed unilaterally. This condition is quite rare in literature. PMID:26161278

  11. Isolated Sensorineural Hearing Loss as a Sequela after Lightning Strike.

    PubMed

    Turan, Mahfuz; Kalkan, Ferhat; Bozan, Nazım; Özçalimli, İsa; Zeki Erdem, Mehmet; Yalınkılıç, Abdülaziz; Garca, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-01-01

    In most of the surviving patients after a lightning strike, audiovestibular abnormalities have been reported. The most frequently reported type of abnormalities is a tympanic membrane perforation with hearing loss and external ear canal burn. However a sensor neural hearing loss and mixed type hearing loss can also occur, but these occur rarely. A nineteen-year-old female patient had, after a lightning strike, serious burns on the left ear, behind the ear, and on the chest and neck. She also had in her left ear 108 dB hearing loss with irregular central perforation and in her right ear 52 dB sensorineural hearing loss. There was no hearing loss before the strike. A hearing aid was recommended for the right ear and good care and follow-up were recommended for the left ear. A lightning strike can cause serious audiological damage. Therefore, it is necessary to make a careful audiovestibular evaluation of the patients. Although there exist rarely healed cases from sensorineural hearing loss after lightning strike in literature, in our case hearing loss occurred bilaterally and then it healed unilaterally. This condition is quite rare in literature.

  12. How Orogen-scale Exhumed Strike-slip Faults Initiate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, S.; Neubauer, F.

    2015-12-01

    Orogen-scale strike-slip faults present one the most important geodynamic processes affecting the lithosphere-asthenosphere system. In specific subtypes, faulting is virtually initiated along hot-to-cool boundaries, e.g. at such of hot granite intrusions or metamorphic core complexes to cool country rocks. Such fault zones are often subparallel to mountain ranges and expose a wide variety of mylonitic, cataclastic and non-cohesive fault rocks, which were formed at different structural levels of the crust and are stacked within each other ("telescoping"). Exhumation of rocks is, therefore, a common feature of such strike-slip faults implying major transtensive and/or transpressive processes accompanying pure strike-slip motion. The hot-to-cool thermal structure across the fault zone significantly influences the physical fault rock properties. One major question is how and where a major strike-slip initiates and further development. Here, we propose a model in which major continental exhumed strike-slip faults potentially evolve along rheologically weak zones such as plutons or margins of metamorphic complexes. As an example, we propose a model for the Ailao Shan-Red River (ASRR) fault, SE Asia, which initiated along the edge of a plutonic belt and evolved in response to India-Asia collision with four tectonic phases.

  13. Global Morphological Mapping of Strike-Slip Structures on Ganymede

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith-Konter, B. R.; Cameron, M. E.; Seifert, F.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Collins, G. C.

    2014-12-01

    Many inferences of strike-slip faulting and distributed shear zones on Ganymede suggest that strike-slip tectonism may be important to the structural development of its surface and in the transition from dark to light (grooved) materials. To better understand the role of strike-slip tectonism in shaping Ganymede's multifaceted surface, we identify and map key examples of strike-slip morphologies (en echelon structures, strike-slip duplexes, laterally offset pre-existing features, and possible strained craters) from Galileo and Voyager images. Here we present the current state of these global mapping efforts, with particular emphasis given to complex structures associated with grooved terrain (e.g. Nun Sulci) and terrains transitional from dark to light terrain (e.g. the boundary between Nippur Sulcus and Marius Regio). These results are being synthesized into a global database representing an inferred sense of shear for fractures on Ganymede. This, combined with existing observations of extensional features, is helping to narrow down the range of possible principal stress directions that could have acted at the regional or global scale to produce grooved terrain. Moreover, these data sets, combined with mechanical models of shear failure and global stress sources, are providing constraints for testing possible mechanisms for grooved terrain formation on Ganymede.

  14. Comparison of Blade-Strike Modeling Results with Empirical Data

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2004-05-06

    This study is the initial stage of further investigation into the dynamics of injury to fish during passage through a turbine runner. As part of the study, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) estimated the probability of blade strike, and associated injury, as a function of fish length and turbine operating geometry at two adjacent turbines in Powerhouse 1 of Bonneville Dam. Units 5 and 6 had identical intakes, stay vanes, wicket gates, and draft tubes, but Unit 6 had a new runner and curved discharge ring to minimize gaps between the runner hub and blades and between the blade tips and discharge ring. We used a mathematical model to predict blade strike associated with two Kaplan turbines and compared results with empirical data from biological tests conducted in 1999 and 2000. Blade-strike models take into consideration the geometry of the turbine blades and discharges as well as fish length, orientation, and distribution along the runner.

  15. Strike mechanics of an ambush predator: the spearing mantis shrimp.

    PubMed

    deVries, M S; Murphy, E A K; Patek, S N

    2012-12-15

    Ambush predation is characterized by an animal scanning the environment from a concealed position and then rapidly executing a surprise attack. Mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) consist of both ambush predators ('spearers') and foragers ('smashers'). Spearers hide in sandy burrows and capture evasive prey, whereas smashers search for prey away from their burrows and typically hammer hard-shelled, sedentary prey. Here, we examined the kinematics, morphology and field behavior of spearing mantis shrimp and compared them with previously studied smashers. Using two species with dramatically different adult sizes, we found that strikes produced by the diminutive species, Alachosquilla vicina, were faster (mean peak speed 5.72±0.91 m s(-1); mean duration 3.26±0.41 ms) than the strikes produced by the large species, Lysiosquillina maculata (mean peak speed 2.30±0.85 m s(-1); mean duration 24.98±9.68 ms). Micro-computed tomography and dissections showed that both species have the spring and latch structures that are used in other species for producing a spring-loaded strike; however, kinematic analyses indicated that only A. vicina consistently engages the elastic mechanism. In the field, L. maculata ambushed evasive prey primarily at night while hidden in burrows, striking with both long and short durations compared with laboratory videos. We expected ambush predators to strike with very high speeds, yet instead we found that these spearing mantis shrimp struck more slowly and with longer durations than smashers. Nonetheless, the strikes of spearers occurred at similar speeds and durations to those of other aquatic predators of evasive prey. Although counterintuitive, these findings suggest that ambush predators do not actually need to produce extremely high speeds, and that the very fastest predators are using speed to achieve other mechanical feats, such as producing large impact forces.

  16. Comparison of blade-strike modeling results with empirical data

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2004-03-01

    This study is the initial stage of further investigation into the dynamics of injury to fish during passage through a turbine runner. As part of the study, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) estimated the probability of blade strike, and associated injury, as a function of fish length and turbine operating geometry at two adjacent turbines in Powerhouse 1 of Bonneville Dam. Units 5 and 6 had identical intakes, stay vanes, wicket gates, and draft tubes, but Unit 6 had a new runner and curved discharge ring to minimize gaps between the runner hub and blades and between the blade tips and discharge ring. We used a mathematical model to predict blade strike associated with two Kaplan turbines and compared results with empirical data from biological tests conducted in 1999 and 2000. Blade-strike models take into consideration the geometry of the turbine blades and discharges as well as fish length, orientation, and distribution along the runner. The first phase of this study included a sensitivity analysis to consider the effects of difference in geometry and operations between families of turbines on the strike probability response surface. The analysis revealed that the orientation of fish relative to the leading edge of a runner blade and the location that fish pass along the blade between the hub and blade tip are critical uncertainties in blade-strike models. Over a range of discharges, the average prediction of injury from blade strike was two to five times higher than average empirical estimates of visible injury from shear and mechanical devices. Empirical estimates of mortality may be better metrics for comparison to predicted injury rates than other injury measures for fish passing at mid-blade and blade-tip locations.

  17. Strike-slip faulting, rotation, and along-strike extension in the Kopeh Dagh mountains, NE Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollingsworth, J.; Jackson, J.; Walker, R.; Gheitanchi, M. R.; Bolourchi, M. J.

    2005-12-01

    The Kopeh Dagh is a linear mountain range separating the shortening in Iran from the stable, flat Turkmenistan shield. In its central part is an array of active right-lateral strike-slip faults that obliquely cut the range and produce offsets of several kilometers in the geomorphology and geological structure. They are responsible for major destructive earthquakes in the 19th and 20th centuries and represent an important seismic hazard for this now-populous region of NE Iran. These strike-slip faults all end in thrusts, revealed by the uplift and incision of late Quaternary river terraces, and do not continue beyond the Atrek river valley, which forms the southern margin of the Kopeh Dagh. The cumulative offset on these strike-slip faults, and their associated rotation about vertical axes, can account for ~ 60~km of N-S shortening. This value is similar to the Late Quaternary N-S right-lateral shear between central Iran and Afghanistan, which must be accommodated in NE Iran. The strike-slip faults also require ~ 30~km of along-strike extension of the Kopeh Dagh, which is taken up by the westward component of motion between the South Caspian Basin and both Eurasia and central Iran. It is probable that these motions occurred over the last ~ 10~Ma.

  18. Strike-slip faulting, rotation, and along-strike elongation in the Kopeh Dagh mountains, NE Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollingsworth, James; Jackson, James; Walker, Richard; Reza Gheitanchi, Mohammad; Javad Bolourchi, Mohammad

    2006-09-01

    The Kopeh Dagh is a linear mountain range separating the shortening in Iran from the stable, flat Turkmenistan platform. In its central part is an array of active right-lateral strike-slip faults that obliquely cut the range and produce offsets of several kilometres in the geomorphology and geological structure. They are responsible for major destructive earthquakes in the 19th and 20th centuries and represent an important seismic hazard for this now-populous region of NE Iran. These strike-slip faults all end in thrusts, revealed by the uplift and incision of Late Quaternary river terraces, and do not continue beyond the Atrak river valley, which forms the southern margin of the Kopeh Dagh. The cumulative offset on these strike-slip faults, and their associated rotation about vertical axes, can account for ~60 km of N-S shortening. This value is similar to estimates of the Late Quaternary N-S right-lateral shear between central Iran and Afghanistan, which must be accommodated in NE Iran. The strike-slip faults also require ~30 km of along-strike extension of the Kopeh Dagh, which is taken up by the westward component of motion between the South Caspian Basin and both Eurasia and Central Iran. It is probable that these motions occurred over the last ~10 Ma.

  19. Joint stiffness and running economy during imposed forefoot strike before and after a long run in rearfoot strike runners.

    PubMed

    Melcher, Daniel A; Paquette, Max R; Schilling, Brian K; Bloomer, Richard J

    2017-12-01

    Research has focused on the effects of acute strike pattern modifications on lower extremity joint stiffness and running economy (RE). Strike pattern modifications on running biomechanics have mostly been studied while runners complete short running bouts. This study examined the effects of an imposed forefoot strike (FFS) on RE and ankle and knee joint stiffness before and after a long run in habitual rearfoot strike (RFS) runners. Joint kinetics and RE were collected before and after a long run. Sagittal joint kinetics were computed from kinematic and ground reaction force data that were collected during over-ground running trials in 13 male runners. RE was measured during treadmill running. Knee flexion range of motion, knee extensor moment and ankle joint stiffness were lower while plantarflexor moment and knee joint stiffness were greater during imposed FFS compared with RFS. The long run did not influence the difference in ankle and knee joint stiffness between strike patterns. Runners were more economical during RFS than imposed FFS and RE was not influenced by the long run. These findings suggest that using a FFS pattern towards the end of a long run may not be mechanically or metabolically beneficial for well-trained male RFS runners.

  20. [Force-feeding of hunger-striking prisoners].

    PubMed

    Glick, Shimon

    2014-09-01

    In contrast to the position of the World Medical Association and the Ethics Council of the Israel Medical Association, the author argues for forced-feeding of hunger-striking prisoners when their condition reaches a stage of danger of death or permanent injury. This position is based on the priority of human life over autonomy, and of a communitarian ethic. This position is supported by a District Court decision ordering the feeding of a hunger-striking prisoner, by a Supreme Court decision imposing surgery on a non-consenting prisoner, and in line with Israel's Patient's Right Law.

  1. Remarkable rates of lightning strike mortality in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Monique Borgerhoff; Msalu, Lameck; Caro, Tim; Salerno, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Livingstone's second mission site on the shore of Lake Malawi suffers very high rates of consequential lightning strikes. Comprehensive interviewing of victims and their relatives in seven Traditional Authorities in Nkhata Bay District, Malawi revealed that the annual rate of consequential strikes was 419/million, more than six times higher than that in other developing countries; the rate of deaths from lightning was 84/million/year, 5.4 times greater than the highest ever recorded. These remarkable figures reveal that lightning constitutes a significant stochastic source of mortality with potential life history consequences, but it should not deflect attention away from the more prominent causes of mortality in this rural area.

  2. Determining the probability of lightning striking the Device Assembly Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hasbrouck, R.T.

    1996-06-07

    The likelihood of lightning striking a new facility at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) has been considered in conjunction with a Lightning Hazard Mitigation study for that facility. Probability was estimated using both an older {open_quotes}traditional{close_quotes} method and a new method in which five years of actual NTS lightning strike data was analyzed. We believe the new method provides a more credible estimate. An important finding is that the NTS data exhibits a distribution of return-stroke peak-current amplitudes that is significantly less severe than that generally used by the lightning protection community, or found in other parts of the United States.

  3. Heel strike detection using split force-plate treadmill.

    PubMed

    Rouhani, Hossein; Abe, Masaki O; Nakazawa, Kimitaka; Popovic, Milos R; Masani, Kei

    2015-03-01

    A common source of error when detecting heel-strike moments utilizing split force-plate treadmills is unwillingly stepping on contra-lateral force-plate. In this study, we quantified this error when heel-strike was detected based on such erroneous data and compared three methods to investigate how well the heel-strikes and stride-intervals were detected with erroneous data. Eleven subjects walked on a split force-plate treadmill for more than 20min. We used 20N and 50% body-weight thresholds to detect the heel-strike moments (HS20N and HS50%, respectively). Besides, we used linear approximation to estimate the unaffected force profile from affected force-plate data, and subsequently to detect the heel-strike moments (HSest). We used heel-strike moments detected by a foot-switch as a reference to compare accuracy of HS20N, HS50% and HSest. HS20N and HSest detected heel-strike moments accurately for unaffected force-plate data (median(max) errors for all subjects: 9(23) and 9(37) ms) but HS50% showed significantly larger errors (52(74) ms). Unlike HS50% and HSest, HS20N was considerably affected by the affected force-plate data (23(68) ms). The error in stride-interval measurement was relatively small using any methods for unaffected force-plate data (3(7), 6(8), and 6(12) ms), while stride-interval errors were large for some subjects when using HS20N for affected data (6(175) ms). We concluded that unwillingly stepping on contra-lateral force-plate occurred a few percent and up to 37.7% of all strides (median: 12.9%). Our proposed method (HSest) robustly showed small errors for heel-strike detection and stride-interval calculation consistently among subjects, while HS50% and HS20N showed large errors depending on subjects.

  4. Drone Strikes in Pakistan: Reasons to Assess Civilian Casualties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    photo: An MQ-9 Reaper, armed with GB U-12 Paveway II laser guided munitions and AGM-114 Hellfire missiles, piloted by Col. Lex Turner flies a combat...campaign. v \\Te observe that drone strikes in Pakistan were more likely to cause civilian casualties on av- erage than drone stiikes by military forces in...T11e Times (London) ,July 26, 2012. V \\!hilc not accomplished with a drone strike, that raid represents one end of a spectnnn with regard to trading

  5. Explaining the discrepancy between forced fold amplitude and sill thickness.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoggett, Murray; Jones, Stephen M.; Reston, Timothy; Magee, Craig; Jackson, Christopher AL

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the behaviour of Earth's surface in response to movement and emplacement of magma underground is important because it assists calculation of subsurface magma volumes, and could feed into eruption forecasting. Studies of seismic reflection data have observed that the amplitude of a forced fold above an igneous sill is usually smaller than the thickness of the sill itself. This observation implies that fold amplitude alone provides only a lower bound for magma volume, and an understanding of the mechanism(s) behind the fold amplitude/sill thickness discrepancy is also required to obtain a true estimate of magma volume. Mechanisms suggested to explain the discrepancy include problems with seismic imaging and varying strain behaviour of the host rock. Here we examine the extent to which host-rock compaction can explain the fold amplitude/sill thickness discrepancy. This mechanism operates in cases where a sill is injected into the upper few kilometres of sedimentary rock that contain significant porosity. Accumulation of sediment after sill intrusion reduces the amplitude of the forced fold by compaction, but the sill itself undergoes little compaction since its starting porosity is almost zero. We compiled a database of good-quality 2D and 3D seismic observations where sill thickness has been measured independently of forced fold geometry. We then backstripped the post-intrusion sedimentary section to reconstruct the amplitude of the forced fold at the time of intrusion. We used the standard compaction model in which porosity decays exponentially below the sediment surface. In all examples we studied, post-sill-emplacement compaction can explain all of the fold amplitude/sill thickness discrepancy, subject to uncertainty in compaction model parameters. This result leads directly to an improved method of predicting magma volume from fold amplitude, including how uncertainty in compaction parameters maps onto uncertainty in magma volume. Our work implies

  6. Path discrepancies between great circle and rhumb line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, R.

    1983-01-01

    A mathematical model for a comparative analysis of great circle vs. rhumb line navigation in the continental United States has been developed at the Avionics Engineering Center, Ohio University. A FORTRAN simulation of the model has been implemented on the IBM 370 computer. The simulation predicts pertinent navigation information for the two flight paths. The basis for the project, which is a part of an M.S. thesis, is to provide a data base for computing discrepancies between the two flight paths. This document briefly describes the model and discusses the implications of the results obtained.

  7. Source characteristics of the 2015 Mw6.5 Lefkada, Greece, strike-slip earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melgar, Diego; Ganas, Athanassios; Geng, Jianghui; Liang, Cunren; Fielding, Eric J.; Kassaras, Ioannis

    2017-03-01

    We present a kinematic slip model from the inversion of 1 Hz GPS, strong motion, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data for the 2015 Mw6.5 Lefkada, Greece, earthquake. We will show that most of the slip during this event is updip of the hypocenter (10.7 km depth) with substantial slip (>0.5 m) between 5 km depth and the surface. The peak slip is 1.6 m, and the inverted rake angles show predominantly strike-slip motion. Slip concentrates mostly to the south of the hypocenter, and the source time function indicates a total duration of 17 s with peak moment rate at 6 s. We will show that a 65° dipping geometry is the most plausible due to a lack of polarity reversals in the InSAR data and good agreement with Coulomb stress modeling, aftershock locations, and regional moment tensors. We also note that there was an 20 cm peak-to-peak tsunami observed at one tide gauge station 300 km away from the earthquake. We will discuss tsunami modeling results and study the possible source of the amplitude discrepancy between the modeled and the observed data at far-field tide gauges.

  8. Objective assessment of foot strike in Parkinson's disease*.

    PubMed

    Contin, M; Riva, R; Martinelli, P; Balboni, M; Tonello, C; Albani, F; Baruzzi, A

    1996-05-01

    We assessed the nature of foot strike and the potential effect of acute levodopa dosing in Parkinsonian patients with mild to severe fluctuations of motor performances in comparison with healthy volunteers. Forty-eight patients were enrolled in the study and compared with 33 age and gender matched controls. Each patient was assessed by a computerized electropodographic system before levodopa dosing and 1 and 2-h after intake of a standard fasting morning dose of levodopa plus benserazide. Twelve foot strikes (six right, six left) were analysed per patient. The controls underwent three repeated examinations at 1-h intervals. Patients' motor response to acute levodopa dosing was evaluated at fixed times by a battery of motor tests. Foot strike dynamics differed between patients and controls: in particular, first ground contact of the foot was significantly shifted from heel to forefoot in patients compared to controls. The forward shift in footprint during walking was more marked on the more affected body side but was unrelated to the severity and duration of Parkinsonism and unresponsive to levodopa dosing. Tapping and walking tests were overall responsive to acute levodopa intake. The system seemed suitable to detect irregular patterns of foot strike even at the early stages of Parkinsonism, when lower limb disorder was not clinically overt, and might be useful in the search for clinical markers of Parkinsonian gait.

  9. When Disaster Strikes Is Logistics and Contracting Support Ready?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-27

    When Disaster Strikes Is Logistics and Contracting Support Ready? 27 September 2011 by Dr. Aruna Apte, Assistant Professor, and CDR (Ret...the Authors Dr. Aruna Apte has successfully completed various research projects, involving application of mathematical models and optimization...She has recently published a monograph on Humanitarian Logistics. Aruna received her PhD in Operations Research from Southern Methodist University

  10. Air Force B-21 Long Range Strike Bomber

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-14

    Congressional Research Service 7 Industrial Base Northrop Grumman intends to build the B-21 at its facilities at Air Force Plant 42 in Palmdale, CA, which were...DefenseNews.com, March 2, 2016. 32 A useful discussion of these issues can be found in Andrew Hunter , “Long Range Strike: 3 Lessons from Defense

  11. Torts Liability for Strike Action and Third Party Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raday, Frances

    1979-01-01

    Studies the nature of the torts liability incurred in strikes and the extent of existing immunities bestowed on strikers and their organizers, and explores the principles that should govern liability and immunity. Available from Israel Law Review Association, c/o Faculty of Law, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus, P.O.B. 24100, Jerusalem…

  12. Formation and Suppression of Strike-Slip Fault Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curren, Ivy S.; Bird, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Strike-slip faults are a defining feature of plate tectonics, yet many aspects of their development and evolution remain unresolved. For intact materials and/or regions, a standard sequence of shear development is predicted from physical models and field studies, commencing with the formation of Riedel shears and culminating with the development of a throughgoing fault. However, for materials and/or regions that contain crustal heterogeneities (normal and/or thrust faults, joints, etc.) that predate shear deformation, kinematic evolution of strike-slip faulting is poorly constrained. We present a new plane-stress finite-strain physical analog model developed to investigate primary deformation zone evolution in simple shear, pure strike-slip fault systems in which faults or joints are present before shear initiation. Experimental results suggest that preexisting mechanical discontinuities (faults and/or joints) have a marked effect on the geometry of such systems, causing deflection, lateral distribution, and suppression of shears. A lower limit is placed on shear offset necessary to produce a throughgoing fault in systems containing preexisting structures. Fault zone development observed in these experiments provides new insight for kinematic interpretation of structural data from strike-slip fault zones on Earth, Venus, and other terrestrial bodies.

  13. Lightning-Strike Disaster: Effects on Children's Fears and Worries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollinger, Stephen J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compares fears of lightning-strike victims (N=29) with matched control children (N=58), using fear reports from children and their mothers. Differences between samples were most pronounced for child-reported fears. Correspondence between mothers' and children's reports of intense storm-related fears was markedly larger in the lightning sample than…

  14. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Aircraft (F-35)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-198 F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Aircraft (F-35) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined TY

  15. When the Corporate Storm Strikes the Academy: Faculty Response Required

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBoy, James L.

    2015-01-01

    When the corporate storm strikes the academy, faculty must be willing and able to repel administrative assaults upon academic freedom, shared governance, and tenure. This paper will describe the on-going clash between administrators who embrace the corporate mindset and faculty who cherish traditions of shared governance and collegial…

  16. What To Do When Contagious Disease Strikes Your School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL.

    This publication presents 10 documents collected to accompany a seminar entitled "What To Do When Contagious Disease Strikes Your School," presented at the 31st annual convention of the National Organization on Legal Problems of Education in 1985. The materials include (1) an agenda of the seminar listing the speakers, their topics, and…

  17. Monte Carlo Simulation to Estimate Likelihood of Direct Lightning Strikes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mata, Carlos; Medelius, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    A software tool has been designed to quantify the lightning exposure at launch sites of the stack at the pads under different configurations. In order to predict lightning strikes to generic structures, this model uses leaders whose origins (in the x-y plane) are obtained from a 2D random, normal distribution.

  18. Torts Liability for Strike Action and Third Party Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raday, Frances

    1979-01-01

    Studies the nature of the torts liability incurred in strikes and the extent of existing immunities bestowed on strikers and their organizers, and explores the principles that should govern liability and immunity. Available from Israel Law Review Association, c/o Faculty of Law, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus, P.O.B. 24100, Jerusalem…

  19. Building a Distributed Product Description for the Joint Strike Fighter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-15

    Jim Hollenbach Simulation Strategies , Inc. DPD Project Coordinator Building a Distributed Product Description for the Joint Strike Fighter... Strategies , Inc. Performing Organization Report Number Sponsoring/Monitoring Agency Name(s) and Address(es) NDIA (National Defense Industrial...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. JSF SBA Strategy for EMD • Fall 2001: Down-select to one Weapon System Contractor, enter

  20. What To Do When Contagious Disease Strikes Your School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL.

    This publication presents 10 documents collected to accompany a seminar entitled "What To Do When Contagious Disease Strikes Your School," presented at the 31st annual convention of the National Organization on Legal Problems of Education in 1985. The materials include (1) an agenda of the seminar listing the speakers, their topics, and…

  1. National Strike Force (NSF) Oil Spill Response Equipment Upgrade

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    Current options for upgrading oil spill response equipment for the Coast Guard’s National Strike Force (NSF) were investigated. Specific systems and...design for the NSF’s skimming barrier retrieval system has been proposed. A worldwide survey of oil spill response equipment was conducted to identify

  2. Linkage mechanics and power amplification of the mantis shrimp's strike.

    PubMed

    Patek, S N; Nowroozi, B N; Baio, J E; Caldwell, R L; Summers, A P

    2007-10-01

    Mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) generate extremely rapid and forceful predatory strikes through a suite of structural modifications of their raptorial appendages. Here we examine the key morphological and kinematic components of the raptorial strike that amplify the power output of the underlying muscle contractions. Morphological analyses of joint mechanics are integrated with CT scans of mineralization patterns and kinematic analyses toward the goal of understanding the mechanical basis of linkage dynamics and strike performance. We test whether a four-bar linkage mechanism amplifies rotation in this system and find that the rotational amplification is approximately two times the input rotation, thereby amplifying the velocity and acceleration of the strike. The four-bar model is generally supported, although the observed kinematic transmission is lower than predicted by the four-bar model. The results of the morphological, kinematic and mechanical analyses suggest a multi-faceted mechanical system that integrates latches, linkages and lever arms and is powered by multiple sites of cuticular energy storage. Through reorganization of joint architecture and asymmetric distribution of mineralized cuticle, the mantis shrimp's raptorial appendage offers a remarkable example of how structural and mechanical modifications can yield power amplification sufficient to produce speeds and forces at the outer known limits of biological systems.

  3. Manual for School Visits During Strike Situations. PDE Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    In Pennsylvania, the legal duty to reimburse a school district is based on the days of instruction provided by a district and payment only for the actual number of instruction days up to 180. The Department of Education presumes that, during a teacher strike, no days of instruction are being provided. However, should a school board notify the…

  4. Seismic slip of oceanic strike-slip earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aderhold, K.; Abercrombie, R. E.; Antolik, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the controls on seismic slip in oceanic lithosphere through teleseismic body-wave modeling of oceanic strike-slip earthquakes to determine fault plane as well as the depth distribution of seismic rupture. At first-order we can combine modern constraints on oceanic transform faults of slip rate, cumulative seismic moment and improved centroid depths to reveal a disparity of strain release that must be accommodated with aseismic slip (Brune, 1968). We seek to attain a higher order of understanding the distribution and relationship between aseismic and seismically slipping areas of oceanic strike-slip faults. Examining the seismic slip of large earthquakes on these faults can help to constrain properties of oceanic lithosphere and determine if the thickness of the seismogenic zone is controlled by temperature, composition, geometry or a combination of attributes. Over 45 MW ≥ 7.0 oceanic strike-slip earthquakes have occurred since 1990, with 10 of these in the last two years alone, yet little is known about their depth, rupture pattern and fault orientation. The two largest earthquakes of 2012 occurred on April 11th and were both intraplate oceanic strike-slip earthquakes; they appear to have ruptured multiple orthogonally oriented faults with some rupture extending to unexpectedly great depths. The depth of oceanic strike-slip earthquakes is difficult to constrain, particularly in the shallow crust; this study uses teleseismic body-waves P and S as well as depth phases pP, sP and water multiples to enhance our precision. Earthquakes off the coast of Sumatra, California, Alaska and Western Australia as well as near the South Sandwich and Santa Cruz Islands are carefully repicked for phase arrivals and polarities. We calculate moment tensors for magnitude 6.0 ≤ MW ≤ 8.0 earthquakes in these areas with particular attention paid to the highly nodal first arriving P phase. For events of magnitude 7.0 ≤ MW ≤ 8.0 since 1990 we perform finite

  5. Strike-slip Faulting On Ganymede, Now And Then

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Robert T.; Smith-Konter, B. R.; Cameron, M. E.; DeRemer-Keeney, L. C.; Nimmo, F.

    2012-10-01

    Strike-slip tectonism is important to the structural development of Ganymede’s surface, and in the transition from dark to grooved terrain. Three distinct signatures of strike-slip faulting are recognized [1]: (1) en echelon structures, (2) strike-slip duplexes, and (3) laterally offset pre-existing features. As strike-slip faulting progressed, en echelon fractures (in both dark and grooved terrains) merged to define en echelon swaths, which can become distinct tectonic domains. Three morphological categories of strike-slip “duplexes” (spindle-shaped lensoid regions bounded by strike-slip faults) occur, suggesting an evolutionary sequence from discontinuous fractures in dark terrain, to lensoid bounding structures, to lensoid regions with subparallel internal structure in grooved terrain. Ganymede’s 24 measured duplexes have an average length/width ratio of 2.4, on the low end of the terrestrial range [2]. Lateral offsets of pre-existing features betray the existence of some major strike-slip faults: Dardanus Sulcus (13°W, 18°S) is displaced 45 km by a prominent NE-SW trending fault. We model Coulomb shear failure on Ganymede, considering nonsynchronous rotation (NSR), and diurnal stresses both for present (0.0013) and possible past high ( 0.05) eccentricity [3]. We adopt NSR period 0.14 Ma; Love numbers h2 = 1.52 and l2 = 0.38; Young’s modulus 9.3 GPa; Poisson’s ratio 0.33; and fault depth 2 km. NSR shear stress resolved along the Dardanus fault is 0.3 MPa, sufficient to induce failure to 1.4 km for friction coefficient 0.3. For past high eccentricity, diurnal stress would have modulated NSR stress by 100 kPa through Ganymede’s tidal cycle. This could have induced shear heating [4] and tidal walking [5], as modeled for Europa. References: [1] DeRemer and Pappalardo (2003), LPSC, 34, #2033; [2] Aydin and Nur (1982), Tectonics, 1, 91; [3] Showman and Malhotra (1997), Icarus, 127, 93; [4] Nimmo and Gaidos (2002), JGR, 107, 10.1029/2000JE001476; [5

  6. Reporter Discrepancies Among Parents, Adolescents, and Peers: Adolescent Attachment and Informant Depressive Symptoms as Explanatory Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Cassidy, Jude; Dykas, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    The issue of informant discrepancies about child and adolescent functioning is an important concern for clinicians, developmental psychologists, and others who must consider ways of handling discrepant reports of information, but reasons for discrepancies in reports have been poorly understood. Adolescent attachment and informant depressive symptoms were examined as two explanations for absolute and directional discrepancies about adolescent symptoms, relationships, and social behavior in a sample of 189 eleventh-grade students (mean age = 16.5 years). Adolescent attachment predicted absolute discrepancies, with greater attachment coherence associated with fewer discrepancies in reports of adolescent depressive symptoms, parent-adolescent conflict, and adolescent externalizing behavior. Parents’ but not adolescents’ depressive symptoms sometimes predicted absolute discrepancies. Mothers’ depressive symptoms and adolescent attachment predicted the direction of discrepancies for mother-peer reports only. PMID:21410916

  7. Neuropsychological and Academic Achievement Correlates of Abnormal WISC-R Verbal-Performance Discrepancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lueger, Robert J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined neuropsychological and academic achievement correlates of statistically abnormal verbal-performance discrepancies on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised). Results indicated that abnormal discrepancies reflect specific aphasia deficits rather than generalized neuropsychological dysfunction and that academic achievement…

  8. Recent physician strike in Israel: a health system under stress?

    PubMed

    Weil, Leonora G; Nun, Gabi Bin; McKee, Martin

    2013-08-15

    In 2011, a series of physician strikes in Israel followed eight months of unsuccessful negotiations with the government (Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Finance). Strikes by physicians may be a warning that all is not well in a health system and protestors have claimed that they signify a system failure. In contrast, others argue that strikes have been a feature of the Israeli health system from its inception and should not be a cause for alarm. This paper analyses the Israeli health system from the perspective of the strikers' demands using the World Health Organisation's six health system building blocks as a framework, including: service delivery; health workforce; information; medical products, vaccines and technologies; leadership and governance; and financing. While we recognise that the immediate causes of the 2011 strikes were concerns about salaries and working conditions, we argue that a complex set of interacting factors underlie the strikers' demands, resonating with issues relating to five of the WHO building blocks. We argue that of the five, three are most significant and limit progress with all the others: a disgruntled health workforce, many of whom believe that striking is the only way to be heard; a lack of leadership by the government in understanding and responding to physicians' concerns; and a purported information insufficiency, manifest as a lack of critique and analysis that may have prevented those at the top from making a reliable diagnosis of the system's problems. This paper argues that there are cracks within the Israeli health system but that these are not irresolvable. The Israeli health system is a relatively new and popular health system, but there are no grounds for complacency.

  9. Recent physician strike in Israel: a health system under stress?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, a series of physician strikes in Israel followed eight months of unsuccessful negotiations with the government (Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Finance). Strikes by physicians may be a warning that all is not well in a health system and protestors have claimed that they signify a system failure. In contrast, others argue that strikes have been a feature of the Israeli health system from its inception and should not be a cause for alarm. This paper analyses the Israeli health system from the perspective of the strikers' demands using the World Health Organisation’s six health system building blocks as a framework, including: service delivery; health workforce; information; medical products, vaccines and technologies; leadership and governance; and financing. While we recognise that the immediate causes of the 2011 strikes were concerns about salaries and working conditions, we argue that a complex set of interacting factors underlie the strikers' demands, resonating with issues relating to five of the WHO building blocks. We argue that of the five, three are most significant and limit progress with all the others: a disgruntled health workforce, many of whom believe that striking is the only way to be heard; a lack of leadership by the government in understanding and responding to physicians' concerns; and a purported information insufficiency, manifest as a lack of critique and analysis that may have prevented those at the top from making a reliable diagnosis of the system’s problems. This paper argues that there are cracks within the Israeli health system but that these are not irresolvable. The Israeli health system is a relatively new and popular health system, but there are no grounds for complacency. PMID:23947638

  10. Prevalence of tooth-size discrepancy among different malocclusion groups.

    PubMed

    Laino, Alberto; Quaremba, Giuseppe; Paduano, Sergio; Stanzione, Simona

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of tooth-size discrepancy as a factor of skeletal malocclusion in the orthodontic patient population of the Campania region. The study employed the pretreatment models of 94 patients. The mesiodistal diameters of teeth were measured by digital electronic calipers (accurate to 0.01 mm) and Bolton's indices were calculated. The sample was grouped into three malocclusion groups based on the values of Steiner cephalometric analysis. Multiple regression analysis data indicated a significant linear relationship (r2 = 0.99, P = 0.0000) for Bolton's posterior, anterior and total indices. The discriminant multivariate analysis, based on stepwise Wilke's lambda, revealed five variables capable of classifying 88.6% of the sample in the four malocclusion groups. As no relationship between the four groups identified by the discriminant analysis and the types of skeletal malocclusions exists, it was unequivocally concluded that there is no evidence of any predisposition for a tooth-size discrepancy in any of the malocclusion groups.

  11. A probable stellar solution to the cosmological lithium discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Korn, A J; Grundahl, F; Richard, O; Barklem, P S; Mashonkina, L; Collet, R; Piskunov, N; Gustafsson, B

    2006-08-10

    The measurement of the cosmic microwave background has strongly constrained the cosmological parameters of the Universe. When the measured density of baryons (ordinary matter) is combined with standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis calculations, the amounts of hydrogen, helium and lithium produced shortly after the Big Bang can be predicted with unprecedented precision. The predicted primordial lithium abundance is a factor of two to three higher than the value measured in the atmospheres of old stars. With estimated errors of 10 to 25%, this cosmological lithium discrepancy seriously challenges our understanding of stellar physics, Big Bang nucleosynthesis or both. Certain modifications to nucleosynthesis have been proposed, but found experimentally not to be viable. Diffusion theory, however, predicts atmospheric abundances of stars to vary with time, which offers a possible explanation of the discrepancy. Here we report spectroscopic observations of stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 6397 that reveal trends of atmospheric abundance with evolutionary stage for various elements. These element-specific trends are reproduced by stellar-evolution models with diffusion and turbulent mixing. We thus conclude that diffusion is predominantly responsible for the low apparent stellar lithium abundance in the atmospheres of old stars by transporting the lithium deep into the star.

  12. Lower limb-length discrepancy. An epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Guichet, J M; Spivak, J M; Trouilloud, P; Grammont, P M

    1991-11-01

    Two retrospective epidemiologic studies have examined the incidence and prevalence of significant lower limb-length discrepancy and the number of surgical corrections by lengthening in 1987 in France. The incidence of apparatus prescriptions for asymmetry correction filled was 2.16 per 100,000 population. The prevalence of people using a corrective apparatus was one per 1000 population. The male-to-female ratio was 1.95:1. Because of biases in the study population, the actual incidence and prevalence of significant limb-length discrepancies is likely to be considerably higher. A questionnaire administered to surgeons of the French Orthopedic Society revealed that the majority of surgical lengthenings were performed by large orthopedic teams. In the 418 procedures reported, the tibia was lengthened more often than the femur (ratio 1.1:1). Gradual distraction techniques were used in 89.4% of cases, with the Ilizarov apparatus used in 57.4%, the Wagner apparatus in 20.6%, and the Orthofix fixator in 11.2%. Immediate distraction techniques were used in 7.9% of cases, 85% of which were done on the femur. Average total lengthening was 51 mm for tibia and femur. Average lengthening was greater for methods of gradual distraction (53.5 mm) than for immediate distraction (31.4 mm).

  13. F -Discrepancy for Efficient Sampling in Approximate Dynamic Programming.

    PubMed

    Cervellera, Cristiano; Maccio, Danilo

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of generating efficient state sample points for the solution of continuous-state finite-horizon Markovian decision problems through approximate dynamic programming. It is known that the selection of sampling points at which the value function is observed is a key factor when such function is approximated by a model based on a finite number of evaluations. A standard approach consists in generating these points through a random or deterministic procedure, aiming at a balanced covering of the state space. Yet, this solution may not be efficient if the state trajectories are not uniformly distributed. Here, we propose to exploit F -discrepancy, a quantity that measures how closely a set of random points represents a probability distribution, and introduce an example of an algorithm based on such concept to automatically select point sets that are efficient with respect to the underlying Markovian process. An error analysis of the approximate solution is provided, showing how the proposed algorithm enables convergence under suitable regularity hypotheses. Then, simulation results are provided concerning an inventory forecasting test problem. The tests confirm in general the important role of F -discrepancy, and show how the proposed algorithm is able to yield better results than uniform sampling, using sets even 50 times smaller.

  14. Discrepant Teaching Events: Using an Inquiry Stance to Address Students' Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longfield, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Science instructors have long known that the use of discrepant events with unexpected outcomes is a powerful method of activating thinking. A discrepant "teaching" event is similar to a discrepant science event in that it vividly portrays what is often an abstract construct or concept and has an unexpected outcome. The unexpected outcome creates…

  15. The Counterintuitive Psychological Benefits of Intergenerational Discrepancies in Family Prioritization for Jamaican Adolescent-Parent Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gail M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study tests a prediction of Relational Discrepancy Theory (RDT; i.e., emotional distress will not accompany discrepancies in hierarchical relationships) for family obligations discrepancies among adolescent-parent dyads in Jamaica, a moderately collectivistic and hierarchical society. Ninety-five dyads reported psychological adjustment…

  16. An Alternative Presentation of Incremental Validity: Discrepant SAT and HSGPA Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined discrepant high school grade point average (HSGPA) and SAT performance as measured by the difference between a student's standardized SAT composite score and standardized HSGPA. The SAT-HSGPA discrepancy measure was used to examine whether certain students are more likely to exhibit discrepant performance and in what direction.…

  17. The Counterintuitive Psychological Benefits of Intergenerational Discrepancies in Family Prioritization for Jamaican Adolescent-Parent Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gail M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study tests a prediction of Relational Discrepancy Theory (RDT; i.e., emotional distress will not accompany discrepancies in hierarchical relationships) for family obligations discrepancies among adolescent-parent dyads in Jamaica, a moderately collectivistic and hierarchical society. Ninety-five dyads reported psychological adjustment…

  18. Reporter Discrepancies among Parents, Adolescents, and Peers: Adolescent Attachment and Informant Depressive Symptoms as Explanatory Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Cassidy, Jude; Dykas, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The issue of informant discrepancies about child and adolescent functioning is an important concern for clinicians, developmental psychologists, and others who must consider ways of handling discrepant reports of information, but reasons for discrepancies in reports have been poorly understood. Adolescent attachment and informant depressive…

  19. Use of Innovative Practices: Exploring the Discrepancy Measure as a Tool for Studying Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Douglas C.; Turnbull, Brenda J.

    This report explores the possibility of using the discrepancy measures to assess the implementation of educational innovations. The discrepancy measure was derived from the decision to segment the educational market, and to select or develop marketing strategies, on the basis of discrepancies between the potential user and the requirements of a…

  20. Consistency of Intermanual Discrepancies in Normal and Unilateral Brain Lesion Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of intermanual discrepancies on three motor tests (Grooved Pegboard, Finger Tapping and Dynamometer) were examined in normal and unilateral brain lesion samples. Considerable variability in the intermanual discrepancies was observed in all three samples. Therefore, the consistency of discrepancies across tasks was examined. The…

  1. 41 CFR 101-26.803-3 - Reporting of discrepancies in transportation, shipments, material, or billings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... discrepancies in transportation, shipments, material, or billings. 101-26.803-3 Section 101-26.803-3 Public... GSA or DOD Shipments, Material, or Billings § 101-26.803-3 Reporting of discrepancies in transportation, shipments, material, or billings. (a) Transportation-type discrepancies shall be processed...

  2. 41 CFR 101-26.803-3 - Reporting of discrepancies in transportation, shipments, material, or billings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... discrepancies in transportation, shipments, material, or billings. 101-26.803-3 Section 101-26.803-3 Public... GSA or DOD Shipments, Material, or Billings § 101-26.803-3 Reporting of discrepancies in transportation, shipments, material, or billings. (a) Transportation-type discrepancies shall be processed...

  3. The Regression-Based Discrepancy Definition of Learning Disability: A Critical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel; Fono, Dafna; Nirel, Ronit

    2012-01-01

    The regression-based discrepancy definition of learning disabilities has been suggested by Rutter and Yule as an improvement of the well-known and much criticized achievement-intelligence discrepancy definition, whereby the examinee's predicted reading attainment is substituted for the intelligence score in the discrepancy expression. Even though…

  4. Implications of Incessant Strike Actions on the Implementation of Technical Education Programme in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adavbiele, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper was designed to x-ray the implications of incessant strike actions on the implementation of Technical education programme in Nigeria. The paper took an exploratory view on the concept of strike actions in Nigeria with particular references on notable strike actions that have occurred in Nigeria. The types of strike were explained and…

  5. Spacing and strength of active continental strike-slip faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuza, Andrew V.; Yin, An; Lin, Jessica; Sun, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Parallel and evenly-spaced active strike-slip faults occur widely in nature across diverse tectonic settings. Despite their common existence, the fundamental question of what controls fault spacing remains unanswered. Here we present a mechanical model for the generation of parallel strike-slip faults that relates fault spacing to the following parameters: (1) brittle-crust thickness, (2) fault strength, (3) crustal strength, and (4) crustal stress state. Scaled analogue experiments using dry sand, dry crushed walnut shells, and viscous putty were employed to test the key assumptions of our quantitative model. The physical models demonstrate that fault spacing (S) is linearly proportional to brittle-layer thickness (h), both in experiments with only brittle materials and in two-layer trials involving dry sand overlying viscous putty. The S / h slope in the two-layer sand-putty experiments may be controlled by the (1) rheological/geometric properties of the viscous layer, (2) effects of distributed basal loading caused by the viscous shear of the putty layer, and/or (3) frictional interaction at the sand-putty interface (i.e., coupling between the viscous and brittle layers). We tentatively suggest that this third effect exerts the strongest control on fault spacing in the analogue experiments. By applying our quantitative model to crustal-scale strike-slip faults using fault spacing and the seismogenic-zone thickness obtained from high-resolution earthquake-location data, we estimate absolute fault friction of active strike-slip faults in Asia and along the San Andreas fault system in California. We show that the average friction coefficient of strike-slip faults in the India-Asia collisional orogen is lower than that of faults in the San Andreas fault system. Weaker faults explain why deformation penetrates >3500 km into Asia from the Himalaya and why the interior of Asia is prone to large (M > 7.0) devastating earthquakes along major intra-continental strike

  6. Analysis of direct and nearby lightning strike data for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giri, D. V.; Noss, R. S.; Phuoc, D. B.; Tesche, F. M.

    1983-01-01

    A method for interpreting direct strike and nearby strike lightning data on aircraft is discussed. The theoretical basis for the interpretation involves a transmission line model for the aircraft, and is discussed. Results of applying this model to the F-106 aircraft are presented and in the natural resonances are computed for several different electrical representations of the aircraft. The signal processing techniques useful for extracting pole (resonance) information from experimental data are discussed, and the use of these techniques on the measured lightning data is illustrated. Finally, the results of a related ground-based lightning experiment are discussed and data are presented. The purpose of this test was to gain additional understanding of the resonance properties of the F-106 aircraft.

  7. Single Station System and Method of Locating Lightning Strikes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An embodiment of the present invention uses a single detection system to approximate a location of lightning strikes. This system is triggered by a broadband RF detector and measures a time until the arrival of a leading edge of the thunder acoustic pulse. This time difference is used to determine a slant range R from the detector to the closest approach of the lightning. The azimuth and elevation are determined by an array of acoustic sensors. The leading edge of the thunder waveform is cross-correlated between the various acoustic sensors in the array to determine the difference in time of arrival, AT. A set of AT S is used to determine the direction of arrival, AZ and EL. The three estimated variables (R, AZ, EL) are used to locate a probable point of the lightning strike.

  8. Legal questions surrounding hunger strikes by detainees and prisoners.

    PubMed

    Strauss, S A

    1991-01-01

    The 'right to die' is not of an absolute character but is subject to definite qualification. There are legal and social interests reflecting profound ethical values which militate against an absolute right on the part of a prisoner to die by means of a hunger strike. The declared policy of the South African authorities is that a prisoner who resorts to a hunger strike may not be subjected to force-feeding. This is in accordance with the 1975 Tokyo Declaration. Unfortunately the Declaration is silent on the question of whether a doctor may provide medical treatment once a hunger striker has reached the point where he is no longer capable of rational thought. In this article it is submitted that a doctor would be legally entitled to do so.

  9. Water generation and transport below Europa's strike-slip faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalousová, Klára; Souček, Ondřej; Tobie, Gabriel; Choblet, Gaël.; Čadek, Ondřej

    2016-12-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa has a very young surface with the abundance of unique terrains that indicate recent endogenic activity. Morphological models as well as spectral observations suggest that it might possess shallow lenses of liquid water within its outer ice shell. Here we investigate the generation and possible accumulation of liquid water below the tidally activated strike-slip faults using a numerical model of two-phase ice-water mixture in two-dimensional Cartesian geometry. Our results suggest that generation of shallow partially molten regions underneath Europa's active strike-slip faults is possible, but their lifetime is constrained by the formation of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities due to the negative buoyancy of the melt. Once formed, typically within a few million years, these instabilities efficiently transport the meltwater through the shell. Consequently, the maximum water content in the partially molten regions never exceeds 10% which challenges their possible detection by future exploration mission.

  10. Moist bacterial strike-through of surgical materials: confirmatory tests.

    PubMed Central

    Laufman, H; Siegal, J D; Edberg, S C

    1979-01-01

    New tests consisting of modifications of the inverted Mason jar test confirm our previously reported studies which showed that woven and nonwoven surgical materials vary greatly in their ability to serve as barriers against moist bacterial strike-through. Among the woven materials, only tightly woven Pima cloth or materials treated with Quarpel waterproofing process or with polythene layer lamination was invariably resistant. However, tight-woven Pima cloth, which had been treated with Quarpel became permeable after 100 washing-sterilizing cycles. Of the nonwoven materials, single-layer nonwoven materials tended to unevenly permeable to moist bacterial strike-through. Only the front and sleeves of nonwoven gowns reinforced with polyethelene layer were invariably resistant to moist contamination. PMID:758867

  11. When disaster strikes--care considerations for pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Fendya, Diana G

    2006-01-01

    Katrina and the events of September 11th, 2001 have made the vulnerability of our country very apparent. Communities have been preparing and organizing multihazard response plans to assure the safety and care of citizens when disasters strike. These plans focus on advance preparation to assure access and augmentation of essential resources, as well as provider education, both of which are core components of good trauma centers and effective state trauma systems. Unfortunately though, the needs of children have traditionally been overlooked in these planning processes. This article will serve as a tool for trauma nurses in the identification of the needs, challenges, actions, and nursing leadership roles that may be assumed to assure that appropriate care is available for children when disaster strikes.

  12. Control of striking velocity by table tennis players.

    PubMed

    Marinovic, Welber; Iizuka, Cristina Akiko; Freudenheim, Andrea Michele

    2004-12-01

    This study investigated how 7 skilled table tennis players controlled velocity of a forehand drive stroke when the ball's trajectory, velocity, and spin were modified. They hit a target in response to balls launched under four different conditions. The relative and absolute times used in the backswing phase showed no significant differences among conditions. When subjects hit fastballs, there was a significant change in the time required for them to reach the peak of velocity in the forward swing phase. In addition, players decreased the velocity of their strokes to hit fast-approaching balls. These results indicate that highly skilled table tennis players need to adjust the striking velocity and striking time (relative and absolute) required to reach the peak of velocity in the forward swing phase for these task modifications. Since they used slower movement velocities to hit faster-approaching balls, skilled table tennis players may override this speed-coupling process.

  13. [Acute renal failure in a prisoner after hunger strike].

    PubMed

    Gorsane, Imène; Zouaghi, Karim; Goucha, Rim; El Younsi, Fethi; Hedri, Hafedh; Barbouch, Samia; Ben Abdallah, Taïeb; Ben Moussa, Fatma; Ben Maiz, Hedi; Kheder, Adel

    2007-03-01

    Acute renal failure may occur in varied circumstances. It is potentially reversible spontaneously or after specific treatment. It is rare after hunger strike and fewer cases were reported in the literature. The physiopathological mechanisms are varied and remain incompletely known. We report the case of a prisoner having presented an acute renal failure after a hunger strike wich was completely reversible. He's a 29 year old man, without a past medical facts, in July 2004 he was incarcereted in prison. In October 2004 he undertake a hunger strike during one month. In November 2004 he was hospitalized for global dehydration and shock. His physical examination showed blood pressure 60/40 mmHg, weight 59 Kg with a loss of weight about 10 Kg, diuresis 800 cc/day. His biological findings showed urea 100 mmol/l, creatinemia 679 (mo/l, natremia 179 mmol/l, kaliemia 5 mmol/l, glycemia 5.2 mmol/l, albuminemia 35 g/l, calcemia 2.35 mmol/l and biological marques of rhabdomyolysis: CPK at 11 times the normal and LDH two times the normal. His treatment consisted on rehydratation, parenteral then enteral refeeding and psychiatric talks. The evolution was favourable, re-establishment of good hydration state with a gain weight of 7 Kg, normalization of renal function, his creatininemia reached 85 (mol/l in three weeks and normalization of muscles enzymes in one month. Hunger strike continue to pose a problem because of it's frequency in penitentiary structures and its organic disorders which can lead to death. A good psychiatric cares may be undertaked in order to prevent a such bad manifestations.

  14. Distribution of seismicity across strike-slip faults in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Peter M.; Jordan, Thomas H.

    2010-05-01

    The distribution of seismicity about strike-slip faults provides measurements of fault roughness and damage zone width. In California, seismicity decays with distance from strike-slip faults according to a power law ˜(1 + x2/d2)-γ/2. This scaling relation holds out to a fault-normal distance x of 3-6 km and is compatible with a "rough fault loading" model in which the inner scale d measures the half width of a volumetric damage zone and the roll-off rate γ is governed by stress variations due to fault roughness. According to Dieterich and Smith's 2-D simulations, γ approximates the fractal dimension of along-strike roughness. Near-fault seismicity is more localized on faults in northern California (NoCal, d = 60 ± 20 m, γ = 1.65 ± .05) than in southern California (SoCal, d = 220 ± 40 m, γ = 1.16 ± .05). The Parkfield region has a damage zone half width (d = 120 ± 30 m) consistent with the SAFOD drilling estimate; its high roll-off rate (γ = 2.30 ± .25) indicates a relatively flat roughness spectrum: ˜k-1 versus k-2 for NoCal, k-3 for SoCal. Our damage zone widths (the first direct estimates averaged over the seismogenic layer) can be interpreted in terms of an across-strike "fault core multiplicity" that is ˜1 in NoCal, ˜2 at Parkfield, and ˜3 in SoCal. The localization of seismicity near individual faults correlates with cumulative offset, seismic productivity, and aseismic slip, consistent with a model in which faults originate as branched networks with broad, multicore damage zones and evolve toward more localized, lineated features with low fault core multiplicity, thinner damage zones, and less seismic coupling. Our results suggest how earthquake triggering statistics might be modified by the presence of faults.

  15. Strike Rescue - Are We on the Right Path?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-16

    34Aircraft-Rotary-USA- V22 - Osprey ," United States Naval Institute Military Database, Arlington, VA: Military Data Corporation, June 1990, pp. 1-3. 13...Petty Officer Third Class (USCG). "Strike Force." Guardian. Date unknown. Cannon, Dorman A. "Flying The V22 Osprey ." Amphibious Warfare Review, Spring...VA: Military Data Corp., 26 February 1990. U.S. Naval Institute. "Aircraft/Rotary-USA- V22 - Osprey ." U.S. Naval Institute Military Database. Arlington

  16. Myocardial injury due to lightning strike--a case report.

    PubMed

    Alyan, Omer; Ozdemir, Ozcan; Tufekcioglu, Omaç; Geyik, Bilal; Aras, Dursun; Demirkan, Deniz

    2006-01-01

    Lightning strike is a natural phenomenon with potentially devastating effects and represents one of the leading causes of cardiac arrest and death from environmental phenomena. Almost every organ system may be impaired as lightning passes through the human body taking the shortest pathways between the contact points. In this paper, the authors report a 38-year-old man who was injured by lightning, a typical example of ;;side splash,'' and had transient electrocardiographic changes.

  17. Masculine discrepancy stress, substance use, assault and injury in a survey of US men.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Dennis E; Berke, Danielle S; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-10-01

    To understand and ultimately prevent injury and behavioural health outcomes associated with masculinity, we assessed the influence of masculine discrepancy stress (stress that occurs when men perceive themselves as falling short of the traditional gender norms) on the propensity to engage in stereotypically masculine behaviours (eg, substance use, risk taking and violence) as a means of demonstrating masculinity. Six-hundred men from the USA were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) online data collection site to complete surveys assessing self-perceptions of gender role discrepancy and consequent discrepancy stress, substance use/abuse, driving while intoxicated (DWI) and violent assaults. Negative binomial regression analyses indicated significant interactive effects wherein men high on gender role discrepancy and attendant discrepancy stress reported significantly more assaults with a weapon (B=1.01; SE=0.63; IRR=2.74; p=0.05) and assaults causing injury (B=1.01; SE=0.51; IRR=2.74; p<0.05). There was no association of discrepancy stress to substance abuse, but there was a protective effect of gender role discrepancy for DWI among men low on discrepancy stress (B=-1.19, SE=0.48; IRR=0.30; p=0.01). These findings suggest that gender role discrepancy and associated discrepancy stress, in particular, represent important injury risk factors and that prevention of discrepancy stress may prevent acts of violence with the greatest consequences and costs to the victim, offender and society.

  18. Aircraft recognition based on the discrepancy of polygon intersection area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiujian; Wang, Yanfang; Feng, Qi

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new algorithm that based on discrepancy of polygon intersection area for aircraft recognition is presented. The recognition algorithm process involves three parts: generating polygon of aircraft, placing overlapping plane polygons and computing the area of total intersecting polygons. For the purpose of getting the polygon of aircraft, the picture that was ready to be recognized has gone through a series of pre-processing and the smallest circumference polygon algorithm was used to get approximate polygon of the target contour. To make the two compared polygons have the approximate area, the similar principle was utilized. The matching procedure was divided into four steps including computing intersecting points, computing polygon intersecting sets, computing the intersecting area and getting the intersecting rate to recognize the aircraft. The data structure of algorithm is based on doubly liked list principle. A mass of simulations illustrate that the proposed algorithm is effective and reasonable.

  19. Motivational Congruency and Discrepancy of Hawaiian Athletic Trainers

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, Barton P.; Lankford, Samuel V.; Gieck, Joe H.

    1992-01-01

    Motivation is an integral part of an effective organizational management scheme. In March 1992, we sent a survey designed to assess motivational preference to all certified athletic trainers in the State of Hawaii. The population included: 6 high school athletic trainers, 10 university athletic trainers, and 9 clinic athletic trainers. The surveys were completed and returned by 80% of the population. With the exception of being an integral part of a work team (p<.05), athletic trainers in the State of Hawaii showed little discrepancy in terms of motivation. Further, there are differences among the three groups of athletic trainers in rating the importance of motivators concerning being appreciated, receiving raises, and being an integral part of a team (p< .05) Differences in motivational factors among these three groups could be influenced by the organizational structure in which the athletic trainers operate. Further investigation should include a mainland population that includes athletic trainers in professional sports and the industrial setting. PMID:16558188

  20. Relationship Between Body Image Discrepancy and Intuitive Eating.

    PubMed

    Spoor, Kesha Dorsey; Madanat, Hala

    2016-04-01

    Dieting is widespread among college women despite being ineffective and harmful long term. Intuitive eating is a dieting alternative that teaches eating in response to hunger and satiety cues. It has been associated with improved physical and psychological health and studied in association with various body image dimensions. A sample of college first years completed baseline measurements during an intuitive eating intervention to test the association between intuitive eating and body image discrepancy (BID). BID represents whether a respondent believes her current body is larger or smaller than ideal. Greater BID was negatively associated with intuitive eating (p ≤ .05); participants who believed that their current bodies were larger than ideal were less likely to attend to hunger and satiety cues than participants who expressed little or no BID. These women should be targeted in future weight management interventions in order to avoid negative health outcomes of dieting.

  1. From direct-space discrepancy functions to crystallographic least squares.

    PubMed

    Giacovazzo, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    Crystallographic least squares are a fundamental tool for crystal structure analysis. In this paper their properties are derived from functions estimating the degree of similarity between two electron-density maps. The new approach leads also to modifications of the standard least-squares procedures, potentially able to improve their efficiency. The role of the scaling factor between observed and model amplitudes is analysed: the concept of unlocated model is discussed and its scattering contribution is combined with that arising from the located model. Also, the possible use of an ancillary parameter, to be associated with the classical weight related to the variance of the observed amplitudes, is studied. The crystallographic discrepancy factors, basic tools often combined with least-squares procedures in phasing approaches, are analysed. The mathematical approach here described includes, as a special case, the so-called vector refinement, used when accurate estimates of the target phases are available.

  2. Discrepancies between parents' and children's attitudes toward TV advertising.

    PubMed

    Baiocco, Roberto; D'Alessio, Maria; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2009-06-01

    The authors conducted a study with 500 parent-child dyads. The sample comprised 254 boys and 246 girls. The children were grouped into 5 age groups (1 group for each age from 7 to 11 years), with each group comprising 100 children. The survey regards discrepancies between children and their parents on attitudes toward TV advertising to determine how TV commercials affect children's developmental stages and, particularly, their credence, behavioral intentions, and TV enjoyment. Regarding enjoyment and purchase dimensions, the group of 7-year-old children claimed that they enjoyed and are influenced in their consumer attitude more than did the groups of 8-11-year-old children. Credence decreased significantly with age. This study showed that parents tended to undervalue TV advertising's influence on their children. Parents' conformity was a significant predictor of children's attitude toward TV advertising. Results indicated that a high level of parental conformity was linked to the number of brands children claimed to possess.

  3. Pattern of dynamic displacements in a strike-slip earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltogianni, V.; Gianniou, M.; Moschas, F.; Stiros, S.

    2016-07-01

    High-rate (1 Hz) records from GPS stations uniformly distributed along the fault ruptures of the 2014 Samothraki-Gökçeada Mw6.9 earthquake in the North Aegean Trough, at the extension of the North Anatolian Fault Zone, were analyzed using the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique. Computed dynamic displacements shed light to the pattern of dynamic displacements during shallow strike-slip earthquakes. The area of near-field static seismic displacements bounds ramp-type, long-period dynamic displacements (fling steps) in the sense of static displacements. Along-fault and normal to fault components of dynamic displacement follow typical attenuation laws, but attenuation is higher in the fault-parallel component hence confined to the area of static dislocations. Forward directivity and local, especially topography-controlled amplification effects, consistent with accelerometer evidence, were also observed. The overall pattern seems to characterize shallow strike-slip earthquakes and is expected to prove useful to explain or even predict the near-field damaging potential of strike-slip earthquakes.

  4. The fast and forceful kicking strike of the secretary bird.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Steven J; Murn, Campbell P; Sparkes, Emily L; Daley, Monica A

    2016-01-25

    The study of animal locomotion has uncovered principles that can be applied to bio-inspired robotics, prosthetics and rehabilitation medicine, while also providing insight into musculoskeletal form and function [1-4]. In particular, study of extreme behaviors can reveal mechanical constraints and trade-offs that have influenced evolution of limb form and function [1,2]. Secretary birds (Sagittarius serpentarius; Figure 1A) are large terrestrial birds of prey endemic to sub-Saharan Africa, which feed on snakes, lizards and small mammals [5]. They frequently kick and stamp on the prey's head until it is killed or incapacitated, particularly when dispatching larger lizards and venomous snakes [5]. The consequences of a missed strike when hunting venomous snakes can be deadly [5], so the kicking strikes of secretary birds require fast yet accurate neural control. Delivery of fast, forceful and accurate foot strikes that are sufficient to stun and kill prey requires precision targeting, demanding a high level of coordination between the visual and neuromuscular systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nucleation and growth of strike slip faults in granite.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Segall, P.; Pollard, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    Fractures within granodiorite of the central Sierra Nevada, California, were studied to elucidate the mechanics of faulting in crystalline rocks, with emphasis on the nucleation of new fault surfaces and their subsequent propagation and growth. Within the study area the fractures form a single, subparallel array which strikes N50o-70oE and dips steeply to the S. Some of these fractures are identified as joints because displacements across the fracture surfaces exhibit dilation but no slip. The joints are filled with undeformed minerals, including epidote and chlorite. Other fractures are identified as small faults because they display left-lateral strike slip separations of up to 2m. Slickensides, developed on fault surfaces, plunge 0o-20o to the E. The faults occur parallel to, and in the same outcrop with, the joints. The faults are filled with epidote, chlorite, and quartz, which exhibit textural evidence of shear deformation. These observations indicate that the strike slip faults nucleated on earlier formed, mineral filled joints. Secondary, dilational fractures propagated from near the ends of some small faults contemporaneously with the left-lateral slip on the faults. These fractures trend 25o+ or -10o from the fault planes, parallel to the direction of inferred local maximum compressive stress. The faults did not propagate into intact rock in their own planes as shear fractures. -from Authors

  6. Distribution of strike-slip faults on Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppa, Gregory; Greenberg, Richard; Tufts, B. Randall; Geissler, Paul; Phillips, Cynthia; Milazzo, Moses

    2000-09-01

    Study of four different regions on Europa imaged by the Galileo spacecraft during its first 15 orbits has revealed 117 strike-slip faults. Europa appears to form preferentially right-lateral faults in the southern hemisphere and left-lateral faults in the northern hemisphere. This observation is consistent with a model where diurnal tides due to orbital eccentricity drive strike-slip motion through a process of ``walking,'' in which faults open and close out of phase with alternating right-and left-lateral shear. Lineaments that record both left-and right-lateral motion (e.g., Agave Linea) may record the accommodation of compression in nearby chaotic zones. Nearly all identified strike-slip faults were associated with double ridges or bands, and few were detected along ridgeless cracks. Thus the depth of cracks without ridges does not appear to have penetrated to the low-viscosity decoupling layer, required for diurnal displacement, but cracks that have developed ridges do extend down to such a level. This result supports a model for ridge formation that requires cracks to penetrate to a decoupling layer, such as a liquid water ocean.

  7. Further identification and treatment modalities in telephone mediated lightning strike

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Christopher J.; Darveniza, Mat

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of a prospective survey of people injured by lightning impulses transmitted by the public telephone system. The results are compared with those of a previous retrospective survey. Various deficiencies in the methodology of the latter survey are addressed. A division into a population with severe injury and a population with mild injury is made based on medical history and examination taken immediately after a strike. The best predictors of severe injury were found to be the presence of symptoms beyond one week after the strike, and also the initial presence of musculoskeletal injuries. Psychological upset is also seen to be a significant factor in severe injury. The only physical parameter of strike which could be used as a predictor of severe injury was the presence of concomitant power system damage. The importance of earth bonding between power and telephone system is thus supported in a protection strategy. One author draws on experience in treating patients with these injuries to propose a treatment regimen for those with ongoing symptoms. The importance of evaluating and treating psychological and physical aspects is stressed.

  8. Discrepancies in expert decision-making in forensic fingerprint examination.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Virpi; Hakkarainen, Kai; Tuunainen, Juha; Pohjola, Pasi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse professional fingerprint examiners' investigative practices in the context of discrepancy decisions concerning challenging latents during fingerprint analysis and identification. The participants were fingerprint experts from the Forensic Laboratory of the Finnish National Bureau of Investigation. The data were from five audio-recorded "discrepancy meetings" where two examiners were discussing the rationale and justification for their differing interpretations of challenging and distorted fingerprint evidence. The meetings were chaired by the quality manager of the fingerprint group, who also in the first author of this article. The research questions addressed were as follows: What does the examiner see in the latent fingerprints? What does the examiner actively do with the latents? How were decisions made during the investigative process? In accordance with Goodwin's professional vision framework, the results revealed how the participants used partial and limited information in making judgments about the difficult and distorted latents. The examiners appeared to be involved in active, constructive efforts, mentally, to repair poor latents by supplementing with missing information. They also highlighted various aspects of latents by colour coding as well as manipulated fingerprint images in several ways so as to make the significant patterns easier to recognize. Because the methods and practices of characterizing latents were only vaguely specified, the examiners used locally developed ad hoc practices to facilitate their investigations, ending up with different interpretations. It is concluded in the article that the fingerprint community in Finland should make strong efforts to develop the methods of fingerprint investigation and determine clearer criteria for decision making and documentation practices. Furthermore, the interpretations made by fingerprint experts should be made more transparent to the customers.

  9. Comparative Assessment of Sagittal Skeletal Discrepancy: A Cephalometric Study

    PubMed Central

    N., Dilip Kumar; Prasad, Mandav; Shamnur, Naveen; G., Arun Kumar; K.R., Sridhar; B.R., Gopal Krishna; Gupta, Neeraj

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Evaluating the sagittal apical base relationship during orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning is an important step. This study was aimed at comparison of Beta angle, ANB angle and Wit’s appraisal for assessment of sagittal skeletal discrepancy. Materials and Methods Eighty six young adults (43 female and 43 male) were selected from the patient’s reporting to Department of Orthodontics, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere, India. Family lineage was studied to know the nativity of Davangere. The standardized pre-treatment lateral cephalogram of the chosen sample was traced. The sample was divided into three skeletal pattern groups: Class I, Class II and Class III, based on the ANB angle and profile, Beta angle was assessed in each group. Statistical Analysis The data was subjected to statistical analysis student’s t-test, ANOVA test and correlation and regression analysis, using the software namely SPSS Software version 13. Microsoft word and Excel were used to generate graphs and tables. Results In the local Davangere population, Class I skeletal pattern group exhibited Beta angle between 26°–34°, Beta angle less than 27° was found in Class II skeletal pattern, and Beta angle greater than 32° was seen Class III skeletal pattern. The coefficient of variation of Beta angle in all the three groups was significantly homogenous compared to ANB angle and Wits appraisal. The correlation and regression analysis of the total sample indicated a highly significant correlation between Beta angle and ANB angle (p<.001), and between Beta angle and Wits appraisal (p<.01). Conclusion Beta angle can be used to classify subjects into different skeletal patterns. The Correlation and regression analysis for the total sample suggests a highly significant relation between Beta angle and ANB angle and, between Beta angle and Wits appraisal. It can be more reliably used to assess sagittal jaw discrepancies than ANB angle and Wits appraisal

  10. Comparative assessment of sagittal skeletal discrepancy: a cephalometric study.

    PubMed

    Aparna, P; Kumar, Dilip N; Prasad, Mandav; Shamnur, Naveen; G, Arun Kumar; K R, Sridhar; B R, Gopal Krishna; Gupta, Neeraj

    2015-04-01

    Evaluating the sagittal apical base relationship during orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning is an important step. This study was aimed at comparison of Beta angle, ANB angle and Wit's appraisal for assessment of sagittal skeletal discrepancy. Eighty six young adults (43 female and 43 male) were selected from the patient's reporting to Department of Orthodontics, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere, India. Family lineage was studied to know the nativity of Davangere. The standardized pre-treatment lateral cephalogram of the chosen sample was traced. The sample was divided into three skeletal pattern groups: Class I, Class II and Class III, based on the ANB angle and profile, Beta angle was assessed in each group. The data was subjected to statistical analysis student's t-test, ANOVA test and correlation and regression analysis, using the software namely SPSS Software version 13. Microsoft word and Excel were used to generate graphs and tables. In the local Davangere population, Class I skeletal pattern group exhibited Beta angle between 26°-34°, Beta angle less than 27° was found in Class II skeletal pattern, and Beta angle greater than 32° was seen Class III skeletal pattern. The coefficient of variation of Beta angle in all the three groups was significantly homogenous compared to ANB angle and Wits appraisal. The correlation and regression analysis of the total sample indicated a highly significant correlation between Beta angle and ANB angle (p<.001), and between Beta angle and Wits appraisal (p<.01). Beta angle can be used to classify subjects into different skeletal patterns. The Correlation and regression analysis for the total sample suggests a highly significant relation between Beta angle and ANB angle and, between Beta angle and Wits appraisal. It can be more reliably used to assess sagittal jaw discrepancies than ANB angle and Wits appraisal.

  11. Discrepancy Between Subjective Symptomatology and Objective Neuropsychological Performance in Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Orff, Henry J.; Drummond, Sean P. A.; Nowakowski, Sara; Perlis, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: While daytime impairment is a defining feature of primary insomnia (PI), prior research using objective measures has not yielded clear and reliable evidence of global or specific deficits. In this investigation subjective and neuropsychological measures of daytime impairment were concurrently evaluated in subjects with primary insomnia (PIs) and in healthy good sleeper subjects (GSs). The goals for the study were to assess (1) whether PIs differ from GSs on subjective and/or objective measures and (2) the extent to which subjective and objective measures provide discordant information. Design: Subjects were evaluated on multiple self-report measures of sleep and daytime performance and were administered a comprehensive set of neuropsychological tests. Setting: The University of Rochester Sleep and Neurophysiology Research Laboratory (Rochester, NY). Patients or Participants: Forty-nine subjects (32 PIs and 17 GSs). Seventy-one percent of the sample was female; average age 39 ±11yrs. Results: Overall, PIs reported worse sleep, diminished activity levels, and a greater number and severity of daytime complaints. However, PIs did not show deficits on neuropsychological tests. Additionally, neuropsychological measures were not associated with severity of daytime complaints. Objectively measured sleep was found to be associated with performance (motor speed), while prospective and objective sleep measures were associated with level of daytime complaint. Conclusions: The discrepancy between subjective daytime complaints and objective performance in individuals with insomnia is common, but poorly understood. This discordance may suggest that daytime impairment corresponds less to “output” and more to attentional bias or to the realistic appraisal that “effort” is required to maintain normal performance. Citation: Orff HJ; Drummond SP; Nowakowski S; Perlis ML. Discrepancy between subjective symptomatology and objective neuropsychological

  12. Quasirandom geometric networks from low-discrepancy sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Ernesto

    2017-08-01

    We define quasirandom geometric networks using low-discrepancy sequences, such as Halton, Sobol, and Niederreiter. The networks are built in d dimensions by considering the d -tuples of digits generated by these sequences as the coordinates of the vertices of the networks in a d -dimensional Id unit hypercube. Then, two vertices are connected by an edge if they are at a distance smaller than a connection radius. We investigate computationally 11 network-theoretic properties of two-dimensional quasirandom networks and compare them with analogous random geometric networks. We also study their degree distribution and their spectral density distributions. We conclude from this intensive computational study that in terms of the uniformity of the distribution of the vertices in the unit square, the quasirandom networks look more random than the random geometric networks. We include an analysis of potential strategies for generating higher-dimensional quasirandom networks, where it is know that some of the low-discrepancy sequences are highly correlated. In this respect, we conclude that up to dimension 20, the use of scrambling, skipping and leaping strategies generate quasirandom networks with the desired properties of uniformity. Finally, we consider a diffusive process taking place on the nodes and edges of the quasirandom and random geometric graphs. We show that the diffusion time is shorter in the quasirandom graphs as a consequence of their larger structural homogeneity. In the random geometric graphs the diffusion produces clusters of concentration that make the process more slow. Such clusters are a direct consequence of the heterogeneous and irregular distribution of the nodes in the unit square in which the generation of random geometric graphs is based on.

  13. Offset rivers, drainage spacing and the record of strike-slip faulting: The Kuh Banan Fault, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Faye; Allen, Mark B.

    2012-03-01

    This study concerns the ways in which rivers can record part, but not necessarily all, of strike-slip fault offset. The focus is the active right-lateral Kuh Banan Fault in eastern Iran, within the Arabia-Eurasia collision. Plate convergence has caused thrust and strike-slip faulting across SW Asia. The active slip rate of the Kuh Banan Fault is ~ 1-2 mm/yr. Total displacement is ~ 5-7 km, as determined from offset geological markers and the length of a pull-apart basin. A component of thrusting has generated ~ 1 km of relief, which preserves the offset of rivers displaced laterally by the strike-slip motion. Ridge half-widths (W), and river outlet spacings along the fault (S) are related by the drainage spacing parameter R, where R = W/S. Published data for older, larger mountain ranges have extremely characteristic drainage spacing (R = 2.1). Drainage spacing along the Kuh Banan Fault has a mean value of 1.8 and is much more variable (R = 1.1-3.1), due to local structural complexities which have influenced river courses. Most river offsets along the Kuh Banan Fault are small (< 100 m); the maximum observed offset (~ 3.5 km) is smaller than the total fault displacement of at least ~ 5 km. The most likely explanation for this discrepancy is stream capture, whereby reaches of rivers downstream of the fault are juxtaposed by fault slip against rivers upstream of the fault. In this way, offset of individual rivers is repeatedly reset to zero. Stream capture is influenced by outlet spacing such that the largest rivers can accumulate large offsets, while smaller, closely spaced rivers are captured more often, inhibiting large offsets. The mean offset of the main rivers along the Kuh Banan Fault is one-third their mean drainage spacing, indicating that the spacing of smaller rivers controls the size of the maximum offset.

  14. Patterns of variation in feeding strike kinematics of juvenile ghost praying mantis (Phyllocrania paradoxa): are components of the strike stereotypic?

    PubMed

    Oufiero, Christopher E; Nguyen, Tammy; Sragner, Annie; Ellis, Angelah

    2016-09-01

    Functional systems, such as feeding mechanics, often involve the evolution of several components of the musculoskeletal system that are moved in coordination to capture prey. Because these systems often involve the quick movement of several structures, some feeding systems have been hypothesized to be stereotypic. While the motor activity patterns are often stereotyped, the subsequent kinematics can be variable, many times in response to variation in prey stimulus (e.g. prey position). Patterns of feeding kinematics have been well studied among vertebrates, with less attention on invertebrate systems. The goal of this study was to examine the amount of stereotypy in the feeding strike kinematics of praying mantises. We filmed eight juvenile ghost praying mantises (Phyllocrania paradoxa) at 1000 Hz across several days within instar 7. We digitized several points that represent the movement of the coxa, trochanter-femur and tibia of the raptorial foreleg to obtain a set of kinematics including angles and angular velocities of the joint, as well as body lunge. Using the coefficient of variation, we found less stereotypy in the approach stage of the strike compared with the sweep. Using Bonferroni-corrected Pearson's correlations of kinematics with prey position, we found few traits related to prey position with the exception of some kinematics of the coxa joint and the amount of lunge used during the strike. Our results suggest that several components of the praying mantis strike are stereotypic, while others exhibit flexibility to ensure successful capture of the prey. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Discrepancy of whiteness and UV protection in wet state.

    PubMed

    Tarbuk, Anita; Grancarić, Ana Marija; Situm, Mirna

    2014-12-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is increasing by epidemic proportions. Basal cell cancer remains the most common skin neoplasm, and simple excision is generally curative. On the other hand, aggressive local growth and metastasis are common features of malignant melanoma, which accounts for 75 percent of all deaths associated with skin cancer. In Croatia only, more than 20,000 new cases of skin cancer has been diagnosed in 2008 of which melanoma 286 new cases and 118 yearly deaths in men, and 275 new cases and 79 deaths in women population. The back sides in men and women, as well as the lower limbs in women, are the most common site for melanomas. The primary cause of skin cancer is believed to be a long exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation crossed with the amount of skin pigmentation in the population. There are indications that other parts of solar spectrum (e.g., blue light) might also have effects on skin and eyes. Most people think all clothing will protect them, but that's not the case. UV clothing can show UVprotection, but in the most cases it does not provide full sun screening properties. UV protection ability highly depends on large number of factors such are type of fiber, fabric surface and construction, type and concentration of dyestuff, fluorescent whitening agent (FWA), UV-B protective agents, as well as nanoparticles, if applied. For that reason, jeans and tightly woven fabrics offer a very good level of protection. However, on a hot summer day, those aren't the kinds of clothing people usually reach for. More often, when they are on the beach, they wear T-shirt, as well during the swimming in the sea, thinking that it will protect them. Therefore, in this paper the discrepancy of UVprotection in wet state was researched. For the purpose, FWA and UVabsorber were applied in wide concentration range to white cotton knit fabrics commonly used for T-shirts. Afterwards, the discrepancy in whiteness and UVprotection was research in distilled water

  16. A new approach to the determination of the striking distance from the lightning channel photos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorgucic, A.; Mladenovic, I.

    1991-01-01

    The possible influence the stepped leader movement has on the value of the striking distance is studied. The numerical values of the striking distances are most frequently verified from the lightning channel photos. There is some explanations for dispersion of the striking distance which usually appear on tall structures. Unusually long striking distance may be influenced by the positive space charge or prior upward flashes. One more parameter which may have influence in estimation of the striking distance is a complex charge motion in the leader channel. Through introduction of two types of charge motions, possible shortening is shown of the striking distance seen on the lightning channel photos.

  17. Lightning strike: a first case of unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Alar, Timucin; Degirmenci, Yildiz; Ozisik Karaman, Handan Isin

    2011-01-01

    Lightning injury is the second most common cause of weather-related deaths in the United States. Despite the several neurological complications such as polyneuropathy, myelopathy, spinal cord injury, motor neuron disease due to the lightning-induced injury, there is no documented case of unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis. We describe the case of a patient with a history of lightning strike at childhood period, prior the onset of isolated, diaphragmatic paralysis, unilaterally. Clinical and electrophysiological findings suggest an injury restricted to the phrenic nerve, unilaterally. PMID:24765394

  18. Biomechanics: deadly strike mechanism of a mantis shrimp.

    PubMed

    Patek, S N; Korff, W L; Caldwell, R L

    2004-04-22

    Stomatopods (mantis shrimp) are well known for the feeding appendages they use to smash shells and impale fish. Here we show that the peacock mantis shrimp (Odontodactylus scyllarus) generates an extremely fast strike that requires major energy storage and release, which we explain in terms of a saddle-shaped exoskeletal spring mechanism. High-speed images reveal the formation and collapse of vapour bubbles next to the prey due to swift movement of the appendage towards it, indicating that O. scyllarus may use destructive cavitation forces to damage its prey.

  19. Inducing Therapeutic Hypothermia in Cardiac Arrest Caused by Lightning Strike.

    PubMed

    Scantling, Dane; Frank, Brian; Pontell, Mathew E; Medinilla, Sandra

    2016-09-01

    Only limited clinical scenarios are grounds for induction of therapeutic hypothermia. Its use in traumatic cardiac arrests, including those from lightning strikes, is not well studied. Nonshockable cardiac arrest rhythms have only recently been included in resuscitation guidelines. We report a case of full neurological recovery with therapeutic hypothermia after a lightning-induced pulseless electrical activity cardiac arrest in an 18-year-old woman. We also review the important pathophysiology of lightning-induced cardiac arrest and neurologic sequelae, elaborate upon the mechanism of therapeutic hypothermia, and add case-based evidence in favor of the use of targeted temperature management in lightning-induced cardiac arrest.

  20. Severe rhabdomyolysis without renal injury associated with lightning strike.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Norberto; Aldana, Norberto Navarrete

    2013-01-01

    Lightning strikes cause injuries in multiple systems and organs. Early recognition of lightning injury syndromes and anticipation of harmful complications can improve outcomes for these patients. The author has presented a case report of a patient who was struck by lightning and exhibited extensive soft tissue injury with myoglobinuria. He was treated with delayed fasciotomy and had evidence of severe muscle injury with markedly elevated creatine kinase levels that gradually improved with aggressive fluid infusion. The patient did not require alkalinization of urine, mannitol, or dialysis, and his renal function remained normal.

  1. Effects of Along-strike Fault Heterogeneity on Rupture Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, H.; Yang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Fault zone materials have been suggested to be heterogeneous, such as along-strike variations of low velocity zone and stress conditions. How these fault heterogeneities affect earthquake rupture propagation is important to advance our understanding of earthquake physics, and yet remains poorly understood. Here we investigate the effects of along-strike fault heterogeneity on rupture propagation through numerical modeling on a strike-slip planar fault governed by a linear slip-weakening friction law. We first implement along-strike variations of fault zone materials based on field observations, which have shown the velocities of P and S waves of the low velocity zones can be reduced up to 50% compared to intact rocks. The rupture speed is decreased if the rupture propagates into materials with lower shear modulus and keeps at a stable speed quickly. In contrast, the rupture speed is increased if the rupture propagates into materials with higher shear modulus and accelerates into a steady speed more slowly. If this material boundary is very close to the nucleation zone, it may inhibit the nucleation process. In addition, there is always a perturbation on the rupture speed near the boundary due to the reflected energy. We then investigate the effects of a patch with elevated effective normal stress (barrier) on rupture propagation. Except for the distance d between the barrier and the nucleation zone, its width w, and the additional effective normal stress Δσn, all other parameters are kept constant for all the simulated models. Our results confirm that the barrier may slow down or stop coseismic ruptures, but may also induce supershear ruptures. Moreover, there is a sharp boundary between stopping the rupture and making very strong supershear ruptures. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the supershear rupture may emerge in a region that is delineated by two approximate linear boundaries for parameters d and w. The duration of supershear ruptures increases as the

  2. MR imaging findings in delayed reversible myelopathy from lightning strike.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Cynthia B; Goyal, Mayank; Bourque, Pierre R

    2004-05-01

    Delayed spinal cord injury following high-voltage electrical injury is a rare but well-documented phenomenon. The MR imaging features of this entity, however, have not been well documented. We report the MR imaging findings in a case of delayed sensory and motor deficits following a lightning strike. MR imaging revealed hyperintense signal within the cord on T2-weighted and STIR images extending from C1 to C3. Axial images localized the hyperintense signal to the posterolateral region of the spinal cord bilaterally. Follow-up MR imaging 6 weeks later demonstrated resolution of abnormal cord signal intensity.

  3. A statistical investigation of the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmond, Harry

    2017-02-01

    We use the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation (the correlation between the ratio of total-to-visible mass and acceleration in galaxies; MDAR) to test the galaxy-halo connection. We analyse the MDAR using a set of 16 statistics that quantify its four most important features: shape, scatter, the presence of a `characteristic acceleration scale', and the correlation of its residuals with other galaxy properties. We construct an empirical framework for the galaxy-halo connection in LCDM to generate predictions for these statistics, starting with conventional correlations (halo abundance matching; AM) and introducing more where required. Comparing to the SPARC data, we find that: (1) the approximate shape of the MDAR is readily reproduced by AM, and there is no evidence that the acceleration at which dark matter becomes negligible has less spread in the data than in AM mocks; (2) even under conservative assumptions, AM significantly overpredicts the scatter in the relation and its normalization at low acceleration, and furthermore positions dark matter too close to galaxies' centres on average; (3) the MDAR affords 2σ evidence for an anticorrelation of galaxy size and Hubble type with halo mass or concentration at fixed stellar mass. Our analysis lays the groundwork for a bottom-up determination of the galaxy-halo connection from relations such as the MDAR, provides concrete statistical tests for specific galaxy formation models, and brings into sharper focus the relative evidence accorded by galaxy kinematics to LCDM and modified gravity alternatives.

  4. Quantifying discrepancies in opinion spectra from online and offline networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Deokjae; Hahn, Kyu S; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Park, Juyong

    2015-01-01

    Online social media such as Twitter are widely used for mining public opinions and sentiments on various issues and topics. The sheer volume of the data generated and the eager adoption by the online-savvy public are helping to raise the profile of online media as a convenient source of news and public opinions on social and political issues as well. Due to the uncontrollable biases in the population who heavily use the media, however, it is often difficult to measure how accurately the online sphere reflects the offline world at large, undermining the usefulness of online media. One way of identifying and overcoming the online-offline discrepancies is to apply a common analytical and modeling framework to comparable data sets from online and offline sources and cross-analyzing the patterns found therein. In this paper we study the political spectra constructed from Twitter and from legislators' voting records as an example to demonstrate the potential limits of online media as the source for accurate public opinion mining, and how to overcome the limits by using offline data simultaneously.

  5. A Discrepancy between Two Criteria of Stability for Hybrid Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachdeva, Pratik; Alford, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Neutron stars, along with other compact matter, are some of the most stable structures in the universe. Their stability can be disrupted, however, by radial oscillations, which may cause them to collapse into black holes. John Bardeen, in his Catalogue of Methods, detailed two methods by which we can determine the stability of compact stars for a given equation of state: direct calculation of the oscillation frequency with Chandrasekhar's equation or a qualitative examination of a mass-radius plot. These two methods were believed to agree until Glendenning et al. proposed the existence of a white dwarf with a strange quark core. We observed that Glendenning's white dwarf showed disagreement between Bardeen's methods. With this motivation, we examined the stability of a similar family of hybrid stars which contain a quark matter core surrounded by a nuclear matter envelope. The equations of state for such stars exhibit either a kink or discontinuity. By reproducing the calculations of these methods, we observed that Bardeen's methods do not agree for these stars as well. We believe that this discrepancy stems from the fact that Chandrasekhar's equation is incompatible with discontinuous equations of state and are working to resolve this incompatibility.

  6. Discrepancy between clinical and pathological diagnoses of CBD and PSP.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Toshiki; Shiga, Kensuke; Nakata, Yuriko; Nagura, Junko; Nakase, Taizen; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Takanashi, Yoshiaki; Urasaki, Kohji; Oyamada, Yumiko; Fushiki, Shinji; Nishikawa, Junji; Yasuhara, Masahiro; Nakajima, Kenji; Nakagawa, Masanori

    2005-06-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD) are often clinically confused with each other. Moreover, the discrepancy between clinical and pathological diagnoses of CBD and PSP are still controversial. We report here two atypical cases of PSP and CBD. A 73-year old woman was admitted with right hand rigidity, limb kinetic apraxia and cortical sensory loss. Brain atrophy, hypoperfusion and hypometabolism predominantly in the left frontoparietal lobes indicated CBD clinically. Pathological studies revealed neuronal loss and spongy change without ballooned neurons (BN) in the cerebral cortex. Modified Gallyas-Braak (G-B) staining revealed neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and tufted astrocytes, indicating pathological diagnosis of PSP. A 75-year-old man admitted with vertical gaze palsy, neck dystonia, parkinsonism and dementia. Atrophy of the frontal lobes and tegmentum of the midbrain and symmetrical frontal hypoperfusion in SPECT indicated PSP. However, neuronal loss and BN in the frontal lobes and clusters of astrocytic plaques indicated CBD pathologically. The G-B staining was useful for differentiating between CBD and PSP, but our atypical cases bring up a new issue about differential diagnosis of CBD and PSP.

  7. Neutron discrepancies in the DS86 Hiroshima dosimetry system.

    PubMed

    Straume, T; Egbert, S D; Woolson, W A; Finkel, R C; Kubik, P W; Gove, H E; Sharma, P; Hoshi, M

    1992-10-01

    More than a decade has passed since a complete revision was initiated of the radiation doses received by survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings. The new dosimetry system (DS86) was completed in 1986 and adopted shortly thereafter. Overall, DS86 was noted to be a clear improvement over the old dosimetry system. However, based on limited validation measurements, troublesome inconsistencies were suggested for neutrons. Since 1986, a substantial number of additional neutron activation measurements have been made in mineral and metal samples from Hiroshima. Importantly, a large number of measurements have now been made at distances beyond 1 km. Here, inconsistencies between neutron activation measurements and DS86 calculations for Hiroshima are examined using all available measurement data, including new measurements for 36Cl which extend the measurement range to more than 1.7 km from the epicenter, and Monte Carlo modeling calculations for each sample measured. Results show that thermal neutron activation measured beyond approximately 1 km in Hiroshima (at distances most relevant for radiation-risk evaluation) is two to 10, or more, times higher than that calculated based on DS86. Similar trends observed when comparing results by several independent measurement laboratories, using different analytical methods, suggest that the DS86 calculations for low-energy neutrons are in error. Because of the importance of the Hiroshima data in radiation risk evaluation, this large discrepancy is in need of resolution.

  8. Study on the Abundance Discrepancy Problem in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toribio San Cipriano, L.; Esteban, C.; Domínguez-Guzmán, G.; García-Rojas, J.

    2017-03-01

    We present chemical abundances of carbon (C) and oxygen (O) in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds from deep and high-quality optical spectra of H II regions. The data have been taken using the Ultraviolet-Visual Echelle Spectrograph at the 8.2-m Very Large Telescope with the goal of detecting the faint C II and O II recombination lines. For all the objects of the sample, we determine C^{2+}abundances from recombination lines and O^{2+} abundances from recombination lines and collisionally excited lines. In addition, we calculate the abundance discrepancy factors (ADFs) for O^{2+} and C^{2+}, as well as the O/H, C/H and C/O ratios. We study the behaviour of the ADF comparing the values obtained in the Magellanic Clouds with those obtained for other H_{II} regions in different galaxies. We also compare the nebular and stellar abundances in two regions of the sample. Finally, we discuss the chemical evolution of the MCs through the O/H, C/H and C/O radial gradients and the changes of the C/O ratio as a function of O/H.

  9. Accuracy of digital American Board of Orthodontics Discrepancy Index measurements.

    PubMed

    Dragstrem, Kristina; Galang-Boquiren, Maria Therese S; Obrez, Ales; Costa Viana, Maria Grace; Grubb, John E; Kusnoto, Budi

    2015-07-01

    A digital analysis that is shown to be accurate will ease the demonstration of initial case complexity. To date, no literature exists on the accuracy of the digital American Board of Orthodontics Discrepancy Index (DI) calculations when applied to pretreatment digital models. Plaster models were obtained from 45 previous patients with varying degrees of malocclusion. Total DI scores and the target disorders were computed manually with a periodontal probe on the original plaster casts (gold standard) and digitally using Ortho Insight 3D (Motion View Software, Hixson, Tenn) and OrthoCAD (Cadent, Carlstadt, NJ). Intrarater and interrater reliabilities were assessed for 15 subjects using the Spearman rho correlation test. Accuracies of the DI scores and target disorders were assessed for all 45 subjects using Wilcoxon signed ranks tests. Intrarater and interrater reliabilities were high for total DI scores and most target disorders (r > 0.8). No significant difference was found between total DI score when measured with OrthoCAD compared with manual calculations. The total DI scores calculated by Ortho Insight 3D were found to be significantly greater than those by manual calculation by 2.71 points. The findings indicate that a DI calculated by Ortho Insight 3D may lead the clinician to overestimate case complexity. OrthoCAD's DI module was demonstrated to be a clinically acceptable alternative to manual calculation of the total scores. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Randomized discrepancy bounded local search for transmission expansion planning

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Russell W; Daniel, William B

    2010-11-23

    In recent years the transmission network expansion planning problem (TNEP) has become increasingly complex. As the TNEP is a non-linear and non-convex optimization problem, researchers have traditionally focused on approximate models of power flows to solve the TNEP. Existing approaches are often tightly coupled to the approximation choice. Until recently these approximations have produced results that are straight-forward to adapt to the more complex (real) problem. However, the power grid is evolving towards a state where the adaptations are no longer easy (e.g. large amounts of limited control, renewable generation) and necessitates new approaches. Recent work on deterministic Discrepancy Bounded Local Search (DBLS) has shown it to be quite effective in addressing this question. DBLS encapsulates the complexity of power flow modeling in a black box that may be queried for information about the quality of proposed expansions. In this paper, we propose a randomization strategy that builds on DBLS and dramatically increases the computational efficiency of the algorithm.

  11. DISCREPANT HARDENING OBSERVED IN COSMIC-RAY ELEMENTAL SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, H. S.; Ganel, O.; Han, J. H.; Kim, K. C.; Lee, M. H.; Lutz, L.; Malinin, A.; Allison, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Bagliesi, M. G.; Bigongiari, G.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Childers, J. T.; DuVernois, M. A.; Conklin, N. B.; Coutu, S.; Mognet, S. I.; Jeon, J. A.; Minnick, S.

    2010-05-01

    The balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass experiment launched five times from Antarctica has achieved a cumulative flight duration of about 156 days above 99.5% of the atmosphere. The instrument is configured with complementary and redundant particle detectors designed to extend direct measurements of cosmic-ray composition to the highest energies practical with balloon flights. All elements from protons to iron nuclei are separated with excellent charge resolution. Here, we report results from the first two flights of {approx}70 days, which indicate hardening of the elemental spectra above {approx}200 GeV/nucleon and a spectral difference between the two most abundant species, protons and helium nuclei. These results challenge the view that cosmic-ray spectra are simple power laws below the so-called knee at {approx}10{sup 15} eV. This discrepant hardening may result from a relatively nearby source, or it could represent spectral concavity caused by interactions of cosmic rays with the accelerating shock. Other possible explanations should also be investigated.

  12. Energy budget discrepancy between rock fracturing and associated microseismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grob, M.; Chorney, D.; Jain, P.; Van der Baan, M.

    2013-12-01

    Many studies of hydraulic fracturing of oil and gas reservoirs have raised the issue of energy balance between the injected fluid volume and the recorded microseismicity. Indeed the injected energy is 10e4-10e7 times larger than the estimated radiated seismic energy, and the fracture energy is about 15-40% of the input energy. The computation of the different energy components are based on several assumptions, including the well-known empirical energy-magnitude relation (Kanamori, 1977) inferred for large magnitude events with a double-couple failure mechanism. To address this problem, we use a bonded-particle geomechanical modelling approach (Chorney et al., 2012), which allows us to compute each energy component independently (injected energy, strain energy and radiated energy). To test our model, we simulate triaxial compression on sandstone samples. Based on our independent computation of the radiated energy, we propose an updated empirical energy-magnitude relation. This relation should be more suitable for microseismic events with various rupture mechanisms including volumetric changes. However we still find a discrepancy between the radiated energy and the strain energy: the radiated energy only represents 2.5% of the strain energy (and 0.2% of the injected energy). Aseismic deformation could partly explain the difference, but further investigation is needed before eliminating other theories.

  13. Discrepancy between ultrasound and final pathologic measurements in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Sowerby, Leigh; Franklin, Jason H; Chin, Christopher J; Turner, Benjamin; Fung, Kevin; Zaleski, Witek; Yoo, John

    2011-12-01

    The size of the malignancy in well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDTC) is an important factor in patient risk stratification. Final pathologic measurements are currently used for treatment decisions. Measurements are made by both ultrasonography and on final pathology and should, theoretically, agree with each other. To evaluate the agreement between ultrasound and final pathologic measurements in thyroid nodules and WDTC. A retrospective chart review of all total thyroidectomies between 1998 and 2007 was completed by four different surgeons at one centre. Thyroid specimens with a solitary nodule and complete ultrasound and pathologic data were included. A comparison of discrepancy and concordance of the largest dimension of the nodule by ultrasound and pathologic measurement was made. A total of 263 thyroid specimens with a solitary nodule were identified. Of these, 68 were found to harbour WDTC. A median underestimation by pathology of 0.54 cm was present in WDTC, averaging 20% of the nodule size by pathology. This trend was consistent with subgroup analysis for size, pathology, and nodularity. An underestimation by pathology of 0.4 cm was present for papillary carcinoma under 1 cm. Grouping nodules by size, a concordance of 80% was present for nodules under 1 cm. Statistical testing revealed weak correlation and a kappa of approximately 0.3 for agreement. Weighted kappa was approximately 0.5 for agreement. The recent advances in ultrasonography and the constraints of pathology preparation allow an argument to be made for investigation of using ultrasound measurements as an adjunct in making treatment decisions.

  14. Report on the Radar/PIREP Cloud Top Discrepancy Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Mark M.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Applied Meteorology Unit's (AMU) investigation of inconsistencies between pilot reported cloud top heights and weather radar indicated echo top heights (assumed to be cloud tops) as identified by the 45 Weather Squadron (45WS). The objective for this study is to document and understand the differences in echo top characteristics as displayed on both the WSR-88D and WSR-74C radars and cloud top heights reported by the contract weather aircraft in support of space launch operations at Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), Florida. These inconsistencies are of operational concern since various Launch Commit Criteria (LCC) and Flight Rules (FR) in part describe safe and unsafe conditions as a function of cloud thickness. Some background radar information was presented. Scan strategies for the WSR-74C and WSR-88D were reviewed along with a description of normal radar beam propagation influenced by the Effective Earth Radius Model. Atmospheric conditions prior to and leading up to both launch operations were detailed. Through the analysis of rawinsonde and radar data, atmospheric refraction or bending of the radar beam was identified as the cause of the discrepancies between reported cloud top heights by the contract weather aircraft and those as identified by both radars. The atmospheric refraction caused the radar beam to be further bent toward the Earth than normal. This radar beam bending causes the radar target to be displayed erroneously, with higher cloud top heights and a very blocky or skewed appearance.

  15. Preventing Leg Length Discrepancy and Instability After Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sculco, Peter K; Austin, Matthew S; Lavernia, Carlos J; Rosenberg, Aaron G; Sierra, Rafael J

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of equal leg lengths and dynamic hip stability are essential elements of a successful total hip arthroplasty. A careful clinical examination, a preoperative plan, and appropriate intraoperative techniques are necessary to achieve these goals. Preoperative identification of patients at risk for residual leg length discrepancy allows surgeons to adjust the surgical approach and/or the type of implant and provide better preoperative patient education. The use of larger femoral heads, high-offset stem options, and enhanced soft-tissue repairs have improved impingement-free range of motion as well as dynamic hip stability and have contributed to an overall reduction in dislocation. Methods for accurate leg length restoration and component positioning include anatomic landmarks, intraoperative radiographs, intraoperative calipers, stability testing, and computer-assisted surgery. If recurrent instability occurs after total hip arthroplasty, the underlying cause for dislocation should be identified and treated; this may include the use of semiconstrained dual-mobility or fully constrained liners, depending on abductor function. Surgeons should be aware of the clinical and surgical techniques for achieving leg length equalization and dynamic hip stability in total hip arthroplasty.

  16. Low Critical Micelle Concentration Discrepancy between Theory and Experiment.

    PubMed

    García Daza, Fabián A; Mackie, Allan D

    2014-06-05

    Experimental measurements for a variety of surfactants unexpectedly show that the critical micelle concentration (CMC) becomes constant with respect to increasing the size of the hydrophobic tail. This observation disagrees with theoretical models where it is expected to continue to decrease exponentially. Because of the lack of a satisfactory explanation for such a discrepancy from theory, we have studied these systems using a coarse-grained model within the single-chain mean field (SCMF) theory combined with relevant micellar kinetic effects. In particular, a microscopic model for poly(ethylene oxide) alkyl ether was applied to describe a series of nonionic gemini surfactants. When kinetic effects are used to correct the equilibrium CMC values from the SCMF scheme together with the loss of surfactants due to adsorption on the experimental recipient, it is possible to reproduce the correct order of magnitude of the experimental CMC results. Hence it appears that the experimental values disagree with the theoretical predictions because they are not true equilibrium values due to the fact that the time scales for these low CMC values become astronomically large.

  17. Quantifying Discrepancies in Opinion Spectra from Online and Offline Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Deokjae; Hahn, Kyu S.; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Park, Juyong

    2015-01-01

    Online social media such as Twitter are widely used for mining public opinions and sentiments on various issues and topics. The sheer volume of the data generated and the eager adoption by the online-savvy public are helping to raise the profile of online media as a convenient source of news and public opinions on social and political issues as well. Due to the uncontrollable biases in the population who heavily use the media, however, it is often difficult to measure how accurately the online sphere reflects the offline world at large, undermining the usefulness of online media. One way of identifying and overcoming the online–offline discrepancies is to apply a common analytical and modeling framework to comparable data sets from online and offline sources and cross-analyzing the patterns found therein. In this paper we study the political spectra constructed from Twitter and from legislators' voting records as an example to demonstrate the potential limits of online media as the source for accurate public opinion mining, and how to overcome the limits by using offline data simultaneously. PMID:25915931

  18. Relationship between self-discrepancy and worries about penis size in men with body dysmorphic disorder.

    PubMed

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Bramley, Sally; Troglia, Andrea; Carmona, Lina; Fiorito, Chiara; Wells, Hannah; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2016-06-01

    We explored self-discrepancy in men with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) concerned about penis size, men without BDD but anxious about penis size, and controls. Men with BDD (n=26) were compared to those with small penis anxiety (SPA; n=31) and controls (n=33), objectively (by measuring) and investigating self-discrepancy: actual size, ideal size, and size they felt they should be according to self and other. Most men under-estimated their penis size, with the BDD group showing the greatest discrepancy between perceived and ideal size. The SPA group showed a larger discrepancy than controls. This was replicated for the perceptions of others, suggesting the BDD group internalised the belief that they should have a larger penis size. There was a significant correlation between symptoms of BDD and this discrepancy. This self-actual and self-ideal/self-should discrepancy and the role of comparing could be targeted in therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Understanding and using informants' reporting discrepancies of youth victimization: a conceptual model and recommendations for research.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Kimberly L; De Los Reyes, Andres; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2010-12-01

    Discrepancies often occur among informants' reports of various domains of child and family functioning and are particularly common between parent and child reports of youth violence exposure. However, recent work suggests that discrepancies between parent and child reports predict subsequent poorer child outcomes. We propose a preliminary conceptual model (Discrepancies in Victimization Implicate Developmental Effects [DiVIDE]) that considers how and why discrepancies between parents' and youths' ratings of child victimization may be related to poor adjustment outcomes. The model addresses how dyadic processes, such as the parent-youth relationship and youths' information management, might contribute to discrepancies. We also consider coping processes that explain why discrepancies may predict increases in youth maladjustment. Based on this preliminary conceptual framework, we offer suggestions and future directions for researchers who encounter conflicting reports of community violence exposure and discuss why the proposed model is relevant to interventions for victimized youths.

  20. [The effects of ideal-real self discrepancy and irrational belief on self acceptance].

    PubMed

    Arai, S

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to clarify the effects of positive ideal-real self discrepancy, negative ideal-real self discrepancy, and irrational belief on self acceptance. A total of 464 university and vocational school students, an average of 21.1 years old, participated. Results confirmed the prediction that the smaller the positive ideal-real discrepancy, and the larger negative ideal-real discrepancy, the higher is the self acceptance score. It was also found that the effects of the positive ideal-real self discrepancy depended on the intensity of irrational belief, and the belief was thus a moderator of the effect. On the other hand, the intensity of irrational belief did not moderate the effect of negative ideal-real self discrepancy. Finally, the findings were discussed in relation to the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic and counseling efforts to enhance self acceptance.

  1. Is the foot striking pattern more important than barefoot or shod conditions in running?

    PubMed

    Shih, Yo; Lin, Kuan-Lun; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2013-07-01

    People have advocated barefoot running, claiming that it is better suited to human nature. Humans usually run barefoot using a forefoot strike and run shod using a heel strike. The striking pattern was thought to be a key factor that contributes to the benefit of barefoot running. The purpose of this study is to use scientific data to prove that the striking pattern is more important than barefoot or shod conditions for runners on running injuries prevention. Twelve habitually male shod runners were recruited to run under four varying conditions: barefoot running with a forefoot strike, barefoot running with a heel strike, shod running with a forefoot strike, and shod running with a heel strike. Kinetic and kinematic data and electromyography signals were recorded during the experiments. The results showed that the lower extremity can gain more compliance when running with a forefoot strike. Habitually shod runners can gain more shock absorption by changing the striking pattern to a forefoot strike when running with shoes and barefoot conditions. Habitually shod runners may be subject to injuries more easily when they run barefoot while maintaining their heel strike pattern. Higher muscle activity in the gastrocnemius was observed when running with a forefoot strike, which may imply a greater training load on the muscle and a tendency for injury.

  2. Discrepancies confer vulnerability to depressive symptoms: a three-wave longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sherry, Simon B; Mackinnon, Sean P; Macneil, Matthew A; Fitzpatrick, Skye

    2013-01-01

    Discrepancies (i.e., a subjective sense of falling short of one's own standards) are a key part of the perfectionism construct. Theory suggests discrepancies confer vulnerability to depressive symptoms. Since most research in this area is cross-sectional, longitudinal research is needed to disentangle directionality of relationships and to permit stronger causal inferences. Determining whether discrepancies are an antecedent of depressive symptoms, a consequence of depressive symptoms, or both is critical to understanding the discrepancies-depressive symptoms relationship. Knowledge about the temporal stability of discrepancies is also only starting to emerge, and it is unclear whether discrepancies predict incremental variance in depressive symptoms above and beyond neuroticism (i.e., a dispositional tendency to experience negative emotional states). The present study tested relationships among discrepancies, neuroticism, and depressive symptoms in 127 1st-year undergraduates using a 3-wave longitudinal design. Results suggest discrepancies may be understood as a trait-state where people are both highly consistent in their rank order on discrepancies and fluctuate somewhat in the level of discrepancies they experience at a particular point in time. As hypothesized, discrepancies predicted increases in depressive symptoms, even after controlling for neuroticism. Contrary to hypotheses, depressive symptoms did not predict changes in discrepancies. This study extends a long tradition of theory noting the depressing consequences of believing that one has fallen short of one's own standards. Harsh self-criticism and unobtainable self-expectations involving a strong sense of imperfection may be part of the premorbid personality of people vulnerable to depressive symptoms.

  3. Bridge strike reduction: optimising the design of markings.

    PubMed

    Horberry, Tim; Halliday, Mark; Gale, Alastair G

    2002-09-01

    Cases of high-sided vehicles striking low bridges is a large problem in many countries, especially the UK. This paper describes an experiment to evaluate a new design of markings for low bridges. A full size bridge was constructed which was capable of having its overhead clearance adjusted. Subjects sat in a truck cab as it drove towards the bridge and were asked to judge whether the vehicle could pass safely under the bridge. The main objective of the research was to determine whether marking the bridge with a newly devised experimental marking would result in more cautious decisions from subjects regarding whether or not the experimental bridge structure could be passed under safely compared with the currently used UK bridge marking standard. The results show that the type of bridge marking influenced the level of caution associated with decisions regarding bridge navigation, with the new marking design producing the most cautious decisions for the two different bridge heights used, at all distances away from the bridge structure. Additionally, the distance before the bridge at which decisions were given had an effect on the level of caution associated with decisions regarding bridge navigation (the closer to the bridge, the more cautious the decisions became, irrespective of the marking design). The implications of these results for reducing the number of bridge strikes are discussed.

  4. Efficient Processing of Data for Locating Lightning Strikes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J.; Starr, Stan

    2003-01-01

    Two algorithms have been devised to increase the efficiency of processing of data in lightning detection and ranging (LDAR) systems so as to enable the accurate location of lightning strikes in real time. In LDAR, the location of a lightning strike is calculated by solving equations for the differences among the times of arrival (DTOAs) of the lightning signals at multiple antennas as functions of the locations of the antennas and the speed of light. The most difficult part of the problem is computing the DTOAs from digitized versions of the signals received by the various antennas. One way (a time-domain approach) to determine the DTOAs is to compute cross-correlations among variously differentially delayed replicas of the digitized signals and to select, as the DTOAs, those differential delays that yield the maximum correlations. Another way (a frequency-domain approach) to determine the DTOAs involves the computation of cross-correlations among Fourier transforms of variously differentially phased replicas of the digitized signals, along with utilization of the relationship among phase difference, time delay, and frequency.

  5. Fast rupture propagation for large strike-slip earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dun; Mori, Jim; Koketsu, Kazuki

    2016-04-01

    Studying rupture speeds of shallow earthquakes is of broad interest because it has a large effect on the strong near-field shaking that causes damage during earthquakes, and it is an important parameter that reflects stress levels and energy on a slipping fault. However, resolving rupture speed is difficult in standard waveform inversion methods due to limited near-field observations and the tradeoff between rupture speed and fault size for teleseismic observations. Here we applied back-projection methods to estimate the rupture speeds of 15 Mw ≥ 7.8 dip-slip and 8 Mw ≥ 7.5 strike-slip earthquakes for which direct P waves are well recorded in Japan on Hi-net, or in North America on USArray. We found that all strike-slip events had very fast average rupture speeds of 3.0-5.0 km/s, which are near or greater than the local shear wave velocity (supershear). These values are faster than for thrust and normal faulting earthquakes that generally rupture with speeds of 1.0-3.0 km/s.

  6. Imaging divertor strike point splitting in RMP ELM suppression experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, R. A.; Bykov, I.; Orlov, D. M.; Lee, J. S.; Evans, T. E.; Nazikian, R.; Makowski, M.; Lasnier, C. S.; Wang, H.; Abrams, T.; Watkins, J. G.

    2016-10-01

    Fast visible imaging of the lower divertor has been implemented at DIII-D to study the structure and dynamics of lobes induced by 3D fields in RMP ELM suppression experiments. The sharpest imaging was obtained with spatially localized molecular D2 emission indicative of the D flux to the surface. Multiple D2 emission peaks are readily resolved during RMPs, in contrast to the heat flux profile (from IR), which often shows little structure. The brightest D2 lobe is often farthest from the primary inner strike point (ISP). Mitigated ELMs perturb the position and intensity of the ISP lobes and spread the outer strike point emission into the far SOL, where it may be caused by ELM filament propagation. RMP current ramps affect the lobe locations and separations. Implications of the lobe dynamics for plasma response is being studied. Work supported by U.S. DOE under Grants DE-FG02-07ER54917 and DE-FG02-05ER54809, and Contracts DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC52-07NA27344, DE-AC04-94AL85000, DE-AC05-06OR23100 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  7. Analysis of surface structures of major strike-slip faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Shang Yu; Neubauer, Franz

    2013-04-01

    Strike-slip faults commonly appear with complex fractures and deformation structures on the surface, which also reveal the 3-D geometry with variable structures at depth. The aim of our study is finding the systematic features and correlations of various surface expressions including width, length, height and angle (to the main fault trace) of individual structures like pressure ridges, sag ponds, riedel and anti-riedel faults and oversteps, and also doing a classification with these data. The variation might by caused by distinct convergence angles along strike-slip fault. We study the above mentioned properties on Altyn Tagh fault (ATF), Kunlun, San Andrea and Greendale (Darfield earthquake) faults, which are large strike-slip tectonic structures accommodating major displacement along plate boundaries. Especially the recent events of 2001 Kunlun earthquake and 2010 Darfield earthquake allow a detailed study of structures formed by a single earthquake. Along the fault valley of a 610 km segment of ATF, many large-scale pressure ridges, few pressure basins and horizontal offsets of wadi channels were found; similarly, around 20 features with large scale pressure ridges and pressure basins are found in Carrizo Plain of San Andreas fault. Surface ruptures are uncommon, and dominated by anti-riedels in the case of the Altyn fault. Interpretations show the range of length, width and height in pressure ridges located between 150 and ~6400 m, 35 and ~800 m, and 1 to ~80 m, respectively, along ATF and 255 to ~5750 m, 33 to ~800 m, 2 to ~65 m in Carrizo plain of San Andreas fault. These parameters exhibit a good correlation among each other implying a common cause. Compared with these two strike-slip faults, fault valley portions of the Greendale and Kunlun faults show more surface ruptures for instance riedel shears and anti-riedel structures, which have been caused by the last major earthquake, and also the scale of deformations along the ATF and San Andreas fault is

  8. THE EFFECT OF STEP RATE MANIPULATION ON FOOT STRIKE PATTERN OF LONG DISTANCE RUNNERS.

    PubMed

    Allen, Darrell J; Heisler, Hollie; Mooney, Jennifer; Kring, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Running gait retraining to change foot strike pattern in runners from a heel strike pattern to a non heel- strike pattern has been shown to reduce impact forces and may help to reduce running related injuries. Step rate manipulation above preferred is known to help decrease step length, foot inclination angle, and vertical mass excursion, but has not yet been evaluated as a method to change foot strike pattern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of step rate manipulation on foot strike pattern in shod recreational runners who run with a heel strike pattern. A secondary purpose was to describe the effect of step rate manipulation at specific percentages above preferred on foot inclination angle at initial contact. Forty volunteer runners, who were self-reported heel strikers and had a weekly running mileage of at least 10 miles, were recruited. Runners were confirmed to be heel strikers during the warm up period on the treadmill. The subject's step rate was determined at their preferred running pace. A metronome was used to increase step rate above the preferred step rate by 5%, 10% and 15%. 2D video motion analysis was utilized to determine foot strike pattern and to measure foot inclination angle at initial contact for each step rate condition. There was a statistically significant change in foot strike pattern from a heel strike pattern to a mid-foot or forefoot strike pattern at both 10% and 15% step rates above preferred. Seven of the 40 subjects (17.5%) changed from a heel- strike pattern to a non- heel strike pattern at +10% and 12 of the 40 subjects (30%) changed to a non-heel strike pattern at +15%. Mean foot inclination angle at initial contact showed a statistically significant change (reduction) as step rate increased. Step rate manipulation of 10% or greater may be enough to change foot strike pattern from a heel strike to a mid-foot or forefoot strike pattern in a small percentage of recreational runners who run in traditional

  9. Adolescent Psychological and Academic Adjustment as a Function of Discrepancies between Actual and Ideal Self-Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gail M.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Laursen, Brett

    2010-01-01

    Actual-ideal discrepancies are associated with adolescent emotional distress and there is evidence that the size of discrepancies matters. However, the direction of discrepancies has not been examined, perhaps due to limitations of widely used self-discrepancy measures. Two hundred and twelve 7th, 9th and 11th grade students (59% female) in a…

  10. Adolescent Psychological and Academic Adjustment as a Function of Discrepancies between Actual and Ideal Self-Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gail M.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Laursen, Brett

    2010-01-01

    Actual-ideal discrepancies are associated with adolescent emotional distress and there is evidence that the size of discrepancies matters. However, the direction of discrepancies has not been examined, perhaps due to limitations of widely used self-discrepancy measures. Two hundred and twelve 7th, 9th and 11th grade students (59% female) in a…

  11. Discrepancies between descriptions and illustrations of colours in Congo red-stained amyloid, and explanation of discrepant colours.

    PubMed

    Howie, Alexander J; Owen-Casey, Mared P

    2010-09-01

    Congo red-stained sections of amyloid may show various colours between crossed polariser and analyser. The aims were to see how papers described the colours, to compare descriptions with illustrations, and to explain the colours. In 160 papers on Congo red-stained amyloid, the commonest descriptions were 'green birefringence' and 'apple-green birefringence'. In 191 figures in 82 papers, 59 (31%) showed a pure green colour, 62 (32%) showed green and yellow or blue and yellow, 38 (20%) showed green and a colour other than yellow, mostly red, and 32 (17%) showed other colours. Discrepancies between colours reported and illustrated were noted in 127 figures (66%). Most (77) were between green alone in descriptions and green and another colour in figures, and 30 were between green in descriptions and no green at all in figures. Pure green can be seen in ideal conditions, but more often there are green and yellow, explained by strain birefringence, and green and red or other combinations, explained by uncrossing of polariser and analyser. These other anomalous colours are just as characteristic of amyloid as the pure green colour. Many papers on Congo red-stained amyloid appear to describe what is expected theoretically rather than what is actually seen.

  12. Gait patterns in children with limb length discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Aiona, Michael; Do, K Patrick; Emara, Khaled; Dorociak, Robin; Pierce, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Very few articles describe the compensations in gait caused by limb-length discrepancy (LLD). Song and colleagues explored kinematic and kinetic variables utilizing work equalization as a marker of successful compensation for LLD. They found no difference in strategies based on the location of pathology. The purpose of this study was to define the various gait patterns in patients with LLD and the impact of these compensations on gait kinetics. Forty-three children (mean age 12.9±3.7 y) with LLD >2 cm were evaluated in the motion lab using a VICON motion system with 2 AMTI force plates. Etiologies included Legg-Calve-Perthes, developmental hip dysplasia, growth plate damage due to infection or trauma, congenital shortening of the femur or tibia, and syndromes creating shortening of the limb. Evaluation included physical examination and 3-dimensional motion data generated using the model described by Vicon Clinical Manager (VCM). For data analysis, 3 representative trials were processed with the Plug-in Gait lower-body model using the "VCM spline" filter. Walking strategies were identified by visual review. A kinematic threshold of 2 SD away from normal values was used for inclusion in each group. Strategies included: (1) pelvic obliquity with the short side lower (<-1.5 degrees); (2) flexion of the knee of the longer leg in stance (>5.2 degrees); (3) plantar flexion of the ankle on the shorter leg through the gait cycle (<0 degrees); and (4) early plantarflexion crossover of the shorter limb (plantarflexion crossover occurred before 35% of the gait cycle). Variables were extracted into Excel using PECS (Vicon Motion Systems). The mean of the 3 trials was used for analysis. Scanograms were used to establish lengths of the femur and the lower leg including the foot. The percentage difference for the subject (%LLD) was calculated as the leg length between the 2 sides divided by the length of the long side. The total mechanical work over the stride was the sum of the

  13. Computer simulation of occlusal discrepancies resulting from different mounting techniques.

    PubMed

    Piehslinger, E; Bauer, W; Schmiedmayer, H B

    1995-09-01

    The effect of arbitrary mounting of maxillary casts on occlusal relationships was investigated in this study. Maxillary casts of 31 volunteers were mounted on an articulator by use of two split cast bases. This mounting was done first with the arbitrary face bow and second with a hinge bow. Three reference points were defined and measured on each maxillary cast with a three-dimensional digitizer. The measurements were taken from the arbitrarily mounted cast and from the cast mounted according to the hinge axis. Opening and closing movements that were transferred according to the hinge axis. Opening and closing movements that were transferred from the articulator to the mouth of the patient were simulated by a computer based on measurements of the reference points. The results revealed that the use of an arbitrary face bow causes a deviation of the hinge-axis points from the precise axis of more than 5 mm in 77% of the cases. Resulting occlusal errors depended on the angles between the arbitrary and precise axes and the direction of the axis shifts. The occlusal error is roughly proportional to the shift or tilting of the hinge axis in millimeters or degrees. For a given deviation of the arbitrary and precise axes, the occlusal error is proportional to the record height. For a record height of 2 mm or more, an occlusal error of more than 0.1 mm will occur. An average occlusal error of more than 0.1 mm would most likely lead to the necessity of extensive selective grinding of occlusal discrepancies in the patient's mouth.

  14. Assessing anteroposterior basal bone discrepancy with the Dental Aesthetic Index.

    PubMed

    Huang, Boyen; Takahashi, Katsu; Yamazaki, Toru; Saito, Kazuyuki; Yamori, Masashi; Asai, Keita; Yoshikawa, Yusuke; Kamioka, Hiroshi; Yamashiro, Takashi; Bessho, Kazuhisa

    2013-05-01

    To investigate dental appearance and cephalometric features, using a sample of orthognathic and/or orthodontic patients. A special interest was to identify the relationship of the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) with anteroposterior basal bone discrepancy (APBBD) and cephalometric indicators. A full sample of 159 patients in two Japanese hospitals was used. Each patient was assessed with a preorthodontic dental cast and cephalometric radiography. Malocclusion with APBBD was more prevalent among high DAI subjects (P  =  .034, OR  =  1.04, 95% CI: 1.00-1.08), Class III malocclusion patients (P  =  .048, OR  =  2.32, 95% CI: 1.01-5.34) and male patients (P  =  .008, OR  =  2.96, 95% CI: 1.33-6.61). Participants scoring 88 points (the highest score in this sample) of the DAI had 16.84 times the risk of APBBD of those who scored 17 points (the lowest score in this sample). Patients with APBBD presented with a greater adjusted ANB angle (t  =  -8.10, P < .001) and a larger adjusted A-B/NF appraisal (t  =  -9.65, P < .001). The SNA angle (P < .001), the SNB angle (P  =  .002), the adjusted ANB angle (P  =  .001), and the adjusted A-B/NF appraisal (P  =  .035) were associated with DAI scores in cubic regression models. This study has demonstrated a relationship between the DAI and APBBD. Feasibility of using the adjusted ANB angle and the adjusted A-B/NF appraisal to assess severity of APBBD has been confirmed. The DAI may provide a supportive method to evaluate orthognathic needs. Future investigations are indicated.

  15. Discrepancy in behavior of different solar proxies in cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukianova, R.

    2009-04-01

    The Sun can influence the Earth climate through mechanisms that are not fully understood but which can be linked to solar variations of luminosity, magnetic field, UV radiation, solar flares and modulation of the cosmic ray intensity. Several proxies are used to characterize the Sun behavior and its influence on the geospheres. Solar activity over long time scales has usually been studied with the use of sunspot numbers (SN). The integrated radio flux from the solar disc (F10.7 index) follows the SN. Regular direct monitoring of solar irradiance has been made by satellites since 1978, resulting in time series of total solar irradiance (TSI) and variations of solar EUV irradiance (MgII index). The long-term components of all four solar proxies are expected to correlate linearly with each other. The situation was stable until the last solar maximum. Actually, cycle 23 had two maxima: one near middle of 2000 and another near end of 2001. According to SN, the magnitude of the first maximum was larger, whereas according to irradiance proxies, TSI and MgII, the second maximum was significantly higher. After this episode of enhanced irradiance (and until now) the mutual correspondence between published solar indices has been changed resulting in significant divergence. The present paper is aimed to the evaluation of discrepancy observed in different solar proxies. We examine the solar activity, namely the SN, F10.7, TSIs and MgII time series, in order to emphasis its unusual mutual behavior during the declining phase of cycle 23. Behavior of the solar indices is compared with the global ionospheric response using the F2 layer critical frequency from many observatories spread over the globe.

  16. Plantar loading changes with alterations in foot strike patterns during a single session in habitual rear foot strike female runners.

    PubMed

    Kernozek, Thomas W; Vannatta, Charles N; Gheidi, Naghmeh; Kraus, Sydnie; Aminaka, Naoko

    2016-03-01

    Characterize plantar loading parameters when habitually rear foot strike (RFS) runners change their pattern to a non-rear foot strike (NRFS). Experimental. University biomechanics laboratory. Twenty three healthy female runners (Age: 22.17 ± 1.64 yrs; Height: 168.91 ± 5.46 cm; Mass: 64.29 ± 7.11 kg). Plantar loading was measured using an in-sole pressure sensor while running down a 20-m runway restricted to a range of 3.52-3.89 m/s under two conditions, using the runner's typical RFS, and an adapted NRFS pattern. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance was performed to detect differences in loading between these two conditions. Force and pressure variables were greater in the forefoot and phalanx in NRFS and greater in the heel and mid foot in RFS pattern, but the total force imposed upon the whole foot and contact time remained similar between conditions. Total peak pressure was higher and contact area was lower during NRFS running. The primary finding of this investigation is that there are distinctly different plantar loads when changing from a RFS to NRFS during running. So, during a transition from RFS to a NRFS pattern; a period of acclimation should be considered to allow for adaptations to these novel loads incurred on plantar regions of the foot. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Seismicity distribution near strike-slip faults in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Peter Marion

    Hypocenters of small, relocated earthquakes are used to constrain how seismicity rates vary with distance from strike-slip faults in California. Stacks of events in a fault-referenced coordinate system show that out to a fault-normal distance x of 3-6 km, seismicity obeys a power-law ˜ (1+ x2/d 2)-gamma/2, where gamma is the asymptotic roll-off rate and d is a near-fault inner scale. These results are compatible with a 'rough fault loading' model in which the inner scale d measures the half-width of a volumetric damage zone and the roll-off rate gamma is governed by stress variations due to fault roughness. Two-dimensional numerical simulations by J. Dieterich and D. Smith indicate that gamma is approximately equal to the fractal dimension of along-strike roughness. Results of a multi-catalog error analysis and catalog simulations are used to correct the estimates of gamma and d for mislocation bias. Near-fault seismicity is more localized on faults in Northern California (NoCal: d = 50 +/- 20m, gamma = 1.51 +/- .05) than in Southern California (SoCal: d = 210 +/- 40m, gamma = 0.97 +/- .05). The Parkfield region has a damage-zone half-width (d = 120 +/- 30m) consistent with the SAFOD drilling estimate and its high roll-off rate (gamma = 2.30 +/- .25) indicates a relatively flat roughness spectrum: ˜ k-1 vs. k -2 for NoCal and k-3 for SoCal. Fault surfaces in SoCal are therefore nearly self-similar, and their roughness spectra are redder than in NoCal, consistent with the macroscopic complexity of the observed fault traces. The damage-zone widths---the first direct estimates averaged over the seismogenic layer---can be interpreted in terms of an across-strike 'fault-core multiplicity' that is ˜1 in NoCal, ˜2 at Parkfield, and ˜3 in SoCal. The localization of seismicity near individual faults correlates with cumulative offset, seismic productivity, and aseismic slip, consistent with a model in which faults originate as branched networks with broad, multi

  18. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment.

    PubMed

    Kay, Daniel B; Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H

    2015-02-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement reported by older adults with insomnia. Participants were 63 adults >60 years of age with insomnia, and 51 controls. At baseline, participants completed sleep diaries for 7 days while wearing wrist actigraphs. After receiving cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, insomnia patients repeated this sleep assessment. Sleep discrepancy variables were calculated by subtracting actigraphic sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from respective self-reported estimates, pre- and post-treatment. Mean level and night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy were investigated. Baseline sleep discrepancies were compared between groups. Pre-post-treatment changes in Insomnia Severity Index score and sleep discrepancy variables were investigated within older adults with insomnia. Sleep discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable across nights in older adults with insomnia than controls, P ≤ 0.001 for all. Treatment with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia was associated with significant reduction in the Insomnia Severity Index score that correlated with changes in mean level and night-to-night variability in wake after sleep onset discrepancy, P < 0.001 for all. Study of sleep discrepancy patterns may guide more targeted treatments for late-life insomnia. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  19. Radiologist and Sonographer Interpretation Discrepancies for Biliary Sonographic Findings: Our Experience.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, Adrian; George, Nanditha; Ganesh, Halemane; Ayoob, Andres; Lee, James; Nair, Rashmi; Kiper, Cassie; Duncan, Kevin; Stevens, Scott

    2017-04-10

    The aim was to determine the discrepancy rate between the preliminary interpretation by sonographers and the final radiology interpretation for biliary sonographic findings. Institutional review board approval was obtained. Four hundred consecutive right upper quadrant sonographer performed ultrasounds were reviewed retrospectively. Sonographers' worksheets were compared with the final radiology report. For the purposes of this project, only the biliary findings were compared and reviewed. Discrepant findings were reviewed by 5 ultrasound experts, and a majority vote sought to determine truth, sonographer worksheet findings, or radiologist report. The clinical impact of the discrepant findings was also evaluated. Of the 400 scans, there were 338 agreements and 62 discrepancies. The overall discrepancy rate was 15.5%. The most frequently contested discrepancy was the presence or absence of pericholecystic fluid n = 21. Sonographers (S) were deemed correct 8 times and radiologists (R) 13 times, denoted 8/13 (S/R). The overall split was 30/32 (S/R) with radiologists deemed correct 52% of the time and sonographers 48% of the time. Using a 1-sample proportion χ test with Yates' continuity correction, there were no statistically significant discrepancies between the 2 groups. We observed an interpretation discrepancy rate of 15.5% with radiologists deemed correct slightly more frequently, although this did not meet statistical significance. Clinically impactful discrepant findings (6.5% of all discrepancies) were all correctly called by the radiologists. Both groups bring tremendous value to the ultrasound arena, and continued collaboration should be encouraged. The aim of this study was to determine the discrepancy rate that exists between the preliminary interpretation by sonographers and the subsequent final radiology interpretation for biliary sonographic findings.

  20. [Intrinsic ureteral endometriosis: description of a striking instance].

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Alessandro; Finotto, Elena; Zambolin, Tiziano; Fisogni, Simona; Simeone, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic ureteral endometriosis is a very rare condition. A 41 y. o. woman with right hydroureteronephrosis and other aspecific symptoms came to our attention. The CT scan showed an ureteral obstacle causing the hydroureteronephrosis. She underwent ureterorenoscopy with biopsies of the lesion that did not result to be diriment. Suspecting a ureteral neoplasm, the patient then underwent ureteral resection and ureterocystoneostomy, and the extemporary histological examination resulted as endometriosis. The abdominal exploration showed a parametrial and a peritoneal growth - both compatible with the extemporary histological examination - that were also excised. The post-operative course was uneventful. The definitive hystological examination confirmed the perioperatory diagnosis. Intrinsic ureteral endometriosis is confirmed as a rare pathology with an indefinite clinical presentation; its typical presentation, namely cyclic hematuria, seems to be an anecdotal feature. Therefore the diagnostics of intrinsic ureteral endometriosis is still difficult even despite such a striking presentation.

  1. Magma storage in a strike-slip caldera

    PubMed Central

    Saxby, J.; Gottsmann, J.; Cashman, K.; Gutiérrez, E.

    2016-01-01

    Silicic calderas form during explosive volcanic eruptions when magma withdrawal triggers collapse along bounding faults. The nature of specific interactions between magmatism and tectonism in caldera-forming systems is, however, unclear. Regional stress patterns may control the location and geometry of magma reservoirs, which in turn may control the spatial and temporal development of faults. Here we provide new insight into strike-slip volcano-tectonic relations by analysing Bouguer gravity data from Ilopango caldera, El Salvador, which has a long history of catastrophic explosive eruptions. The observed low gravity beneath the caldera is aligned along the principal horizontal stress orientations of the El Salvador Fault Zone. Data inversion shows that the causative low-density structure extends to ca. 6 km depth, which we interpret as a shallow plumbing system comprising a fractured hydrothermal reservoir overlying a magmatic reservoir with vol% exsolved vapour. Fault-controlled localization of magma constrains potential vent locations for future eruptions. PMID:27447932

  2. A striking reduction of simple loudness adaptation in autism.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Rebecca P; Aylward, Jessica; White, Sarah; Rees, Geraint

    2015-11-05

    Reports of sensory disturbance, such as loudness sensitivity or sound intolerance, are ubiquitous in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) but a mechanistic explanation for these perceptual differences is lacking. Here we tested adaptation to loudness, a process that regulates incoming sensory input, in adults with ASD and matched controls. Simple loudness adaptation (SLA) is a fundamental adaptive process that reduces the subjective loudness of quiet steady-state sounds in the environment over time, whereas induced loudness adaptation (ILA) is a means of generating a reduction in the perceived volume of louder sounds. ASD participants showed a striking reduction in magnitude and rate of SLA relative to age and ability-matched typical adults, but in contrast ILA remained intact. Furthermore, rate of SLA predicted sensory sensitivity coping strategies in the ASD group. These results provide the first evidence that compromised neural mechanisms governing fundamental adaptive processes might account for sound sensitivity in ASD.

  3. A Probabilistic, Facility-Centric Approach to Lightning Strike Location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, Lisa L.; Roeder, William p.; Merceret, Francis J.

    2012-01-01

    A new probabilistic facility-centric approach to lightning strike location has been developed. This process uses the bivariate Gaussian distribution of probability density provided by the current lightning location error ellipse for the most likely location of a lightning stroke and integrates it to determine the probability that the stroke is inside any specified radius of any location, even if that location is not centered on or even with the location error ellipse. This technique is adapted from a method of calculating the probability of debris collisionith spacecraft. Such a technique is important in spaceport processing activities because it allows engineers to quantify the risk of induced current damage to critical electronics due to nearby lightning strokes. This technique was tested extensively and is now in use by space launch organizations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Future applications could include forensic meteorology.

  4. Electrical Characterizations of Lightning Strike Protection Techniques for Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szatkowski, George N.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Mielnik, John J.

    2009-01-01

    The growing application of composite materials in commercial aircraft manufacturing has significantly increased the risk of aircraft damage from lightning strikes. Composite aircraft designs require new mitigation strategies and engineering practices to maintain the same level of safety and protection as achieved by conductive aluminum skinned aircraft. Researchers working under the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project are investigating lightning damage on composite materials to support the development of new mitigation, diagnosis & prognosis techniques to overcome the increased challenges associated with lightning protection on composite aircraft. This paper provides an overview of the electrical characterizations being performed to support IVHM lightning damage diagnosis research on composite materials at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  5. Shallow Water Turbulent Surface Wave Striking an Adverse Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Sujit K.

    2015-08-01

    The problem of a sinusoidal wave crest striking an adverse slope due to gradual elevation of the bed is relevant for coastal sea waves. Turbulence based RANS equations are used here under turbulence closure assumptions. Depth-averaging the equations of continuity and momentum, yield two differential equations for the surface elevation and the average forward velocity. After nondimensionalization, the two equations are converted in terms of elevation over the inclined bed and the discharge, where the latter is a function of the former satisfying a first order differential equation, while the elevation is given by a first order evolution equation which is treated by Lax-Wendroff discretization. Starting initially with a single sinusoidal crest, it is shown that as time progresses, the crest leans forwards, causing a jump in the crest upfront resulting in its roll over as a jet. Three cases show that jump becomes more prominent with increasing bed inclination.

  6. [Physiological changes and related nursing care issues during hunger strike].

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yeu-Shan; Chen, Shiu-Lien

    2005-08-01

    The use of hunger strike as a tool to assert grievances has been around for ages and has occasionally happened in the world. Hunger strikers' motives may differ, but their tool is the same--the voluntary refusal of food. Fasting not only results in body weight loss, but also in physiological and neurological function changes, and, of course, it may even threaten life. The health care of hunger strikers is complex. It involves medical staff, medical ethics and guidance for the management of the hunger strikers. Improper medical management may not only undermine the hunger striker's dignity but also risk further damage to his or her health. By understanding hunger strikers' physiological changes and related ethical issues, therefore, we aim to identify appropriate forms of nursing care management and guidance for the care of hunger strikers.

  7. Magma storage in a strike-slip caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxby, J.; Gottsmann, J.; Cashman, K.; Gutiérrez, E.

    2016-07-01

    Silicic calderas form during explosive volcanic eruptions when magma withdrawal triggers collapse along bounding faults. The nature of specific interactions between magmatism and tectonism in caldera-forming systems is, however, unclear. Regional stress patterns may control the location and geometry of magma reservoirs, which in turn may control the spatial and temporal development of faults. Here we provide new insight into strike-slip volcano-tectonic relations by analysing Bouguer gravity data from Ilopango caldera, El Salvador, which has a long history of catastrophic explosive eruptions. The observed low gravity beneath the caldera is aligned along the principal horizontal stress orientations of the El Salvador Fault Zone. Data inversion shows that the causative low-density structure extends to ca. 6 km depth, which we interpret as a shallow plumbing system comprising a fractured hydrothermal reservoir overlying a magmatic reservoir with vol% exsolved vapour. Fault-controlled localization of magma constrains potential vent locations for future eruptions.

  8. Magma storage in a strike-slip caldera.

    PubMed

    Saxby, J; Gottsmann, J; Cashman, K; Gutiérrez, E

    2016-07-22

    Silicic calderas form during explosive volcanic eruptions when magma withdrawal triggers collapse along bounding faults. The nature of specific interactions between magmatism and tectonism in caldera-forming systems is, however, unclear. Regional stress patterns may control the location and geometry of magma reservoirs, which in turn may control the spatial and temporal development of faults. Here we provide new insight into strike-slip volcano-tectonic relations by analysing Bouguer gravity data from Ilopango caldera, El Salvador, which has a long history of catastrophic explosive eruptions. The observed low gravity beneath the caldera is aligned along the principal horizontal stress orientations of the El Salvador Fault Zone. Data inversion shows that the causative low-density structure extends to ca. 6 km depth, which we interpret as a shallow plumbing system comprising a fractured hydrothermal reservoir overlying a magmatic reservoir with vol% exsolved vapour. Fault-controlled localization of magma constrains potential vent locations for future eruptions.

  9. Lightning Strike Induced Damage Mechanisms of Carbon Fiber Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Hirohide

    Composite materials have a wide application in aerospace, automotive, and other transportation industries, because of the superior structural and weight performances. Since carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites possess a much lower electrical conductivity as compared to traditional metallic materials utilized for aircraft structures, serious concern about damage resistance/tolerance against lightning has been rising. Main task of this study is to clarify the lightning damage mechanism of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy polymer composites to help further development of lightning strike protection. The research on lightning damage to carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites is quite challenging, and there has been little study available until now. In order to tackle this issue, building block approach was employed. The research was started with the development of supporting technologies such as a current impulse generator to simulate a lightning strike in a laboratory. Then, fundamental electrical properties and fracture behavior of CFRPs exposed to high and low level current impulse were investigated using simple coupon specimens, followed by extensive parametric investigations in terms of different prepreg materials frequently used in aerospace industry, various stacking sequences, different lightning intensity, and lightning current waveforms. It revealed that the thermal resistance capability of polymer matrix was one of the most influential parameters on lightning damage resistance of CFRPs. Based on the experimental findings, the semi-empirical analysis model for predicting the extent of lightning damage was established. The model was fitted through experimental data to determine empirical parameters and, then, showed a good capability to provide reliable predictions for other test conditions and materials. Finally, structural element level lightning tests were performed to explore more practical situations. Specifically, filled-hole CFRP plates and patch

  10. Foot-strike haemolysis after a 60-km ultramarathon

    PubMed Central

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Schena, Federico; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Aloe, Rosalia; Banfi, Giuseppe; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2012-01-01

    Background. The various contributors to sport-related anaemia include increased plasma volume, exercise-induced oxidative stress, increased body temperature, acidosis, gastrointestinal bleeding, acute and chronic inflammation as well as compression and damage of red blood cells (RBC) in the capillaries within the contracting muscles. The effective contribution of foot-strike haemolysis is unclear. Materials and methods. We studied 18 Caucasian male athletes (mean age, 42 years; range, 34–52 years) before and immediately after a 60-km ultramarathon. Laboratory investigations included the haematological profile along with haptoglobin, potassium, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and albumin concentrations and a haemolysis index (HI). Results. No significant variations were found in post-exercise values of haemoglobin, RBC count and haematocrit. Mean corpuscular volume and haptoglobin were significantly decreased, whereas RBC distribution width was increased. The concentration of haptoglobin was reduced by approximately 50%, whereas enzyme concentrations were all remarkably increased. The HI remained below 0.5 g/L. After adjusting for plasma volume change, the increases were 1.7% for potassium (P=0.17), 30% for AST (P<0.01), 49% for LDH (P<0.01) and 2.39-fold for CK (P<0.01). A statistically significant association was found between haemoconcentration-adjusted variations of CK and those of AST (r=0.803; P<0.01) and LDH (r=0.551; P=0.02). Discussion. This is the first study demonstrating that long-distance running does not induce clinically significant changes in haemoglobin, haematocrit, RBC count or potassium concentration. The significant post-exercise decrease of haptoglobin reflects a certain degree of haemolysis, but the concentration of cell-free haemoglobin remaining below 0.5 g/L and the non-significant variation in RBC count both indicate that the foot-strike haemolysis is very modest or even clinically

  11. College Students' Affective Distress: The Role of Expectation Discrepancies and Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agliata, Allison Kanter; Renk, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    The discrepancy between college students' performance and parents' expectations may be related to college students' affective distress. Further, the role that parent-college student communication reciprocity may play in the context of these discrepancies has not been examined. As a result, this study examined parent-college student expectation…

  12. Discrepancy between Mother and Child Reports of Parental Knowledge and the Relation to Risk Behavior Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Matusiewicz, Alexis K.; Schreiber, Whitney M.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2011-01-01

    The study examined discrepancies in mother and child reports of parental knowledge (PK) of a child's whereabouts, activities, and companions, as well as the extent to which discrepancies in reports of PK are related to child risk-taking behavior concurrently and prospectively across two time points. The sample consisted of 219 mother and early…

  13. College Students' Affective Distress: The Role of Expectation Discrepancies and Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agliata, Allison Kanter; Renk, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    The discrepancy between college students' performance and parents' expectations may be related to college students' affective distress. Further, the role that parent-college student communication reciprocity may play in the context of these discrepancies has not been examined. As a result, this study examined parent-college student expectation…

  14. 75 FR 67453 - Identity Theft Red Flags and Address Discrepancies Under the Fair and Accurate Credit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Identity Theft Red Flags and Address Discrepancies Under the Fair and...: Identity Theft Red Flags and Address Discrepancies under the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of... issue jointly guidelines for financial institutions and creditors regarding identity theft with...

  15. 12 CFR 41.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal... consumer reports (user) that receives a notice of address discrepancy from a consumer reporting agency... request the consumer report and the address(es) in the agency's file for the consumer. (c) Reasonable...

  16. Nonverbal and Verbal Cognitive Discrepancy Profiles in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Influence of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ankenman, Katy; Elgin, Jenna; Sullivan, Katherine; Vincent, Logan; Bernier, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that discrepant cognitive abilities are more common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and may indicate an important ASD endophenotype. The current study examined the frequency of IQ discrepancy profiles (nonverbal IQ greater than verbal IQ [NVIQ greater than VIQ], verbal IQ greater than nonverbal IQ [VIQ greater…

  17. Working Memory in Children with Learning Disabilities: Rethinking the Criterion of Discrepancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehler, Claudia; Schuchardt, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    The criterion of discrepancy is used to distinguish children with learning disorders from children with intellectual disabilities. The justification of the criterion of discrepancy for the diagnosis of learning disorders relies on the conviction of fundamental differences between children with learning difficulties with versus without discrepancy…

  18. Nonverbal and Verbal Cognitive Discrepancy Profiles in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Influence of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ankenman, Katy; Elgin, Jenna; Sullivan, Katherine; Vincent, Logan; Bernier, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that discrepant cognitive abilities are more common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and may indicate an important ASD endophenotype. The current study examined the frequency of IQ discrepancy profiles (nonverbal IQ greater than verbal IQ [NVIQ greater than VIQ], verbal IQ greater than nonverbal IQ [VIQ greater…

  19. Does Hot Water Freeze Faster Than Cold? Or Why Mpemba's Ice Cream Is a Discrepant Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Bill

    1993-01-01

    A discrepant event is a happening contrary to our current beliefs. Discrepant events are said to be useful in clarifying concepts. This is one of the interesting features of current theories of constructivism. The story of Mpemba's ice cream is quite well known, but it is the educational aspects of the experiment that are of interest in this…

  20. Latent Difference Score Modeling: A Flexible Approach for Studying Informant Discrepancies.

    PubMed

    de Haan, Amaranta; Prinzie, Peter; Sentse, Miranda; Jongerling, Joran

    2017-04-13

    The current study proposes a flexible approach to studying informant discrepancies: Latent Difference Scores modeling (LDS). The LDS approach is demonstrated using an empirical example in which associations between mother-adolescent and father-adolescent discrepant parenting perceptions, and concurrent and later adolescent externalizing behaviors, were investigated. Early adolescents (N = 477, aged 12-15 years), mothers (N = 470), and fathers (N = 440) filled out questionnaires about mothers' and fathers' parenting. Results using the LDS approach are compared to results obtained by the 2 existing approaches for informant discrepancies: Observed Difference Scores modeling (ODS) and Polynomial Regression Analyses (PRA). Results from the LDS approach show that adolescents perceive their mothers' and fathers' parenting less favorably than mothers and fathers themselves, and that stronger mother-adolescent discrepancies are consistently related to stronger father-adolescent discrepancies. Parent-adolescent discrepancies were concurrently associated with more aggressive and rule-breaking behaviors, but not longitudinally. Results generalized across the 2 discrepancy approaches, but only very few significant associations were found in the PRA. Advantages and limitations of all 3 approaches to studying informant discrepancies are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Great Expectations: Examining the Discrepancy between Expectations and Experiences on College Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleitz, Jacob D.; MacDougall, Alexandra E.; Terry, Robert A.; Buckley, M. Ronald; Campbell, Nicole J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to build upon previous efforts evaluating the degree to which the discrepancy between student expectations and experiences can result in greater rates of attrition in education. Data were collected from 225 students at a large Midwestern public university and analyzed to assess the discrepancy between expectations…

  2. Discrepant Questioning as a Tool To Build Complex Mental Models of Respiration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rea-Ramirez, Mary Anne; Nunez-Oviedo, Maria C.

    Discrepant questioning is a teaching technique that can help students "unlearn" misconceptions and process science ideas for deep understanding. Discrepant questioning is a technique in which teachers question students in a way that requires them to examine their ideas or models, without giving information prematurely to the student or passing…

  3. 19 CFR 125.34 - Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's...

  4. 19 CFR 125.34 - Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's...

  5. Discrepancies Confer Vulnerability to Depressive Symptoms: A Three-Wave Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherry, Simon B.; Mackinnon, Sean P.; Macneil, Matthew A.; Fitzpatrick, Skye

    2013-01-01

    Discrepancies (i.e., a subjective sense of falling short of one's own standards) are a key part of the perfectionism construct. Theory suggests discrepancies confer vulnerability to depressive symptoms. Since most research in this area is cross-sectional, longitudinal research is needed to disentangle directionality of relationships and to permit…

  6. The Discrepancy between Teachers' Beliefs and Practices: A Study of Kindergarten Teachers in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Wai Ling

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the discrepancy between teachers' beliefs and practices in Hong Kong kindergartens and the factors that influence this discrepancy. Three kindergartens, considered by the Hong Kong Education Bureau to be of varying quality, were chosen from different areas of Hong Kong. Questionnaires about teaching beliefs were administered to…

  7. Does Third Grade Discrepancy Status Predict the Course of Reading Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Lynn; Meyer, Marianne; Lovato, James; Felton, Rebecca; Wood, Frank

    2001-01-01

    A study employed mixed effects regression growth curve analysis to assess the developmental course of discrepant (n=51) and nondiscrepant (n=89) poor readers identified in third grade and retested in fifth, eight, and twelfth grades. Discrepancy status did not differentiate the developmental course of basic reading skills or reading comprehension.…

  8. Acute kidney injury as a risk factor for diagnostic discrepancy among geriatric patients: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Chia-Ter; Tsai, Hung-Bin; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Shih, Chih-Yuan; Hsu, Su-Hsuan; Hung, Yu-Chien; Lai, Chun-Fu; Chan, Derrick Ding-Cheng; Yen, Chung-Jen; Chu, Tzong-Shinn

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic discrepancy, defined as different admission and discharge diagnoses, could be a potential source of diagnostic error. We evaluated whether acute kidney injury (AKI) in the elderly affected their risk for diagnostic discrepancy. Patients aged ≥60 years from the general medical wards were prospectively enrolled and divided according to AKI status upon admission, using the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. We compared their discharge and admission diagnoses and identified patients with a diagnostic discrepancy, using multiple logistic regression analysis to evaluate the relationship between initial AKI and the presence of a diagnostic discrepancy. A total of 188 participants (mean age, 77.9 years) were recruited. Regression analysis showed that initial AKI on admission was associated with a higher risk of diagnostic discrepancy upon discharge (odds ratio [OR] 3.3; p < 0.01). In contrast, higher AKI severity was also associated with an increased risk of diagnostic discrepancy (for KDIGO grade 1, 2, and 3; OR 2.92, 3.91, and 4.32; p = 0.04, 0.03, and 0.02, respectively), suggesting that initial AKI upon admission could be an important risk factor for diagnostic discrepancy. Consequently, reducing geriatric AKI might have the potential to reduce diagnostic discrepancy among these patients. PMID:27982065

  9. Can the Media Affect Us? Social Comparison, Self-Discrepancy, and the Thin Ideal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessenoff, Gayle R.

    2006-01-01

    The current study explored body image self-discrepancy as moderator and social comparison as mediator in the effects on women from thin-ideal images in the media. Female undergraduates (N = 112) with high and low body image self-discrepancy were exposed to advertisements either with thin women (thin ideal) or without thin women…

  10. Discrepancies, Responses, and Patterns: Selecting a Method of Assessment for Specific Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihori, Derek; Olvera, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act allows three methods of determining whether a student qualifies for special education as a student with a specific learning disability (SLD). The first and most controversial is the Discrepancy model, which requires a significant discrepancy between the student's intellectual ability and academic…

  11. Understanding Parent-Child Social Informant Discrepancy in Youth with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Matthew D.; Calhoun, Casey D.; Mikami, Amori Yee; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2012-01-01

    We investigated discrepancies between parent- and self-reported social functioning among youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Three distinct samples showed discrepancies indicating that parents viewed their children as performing one standard deviation below a standardization mean, while youth viewed themselves as comparably-skilled…

  12. Understanding Parent-Child Social Informant Discrepancy in Youth with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Matthew D.; Calhoun, Casey D.; Mikami, Amori Yee; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2012-01-01

    We investigated discrepancies between parent- and self-reported social functioning among youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Three distinct samples showed discrepancies indicating that parents viewed their children as performing one standard deviation below a standardization mean, while youth viewed themselves as comparably-skilled…

  13. 41 CFR 101-26.803 - Discrepancies or deficiencies in shipments, material, or billings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrepancies or deficiencies in shipments, material, or billings. 101-26.803 Section 101-26.803 Public Contracts and Property..., Material, or Billings § 101-26.803 Discrepancies or deficiencies in shipments, material, or billings....

  14. 41 CFR 101-26.803 - Discrepancies or deficiencies in shipments, material, or billings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Discrepancies or deficiencies in shipments, material, or billings. 101-26.803 Section 101-26.803 Public Contracts and Property..., Material, or Billings § 101-26.803 Discrepancies or deficiencies in shipments, material, or billings....

  15. Maximizing the Impact of Program Evaluation: A Discrepancy-Based Process for Educational Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Jeffrey A.

    This paper describes a formative/summative process for educational program evaluation, which is appropriate for higher education programs and is based on M. Provus' Discrepancy Evaluation Model and the principles of instructional design. The Discrepancy Based Methodology for Educational Program Evaluation facilitates systematic and detailed…

  16. 19 CFR 125.34 - Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's tally...

  17. 19 CFR 125.34 - Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's tally...

  18. 19 CFR 125.34 - Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's tally...

  19. Revisiting Discrepancy Theory in Learning Disabilities: What Went Wrong and Why We Should Go Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callinan, Sarah; Cunningham, Everarda; Theiler, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The rise in popularity of Response to Intervention (RTI) as a method of identifying Learning Disabilities (LD) is partially due to the psychometric and theoretical issues inherent to the use of IQ tests in the once popular discrepancy method of identification. However, both RTI and discrepancy theories have their shortcomings, and criticisms…

  20. Revisiting Discrepancy Theory in Learning Disabilities: What Went Wrong and Why We Should Go Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callinan, Sarah; Cunningham, Everarda; Theiler, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The rise in popularity of Response to Intervention (RTI) as a method of identifying Learning Disabilities (LD) is partially due to the psychometric and theoretical issues inherent to the use of IQ tests in the once popular discrepancy method of identification. However, both RTI and discrepancy theories have their shortcomings, and criticisms…

  1. Can the Media Affect Us? Social Comparison, Self-Discrepancy, and the Thin Ideal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessenoff, Gayle R.

    2006-01-01

    The current study explored body image self-discrepancy as moderator and social comparison as mediator in the effects on women from thin-ideal images in the media. Female undergraduates (N = 112) with high and low body image self-discrepancy were exposed to advertisements either with thin women (thin ideal) or without thin women…

  2. Predictive Value of Informant Discrepancies in Reports of Parenting: Relations to Early Adolescents' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guion, Kim; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Research has demonstrated a lack of agreement between parent and child reports across a range of parent and child variables. These discrepancies hinder the interpretation of research findings as well as diagnostic and treatment decisions in clinical practice. The current study examined the hypothesis that discrepancies between parent and child…

  3. Predictive Value of Informant Discrepancies in Reports of Parenting: Relations to Early Adolescents' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guion, Kim; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Research has demonstrated a lack of agreement between parent and child reports across a range of parent and child variables. These discrepancies hinder the interpretation of research findings as well as diagnostic and treatment decisions in clinical practice. The current study examined the hypothesis that discrepancies between parent and child…

  4. Maximizing the Impact of Program Evaluation: A Discrepancy-Based Process for Educational Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Jeffrey A.

    This paper describes a formative/summative process for educational program evaluation, which is appropriate for higher education programs and is based on M. Provus' Discrepancy Evaluation Model and the principles of instructional design. The Discrepancy Based Methodology for Educational Program Evaluation facilitates systematic and detailed…

  5. Working Memory in Children with Learning Disabilities: Rethinking the Criterion of Discrepancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehler, Claudia; Schuchardt, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    The criterion of discrepancy is used to distinguish children with learning disorders from children with intellectual disabilities. The justification of the criterion of discrepancy for the diagnosis of learning disorders relies on the conviction of fundamental differences between children with learning difficulties with versus without discrepancy…

  6. Delayed esophageal perforation following lightning strike: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Lightning is the second most common storm-related cause of death. The mortality following lightning strike is 10% to 30% and a large proportion of these people suffer cardiopulmonary arrest at the time of the strike. Much less commonly, solid organ injuries occur from either primary or secondary blunt force trauma. Case presentation To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report in the literature of an isolated esophageal rupture caused by lightning strike blunt force trauma. Conclusions Solid organ injuries are often underappreciated in lightning strikes. Blast injury to patients by lightning strikes should prompt clinicians to search for occult organ injury. PMID:22905675

  7. Lightning strike density for the contiguous United States from thunderstorm duration records

    SciTech Connect

    MacGorman, D.R.; Maier, M.W.; Rust, W.D.

    1984-05-01

    An improved lightning ground strike climatology has been obtained from thunderstorm duration data recorded by 450 air weather stations. From lightning strike location data collected in Florida and Oklahoma, it was found that strike density could be estimated from thunderstorm duration by the equation N/sub s/ = 0.054H/sup 1/ /sup 1/, where N/sub s/ is the number of strikes per square kilometer and H is thunderstorm duration in hours. This relationship was applied to thunderstorm duration data from the aviation stations to obtain lightning strike density for the contiguous United States.

  8. Precision Strike Training in Lean Manufacturing: A Workplace Literacy Guidebook [and] Final Report on Precision Strike Workplace Literacy Training at CertainTeed Corporation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Alliance of Business, Inc., Washington, DC.

    CertainTeed's Precision Strike training program was designed to close the gaps between the current status of its workplace and where that work force needed to be to compete successfully in global markets. Precision Strike included Skills and Knowledge in Lifelong Learning (SKILL) customized, computerized lessons in basic skills, one-on-one…

  9. A rationale for treating leg length discrepancy using photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisland, Stuart K.; Johnson, Crystal; Diab, Mohammed; Wilson, Brian C.; Burch, Shane

    2005-09-01

    This study investigates the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in regulating bone development with a view to its potential role in treating Juvenile leg length discrepancy (LLD). Transgenic mice expressing the luciferase firefly gene upon activation of a promoter sequence specific to the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene were subject to benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid (BPD-MA)-mediated PDT in the right, tibial epiphyseal growth plate at the age of 3 weeks. BPD-MA was administered intracardially (2mg/kg) followed 10 mins later by a laser light (690 +/- 5 nm) at a range of doses (5-27J, 50 mW output) delivered either as a single or repeat regimen (x2-3). Contra-lateral legs served as no-light controls. Further controls included animals that received light treatment in the absence of photosensitizer or no treatment. Mice were imaged for VEGF related bioluminescence (photons/sec/steradian) at t= 0, 24, 48, 72 h and 1-4 weeks post PDT. FaxitronTM x-ray images provided accurate assessment of bone morphometry. Upon sacrifice, the tibia and femur of the treated and untreated limbs were harvested, imaged and measured again and prepared for histology. A number of animals were sacrificed at 24 h post PDT to allow immunohistochemical staining for CD31, VEGF and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1 alpha) within the bone. PDT-treated (10 J, x2) mice displayed enhanced bioluminescence at the treatment site (and ear nick) for up to 4 weeks post treatment while control mice were bioluminescent at the ear-nick site only. Repeat regimens provided greater shortening of the limb than the corresponding single treatment. PDT-treated limbs were shorter by 3-4 mm on average as compared to the contra lateral and light only controls (10 J, x2). Immunohistochemistry confirmed the enhanced expression VEGF and CD31 at 4 weeks post-treatment although no increase in HIF-1α was evident at either 24 h or 4 weeks post PDT treatment. Results confirm the utility of PDT to provide localized

  10. Complications Associated With Epiphysiodesis for Management of Leg Length Discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Makarov, Marina R; Dunn, Samuel H; Singer, Dustin E; Rathjen, Karl E; Ramo, Brandon A; Chukwunyerenwa, Chukwudi K; Birch, John G

    2016-08-19

    Epiphysiodesis is well-established surgical treatment for the management of leg length discrepancy (LLD) in children; however, a variety of complications may occur. This study evaluates the nature, rate, and potential risk factors of complications associated with epiphysiodesis in a large patient population treated in 1 institution. We evaluated the medical and radiographic records of 863 children who had lower extremity epiphysiodesis to manage LLD between 1980 and 2011. Sixty patients (7.0%) incurred complications of some type. Twenty-three patients (2.7%) had perioperative complications unrelated to physeal growth; all resolved without surgical treatment. These included 2 patients with transient intraoperative complications (laryngospasm and allergic rash), 7 with transient neurological symptoms (5 cutaneous nerve dysesthesia or numbness and 2 peroneal nerve neuropathies), and 14 with postoperative knee stiffness which resolved with therapy. Thirty-seven patients (4.3%) developed physeal growth-related complications, including 6 patients who developed overcorrection of leg length inequality (3 had contralateral epiphysiodesis to prevent overcorrection, while 3 declined), and 31 patients who developed angular deformity and/or continued growth of the physis. Of these 31 patients, 15 had reexploration of the epiphysiodesis site, 6 underwent corrective osteotomy, while in 10, no treatment was undertaken. Compared with patients who did not develop angular deformity, these 31 patients had significantly greater LLD (5.6 vs. 3.7 cm, respectively, P<0.01), were younger (10.7 vs. 11.7 in girls; 12.4 vs. 13.5 in boys; P<0.01), and were more likely to have a congenital etiology for their LLD (P<0.01). Epiphysiodesis is a safe and effective procedure for the correction of leg length inequality. The rate of complications in this study was 7.0%, the most prevalent being the development of angular deformity. Congenital etiology, younger age, and larger limb length inequalities

  11. Commentary: Definitely more than measurement error: but how should we understand and deal with informant discrepancies?

    PubMed

    Achenbach, Thomas M

    2011-01-01

    The special section articles demonstrate the importance of informant discrepancies. They also illustrate challenges posed by discrepancies, plus opportunities for advancing research and practice. This commentary addresses these cross-cutting issues: (a) Discrepancies affect many kinds of assessment besides ratings of children's problems. (b) Symptom models complicate challenges posed by discrepancies. (c) Informant discrepancies validly reflect different genetically and environmentally influenced aspects of children's functioning. (d) Multisource assessment is needed to test and refine diagnostic constructs. (e) Methodological issues arise from the kinds of variables that are rated and ways of evaluating agreement. (f) Assessment requires age-, gender-, informant-, and society-based norms. (g) Developmental levels affect what can be assessed, by whom, in what contexts, and for what purposes. (h) Research-based algorithms are needed for using multi-informant data to assess individuals.

  12. Identifying and Characterizing Discrepancies Between Test and Analysis Results of Compression-Loaded Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornburgh, Robert P.; Hilburger, Mark W.

    2005-01-01

    Results from a study to identify and characterize discrepancies between validation tests and high-fidelity analyses of compression-loaded panels are presented. First, potential sources of the discrepancies in both the experimental method and corresponding high-fidelity analysis models were identified. Then, a series of laboratory tests and numerical simulations were conducted to quantify the discrepancies and develop test and analysis methods to account for the discrepancies. The results indicate that the discrepancies between the validation tests and high-fidelity analyses can be attributed to imperfections in the test fixture and specimen geometry; test-fixture-induced changes in specimen geometry; and test-fixture-induced friction on the loaded edges of the test specimen. The results also show that accurate predictions of the panel response can be obtained when these specimen imperfections and edge conditions are accounted for in the analysis. The errors in the tests and analyses, and the methods used to characterize these errors are presented.

  13. Discrepancy-based and anticipated emotions in behavioral self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christina M; McConnell, Allen R

    2011-10-01

    Discrepancies between one's current and desired states evoke negative emotions, which presumably guide self-regulation. In the current work we evaluated the function of discrepancy-based emotions in behavioral self-regulation. Contrary to classic theories of self-regulation, discrepancy-based emotions did not predict the degree to which people engaged in self-regulatory behavior. Instead, expectations about how future self-discrepancies would make one feel (i.e., anticipated emotions) predicted self-regulation. However, anticipated emotions were influenced by previous discrepancy-based emotional experiences, suggesting that the latter do not directly motivate self-regulation but rather guide expectations. These findings are consistent with the perspective that emotions do not necessarily direct immediate behavior, but rather have an indirect effect by guiding expectations, which in turn predict goal-directed action.

  14. U language-related differences between discrepancy-defined and non-discrepancy-defined poor readers: a longitudinal study of dyslexia in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Tunmer, William E; Chapman, James W

    2007-02-01

    Language-related differences between discrepancy-defined and non-discrepancy-defined poor readers were examined in a three-year longitudinal study that began at school entry. The discrepancy-defined (dyslexic) poor readers (n=19) were identified in terms of poor reading comprehension and average or above average listening comprehension performance, and the non-discrepancy-defined (non-dyslexic) poor readers (n=19) in terms of both poor reading and listening comprehension performance. The two poor reader groups and a group of normally developing readers (n=55) were given several oral language, phonological processing, and reading performance measures at six testing occasions. Results indicated that in addition to expected differences on the oral language measures, the non-discrepancy-defined poor readers also showed greater phonological processing deficits than the dyslexic poor readers. The results are discussed in terms of the lack of official recognition of dyslexia in New Zealand, the whole language orientation of classroom reading instruction, and the inadequacy of Reading Recovery for minimizing reading problems.

  15. San Andreas-sized Strike-slip Fault on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This mosaic of the south polar region of Jupiter's moon Europa shows the northern 290 kilometers (180 miles) of a strike-slip fault named Astypalaea Linea. The entire fault is about 810 kilometers (500 miles) long, about the size of the California portion of the San Andreas fault, which runs from the California-Mexico border north to the San Francisco Bay.

    In a strike-slip fault, two crustal blocks move horizontally past one another, similar to two opposing lanes of traffic. Overall motion along the fault seems to have followed a continuous narrow crack along the feature's entire length, with a path resembling steps on a staircase crossing zones that have been pulled apart. The images show that about 50 kilometers (30 miles) of displacement have taken place along the fault. The fault's opposite sides can be reconstructed like a puzzle, matching the shape of the sides and older, individual cracks and ridges broken by its movements.

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The red line marks the once active central crack of the fault. The black line outlines the fault zone, including material accumulated in the regions which have been pulled apart.

    Bends in the fault have allowed the surface to be pulled apart. This process created openings through which warmer, softer ice from below Europa's brittle ice shell surface, or frozen water from a possible subsurface ocean, could reach the surface. This upwelling of material formed large areas of new ice within the boundaries of the original fault. A similar pulling-apart phenomenon can be observed in the geological trough surrounding California's Salton Sea, in Death Valley and the Dead Sea. In those cases, the pulled-apart regions can include upwelled materials, but may be filled mostly by sedimentary and eroded material from above.

    One theory is that fault motion on Europa is induced by the pull of variable daily tides generated by Jupiter's gravitational tug on Europa. Tidal tension

  16. San Andreas-sized Strike-slip Fault on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This mosaic of the south polar region of Jupiter's moon Europa shows the northern 290 kilometers (180 miles) of a strike-slip fault named Astypalaea Linea. The entire fault is about 810 kilometers (500 miles) long, about the size of the California portion of the San Andreas fault, which runs from the California-Mexico border north to the San Francisco Bay.

    In a strike-slip fault, two crustal blocks move horizontally past one another, similar to two opposing lanes of traffic. Overall motion along the fault seems to have followed a continuous narrow crack along the feature's entire length, with a path resembling steps on a staircase crossing zones that have been pulled apart. The images show that about 50 kilometers (30 miles) of displacement have taken place along the fault. The fault's opposite sides can be reconstructed like a puzzle, matching the shape of the sides and older, individual cracks and ridges broken by its movements.

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The red line marks the once active central crack of the fault. The black line outlines the fault zone, including material accumulated in the regions which have been pulled apart.

    Bends in the fault have allowed the surface to be pulled apart. This process created openings through which warmer, softer ice from below Europa's brittle ice shell surface, or frozen water from a possible subsurface ocean, could reach the surface. This upwelling of material formed large areas of new ice within the boundaries of the original fault. A similar pulling-apart phenomenon can be observed in the geological trough surrounding California's Salton Sea, in Death Valley and the Dead Sea. In those cases, the pulled-apart regions can include upwelled materials, but may be filled mostly by sedimentary and eroded material from above.

    One theory is that fault motion on Europa is induced by the pull of variable daily tides generated by Jupiter's gravitational tug on Europa. Tidal tension

  17. Frequency of discrepancies in retracted clinical trial reports versus unretracted reports: blinded case-control study.

    PubMed

    Cole, Graham D; Nowbar, Alexandra N; Mielewczik, Michael; Shun-Shin, Matthew J; Francis, Darrel P

    2015-09-20

    To compare the frequency of discrepancies in retracted reports of clinical trials with those in adjacent unretracted reports in the same journal. Blinded case-control study. Journals in PubMed. 50 manuscripts, classified on PubMed as retracted clinical trials, paired with 50 adjacent unretracted manuscripts from the same journals. Reports were randomly selected from PubMed in December 2012, with no restriction on publication date. Controls were the preceding unretracted clinical trial published in the same journal. All traces of retraction were removed. Three scientists, blinded to the retraction status of individual reports, reviewed all 100 trial reports for discrepancies. Discrepancies were pooled and cross checked before being counted into prespecified categories. Only then was the retraction status unblinded for analysis. Total number of discrepancies (defined as mathematically or logically contradictory statements) in each clinical trial report. Of 479 discrepancies found in the 100 trial reports, 348 were in the 50 retracted reports and 131 in the 50 unretracted reports. On average, individual retracted reports had a greater number of discrepancies than unretracted reports (median 4 (interquartile range 2-8.75) v 0 (0-5); P<0.001). Papers with a discrepancy were significantly more likely to be retracted than those without a discrepancy (odds ratio 5.7 (95% confidence interval 2.2 to 14.5); P<0.001). In particular, three types of discrepancy arose significantly more frequently in retracted than unretracted reports: factual discrepancies (P=0.002), arithmetical errors (P=0.01), and missed P values (P=0.02). Results from a retrospective analysis indicated that citations and journal impact factor were unlikely to affect the result. Discrepancies in published trial reports should no longer be assumed to be unimportant. Scientists, blinded to retraction status and with no specialist skill in the field, identify significantly more discrepancies in retracted than

  18. Frequency of discrepancies in retracted clinical trial reports versus unretracted reports: blinded case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Nowbar, Alexandra N; Mielewczik, Michael; Shun-Shin, Matthew J; Francis, Darrel P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare the frequency of discrepancies in retracted reports of clinical trials with those in adjacent unretracted reports in the same journal. Design Blinded case-control study. Setting Journals in PubMed. Population 50 manuscripts, classified on PubMed as retracted clinical trials, paired with 50 adjacent unretracted manuscripts from the same journals. Reports were randomly selected from PubMed in December 2012, with no restriction on publication date. Controls were the preceding unretracted clinical trial published in the same journal. All traces of retraction were removed. Three scientists, blinded to the retraction status of individual reports, reviewed all 100 trial reports for discrepancies. Discrepancies were pooled and cross checked before being counted into prespecified categories. Only then was the retraction status unblinded for analysis. Main outcome measure Total number of discrepancies (defined as mathematically or logically contradictory statements) in each clinical trial report. Results Of 479 discrepancies found in the 100 trial reports, 348 were in the 50 retracted reports and 131 in the 50 unretracted reports. On average, individual retracted reports had a greater number of discrepancies than unretracted reports (median 4 (interquartile range 2-8.75) v 0 (0-5); P<0.001). Papers with a discrepancy were significantly more likely to be retracted than those without a discrepancy (odds ratio 5.7 (95% confidence interval 2.2 to 14.5); P<0.001). In particular, three types of discrepancy arose significantly more frequently in retracted than unretracted reports: factual discrepancies (P=0.002), arithmetical errors (P=0.01), and missed P values (P=0.02). Results from a retrospective analysis indicated that citations and journal impact factor were unlikely to affect the result. Conclusions Discrepancies in published trial reports should no longer be assumed to be unimportant. Scientists, blinded to retraction status and with no specialist

  19. Discrepancies Between Laboratory Shock Experiments on Minerals and Natural Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carli, P. S.; Xie, Z.; Sharp, T. G.

    2009-12-01

    Numerous laboratory shock recovery experiments performed over the past 50 years have provided substantial data on the effects of shock waves on rocks and minerals. However, it has become increasingly clear that the pressure "calibrations" based on shock effects observed in these experiments are inconsistent with interpretations based on static high-pressure data. A fundamental question is whether shock pressures are somehow different from static high pressures. Fifty years ago, many journal reviewers doubted that phase transformations could take place on a sub-microsecond time scale. Shock wave workers responded by invoking "special" properties of shock compression. However, all available evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that phase transitions under shock pressure are no different from phase transitions under static high pressures. The discrepancies noted above result from the fact that the parameter space, especially shock pressure duration, accessible to shock recovery experiments is so small by comparison with natural events. Furthermore virtually all shock recovery experiments on rocks and minerals have used high impedance sample containers, with the result that the samples have been subjected to thermodynamic loading paths substantially from a natural event. Consider the case of a chondritic meteorite made up of minerals having a wide range of shock properties. In a natural shock event the transient (nano-second scale) shock pressure at the shock front can vary by as much as an order of magnitude from grain to grain or even within a single grain. There are corresponding local differences in shock temperature. Assuming a mineral grain size of about a mm, the pressure inhomogeneities will equilibrate in less than a microsecond, wheras the temperature inhomogenities will require seconds to equilibrate. Recent studies of high-pressure phases in meteorites have provided evidence for pressure durations in the range of seconds, long enough for high pressure

  20. Diagnostic discrepancies in clinical practice: An autopsy study in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Issa, Victor Sarli; Dinardi, Layara Fernanda Lipari; Pereira, Thiago Vicente; de Almeida, Lyna Kyria Rodrigues; Barbosa, Thaisa Silveira; Benvenutti, Luiz Alberto; Ayub-Ferreira, Silvia Moreira; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides

    2017-01-01

    Autopsies are the gold standard for diagnostic accuracy; however, no recent study has analyzed autopsies in heart failure (HF).We reviewed 1241 autopsies (January 2000-May 2005) and selected 232 patients with HF. Clinical and autopsy diagnoses were analyzed and discrepancies categorized according to their importance regarding therapy and prognosis.Mean age was 63.3 ± 15.9 years; 154 (66.4%) patients were male. The causes of death at autopsy were end-stage HF (40.9%), acute myocardial infarction (17.2%), infection (15.9), and pulmonary embolism 36 (15.5). Diagnostic discrepancies occurred in 191 (82.3%) cases; in 56 (24.1%), discrepancies were related to major diagnoses with potential influence on survival or treatment; pulmonary embolism was the cause of death for 24 (42.9%) of these patients. In 35 (15.1%), discrepancies were related to a major diagnosis with equivocal influence on survival or treatment; in 100 (43.1%), discrepancies did not influence survival or treatment. In multivariate analysis, age (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.008-1.052, P = 0.007) and presence of diabetes mellitus (OR: 0.359, 95% CI: 0.168-0.767, P = 0.008) influenced the occurrence discrepancies.Diagnostic discrepancies with a potential impact on prognosis are frequent in HF. These findings warrant reconsideration in diagnostic and therapeutic practices with HF patients.

  1. Gender Role Discrepancy Stress, High-Risk Sexual Behavior, and Sexually Transmitted Disease.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Dennis E; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Gentile, Brittany; Berke, Danielle S; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-02-01

    Nearly 20 million new sexually transmitted infections occur every year in the United States. Traditionally, men have demonstrated much greater risk for contraction of and mortality from STDs perhaps because they tend to engage in a number of risky sexual activities. Research on masculinity suggests that gender roles influence males' sexual health by encouraging risk-taking behavior, discouraging access to health services, and narrowly defining their roles as partners. However, despite the propensity of highly masculine men to engage in high-risk sexual behavior, there is reason to suspect that men at the other end of the continuum may still be driven to engage in similar high-risk behaviors as a consequence of gender socialization. Discrepancy stress is a form of gender role stress that occurs when men fail to live up to the ideal manhood derived from societal prescriptions (i.e., Gender Role Discrepancy). In the present study, we surveyed a national sample of 600 men via Amazon Mechanical Turk to assess perceived gender role discrepancy, experience of discrepancy stress, and the associations with risky sexual behavior and potential contraction of STDs. Results indicated that men who believe they are less masculine than the typical man (i.e., gender role discrepancy) and experience distress stemming from this discrepancy (i.e., discrepancy stress) engage in high-risk sexual behavior and are subsequently diagnosed with more STDs. Findings are discussed in relation to implications for primary prevention strategies.

  2. Discrepancies in Leader and Follower Ratings of Transformational Leadership: Relationship with Organizational Culture in Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Aarons, Gregory A; Ehrhart, Mark G; Farahnak, Lauren R; Sklar, Marisa; Horowitz, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    The role of leadership in the management and delivery of health and allied health services is often discussed but lacks empirical research. Discrepancies are often found between leaders' self-ratings and followers' ratings of the leader. To our knowledge no research has examined leader-follower discrepancies and their association with organizational culture in mental health clinics. The current study examines congruence, discrepancy, and directionality of discrepancy in relation to organizational culture in 38 mental health teams (N = 276). Supervisors and providers completed surveys including ratings of the supervisor transformational leadership and organizational culture. Polynomial regression and response surface analysis models were computed examining the associations of leadership discrepancy and defensive organizational culture and its subscales. Discrepancies between supervisor and provider reports of transformational leadership were associated with a more negative organizational culture. Culture suffered more where supervisors rated themselves more positively than providers, in contrast to supervisors rating themselves lower than the provider ratings of the supervisor. Leadership and leader discrepancy should be a consideration in improving organizational culture and for strategic initiatives such as quality of care and the implementation and sustainment of evidence-based practice.

  3. En Route to Depression: Self-Esteem Discrepancies and Habitual Rumination.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Wendy J; Hine, Donald W

    2016-02-01

    Dual-process models of cognitive vulnerability to depression suggest that some individuals possess discrepant implicit and explicit self-views, such as high explicit and low implicit self-esteem (fragile self-esteem) or low explicit and high implicit self-esteem (damaged self-esteem). This study investigated whether individuals with discrepant self-esteem may employ depressive rumination in an effort to reduce discrepancy-related dissonance, and whether the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and future depressive symptoms varies as a function of rumination tendencies. Hierarchical regressions examined whether self-esteem discrepancy was associated with rumination in an Australian undergraduate sample at Time 1 (N = 306; M(age) = 29.9), and whether rumination tendencies moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms assessed 3 months later (n = 160). Damaged self-esteem was associated with rumination at Time 1. As hypothesized, rumination moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms at Time 2, where fragile self-esteem and high rumination tendencies at Time 1 predicted the highest levels of subsequent dysphoria. Results are consistent with dual-process propositions that (a) explicit self-regulation strategies may be triggered when explicit and implicit self-beliefs are incongruent, and (b) rumination may increase the likelihood of depression by expending cognitive resources and/or amplifying negative implicit biases.

  4. Body Image Self-Discrepancy and Depressive Symptoms Among Early Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Solomon-Krakus, Shauna; Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; Castonguay, Andree L; Maximova, Katerina; Henderson, Mélanie

    2017-01-01

    This study examined whether body image self-discrepancy was a correlate of depressive symptoms among 556 early adolescents (45% girls; Mage = 11.65, SD = .94 years). Participants completed self-report measures of their self-perceived actual and ideal body shapes and depressive symptoms. Sex-stratified polynomial regressions were used to examine the associations between depressive symptoms and (1) agreement (i.e., similar actual and ideal body shapes); (2) discrepancy (i.e., different actual and ideal body shapes); (3) direction of discrepancy (i.e., actual > ideal or actual < ideal); and (4) degree of discrepancy (i.e., how different actual and ideal body self-perceptions are). For both sexes, depressive symptoms were more frequent when the direction of the discrepancy was such that participants perceived their actual body was larger than their ideal body. Furthermore, depressive symptoms were more frequent when the degree of the discrepancy between actual and ideal body shape perceptions was larger. Based on these findings, body image self-discrepancy may be a risk factor for depressive symptoms among early adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of public transport strikes on air pollution levels in Barcelona (Spain).

    PubMed

    Basagaña, Xavier; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Agis, David; Pérez, Noemí; Reche, Cristina; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier

    2017-08-23

    Public transport strikes can lead to an increase of the number of private vehicle trips, which in turn can increase air pollution levels. We aimed to estimate the change in air pollution concentrations during public transport strikes in the city of Barcelona (Spain). Data on strikes of the metro, train or bus systems were collected from government records (2005-2016). We collected daily concentrations of NOx; particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10μm (PM10), 2.5μm (PM2.5), and 1μm (PM1); particle number concentration (N); black carbon (BC) and CO from research and official monitoring stations. We fitted linear regression models for each pollutant with the strike indicator as an independent variable, and models were adjusted for day of the week, month, year, and holiday periods. During the study period, there were 208days affected by a strike of the metro (28), train (106) or bus (91) systems. Half of the strikes were partial, most of them were single-day strikes, there was little overlap between strikes of the different transport systems, and all strikes had to comply with mandatory minimal services. When pooling all types of strikes, NOx and BC showed higher levels during strike days in comparison with non-strike days (increase between 4.1% and 7.7%, with higher increases for NO). The increases in these concentrations were more evident during full day and multiday metro strikes. In conclusion, alterations in public transport have consequences on air quality. This highlights the importance of public transport in reducing air pollution concentrations in cities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Elastic energy storage in the mantis shrimp's fast predatory strike.

    PubMed

    Zack, T I; Claverie, T; Patek, S N

    2009-12-01

    Storage of elastic energy is key to increasing the power output of many biological systems. Mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) must store considerable elastic energy prior to their rapid raptorial strikes; however, little is known about the dynamics and location of elastic energy storage structures in this system. We used computed tomography (CT) to visualize the mineralization patterns in Gonodactylaceus falcatus and high speed videography of Odontodactylus scyllarus to observe the dynamics of spring loading. Using a materials testing apparatus, we measured the force and work required to contract the elastic structures in G. falcatus. There was a positive linear correlation between contraction force and contraction distance; alternative model tests further supported the use of a linear model. Therefore, we modeled the system as a Hookean spring. The force required to fully compress the spring was positively correlated with body mass and appendage size, but the spring constant did not scale with body size, suggesting a possible role of muscle constraints in the scaling of this system. One hypothesized elastic storage structure, the saddle, only contributed approximately 11% of the total measured force, thus suggesting that primary site of elastic energy storage is in the mineralized ventral bars found in the merus segment of the raptorial appendages. Furthermore, the intact system exhibited 81% resilience and severing the saddle resulted in a non-significant reduction to 77% resilience. The remarkable shapes and mineralization patterns that characterize the mantis shrimp's raptorial appendage further reveal a highly integrated mechanical power amplification system based on exoskeletal elastic energy storage.

  7. Stationary early warning system for bird strike prevention in aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Holger; Muenzberg, Mario; Schlemmer, Harry; Haan, Hubertus; Baader, Paul; Herden, Klaus; Fardi, Basel; Schlosshauer, Jan

    2009-05-01

    In case bird migration routes cross approach corridors near airports bird strike prevention with thermal imaging systems has advantages compared to others technologies i.e. RADAR systems. In our case a stereoscopic thermal imaging system sensitive in the mid wavelength range (3 - 5 μm) with high geometrical (640 × 512 pixel) and high thermal resolution (< 20 mK) measures in real time the swarm size, direction and velocity with high accuracy in order to give an early warning under all relevant weather conditions during day, night and twilight. The system is self-calibrating to keep the relative position of the paired stereoscopic thermal imagers in the sub-pixel range under all environmental conditions. The stereoscopic systems are placed in a sufficient distance to the crossing with the take-off or landing path to enable warning times of several minutes. Moreover the risk potential of the swarm is determined by taking the size of a single bird as well as the number of birds in the swarm into account. By using this information an arrival time of the swarm at the crossing point is determined and provided to the air security controllers together with the risk potential of the swarm.

  8. The assessment of lethal propeller strike injuries in sea mammals.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W; Winskog, Calle; Machado, Aaron; Boardman, Wayne

    2012-04-01

    Assessment of injuries in marine mammals may be required to help authorities determine whether human activity was involved. Three cases of marine animal deaths involving propeller blade strikes are reported to demonstrate characteristic features of such cases and diagnostic difficulties that may occur. Case 1: A juvenile New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) suffered two parallel linear incised wounds of the flank and died following small intestinal herniation. Case 2: An Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin neonate (Tursiops aduncus) died from a deeply incised wound of the left side of the head with shattering of the skull and laceration of the underlying brain.Case 3: An adult female Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (T. aduncus) died from two parallel chop wounds to the torso with opening of the thoracic and abdominal cavities with fractures of the ribs and vertebrae. Given that some animals may recover, and that the carcasses of those that are killed may simply not be found or reported, it is impossible to provide an estimate of the incidence of this type of injury amongst wild sea mammals. In cases that do come to forensic attention accurate evaluation of the type of injury may potentially have great medicolegal significance. Post-mortem putrefaction and post-mortem feeding by other sea animals may complicate assessments.

  9. An inward striking free reed coupled to a cylindrical pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vines, Justin; Paquette, Ammon; Cottingham, James P.

    2003-10-01

    A number of acoustical measurements have made on a reed-pipe combination consisting of a harmonium-type reed from an American reed organ installed at the closed end of a cylindrical pipe. This configuration, which somewhat resembles the configuration of free-reed organ pipes, differs from the reed-pipe combination occurring in the mouth organs of Asia, which use symmetric (outward striking) free reeds and normally operate on both possible directions of airflow. Measurements have been made of the sounding frequency, amplitude of vibration of the reed tongue, and the sound spectrum. Of particular interest is the degree to which the reed frequency can be altered by altering the pipe length, and hence the pipe resonance frequency. In this case the sounding frequency can be pulled considerably below the natural frequency of the reed. These results can be compared with the results of similar measurements on free-reed organ pipes [J. Braasch, C. Ahrens, J. P. Cottingham, and T. D. Rossing, Fortschr. Akust., DAGA (2000)]. In addition, some interesting ``special effects'' have been studied, which can be obtained using unusual pipe lengths and blowing in the ``wrong'' direction. [Work supported by the NSF from REU Grant No. 0139096.

  10. Hospital loses battle to strike suit over HIV disclosure.

    PubMed

    1996-05-31

    Superior Court Judge Richard J. Tobin refused to dismiss four counts of a seven-count lawsuit filed by [name removed] against Stamford Hospital. Tobin charged the hospital with breaching her HIV-antibody testing confidentiality following a needlestick accident that occurred at the hospital. [Name removed] said she pricked herself with a needle she found on the floor of the hospital. When she returned to the hospital to be tested for HIV antibodies, a hospital employee stated, in a loud voice that was within earshot of bystanders, that the patient was here for an HIV-antibody test. Balzac then asked the employee to explain that she was there because of the needlestick injury. The employee refused. The focal point of the lawsuit was the alleged establishment of willful misconduct. The court relied on a 1995 ruling defining the term as conduct that displays a reckless disregard for the safety and rights of others and the consequences of one's actions. The hospital succeeded in striking down one of the contested counts involving invasion of privacy.

  11. A prototype earthquake warning system for strike-slip earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafi Toksöz, M.; Dainty, Anton M.; Bullitt, John T.

    1990-05-01

    A prototype expert system has been developed to provide rapid warning of earthquakes while they are occurring. Warning times of up to 100 seconds will be possible. In the complete system, several accelerometers are distributed at intervals within a few kilometers of a known fault; data are telemetered to a central computer which implements the expert system. The expert system incorporates specific information about the type of fault to be monitored, and includes simple rules for estimating the fault slip, rupture length, and seismic moment, all in real time. If the seismic moment exceeds a preset value, an alarm may be issued. The prototype is designed for deployment on near-surface strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas and has been successfully tested with data from the 1979 Imperial Valley and 1984 Morgan Hill earthquakes. Crucial concepts have also been tested using synthetic data calculated for a model of the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake. Parkfield, California, could be used as a test site.

  12. Item-level informant discrepancies between children and their parents on the PROMIS® pediatric scales

    PubMed Central

    Thissen, David; Stucky, Brian D.; Liu, Yang; Magnus, Brooke; He, Jason; DeWitt, Esi Morgan; Irwin, Debra E.; Lai, Jin-Shei; Amtmann, Dagmar; DeWalt, Darren A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The study objective was to describe the individual item-level discrepancies between children ages 8–17 years and their parents for the PROMIS® pediatric scales. Contextual effects on item-level informant discrepancies for the pediatric pain interference items were further analyzed conditional on whether the child, the parent, or anyone else in the household experienced chronic pain. Methods Parallel pediatric self-report and parent proxy-report items were completed by approximately 300 parent–child dyads depending on form assignment and individual nonresponse. Agreement between parent and child responses to individual items was measured using the polychoric correlation coefficient and weighted κ. The Chi-square test of symmetry was utilized for a comparison of the pattern of parent–child item discrepancies on the response scales, and the differences between the child and parent responses on the 1–5 item response scale are summarized. Results A continuum of higher item-level parent–child discrepancies was demonstrated starting with peer relationships, anger, anxiety, and depressive symptoms, followed by progressively lower parent–child discrepancies for energy, fatigue, asthma impact, pain interference, upper extremity, and mobility items. Parent–child discrepancies for pain interference items were lower in the context of chronic pain either in the child or in the parent. Conclusions Parent–child item-level discrepancies were lower for more objective or visible items than for items measuring internal states or less observable items measuring latent variables such as peer relationships and fatigue. Future research should focus on the child and parent characteristics that influence domain-specific item-level discrepancies, and under what conditions item-level parent–child discrepancies predict child health outcomes. PMID:25560776

  13. Assessing dependency using self-report and indirect measures: examining the significance of discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Cogswell, Alex; Alloy, Lauren B; Karpinski, Andrew; Grant, David A

    2010-07-01

    The present study addressed convergence between self-report and indirect approaches to assessing dependency. We were moderately successful in validating an implicit measure, which was found to be reliable, orthogonal to 2 self-report instruments, and predictive of external criteria. This study also examined discrepancies between scores on self-report and implicit measures, and has implications for their significance. The possibility that discrepancies themselves are pathological was not supported, although discrepancies were associated with particular personality profiles. Finally, this study offered additional evidence for the relation between dependency and depressive symptomatology and identified implicit dependency as contributing unique variance in predicting past major depression.

  14. Assessing Dependency using Self-report and Indirect Measures: Examining the Significance of Discrepancies

    PubMed Central

    Cogswell, Alex; Alloy, Lauren B.; Karpinski, Andrew; Grant, David

    2011-01-01

    The present study addressed convergence between self-report and indirect approaches to assessing dependency. The study was moderately successful in validating an implicit measure, which was found to be reliable, orthogonal to two self-report instruments, and predictive of external criteria. This study also examined discrepancies between scores on self-report and implicit measures, and has implications for their significance. The possibility that discrepancies themselves are pathological was not supported, although discrepancies were associated with particular personality profiles. Finally, this study offered additional evidence for the relation between dependency and depressive symptomatology, and identified implicit dependency as contributing unique variance in predicting past major depression. PMID:20552505

  15. Intergenerational value discrepancies in immigrant and host-national families and their impact on psychological adaptation.

    PubMed

    Sam, David Lackland; Virta, Erkki

    2003-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between intergenerational value discrepancies and psychological adaptation among adolescents with immigrant background (mean age=15.5 years) in Norway and Sweden. Results from two cohorts (parents and their children) of immigrant and host-national families in the two countries (n=574) indicated that immigrant adolescents on the whole neither differed from their host peers with respect to psychological adaptation nor on value discrepancies. Value discrepancies were weakly related to psychological adaptation. Results are discussed as to whether the findings may reflect a general phenomenon for all adolescents or specific to those with immigrant background.

  16. Self-esteem discrepancies and identity-expressive consumption: Evidence from Norwegian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tunca, Burak

    2016-01-24

    Prior research established that simultaneously holding discrepant explicit (deliberate, controlled) and implicit (automatic, uncontrolled) self-esteem gives rise to self-enhancing behaviours. Given that individuals tend to enhance their self-concepts with brands that are associated with positive identities, this study examined whether self-esteem discrepancy was related to the extent to which individuals developed connections with brands that are associated with their in-groups. Findings from an adolescent sample (ages 16-18) indicated that adolescents with larger discrepancies between explicit and implicit self-esteem were more likely to construct their self-concepts using in-group-linked brands.

  17. Onset of barotrauma injuries related to number of pile driving strike exposures in hybrid striped bass.

    PubMed

    Casper, Brandon M; Halvorsen, Michele B; Carlson, Thomas J; Popper, Arthur N

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies exploring injury response to pile driving in fishes presented exposure paradigms (>900 strikes) that emulated circumstances where fish would not leave an area being ensonified. Those studies did not, however, address the question of how many strikes are needed before injuries appear. Thus, the number of strikes paired with a constant single strike sound exposure level (SELss) that can cause injuries is not yet clear. In order to examine this question, hybrid striped bass (white bass Morone chrysops × striped bass Morone saxatilis) were exposed to 8-384 strikes in three different SELss treatments that generated different cumulative sound exposure level values. The treatment with the highest SELss values caused swim bladder injuries in fish exposed to as few as eight pile strikes. These results have important implications for pile driving operations where SELss values meet or exceed the exposure levels used in this study.

  18. 400My of Deformation Along Tibet Active Strike Slip Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaud, N. O.

    2003-12-01

    While it is widely accepted that strike slip faults in Tibet accommodate a significant part of the tertiary convergence between India and Asia, the true Cenozoic magnitude of the offset is still largely debated. Direct dating of Cenozoic piercing points is the most powerful tool to assess the total offset, but their use is not always possible. Therefore one gets to use older markers although this leads to significant results ONLY at the supreme condition that pre-Cenozoic movement of those markers be accurately known. The Kunlun and Altyn Tagh faults for example form a prominent example of Tibetan presently active fault, but they also constitute geological frontiers between blocks of different geological histories accreted at various times since early Paleozoic. One may thus question how much of the visible offset is indeed Cenozoic. Although deformation facies agree with recent kinematics, multi-geochronological approach indicates a series of events from 280-230 Ma to 120+/-10 Ma. The former may be linked either with suturing of the Qiantang and Kunlun blocks farther to the south, or collision further to the north or east in the Qilian Shan and Bei Shan ranges, while the latter range appears to be growing in importance with ongoing work but is still largely unexplained. Oblique subductions of collision to the north of the Qilian Shan are adequate candidates. Argon loss suggests that deformation was associated to a 250-300° C thermal pulse that lasted 5 to 20 Ma after the onset of movement (Arnaud et al., 2003). Unroofing on all faults occurred much later, around 25 Ma ago when sudden cooling suggests a component of normal faulting (Mock et al., 1999). Strong inheritage was also found along the Ghoza active fault, in central western Tibet. Of course the fact that some of the deformation is much older than the Cretaceous and shares compatible deformation criteria with the present-day deformation leads to false appreciation of the pure Cenozoic offset, potentially

  19. Experimental and numerical study of a bird strike against a windshield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plassard, Fabien; Hereil, Pierre-Louis; Joseph, Pierric; Mespoulet, Jérôme

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes a bird strike study performed at THIOT-INGENIERIE laboratory. For aeronautic requirements, the 220 mm version of the gas gun TITAN is used to perform bird strike on instrumented structures. This paper shows a bird strike on a polycarbonate windshield instrumented with high speed cameras, velocity and force sensors. A crossed work with numerical simulation has been performed to design target support and diagnostic tools. It permits also to demonstrate reliability of the numerical tools.

  20. The Ethics of Drone Strikes: Does Reducing the Cost of Conflict Encourage War?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    THE ETHICS OF DRONE STRIKES: UNITED STATES ARMY WAR COLLEGE PRESS Carlisle Barracks,PA .., ST R ENGTH.-W I SDOM DOES REDUCING THE COST OF...COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Ethics of Drone Strikes: Does Reducing the Cost of Conflict Encourage War? 5a...Press THE ETHICS OF DRONE STRIKES: DOES REDUCING THE COST OF CONFLICT ENCOURAGE WAR? James Igoe Walsh and Marcus Schulzke September 2015 The views

  1. Fault displacement hazard for strike-slip faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.D.; Dawson, T.E.; Chen, R.; Cao, T.; Wills, C.J.; Schwartz, D.P.; Frankel, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology, data, and regression equations for calculating the fault rupture hazard at sites near steeply dipping, strike-slip faults. We collected and digitized on-fault and off-fault displacement data for 9 global strikeslip earthquakes ranging from moment magnitude M 6.5 to M 7.6 and supplemented these with displacements from 13 global earthquakes compiled byWesnousky (2008), who considers events up to M 7.9. Displacements on the primary fault fall off at the rupture ends and are often measured in meters, while displacements on secondary (offfault) or distributed faults may measure a few centimeters up to more than a meter and decay with distance from the rupture. Probability of earthquake rupture is less than 15% for cells 200 m??200 m and is less than 2% for 25 m??25 m cells at distances greater than 200mfrom the primary-fault rupture. Therefore, the hazard for off-fault ruptures is much lower than the hazard near the fault. Our data indicate that rupture displacements up to 35cm can be triggered on adjacent faults at distances out to 10kmor more from the primary-fault rupture. An example calculation shows that, for an active fault which has repeated large earthquakes every few hundred years, fault rupture hazard analysis should be an important consideration in the design of structures or lifelines that are located near the principal fault, within about 150 m of well-mapped active faults with a simple trace and within 300 m of faults with poorly defined or complex traces.

  2. Propranolol for infantile haemangioma: striking effect in the first weeks.

    PubMed

    Katona, Gábor; Csákányi, Zsuzsanna; Gács, Eva; Szalai, Zsuzsanna; Ráth, Gábor; Gerlinger, Imre

    2012-12-01

    Discuss effect and dynamics of propranolol (PR) treatment in infantile haemangioma (IH) of head and neck in children during follow-up. Between 2010 and 2011, 22 children with head and neck infantile haemangioma (IH) treated by PR were recruited into the study. In a retrospective chart review clinical data were analyzed at 5 consecutive, different check-up time from 1 week to 12-14 months. Effectiveness of PR treatment was assessed by a symptom score method. In the whole series a significant regression was observed in 13 patients (59%) in the first week of the therapy. Further five patients showed this time a marked, two mild improvements, and two children did not respond initially to the PR therapy. In one of them (case #8) later on a mild improvement could be seen too. At the second check-up (1 month after initiating PR therapy) 50% of children showed definitive improvement compared to the first visit. Difference between first and second check-ups was significant, and between the 4th and 5th visits the improvement showed the lowest rate. Comparison of IH regression between the 2nd and the 5th check-ups resulted in a p value a little larger than 0.05. There was not significant correlation between the initial IH severity and the treatment effectiveness at the follow-ups (p>0.05). No significant differences were found in treatment effectiveness concerning the IH localizations, too. PR treatment is highly effective in children with IHs. The most striking effect is seen at the first week of treatment; later improvement is much slower, sometimes with periods of stagnations. The cause of this is probably the spectacular early effect of vasoconstriction, though other impacts of PR to the individual molecular markers of IH seemed to be less impressive clinically. However, treatment should be continued for at least 6 months because early cessation can cause a relapse. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Do different probing depths exhibit striking differences in microbial profiles?

    PubMed

    Pérez-Chaparro, P Juliana; McCulloch, John Anthony; Mamizuka, Elsa Masae; Moraes, Aline da Costa Lima; Faveri, Marcelo; Figueiredo, Luciene Cristina; Duarte, Poliana Mendes; Feres, Magda

    2017-09-04

    To perform a thorough characterization of the subgingival microbiota of shallow, moderate and deep sites in subjects with chronic periodontitis (ChP) MATERIAL AND METHODS: Subgingival samples were collected from subjects with ChP (n=3/category of probing depth: ≤3, 4-6 and ≥7 mm) and periodontal health (PH). Samples were individually analyzed by high-throughput sequencing and the sequences were analyzed using mothur and R packages RESULTS: Nine subjects with ChP and seven with PH were included and 101 samples were evaluated. Thirteen phyla, 118 genera and 211 OTUs were detected. Taxa from Chloroflexi and Spirochaetes phyla were associated with initial stages of disease. Fretibacterium, Eubacterium[XI][G-6], Desulfobulbus, Peptostreptococcaceae[XI][G-1] and [G-3], Bacteroidetes[G-3], Bacteroidaceae[G-1] genera and Filifactor alocis, Fretibacterium fastidiosum, Johnsonella sp HOT166, Peptostreptococcaceae[XIII][G-1] HOT113, Porphyromonas endodontalis and Treponema sp. HOT258, which are not conventionally associated with disease, increased with the deepening of the pockets and/or were elevated in ChP; while Streptococcus, Corynebacterium and Bergeyella genera were associated with PH (p<0.05) CONCLUSION: Striking differences were observed between the microbiota of shallow and moderate/deep sites in ChP subjects. Differences between shallow sites in PH and ChP were also observed. The characterized microbiota included known oral microorganisms and newly identified periodontal taxa, some of them not-yet cultivated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Strikingly low prevalence of atrial fibrillation in elderly Tanzanians.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, Matthew J; Adams, Philip C; Gray, William K; Dewhurst, Felicity; Orega, Golda P; Chaote, Paul; Walker, Richard W

    2012-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in individuals aged 70 and older in a rural African community. Community-based cross-sectional survey. A demographic surveillance site (DSS) within the rural Hai district of northern Tanzania. Approximately one-quarter (N = 2,232) of the population aged 70 and older of the DSS. Participants were screened for AF using 12-lead electrocardiography; demographic and 1-year mortality data were collected; and functional status, body mass index, and blood pressure were recorded. The sex-specific prevalence of AF in each 5-year age band was determined. Fifteen of 2,232 participants (12 women, 3 men) had AF, giving a crude prevalence rate of 0.67% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.33-1.01) and an age-adjusted prevalence of 0.64% (95% CI = 0.31-0.97). Prevalence was 0.96% (95% CI = 0.42-1.49) in women and 0.31% (95% CI = -0.04 to 1.24) in men. Prevalence increased with age, from 0.46% (95% CI = 0.01-0.90) in those aged 70-74-1.30% (95% CI = 0.17-2.42) in those aged 85 and older. One-year mortality was 50% in women and 66.6% in men. This is the first published community-based AF prevalence study from sub-Saharan Africa. The prevalence rate of AF is strikingly lower than in other elderly populations studied, yet the 1-year mortality rate was exceedingly high. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. Assessment of performing an MST strike in Tank 21H

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, Michael R.

    2014-09-29

    Previous Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) tank mixing studies performed for the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) project have shown that 3 Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) installed in Tank 41 are sufficient to support actinide removal by MST sorption as well as subsequent resuspension and removal of settled solids. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is pursuing MST addition into Tank 21 as part of the Large Tank Strike (LTS) project. The preliminary scope for LTS involves the use of three standard slurry pumps (installed in N, SE, and SW risers) in a Type IV tank. Due to the differences in tank size, internal interferences, and pump design, a separate mixing evaluation is required to determine if the proposed configuration will allow for MST suspension and strontium and actinide sorption. The author performed the analysis by reviewing drawings for Tank 21 [W231023] and determining the required cleaning radius or zone of influence for the pumps. This requirement was compared with previous pilot-scale MST suspension data collected for SCIX that determined the cleaning radius, or zone of influence, as a function of pump operating parameters. The author also reviewed a previous Tank 50 mixing analysis that examined the ability of standard slurry pumps to suspend sludge particles. Based on a review of the pilot-scale SCIX mixing tests and Tank 50 pump operating experience, three standard slurry pumps should be able to suspend sludge and MST to effectively sorb strontium and actinides onto the MST. Using the SCIX data requires an assumption about the impact of cooling coils on slurry pump mixing. The basis for this assumption is described in this report. Using the Tank 50 operating experience shows three standard slurry pumps should be able to suspend solids if the shear strength of the settled solids is less than 160 Pa. Because Tank 21 does not contain cooling coils, the shear strength could be larger.

  6. Review of the Lightning Strike Incident at Launch Complex 37 on July 27, 1967, and Comparison to a Gemini Lightning Strike

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Llewellyn, J. A.

    1967-01-01

    The Launch Complex 37 lightning strike of July 27, 1967, was reviewed and compared to a similar incident on the Gemini Program. Available data indicate little likelihood of damaging currents having been present in SA-204 Launch Vehicle or the ground equipment during the July 27th incident. Based on the results of subsystem and system testing after the strike, anticipated results of future testing, the six months elapsed time between the strike-and launch, and the fact that much of the critical airborne electrical/electronic equipment has been removed since the strike for other reasons, no new actions are considered necessary at this time in the Gemini case, significant failures occurred in both airborne and ground circuits. Due to the resultant semi, condlictor uncertainty, and the relatively' short time prior to planned launch, all critical airborne components containing semiconduetors were replaced, and a sophisticated data comparison task was implemented.

  7. 12 CFR 222.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Identity Theft § 222.82 Duties of users regarding address discrepancies. (a) Scope. This section applies to... consumer's identity in accordance with the requirements of the Customer Identification Program (CIP)...

  8. 12 CFR 222.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Identity Theft § 222.82 Duties of users regarding address discrepancies. (a) Scope. This section applies to... consumer's identity in accordance with the requirements of the Customer Identification Program (CIP)...

  9. 12 CFR 222.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Reports Regarding Identity Theft § 222.82 Duties of users regarding address discrepancies. (a) Scope. This... consumer's identity in accordance with the requirements of the Customer Identification Program (CIP)...

  10. 12 CFR 222.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Identity Theft § 222.82 Duties of users regarding address discrepancies. (a) Scope. This section applies to... consumer's identity in accordance with the requirements of the Customer Identification Program (CIP)...

  11. 12 CFR 222.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Reports Regarding Identity Theft § 222.82 Duties of users regarding address discrepancies. (a) Scope. This... consumer's identity in accordance with the requirements of the Customer Identification Program (CIP)...

  12. Leg length discrepancy after total hip arthroplasty: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Desai, Aravind S; Dramis, Asterios; Board, Tim N

    2013-12-01

    Discrepancy of leg length is often considered to be a problem after total hip replacement and can adversely affect an otherwise excellent outcome. Furthermore, it has been associated with patient dissatisfaction and remains one of the most common reasons for litigation against the orthopedic community. As a consequence of the need to equalize leg length, several authors have sought to validate methods of minimizing limb length discrepancy based on preoperative planning with preoperative radiological templates or intraoperative methods of measurement. In this article, we present a review of the limb length discrepancy in total hip arthroplasty, its implications and several techniques to avoid it. We recommend that a combination of the above mentioned methods will give the best chance for the surgeon to minimise the risk of leg length discrepancy following total hip replacement.

  13. Testing the Parent-Adolescent Acculturation Discrepancy Hypothesis: A Five-Wave Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Córdova, David; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Huang, Shi; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Soto, Daniel W.; Lizzi, Karina M.; Villamar, Juan A.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2015-01-01

    This 2½-year, 5-wave longitudinal study tests the hypothesis that acculturation discrepancies between Hispanic immigrant parents and adolescents would lead to compromised family functioning, which would then lead to problematic adolescent outcomes. Recent-immigrant Hispanic parent-adolescent dyads (N = 302) completed measures of acculturation and family functioning. Adolescents completed measures of positive youth development, depressive symptoms, problem behavior, and substance use. Results indicated that Time 1 discrepancies in Hispanic-culture retention, and linear trajectories in some of these discrepancies, negatively predicted adolescent positive youth development, and positively predicted adolescent depressive symptoms and binge drinking, indirectly through adolescent-reported family functioning. The vast majority of effects were mediated rather than direct, supporting the acculturation discrepancy hypothesis. Implications for further research and intervention are discussed. PMID:27616871

  14. The drinking partnership and marital satisfaction: The longitudinal influence of discrepant drinking

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to determine whether discrepancies between husbands’ and wives’ past year heavy drinking predicted decreased marital satisfaction over time. Participants were recruited at the time they applied for their marriage licenses (N= 634). Couples completed questionnaires about their alcohol use and marital satisfaction at the time of marriage, and again at their first and second anniversaries. Generalized estimating equation models were used to evaluate the association between discrepancies in husbands’ and wives’ heavy drinking in the year prior to marriage and marital satisfaction at the first wedding anniversary and the association between discrepancies in heavy alcohol use in the first year of marriage and marital satisfaction at the second wedding anniversary. In these prospective time-lagged analyses, discrepancies in husbands’ and wives’ heavy drinking predicted decreased marital satisfaction over time while controlling for heavy drinking. Over time, these couples may be at greater risk for decreased marital functioning that may lead to relationship dissolution. PMID:17295562

  15. Discrepancy between actual and ideal body images; Impact on eating and exercise behaviors.

    PubMed

    Anton, S D; Perri, M G; Riley, J R

    2000-12-01

    This study examined how discrepancies between actual and ideal body images are related to eating and exercise patterns. A total of 115 college-age women completed the Body Discrepancy Scale (BDS, a measure of the discrepancy between one's "actual" vs. "ideal" weight and size), a leisure-time physical activity survey, and questionnaires assessing the intake of fat and fiber (i.e., fruits and vegetables), as well as measures of maladaptive eating attitudes and behaviors. Partial correlations (controlling for Body Mass Index, BMI) showed that scores on the BDS were significantly (P's<.05) associated with low levels of physical activity (r=-.28), with low levels of fruit and vegetable consumption (r=-.19), and with high levels of body image dissatisfaction (r=.32) and binge eating (r=.32). Collectively, these findings suggest that discrepancies between actual and ideal body images are associated with maladaptive eating and exercise patterns.

  16. Body self-discrepancies and women's social physique anxiety: the moderating role of the feared body.

    PubMed

    Woodman, Tim; Steer, Rebecca

    2011-05-01

    We explored ideal, ought, and feared body image self-discrepancies as predictors of social physique anxiety within Carver, Lawrence, and Scheier's and Woodman and Hemmings' interaction frameworks. One hundred women completed actual, ideal, ought, and feared body self-discrepancy visual analogue scales, the Social Physique Anxiety Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Moderated hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the relationship between ought body fat discrepancies and social physique anxiety was moderated by proximity to the feared fat self. Specifically, the positive relationship between ought fat discrepancies and social physique anxiety was stronger when women were far from their feared body self. The results highlight the importance of considering the feared self in order to more fully understand the relationship between body image and social physique anxiety.

  17. [Evaluation of cervical discrepancy of gold crowns in stone dies from various impression materials].

    PubMed

    Mantovani, A V; Stephano, C B; Roselino, R F; Roselino, R B; Campos, G M

    1990-01-01

    A stainless steel master die simulating a dental preparation for crown was used to make 3 gold castings from wax patterns obtained in 3 different ways: a) directly from the naked master die; b) from the same master die with a copper coping 30 microns thick; and c) with a similar copper coping, but 40 microns thick. The discrepancies of fit of the 3 master gold crowns were evaluated in 99 stones dies (33 for each casting) obtained from 11 different elastomeric impression materials (3 replicae of each). The results showed that: 1) stone dies with no coping presented a medium discrepancy of 284 microns, inadequate for clinical use; 2) the 30 microns and 40 microns copings presented medium discrepancies of 18 and 9 microns respectively, both suitable for clinical use. Thus, the use of copings tend to equalize the cervical discrepancy of fit of gold crowns, whatever be the elastomeric impression material used.

  18. The distribution and characterization of strike-slip faults on Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Emily S.

    2016-03-01

    Strike-slip faulting is typically characterized by lateral offsets on icy satellites of the outer solar system. However, strike-slip faults on Enceladus lack these typical lateral offsets and instead are marked by the presence of tailcracks or en echelon cracks. These features are used here to develop the first near-global distribution of strike-slip faults on Enceladus. Strike-slip faults on Enceladus fall into three broad categories: tectonic terrain boundaries, reactivated linear features, and primary strike-slip faults. All three types of strike-slip faults are found predominantly, or within close proximity to, the antipodal cratered terrains on the Saturnian and anti-Saturnian hemispheres. Stress modeling suggests that strike-slip faulting on Enceladus is not controlled by nonsynchronous rotation, as on Europa, suggesting a fundamentally different process driving Enceladus's strike-slip faulting. The motion along strike-slip faults at tectonic terrain boundaries suggests large-scale northward migration of the ice shell on the leading hemisphere of Enceladus, occurring perpendicular to the opening direction of the tiger stripes in the south polar terrain.

  19. Relationship between foot strike pattern, running speed, and footwear condition in recreational distance runners.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Roy T H; Wong, Rodney Y L; Chung, Tim K W; Choi, R T; Leung, Wendy W Y; Shek, Diana H Y

    2017-06-01

    Compared to competitive runners, recreational runners appear to be more prone to injuries, which have been associated with foot strike patterns. Surprisingly, only few studies had examined the foot strike patterns outside laboratories. Therefore, this study compared the foot strike patterns in recreational runners at outdoor tracks with previously reported data. We also investigated the relationship between foot strike pattern, speed, and footwear in this cohort. Among 434 recreational runners analysed, 89.6% of them landed with rearfoot strike (RFS). Only 6.9 and 3.5% landed with midfoot and forefoot, respectively. A significant shift towards non-RFS was observed in our cohort, when compared with previously reported data. When speed increased by 1 m/s, the odds of having forefoot strike and midfoot strike relative to RFS increased by 2.3 times and 2.6 times, respectively. Runners were 9.2 times more likely to run with a forefoot strike in minimalists compared to regular running shoes, although 70% of runners in minimalists continued to use a RFS. These findings suggest that foot strike pattern may differ across running conditions and runners should consider these factors in order to mitigate potential injury.

  20. Parental and Peer Factors Associated with Body Image Discrepancy among Fifth-Grade Boys and Girls

    PubMed Central

    Wentzel, Kathryn; Elliott, Marc N.; Dittus, Patricia J.; Kanouse, David E.; Wallander, Jan L.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Franzini, Luisa; Taylor, Wendell C.; Qureshi, Tariq; Franklin, Frank A.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Many young adolescents are dissatisfied with their body due to a discrepancy between their ideal and actual body size, which can lead to weight cycling, eating disorders, depression, and obesity. The current study examined the associations of parental and peer factors with fifth-graders’ body image discrepancy, physical self-worth as a mediator between parental and peer factors and body image discrepancy, and how these associations vary by child’s sex. Body image discrepancy was defined as the difference between young adolescents’ self-perceived body size and the size they believe a person their age should be. Data for this study came from Healthy Passages, which surveyed 5,147 fifth graders (51 % females; 34 % African American, 35 % Latino, 24 % White, and 6 % other) and their primary caregivers from the United States. Path analyses were conducted separately for boys and girls. The findings for boys suggest father nurturance and getting along with peers are related negatively to body image discrepancy; however, for girls, fear of negative evaluation by peers is related positively to body image discrepancy. For both boys and girls, getting along with peers and fear of negative evaluation by peers are related directly to physical self-worth. In addition, mother nurturance is related positively to physical self-worth for girls, and father nurturance is related positively to physical self-worth for boys. In turn, physical self-worth, for both boys and girls, is related negatively to body image discrepancy. The findings highlight the potential of parental and peer factors to reduce fifth graders’ body image discrepancy. PMID:23334988