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Sample records for embelin striking discrepancy

  1. Embelin lipid nanospheres for enhanced treatment of ulcerative colitis - Preparation, characterization and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Badamaranahalli, Shivaram Shivakumar; Kopparam, Manjunath; Bhagawati, Siddalingappa Tippanna; Durg, Sharanbasappa

    2015-08-30

    Aim of the present study is to develop embelin lipid nanospheres (LNE) for better treatment of ulcerative colitis. Embelin LNs were developed using soya bean oil/virgin coconut oil as liquid lipid carrier and soya/egg lecithin as stabilizer by hot homogenization followed by ultrasonication technique. The particle size of LNEs ranged from 196.1±3.57 to 269.2±1.05nm with narrow polydispersity index values whereas zeta potential was from -36.6 to -62.0mV. Embelin was successfully incorporated into lipid nanospheres with entrapment efficiency about 99%. There was no interaction between embelin and selected liquid lipids which was confirmed by FTIR studies. In vitro drug release studies performed using Franz diffusion cell and results showed sustained release of embelin. Embelin LNs were stabilized with egg and soya lecithin, embelin release from these LNs followed Higuchi model and first order model, respectively, however mechanism of drug release in both LNs was non-Fickian. In vivo studies were carried out using acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis rat model and results revealed that treatment with embelin LNs significantly reduced clinical activity and macroscopic scores compared to embelin conventional suspension. Treatment with embelin LNs decreased MPO, LDH and LPO levels, increased reduced GSH levels which indicated better treatment of ulcerative colitis was achieved. This was also confirmed by improved histopathological conditions. Thus embelin LNs could be favourably used for treatment of ulcerative colitis. PMID:25957524

  2. Domino Synthesis of Embelin Derivatives with Antibacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Peña, Rosalyn; Martín, Pedro; Feresin, Gabriela E; Tapia, Alejandro; Machín, Félix; Estévez-Braun, Ana

    2016-04-22

    A series of dihydropyran embelin derivatives was synthesized through a direct and highly efficient approach based on a domino Knoevenagel intramolecular hetero-Diels-Alder reaction from natural embelin (1), using unsaturated aldehydes in the presence of organocatalysts such as ethylendiamine diacetate or l-proline. The aliphatic aldehydes yielded exclusively trans adducts, while mixtures of trans and cis isomers were found in reactions with aromatic aldehydes, with the cis form always predominating. Some of the compounds obtained were active and selective against Gram-positive bacteria, including multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates. PMID:26924672

  3. Ellagic Acid and Embelin Affect Key Cellular Components of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma, Cancer and Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Edderkaoui, Mouad; Lugea, Aurelia; Hui, Hongxiang; Eibl, Guido; Lu, Qing-Yi; Moro, Aune; Lu, Xuyang; Li, Gang; Go, Vay-Liang; Pandol, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Ellagic acid is a polyphenolic phytochemical present in many fruits and nuts with anti-cancer properties demonstrated in experimental tumor studies. Embelin is a benzoquinone phytochemical isolated from the Japanese herb Ardisiae Japonicae and has been shown to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. We found that ellagic acid and embelin each dose-dependently increased apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in human pancreatic cancer cells, MIA PaCa-2 and HPAF-II cells, and in pancreatic stellate cells (PaSCs) which are progenitors of pancreatic cancer desmoplasia. In each of these cell types, combinations of ellagic acid and embelin at low micromolar concentrations (0.5–3 μM) induced synergistic increases in apoptosis and decreases in proliferation. Ellagic acid decreased NF-κB transcriptional activity, whereas embelin decreased STAT-3 phosphorylation and protein expression of its downstream target survivin, in cancer cells. In vivo dietary ellagic acid alone or in combination with embelin decreased tumor size and tumor cellularity in a subcutaneous (s.c.) xenograft mouse model of pancreatic cancer. These results show that ellagic acid and embelin interact with divergent intracellular signaling pathways resulting in augmentation of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation at low micromolar concentrations for the key cellular components of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:24127740

  4. PEG-Derivatized Embelin as a Dual Functional Carrier for the Delivery of Paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yixian; Lu, Jianqin; Gao, Xiang; Li, Jiang; Zhao, Wenchen; Sun, Ming; Stolz, Donna Beer; Venkataramanan, Raman; Rohan, Lisa Cencia; Li, Song

    2012-01-01

    Embelin, identified primarily from the Embelia ribes plant, has been shown to be a natural small molecule inhibitor of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP). It is also a potent inhibitor of NF-κB activation, which makes it a potentially effective suppressor of tumor cell survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and inflammation. However, embelin itself is insoluble in water, which makes it unsuitable for in vivo applications. In this work, we developed a novel micelle system through conjugating embelin to a hydrophilic polymer, polyethylene glycol 3,500 (PEG3.5K) through an aspartic acid bridge. The PEG3.5k-embelin2 (PEG3.5k-EB2) conjugate readily forms micelles in aqueous solutions with a CMC of 0.0205mg/mL. Furthermore, PEG3.5k-EB2 micelles effectively solubilize paclitaxel (PTX), a model hydrophobic drug used in this study. Both drug-free and drug-loaded micelles were small in sizes (20 ~ 30 nm) with low polydispersity indexes. In vitro cytotoxicity studies with several tumor cell lines showed that PEG3.5k-EB2 is comparable to embelin in antitumor activity and synergizes with PTX at much lower doses. Our results suggest that PEG-derivatized embelin may represent a novel and dual-functional carrier to facilitate the in vivo applications of poorly water-soluble anticancer drugs such as PTX. PMID:22681537

  5. Effect of Embelin Against Lipopolysaccharide-induced Sickness Behaviour in Mice.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Ashique; Dhadde, Shivsharan B; Durg, Sharanbasappa; Veerapur, V P; Badami, S; Thippeswamy, B S; Patil, Jagadevappa S

    2016-05-01

    Sickness behaviour is a coordinated set of adaptive behavioural changes that develop in ill individuals during the course of an infection. It is relevant to understanding depression and some aspects of the suffering that in cancer. Embelin has been reported to possess antiinflammatory, neuroprotective and anxiolytic assets and has been shown to inhibit nuclear factor κB pathway and cytokine production. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of embelin isolated from Embelia ribes Burm in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sickness behaviour in mice. Adult male Swiss albino mice were pre-treated with embelin (10 and 20 mg/kg, p.o.) or dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, i.p.) for 3 days and then challenged with LPS (400 µg/kg, i.p.). At different time intervals of post-LPS challenge, sickness behaviour was evaluated in the animals by battery of behavioural tests (plus maze, open field, light-dark box, forced swim, social behaviour assessment, sucrose preference and food and water intake). Levels of oxidative stress makers (reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation) in mice brain were also analysed. LPS induced behavioural alterations, anhedonia and anorexia, in mice. Pre-treatment with embelin attenuated behavioural changes induced by LPS. In addition, embelin prevented anhedonia, anorexia and ameliorated brain oxidative stress markers. The experimental outcomes of the present study demonstrated protective effect of embelin in LPS-induced sickness behaviour in mice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Embelin binds to human neuroserpin and impairs its polymerisation

    PubMed Central

    Saga, Giorgia; Sessa, Fabio; Barbiroli, Alberto; Santambrogio, Carlo; Russo, Rosaria; Sala, Michela; Raccosta, Samuele; Martorana, Vincenzo; Caccia, Sonia; Noto, Rosina; Moriconi, Claudia; Miranda, Elena; Grandori, Rita; Manno, Mauro; Bolognesi, Martino; Ricagno, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Neuroserpin (NS) is a serpin inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in the brain. The polymerisation of NS pathologic mutants is responsible for a genetic dementia known as familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies (FENIB). So far, a pharmacological treatment of FENIB, i.e. an inhibitor of NS polymerisation, remains an unmet challenge. Here, we present a biophysical characterisation of the effects caused by embelin (EMB a small natural compound) on NS conformers and NS polymerisation. EMB destabilises all known NS conformers, specifically binding to NS molecules with a 1:1 NS:EMB molar ratio without unfolding the NS fold. In particular, NS polymers disaggregate in the presence of EMB, and their formation is prevented. The NS/EMB complex does not inhibit tPA proteolytic activity. Both effects are pharmacologically relevant: firstly by inhibiting the NS polymerisation associated to FENIB, and secondly by potentially antagonizing metastatic processes facilitated by NS activity in the brain. PMID:26732982

  7. Embelin binds to human neuroserpin and impairs its polymerisation.

    PubMed

    Saga, Giorgia; Sessa, Fabio; Barbiroli, Alberto; Santambrogio, Carlo; Russo, Rosaria; Sala, Michela; Raccosta, Samuele; Martorana, Vincenzo; Caccia, Sonia; Noto, Rosina; Moriconi, Claudia; Miranda, Elena; Grandori, Rita; Manno, Mauro; Bolognesi, Martino; Ricagno, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Neuroserpin (NS) is a serpin inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in the brain. The polymerisation of NS pathologic mutants is responsible for a genetic dementia known as familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies (FENIB). So far, a pharmacological treatment of FENIB, i.e. an inhibitor of NS polymerisation, remains an unmet challenge. Here, we present a biophysical characterisation of the effects caused by embelin (EMB a small natural compound) on NS conformers and NS polymerisation. EMB destabilises all known NS conformers, specifically binding to NS molecules with a 1:1 NS:EMB molar ratio without unfolding the NS fold. In particular, NS polymers disaggregate in the presence of EMB, and their formation is prevented. The NS/EMB complex does not inhibit tPA proteolytic activity. Both effects are pharmacologically relevant: firstly by inhibiting the NS polymerisation associated to FENIB, and secondly by potentially antagonizing metastatic processes facilitated by NS activity in the brain.

  8. In Vitro Antistaphylococcal Effects of Embelia schimperi Extracts and Their Component Embelin with Oxacillin and Tetracycline

    PubMed Central

    Rondevaldova, Johana; Leuner, Olga; Teka, Alemtshay; Lulekal, Ermias; Havlik, Jaroslav; Van Damme, Patrick; Kokoska, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infections are in less-developed countries traditionally treated by remedies prepared from medicinal plants. Embelia schimperi (Vatke) is a plant used as a taenicide or disinfectant in Ethiopia, very often taken mixed with another plant species. In the present study, we examined two extracts prepared from seeds and twigs with leaves of E. schimperi and its main present secondary metabolite embelin for their antibacterial combinatory effect with oxacillin and tetracycline against sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined through the broth microdilution method, whereas the combinatory effect was evaluated through fractional inhibitory concentration sum (ΣFIC) indices. Results show many positive interactions and synergy occurring in embelin and oxacillin combinations against 4 out of 9 strains (ΣFIC 0.203–0.477) and for embelin and tetracycline combination against 3 out of 9 strains (ΣFIC 0.400–0.496). Moreover, the resistance to oxacillin has been overcome in 2 strains and to tetracycline in 3 strains. According to our knowledge, this is the first study showing antimicrobial combinatory effect of E. schimperi as well as of embelin. These findings can be used for the further research targeted on the development of new antistaphylococcal agents. PMID:25802535

  9. Development of response surface methodology for optimization of extraction parameters and quantitative estimation of embelin from Embelia ribes Burm by high performance liquid chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Md. Shamsir; Damanhouri, Zoheir A.; Ahmad, Aftab; Abidin, Lubna; Amir, Mohd; Aqil, Mohd; Khan, Shah Alam; Mujeeb, Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Background: Embelia ribes Burm is widely used medicinal plant for the treatment of different types of disorders in the Indian traditional systems of medicine. Objective: The present work was aimed to optimize the extraction parameters of embelin from E. ribes fruits and also to quantify embelin content in different extracts of the plant. Materials and Methods: Optimization of extraction parameters such as solvent: drug ratio, temperature and time were carried out by response surface methodology (RSM). Quantitative estimation of embelin in different extracts of E. ribes fruits was done through high performance liquid chromatography. Results: The optimal conditions determined for extraction of embelin through RSM were; extraction time (27.50 min), extraction temperature 45°C and solvent: drug ratio (8:1). Under the optimized conditions, the embelin yield (32.71%) was equitable to the expected yield (31.07%, P > 0.05). These results showed that the developed model is satisfactory and suitable for the extraction process of embelin. The analysis of variance showed a high goodness of model fit and the accomplishment of the RSM method for improving embelin extraction from the fruits of E. ribes. Conclusion: It is concluded that this may be a useful method for the extraction and quantitative estimation of embelin from the fruits of E. ribes. PMID:26109763

  10. Design, synthesis, and SAR of embelin analogues as the inhibitors of PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1).

    PubMed

    Chen, Fanglei; Zhang, Guiping; Hong, Zebin; Lin, Zhonghui; Lei, Min; Huang, Mingdong; Hu, Lihong

    2014-05-15

    The natural product embelin was found to have PAI-1 inhibitory activity with the IC50 value of 4.94μM. Based on the structure of embelin, a series of analogues were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their ability to inhibit PAI-1. The SAR study on these compounds disclosed that the inhibitory potency largely depended on the hydroxyl groups at C2 and C5, and the length of the alkyl chains at C3 and C6. Compound 11 displayed the best PAI-1 inhibitory potency with the IC50 value of 0.18μM.

  11. Targeting Mortalin by Embelin Causes Activation of Tumor Suppressor p53 and Deactivation of Metastatic Signaling in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nigam, Nupur; Grover, Abhinav; Goyal, Sukriti; Katiyar, Shashank P.; Bhargava, Priyanshu; Wang, Pi-Chao; Sundar, Durai; Kaul, Sunil C.; Wadhwa, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Embelin, a natural quinone found in the fruits of Embelia ribes, is commonly used in Ayurvedic home medicine for a variety of therapeutic potentials including anti-inflammation, anti-fever, anti-bacteria and anti-cancer. Molecular mechanisms of these activities and cellular targets have not been clarified to-date. We demonstrate that the embelin inhibits mortalin-p53 interactions, and activates p53 protein in tumor cells. We provide bioinformatics, molecular docking and experimental evidence to the binding affinity of embelin with mortalin and p53. Binding of embelin with mortalin/p53 abrogates their complex resulted in nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation function of p53 causing growth arrest in cancer cells. Furthermore, analyses of growth factors and metastatic signaling using antibody membrane array revealed their downregulation in embelin-treated cells. We also found that the embelin causes transcriptional attenuation of mortalin and several other proteins involved in metastatic signaling in cancer cells. Based on these molecular dynamics and experimental data, it is concluded that the anticancer activity of embelin involves targeting of mortalin, activation of p53 and inactivation of metastatic signaling. PMID:26376435

  12. Embelin prevents LMP1-induced TRAIL resistance via inhibition of XIAP in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    YANG, SHU; LI, SHI-SHENG; YANG, XIN-MING; YIN, DAN-HUI; WANG, LIN

    2016-01-01

    The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces apoptosis in the majority of tumor cells, whilst sparing normal cells. However, the potential use of TRAIL in the treatment of cancer is limited by the inevitable emergence of drug resistance. The present study reports the upregulation of latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1)-induced TRAIL resistance via the enhanced expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells. LMP1-positive NPC cells were indicated to be more sensitive to TRAIL compared with LMP1-negative NPC cells in three NPC cell lines. CNE-1 is a LMP1-negative NPC cell line that was transfected with pGL6-LMP1; following which, sensitivity to TRAIL decreased. LMP1-induced TRAIL resistance was associated with the decreased cleavage of caspase-8,-3 and −9, BH3 interacting domain death agonist (Bid) and mitochondrial depolarization, without any effects on the expression of the death receptors, B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 and Bcl-extra long. Knockdown of XIAP with small interfering RNA increased caspase-3 and −9 and Bid cleavage, and prevented LMP1-induced TRAIL resistance. Furthermore, embelin, the inhibitor of XIAP, prevented LMP1-induced TRAIL resistance in the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive CNE-1-LMP1 and C666-1 NPC cell lines. However, embelin did not enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis in NP-69, which was used as a benign nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line. These data show that LMP1 inhibits TRAIL-mediated apoptosis by upregulation of XIAP. Embelin may be used in an efficacious and safe manner to prevent LMP1-induced TRAIL resistance. The present study may have implications for the development and validation of novel strategies to prevent TRAIL resistance in EBV-positive NPC. PMID:27313761

  13. Protective effect of embelin from Embelia ribes Burm. against transient global ischemia-induced brain damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Thippeswamy, B S; Nagakannan, P; Shivasharan, B D; Mahendran, S; Veerapur, V P; Badami, S

    2011-11-01

    Embelia ribes is being used in Indian traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of mental disorders and as brain tonic. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of embelin from E. ribes on global ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury in rats. Transient global ischemia was induced by occluding bilateral common carotid arteries for 30 min followed by 24-h reperfusion. Neurological functions were measured using sensorimotor tests. Ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury was assessed by cerebral infarct area, biochemical and histopathological examination. Pretreatment of embelin (25 and 50 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased locomotor activity and hanging latency time and decreased beam walking latency when compared with ischemic control. The treatment also reduced significantly the lipid peroxidation and increased the total thiol content and glutathione-S-transferase activity in brain homogenates. The decreased cerebral infarction area in embelin-treated groups and histopathological observations confirmed the above findings. These observations suggested that embelin is a neuroprotective agent and may prove to be useful adjunct in the treatment of stroke. PMID:21751076

  14. Effects of the natural compounds embelin and piperine on the biofilm-producing property of Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Deepak; Singh, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of the natural compounds embelin and piperine on the biofilm-formation property of Streptococcus mutans. A total of 30 clinical isolates were identified as S. mutans and screened for biofilm formation using the microtiter plate method. The strongest biofilm producer (SM03) was used for identifying both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC). We subsequently used this concentration against each of the strong biofilm producer isolates at A492 < 0.5 optical density (OD). Of the 30 isolates screened for biofilm formation, 18 isolates showed strong biofilm formation, 09 isolates showed moderate formation, and 03 isolates showed poor/nonbiofilm formation. The MIC of embelin for the strongest biofilm producer (SM03) was 0.55 ± 0.02, whereas that of piperine was 0.33 ± 0.02. The MBIC of embelin was 0.0620 ± 0.03, whereas that of piperine was 0.0407 ± 0.03, which was lower than that of embelin. At OD492 < 0.5, the MBIC of both compounds significantly inhibited biofilm formation of all the 18 strong biofilm-forming isolates. The results of this study demonstrate a significant antibiofilm effect of the natural compounds embelin and piperine, which can contribute towards the development of a database for novel drug candidates for treating oral infections caused by S. mutans. PMID:26870681

  15. Effects of the natural compounds embelin and piperine on the biofilm-producing property of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Deepak; Singh, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of the natural compounds embelin and piperine on the biofilm-formation property of Streptococcus mutans. A total of 30 clinical isolates were identified as S. mutans and screened for biofilm formation using the microtiter plate method. The strongest biofilm producer (SM03) was used for identifying both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC). We subsequently used this concentration against each of the strong biofilm producer isolates at A 492 < 0.5 optical density (OD). Of the 30 isolates screened for biofilm formation, 18 isolates showed strong biofilm formation, 09 isolates showed moderate formation, and 03 isolates showed poor/nonbiofilm formation. The MIC of embelin for the strongest biofilm producer (SM03) was 0.55 ± 0.02, whereas that of piperine was 0.33 ± 0.02. The MBIC of embelin was 0.0620 ± 0.03, whereas that of piperine was 0.0407 ± 0.03, which was lower than that of embelin. At OD492 < 0.5, the MBIC of both compounds significantly inhibited biofilm formation of all the 18 strong biofilm-forming isolates. The results of this study demonstrate a significant antibiofilm effect of the natural compounds embelin and piperine, which can contribute towards the development of a database for novel drug candidates for treating oral infections caused by S. mutans. PMID:26870681

  16. Physician strikes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Stephen L; Salmon, J Warren

    2014-11-01

    Throughout medical history, physicians have rarely formed unions and/or carried out strikes. In a profession faced with the turmoil of health reform and increasing pressure to change their practices and lifestyles, will physicians resort to unionization for collective bargaining, and will a strike weapon be used to fight back against the array of corporate and government powers involved in the transformation of the American health-care system? This article examines the question of whether there could be such a thing as an ethical physician strike. Although physicians have not historically used collective bargaining or the strike weapon, the rapidly changing practice environment in the United States might push physicians and other health-care professionals toward unionization. This article considers the ethical questions that would arise if physicians started taking advantage of labor laws, and it lays out criteria for an ethical strike.

  17. Embelin Suppresses Growth of Human Pancreatic Cancer Xenografts, and Pancreatic Cancer Cells Isolated from KrasG12D Mice by Inhibiting Akt and Sonic Hedgehog Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Minzhao; Tang, Su-Ni; Upadhyay, Ghanshyam; Marsh, Justin L.; Jackman, Christopher P.; Shankar, Sharmila; Srivastava, Rakesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a deadly disease, and therefore effective treatment and/or prevention strategies are urgently needed. The objectives of this study were to examine the molecular mechanisms by which embelin inhibited human pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro, and xenografts in Balb C nude mice, and pancreatic cancer cell growth isolated from KrasG12D transgenic mice. XTT assays were performed to measure cell viability. AsPC-1 cells were injected subcutaneously into Balb c nude mice and treated with embelin. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured by Ki67 and TUNEL staining, respectively. The expression of Akt, and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and their target gene products were measured by the immunohistochemistry, and Western blot analysis. The effects of embelin on pancreatic cancer cells isolated from 10-months old KrasG12D mice were also examined. Embelin inhibited cell viability in pancreatic cancer AsPC-1, PANC-1, MIA PaCa-2 and Hs 766T cell lines, and these inhibitory effects were blocked either by constitutively active Akt or Shh protein. Embelin-treated mice showed significant inhibition in tumor growth which was associated with reduced expression of markers of cell proliferation (Ki67, PCNA and Bcl-2) and cell cycle (cyclin D1, CDK2, and CDK6), and induction of apoptosis (activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP, and increased expression of Bax). In addition, embelin inhibited the expression of markers of angiogenesis (COX-2, VEGF, VEGFR, and IL-8), and metastasis (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in tumor tissues. Antitumor activity of embelin was associated with inhibition of Akt and Shh pathways in xenografts, and pancreatic cancer cells isolated from KrasG12D mice. Furthermore, embelin also inhibited epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by up-regulating E-cadherin and inhibiting the expression of Snail, Slug, and ZEB1. These data suggest that embelin can inhibit pancreatic cancer growth, angiogenesis and metastasis by suppressing Akt and Shh pathways

  18. Striking Clepsydras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Moon-Hyon

    The term "Striking Clepsydra" is a shortened translation of the Korean name Jagyeongnu (自擊漏, tzu-chi lou in Chinese, literally "automatic-striking water-clock"). It was given to the two monumental time-keeping installations built by chief court engineer Yeong-sil Jang in AD 1432-38 under King Sejong (r. AD 1418-50) of the Joseon dynasty (1392-1910) in Seoul. These were housed separately in the Gyeongbok palace complex as major installations of the Royal Observatory Ganuidae equipped during 1432-38. One was the Striking Palace Clepsydra Borugangnu that was employed as the standard time-keeper from 1434, and the other was the Striking Heavenly Clepsydra Heumgyeonggangnu that was put into use not only as the symbol of Neo-Confucian ideology from 1438, but also as a demonstrational orrery and time-keeper. These were restored several times through the dynasty after loss by fires and warfare, and clepsydra-making technologies were succeeded by the development of armillary clocks in 1669. The National Palace Museum of Korea recreated the 1434 Striking Palace Clepsydra of King Sejong, and the replica was installed for permanent exhibition from November 2007.

  19. Rattlesnake strike behavior: kinematics

    PubMed

    Kardong; v

    1998-03-01

    The predatory behavior of rattlesnakes includes many distinctive preparatory phases leading to an extremely rapid strike, during which venom is injected. The rodent prey is then rapidly released, removing the snake's head from retaliation by the prey. The quick action of the venom makes possible the recovery of the dispatched prey during the ensuing poststrike period. The strike is usually completed in less than 0.5 s, placing a premium on an accurate strike that produces no significant errors in fang placement that could result in poor envenomation and subsequent loss of the prey. To clarify the basis for effective strike performance, we examined the basic kinematics of the rapid strike using high-speed film analysis. We scored numerous strike variables. Four major results were obtained. (1) Neurosensory control of the strike is based primarily upon sensory inputs via the eyes and facial pits to launch the strike, and upon tactile stimuli after contact. Correction for errors in targeting occurs not by a change in strike trajectory, but by fang repositioning after the jaws have made contact with the prey. (2) The rattlesnake strike is based upon great versatility and variation in recruitment of body segments and body postures. (3) Forces generated during acceleration of the head are transferred to posterior body sections to decelerate the head before contact with the prey, thereby reducing impact forces upon the snake's jaws. (4) Body acceleration is based on two patterns of body displacement, one in which acute sections of the body open like a gate, the other in which body segments flow around postural curves similar to movements seen during locomotion. There is one major implication of these results: recruitment of body segments, launch postures and kinematic features of the strike may be quite varied from strike to strike, but the overall predatory success of each strike by a rattlesnake is very consistent.

  20. Improved limited discrepancy search

    SciTech Connect

    Korf, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    We present an improvement to Harvey and Ginsberg`s limited discrepancy search algorithm, which eliminates much of the redundancy in the original, by generating each path from the root to the maximum search depth only once. For a complete binary tree of depth d this reduces the asymptotic complexity from O(d+2/2 2{sup d}) to O(2{sup d}). The savings is much less in a partial tree search, or in a heavily pruned tree. The overhead of the improved algorithm on a complete binary tree is only a factor of b/(b - 1) compared to depth-first search. While this constant factor is greater on a heavily pruned tree, this improvement makes limited discrepancy search a viable alternative to depth-first search, whenever the entire tree may not be searched. Finally, we present both positive and negative empirical results on the utility of limited discrepancy search, for the problem of number partitioning.

  1. Discrepancy Reporting Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Tonja M.; Lin, James C.; Chatillon, Mark L.

    2004-01-01

    Discrepancy Reporting Management System (DRMS) is a computer program designed for use in the stations of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) to help establish the operational history of equipment items; acquire data on the quality of service provided to DSN customers; enable measurement of service performance; provide early insight into the need to improve processes, procedures, and interfaces; and enable the tracing of a data outage to a change in software or hardware. DRMS is a Web-based software system designed to include a distributed database and replication feature to achieve location-specific autonomy while maintaining a consistent high quality of data. DRMS incorporates commercial Web and database software. DRMS collects, processes, replicates, communicates, and manages information on spacecraft data discrepancies, equipment resets, and physical equipment status, and maintains an internal station log. All discrepancy reports (DRs), Master discrepancy reports (MDRs), and Reset data are replicated to a master server at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory; Master DR data are replicated to all the DSN sites; and Station Logs are internal to each of the DSN sites and are not replicated. Data are validated according to several logical mathematical criteria. Queries can be performed on any combination of data.

  2. Lightning Often Strikes Twice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Contrary to popular misconception, lightning often strikes the same place twice. Certain conditions are just ripe for a bolt of electricity to come zapping down; and a lightning strike is powerful enough to do a lot of damage wherever it hits. NASA created the Accurate Location of Lightning Strikes technology to determine the ground strike point of lightning and prevent electrical damage in the immediate vicinity of the Space Shuttle launch pads at Kennedy Space Center. The area surrounding the launch pads is enmeshed in a network of electrical wires and components, and electronic equipment is highly susceptible to lightning strike damage. The accurate knowledge of the striking point is important so that crews can determine which equipment or system needs to be retested following a strike. Accurate to within a few yards, this technology can locate a lightning strike in the perimeter of the launch pad. As an added bonus, the engineers, then knowing where the lightning struck, can adjust the variables that may be attracting the lightning, to create a zone that will be less susceptible to future strikes.

  3. Radial arm strike rail

    DOEpatents

    McKeown, Mark H.; Beason, Steven C.

    1991-01-01

    The radial arm strike rail assembly is a system for measurement of bearings, directions, and stereophotography for geologic mapping, particularly where magnetic compasses are not appropriate. The radial arm, pivoting around a shaft axis, provides a reference direction determination for geologic mapping and bearing or direction determination. The centerable and levelable pedestal provide a base for the radial arm strike rail and the telescoping camera pedestal. The telescoping feature of the radial arm strike rail allows positioning the end of the rail for strike direction or bearing measurement with a goniometer.

  4. Residents' strikes on policy issues.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vishal; Aggarwal, Sourabh

    2009-01-01

    Strikes by residents or medical students have become fairly common and the new trend is to resort to strikes to protest matters concerning health policies. This article discusses the justification for and the ethical issues involved in these strike actions. Mechanisms to prevent such strikes are also discussed. PMID:19241959

  5. Should junior doctors strike?

    PubMed

    Toynbee, Mark; Al-Diwani, Adam Aj; Clacey, Joe; Broome, Matthew R

    2016-03-01

    An impasse in negotiations between the Department of Health (DoH) and the British Medical Association in November this year led to an overwhelming vote for industrial action (IA) by junior doctors. At the time of writing, a last minute concession by DoH led to a deferment of IA to allow further negotiations mediated by the Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service. However, IA by junior doctors remains a possibility if these negotiations stall again. Would the proposed action be ethically justifiable? Furthermore, is IA by doctors ever ethically defendable? Building on previous work, we explore important ethical considerations for doctors considering IA. The primary moral objection to doctors striking is often claimed to be risk of harm to patients. Other common arguments against IA by doctors include breaching their vocational responsibilities and possible damage to their relationship with patients and the public in general. These positions are in turn countered by claims of a greater long-term good and the legal and moral rights of employees to strike. Absolute restrictions appear to be hard to justify in the modern context, as does an unrestricted right to IA. We review these arguments, find that some common moral objections to doctors striking may be less relevant to the current situation, that a stronger contemporary objection to IA might be from a position of social justice and suggest criteria for ethically permissible doctor IA. PMID:26758366

  6. [Neurological diseases after lightning strike : Lightning strikes twice].

    PubMed

    Gruhn, K M; Knossalla, Frauke; Schwenkreis, Peter; Hamsen, Uwe; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Tegenthoff, Martin; Sczesny-Kaiser, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Lightning strikes rarely occur but 85 % of patients have lightning-related neurological complications. This report provides an overview about different modes of energy transfer and neurological conditions related to lightning strikes. Moreover, two case reports demonstrate the importance of interdisciplinary treatment and the spectrum of neurological complications after lightning strikes. PMID:26873252

  7. [Neurological diseases after lightning strike : Lightning strikes twice].

    PubMed

    Gruhn, K M; Knossalla, Frauke; Schwenkreis, Peter; Hamsen, Uwe; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Tegenthoff, Martin; Sczesny-Kaiser, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Lightning strikes rarely occur but 85 % of patients have lightning-related neurological complications. This report provides an overview about different modes of energy transfer and neurological conditions related to lightning strikes. Moreover, two case reports demonstrate the importance of interdisciplinary treatment and the spectrum of neurological complications after lightning strikes.

  8. Ophthalmic manifestations postlightning strike.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Permesh Singh; Gupta, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Various ophthalmic complications affecting the anterior and posterior segments have been identified due to lightning strike. We report the first case of an indirect lightning-induced full thickness macular hole formation in the UK as evidenced by slit lamp examination and optical coherence tomography (OCT) scan in a 77-year-old woman presenting with sudden visual loss in her right eye and thermal skin injury affecting her scalp. Her best corrected visual acuities were LogMAR 0.46 and 0.12 in the right and left eyes, respectively. There were no other ocular manifestations observed in either eye. She was initially managed conservatively with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug eye drops but surgery was later advised due to minimal changes in the visual acuity and macular hole on follow-up. OCT scanning is important in diagnosing macular holes, which usually warrant surgical intervention. PMID:25827914

  9. Modern Protection Against Lightning Strikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C.

    2005-05-01

    The application of science to provide protection against lightning strikes began around 1750 when Benjamin Franklin who invented the lightning rod in an effort to discharge thunderclouds. Instead of preventing lightning as he expected, his rods have been quite successful as strike receptors, intercepting cloud-to ground discharges and conducting them to Earth without damage to the structures on which they are mounted. In the years since Franklin's invention there has been little attention paid to the rod configuration that best serves as a strike receptor but Franklin's original ideas continue to be rediscovered and promoted. Recent measurements of the responses of variously configured rods to nearby strikes indicate that sharp-tipped rods are not the optimum configuration to serve as strike receptors since the ionization of the air around their tips limits the strength of the local electric fields created by an approaching lightning leader. In these experiments, fourteen blunt-tipped rods exposed in strike-reception competitions with nearby sharp-tipped rods were struck by lightning but none of the sharp-tipped rods were struck.

  10. Discrepancies in Goldmann tonometer readings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui, Marie; Tahi, Hassan; Nose, Izuru; Fantes, Francisco; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

    1999-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate discrepancies in Goldmann tonometer readings in eyes with varying degrees of corneal hydration and stromal amount. Methods. 6 Eye Bank eyes, donated by Florida Lion's Eye Bank, were evaluated. Each eye was affixed to a customized artificial orbit system with intraocular pressure (IOP) measured directly by a pressure transducer inserted into the vitreous and with a Goldmann tonometric readings. The eyes were dehydrated for 5-minute intervals in a 30% Dextran-BSS solution, with readings taken between each submersion. Once corneal thickness stabilized, a corneal trephination of 6mm was made. The corneal buttons were frozen and dehydrated by lyophilization and weighed. Results. Preliminary results show a possible overestimation in thicker corneas and an underestimation in thinner corneas, as previously published. Corresponding data on the weight of corneal material is provided. Further studies need to be conducted to determine statistical significance of the data. Conclusion. This study uses Eye Bank eyes with a protocol that produces results similar to previously published results. Further studies in correlating the amount of corneal stroma and discrepancies in Goldmann tonometer readings of intraocular pressure are important especially with the increasing acceptance of corneal refractive surgeries.

  11. Soviet KIROV class strike cruiser

    SciTech Connect

    Kehoe, J.W.; Brower, K.S.; Meier, H.A.

    1981-04-01

    The major design concepts and basic characteristics of the Soviet KIROV Class ship, an impressive nuclear-powered Strike Cruiser which recently appeared while undergoing sea trials in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, are discussed. Highlights are presented of the KIROV's hull form, the weapons, electronics and aviation systems, machinery, as well as the cruiser's speed and range.

  12. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy following lightning strike.

    PubMed

    Dundon, B K; Puri, R; Leong, D P; Worthley, M I

    2008-07-01

    Lightning strike is the most common environmental cause of sudden cardiac death, but may also be associated with a myriad of injuries to various organ systems. Direct myocardial injury may be manifest as electrocardiographic alterations or elevation in cardiac-specific isoenzymes; however, significant electrical cardiac trauma appears uncommon. A case is presented of severe acute cardiomyopathy in a "Takotsubo" distribution causing cardiogenic shock following lightning strike in a previously healthy 37-year-old woman. Although rarely identified in this context, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (also known as "transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome") is characterised by transient cardiac dysfunction, electrocardiographic changes that may mimic acute myocardial infarction and minimal release of cardiac-specific enzymes in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. The condition is associated with a substantial female bias (up to 90% of cases) in reported series, and despite occasionally dramatic presentations recovery of left ventricular function is almost universal over days to weeks. In rare instances, however, the syndrome has been associated with more catastrophic complications such as papillary muscle or cardiac free wall rupture, necessitating emergency surgical intervention to preserve life. In clinical practice, non-lethal lightning strike-induced cardiac injury is frequently associated with small elevations of cardiac isoenzymes without overt clinical sequelae; however, the incidence of silent myocardial mechanical dysfunction remains unknown. Cases such as the one presented highlight the potential for serious, albeit usually transient, cardiac sequelae from lightning strike injury and remind us that our mothers' advice to remain indoors during thunderstorms is probably worth heeding. PMID:18573973

  13. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy following lightning strike.

    PubMed

    Dundon, Benjamin K; Puri, Rishi; Leong, Darryl P; Worthley, Matthew Ian

    2009-01-01

    Lightning strike is the most common environmental cause of sudden cardiac death, but it may also be associated with a myriad of injuries to various organ systems. Direct myocardial injury may be manifest as electrocardiographic alterations or elevation in cardiac-specific isoenzymes; however, significant electrical cardiac trauma appears uncommon. A case is presented of severe acute cardiomyopathy in a "Takotsubo" distribution causing cardiogenic shock following lightning strike in a previously healthy 37-year-old woman. Although rarely identified in this context, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (also known as "transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome") is characterised by transient cardiac dysfunction, electrocardiographic changes that may mimic acute myocardial infarction and minimal release of cardiac-specific enzymes in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. The condition is associated with a substantial female bias (up to 90% of cases) in reported series, and despite occasionally dramatic presentations recovery of left ventricular function is almost universal over days to weeks. In rare instances, however, the syndrome has been associated with more catastrophic complications such as papillary muscle or cardiac free wall rupture, necessitating emergency surgical intervention to preserve life. In clinical practice, non-lethal lightning strike-induced cardiac injury is frequently associated with small elevations of cardiac isoenzymes without overt clinical sequelae; however, the incidence of silent myocardial mechanical dysfunction remains unknown. Cases such as the one presented highlight the potential for serious, albeit usually transient, cardiac sequelae from lightning strike injury and remind us that our mothers' advice to remain indoors during thunderstorms is probably worth heeding. PMID:21686980

  14. Attraction, Discrepancy and Responses to Psychological Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Michael J.

    The responses of a laboratory subject (S) to a counselor-accomplice and to the psychological treatment situation are examined by manipulating experimentally interpersonal attraction and communication discrepancy. Four treatment conditions were set up: (1) topic similarity and positive attraction for counselor, (2) topic discrepancy and positive…

  15. 40 CFR 761.210 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 761.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.210 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest discrepancies are differences between the quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or...

  16. 40 CFR 761.210 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 761.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.210 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest discrepancies are differences between the quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or...

  17. 40 CFR 761.210 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 761.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.210 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest discrepancies are differences between the quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or...

  18. Self-Esteem Discrepancies and Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Robert B.; Keith, Patricia M.

    1981-01-01

    Examined the relationship between self-esteem discrepancies and depression in a long-term intimate relationship. Findings supported the hypothesis that depression is associated with discrepancies between married partners' self-appraisals, perceptions of spouse's appraisal, and spouse's actual appraisal. (Author/DB)

  19. Discrepant Events: A Challenge to Students' Intuition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-spada, Wilson J.; Birriel, Jennifer; Birriel, Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    Studies on cognitive aspects of science education, especially how students achieve conceptual change, have been a focus of interest for many years. Researchers of student learning and conceptual change have developed several easily applicable teaching strategies. One of these strategies is known as "discrepant events". Discrepant events are very…

  20. Measuring informant discrepancies in clinical child research.

    PubMed

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Kazdin, Alan E

    2004-09-01

    Discrepancies among informants' ratings of child psychopathology have important implications for diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. Typically, parents and children complete measures (e.g., self-report checklists, diagnostic instruments) to assess child dysfunction. Ratings gathered from these sources reveal relatively little agreement on the nature and extent of the child's social, emotional, and behavioral problems. This article reviews and illustrates the most frequently used methods of measuring informant discrepancies in the clinical child literature (i.e., raw difference, standardized difference, and residual difference scores) and outlines key considerations to influence their selection. The authors conclude that frequently used methods of measuring informant discrepancies are not interchangeable and recommend that future investigations examining informant discrepancies in clinical child research use the standardized difference score as their measure of informant discrepancies.

  1. Lightning strike at Bryan, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, B. E.

    1980-02-01

    A week before the 29 August 1979 dedication of the photovoltaic power system at daytime AM radio station WBNO, in Bryan, Ohio, a lightning superbolt struck the FM radio tower, one of two towers at the station. Minor damage to the station and to components of the photovoltaic system, the latter designed by MIT Lincoln Laboratory under US Department of Energy sponsorship, is described. This rare strike suggested the need for increased protection and more voltage-transient suppressors were added to those already in place as a preventive measure in the event that such a phenomenon reoccurs.

  2. Functional scoliosis caused by leg length discrepancy

    PubMed Central

    Daniszewska, Barbara; Zolynski, Krystian

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Leg length discrepancy (LLD) causes pelvic obliquity in the frontal plane and lumbar scoliosis with convexity towards the shorter extremity. Leg length discrepancy is observed in 3-15% of the population. Unequalized lower limb length discrepancy leads to posture deformation, gait asymmetry, low back pain and discopathy. Material and methods In the years 1998-2006, 369 children, aged 5 to 17 years (209 girls, 160 boys) with LLD-related functional scoliosis were treated. An external or internal shoe lift was applied. Results Among 369 children the discrepancy of 0.5 cm was observed in 27, 1 cm in 329, 1.5 cm in 9 and 2 cm in 4 children. During the first follow-up examination, within 2 weeks, the adjustment of the spine to new static conditions was noted and correction of the curve in 316 examined children (83.7%). In 53 children (14.7%) the correction was observed later and was accompanied by slight low back pain. The time needed for real equalization of limbs was 3 to 24 months. The time needed for real equalization of the discrepancy was 11.3 months. Conclusions Leg length discrepancy equalization results in elimination of scoliosis. Leg length discrepancy < 2 cm is a static disorder; that is why measurements should be performed in a standing position using blocks of adequate thickness and the position of the posterior superior iliac spine should be estimated. PMID:22371777

  3. Doctors' strikes and mortality: a review.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu; Mitchell, Kristina; Narayan, K M; Yusuf, Salim

    2008-12-01

    A paradoxical pattern has been suggested in the literature on doctors' strikes: when health workers go on strike, mortality stays level or decreases. We performed a review of the literature during the past forty years to assess this paradox. We used PubMed, EconLit and Jstor to locate all peer-reviewed English-language articles presenting data analysis on mortality associated with doctors' strikes. We identified 156 articles, seven of which met our search criteria. The articles analyzed five strikes around the world, all between 1976 and 2003. The strikes lasted between nine days and seventeen weeks. All reported that mortality either stayed the same or decreased during, and in some cases, after the strike. None found that mortality increased during the weeks of the strikes compared to other time periods. The paradoxical finding that physician strikes are associated with reduced mortality may be explained by several factors. Most importantly, elective surgeries are curtailed during strikes. Further, hospitals often re-assign scarce staff and emergency care was available during all of the strikes. Finally, none of the strikes may have lasted long enough to assess the effects of long-term reduced access to a physician. Nonetheless, the literature suggests that reductions in mortality may result from these strikes. PMID:18849101

  4. Doctors' strikes and mortality: a review.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Solveig Argeseanu; Mitchell, Kristina; Narayan, K M; Yusuf, Salim

    2008-12-01

    A paradoxical pattern has been suggested in the literature on doctors' strikes: when health workers go on strike, mortality stays level or decreases. We performed a review of the literature during the past forty years to assess this paradox. We used PubMed, EconLit and Jstor to locate all peer-reviewed English-language articles presenting data analysis on mortality associated with doctors' strikes. We identified 156 articles, seven of which met our search criteria. The articles analyzed five strikes around the world, all between 1976 and 2003. The strikes lasted between nine days and seventeen weeks. All reported that mortality either stayed the same or decreased during, and in some cases, after the strike. None found that mortality increased during the weeks of the strikes compared to other time periods. The paradoxical finding that physician strikes are associated with reduced mortality may be explained by several factors. Most importantly, elective surgeries are curtailed during strikes. Further, hospitals often re-assign scarce staff and emergency care was available during all of the strikes. Finally, none of the strikes may have lasted long enough to assess the effects of long-term reduced access to a physician. Nonetheless, the literature suggests that reductions in mortality may result from these strikes.

  5. Parent-Child Discrepancies in Educational Expectations: Differential Effects of Actual versus Perceived Discrepancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yijie; Benner, Aprile D.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored how discrepancies between parents' and adolescents' educational expectations influenced adolescents' achievement using a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of 14,041 students (14 years old at baseline). "Actual" discrepancies (i.e., those between parents' and adolescents' actual…

  6. Real vs. Ideal Self Discrepancy in Bulimics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosak, Karen

    Bulimia is an eating disorder prevalent among young women, characterized by binge eating episodes followed by purging with subsequent depressive moods and self-deprecating thoughts. To determine whether bulimic women exhibit a greater discrepancy between their perceived and ideal selves than do nonbulimics, three samples of women were assessed.…

  7. 40 CFR 761.215 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 761.215 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.215 Manifest discrepancies. (a) Manifest... quantity or type of PCB waste designated on the manifest or shipping paper, and the quantity and type...

  8. 40 CFR 761.215 - Manifest discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manifest discrepancies. 761.215 Section 761.215 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES..., then write the generator's site address in the designated space for Item 5. (2) Write the name of...

  9. Discrepancy between Snack Choice Intentions and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weijzen, Pascalle L. G.; de Graaf, Cees; Dijksterhuis, Garmt B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate dietary constructs that affect the discrepancy between intentioned and actual snack choice. Design: Participants indicated their intentioned snack choice from a set of 4 snacks (2 healthful, 2 unhealthful). One week later, they actually chose a snack from the same set. Within 1 week after the actual choice, they completed…

  10. 14 CFR 35.38 - Lightning strike.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.38 Lightning strike. The applicant must demonstrate, by tests, analysis based on tests, or experience on similar designs, that the propeller can withstand a lightning strike without causing a major or hazardous propeller effect. The limit to which the propeller...

  11. 14 CFR 35.38 - Lightning strike.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.38 Lightning strike. The applicant must demonstrate, by tests, analysis based on tests, or experience on similar designs, that the propeller can withstand a lightning strike without causing a major or hazardous propeller effect. The limit to which the propeller...

  12. 14 CFR 35.38 - Lightning strike.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.38 Lightning strike. The applicant must demonstrate, by tests, analysis based on tests, or experience on similar designs, that the propeller can withstand a lightning strike without causing a major or hazardous propeller effect. The limit to which the propeller...

  13. 14 CFR 35.38 - Lightning strike.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.38 Lightning strike. The applicant must demonstrate, by tests, analysis based on tests, or experience on similar designs, that the propeller can withstand a lightning strike without causing a major or hazardous propeller effect. The limit to which the propeller...

  14. 14 CFR 35.38 - Lightning strike.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.38 Lightning strike. The applicant must demonstrate, by tests, analysis based on tests, or experience on similar designs, that the propeller can withstand a lightning strike without causing a major or hazardous propeller effect. The limit to which the propeller...

  15. 14 CFR 29.631 - Bird strike.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bird strike. 29.631 Section 29.631... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.631 Bird strike. The... safe landing (for Category B) after impact with a 2.2-lb (1.0 kg) bird when the velocity of...

  16. 14 CFR 29.631 - Bird strike.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bird strike. 29.631 Section 29.631... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.631 Bird strike. The... safe landing (for Category B) after impact with a 2.2-lb (1.0 kg) bird when the velocity of...

  17. 14 CFR 29.631 - Bird strike.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bird strike. 29.631 Section 29.631... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.631 Bird strike. The... safe landing (for Category B) after impact with a 2.2-lb (1.0 kg) bird when the velocity of...

  18. 14 CFR 29.631 - Bird strike.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bird strike. 29.631 Section 29.631... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.631 Bird strike. The... safe landing (for Category B) after impact with a 2.2-lb (1.0 kg) bird when the velocity of...

  19. 14 CFR 29.631 - Bird strike.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bird strike. 29.631 Section 29.631... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.631 Bird strike. The... safe landing (for Category B) after impact with a 2.2-lb (1.0 kg) bird when the velocity of...

  20. Toward Reconciling Magnitude Discrepancies Estimated from Paleoearthquake Data

    SciTech Connect

    N. Seth Carpenter; Suzette J. Payne; Annette L. Schafer

    2012-06-01

    We recognize a discrepancy in magnitudes estimated for several Basin and Range, U.S.A. faults. For example, magnitudes predicted for the Wasatch (Utah), Lost River (Idaho), and Lemhi (Idaho) faults from fault segment lengths (L{sub seg}) where lengths are defined between geometrical, structural, and/or behavioral discontinuities assumed to persistently arrest rupture, are consistently less than magnitudes calculated from displacements (D) along these same segments. For self-similarity, empirical relationships (e.g. Wells and Coppersmith, 1994) should predict consistent magnitudes (M) using diverse fault dimension values for a given fault (i.e. M {approx} L{sub seg}, should equal M {approx} D). Typically, the empirical relationships are derived from historical earthquake data and parameter values used as input into these relationships are determined from field investigations of paleoearthquakes. A commonly used assumption - grounded in the characteristic-earthquake model of Schwartz and Coppersmith (1984) - is equating L{sub seg} with surface rupture length (SRL). Many large historical events yielded secondary and/or sympathetic faulting (e.g. 1983 Borah Peak, Idaho earthquake) which are included in the measurement of SRL and used to derive empirical relationships. Therefore, calculating magnitude from the M {approx} SRL relationship using L{sub seg} as SRL leads to an underestimation of magnitude and the M {approx} L{sub seg} and M {approx} D discrepancy. Here, we propose an alternative approach to earthquake magnitude estimation involving a relationship between moment magnitude (Mw) and length, where length is L{sub seg} instead of SRL. We analyze seven historical, surface-rupturing, strike-slip and normal faulting earthquakes for which segmentation of the causative fault and displacement data are available and whose rupture included at least one entire fault segment, but not two or more. The preliminary Mw {approx} L{sub seg} results are strikingly consistent

  1. System and Method of Locating Lightning Strikes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A system and method of determining locations of lightning strikes has been described. The system includes multiple receivers located around an area of interest, such as a space center or airport. Each receiver monitors both sound and electric fields. The detection of an electric field pulse and a sound wave are used to calculate an area around each receiver in which the lighting is detected. A processor is coupled to the receivers to accurately determine the location of the lighting strike. The processor can manipulate the receiver data to compensate for environmental variables such as wind, temperature, and humidity. Further, each receiver processor can discriminate between distant and local lightning strikes.

  2. Lightning Strike in Pregnancy With Fetal Injury.

    PubMed

    Galster, Kellen; Hodnick, Ryan; Berkeley, Ross P

    2016-06-01

    Injuries from lightning strikes are an infrequent occurrence, and are only rarely noted to involve pregnant victims. Only 13 cases of lightning strike in pregnancy have been previously described in the medical literature, along with 7 additional cases discovered within news media reports. This case report presents a novel case of lightning-associated injury in a patient in the third trimester of pregnancy, resulting in fetal ischemic brain injury and long-term morbidity, and reviews the mechanics of lightning strikes along with common injury patterns of which emergency providers should be aware. PMID:27116922

  3. Lightning Strike in Pregnancy With Fetal Injury.

    PubMed

    Galster, Kellen; Hodnick, Ryan; Berkeley, Ross P

    2016-06-01

    Injuries from lightning strikes are an infrequent occurrence, and are only rarely noted to involve pregnant victims. Only 13 cases of lightning strike in pregnancy have been previously described in the medical literature, along with 7 additional cases discovered within news media reports. This case report presents a novel case of lightning-associated injury in a patient in the third trimester of pregnancy, resulting in fetal ischemic brain injury and long-term morbidity, and reviews the mechanics of lightning strikes along with common injury patterns of which emergency providers should be aware.

  4. Late Cretaceous through Cenozoic strike-slip tectonics of southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.L.; Bradley, D.C.; Bundtzen, T.K.; McClelland, W.

    2002-01-01

    New geologic mapping and geochronology show that margin-parallel strike-slip faults on the western limb of the southern Alaska orocline have experienced multiple episodes of dextral motion since ~100 Ma. These faults are on the upper plate of a subduction zone ~350-450 km inboard of the paleotrench. In southwestern Alaska, dextral displacement is 134 km on the Denali fault, at least 88-94 km on the Iditarod-Nixon Fork fault, and perhaps tens of kilometers on the Dishna River fault. The strike-slip regime coincided with Late Cretaceous sedimentation and then folding in the Kuskokwim basin, and with episodes of magmatism and mineralization at ~70, ~60, and ~30 Ma. No single driving mechanism can explain all of the ~95 million-year history of strike-slip faulting. Since ~40 Ma, the observed dextral sense of strike slip has run contrary to the sense of subduction obliquity. This may be explained by northward motion of the Pacific plate driving continental margin slivers into and/or around the oroclinal bend. From 44 to 66 Ma, oroclinal rotation, perhaps involving large-scale flexural slip, may have been accompanied by westward escape of crustal blocks along strike-slip faults. However, reconstructions of this period involve unproven assumptions about the identity of the subducting plate, the position of subducting ridges, and the exact timing of oroclinal bending, thus obscuring the driving mechanisms of strike slip. Prior to 66 Ma, oblique subduction is the most plausible driving mechanism for dextral strike slip. Cumulative displacement on all faults of the western limb of the orocline is at least 400 km, about half that on the eastern limb; this discrepancy might be explained by a combination of thrusting and unrecognized strike-slip faulting.

  5. Lightning Science: Five Ways Lightning Strikes People

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers Products and Services Contact Us Glossary Lightning Science: Five Ways Lightning Strikes People It is not ... of a streamer injury. For more on the science of lightning: National Severe Storms Laboratory NWS Colorado ...

  6. Myocardial infarction due to lightning strike.

    PubMed

    Karadas, Sevdegul; Vuruskan, Ertan; Dursun, Recep; Sincer, Isa; Gonullu, Hayriye; Akkaya, Emre

    2013-09-01

    Cardiac events due to lightning strike and their severity vary according to the strength of the electric current and the duration of exposure. The electrophysiological effects of lightning on the heart can result in ventricular fibrillation, asystole, QT prolongation, supraventricular tachycardia, and non-specific ST-T wave changes. In this report, a case of a patient who suffered myocardial infarction due to lightning strike is presented, which is a rare complication. PMID:24601203

  7. Myocardial infarction due to lightning strike.

    PubMed

    Karadas, Sevdegul; Vuruskan, Ertan; Dursun, Recep; Sincer, Isa; Gonullu, Hayriye; Akkaya, Emre

    2013-09-01

    Cardiac events due to lightning strike and their severity vary according to the strength of the electric current and the duration of exposure. The electrophysiological effects of lightning on the heart can result in ventricular fibrillation, asystole, QT prolongation, supraventricular tachycardia, and non-specific ST-T wave changes. In this report, a case of a patient who suffered myocardial infarction due to lightning strike is presented, which is a rare complication.

  8. Issues and Outcomes of Teachers' Strikes, 1955-65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goergen, Joseph H.; Keough, John J.

    This study analyzes the patterns of 40 teacher strikes between 1955 and 1965 by looking at (1) the issues and demands and (2) the outcomes and settlements. It is hypothesized that (1) teacher strikes fall into discernible patterns, (2) functional relationships exist between certain strike issues and outcomes and the strike itself, (3) strikes can…

  9. Commentary: professionalism, unionization, and physicians' strikes.

    PubMed

    Cruess, Richard L; Cruess, Sylvia R

    2011-05-01

    Professionalism is the basis of medicine's social contract with society. The details of that contract are influenced by the presence or absence of a national health plan. In countries with such a plan, unlike in the United States, negotiations are dictated by the nature of medicine's contract with society and take place between the medical profession and society directly. This system has required that medicine be represented at the negotiating table, and, in most instances, it has resulted in the unionization of physicians. To influence these negotiations, the medical profession has used various forms of collective action, including strikes. As the United States continues on the path toward health care reform, it seems likely that the American medical profession will also require an organization to represent it at the negotiating table and will be under the same pressures to strike as are physicians in other countries. Because both unionization and strikes pose potential threats to the professionalism of students, residents and practicing physicians, such issues should be a part of the medical education curriculum at both the undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The authors briefly review the literature on strikes and job actions and share personal experiences to support this discussion. Students and residents should have an opportunity to consider these issues in a safe environment, both to understand the potential impact of a strike on patients and the profession and to determine their own personal course of action should such a situation arise.

  10. 31 CFR 306.44 - Discrepancies in names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrepancies in names. 306.44.... SECURITIES Assignments of Registered Securities-General § 306.44 Discrepancies in names. The Department will ordinarily require an explanation of discrepancies in the names which appear in inscriptions,...

  11. 31 CFR 306.44 - Discrepancies in names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrepancies in names. 306.44 Section.... SECURITIES Assignments of Registered Securities-General § 306.44 Discrepancies in names. The Department will ordinarily require an explanation of discrepancies in the names which appear in inscriptions,...

  12. Further Investigations of NIST Water Sphere Discrepancies

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhead, B.L.

    2001-01-11

    Measurements have been performed on a family of water spheres at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) facilities. These measurements are important for criticality safety studies in that, frequently, difficulties have arisen in predicting the reactivity of individually subcritical components assembled in a critical array. It has been postulated that errors in the neutron leakage from individual elements in the array could be responsible for these problems. In these NIST measurements, an accurate determination of the leakage from a fission spectrum, modified by water scattering, is available. Previously, results for 3-, 4-, and 5-in. diam. water-filled spheres, both with and without cadmium covers over the fission chambers, were presented for four fissionable materials: {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 239}Pu. Results were also given for ''dry'' systems, in which the water spheres were drained of water, with the results corresponding to essentially measurements of unmoderated {sup 252}Cf spontaneous-fission neutrons. The calculated-to-experimental (C/E) values ranged from 0.94 to 1.01 for the dry systems and 0.93 to 1.05 for the wet systems, with experimental uncertainties ranging from 1.5 to 1.9%. These results indicated discrepancies that were clearly outside of the experimental uncertainties, and further investigation was suggested. This work updates the previous calculations with a comparison of the predicted C/E values with ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI transport cross sections. Variations in the predicted C/E values that arise from the use of ENDF/B-V, ENDF/B-VI, ENDL92, and LLLDOS for the response fission cross sections are also tabulated. The use of both a 45-group NIST fission spectrum and a continuous-energy fission spectrum for {sup 252}Cf are evaluated. The use of the generalized-linear-least-squares (GLLSM) procedures to investigate the reported discrepancies in the water sphere results for {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu

  13. Discrepancies in Data Reporting for Rabies, Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Human rabies is an ancient disease but in modern times has primarily been associated with dog rabies–endemic countries of Asia and Africa. From an African perspective, the inevitable and tragic consequences of rabies require serious reflection of the factors that continue to drive its neglect. Established as a major disease only after multiple introductions during the colonial era, rabies continues to spread into new reservoirs and territories in Africa. However, analysis of reported data identified major discrepancies that are indicators of poor surveillance, reporting, and cooperation among national, international, and global authorities. Ultimately, the absence of reliable and sustained data compromises the priority given to the control of rabies. Appropriate actions and changes, in accordance to the One Health philosophy and including aspects such as synchronized, shared, and unified global rabies data reporting, will not only be necessary, but also should be feasible. PMID:23628197

  14. Leg length discrepancy in scoliotic patients.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Moreno; Roncoletta, Piero; Di Felice, Francesca; Porto, Daniele; Bellomo, Rosagrazia; Saggini, Raoul

    2012-01-01

    The aetiological aspects as well as postural attitude implications represent an open question in scoliosis evaluation and treatment. Leg length discrepancy (LLD) is often recognised in scoliotic patients, but surprisingly still controversial is the use of underfoot wedge corrections in order to compensate pelvis tilt. In fact, literature reports conflicting results on the efficacy of LLD equalization also given the argued uncertainty of LLD clinical assessment and limitations related to X-ray measurements. Moreover concern is about anatomic and functional LLD and associated estimation of the pelvic torsion. In such a topic, a significant helpful tool has been demonstrated to be 3D kinematic optoelectronic measurements and other useful data obtained from force platforms and/or baropodographic systems. 135 (94.4%) out of 143 Scoliotic patients sample (av. age 16.4±10.2 Y range 4-66 Y), have been found to improve posture when LLD was corrected. The 143 patients showed a mean lower limb discrepancy of μ=10.2±5.2mm associated to a mean main scoliotic curve μ=16.4°±9.4° Cobb (frontal plane), mean Spinal offset μ=7.5±5.5mm and mean Global offset μ=10.1±7.1mm. The applied paired t-test comparison (indifferent vs. corrected orthostasis) showed significant (p < 0.05) postural improvements could be obtained in the whole or in a part of the considered postural parameters, after the application of suitable under-foot wedge. The present investigation confirm results of a previous study demonstrating the efficacy of under-foot wedge use in leg asymmetry correction, posture re-balancing and spine deformities reduction, pointing out the significant contribution of the 3D opto-electronic measurement approach in the critical process of assessing the correct under-foot wedge size, therapy planning and monitoring.

  15. Teaching Striking/Fielding Concepts in Cricket

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Adrian P.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents activities for developing striking/fielding concepts in modified cricket games. Though not as familiar to American children, cricket is emerging as the second (to soccer) most popular game in the world. The novelty of the skills provides an appropriate learning challenge for all students while reinforcing concepts and…

  16. Protecting Your Park When Lightning Strikes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frydenlund, Marvin M.

    1987-01-01

    A formula for assessing specific risk of lightning strikes is provided. Recent legal cases are used to illustrate potential liability. Six actions park managers can take to minimize danger from lightning are presented, and commonsense rules which should be publicly posted are listed. (MT)

  17. The Chicago Teachers Strike and Its Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuffelton, Amy B.

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the 2012 Chicago Teachers Strike in light of John Dewey's "The Public and Its Problems." It engages Dewey's conceptualization of practical reason to challenge the educational reform movement's commitment to technocratic decision-making.

  18. STS-135 Launch Pad Lightning Strike

    NASA Video Gallery

    A pair of lightning strikes occurred near launch pad 39-A at NASA's Kennedy Space Center at 12:31 p.m. and 12:40 p.m. EDT on July 7. The first struck the water tower 515 feet from the pad and the s...

  19. Cultural estrangement: the role of personal and societal value discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Mark M; Gebauer, Jochen E; Maio, Gregory R

    2006-01-01

    Study 1 examined whether cultural estrangement arises from discrepancies between personal and societal values (e.g., freedom) rather than from discrepancies in attitudes toward political (e.g., censorship) or mundane (e.g., pizza) objects. The relations between different types of value discrepancies, estrangement, subjective well-being, and need for uniqueness also were examined. Results indicated that personal-societal discrepancies in values and political attitudes predicted estrangement, whereas mundane attitude discrepancies were not related to estrangement. As expected, value discrepancies were the most powerful predictor of estrangement. Value discrepancies were not related to subjective well-being but fulfilled a need for uniqueness. Study 2 replicated the relations between value discrepancies, subjective well-being, and need for uniqueness while showing that a self-report measure of participants' values and a peer-report measure of the participants' values yielded the same pattern of value discrepancies. Together, the studies reveal theoretical and empirical benefits of conceptualizing cultural estrangement in terms of value discrepancies. PMID:16317190

  20. Cultural estrangement: the role of personal and societal value discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Mark M; Gebauer, Jochen E; Maio, Gregory R

    2006-01-01

    Study 1 examined whether cultural estrangement arises from discrepancies between personal and societal values (e.g., freedom) rather than from discrepancies in attitudes toward political (e.g., censorship) or mundane (e.g., pizza) objects. The relations between different types of value discrepancies, estrangement, subjective well-being, and need for uniqueness also were examined. Results indicated that personal-societal discrepancies in values and political attitudes predicted estrangement, whereas mundane attitude discrepancies were not related to estrangement. As expected, value discrepancies were the most powerful predictor of estrangement. Value discrepancies were not related to subjective well-being but fulfilled a need for uniqueness. Study 2 replicated the relations between value discrepancies, subjective well-being, and need for uniqueness while showing that a self-report measure of participants' values and a peer-report measure of the participants' values yielded the same pattern of value discrepancies. Together, the studies reveal theoretical and empirical benefits of conceptualizing cultural estrangement in terms of value discrepancies.

  1. Prevalence and prediction of positive discrepancy creation: examining a discrepancy between two self-regulation theories.

    PubMed

    Phillips, J M; Hollenbeck, J R; Ilgen, D R

    1996-10-01

    The conflicting perspectives of control theory (CT) and self-efficacy theory (SET) concerning positive discrepancy creation (PDC) were tested and are discussed. According to CT, discrepancies between past performance and future goals are continually reduced. This is contrary to SET's focus on setting future goals higher than past performance levels. Participants performed several trials in a multitask environment, during which they did as many or as few problems as they chose on each of 4 intellectual tasks. Results suggest that PDC is not uncommon in a multitask environment, even after extensive task experience. Regression decomposition techniques identified 2 types of PDC: goal driven and performance driven. Need for achievement, instrumentality, and expectancy predicted the 2 types of PDC with varying success across the 4 tasks. The 2 types of PDC reflect the different theoretical approaches and these 2 self-regulation theories.

  2. Central Hyperadrenergic State After Lightning Strike

    PubMed Central

    Parsaik, Ajay K.; Ahlskog, J. Eric; Singer, Wolfgang; Gelfman, Russell; Sheldon, Seth H.; Seime, Richard J.; Craft, Jennifer M.; Staab, Jeffrey P.; Kantor, Birgit; Low, Phillip A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe and review autonomic complications of lightning strike. Methods Case report and laboratory data including autonomic function tests in a subject who was struck by lightning. Results A 24-year-old man was struck by lightning. Following that, he developed dysautonomia, with persistent inappropriate sinus tachycardia and autonomic storms, as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and functional neurologic problems. Interpretation The combination of persistent sinus tachycardia and episodic exacerbations associated with hypertension, diaphoresis, and agitation were highly suggestive of a central hyperadrenergic state with superimposed autonomic storms. Whether the additional PTSD and functional neurologic deficits were due to a direct effect of the lightning strike on the CNS or a secondary response is open to speculation. PMID:23761114

  3. Systems tunnel linear shaped charge lightning strike

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    Simulated lightning strike testing of the systems tunnel linear shaped charge (LSC) was performed at the Thiokol Lightning Test Complex in Wendover, Utah, on 23 Jun. 1989. The test article consisted of a 160-in. section of the LSC enclosed within a section of the systems tunnel. The systems tunnel was bonded to a section of a solid rocket motor case. All test article components were full scale. The systems tunnel cover of the test article was subjected to three discharges (each discharge was over a different grounding strap) from the high-current generator. The LSC did not detonate. All three grounding straps debonded and violently struck the LSC through the openings in the systems tunnel floor plates. The LSC copper surface was discolored around the areas of grounding strap impact, and arcing occurred at the LSC clamps and LSC ends. This test verified that the present flight configuration of the redesigned solid rocket motor systems tunnel, when subjected to simulated lightning strikes with peak current levels within 71 percent of the worst-case lightning strike condition of NSTS-07636, is adequate to prevent LSC ignition. It is therefore recommended that the design remain unchanged.

  4. Preemptive Striking in Individual and Group Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Mifune, Nobuhiro; Hizen, Yoichi; Kamijo, Yoshio; Okano, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a laboratory experiment to assess preemptive striking by and towards individuals or groups. In the framework of a preemptive strike game, we set the following four conditions: one person faced another person, one person faced a three-person group, a three-person group faced an individual, and a three-person group faced another three-person group. Previous studies have revealed that greed is activated when participants belong to a group, while fear is activated when participants interact with a group, and further, that attacking behaviors in the preemptive strike game are driven by fear. These observations led to a hypothesis that high attack rates would be realized when participants interact with a group, regardless of whether the participants make decisions as individuals or a group. The results of our experiment, however, rejected this hypothesis. Among the four conditions, the attack rate was highest when a three-person group faced an individual. As possible reasons for our observation, we discuss the potential threat stemming from the imbalance in the effectiveness of attack between individuals and groups, and the (incorrect) belief by groups that single individuals would be more likely to attack out of fear. PMID:27148871

  5. Acute transient hemiparesis induced by lightning strike.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Seyed Hesam; Faridaalaee, Gholamreza; Jahangard, Samira

    2015-07-01

    According to data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,in the years from 1959 to 1994, lightning was responsible for more than 3000 deaths and nearly 10,000 casualties. The most important characteristic features of lightning injuries are multisystem involvement and widely variable severity. Lightning strikes are primarily a neurologic injury that affects all 3 components of the nervous system: central, autonomic,and peripheral. Neurologic complications of lightning strikes vary from transient benign symptoms to permanent disability. Many patients experience a temporary paralysis called keraunoparalysis. Here we reported a 22-year-old mountaineer man with complaining of left sided hemiparesis after being hit by a lightning strike in the mountain 3 hours ago. There was no loss of consciousness at hitting time. On arrival the patient was alert, awake and hemodynamically stable. In neurologic examination cranial nerves were intact, left sided upper and lower extremity muscle force was I/V with a combination of complete sensory loss, and right-sided muscle force and sensory examination were normal. There is not any evidence of significant vascular impairment in the affected extremities. Brain MRI and CT scan and cervical MRI were normal. During 2 days of admission, with intravenous hydration, heparin 5000 unit SC q12hr and physical therapy of the affected limbs, motor and sensory function improved and was normal except mild paresthesia. He was discharged 1 day later for outpatient follow up while vitamin B1 100mg orally was prescribed.Paresthesia improved after 3 days without further sequels. PMID:25650360

  6. Acute transient hemiparesis induced by lightning strike.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Seyed Hesam; Faridaalaee, Gholamreza; Jahangard, Samira

    2015-07-01

    According to data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,in the years from 1959 to 1994, lightning was responsible for more than 3000 deaths and nearly 10,000 casualties. The most important characteristic features of lightning injuries are multisystem involvement and widely variable severity. Lightning strikes are primarily a neurologic injury that affects all 3 components of the nervous system: central, autonomic,and peripheral. Neurologic complications of lightning strikes vary from transient benign symptoms to permanent disability. Many patients experience a temporary paralysis called keraunoparalysis. Here we reported a 22-year-old mountaineer man with complaining of left sided hemiparesis after being hit by a lightning strike in the mountain 3 hours ago. There was no loss of consciousness at hitting time. On arrival the patient was alert, awake and hemodynamically stable. In neurologic examination cranial nerves were intact, left sided upper and lower extremity muscle force was I/V with a combination of complete sensory loss, and right-sided muscle force and sensory examination were normal. There is not any evidence of significant vascular impairment in the affected extremities. Brain MRI and CT scan and cervical MRI were normal. During 2 days of admission, with intravenous hydration, heparin 5000 unit SC q12hr and physical therapy of the affected limbs, motor and sensory function improved and was normal except mild paresthesia. He was discharged 1 day later for outpatient follow up while vitamin B1 100mg orally was prescribed.Paresthesia improved after 3 days without further sequels.

  7. Prison hunger strikes: why the motive matters.

    PubMed

    Annas, G J

    1982-12-01

    Force feeding of hunger-striking prisoners is discussed in the context of three 1982 state appellate court decisions involving the right to refuse treatment. The Supreme Court of Georgia accepted a prisoner's argument; courts in New York and West Virginia found a compelling state interest that justified force feeding, as did an earlier Massachusetts decision that rejected a prisoner's refusal of renal dialysis. The author contends that the Georgia court erred in not distinguishing the motivation of the prisoner--to manipulate the prison system--from that of patients who refuse treatment.

  8. Lightning strike-induced brachial plexopathy.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Amita N; Kasundra, Gaurav M; Khichar, Subhakaran; Bhushan, Bharat S K

    2014-10-01

    We describe a patient who presented with a history of lightning strike injury. Following the injury, he sustained acute right upper limb weakness with pain. Clinically, the lesion was located to the upper and middle trunk of the right brachial plexus, and the same confirmed with electrophysiological studies. Nerve damage due to lightning injuries is considered very rare, and a plexus damage has been described infrequently, if ever. Thus, the proposed hypothesis that lightning rarely causes neuropathy, as against high-voltage electric current, due to its shorter duration of exposure not causing severe burns which lead to nerve damage, needs to be reconsidered. PMID:25288846

  9. Lightning strike-induced brachial plexopathy.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Amita N; Kasundra, Gaurav M; Khichar, Subhakaran; Bhushan, Bharat S K

    2014-10-01

    We describe a patient who presented with a history of lightning strike injury. Following the injury, he sustained acute right upper limb weakness with pain. Clinically, the lesion was located to the upper and middle trunk of the right brachial plexus, and the same confirmed with electrophysiological studies. Nerve damage due to lightning injuries is considered very rare, and a plexus damage has been described infrequently, if ever. Thus, the proposed hypothesis that lightning rarely causes neuropathy, as against high-voltage electric current, due to its shorter duration of exposure not causing severe burns which lead to nerve damage, needs to be reconsidered.

  10. 48 CFR 47.207-10 - Discrepancies incident to shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... discrepancies in Government shipments are in 41 CFR parts 102-117 and 118. (For the Department of Defense (DoD... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrepancies incident to... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Contracts for Transportation or for Transportation-Related Services...

  11. Examination of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory Discrepancy Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Ashley M.; Brestan, Elizabeth V.; Eyberg, Sheila M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) "discrepancy hypothesis", which asserts that a discrepancy in score elevations on the ECBI Intensity and Problem Scales is related to problematic parenting styles. The Intensity Scale measures the frequency of child disruptive behavior, and the Problem Scale measures parent perception…

  12. A Discrepancy-Based Methodology for Nuclear Training Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Jeffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    A three-phase comprehensive process for commercial nuclear power training program evaluation is presented. The discrepancy-based methodology was developed after the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident. It facilitates analysis of program components to identify discrepancies among program specifications, actual outcomes, and industry…

  13. Is the Discrepancy Criterion for Defining Developmental Disorders Valid?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyck, Murray J.; Hay, David; Anderson, Mike; Smith, Leigh M.; Piek, Jan; Hallmayer, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    Background: Most developmental disorders are defined by an achievement discrepancy in which achievement on one or more specific abilities is substantially less than a person's measured intelligence. We evaluated the validity of this discrepancy criterion by assessing parameters that determine variability across abilities and by assessing…

  14. Discrepancies in Parents' and Children's Reports of Child Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hourigan, Shannon E.; Goodman, Kimberly L.; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to regulate one's emotions effectively has been linked with many aspects of well-being. The current study examined discrepancies between mothers' and children's reports of child emotion regulation. This investigation examined patterns of discrepancies for key aspects of emotion regulation (i.e., inhibition and dysregulated expression)…

  15. Role of Discrepant Questioning Leading to Model Element Modification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rea-Ramirez, Mary Anne; Nunez-Oviedo, Maria Cecilia; Clement, John

    2009-01-01

    Discrepant questioning is a teaching technique that can help students "unlearn" misconceptions and process science ideas for deep understanding. Discrepant questioning is a technique in which teachers question students in a way that requires them to examine their ideas or models, without giving information prematurely to the student or passing…

  16. A bird strike handbook for base-level managers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payson, R. P.; Vance, J. D.

    1984-09-01

    To help develop more awareness about bird strikes and bird strike reduction techniques, this thesis compiled all relevant information through an extensive literature search, review of base-level documents, and personal interviews. The final product--A Bird Strike Handbook for Base-Level Managers--provides information on bird strike statistics, methods to reduce the strike hazards, and means to obtain additional assistance. The handbook is organized for use by six major base agencies: Maintenance, Civil Engineering, Operations, Air Field Management, Safety, and Air Traffic Control. An appendix follows at the end.

  17. Strike Point Control for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    SciTech Connect

    Kolemen, E.; Gates, D. A.; Rowley, C. W.; Kasdin, N. J.; Kallman, J.; Gerhardt, S.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Mueller, D.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents the first control algorithm for the inner and outer strike point position for a Spherical Torus (ST) fusion experiment and the performance analysis of the controller. A liquid lithium divertor (LLD) will be installed on NSTX which is believed to provide better pumping than lithium coatings on carbon PFCs. The shape of the plasma dictates the pumping rate of the lithium by channeling the plasma to LLD, where strike point location is the most important shape parameter. Simulations show that the density reduction depends on the proximity of strike point to LLD. Experiments were performed to study the dynamics of the strike point, design a new controller to change the location of the strike point to desired location and stabilize it. The most effective PF coils in changing inner and outer strike points were identified using equilibrium code. The PF coil inputs were changed in a step fashion between various set points and the step response of the strike point position was obtained. From the analysis of the step responses, PID controllers for the strike points were obtained and the controller was tuned experimentally for better performance. The strike controller was extended to include the outer-strike point on the inner plate to accommodate the desired low outer-strike points for the experiment with the aim of achieving "snowflake" divertor configuration in NSTX.

  18. Isospin Breaking in the Goldberger-Treiman Discrepancies

    SciTech Connect

    Jose Goity; Jordi Saez

    2002-09-01

    Effects of isospin breaking at the level of the Goldberger-Treiman discrepancies involving the neutral isotriplet axial and pion-nucleon couplings are analyzed to leading non-trivial order in chiral perturbation theory.

  19. Path discrepancies between great circle and rhumb line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Rajan

    1987-01-01

    A simulation of a mathematical model to compute path discrepancies between great circle and rhumb line flight paths is presented. The model illustrates that the path errors depend on the latitude, the bearing, and the trip length of the flight.

  20. Anxiety, self-discrepancy, and regulatory focus theory: acculturation matters.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Cheri A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L

    2013-03-01

    Previous research has found that Asians (vs. Caucasians) exhibit higher levels of ought and undesired self-discrepancies and prevention focus, all of which have been linked with anxiety. We examined these ethnic differences in the context of acculturation. Participants (N=155) completed two sessions scheduled a week apart. In Session 1, participants completed a computer task to measure self-discrepancy and prevention focus. In Session 2, participants' ought self-discrepancies and closeness to an undesired self were primed. Moderation analyses indicated that Asian participants who were highly assimilated to an Asian culture exhibited higher levels of a prevention focus. Acculturation also had significant moderation effects for affect when self-discrepancies were primed. Our results suggest that interventions based on these systems (i.e., self-system therapy) should consider acculturation when treating diverse individuals.

  1. Entropy discrepancy and total derivatives in trace anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astaneh, Amin Faraji; Patrushev, Alexander; Solodukhin, Sergey N.

    2015-12-01

    In this note we address the discrepancy found by Hung, Myers and Smolkin between the holographic calculation of entanglement entropy (using the Jacobson-Myers functional for the holographic minimal surface) and the CFT trace anomaly calculation if one uses the Wald prescription to compute the entropy in six dimensions. As anticipated in our previous work [1] the discrepancy originates entirely from a total derivative term present in the trace anomaly in six dimensions.

  2. Discrepancy sets and pseudorandom generators for combinatorial rectangles

    SciTech Connect

    Armoni, R.; Saks, M.; Zhou, Shiyu; Wigderson, A.

    1996-12-31

    A common subproblem of DNF approximate counting and derandomizing RL is the discrepancy problem for combinatorial rectangles. We explicitly construct a poly(n)-size sample space that approximates the volume of any combinatorial rectangle in [n]{sup n} to within o(1) error (improving on the constructions of [EGLNV92]). The construction extends the techniques of [LLSZ95] for the analogous hitting set problem most notably via discrepancy preserving reductions.

  3. Patients' perception of leg length discrepancy post total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Alice; Hill, Janet; Orr, John; Humphreys, Patricia; Rooney, Aidan; Morrow, Esther; Beverland, David

    2015-01-01

    Perception of a leg length discrepancy post total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most common sources of patient dissatisfaction and can have a direct influence on the considered success of the operation.This research examined postoperative perception of imposed limb discrepancies in a group of THA patients compared to a group of participants with no previous hip surgery. Two subgroups of THA patients were involved: those who did not perceive a difference in limb length following THA and those that did.Discrepancies were imposed in 2.5 mm increments. For discrepancies ≥5 mm, a significant number of participants were aware of a difference (74%). There was no significant difference in perception of imposed discrepancies between THA patients and participants with no previous hip surgery. THA patients who perceived a difference in their limb lengths postoperatively had significantly worse pain and oxford scores when compared to THA patients who perceived their limb lengths to be equal. Knowing the boundaries between LLDs that go undetected and those that patients are aware of could guide surgeons when evaluating the balance between correct soft tissue tension and the resulting unequal leg length. From these findings, discrepancies >5 mm are likely to be perceived. Whether this perception would lead directly to a negative outcome score and patient dissatisfaction is more complex to project and likely to be patient specific. Intraoperative methods to aid the controlled positioning of implanted components could help maintain and restore leg length to within an acceptable amount that patients cannot perceive.

  4. Criteria for a just strike action by medical doctors.

    PubMed

    Selemogo, Mpho

    2014-01-01

    In response to a strike action by some doctors at the Safdarjung Hospital, the Delhi Medical Council issued a statement, in December 2010, that it was "...of the view that under no circumstances doctors should resort to strike as the same puts patient care in serious jeopardy and such actions are also in violation of the Indian Medical Council (Professional Conduct, Etiquette and Ethics) Regulations, 2002". Statements such as this are common responses of medical councils across the world whenever they are confronted with the increasingly difficult issue of striking doctors. Evidently, these statements are not effective in stopping doctors from repeatedly engaging in strike action. In India, the statement by the medical council was, for instance, followed by many strikes, amongst which was the well-publicised nationwide strike initiated by the Indian Medical Association in June 2012.

  5. THE EFFECT OF HAND DOMINANCE ON MARTIAL ARTS STRIKES

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Silva, Jansen Henrique; de Miranda Marzullo, Ana Carolina; Bolander, Richard P.; Bir, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare dominant and non-dominant martial arts palm strikes under different circumstances that usually happen during martial arts and combative sports applications. Seven highly experienced (10 ± 5 years) right hand dominant Kung Fu practitioners performed strikes with both hands, stances with left or right lead legs, and with the possibility or not of stepping towards the target (moving stance). Peak force was greater for the dominant hand strikes (1593.76 ± 703.45 N vs. 1042.28 ± 374.16 N; p < .001), whereas no difference was found in accuracy between the hands (p = .141). Additionally, peak force was greater for the strikes with moving stance (1448.75 ± 686.01 N vs. 1201.80 ± 547.98 N; p = .002) and left lead leg stance (1378.06 ± 705.48 N vs.1269.96 ± 547.08 N). Furthermore, the difference in peak force between strikes with moving and stationary stances was statistically significant only for the strikes performed with a left lead leg stance (p = .007). Hand speed was higher for the dominant hand strikes (5.82 ± 1.08 m/s vs. 5.24 ± 0.78 m/s; p = 0.001) and for the strikes with moving stance (5.79 ± 1.01 m/s vs. 5.29 ± 0.90 m/s; p < .001). The difference in hand speed between right and left hand strikes was only significant for strikes with moving stance. In summary, our results suggest that the stronger palm strike for a right-handed practitioner is a right hand strike on a left lead leg stance moving towards the target. PMID:22047701

  6. The effect of hand dominance on martial arts strikes.

    PubMed

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Silva, Jansen Henrique; Marzullo, Ana Carolina de Miranda; Bolander, Richard P; Bir, Cynthia A

    2012-08-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare dominant and non-dominant martial arts palm strikes under different circumstances that usually happen during martial arts and combative sports applications. Seven highly experienced (10±5 years) right hand dominant Kung Fu practitioners performed strikes with both hands, stances with left or right lead legs, and with the possibility or not of stepping towards the target (moving stance). Peak force was greater for the dominant hand strikes (1593.76±703.45 N vs. 1042.28±374.16 N; p<.001), whereas no difference was found in accuracy between the hands (p=.141). Additionally, peak force was greater for the strikes with moving stance (1448.75±686.01 N vs. 1201.80±547.98 N; p=.002) and left lead leg stance (1378.06±705.48 N vs. 1269.96±547.08 N). Furthermore, the difference in peak force between strikes with moving and stationary stances was statistically significant only for the strikes performed with a left lead leg stance (p=.007). Hand speed was higher for the dominant hand strikes (5.82±1.08 m/s vs. 5.24±0.78 m/s; p=.001) and for the strikes with moving stance (5.79±1.01 m/s vs. 5.29±0.90 m/s; p<.001). The difference in hand speed between right and left hand strikes was only significant for strikes with moving stance. In summary, our results suggest that the stronger palm strike for a right-handed practitioner is a right hand strike on a left lead leg stance moving towards the target.

  7. A decade of U.S. Air Force bat strikes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peurach, Suzanne C.; Dove, Carla J.; Stepko, Laura

    2009-01-01

    From 1997 through 2007, 821 bat strikes were reported to the U.S. Air Force (USAF) Safety Center by aircraft personnel or ground crew and sent to the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, for identification. Many samples were identified by macroscopic and or microscopic comparisons with bat specimens housed in the museum and augmented during the last 2 years by DNA analysis. Bat remains from USAF strikes during this period were received at the museum from 40 states in the United States and from 20 countries. We confirmed that 46% of the strikes were caused by bats, but we did not identify them further; we identified 5% only to the family or genus level, and 49% to the species level. Fifty-five of the 101 bat-strike samples submitted for DNA analysis have been identified to the species level. Twenty-five bat species have been recorded striking USAF planes worldwide. The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis; n = 173) is the species most commonly identified in USAF strike impacts, followed by the red bat (Lasiurus borealis; n = 83). Bat strikes peak during the spring and fall, with >57% occurring from August through October; 82% of the reports that included time of strike were recorded between 2100 and 0900 hours. More than 12% of the bat strikes were reported at >300 m above ground level (AGL). Although <1% of the bat-strike reports indicated damage to USAF aircraft, cumulative damage for 1997 through 2007 totaled >$825,000 and >50% of this sum was attributable to 5 bat-strike incidents. Only 5 bats from the 10 most damaging bat strikes were identified to the species level, either because we did not receive remains with the reports or the sample was insufficient for identification.

  8. "Thunderstruck": penetrating thoracic injury from lightning strike.

    PubMed

    van Waes, Oscar J F; van de Woestijne, Pieter C; Halm, Jens A

    2014-04-01

    Lightning strike victims are rarely presented at an emergency department. Burns are often the primary focus. This case report describes the improvised explosive device like-injury to the thorax due to lightning strike and its treatment, which has not been described prior in (kerauno)medicine. Penetrating injury due to blast from lightning strike is extremely rare. These "shrapnel" injuries should however be ruled out in all patients struck by lightning. PMID:24054789

  9. "Thunderstruck": penetrating thoracic injury from lightning strike.

    PubMed

    van Waes, Oscar J F; van de Woestijne, Pieter C; Halm, Jens A

    2014-04-01

    Lightning strike victims are rarely presented at an emergency department. Burns are often the primary focus. This case report describes the improvised explosive device like-injury to the thorax due to lightning strike and its treatment, which has not been described prior in (kerauno)medicine. Penetrating injury due to blast from lightning strike is extremely rare. These "shrapnel" injuries should however be ruled out in all patients struck by lightning.

  10. Debunking the viper's strike: harmless snakes kill a common assumption.

    PubMed

    Penning, David A; Sawvel, Baxter; Moon, Brad R

    2016-03-01

    To survive, organisms must avoid predation and acquire nutrients and energy. Sensory systems must correctly differentiate between potential predators and prey, and elicit behaviours that adjust distances accordingly. For snakes, strikes can serve both purposes. Vipers are thought to have the fastest strikes among snakes. However, strike performance has been measured in very few species, especially non-vipers. We measured defensive strike performance in harmless Texas ratsnakes and two species of vipers, western cottonmouths and western diamond-backed rattlesnakes, using high-speed video recordings. We show that ratsnake strike performance matches or exceeds that of vipers. In contrast with the literature over the past century, vipers do not represent the pinnacle of strike performance in snakes. Both harmless and venomous snakes can strike with very high accelerations that have two key consequences: the accelerations exceed values that can cause loss of consciousness in other animals, such as the accelerations experienced by jet pilots during extreme manoeuvres, and they make the strikes faster than the sensory and motor responses of mammalian prey and predators. Both harmless and venomous snakes can strike faster than the blink of an eye and often reach a target before it can move.

  11. Exploring the effects of sexual desire discrepancy among married couples.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Brian J; Farero, Adam M; Busby, Dean M

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have found associations between the individual discrepancy of desired sexual frequency and actual sexual frequency and relational outcomes among premarital couples. The present study extended this research by using a sample of 1,054 married couples to explore how actor and partner individual sexual desire discrepancy (SDD) scores were associated with relationship satisfaction, stability, communication, and conflict during marriage. All participants took an online survey which assessed both couple sexual dynamics and relationship outcomes. Findings suggested that higher actor individual SDD was generally associated with negative relational outcomes, including lower reported relationship satisfaction, stability, and more reported couple conflict. These effects were found after controlling for background factors, baseline sexual frequency and desire, and couple desire discrepancies. Some partner effects were also found and were generally in the same direction. Marital length did not moderate the effects found although gender moderated associations between individual SDD and reported couple communication. Negative associations between individual SDD and communication were particularly strong when the husband reported high discrepancies between desired and actual sexual frequency. Results suggested that higher individual sexual desire discrepancies among married individuals may undermine relationship well-being. Applications of these findings to a clinical setting are also discussed. PMID:24045904

  12. Discrepancies between implicit and explicit motivation and unhealthy eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Job, Veronika; Oertig, Daniela; Brandstätter, Veronika; Allemand, Mathias

    2010-08-01

    Many people change their eating behavior as a consequence of stress. One source of stress is intrapersonal psychological conflict as caused by discrepancies between implicit and explicit motives. In the present research, we examined whether eating behavior is related to this form of stress. Study 1 (N=53), a quasi-experimental study in the lab, showed that the interaction between the implicit achievement motive disposition and explicit commitment toward an achievement task significantly predicts the number of snacks consumed in a consecutive taste test. In cross-sectional Study 2 (N=100), with a sample of middle-aged women, overall motive discrepancy was significantly related to diverse indices of unsettled eating. Regression analyses revealed interaction effects specifically for power and achievement motivation and not for affiliation. Emotional distress further partially mediated the relationship between the overall motive discrepancy and eating behavior. PMID:20545817

  13. The Goldberger-Treiman Discrepancy in SU(3)

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Goity; R. Lewis; M. Schvellinger; L. Zhang

    1999-01-01

    The Goldberger-Treiman discrepancy in SU(3) is analyzed in the framework of heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory (HBChPT). It is shown that the discrepancy at leading order is entirely given by counterterms from the order p{sup 3} Lagrangian, and that the first subleading corrections are suppressed by two powers in the HBChPT expansion. These subleading corrections include meson-loop contributions as well as counterterms from the order p{sup 5} Lagrangian. Some one-loop contributions are calculated and found to be small. Using the three discrepancies ({pi}NN, KN{Lambda} and KN{Sigma}) which can be extracted from existing experimental data, the authors find that the HBChPT calculation favors the smaller g({pi}NN) values obtained in recent partial wave analyses.

  14. The muon g-2 discrepancy: errors or new physics?

    SciTech Connect

    Passera, M.; Martiano, W. J.; Sirlin, A.

    2008-11-23

    After a brief review of the muon g-2 status, we discuss hypothetical errors in the Standard Model prediction that could explain the present discrepancy with the experimental value. None of them looks likely. In particular, an hypothetical increase of the hadroproduction cross section in low-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions could bridge the muon g-2 discrepancy, but is shown to be unlikely in view of current experimental error estimates. If, nonetheless, this turns out to be the explanation of the discrepancy, then the 95% CL upper bound on the Higgs boson mass is reduced to about 130 GeV which, in conjunction with the experimental 114.4 GeV 95% CL lower bound, leaves a narrow window for the mass of this fundamental particle.

  15. Dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in male university students.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Ligia; Grunert, Klaus G; Sepúlveda, José; Lobos, Germán; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Mora, Marcos; Etchebarne, Soledad; Salinas-Oñate, Natalia; Schnettler, Berta

    2016-04-01

    Self-discrepancy describes the distance between an ideal and the actual self. Research suggests that self-discrepancy and dietary restraint are related, causing a significant impact on the person's well-being. However, this relationship has been mostly reported in female and mixed populations. In order to further explore dietary behaviors and their relations to self-discrepancy and well-being-related variables in men, a survey was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 119 male students from five Chilean state universities (mean age=21.8, SD=2.75). The questionnaire included the Revised Restraint Scale (RRS) with the subscales weight fluctuations (WF) and diet concern (DC), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Satisfaction with Food-Related Life Scale (SWFL), the Nutrition Interest Scale (NIS), and the Self-discrepancy Index (SDI). Questions were asked about socio-demographic characteristics, eating and drinking habits, and approximate weight and height. A cluster analysis applied to the Z-scores of the RRS classified the following typologies: Group 1 (22.7%), men concerned about weight fluctuations; Group 2 (37.0%), men concerned about diet and weight fluctuations; Group 3 (40.3%), unconcerned about diet and weight fluctuations. The typologies differed in their SDI score, restriction on pastry consumption and reported body mass index (BMI). Students with higher DC and WF scores had a higher BMI, and tended to report high self-discrepancy not only on a physical level, but also on social, emotional, economic and personal levels. This study contributes to the literature on subjective well-being, dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in men from non-clinical samples. PMID:26835591

  16. Dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in male university students.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Ligia; Grunert, Klaus G; Sepúlveda, José; Lobos, Germán; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Mora, Marcos; Etchebarne, Soledad; Salinas-Oñate, Natalia; Schnettler, Berta

    2016-04-01

    Self-discrepancy describes the distance between an ideal and the actual self. Research suggests that self-discrepancy and dietary restraint are related, causing a significant impact on the person's well-being. However, this relationship has been mostly reported in female and mixed populations. In order to further explore dietary behaviors and their relations to self-discrepancy and well-being-related variables in men, a survey was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 119 male students from five Chilean state universities (mean age=21.8, SD=2.75). The questionnaire included the Revised Restraint Scale (RRS) with the subscales weight fluctuations (WF) and diet concern (DC), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Satisfaction with Food-Related Life Scale (SWFL), the Nutrition Interest Scale (NIS), and the Self-discrepancy Index (SDI). Questions were asked about socio-demographic characteristics, eating and drinking habits, and approximate weight and height. A cluster analysis applied to the Z-scores of the RRS classified the following typologies: Group 1 (22.7%), men concerned about weight fluctuations; Group 2 (37.0%), men concerned about diet and weight fluctuations; Group 3 (40.3%), unconcerned about diet and weight fluctuations. The typologies differed in their SDI score, restriction on pastry consumption and reported body mass index (BMI). Students with higher DC and WF scores had a higher BMI, and tended to report high self-discrepancy not only on a physical level, but also on social, emotional, economic and personal levels. This study contributes to the literature on subjective well-being, dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in men from non-clinical samples.

  17. Organ donation in Belgium: discrepancy between offer and demand.

    PubMed

    Van Hee, R

    1987-01-01

    Belgium shows one of the highest numbers of patients with terminal renal failure, treated by means of dialysis, compared to other European countries. Transplantation accounts for only one third of the therapeutic modalities in these patients. As the number of new patients, presenting with terminal renal failure, is equally rising, an always growing discrepancy exists between offered kidneys and patients, desperately waiting for these organs. The same holds true for other organs, as heart, pancreas and liver. This study examines the multiple causes that induce this growing discrepancy and points to some solutions and suggestions that can deal with it. PMID:3303774

  18. Martial arts striking hand peak acceleration, accuracy and consistency.

    PubMed

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Marzullo, Ana Carolina De Miranda; Bolander, Richard P; Bir, Cynthia A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to investigate the possible trade-off between peak hand acceleration and accuracy and consistency of hand strikes performed by martial artists of different training experiences. Ten male martial artists with training experience ranging from one to nine years volunteered to participate in the experiment. Each participant performed 12 maximum effort goal-directed strikes. Hand acceleration during the strikes was obtained using a tri-axial accelerometer block. A pressure sensor matrix was used to determine the accuracy and consistency of the strikes. Accuracy was estimated by the radial distance between the centroid of each subject's 12 strikes and the target, whereas consistency was estimated by the square root of the 12 strikes mean squared distance from their centroid. We found that training experience was significantly correlated to hand peak acceleration prior to impact (r(2)=0.456, p =0.032) and accuracy (r(2)=0. 621, p=0.012). These correlations suggest that more experienced participants exhibited higher hand peak accelerations and at the same time were more accurate. Training experience, however, was not correlated to consistency (r(2)=0.085, p=0.413). Overall, our results suggest that martial arts training may lead practitioners to achieve higher striking hand accelerations with better accuracy and no change in striking consistency.

  19. Gratifications Lost: The 1985 Philadelphia Newspaper Strike and Media Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, William R.; Rosenberg, William L.

    A study examined the relationship between newspaper gratifications sought and media use during and after a 1985 strike by unions of two Philadelphia newspapers, and the compensatory media behaviors, if any, people adopted to make up for the loss of their daily newspaper(s). It was hypothesized that during the strike, people would read more…

  20. Strikes, Arbitration, and Teacher Salaries: A Behavioral Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, John Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Using a behavioral theory of bargaining, the authors examined data sets from Illinois and Iowa school districts and from a national sample of teachers. Results suggest that strike use and the availability of arbitration and the right to strike affect teacher salaries, while arbitration use does not. (Author/SK)

  1. 14 CFR 25.631 - Bird strike damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bird strike damage. 25.631 Section 25.631... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction General § 25.631 Bird strike damage. The... airplane after impact with an 8-pound bird when the velocity of the airplane (relative to the bird...

  2. 14 CFR 25.631 - Bird strike damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bird strike damage. 25.631 Section 25.631... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction General § 25.631 Bird strike damage. The... airplane after impact with an 8-pound bird when the velocity of the airplane (relative to the bird...

  3. 14 CFR 25.631 - Bird strike damage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bird strike damage. 25.631 Section 25.631... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction General § 25.631 Bird strike damage. The... airplane after impact with an 8-pound bird when the velocity of the airplane (relative to the bird...

  4. Risk Considerations of Bird Strikes to Space Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hales, Christy; Ring, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Within seconds after liftoff of the Space Shuttle during mission STS-114, a turkey vulture impacted the vehicle's external tank. The contact caused no apparent damage to the Shuttle, but the incident led NASA to consider the potential consequences of bird strikes during a Shuttle launch. The environment at Kennedy Space Center provides unique bird strike challenges due to the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge and the Atlantic Flyway bird migration routes. NASA is currently refining risk assessment estimates for the probability of bird strike to space launch vehicles. This paper presents an approach for analyzing the risks of bird strikes to space launch vehicles and presents an example. The migration routes, types of birds present, altitudes of those birds, exposed area of the launch vehicle, and its capability to withstand impacts affect the risk due to bird strike. A summary of significant risk contributors is discussed.

  5. Wavelet transform analysis of electromyography kung fu strikes data.

    PubMed

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Marzullo, Ana Carolina de Miranda

    2009-11-01

    In martial arts and contact sports strikes are performed at near maximum speeds. For that reason, electromyography (EMG) analysis of such movements is non-trivial. This paper has three main goals: firstly, to investigate the differences in the EMG activity of muscles during strikes performed with and without impacts; secondly, to assess the advantages of using Sum of Significant Power (SSP) values instead of root mean square (rms) values when analyzing EMG data; and lastly to introduce a new method of calculating median frequency values using wavelet transforms (WMDF). EMG data of the deltoid anterior (DA), triceps brachii (TB) and brachioradialis (BR) muscles were collected from eight Kung Fu practitioners during strikes performed with and without impacts. SSP results indicated significant higher muscle activity (p = 0.023) for the strikes with impact. WMDF results, on the other hand, indicated significant lower values (p = 0. 007) for the strikes with impact. SSP results presented higher sensitivity than rms to quantify important signal differences and, at the same time, presented lower inter-subject coefficient of variations. The result of increase in SSP values and decrease in WMDF may suggest better synchronization of motor units for the strikes with impact performed by the experienced Kung Fu practitioners. Key PointsThe results show higher muscle activity and lower electromyography median frequencies for strikes with impact compared to strikes without.SSP results presented higher sensitivity and lower inter-subject coefficient of variations than rms results.Kung Fu palm strikes with impact may present better motor units' synchronization than strikes without.

  6. Wavelet Transform Analysis of Electromyography Kung Fu Strikes Data

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Marzullo, Ana Carolina de Miranda

    2009-01-01

    In martial arts and contact sports strikes are performed at near maximum speeds. For that reason, electromyography (EMG) analysis of such movements is non-trivial. This paper has three main goals: firstly, to investigate the differences in the EMG activity of muscles during strikes performed with and without impacts; secondly, to assess the advantages of using Sum of Significant Power (SSP) values instead of root mean square (rms) values when analyzing EMG data; and lastly to introduce a new method of calculating median frequency values using wavelet transforms (WMDF). EMG data of the deltoid anterior (DA), triceps brachii (TB) and brachioradialis (BR) muscles were collected from eight Kung Fu practitioners during strikes performed with and without impacts. SSP results indicated significant higher muscle activity (p = 0.023) for the strikes with impact. WMDF results, on the other hand, indicated significant lower values (p = 0. 007) for the strikes with impact. SSP results presented higher sensitivity than rms to quantify important signal differences and, at the same time, presented lower inter-subject coefficient of variations. The result of increase in SSP values and decrease in WMDF may suggest better synchronization of motor units for the strikes with impact performed by the experienced Kung Fu practitioners. Key Points The results show higher muscle activity and lower electromyography median frequencies for strikes with impact compared to strikes without. SSP results presented higher sensitivity and lower inter-subject coefficient of variations than rms results. Kung Fu palm strikes with impact may present better motor units’ synchronization than strikes without. PMID:24474883

  7. Finite Element Stress Model of a Strike-Slip Duplex: A Case Study from Southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iturrieta, P. C.; Hurtado, D.; Cembrano, J. M.; Valderrama, C.; Stanton-Yonge, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault System (LOFS) is spatially and genetically related to seismic activity, volcanic hazard and hydrothermal resources in southern Chile. The LOFS is a regional-scale shear zone, which accommodates part of the oblique component of the convergence vector. In the LOFS southern end, an extensional strike-slip duplex arises from the connection between two NNE-striking master faults, where two damaging earthquakes (6.1-6.2 Mw) occurred in 2007. In order to understand the nature and origin of the stress field within the duplex area, we calculate the ellipticity of the stress tensor field by means of a 3D finite element model. The model represents the brittle-plastic transition in the mid crust, within which the fault zone is mechanically distinguished from the host rock in a continuum fashion. The fault zone is modeled by using an elastic-plastic constitutive relation, which is built on the basis of a range of width and orientation of mylonitic bands, representing the fault zone as seen in the field. Boundary conditions reproduce the convergence velocity between Nazca and South-America plates. Results are broadly consistent with structural data and seismicity recorded in the region. Extensional-to-transtensional stress regimes match spatially with a seismic swarm recorded in the region in 2007, and with the spatial distribution of quaternary volcanic centers. The model also shows a transpressive state of stress in the western branch of the LOFS, whereas in the eastern branch, pure strike-slip is obtained. We propose that the current duplex kinematics can be explained by convergence obliquity, duplex geometry and the occurrence of plastic deformation, which are sufficient enough to deliver the current stress configuration. Sources of discrepancy between structural data and model results might be explained by other factors not considered by the model, such as the timing of deformation or the current activity of blind faults.

  8. Strategies to Overcome Discrepancies between Curriculum Objectives and Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurhellen, Joan H.

    Congruency testing of stated curriculum objectives and their observed or measured affective behavior counterparts among current students and recent graduates of five nursing education programs revealed discrepancies ranging from slight to extreme. (The programs were representative of the three major types of nursing education: (1) diploma…

  9. Cerebral Laterality and Verbal-Performance Discrepancies in Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Raymond S.

    1979-01-01

    The cerebral laterality of children with various configurations of verbal-performance discrepancies was inferred with an objective measure of lateral preference using Verbal and Performance IQ scores of the WISC-R. Results were interpreted as lending support to the notion of competition antagonism between cortical hemispheres and a possible…

  10. Attention of 4-Month Infants to Discrepancy and Babyishness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Robert B.; Kennedy, Cynthia Bellows

    1980-01-01

    Four facial stimuli derived from the Bolton standards of craniofacial development representing a human male at 6 months, 3, 8, and 18 years of age were used in a test of Lorenz's concept of babyishness and of the discrepancy hypothesis. Subjects were 87 four-month-old infants. (Author/MP)

  11. Sex Differences in Children's Discrepant Perceptions of Peer Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stephanie D.; Van Gessel, Christine A.; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kistner, Janet A.

    2013-01-01

    Sex differences in children's play patterns during middle childhood are thought to promote greater awareness of social acceptance among girls compared with boys. The present study posited that girls are more discerning of peer acceptance than are boys; however, these sex differences were predicted to vary depending on how discrepant perceptions…

  12. Comparing Multiple Discrepancies Theory to Affective Models of Subjective Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blore, Jed D.; Stokes, Mark A.; Mellor, David; Firth, Lucy; Cummins, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The Subjective Wellbeing (SWB) literature is replete with competing theories detailing the mechanisms underlying the construction and maintenance of SWB. The current study aimed to compare and contrast two of these approaches: multiple discrepancies theory (MDT) and an affective-cognitive theory of SWB. MDT posits SWB to be the result of perceived…

  13. Revisiting "Discrepancy Analysis in Continuing Medical Education: A Conceptual Model"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Based upon a review and analysis of selected literature, the author presents a conceptual model of discrepancy analysis evaluation for planning, implementing, and assessing the impact of continuing medical education (CME). The model is described in terms of its value as a means of diagnosing errors in the development and implementation of CME. The…

  14. Measuring grade inflation: a clinical grade discrepancy score.

    PubMed

    Paskausky, Anna L; Simonelli, M Colleen

    2014-08-01

    Grade inflation presents pedagogical and safety concerns for nursing educators and is defined as a "greater percentage of excellent scores than student performances warrant" (Speer et al., 2000, p. 112). This descriptive correlational study evaluated the relationship of licensure exam-style final written exams and faculty assigned clinical grades from undergraduate students (N = 281) for evidence of grade inflation at a private undergraduate nursing program in the Northeast of the United States and developed a new measurement of grade inflation, the clinical grade discrepancy score. This measurement can be used in programs where clinical competency is graded on a numeric scale. Evidence suggested grade inflation was present and the clinical grade discrepancy score was an indicator of the severity of grade inflation. The correlation between licensure-style final written exams and faculty assigned clinical grades was moderate to low at 0.357. The clinical grade discrepancy scores were 98% positive indicating likely grade inflation. Some 70% of clinical grade discrepancy scores indicated a difference of student licensure-style final written exams and faculty assigned clinical grades of at least one full letter grade (10 points out of 100). Use of this new measure as a tool in exploring the prevalence of grade inflation and implications for patient safety are discussed. PMID:24602828

  15. Gender-Related Self-Discrepancies and Bulimic Eating Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingenspor, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Explored the link between development of bulimic eating behavior and suppression of masculine traits in adolescence. German high school students completed a sex role inventory. Among girls, higher risk of developing bulimia appeared to be caused by increasing discrepancies between actual and ideal self-concept on masculine-typed personality…

  16. The Discrepancy Evaluation Model. I. Basic Tenets of the Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinmetz, Andres

    1976-01-01

    The basic principles of the discrepancy evaluation model (DEM), developed by Malcolm Provus, are presented. The three concepts which are essential to DEM are defined: (1) the standard is a description of how something should be; (2) performance measures are used to find out the actual characteristics of the object being evaluated; and (3) the…

  17. 41 CFR 128-50.103 - Investigation of any discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... any discrepancy between the inventory records and the bureau's actual amount of seized personal property, a board of survey shall conduct an investigation in accordance with 41 CFR 128-51.1. (b) If the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Investigation of...

  18. 41 CFR 128-50.103 - Investigation of any discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... any discrepancy between the inventory records and the bureau's actual amount of seized personal property, a board of survey shall conduct an investigation in accordance with 41 CFR 128-51.1. (b) If the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investigation of...

  19. 41 CFR 128-50.103 - Investigation of any discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... any discrepancy between the inventory records and the bureau's actual amount of seized personal property, a board of survey shall conduct an investigation in accordance with 41 CFR 128-51.1. (b) If the... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Investigation of...

  20. Discrepancies between Parents' and Children's Attitudes toward TV Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baiocco, Roberto; D'Alessio, Maria; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2009-01-01

    The authors conducted a study with 500 parent-child dyads. The sample comprised 254 boys and 246 girls. The children were grouped into 5 age groups (1 group for each age from 7 to 11 years), with each group comprising 100 children. The survey regards discrepancies between children and their parents on attitudes toward TV advertising to determine…

  1. 14 CFR 60.20 - Logging FSTD discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Logging FSTD discrepancies. 60.20 Section 60.20 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE § 60.20...

  2. Information Discrepancy as a Predictor of Organizational Satisfaction. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alesse, Bruce G.; And Others

    A secondary analysis of data gathered by the International Communication Association (ICA) Communication Audit was used to test the hypothesis that the smaller the discrepancy between attitudes about current levels of information and the perceived ideal level of that information, the greater the organizational satisfaction. From 991 respondents…

  3. Discrepancy Analysis in Continuing Medical Education: A Conceptual Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Robert D.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a conceptual model of discrepancy analysis evaluation for planning, evaluating, and assessing the impact of continuing medical education (CME). Describes the model in terms of its value as a means of diagnosing errors in the development and implementation of CME. (JOW)

  4. Measuring grade inflation: a clinical grade discrepancy score.

    PubMed

    Paskausky, Anna L; Simonelli, M Colleen

    2014-08-01

    Grade inflation presents pedagogical and safety concerns for nursing educators and is defined as a "greater percentage of excellent scores than student performances warrant" (Speer et al., 2000, p. 112). This descriptive correlational study evaluated the relationship of licensure exam-style final written exams and faculty assigned clinical grades from undergraduate students (N = 281) for evidence of grade inflation at a private undergraduate nursing program in the Northeast of the United States and developed a new measurement of grade inflation, the clinical grade discrepancy score. This measurement can be used in programs where clinical competency is graded on a numeric scale. Evidence suggested grade inflation was present and the clinical grade discrepancy score was an indicator of the severity of grade inflation. The correlation between licensure-style final written exams and faculty assigned clinical grades was moderate to low at 0.357. The clinical grade discrepancy scores were 98% positive indicating likely grade inflation. Some 70% of clinical grade discrepancy scores indicated a difference of student licensure-style final written exams and faculty assigned clinical grades of at least one full letter grade (10 points out of 100). Use of this new measure as a tool in exploring the prevalence of grade inflation and implications for patient safety are discussed.

  5. Binarity and the Abundance Discrepancy Problem in Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradi, Romano L. M.; García-Rojas, Jorge; Jones, David; Rodríguez-Gil, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    The discrepancy between abundances computed using optical recombination lines and collisionally excited lines is a major unresolved problem in nebular astrophysics. Here, we show that the largest abundance discrepancies are reached in planetary nebulae with close binary central stars. We illustrate this using deep spectroscopy of three nebulae with a post common-envelope (CE) binary star. Abell 46 and Ou 5 have O2+/H+ abundance discrepancy factors larger than 50, and as high as 300 in the inner regions of Abell 46. Abell 63 has a smaller discrepancy factor around 10, which is still above the typical values in ionized nebulae. Our spectroscopic analysis supports previous conclusions that, in addition to “standard” hot ({{T}e} ˜ 104 K) gas, there exists a colder ({{T}e} ˜ 103 K), ionized component that is highly enriched in heavy elements. These nebulae have low ionized masses, between 10-3 and 10-1 M⊙ depending on the adopted electron densities and temperatures. Since the much more massive red giant envelope is expected to be entirely ejected in the CE phase, the currently observed nebulae would be produced much later, during post-CE mass loss episodes when the envelope has already dispersed. These observations add constraints to the abundance discrepancy problem. We revise possible explanations. Some explanations are naturally linked to binarity such as, for instance, high-metallicity nova ejecta, but it is difficult at this stage to depict an evolutionary scenario consistent with all of the observed properties. We also introduce the hypothesis that these nebulae are the result of tidal destruction, accretion, and ejection of Jupiter-like planets.

  6. The [Fe IV] Discrepancy: Constraining the Iron Abundances in Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Mónica; Rubin, Robert H.

    2005-06-01

    We study the current discrepancy between the model-predicted and measured concentrations of Fe++ and Fe+3 in ionized nebulae. We calculate a set of photoionization models, updated with the atomic data relevant to the problem, and compare their results with those derived for the available nebulae where both [Fe III] and [Fe IV] lines have been measured. Our new model results are closer to the measured values than the results of previous calculations, but a discrepancy remains. This discrepancy translates into an uncertainty in the derived Fe abundances of a factor of up to ~4. We explore the possible causes of this discrepancy and find that errors in the Fe atomic data may be the most likely explanation. The discrepancy can be fully accounted for by any of the following changes: (1) an increase by a factor of ~10 in the recombination rate (radiative plus dielectronic, or charge transfer) for Fe+3, (2) an increase by a factor of 2-3 in the effective collision strengths for Fe++, or (3) a decrease by a factor of 2-3 in the effective collision strengths for Fe+3. We derive the Fe abundances implied by these three explanations and use the results to constrain the degree of depletion of Fe in our sample nebulae. The Galactic H II regions and planetary nebulae are found to have high depletion factors, with less than 5% of their Fe atoms in the gas phase. The extragalactic H II regions (LMC 30 Doradus, SMC N88A, and SBS 0335-052) have somewhat lower depletions. The metal-deficient blue compact galaxy SBS 0335-052 could have from 13% to 40% of Fe in the gas phase. The depletions derived for the different objects define a trend of increasing depletion at higher metallicities.

  7. Strikes by physicians: a historical perspective toward an ethical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Stephen L; Salmon, J Warren

    2006-01-01

    Current conditions surrounding the house of medicine-including corporate and government cost-containment strategies, increasing market-penetration schemes in health care, along with clinical scrutiny and the administrative control imposed under privatization by managed care firms, insurance companies, and governments-have spurred an upsurge in physician unionization, which requires a revisiting of the issue of physician strikes. Strikes by physicians have been relatively rare events in medical history. When they have occurred, they have aroused intense debate over their ethical justification among professionals and the public alike, notwithstanding what caused the strikes. As physicians and other health care providers increasingly find employment within organizations as wage-contract employees and their work becomes more highly rationalized, more physicians will join labor organizations to protect both their economic and their professional interests. As a result, these physicians will have to come to terms with the use of the strike weapon. On the surface, many health care strikes may not ever seem justifiable, but in certain defined situations a strike would be not only permissible but an ethical imperative. With an exacerbation of labor strife in the health sector in many nations, it is crucial to explore the question of what constitutes an ethical physician strike. PMID:16878396

  8. Local avian density influences risk of mortality from window strikes.

    PubMed

    Sabo, Ann M; Hagemeyer, Natasha D G; Lahey, Ally S; Walters, Eric L

    2016-01-01

    Up to a billion birds die per year in North America as a result of striking windows. Both transparent and reflective glass panes are a cause for concern, misleading birds by either acting as invisible, impenetrable barriers to desired resources, or reflecting those resources over a large surface area. A high number of window strikes occur during migration, but little is known about the factors of susceptibility, or whether particular avian taxa are more vulnerable than others. We report on a study of window strikes and mist-netting data at the Virginia Zoological Park (Norfolk, Virginia, USA), conducted in the autumn of 2013 and 2014. We focused on three factors likely to contribute to an individual's predisposition to collide with windows: (i) taxonomic classification, (ii) age, and (iii) migrant vs. resident status. Thrushes, dominated by the partial migrant American Robin (Turdus migratorius), were significantly less likely to strike glass than be sampled in mist nets (χ(2) = 9.21, p = 0.002), while wood-warblers (Parulidae) were more likely to strike than expected (χ(2) = 13.55, p < 0.001). The proportion of juveniles striking windows (45.4%) was not significantly different (χ(2) = 0.05, p = 0.827) than the population of juvenile birds naturally occurring at the zoo (48.8%). Migrants, however, were significantly more susceptible to window strikes than residents (χ(2) = 6.35, p = 0.012). Our results suggest that resident birds are able to learn to avoid and thus reduce their likelihood of striking windows; this intrinsic risk factor may help explain the apparent susceptibility of certain taxa to window strikes. PMID:27366656

  9. Local avian density influences risk of mortality from window strikes.

    PubMed

    Sabo, Ann M; Hagemeyer, Natasha D G; Lahey, Ally S; Walters, Eric L

    2016-01-01

    Up to a billion birds die per year in North America as a result of striking windows. Both transparent and reflective glass panes are a cause for concern, misleading birds by either acting as invisible, impenetrable barriers to desired resources, or reflecting those resources over a large surface area. A high number of window strikes occur during migration, but little is known about the factors of susceptibility, or whether particular avian taxa are more vulnerable than others. We report on a study of window strikes and mist-netting data at the Virginia Zoological Park (Norfolk, Virginia, USA), conducted in the autumn of 2013 and 2014. We focused on three factors likely to contribute to an individual's predisposition to collide with windows: (i) taxonomic classification, (ii) age, and (iii) migrant vs. resident status. Thrushes, dominated by the partial migrant American Robin (Turdus migratorius), were significantly less likely to strike glass than be sampled in mist nets (χ(2) = 9.21, p = 0.002), while wood-warblers (Parulidae) were more likely to strike than expected (χ(2) = 13.55, p < 0.001). The proportion of juveniles striking windows (45.4%) was not significantly different (χ(2) = 0.05, p = 0.827) than the population of juvenile birds naturally occurring at the zoo (48.8%). Migrants, however, were significantly more susceptible to window strikes than residents (χ(2) = 6.35, p = 0.012). Our results suggest that resident birds are able to learn to avoid and thus reduce their likelihood of striking windows; this intrinsic risk factor may help explain the apparent susceptibility of certain taxa to window strikes.

  10. Local avian density influences risk of mortality from window strikes

    PubMed Central

    Sabo, Ann M.; Hagemeyer, Natasha D.G.; Lahey, Ally S.

    2016-01-01

    Up to a billion birds die per year in North America as a result of striking windows. Both transparent and reflective glass panes are a cause for concern, misleading birds by either acting as invisible, impenetrable barriers to desired resources, or reflecting those resources over a large surface area. A high number of window strikes occur during migration, but little is known about the factors of susceptibility, or whether particular avian taxa are more vulnerable than others. We report on a study of window strikes and mist-netting data at the Virginia Zoological Park (Norfolk, Virginia, USA), conducted in the autumn of 2013 and 2014. We focused on three factors likely to contribute to an individual’s predisposition to collide with windows: (i) taxonomic classification, (ii) age, and (iii) migrant vs. resident status. Thrushes, dominated by the partial migrant American Robin (Turdus migratorius), were significantly less likely to strike glass than be sampled in mist nets (χ2 = 9.21, p = 0.002), while wood-warblers (Parulidae) were more likely to strike than expected (χ2 = 13.55, p < 0.001). The proportion of juveniles striking windows (45.4%) was not significantly different (χ2 = 0.05, p = 0.827) than the population of juvenile birds naturally occurring at the zoo (48.8%). Migrants, however, were significantly more susceptible to window strikes than residents (χ2 = 6.35, p = 0.012). Our results suggest that resident birds are able to learn to avoid and thus reduce their likelihood of striking windows; this intrinsic risk factor may help explain the apparent susceptibility of certain taxa to window strikes. PMID:27366656

  11. Whose Depression Relates to Discrepancies? Testing Relations between Informant Characteristics and Informant Discrepancies from Both Informants' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Goodman, Kimberly L.; Kliewer, Wendy; Reid-Quinones, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether mothers' and children's depressive symptoms were each uniquely related to mother-child rating discrepancies on a multidimensional dyadic construct: domains associated with parental monitoring (i.e., Child Disclosure, Parental Knowledge, and Parental Solicitation). Participants included a community sample of 335…

  12. Physicians' strikes and the competing bases of physicians' moral obligations.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, D Robert

    2013-09-01

    Many authors have addressed the morality of physicians' strikes on the assumption that medical practice is morally different from other kinds of occupations. This article analyzes three prominent theoretical accounts that attempt to ground such special moral obligations for physicians--practice-based accounts, utilitarian accounts, and social contract accounts--and assesses their applicability to the problem of the morality of strikes. After critiquing these views, it offers a fourth view grounding special moral obligations in voluntary commitments, and explains why this is a preferable basis for understanding physicians' moral obligations in general and especially as pertaining to strikes.

  13. Fault connectivity, distributed shortening, and impacts on geologic- geodetic slip rate discrepancies in the central Mojave Desert, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selander, J.; Oskin, M. E.; Cooke, M. L.; Grette, K.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding off-fault deformation and distribution of displacement rates associated with disconnected strike-slip faults requires a three-dimensional view of fault geometries. We address problems associated with distributed faulting by studying the Mojave segment of the East California Shear Zone (ECSZ), a region dominated by northwest-directed dextral shear along disconnected northwest- southeast striking faults. We use a combination of cross-sectional interpretations, 3D Boundary Element Method (BEM) models, and slip-rate measurements to test new hypothesized fault connections. We find that reverse faulting acts as an important means of slip transfer between strike-slip faults, and show that the impacts of these structural connections on shortening, uplift, strike-slip rates, and off-fault deformation, help to reconcile the overall strain budget across this portion of the ECSZ. In detail, we focus on the Calico and Blackwater faults, which are hypothesized to together represent the longest linked fault system in the Mojave ECSZ, connected by a restraining step at 35°N. Across this restraining step the system displays a pronounced displacement gradient, where dextral offset decreases from ~11.5 to <2 km from south to north. Cross-section interpretations show that ~40% of this displacement is transferred from the Calico fault to the Harper Lake and Blackwater faults via a set of north-dipping thrust ramps. Late Quaternary dextral slip rates follow a similar pattern, where 1.4 +0.8/-0.4 mm/yr of slip along the Calico fault south of 35°N is distributed to the Harper Lake, Blackwater, and Tin Can Alley faults. BEM model results using revised fault geometries for the Mojave ECSZ show areas of uplift consistent with contractional structures, and fault slip-rates that more closely match geologic data. Overall, revised fault connections and addition of off-fault deformation greatly reduces the discrepancy between geodetic and geologic slip rates.

  14. Suicide Can Strike Children as Young as 5

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161035.html Suicide Can Strike Children as Young as 5: Study ... 5 years old -- may be at risk of suicide. Black elementary school-age boys seem to have ...

  15. Student Involvement in and Information about a University Strike

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Robert G.; Marcuse, F. L.

    1972-01-01

    The present study was directed toward studying the relationship for male and female students between participation in a collective social action and the amount of information they possessed about that action-in this instance a university strike. (Author)

  16. Concussions Strike 1 in 3 Water Polo Players

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159634.html Concussions Strike 1 in 3 Water Polo Players Average was just ... are common. A recent survey of more than 1,500 USA Water Polo members found 36 percent ...

  17. Striking nurses and midwives stand united against Hunt's pay freeze.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Kat; Kleebauer, Alistair

    2014-10-21

    Thousands of nurses and midwives in England and Northern Ireland went on strike in protest at the government's decision to deny 70 per cent of NHS nurses a 1 per cent cost of living pay rise. PMID:25315523

  18. Pathognomonic symptom associated with lightning strike: Lichtenberg figure.

    PubMed

    Yigit, Mehmet; Tanrikulu, Nazmiye; Turkdogan, Kenan Ahmet; Yigit, Eda

    2015-02-01

    Lightning strikes especially occur during spring and summer months in the afternoons when there is heavy rain. In deaths resulting from lightning strike, there may either be no evidence on the dead person's clothes or body, or there may be burnt or torn patches on their clothes and lichtenberg figures specific to lightning strikes on their bodies. In such cases that also have a comorbid of cognitive dysfunction, since there is generally amnesia, having these figures during the physical examination has a valuable place in early diagnosis and quick treatment. This paper presents a case of lightning strike that was found to have Lichtenberg figures on the back and right leg after secondary examination. PMID:25842563

  19. Measurements of lightning rod responses to nearby strikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. B.; Aulich, G. D.; Rison, W.

    2000-05-01

    Following Benjamin Franklin's invention of the lightning rod, based on his discovery that electrified objects could be discharged by approaching them with a metal needle in hand, conventional lightning rods in the U.S. have had sharp tips. In recent years, the role of the sharp tip in causing a lightning rod to act as a strike receptor has been questioned leading to experiments in which pairs of various sharp-tipped and blunt rods have been exposed beneath thunderclouds to determine the better strike receptor. After seven years of tests, none of the sharp Franklin rods or of the so-called “early streamer emitters” has been struck, but 12 blunt rods with tip diameters ranging from 12.7 mm to 25.4 mm have taken strikes. Our field experiments and our analyses indicate that the strike-reception probabilities of Franklin's rods are greatly increased when their tips are made moderately blunt.

  20. Pathognomonic symptom associated with lightning strike: Lichtenberg figure.

    PubMed

    Yigit, Mehmet; Tanrikulu, Nazmiye; Turkdogan, Kenan Ahmet; Yigit, Eda

    2015-02-01

    Lightning strikes especially occur during spring and summer months in the afternoons when there is heavy rain. In deaths resulting from lightning strike, there may either be no evidence on the dead person's clothes or body, or there may be burnt or torn patches on their clothes and lichtenberg figures specific to lightning strikes on their bodies. In such cases that also have a comorbid of cognitive dysfunction, since there is generally amnesia, having these figures during the physical examination has a valuable place in early diagnosis and quick treatment. This paper presents a case of lightning strike that was found to have Lichtenberg figures on the back and right leg after secondary examination.

  1. Comparison of force, power, and striking efficiency for a Kung Fu strike performed by novice and experienced practitioners: preliminary analysis.

    PubMed

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Magini, Marcio; Saba, Marcelo M F; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a comparison of force, power, and efficiency values calculated from Kung Fu Yau-Man palm strikes, when performed by 7 experienced and 6 novice men. They performed 5 palm strikes to a freestanding basketball, recorded by high-speed camera at 1000 Hz. Nonparametric comparisons and correlations showed experienced practitioners presented larger values of mean muscle force, mean impact force, mean muscle power, mean impact power, and mean striking efficiency, as is noted in evidence obtained for other martial arts. Also, an interesting result was that for experienced Kung Fu practitioners, muscle power was linearly correlated with impact power (p = .98) but not for the novice practitioners (p = .46).

  2. Discrepancy and Disliking Do Not Induce Negative Opinion Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Flache, Andreas; Mäs, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both classical social psychological theories and recent formal models of opinion differentiation and bi-polarization assign a prominent role to negative social influence. Negative influence is defined as shifts away from the opinion of others and hypothesized to be induced by discrepancy with or disliking of the source of influence. There is strong empirical support for the presence of positive social influence (a shift towards the opinion of others), but evidence that large opinion differences or disliking could trigger negative shifts is mixed. We examine positive and negative influence with controlled exposure to opinions of other individuals in one experiment and with opinion exchange in another study. Results confirm that similarities induce attraction, but results do not support that discrepancy or disliking entails negative influence. Instead, our findings suggest a robust positive linear relationship between opinion distance and opinion shifts. PMID:27333160

  3. [Prevention and treatment of dento-maxillary discrepancy].

    PubMed

    Delhaye, S; Saba, S Bou; Delatte, M

    2006-06-01

    The many clinical and radiological signs of arch length discrepancy simplify the practitioner's task of diagnosing it early. When they need to deal with insufficient room in the dental arch, orthodontists have available to them a large variety of therapeutic possibilities that require relatively little cooperation from young patients and that often work quickly to correct beginning malocclusions in the mixed dentition or that prevent them from worsening. Orthodontists decide whether to use space maintainers, increase arch length, or embark on a program of serial extraction depending upon the type of disorder, its severity, and its etiology. The principle objectives of early treatment in arch length discrepancy cases are to re-establish a balanced occlusion and to reduce the duration and the complexity of definitive treatment in the adult dentition.

  4. Resolving mandibular arch discrepancy through utilization of leeway space

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Matrishva B.; Hantodkar, Navin

    2011-01-01

    Space management through utilization of leeway space represents one of the most critical aspects of interceptive orthodontic treatment in mixed dentition based on its potential to prevent crowding in the permanent dentition. Lingual arch is the most frequently used space maintaining device for preserving leeway. Case reports of patients in whom potential space discrepancy in mandibular arch was managed through preservation and utilization of leeway space are presented. PMID:21957388

  5. Discrepancies in reporting the CAG repeat lengths for Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Quarrell, Oliver W; Handley, Olivia; O'Donovan, Kirsty; Dumoulin, Christine; Ramos-Arroyo, Maria; Biunno, Ida; Bauer, Peter; Kline, Margaret; Landwehrmeyer, G Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Huntington's disease results from a CAG repeat expansion within the Huntingtin gene; this is measured routinely in diagnostic laboratories. The European Huntington's Disease Network REGISTRY project centrally measures CAG repeat lengths on fresh samples; these were compared with the original results from 121 laboratories across 15 countries. We report on 1326 duplicate results; a discrepancy in reporting the upper allele occurred in 51% of cases, this reduced to 13.3% and 9.7% when we applied acceptable measurement errors proposed by the American College of Medical Genetics and the Draft European Best Practice Guidelines, respectively. Duplicate results were available for 1250 lower alleles; discrepancies occurred in 40% of cases. Clinically significant discrepancies occurred in 4.0% of cases with a potential unexplained misdiagnosis rate of 0.3%. There was considerable variation in the discrepancy rate among 10 of the countries participating in this study. Out of 1326 samples, 348 were re-analysed by an accredited diagnostic laboratory, based in Germany, with concordance rates of 93% and 94% for the upper and lower alleles, respectively. This became 100% if the acceptable measurement errors were applied. The central laboratory correctly reported allele sizes for six standard reference samples, blind to the known result. Our study differs from external quality assessment (EQA) schemes in that these are duplicate results obtained from a large sample of patients across the whole diagnostic range. We strongly recommend that laboratories state an error rate for their measurement on the report, participate in EQA schemes and use reference materials regularly to adjust their own internal standards.

  6. Genomic position mapping discrepancies of commercial SNP chips.

    PubMed

    Fadista, João; Bendixen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The field of genetics has come to rely heavily on commercial genotyping arrays and accompanying annotations for insights into genotype-phenotype associations. However, in order to avoid errors and false leads, it is imperative that the annotation of SNP chromosomal positions is accurate and unambiguous. We report on genomic positional discrepancies of various SNP chips for human, cattle and mouse species, and discuss their causes and consequences.

  7. A biometric approach to predictable treatment of clinical crown discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Chu, Stephen J

    2007-08-01

    Dental professionals have long been guided by mathematical principles when interpreting aesthetic and tooth proportions for their patients. While many acknowledge that such principles are merely launch points for a smile design or reconstructive procedure, their existence appears to indicate practitioners' desire for predictable, objective, and reproducible means of achieving success in aesthetic dentistry. This article introduces innovative aesthetic measurement gauges as a means of objectively quantifying tooth size discrepancies and enabling the clinician to perform aesthetic restorative dentistry with success and predictability.

  8. Discrepancies in reporting the CAG repeat lengths for Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Quarrell, Oliver W; Handley, Olivia; O'Donovan, Kirsty; Dumoulin, Christine; Ramos-Arroyo, Maria; Biunno, Ida; Bauer, Peter; Kline, Margaret; Landwehrmeyer, G Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Huntington's disease results from a CAG repeat expansion within the Huntingtin gene; this is measured routinely in diagnostic laboratories. The European Huntington's Disease Network REGISTRY project centrally measures CAG repeat lengths on fresh samples; these were compared with the original results from 121 laboratories across 15 countries. We report on 1326 duplicate results; a discrepancy in reporting the upper allele occurred in 51% of cases, this reduced to 13.3% and 9.7% when we applied acceptable measurement errors proposed by the American College of Medical Genetics and the Draft European Best Practice Guidelines, respectively. Duplicate results were available for 1250 lower alleles; discrepancies occurred in 40% of cases. Clinically significant discrepancies occurred in 4.0% of cases with a potential unexplained misdiagnosis rate of 0.3%. There was considerable variation in the discrepancy rate among 10 of the countries participating in this study. Out of 1326 samples, 348 were re-analysed by an accredited diagnostic laboratory, based in Germany, with concordance rates of 93% and 94% for the upper and lower alleles, respectively. This became 100% if the acceptable measurement errors were applied. The central laboratory correctly reported allele sizes for six standard reference samples, blind to the known result. Our study differs from external quality assessment (EQA) schemes in that these are duplicate results obtained from a large sample of patients across the whole diagnostic range. We strongly recommend that laboratories state an error rate for their measurement on the report, participate in EQA schemes and use reference materials regularly to adjust their own internal standards. PMID:21811303

  9. Overnight shift work: factors contributing to diagnostic discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Tarek N; Loehfelm, Thomas; Khosa, Faisal; Rohatgi, Saurabh; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the study are to identify factors contributing to preliminary interpretive discrepancies on overnight radiology resident shifts and apply this data in the context of known literature to draw parallels to attending overnight shift work schedules. Residents in one university-based training program provided preliminary interpretations of 18,488 overnight (11 pm–8 am) studies at a level 1 trauma center between July 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014. As part of their normal workflow and feedback, attendings scored the reports as major discrepancy, minor discrepancy, agree, and agree--good job. We retrospectively obtained the preliminary interpretation scores for each study. Total relative value units (RVUs) per shift were calculated as an indicator of overnight workload. The dataset was supplemented with information on trainee level, number of consecutive nights on night float, hour, modality, and per-shift RVU. The data were analyzed with proportional logistic regression and Fisher's exact test. There were 233 major discrepancies (1.26 %). Trainee level (senior vs. junior residents; 1.08 vs. 1.38 %; p < 0.05) and modality were significantly associated with performance. Increased workload affected more junior residents' performance, with R3 residents performing significantly worse on busier nights. Hour of the night was not significantly associated with performance, but there was a trend toward best performance at 2 am, with subsequent decreased accuracy throughout the remaining shift hours. Improved performance occurred after the first six night float shifts, presumably as residents acclimated to a night schedule. As overnight shift work schedules increase in popularity for residents and attendings, focused attention to factors impacting interpretative accuracy is warranted. PMID:26475281

  10. The Hiroshima/Nagasaki Survivor Studies: Discrepancies Between Results and General Perception.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Bertrand R

    2016-08-01

    The explosion of atom bombs over the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 resulted in very high casualties, both immediate and delayed but also left a large number of survivors who had been exposed to radiation, at levels that could be fairly precisely ascertained. Extensive follow-up of a large cohort of survivors (120,000) and of their offspring (77,000) was initiated in 1947 and continues to this day. In essence, survivors having received 1 Gy irradiation (∼1000 mSV) have a significantly elevated rate of cancer (42% increase) but a limited decrease of longevity (∼1 year), while their offspring show no increased frequency of abnormalities and, so far, no detectable elevation of the mutation rate. Current acceptable exposure levels for the general population and for workers in the nuclear industry have largely been derived from these studies, which have been reported in more than 100 publications. Yet the general public, and indeed most scientists, are unaware of these data: it is widely believed that irradiated survivors suffered a very high cancer burden and dramatically shortened life span, and that their progeny were affected by elevated mutation rates and frequent abnormalities. In this article, I summarize the results and discuss possible reasons for this very striking discrepancy between the facts and general beliefs about this situation. PMID:27516613

  11. The Hiroshima/Nagasaki Survivor Studies: Discrepancies Between Results and General Perception.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Bertrand R

    2016-08-01

    The explosion of atom bombs over the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 resulted in very high casualties, both immediate and delayed but also left a large number of survivors who had been exposed to radiation, at levels that could be fairly precisely ascertained. Extensive follow-up of a large cohort of survivors (120,000) and of their offspring (77,000) was initiated in 1947 and continues to this day. In essence, survivors having received 1 Gy irradiation (∼1000 mSV) have a significantly elevated rate of cancer (42% increase) but a limited decrease of longevity (∼1 year), while their offspring show no increased frequency of abnormalities and, so far, no detectable elevation of the mutation rate. Current acceptable exposure levels for the general population and for workers in the nuclear industry have largely been derived from these studies, which have been reported in more than 100 publications. Yet the general public, and indeed most scientists, are unaware of these data: it is widely believed that irradiated survivors suffered a very high cancer burden and dramatically shortened life span, and that their progeny were affected by elevated mutation rates and frequent abnormalities. In this article, I summarize the results and discuss possible reasons for this very striking discrepancy between the facts and general beliefs about this situation.

  12. To strike or not to strike? House-staff attitudes and behaviors during a hospital work action.

    PubMed Central

    Kravitz, R. L.; Linn, L.; Tennant, N.; Adkins, E.; Zawacki, B.

    1990-01-01

    Work actions by house staff are an infrequent response to sometimes difficult working conditions, but they can have a notable effect on institutional cohesiveness and represent a challenge to traditional notions of medical ethics. To determine the extent of participation in a hospital-wide doctors' strike and factors associated with participation, we surveyed 432 house officers at a university-affiliated public hospital where a contract dispute had recently led to a 4-day work action. Of 257 respondents, 69% approved of the strike and 50% participated in it. Both strikers and nonstrikers agreed that quality of care and specific contract issues were important precipitants of the event. By logistic regression, factors independently associated with strike participation (P less than .05) included being unmarried, training in internal medicine or psychiatry, being in earlier stages of training, being assigned to an outpatient service at the time of the strike, holding a favorable view of physician activism, and perceiving nurses, faculty, peers, and the public to have favored the strike. These associations may provide a basis for understanding the individual and social determinants of house-staff strike activity. PMID:2260287

  13. Global Morphological Mapping of Strike-Slip Structures on Ganymede

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith-Konter, B. R.; Cameron, M. E.; Seifert, F.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Collins, G. C.

    2014-12-01

    Many inferences of strike-slip faulting and distributed shear zones on Ganymede suggest that strike-slip tectonism may be important to the structural development of its surface and in the transition from dark to light (grooved) materials. To better understand the role of strike-slip tectonism in shaping Ganymede's multifaceted surface, we identify and map key examples of strike-slip morphologies (en echelon structures, strike-slip duplexes, laterally offset pre-existing features, and possible strained craters) from Galileo and Voyager images. Here we present the current state of these global mapping efforts, with particular emphasis given to complex structures associated with grooved terrain (e.g. Nun Sulci) and terrains transitional from dark to light terrain (e.g. the boundary between Nippur Sulcus and Marius Regio). These results are being synthesized into a global database representing an inferred sense of shear for fractures on Ganymede. This, combined with existing observations of extensional features, is helping to narrow down the range of possible principal stress directions that could have acted at the regional or global scale to produce grooved terrain. Moreover, these data sets, combined with mechanical models of shear failure and global stress sources, are providing constraints for testing possible mechanisms for grooved terrain formation on Ganymede.

  14. Isolated Sensorineural Hearing Loss as a Sequela after Lightning Strike.

    PubMed

    Turan, Mahfuz; Kalkan, Ferhat; Bozan, Nazım; Özçalimli, İsa; Zeki Erdem, Mehmet; Yalınkılıç, Abdülaziz; Garca, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-01-01

    In most of the surviving patients after a lightning strike, audiovestibular abnormalities have been reported. The most frequently reported type of abnormalities is a tympanic membrane perforation with hearing loss and external ear canal burn. However a sensor neural hearing loss and mixed type hearing loss can also occur, but these occur rarely. A nineteen-year-old female patient had, after a lightning strike, serious burns on the left ear, behind the ear, and on the chest and neck. She also had in her left ear 108 dB hearing loss with irregular central perforation and in her right ear 52 dB sensorineural hearing loss. There was no hearing loss before the strike. A hearing aid was recommended for the right ear and good care and follow-up were recommended for the left ear. A lightning strike can cause serious audiological damage. Therefore, it is necessary to make a careful audiovestibular evaluation of the patients. Although there exist rarely healed cases from sensorineural hearing loss after lightning strike in literature, in our case hearing loss occurred bilaterally and then it healed unilaterally. This condition is quite rare in literature. PMID:26161278

  15. Changes in limb striking pattern: effects of speed and accuracy.

    PubMed

    Southard, D

    1989-12-01

    This study investigated the changes in an arm striking pattern as a result of practice and the effects of speed and accuracy requirements on such changes. The task was to strike a baseball-size foam ball from a batting tee adjusted to the height of each subject's iliac crest. Ten righthanded subjects, initially displaying an inefficient striking pattern, volunteered for this study. All subjects performed the task according to the following conditions: (1) speed, (2) accuracy, and (3) speed and accuracy. Each subject completed 10 trials in each condition (randomly ordered) for five consecutive days. A high-speed camera (64 fps) was used to photograph subjects' striking patterns for each condition over the 5-day period. Analysis of variance of joint angles at arm reversal and contact and velocity of hand relative to the glenohumeral axis at contact revealed that subjects initially constrained limb segments to act in a unitary fashion; then, with practice, a more efficient pattern was developed. The requirement of speed was found to enhance a change in limb configuration, whereas the requirement of accuracy, and subsequent reduction in speed, impeded the development of a more efficient striking pattern. Analysis of radial error revealed no differences in accuracies to the target by either condition or day of practice. A graphic analysis of segmental angular momentum versus relative time showed that joint angle changes allowed subjects to transfer angular momentum and thereby increase the velocity of the hand at contact. PMID:2489862

  16. Changes in limb striking pattern: effects of speed and accuracy.

    PubMed

    Southard, D

    1989-12-01

    This study investigated the changes in an arm striking pattern as a result of practice and the effects of speed and accuracy requirements on such changes. The task was to strike a baseball-size foam ball from a batting tee adjusted to the height of each subject's iliac crest. Ten righthanded subjects, initially displaying an inefficient striking pattern, volunteered for this study. All subjects performed the task according to the following conditions: (1) speed, (2) accuracy, and (3) speed and accuracy. Each subject completed 10 trials in each condition (randomly ordered) for five consecutive days. A high-speed camera (64 fps) was used to photograph subjects' striking patterns for each condition over the 5-day period. Analysis of variance of joint angles at arm reversal and contact and velocity of hand relative to the glenohumeral axis at contact revealed that subjects initially constrained limb segments to act in a unitary fashion; then, with practice, a more efficient pattern was developed. The requirement of speed was found to enhance a change in limb configuration, whereas the requirement of accuracy, and subsequent reduction in speed, impeded the development of a more efficient striking pattern. Analysis of radial error revealed no differences in accuracies to the target by either condition or day of practice. A graphic analysis of segmental angular momentum versus relative time showed that joint angle changes allowed subjects to transfer angular momentum and thereby increase the velocity of the hand at contact.

  17. How Orogen-scale Exhumed Strike-slip Faults Initiate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, S.; Neubauer, F.

    2015-12-01

    Orogen-scale strike-slip faults present one the most important geodynamic processes affecting the lithosphere-asthenosphere system. In specific subtypes, faulting is virtually initiated along hot-to-cool boundaries, e.g. at such of hot granite intrusions or metamorphic core complexes to cool country rocks. Such fault zones are often subparallel to mountain ranges and expose a wide variety of mylonitic, cataclastic and non-cohesive fault rocks, which were formed at different structural levels of the crust and are stacked within each other ("telescoping"). Exhumation of rocks is, therefore, a common feature of such strike-slip faults implying major transtensive and/or transpressive processes accompanying pure strike-slip motion. The hot-to-cool thermal structure across the fault zone significantly influences the physical fault rock properties. One major question is how and where a major strike-slip initiates and further development. Here, we propose a model in which major continental exhumed strike-slip faults potentially evolve along rheologically weak zones such as plutons or margins of metamorphic complexes. As an example, we propose a model for the Ailao Shan-Red River (ASRR) fault, SE Asia, which initiated along the edge of a plutonic belt and evolved in response to India-Asia collision with four tectonic phases.

  18. Isolated Sensorineural Hearing Loss as a Sequela after Lightning Strike.

    PubMed

    Turan, Mahfuz; Kalkan, Ferhat; Bozan, Nazım; Özçalimli, İsa; Zeki Erdem, Mehmet; Yalınkılıç, Abdülaziz; Garca, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-01-01

    In most of the surviving patients after a lightning strike, audiovestibular abnormalities have been reported. The most frequently reported type of abnormalities is a tympanic membrane perforation with hearing loss and external ear canal burn. However a sensor neural hearing loss and mixed type hearing loss can also occur, but these occur rarely. A nineteen-year-old female patient had, after a lightning strike, serious burns on the left ear, behind the ear, and on the chest and neck. She also had in her left ear 108 dB hearing loss with irregular central perforation and in her right ear 52 dB sensorineural hearing loss. There was no hearing loss before the strike. A hearing aid was recommended for the right ear and good care and follow-up were recommended for the left ear. A lightning strike can cause serious audiological damage. Therefore, it is necessary to make a careful audiovestibular evaluation of the patients. Although there exist rarely healed cases from sensorineural hearing loss after lightning strike in literature, in our case hearing loss occurred bilaterally and then it healed unilaterally. This condition is quite rare in literature.

  19. Path discrepancies between great circle and rhumb line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, R.

    1983-01-01

    A mathematical model for a comparative analysis of great circle vs. rhumb line navigation in the continental United States has been developed at the Avionics Engineering Center, Ohio University. A FORTRAN simulation of the model has been implemented on the IBM 370 computer. The simulation predicts pertinent navigation information for the two flight paths. The basis for the project, which is a part of an M.S. thesis, is to provide a data base for computing discrepancies between the two flight paths. This document briefly describes the model and discusses the implications of the results obtained.

  20. Interobserver discrepancies in distance measurements from lumbar spine CT scans

    SciTech Connect

    Beers, G.J.; Carter, A.P.; Leiter, B.E.; Tilak, S.P.; Shah, R.R.

    1985-02-01

    Lumbar spine computed tomographic (CT) scans of 10 patients were examined independently at two levels by five experienced radiologists. At each level the minimum midline sagittal diameter was measured, and at each intervertebral space the left foramen was measured for its minimum diameter. Statistically significant differences were found between the measurements of different observers, differences that in a number of cases could have led to disagreement over whether or not stenosis was present. There were reasonably strong correlations between different observers' readings of midline sagittal diameters but generally not of foraminal diameters. Reasons for discrepancies between observers in spine CT measurements are reviewed briefly.

  1. After the strike: using facilitation in a residency training program.

    PubMed

    Andres, D; Hamoline, D; Sanders, M; Anderson, J

    1998-03-10

    Methods of alternative dispute resolution, including facilitation, can be used to identify and resolve areas of conflict. Facilitation was used by the University of Saskatchewan's Department of Family Medicine (Saskatoon division) after the strike by residents in July and August 1995 so as to allow optimal use of the remaining educational time. Through facilitation, experiences of the strike and areas of potential conflict were explored. Participants had a broad range of responses to the strike. Specific coping strategies were developed to deal with identified concerns. Although outcomes were not measured formally, levels of trust improved and collegial relationships were restored. Because so many changes occur in health care and medical education, conflict inevitably arises. Facilitation offers one way of dealing with change constructively, thereby making possible the optimal use of educational time. PMID:9526479

  2. Comparison of blade-strike modeling results with empirical data

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2004-03-01

    This study is the initial stage of further investigation into the dynamics of injury to fish during passage through a turbine runner. As part of the study, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) estimated the probability of blade strike, and associated injury, as a function of fish length and turbine operating geometry at two adjacent turbines in Powerhouse 1 of Bonneville Dam. Units 5 and 6 had identical intakes, stay vanes, wicket gates, and draft tubes, but Unit 6 had a new runner and curved discharge ring to minimize gaps between the runner hub and blades and between the blade tips and discharge ring. We used a mathematical model to predict blade strike associated with two Kaplan turbines and compared results with empirical data from biological tests conducted in 1999 and 2000. Blade-strike models take into consideration the geometry of the turbine blades and discharges as well as fish length, orientation, and distribution along the runner. The first phase of this study included a sensitivity analysis to consider the effects of difference in geometry and operations between families of turbines on the strike probability response surface. The analysis revealed that the orientation of fish relative to the leading edge of a runner blade and the location that fish pass along the blade between the hub and blade tip are critical uncertainties in blade-strike models. Over a range of discharges, the average prediction of injury from blade strike was two to five times higher than average empirical estimates of visible injury from shear and mechanical devices. Empirical estimates of mortality may be better metrics for comparison to predicted injury rates than other injury measures for fish passing at mid-blade and blade-tip locations.

  3. Strike mechanics of an ambush predator: the spearing mantis shrimp.

    PubMed

    deVries, M S; Murphy, E A K; Patek, S N

    2012-12-15

    Ambush predation is characterized by an animal scanning the environment from a concealed position and then rapidly executing a surprise attack. Mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) consist of both ambush predators ('spearers') and foragers ('smashers'). Spearers hide in sandy burrows and capture evasive prey, whereas smashers search for prey away from their burrows and typically hammer hard-shelled, sedentary prey. Here, we examined the kinematics, morphology and field behavior of spearing mantis shrimp and compared them with previously studied smashers. Using two species with dramatically different adult sizes, we found that strikes produced by the diminutive species, Alachosquilla vicina, were faster (mean peak speed 5.72±0.91 m s(-1); mean duration 3.26±0.41 ms) than the strikes produced by the large species, Lysiosquillina maculata (mean peak speed 2.30±0.85 m s(-1); mean duration 24.98±9.68 ms). Micro-computed tomography and dissections showed that both species have the spring and latch structures that are used in other species for producing a spring-loaded strike; however, kinematic analyses indicated that only A. vicina consistently engages the elastic mechanism. In the field, L. maculata ambushed evasive prey primarily at night while hidden in burrows, striking with both long and short durations compared with laboratory videos. We expected ambush predators to strike with very high speeds, yet instead we found that these spearing mantis shrimp struck more slowly and with longer durations than smashers. Nonetheless, the strikes of spearers occurred at similar speeds and durations to those of other aquatic predators of evasive prey. Although counterintuitive, these findings suggest that ambush predators do not actually need to produce extremely high speeds, and that the very fastest predators are using speed to achieve other mechanical feats, such as producing large impact forces. PMID:23175528

  4. [Force-feeding of hunger-striking prisoners].

    PubMed

    Glick, Shimon

    2014-09-01

    In contrast to the position of the World Medical Association and the Ethics Council of the Israel Medical Association, the author argues for forced-feeding of hunger-striking prisoners when their condition reaches a stage of danger of death or permanent injury. This position is based on the priority of human life over autonomy, and of a communitarian ethic. This position is supported by a District Court decision ordering the feeding of a hunger-striking prisoner, by a Supreme Court decision imposing surgery on a non-consenting prisoner, and in line with Israel's Patient's Right Law.

  5. [Force-feeding of hunger-striking prisoners].

    PubMed

    Glick, Shimon

    2014-09-01

    In contrast to the position of the World Medical Association and the Ethics Council of the Israel Medical Association, the author argues for forced-feeding of hunger-striking prisoners when their condition reaches a stage of danger of death or permanent injury. This position is based on the priority of human life over autonomy, and of a communitarian ethic. This position is supported by a District Court decision ordering the feeding of a hunger-striking prisoner, by a Supreme Court decision imposing surgery on a non-consenting prisoner, and in line with Israel's Patient's Right Law. PMID:25417495

  6. [Force-feeding of hunger-striking prisoners].

    PubMed

    Glick, Shimon

    2014-09-01

    In contrast to the position of the World Medical Association and the Ethics Council of the Israel Medical Association, the author argues for forced-feeding of hunger-striking prisoners when their condition reaches a stage of danger of death or permanent injury. This position is based on the priority of human life over autonomy, and of a communitarian ethic. This position is supported by a District Court decision ordering the feeding of a hunger-striking prisoner, by a Supreme Court decision imposing surgery on a non-consenting prisoner, and in line with Israel's Patient's Right Law. PMID:25507223

  7. Television news coverage of nurse strikes: a resource management perspective.

    PubMed

    Kalisch, B J; Kalisch, P A; Young, R L

    1983-01-01

    The quality of television news coverage of nurses' strikes and other labor activities plays a crucial role in expanding such conflicts to the public with either prolabor or promanagement colorations. It was found that access to the medium was influenced by the magnitude of the disruption. Nurse unions are benefited by more positive television news coverage when they (1) project an image of solidarity, (2) maintain unity over time, and (3) receive the support of other types of health-care workers. As predicted, hospital administrators were the most negative in televised comments about striking nurses. PMID:6551779

  8. Remarkable rates of lightning strike mortality in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Monique Borgerhoff; Msalu, Lameck; Caro, Tim; Salerno, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Livingstone's second mission site on the shore of Lake Malawi suffers very high rates of consequential lightning strikes. Comprehensive interviewing of victims and their relatives in seven Traditional Authorities in Nkhata Bay District, Malawi revealed that the annual rate of consequential strikes was 419/million, more than six times higher than that in other developing countries; the rate of deaths from lightning was 84/million/year, 5.4 times greater than the highest ever recorded. These remarkable figures reveal that lightning constitutes a significant stochastic source of mortality with potential life history consequences, but it should not deflect attention away from the more prominent causes of mortality in this rural area.

  9. 78 FR 48418 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Nautical Discrepancy Reporting System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... information through the online Nautical Discrepancy Reporting ] System ( http://ocsdata.ncd.noaa.gov/idrs... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Nautical Discrepancy Reporting System AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce....

  10. A probable stellar solution to the cosmological lithium discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Korn, A J; Grundahl, F; Richard, O; Barklem, P S; Mashonkina, L; Collet, R; Piskunov, N; Gustafsson, B

    2006-08-10

    The measurement of the cosmic microwave background has strongly constrained the cosmological parameters of the Universe. When the measured density of baryons (ordinary matter) is combined with standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis calculations, the amounts of hydrogen, helium and lithium produced shortly after the Big Bang can be predicted with unprecedented precision. The predicted primordial lithium abundance is a factor of two to three higher than the value measured in the atmospheres of old stars. With estimated errors of 10 to 25%, this cosmological lithium discrepancy seriously challenges our understanding of stellar physics, Big Bang nucleosynthesis or both. Certain modifications to nucleosynthesis have been proposed, but found experimentally not to be viable. Diffusion theory, however, predicts atmospheric abundances of stars to vary with time, which offers a possible explanation of the discrepancy. Here we report spectroscopic observations of stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 6397 that reveal trends of atmospheric abundance with evolutionary stage for various elements. These element-specific trends are reproduced by stellar-evolution models with diffusion and turbulent mixing. We thus conclude that diffusion is predominantly responsible for the low apparent stellar lithium abundance in the atmospheres of old stars by transporting the lithium deep into the star.

  11. A probable stellar solution to the cosmological lithium discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Korn, A J; Grundahl, F; Richard, O; Barklem, P S; Mashonkina, L; Collet, R; Piskunov, N; Gustafsson, B

    2006-08-10

    The measurement of the cosmic microwave background has strongly constrained the cosmological parameters of the Universe. When the measured density of baryons (ordinary matter) is combined with standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis calculations, the amounts of hydrogen, helium and lithium produced shortly after the Big Bang can be predicted with unprecedented precision. The predicted primordial lithium abundance is a factor of two to three higher than the value measured in the atmospheres of old stars. With estimated errors of 10 to 25%, this cosmological lithium discrepancy seriously challenges our understanding of stellar physics, Big Bang nucleosynthesis or both. Certain modifications to nucleosynthesis have been proposed, but found experimentally not to be viable. Diffusion theory, however, predicts atmospheric abundances of stars to vary with time, which offers a possible explanation of the discrepancy. Here we report spectroscopic observations of stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 6397 that reveal trends of atmospheric abundance with evolutionary stage for various elements. These element-specific trends are reproduced by stellar-evolution models with diffusion and turbulent mixing. We thus conclude that diffusion is predominantly responsible for the low apparent stellar lithium abundance in the atmospheres of old stars by transporting the lithium deep into the star. PMID:16900193

  12. Prediction of Clinically Significant Leg-Length Discrepancy in Congenital Disorders.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Kenichi; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Kadono, Izumi; Matsushita, Masaki; Sugiura, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Sachi; Kitamura, Akiko; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2015-10-01

    Leg-length discrepancy greater than 2 to 2.5 cm can potentially have an adverse effect on our walking and standing mechanisms and requires proper correction involving surgical treatment. However, for minor leg-length discrepancy in childhood, decision making for the indications for and timing of epiphysiodesis is difficult because of unpredictable final discrepancy. The purpose of this study was to analyze longitudinal changes of minor leg-length discrepancy in congenital disorders and to determine earlier predictive values for the clinically significant discrepancy. Twenty-one patients with congenital disorders who had minor leg-length discrepancy less than 2 cm at the first presentation were retrospectively evaluated. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to leg-length discrepancy at latest follow-up: the significant group (n=11) had 25 mm or more of leg-length discrepancy and the minor group (n=10) had less than 25 mm of leg-length discrepancy. The authors evaluated longitudinal changes of leg-length discrepancy within the first 10 years by mixed-effects regression model. All patients showed monotonically increasing leg-length discrepancy with age, except for 2 (neurofibromatosis type 1 and macrodactyly of the foot) who demonstrated fluctuating leg-length discrepancy. Mean annual rate of leg-length discrepancy change in the significant group was 2.1 mm across the first decade of life and was significantly larger than that in the minor group (difference in slope, 1.3 mm; P<.0001). In minor leg-length discrepancy associated with congenital disorders, the incidence of clinically significant leg-length discrepancy can be predictable by the annual rate of leg-length discrepancy change in the first decade of life. PMID:26488788

  13. Prediction of Clinically Significant Leg-Length Discrepancy in Congenital Disorders.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Kenichi; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Kadono, Izumi; Matsushita, Masaki; Sugiura, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Sachi; Kitamura, Akiko; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2015-10-01

    Leg-length discrepancy greater than 2 to 2.5 cm can potentially have an adverse effect on our walking and standing mechanisms and requires proper correction involving surgical treatment. However, for minor leg-length discrepancy in childhood, decision making for the indications for and timing of epiphysiodesis is difficult because of unpredictable final discrepancy. The purpose of this study was to analyze longitudinal changes of minor leg-length discrepancy in congenital disorders and to determine earlier predictive values for the clinically significant discrepancy. Twenty-one patients with congenital disorders who had minor leg-length discrepancy less than 2 cm at the first presentation were retrospectively evaluated. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to leg-length discrepancy at latest follow-up: the significant group (n=11) had 25 mm or more of leg-length discrepancy and the minor group (n=10) had less than 25 mm of leg-length discrepancy. The authors evaluated longitudinal changes of leg-length discrepancy within the first 10 years by mixed-effects regression model. All patients showed monotonically increasing leg-length discrepancy with age, except for 2 (neurofibromatosis type 1 and macrodactyly of the foot) who demonstrated fluctuating leg-length discrepancy. Mean annual rate of leg-length discrepancy change in the significant group was 2.1 mm across the first decade of life and was significantly larger than that in the minor group (difference in slope, 1.3 mm; P<.0001). In minor leg-length discrepancy associated with congenital disorders, the incidence of clinically significant leg-length discrepancy can be predictable by the annual rate of leg-length discrepancy change in the first decade of life.

  14. The Regression-Based Discrepancy Definition of Learning Disability: A Critical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel; Fono, Dafna; Nirel, Ronit

    2012-01-01

    The regression-based discrepancy definition of learning disabilities has been suggested by Rutter and Yule as an improvement of the well-known and much criticized achievement-intelligence discrepancy definition, whereby the examinee's predicted reading attainment is substituted for the intelligence score in the discrepancy expression. Even though…

  15. The Counterintuitive Psychological Benefits of Intergenerational Discrepancies in Family Prioritization for Jamaican Adolescent-Parent Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gail M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study tests a prediction of Relational Discrepancy Theory (RDT; i.e., emotional distress will not accompany discrepancies in hierarchical relationships) for family obligations discrepancies among adolescent-parent dyads in Jamaica, a moderately collectivistic and hierarchical society. Ninety-five dyads reported psychological adjustment…

  16. 41 CFR 101-26.803-3 - Reporting of discrepancies in transportation, shipments, material, or billings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... discrepancies in transportation, shipments, material, or billings. 101-26.803-3 Section 101-26.803-3 Public... GSA or DOD Shipments, Material, or Billings § 101-26.803-3 Reporting of discrepancies in transportation, shipments, material, or billings. (a) Transportation-type discrepancies shall be processed...

  17. 41 CFR 101-26.803-3 - Reporting of discrepancies in transportation, shipments, material, or billings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... discrepancies in transportation, shipments, material, or billings. 101-26.803-3 Section 101-26.803-3 Public... GSA or DOD Shipments, Material, or Billings § 101-26.803-3 Reporting of discrepancies in transportation, shipments, material, or billings. (a) Transportation-type discrepancies shall be processed...

  18. 41 CFR 101-26.803-3 - Reporting of discrepancies in transportation, shipments, material, or billings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... discrepancies in transportation, shipments, material, or billings. 101-26.803-3 Section 101-26.803-3 Public... GSA or DOD Shipments, Material, or Billings § 101-26.803-3 Reporting of discrepancies in transportation, shipments, material, or billings. (a) Transportation-type discrepancies shall be processed...

  19. 41 CFR 101-26.803-3 - Reporting of discrepancies in transportation, shipments, material, or billings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... discrepancies in transportation, shipments, material, or billings. 101-26.803-3 Section 101-26.803-3 Public... GSA or DOD Shipments, Material, or Billings § 101-26.803-3 Reporting of discrepancies in transportation, shipments, material, or billings. (a) Transportation-type discrepancies shall be processed...

  20. An Alternative Presentation of Incremental Validity: Discrepant SAT and HSGPA Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined discrepant high school grade point average (HSGPA) and SAT performance as measured by the difference between a student's standardized SAT composite score and standardized HSGPA. The SAT-HSGPA discrepancy measure was used to examine whether certain students are more likely to exhibit discrepant performance and in what direction.…

  1. Discrepancies in Reporting of Physical and Sexual Abuse among Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated risk factors for discrepant reporting of physical and sexual abuse among 172 homeless young adults. Discrepant reporting includes situations in which a respondent denies experiencing abuse in general but reports being a victim of specific forms of maltreatment. The results revealed that discrepant reporting rates tended to…

  2. 12 CFR 41.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... discrepancy. (2) Examples of reasonable policies and procedures. (i) Comparing the information in the consumer... CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal... consumer reports (user) that receives a notice of address discrepancy from a consumer reporting...

  3. 12 CFR 41.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... discrepancy. (2) Examples of reasonable policies and procedures. (i) Comparing the information in the consumer... CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal... consumer reports (user) that receives a notice of address discrepancy from a consumer reporting...

  4. Using Primary Sources To Teach the Rail Strike of 1877.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesh, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    Describes a lesson plan that utilizes two primary sources, a handbill announcing the reduction in Baltimore and Ohio rail workers' wages and a list of damages to Baltimore and Ohio Railroad property, in order to determine the causes and effects of the Rail Strike of 1877. Provides the two sources and other handouts. (CMK)

  5. Force, reaction time, and precision of Kung Fu strikes.

    PubMed

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Bolander, Richard; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares; Bir, Cynthia

    2009-08-01

    The goal was to compare values of force, precision, and reaction time of several martial arts punches and palm strikes performed by advanced and intermediate Kung Fu practitioners, both men and women. 13 Kung Fu practitioners, 10 men and three women, participated. Only the men, three advanced and seven intermediate, were considered for comparisons between levels. Reaction time values were obtained using two high speed cameras that recorded each strike at 2500 Hz. Force of impact was measured by a load cell. For comparisons of groups, force data were normalized by participant's body mass and height. Precision of the strikes was determined by a high speed pressure sensor. The results show that palm strikes were stronger than punches. Women in the study presented, on average, lower values of reaction time and force but higher values of precision than men. Advanced participants presented higher forces than intermediate participants. Significant negative correlations between the values of force and precision and the values of force and reaction time were also found.

  6. Topic 101: Eleven Campuses, One University, Many Strikes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro-Rivera, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    Students from the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) went on strike in April, and, soon after, 10 of the 11 campuses of a public system with more than 60,000 students were closed. "Once recintos, una universidad" (eleven campuses, one university) was the maxim students used to emphasize the concept of the UPR as a system unified by similar goals,…

  7. Lightning-Strike Disaster: Effects on Children's Fears and Worries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollinger, Stephen J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compares fears of lightning-strike victims (N=29) with matched control children (N=58), using fear reports from children and their mothers. Differences between samples were most pronounced for child-reported fears. Correspondence between mothers' and children's reports of intense storm-related fears was markedly larger in the lightning sample than…

  8. Linkage mechanics and power amplification of the mantis shrimp's strike.

    PubMed

    Patek, S N; Nowroozi, B N; Baio, J E; Caldwell, R L; Summers, A P

    2007-10-01

    Mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) generate extremely rapid and forceful predatory strikes through a suite of structural modifications of their raptorial appendages. Here we examine the key morphological and kinematic components of the raptorial strike that amplify the power output of the underlying muscle contractions. Morphological analyses of joint mechanics are integrated with CT scans of mineralization patterns and kinematic analyses toward the goal of understanding the mechanical basis of linkage dynamics and strike performance. We test whether a four-bar linkage mechanism amplifies rotation in this system and find that the rotational amplification is approximately two times the input rotation, thereby amplifying the velocity and acceleration of the strike. The four-bar model is generally supported, although the observed kinematic transmission is lower than predicted by the four-bar model. The results of the morphological, kinematic and mechanical analyses suggest a multi-faceted mechanical system that integrates latches, linkages and lever arms and is powered by multiple sites of cuticular energy storage. Through reorganization of joint architecture and asymmetric distribution of mineralized cuticle, the mantis shrimp's raptorial appendage offers a remarkable example of how structural and mechanical modifications can yield power amplification sufficient to produce speeds and forces at the outer known limits of biological systems. PMID:17921168

  9. When the Corporate Storm Strikes the Academy: Faculty Response Required

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBoy, James L.

    2015-01-01

    When the corporate storm strikes the academy, faculty must be willing and able to repel administrative assaults upon academic freedom, shared governance, and tenure. This paper will describe the on-going clash between administrators who embrace the corporate mindset and faculty who cherish traditions of shared governance and collegial…

  10. Introduction: Mapping Teachers' Strikes--A "Professionalist" Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Andre D.; Tyssens, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    This article aims to interpret teacher strikes through a multi-level analysis and the identification of a number of relevant factors relative to the professional project (in a neo-Weberian sense) of primary and secondary school teachers. In the first place the authors' interpretation is based on references to contextual and structural elements,…

  11. Torts Liability for Strike Action and Third Party Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raday, Frances

    1979-01-01

    Studies the nature of the torts liability incurred in strikes and the extent of existing immunities bestowed on strikers and their organizers, and explores the principles that should govern liability and immunity. Available from Israel Law Review Association, c/o Faculty of Law, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus, P.O.B. 24100, Jerusalem…

  12. What To Do When Contagious Disease Strikes Your School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL.

    This publication presents 10 documents collected to accompany a seminar entitled "What To Do When Contagious Disease Strikes Your School," presented at the 31st annual convention of the National Organization on Legal Problems of Education in 1985. The materials include (1) an agenda of the seminar listing the speakers, their topics, and the time…

  13. Strike-slip Faulting On Ganymede, Now And Then

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, Robert T.; Smith-Konter, B. R.; Cameron, M. E.; DeRemer-Keeney, L. C.; Nimmo, F.

    2012-10-01

    Strike-slip tectonism is important to the structural development of Ganymede’s surface, and in the transition from dark to grooved terrain. Three distinct signatures of strike-slip faulting are recognized [1]: (1) en echelon structures, (2) strike-slip duplexes, and (3) laterally offset pre-existing features. As strike-slip faulting progressed, en echelon fractures (in both dark and grooved terrains) merged to define en echelon swaths, which can become distinct tectonic domains. Three morphological categories of strike-slip “duplexes” (spindle-shaped lensoid regions bounded by strike-slip faults) occur, suggesting an evolutionary sequence from discontinuous fractures in dark terrain, to lensoid bounding structures, to lensoid regions with subparallel internal structure in grooved terrain. Ganymede’s 24 measured duplexes have an average length/width ratio of 2.4, on the low end of the terrestrial range [2]. Lateral offsets of pre-existing features betray the existence of some major strike-slip faults: Dardanus Sulcus (13°W, 18°S) is displaced 45 km by a prominent NE-SW trending fault. We model Coulomb shear failure on Ganymede, considering nonsynchronous rotation (NSR), and diurnal stresses both for present (0.0013) and possible past high ( 0.05) eccentricity [3]. We adopt NSR period 0.14 Ma; Love numbers h2 = 1.52 and l2 = 0.38; Young’s modulus 9.3 GPa; Poisson’s ratio 0.33; and fault depth 2 km. NSR shear stress resolved along the Dardanus fault is 0.3 MPa, sufficient to induce failure to 1.4 km for friction coefficient 0.3. For past high eccentricity, diurnal stress would have modulated NSR stress by 100 kPa through Ganymede’s tidal cycle. This could have induced shear heating [4] and tidal walking [5], as modeled for Europa. References: [1] DeRemer and Pappalardo (2003), LPSC, 34, #2033; [2] Aydin and Nur (1982), Tectonics, 1, 91; [3] Showman and Malhotra (1997), Icarus, 127, 93; [4] Nimmo and Gaidos (2002), JGR, 107, 10.1029/2000JE001476; [5

  14. Recent physician strike in Israel: a health system under stress?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, a series of physician strikes in Israel followed eight months of unsuccessful negotiations with the government (Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Finance). Strikes by physicians may be a warning that all is not well in a health system and protestors have claimed that they signify a system failure. In contrast, others argue that strikes have been a feature of the Israeli health system from its inception and should not be a cause for alarm. This paper analyses the Israeli health system from the perspective of the strikers' demands using the World Health Organisation’s six health system building blocks as a framework, including: service delivery; health workforce; information; medical products, vaccines and technologies; leadership and governance; and financing. While we recognise that the immediate causes of the 2011 strikes were concerns about salaries and working conditions, we argue that a complex set of interacting factors underlie the strikers' demands, resonating with issues relating to five of the WHO building blocks. We argue that of the five, three are most significant and limit progress with all the others: a disgruntled health workforce, many of whom believe that striking is the only way to be heard; a lack of leadership by the government in understanding and responding to physicians' concerns; and a purported information insufficiency, manifest as a lack of critique and analysis that may have prevented those at the top from making a reliable diagnosis of the system’s problems. This paper argues that there are cracks within the Israeli health system but that these are not irresolvable. The Israeli health system is a relatively new and popular health system, but there are no grounds for complacency. PMID:23947638

  15. Relationship Between Body Image Discrepancy and Intuitive Eating.

    PubMed

    Spoor, Kesha Dorsey; Madanat, Hala

    2016-04-01

    Dieting is widespread among college women despite being ineffective and harmful long term. Intuitive eating is a dieting alternative that teaches eating in response to hunger and satiety cues. It has been associated with improved physical and psychological health and studied in association with various body image dimensions. A sample of college first years completed baseline measurements during an intuitive eating intervention to test the association between intuitive eating and body image discrepancy (BID). BID represents whether a respondent believes her current body is larger or smaller than ideal. Greater BID was negatively associated with intuitive eating (p ≤ .05); participants who believed that their current bodies were larger than ideal were less likely to attend to hunger and satiety cues than participants who expressed little or no BID. These women should be targeted in future weight management interventions in order to avoid negative health outcomes of dieting. PMID:27052661

  16. Motivational Congruency and Discrepancy of Hawaiian Athletic Trainers

    PubMed Central

    Buxton, Barton P.; Lankford, Samuel V.; Gieck, Joe H.

    1992-01-01

    Motivation is an integral part of an effective organizational management scheme. In March 1992, we sent a survey designed to assess motivational preference to all certified athletic trainers in the State of Hawaii. The population included: 6 high school athletic trainers, 10 university athletic trainers, and 9 clinic athletic trainers. The surveys were completed and returned by 80% of the population. With the exception of being an integral part of a work team (p<.05), athletic trainers in the State of Hawaii showed little discrepancy in terms of motivation. Further, there are differences among the three groups of athletic trainers in rating the importance of motivators concerning being appreciated, receiving raises, and being an integral part of a team (p< .05) Differences in motivational factors among these three groups could be influenced by the organizational structure in which the athletic trainers operate. Further investigation should include a mainland population that includes athletic trainers in professional sports and the industrial setting. PMID:16558188

  17. Telling tails explain the discrepancy in sexual partner reports.

    PubMed

    Morris, M

    1993-09-30

    An anomaly often noted in surveys of sexual behaviour is that the number of female sexual partners reported by men exceeds the number of male partners reported by women. This discrepancy is sometimes interpreted as evidence that surveys produce unreliable data due to sex-linked response and sampling bias. We report here that among the 90% of respondents reporting fewer than 20 lifetime partners, however, the ratio of male to female reports drops from 3.2:1 to 1.2:1. The anomaly thus appears to be driven by the upper tail of the contact distribution, an example of the general principle of outlier influence in data analysis. The implication is that sexual behaviour surveys provide reliable data in the main, and that simple improvements can increase precision in the upper tail to make these data more useful for modelling the spread of AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases.

  18. Discrepancies in expert decision-making in forensic fingerprint examination.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Virpi; Hakkarainen, Kai; Tuunainen, Juha; Pohjola, Pasi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse professional fingerprint examiners' investigative practices in the context of discrepancy decisions concerning challenging latents during fingerprint analysis and identification. The participants were fingerprint experts from the Forensic Laboratory of the Finnish National Bureau of Investigation. The data were from five audio-recorded "discrepancy meetings" where two examiners were discussing the rationale and justification for their differing interpretations of challenging and distorted fingerprint evidence. The meetings were chaired by the quality manager of the fingerprint group, who also in the first author of this article. The research questions addressed were as follows: What does the examiner see in the latent fingerprints? What does the examiner actively do with the latents? How were decisions made during the investigative process? In accordance with Goodwin's professional vision framework, the results revealed how the participants used partial and limited information in making judgments about the difficult and distorted latents. The examiners appeared to be involved in active, constructive efforts, mentally, to repair poor latents by supplementing with missing information. They also highlighted various aspects of latents by colour coding as well as manipulated fingerprint images in several ways so as to make the significant patterns easier to recognize. Because the methods and practices of characterizing latents were only vaguely specified, the examiners used locally developed ad hoc practices to facilitate their investigations, ending up with different interpretations. It is concluded in the article that the fingerprint community in Finland should make strong efforts to develop the methods of fingerprint investigation and determine clearer criteria for decision making and documentation practices. Furthermore, the interpretations made by fingerprint experts should be made more transparent to the customers

  19. Telephone interpreter discrepancies: videotapes of Hmong medication consultations

    PubMed Central

    Lor, Maichou; Chewning, Betty

    2016-01-01

    Background Over 25 million people in the USA have limited English proficiency (LEP). Interpreters are often used to facilitate communication with health care providers. Little is currently known about interpreter quality. Objective To explore the quality of telephone interpretation during medication consultations between Hmong clients and their pharmacists. Methods This descriptive study analyzed transcripts from videos of consultations between six triads of Hmong patients, pharmacy students and interpreters. Analysis was divided into two segments: (1) pharmacy: communication from student pharmacist the interpreter to patient and (2) patient: communication from patient to interpreter to student pharmacist. Researchers coded transcripts separately then compared codes. Key findings The six encounters yielded 496 communications with 275 discrepancies including omissions, additions, and word substitutions. Pharmacy to patient communications included, 45% (118/262) of omissions, 27.5% (72/262) of substitutions, and 15.6% (41/262) of additions. The patient to provider communications included, 8.1% (19/234) of omissions, 6.0% (14/234) of substitutions, and 4.2% (10/ 234) of word additions. Some omissions, additions, and substitutions in the pharmacy to patient communications were classified as potentially clinically relevant. Significantly, substantial discrepancies between the student pharmacists’ comments and the interpretation to patients had potential for hindering relationship building between patients and their providers. Conclusions Pharmacists may assume that the presence of an interpreter ensures accurate communication from pharmacist to patient and from patient to pharmacist. This study confirms that those assumptions may not be valid. These findings highlight the need to improve pharmacy education and interventions to improve pharmacist communication with LEP patients. PMID:26311231

  20. Discrepancies in expert decision-making in forensic fingerprint examination.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Virpi; Hakkarainen, Kai; Tuunainen, Juha; Pohjola, Pasi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse professional fingerprint examiners' investigative practices in the context of discrepancy decisions concerning challenging latents during fingerprint analysis and identification. The participants were fingerprint experts from the Forensic Laboratory of the Finnish National Bureau of Investigation. The data were from five audio-recorded "discrepancy meetings" where two examiners were discussing the rationale and justification for their differing interpretations of challenging and distorted fingerprint evidence. The meetings were chaired by the quality manager of the fingerprint group, who also in the first author of this article. The research questions addressed were as follows: What does the examiner see in the latent fingerprints? What does the examiner actively do with the latents? How were decisions made during the investigative process? In accordance with Goodwin's professional vision framework, the results revealed how the participants used partial and limited information in making judgments about the difficult and distorted latents. The examiners appeared to be involved in active, constructive efforts, mentally, to repair poor latents by supplementing with missing information. They also highlighted various aspects of latents by colour coding as well as manipulated fingerprint images in several ways so as to make the significant patterns easier to recognize. Because the methods and practices of characterizing latents were only vaguely specified, the examiners used locally developed ad hoc practices to facilitate their investigations, ending up with different interpretations. It is concluded in the article that the fingerprint community in Finland should make strong efforts to develop the methods of fingerprint investigation and determine clearer criteria for decision making and documentation practices. Furthermore, the interpretations made by fingerprint experts should be made more transparent to the customers.

  1. Patterns of variation in feeding strike kinematics of juvenile ghost praying mantis (Phyllocrania paradoxa): are components of the strike stereotypic?

    PubMed

    Oufiero, Christopher E; Nguyen, Tammy; Sragner, Annie; Ellis, Angelah

    2016-09-01

    Functional systems, such as feeding mechanics, often involve the evolution of several components of the musculoskeletal system that are moved in coordination to capture prey. Because these systems often involve the quick movement of several structures, some feeding systems have been hypothesized to be stereotypic. While the motor activity patterns are often stereotyped, the subsequent kinematics can be variable, many times in response to variation in prey stimulus (e.g. prey position). Patterns of feeding kinematics have been well studied among vertebrates, with less attention on invertebrate systems. The goal of this study was to examine the amount of stereotypy in the feeding strike kinematics of praying mantises. We filmed eight juvenile ghost praying mantises (Phyllocrania paradoxa) at 1000 Hz across several days within instar 7. We digitized several points that represent the movement of the coxa, trochanter-femur and tibia of the raptorial foreleg to obtain a set of kinematics including angles and angular velocities of the joint, as well as body lunge. Using the coefficient of variation, we found less stereotypy in the approach stage of the strike compared with the sweep. Using Bonferroni-corrected Pearson's correlations of kinematics with prey position, we found few traits related to prey position with the exception of some kinematics of the coxa joint and the amount of lunge used during the strike. Our results suggest that several components of the praying mantis strike are stereotypic, while others exhibit flexibility to ensure successful capture of the prey. PMID:27358472

  2. Masculine discrepancy stress, substance use, assault and injury in a survey of US men.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Dennis E; Berke, Danielle S; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-10-01

    To understand and ultimately prevent injury and behavioural health outcomes associated with masculinity, we assessed the influence of masculine discrepancy stress (stress that occurs when men perceive themselves as falling short of the traditional gender norms) on the propensity to engage in stereotypically masculine behaviours (eg, substance use, risk taking and violence) as a means of demonstrating masculinity. Six-hundred men from the USA were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) online data collection site to complete surveys assessing self-perceptions of gender role discrepancy and consequent discrepancy stress, substance use/abuse, driving while intoxicated (DWI) and violent assaults. Negative binomial regression analyses indicated significant interactive effects wherein men high on gender role discrepancy and attendant discrepancy stress reported significantly more assaults with a weapon (B=1.01; SE=0.63; IRR=2.74; p=0.05) and assaults causing injury (B=1.01; SE=0.51; IRR=2.74; p<0.05). There was no association of discrepancy stress to substance abuse, but there was a protective effect of gender role discrepancy for DWI among men low on discrepancy stress (B=-1.19, SE=0.48; IRR=0.30; p=0.01). These findings suggest that gender role discrepancy and associated discrepancy stress, in particular, represent important injury risk factors and that prevention of discrepancy stress may prevent acts of violence with the greatest consequences and costs to the victim, offender and society.

  3. Masculine discrepancy stress, substance use, assault and injury in a survey of US men.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Dennis E; Berke, Danielle S; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-10-01

    To understand and ultimately prevent injury and behavioural health outcomes associated with masculinity, we assessed the influence of masculine discrepancy stress (stress that occurs when men perceive themselves as falling short of the traditional gender norms) on the propensity to engage in stereotypically masculine behaviours (eg, substance use, risk taking and violence) as a means of demonstrating masculinity. Six-hundred men from the USA were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) online data collection site to complete surveys assessing self-perceptions of gender role discrepancy and consequent discrepancy stress, substance use/abuse, driving while intoxicated (DWI) and violent assaults. Negative binomial regression analyses indicated significant interactive effects wherein men high on gender role discrepancy and attendant discrepancy stress reported significantly more assaults with a weapon (B=1.01; SE=0.63; IRR=2.74; p=0.05) and assaults causing injury (B=1.01; SE=0.51; IRR=2.74; p<0.05). There was no association of discrepancy stress to substance abuse, but there was a protective effect of gender role discrepancy for DWI among men low on discrepancy stress (B=-1.19, SE=0.48; IRR=0.30; p=0.01). These findings suggest that gender role discrepancy and associated discrepancy stress, in particular, represent important injury risk factors and that prevention of discrepancy stress may prevent acts of violence with the greatest consequences and costs to the victim, offender and society. PMID:26303670

  4. Implications of Incessant Strike Actions on the Implementation of Technical Education Programme in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adavbiele, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper was designed to x-ray the implications of incessant strike actions on the implementation of Technical education programme in Nigeria. The paper took an exploratory view on the concept of strike actions in Nigeria with particular references on notable strike actions that have occurred in Nigeria. The types of strike were explained and…

  5. Dynamic behavior of elevator compensating sheave during buffer strike

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, S.; Okawa, T.

    2016-05-01

    This paper shows an elevator dynamic model that calculates the compensating sheave motion during a buffer strike. Our equivalent 2-degree-of-freedom vibration model of an elevator system, which consists of a car, a compensating sheave, and compensating ropes, can evaluate the dynamic tension of the compensating ropes caused by a buffer strike. The constraint force, which restricts the upward motion of the compensating sheave, is estimated from the dynamic rope tension. The constraint force is represented by the summation of two vibration modes and is the function of the limited distance of the compensating sheave's upward movement. Our formula, which evaluates the maximum constraint force, shows that a shorter limited distance of the compensating sheave increases the constraint force.

  6. Control of striking velocity by table tennis players.

    PubMed

    Marinovic, Welber; Iizuka, Cristina Akiko; Freudenheim, Andrea Michele

    2004-12-01

    This study investigated how 7 skilled table tennis players controlled velocity of a forehand drive stroke when the ball's trajectory, velocity, and spin were modified. They hit a target in response to balls launched under four different conditions. The relative and absolute times used in the backswing phase showed no significant differences among conditions. When subjects hit fastballs, there was a significant change in the time required for them to reach the peak of velocity in the forward swing phase. In addition, players decreased the velocity of their strokes to hit fast-approaching balls. These results indicate that highly skilled table tennis players need to adjust the striking velocity and striking time (relative and absolute) required to reach the peak of velocity in the forward swing phase for these task modifications. Since they used slower movement velocities to hit faster-approaching balls, skilled table tennis players may override this speed-coupling process. PMID:15648504

  7. Single Station System and Method of Locating Lightning Strikes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An embodiment of the present invention uses a single detection system to approximate a location of lightning strikes. This system is triggered by a broadband RF detector and measures a time until the arrival of a leading edge of the thunder acoustic pulse. This time difference is used to determine a slant range R from the detector to the closest approach of the lightning. The azimuth and elevation are determined by an array of acoustic sensors. The leading edge of the thunder waveform is cross-correlated between the various acoustic sensors in the array to determine the difference in time of arrival, AT. A set of AT S is used to determine the direction of arrival, AZ and EL. The three estimated variables (R, AZ, EL) are used to locate a probable point of the lightning strike.

  8. Analysis of direct and nearby lightning strike data for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giri, D. V.; Noss, R. S.; Phuoc, D. B.; Tesche, F. M.

    1983-01-01

    A method for interpreting direct strike and nearby strike lightning data on aircraft is discussed. The theoretical basis for the interpretation involves a transmission line model for the aircraft, and is discussed. Results of applying this model to the F-106 aircraft are presented and in the natural resonances are computed for several different electrical representations of the aircraft. The signal processing techniques useful for extracting pole (resonance) information from experimental data are discussed, and the use of these techniques on the measured lightning data is illustrated. Finally, the results of a related ground-based lightning experiment are discussed and data are presented. The purpose of this test was to gain additional understanding of the resonance properties of the F-106 aircraft.

  9. The fast and forceful kicking strike of the secretary bird.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Steven J; Murn, Campbell P; Sparkes, Emily L; Daley, Monica A

    2016-01-25

    The study of animal locomotion has uncovered principles that can be applied to bio-inspired robotics, prosthetics and rehabilitation medicine, while also providing insight into musculoskeletal form and function [1-4]. In particular, study of extreme behaviors can reveal mechanical constraints and trade-offs that have influenced evolution of limb form and function [1,2]. Secretary birds (Sagittarius serpentarius; Figure 1A) are large terrestrial birds of prey endemic to sub-Saharan Africa, which feed on snakes, lizards and small mammals [5]. They frequently kick and stamp on the prey's head until it is killed or incapacitated, particularly when dispatching larger lizards and venomous snakes [5]. The consequences of a missed strike when hunting venomous snakes can be deadly [5], so the kicking strikes of secretary birds require fast yet accurate neural control. Delivery of fast, forceful and accurate foot strikes that are sufficient to stun and kill prey requires precision targeting, demanding a high level of coordination between the visual and neuromuscular systems. PMID:26811886

  10. Pattern of dynamic displacements in a strike-slip earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltogianni, V.; Gianniou, M.; Moschas, F.; Stiros, S.

    2016-07-01

    High-rate (1 Hz) records from GPS stations uniformly distributed along the fault ruptures of the 2014 Samothraki-Gökçeada Mw6.9 earthquake in the North Aegean Trough, at the extension of the North Anatolian Fault Zone, were analyzed using the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique. Computed dynamic displacements shed light to the pattern of dynamic displacements during shallow strike-slip earthquakes. The area of near-field static seismic displacements bounds ramp-type, long-period dynamic displacements (fling steps) in the sense of static displacements. Along-fault and normal to fault components of dynamic displacement follow typical attenuation laws, but attenuation is higher in the fault-parallel component hence confined to the area of static dislocations. Forward directivity and local, especially topography-controlled amplification effects, consistent with accelerometer evidence, were also observed. The overall pattern seems to characterize shallow strike-slip earthquakes and is expected to prove useful to explain or even predict the near-field damaging potential of strike-slip earthquakes.

  11. Distribution of strike-slip faults on Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppa, Gregory; Greenberg, Richard; Tufts, B. Randall; Geissler, Paul; Phillips, Cynthia; Milazzo, Moses

    2000-09-01

    Study of four different regions on Europa imaged by the Galileo spacecraft during its first 15 orbits has revealed 117 strike-slip faults. Europa appears to form preferentially right-lateral faults in the southern hemisphere and left-lateral faults in the northern hemisphere. This observation is consistent with a model where diurnal tides due to orbital eccentricity drive strike-slip motion through a process of ``walking,'' in which faults open and close out of phase with alternating right-and left-lateral shear. Lineaments that record both left-and right-lateral motion (e.g., Agave Linea) may record the accommodation of compression in nearby chaotic zones. Nearly all identified strike-slip faults were associated with double ridges or bands, and few were detected along ridgeless cracks. Thus the depth of cracks without ridges does not appear to have penetrated to the low-viscosity decoupling layer, required for diurnal displacement, but cracks that have developed ridges do extend down to such a level. This result supports a model for ridge formation that requires cracks to penetrate to a decoupling layer, such as a liquid water ocean.

  12. Further identification and treatment modalities in telephone mediated lightning strike

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Christopher J.; Darveniza, Mat

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of a prospective survey of people injured by lightning impulses transmitted by the public telephone system. The results are compared with those of a previous retrospective survey. Various deficiencies in the methodology of the latter survey are addressed. A division into a population with severe injury and a population with mild injury is made based on medical history and examination taken immediately after a strike. The best predictors of severe injury were found to be the presence of symptoms beyond one week after the strike, and also the initial presence of musculoskeletal injuries. Psychological upset is also seen to be a significant factor in severe injury. The only physical parameter of strike which could be used as a predictor of severe injury was the presence of concomitant power system damage. The importance of earth bonding between power and telephone system is thus supported in a protection strategy. One author draws on experience in treating patients with these injuries to propose a treatment regimen for those with ongoing symptoms. The importance of evaluating and treating psychological and physical aspects is stressed.

  13. Examining the role of self-discrepancy and self-directed style in bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Mason, Tyler B; Pearson, Carolyn M; Lavender, Jason M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Erickson, Ann L; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Smith, Tracey L; Klein, Marjorie H; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-10-30

    Two of the primary components within Integrative Cognitive Affective Therapy (ICAT) are self-discrepancy and self-directed style. Self-discrepancy includes both actual:ideal (discrepancy between oneself and who one wishes they were) and actual:ought (discrepancy between oneself and who one believes they ought to be). Self-directed style in ICAT refers to a variety of behaviors emitted by a person toward the self including self-blaming and self-affirming. This study explored main effects and interactions between self-discrepancy and self-directed style in relation to global eating disorder (ED) psychopathology, depressive symptoms, and anxiety. Eighty treatment-seeking adults from the Midwest with BN or subthreshold BN completed interviews and self-report measures. Self-affirm and self-blame were associated with ED psychopathology, depressive symptoms, and anxiety. Actual:ideal discrepancy was related to anxiety and actual:ought discrepancy was related to anxiety and depressive symptoms. Interactions were found between self-affirm and actual:ought discrepancy as well as self-blame and actual:ought discrepancy for depressive symptoms. High actual:ought was related to increased depressive symptoms regardless of levels of self-affirm or self-blame. Effect sizes for models were medium-to-large with anxiety models demonstrating the largest effects. This study provides further evidence supporting the ICAT model and treatment, which targets self-discrepancies, self-directed styles, and related emotional states. PMID:27512918

  14. Discrepancy of whiteness and UV protection in wet state.

    PubMed

    Tarbuk, Anita; Grancarić, Ana Marija; Situm, Mirna

    2014-12-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is increasing by epidemic proportions. Basal cell cancer remains the most common skin neoplasm, and simple excision is generally curative. On the other hand, aggressive local growth and metastasis are common features of malignant melanoma, which accounts for 75 percent of all deaths associated with skin cancer. In Croatia only, more than 20,000 new cases of skin cancer has been diagnosed in 2008 of which melanoma 286 new cases and 118 yearly deaths in men, and 275 new cases and 79 deaths in women population. The back sides in men and women, as well as the lower limbs in women, are the most common site for melanomas. The primary cause of skin cancer is believed to be a long exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation crossed with the amount of skin pigmentation in the population. There are indications that other parts of solar spectrum (e.g., blue light) might also have effects on skin and eyes. Most people think all clothing will protect them, but that's not the case. UV clothing can show UVprotection, but in the most cases it does not provide full sun screening properties. UV protection ability highly depends on large number of factors such are type of fiber, fabric surface and construction, type and concentration of dyestuff, fluorescent whitening agent (FWA), UV-B protective agents, as well as nanoparticles, if applied. For that reason, jeans and tightly woven fabrics offer a very good level of protection. However, on a hot summer day, those aren't the kinds of clothing people usually reach for. More often, when they are on the beach, they wear T-shirt, as well during the swimming in the sea, thinking that it will protect them. Therefore, in this paper the discrepancy of UVprotection in wet state was researched. For the purpose, FWA and UVabsorber were applied in wide concentration range to white cotton knit fabrics commonly used for T-shirts. Afterwards, the discrepancy in whiteness and UVprotection was research in distilled water

  15. Discrepancy of whiteness and UV protection in wet state.

    PubMed

    Tarbuk, Anita; Grancarić, Ana Marija; Situm, Mirna

    2014-12-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is increasing by epidemic proportions. Basal cell cancer remains the most common skin neoplasm, and simple excision is generally curative. On the other hand, aggressive local growth and metastasis are common features of malignant melanoma, which accounts for 75 percent of all deaths associated with skin cancer. In Croatia only, more than 20,000 new cases of skin cancer has been diagnosed in 2008 of which melanoma 286 new cases and 118 yearly deaths in men, and 275 new cases and 79 deaths in women population. The back sides in men and women, as well as the lower limbs in women, are the most common site for melanomas. The primary cause of skin cancer is believed to be a long exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation crossed with the amount of skin pigmentation in the population. There are indications that other parts of solar spectrum (e.g., blue light) might also have effects on skin and eyes. Most people think all clothing will protect them, but that's not the case. UV clothing can show UVprotection, but in the most cases it does not provide full sun screening properties. UV protection ability highly depends on large number of factors such are type of fiber, fabric surface and construction, type and concentration of dyestuff, fluorescent whitening agent (FWA), UV-B protective agents, as well as nanoparticles, if applied. For that reason, jeans and tightly woven fabrics offer a very good level of protection. However, on a hot summer day, those aren't the kinds of clothing people usually reach for. More often, when they are on the beach, they wear T-shirt, as well during the swimming in the sea, thinking that it will protect them. Therefore, in this paper the discrepancy of UVprotection in wet state was researched. For the purpose, FWA and UVabsorber were applied in wide concentration range to white cotton knit fabrics commonly used for T-shirts. Afterwards, the discrepancy in whiteness and UVprotection was research in distilled water

  16. Measuring paternal discrepancy and its public health consequences

    PubMed Central

    Bellis, M.; Hughes, K.; Hughes, S.; Ashton, J.

    2005-01-01

    Paternal discrepancy (PD) occurs when a child is identified as being biologically fathered by someone other than the man who believes he is the father. This paper examines published evidence on levels of PD and its public health consequences. Rates vary between studies from 0.8% to 30% (median 3.7%, n = 17). Using information from genetic and behavioural studies, the article identifies those who conceive younger, live in deprivation, are in long term relationships (rather than marriages), or in certain cultural groups are at higher risk. Public health consequences of PD being exposed include family break up and violence. However, leaving PD undiagnosed means cases having incorrect information on their genetics and fathers continuing to suspect that children may not be theirs. Increasing paternity testing and use of DNA techniques in clinical and judicial procedures means more cases of PD will be identified. Given developing roles for individual's genetics in decisions made by health services, private services (for example, insurance), and even in personal lifestyle decisions, the dearth of intelligence on how and when PD should be exposed urgently needs addressing. PMID:16100312

  17. Preventing Leg Length Discrepancy and Instability After Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sculco, Peter K; Austin, Matthew S; Lavernia, Carlos J; Rosenberg, Aaron G; Sierra, Rafael J

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of equal leg lengths and dynamic hip stability are essential elements of a successful total hip arthroplasty. A careful clinical examination, a preoperative plan, and appropriate intraoperative techniques are necessary to achieve these goals. Preoperative identification of patients at risk for residual leg length discrepancy allows surgeons to adjust the surgical approach and/or the type of implant and provide better preoperative patient education. The use of larger femoral heads, high-offset stem options, and enhanced soft-tissue repairs have improved impingement-free range of motion as well as dynamic hip stability and have contributed to an overall reduction in dislocation. Methods for accurate leg length restoration and component positioning include anatomic landmarks, intraoperative radiographs, intraoperative calipers, stability testing, and computer-assisted surgery. If recurrent instability occurs after total hip arthroplasty, the underlying cause for dislocation should be identified and treated; this may include the use of semiconstrained dual-mobility or fully constrained liners, depending on abductor function. Surgeons should be aware of the clinical and surgical techniques for achieving leg length equalization and dynamic hip stability in total hip arthroplasty. PMID:27049193

  18. Discrepancies between parents' and children's attitudes toward TV advertising.

    PubMed

    Baiocco, Roberto; D'Alessio, Maria; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2009-06-01

    The authors conducted a study with 500 parent-child dyads. The sample comprised 254 boys and 246 girls. The children were grouped into 5 age groups (1 group for each age from 7 to 11 years), with each group comprising 100 children. The survey regards discrepancies between children and their parents on attitudes toward TV advertising to determine how TV commercials affect children's developmental stages and, particularly, their credence, behavioral intentions, and TV enjoyment. Regarding enjoyment and purchase dimensions, the group of 7-year-old children claimed that they enjoyed and are influenced in their consumer attitude more than did the groups of 8-11-year-old children. Credence decreased significantly with age. This study showed that parents tended to undervalue TV advertising's influence on their children. Parents' conformity was a significant predictor of children's attitude toward TV advertising. Results indicated that a high level of parental conformity was linked to the number of brands children claimed to possess. PMID:19492733

  19. A Discrepancy between Two Criteria of Stability for Hybrid Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachdeva, Pratik; Alford, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Neutron stars, along with other compact matter, are some of the most stable structures in the universe. Their stability can be disrupted, however, by radial oscillations, which may cause them to collapse into black holes. John Bardeen, in his Catalogue of Methods, detailed two methods by which we can determine the stability of compact stars for a given equation of state: direct calculation of the oscillation frequency with Chandrasekhar's equation or a qualitative examination of a mass-radius plot. These two methods were believed to agree until Glendenning et al. proposed the existence of a white dwarf with a strange quark core. We observed that Glendenning's white dwarf showed disagreement between Bardeen's methods. With this motivation, we examined the stability of a similar family of hybrid stars which contain a quark matter core surrounded by a nuclear matter envelope. The equations of state for such stars exhibit either a kink or discontinuity. By reproducing the calculations of these methods, we observed that Bardeen's methods do not agree for these stars as well. We believe that this discrepancy stems from the fact that Chandrasekhar's equation is incompatible with discontinuous equations of state and are working to resolve this incompatibility.

  20. Randomized discrepancy bounded local search for transmission expansion planning

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Russell W; Daniel, William B

    2010-11-23

    In recent years the transmission network expansion planning problem (TNEP) has become increasingly complex. As the TNEP is a non-linear and non-convex optimization problem, researchers have traditionally focused on approximate models of power flows to solve the TNEP. Existing approaches are often tightly coupled to the approximation choice. Until recently these approximations have produced results that are straight-forward to adapt to the more complex (real) problem. However, the power grid is evolving towards a state where the adaptations are no longer easy (e.g. large amounts of limited control, renewable generation) and necessitates new approaches. Recent work on deterministic Discrepancy Bounded Local Search (DBLS) has shown it to be quite effective in addressing this question. DBLS encapsulates the complexity of power flow modeling in a black box that may be queried for information about the quality of proposed expansions. In this paper, we propose a randomization strategy that builds on DBLS and dramatically increases the computational efficiency of the algorithm.

  1. Quantifying discrepancies in opinion spectra from online and offline networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Deokjae; Hahn, Kyu S; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Park, Juyong

    2015-01-01

    Online social media such as Twitter are widely used for mining public opinions and sentiments on various issues and topics. The sheer volume of the data generated and the eager adoption by the online-savvy public are helping to raise the profile of online media as a convenient source of news and public opinions on social and political issues as well. Due to the uncontrollable biases in the population who heavily use the media, however, it is often difficult to measure how accurately the online sphere reflects the offline world at large, undermining the usefulness of online media. One way of identifying and overcoming the online-offline discrepancies is to apply a common analytical and modeling framework to comparable data sets from online and offline sources and cross-analyzing the patterns found therein. In this paper we study the political spectra constructed from Twitter and from legislators' voting records as an example to demonstrate the potential limits of online media as the source for accurate public opinion mining, and how to overcome the limits by using offline data simultaneously.

  2. Discrepancies between Judgment and Choice of Action in Moral Dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    Tassy, Sébastien; Oullier, Olivier; Mancini, Julien; Wicker, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Everyone has experienced the potential discrepancy between what one judges as morally acceptable and what one actually does when a choice between alternative behaviors is to be made. The present study explores empirically whether judgment and choice of action differ when people make decisions on dilemmas involving moral issues. Two hundred and forty participants evaluated 24 moral and non-moral dilemmas either by judging (“Is it acceptable to…”) or reporting the choice of action they would make (“Would you do…”). We also investigated the influence of varying the number of people benefiting from the decision and the closeness of relationship of the decision maker with the potential victim on these two types of decision. Variations in the number of beneficiaries from the decision did not influence judgment nor choice of action. By contrast, closeness of relationship with the victim had a greater influence on the choice of action than on judgment. This differentiation between evaluative judgments and choices of action argues in favor of each of them being supported by (at least partially) different psychological processes. PMID:23720645

  3. Report on the Radar/PIREP Cloud Top Discrepancy Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Mark M.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Applied Meteorology Unit's (AMU) investigation of inconsistencies between pilot reported cloud top heights and weather radar indicated echo top heights (assumed to be cloud tops) as identified by the 45 Weather Squadron (45WS). The objective for this study is to document and understand the differences in echo top characteristics as displayed on both the WSR-88D and WSR-74C radars and cloud top heights reported by the contract weather aircraft in support of space launch operations at Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), Florida. These inconsistencies are of operational concern since various Launch Commit Criteria (LCC) and Flight Rules (FR) in part describe safe and unsafe conditions as a function of cloud thickness. Some background radar information was presented. Scan strategies for the WSR-74C and WSR-88D were reviewed along with a description of normal radar beam propagation influenced by the Effective Earth Radius Model. Atmospheric conditions prior to and leading up to both launch operations were detailed. Through the analysis of rawinsonde and radar data, atmospheric refraction or bending of the radar beam was identified as the cause of the discrepancies between reported cloud top heights by the contract weather aircraft and those as identified by both radars. The atmospheric refraction caused the radar beam to be further bent toward the Earth than normal. This radar beam bending causes the radar target to be displayed erroneously, with higher cloud top heights and a very blocky or skewed appearance.

  4. DISCREPANT HARDENING OBSERVED IN COSMIC-RAY ELEMENTAL SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, H. S.; Ganel, O.; Han, J. H.; Kim, K. C.; Lee, M. H.; Lutz, L.; Malinin, A.; Allison, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Bagliesi, M. G.; Bigongiari, G.; Maestro, P.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Childers, J. T.; DuVernois, M. A.; Conklin, N. B.; Coutu, S.; Mognet, S. I.; Jeon, J. A.; Minnick, S.

    2010-05-01

    The balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass experiment launched five times from Antarctica has achieved a cumulative flight duration of about 156 days above 99.5% of the atmosphere. The instrument is configured with complementary and redundant particle detectors designed to extend direct measurements of cosmic-ray composition to the highest energies practical with balloon flights. All elements from protons to iron nuclei are separated with excellent charge resolution. Here, we report results from the first two flights of {approx}70 days, which indicate hardening of the elemental spectra above {approx}200 GeV/nucleon and a spectral difference between the two most abundant species, protons and helium nuclei. These results challenge the view that cosmic-ray spectra are simple power laws below the so-called knee at {approx}10{sup 15} eV. This discrepant hardening may result from a relatively nearby source, or it could represent spectral concavity caused by interactions of cosmic rays with the accelerating shock. Other possible explanations should also be investigated.

  5. Relationship between self-discrepancy and worries about penis size in men with body dysmorphic disorder.

    PubMed

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Bramley, Sally; Troglia, Andrea; Carmona, Lina; Fiorito, Chiara; Wells, Hannah; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2016-06-01

    We explored self-discrepancy in men with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) concerned about penis size, men without BDD but anxious about penis size, and controls. Men with BDD (n=26) were compared to those with small penis anxiety (SPA; n=31) and controls (n=33), objectively (by measuring) and investigating self-discrepancy: actual size, ideal size, and size they felt they should be according to self and other. Most men under-estimated their penis size, with the BDD group showing the greatest discrepancy between perceived and ideal size. The SPA group showed a larger discrepancy than controls. This was replicated for the perceptions of others, suggesting the BDD group internalised the belief that they should have a larger penis size. There was a significant correlation between symptoms of BDD and this discrepancy. This self-actual and self-ideal/self-should discrepancy and the role of comparing could be targeted in therapy.

  6. The defensive strike of five species of lanceheads of the genus Bothrops (Viperidae).

    PubMed

    Araújo, M S; Martins, M

    2007-05-01

    We studied the defensive strike of one species of each of five recognized lineages within the genus Bothrops, namely, B. alternatus, B. jararaca, B. jararacussu, B. moojeni and B. pauloensis. The defensive strike of the studied species was in general similar to that of Crotalus viridis and C. atrox, but some important differences were observed. Bothrops alternatus and B. pauloensis struck preferentially from a tight body posture, whereas B. jararaca and B. moojeni from a loose body posture. Defensive strikes were either true or false (during the latter, the mouth remains closed or partially open). Almost all strikes were successful; only on a few occasions snakes missed their target (flawed strikes). Strike variables were very conservative among the five species, especially strike distance and height, and one possible explanation may be related to constraints imposed on strike variables as a way of increasing strike accuracy. PMID:17876444

  7. Implementation of a bag medication reconciliation initiative to decrease posthospitalization medication discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Becker, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Medication discrepancies occur in 70% of hospital patients, especially during discharge. In community settings, bag medication reconciliation events have demonstrated effectiveness in evaluating current medication use and identifying medication discrepancies. A bag medication reconciliation process was implemented in the hospital setting to decrease medication discrepancies by encouraging evaluation of medication adherence, side effects, and monitoring at posthospitalization follow-up. After implementation, a 7% decrease in reportable errors was noted.

  8. River Captures and Erosional Disequilibrium Along Strike-slip Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocard, G. Y.; Fayon, A. K.; Perg, L. A.; Paola, C.; Teyssier, C.; Whitney, D. L.; Mota, M.; Moran-Ical, S.

    2005-12-01

    River captures are internal instabilities of erosion systems and are inherently promoted by strike-slip faulting. A capture event can generate a wave of incision that propagates from the capture site upstream and/or downstream, resulting in an increased bulk erosion rate around the capture site. Thus, under steady boundary conditions, drainage diversions trigger pulses of erosion, sediment production, rock exhumation and isostatic rebound. Therefore, a significant part of the erosion in oblique tectonics can be achieved in a state of significant departure from short-term dynamic equilibrium. The frequency, intensity, and duration of these events set the timescale over which their integrated effects can be regarded as the expression of a long-term dynamic equilibrium. We are investigating the effects of a large river capture on the oblique collision between the North American and Caribbean plates in Guatemala. Several thousands of kilometers of strike-slip displacement have been accommodated along this boundary during the Tertiary. The deformation is now concentrated mostly along the E-W Motagua strike-slip fault. Oblique tectonics is discernable within a 50 km wide topographic belt, north of this fault (Sierra de las Minas - Sierra de Chuacus range). On the northern flank of this range, deformation includes 130 km offset across the Polochic strike-slip fault, documented by both geological structures and drainage patterns. Numerous elbows and dry valleys show the progressive transformation of the initial transverse (S-N) drainage crossing the fault into a transverse-parallel (E-W) system that developed during increasing displacement along the fault. The drainage reorganization operates by river lengthening, captures, and avulsions. One of the latest capture sites is surrounded by a large (110x30 km) zone of deeply (1500 m) dissected landscape that coincides with the captured catchment. This zone sharply contrasts with the surrounding areas where large fragments of a

  9. Pericollisional strike-slip basins in western Cordillera, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Eisbacher, G.H.

    1984-04-01

    The late Mesozoic-Paleogene evolution of the Canadian Cordillera was dominated by accretion of elongate crustal blocks against the North American craton. Geologic and paleomagnetic evidence suggest that these exotic terranes dispersed from volcanic arcs and oceanic platforms and approached North America along anastomosing right-lateral faults with great cumulative displacement. Obduction of oceanic allochthons was followed by transpressive thickening and regional metamorphism of the cratonic margin in the mid-Jurassic. Strike-slip motion and emplacement of plutonic rocks continued near relict sutures and reactivated deep faults. Sedimentary basins related to strike-slip faults formed by elongation of accreted terranes (''Stikinia'' and ''Wrangellia'') and by shear within the deformed cratonic margin zone (''Rocky Mountain Trench''). Subsidence is reflected by northwest-southeast stretching along pull-apart structures, and by massive influx of turbidites from incipient collision zones and relict are relief. It was interrupted and outlived by rotation of blocks, folding of basin sediments, and vigorous progradation of deltaic-fluvial clastics from rising collision belts. Transition from predominant transtension to prevailing transpression is diachronous from basin to basin. Near the Stikine-Wrangellia collision zone (Bowser basin), it occurred in the Late Jurassic; along the Stikine-Wrangellia border it occurred in the mid to Late Cretaceous. Only small nonmarine basins developed in the Rocky Mountain Trench system, which, in its southern-most part, was closed completely during Paleogene thrust faulting. The strike-slip basins of the western Canadian Cordillera were subject to high regional heat flow and also suffered from widespread intrusion of paleogene granitoids. Therefore, they are generally poor oil and gas prospects.

  10. Inducing Therapeutic Hypothermia in Cardiac Arrest Caused by Lightning Strike.

    PubMed

    Scantling, Dane; Frank, Brian; Pontell, Mathew E; Medinilla, Sandra

    2016-09-01

    Only limited clinical scenarios are grounds for induction of therapeutic hypothermia. Its use in traumatic cardiac arrests, including those from lightning strikes, is not well studied. Nonshockable cardiac arrest rhythms have only recently been included in resuscitation guidelines. We report a case of full neurological recovery with therapeutic hypothermia after a lightning-induced pulseless electrical activity cardiac arrest in an 18-year-old woman. We also review the important pathophysiology of lightning-induced cardiac arrest and neurologic sequelae, elaborate upon the mechanism of therapeutic hypothermia, and add case-based evidence in favor of the use of targeted temperature management in lightning-induced cardiac arrest. PMID:27451005

  11. Biomechanics: deadly strike mechanism of a mantis shrimp.

    PubMed

    Patek, S N; Korff, W L; Caldwell, R L

    2004-04-22

    Stomatopods (mantis shrimp) are well known for the feeding appendages they use to smash shells and impale fish. Here we show that the peacock mantis shrimp (Odontodactylus scyllarus) generates an extremely fast strike that requires major energy storage and release, which we explain in terms of a saddle-shaped exoskeletal spring mechanism. High-speed images reveal the formation and collapse of vapour bubbles next to the prey due to swift movement of the appendage towards it, indicating that O. scyllarus may use destructive cavitation forces to damage its prey. PMID:15103366

  12. Severe rhabdomyolysis without renal injury associated with lightning strike.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Norberto; Aldana, Norberto Navarrete

    2013-01-01

    Lightning strikes cause injuries in multiple systems and organs. Early recognition of lightning injury syndromes and anticipation of harmful complications can improve outcomes for these patients. The author has presented a case report of a patient who was struck by lightning and exhibited extensive soft tissue injury with myoglobinuria. He was treated with delayed fasciotomy and had evidence of severe muscle injury with markedly elevated creatine kinase levels that gradually improved with aggressive fluid infusion. The patient did not require alkalinization of urine, mannitol, or dialysis, and his renal function remained normal.

  13. Inducing Therapeutic Hypothermia in Cardiac Arrest Caused by Lightning Strike.

    PubMed

    Scantling, Dane; Frank, Brian; Pontell, Mathew E; Medinilla, Sandra

    2016-09-01

    Only limited clinical scenarios are grounds for induction of therapeutic hypothermia. Its use in traumatic cardiac arrests, including those from lightning strikes, is not well studied. Nonshockable cardiac arrest rhythms have only recently been included in resuscitation guidelines. We report a case of full neurological recovery with therapeutic hypothermia after a lightning-induced pulseless electrical activity cardiac arrest in an 18-year-old woman. We also review the important pathophysiology of lightning-induced cardiac arrest and neurologic sequelae, elaborate upon the mechanism of therapeutic hypothermia, and add case-based evidence in favor of the use of targeted temperature management in lightning-induced cardiac arrest.

  14. When nurses and teachers strike: public perceptions of 'the betrayal'.

    PubMed

    Bessant, J; D'Cruz, J V

    1989-01-01

    This article examines how the public perceived both teachers and nurses during their first strikes in Victoria. How did the community react when two previously trusted groups of essential service workers "closed shop" and walked out. Reactions towards the teachers' and nurses' actions by the press, politicians and those members of the public who expressed themselves via the media are examined. While many of the arguments used in the public debate were similar, the most significant difference in the public's reaction was related to the gender of the leaders of the respective industrial organizations.

  15. Adolescent Psychological and Academic Adjustment as a Function of Discrepancies between Actual and Ideal Self-Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gail M.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Laursen, Brett

    2010-01-01

    Actual-ideal discrepancies are associated with adolescent emotional distress and there is evidence that the size of discrepancies matters. However, the direction of discrepancies has not been examined, perhaps due to limitations of widely used self-discrepancy measures. Two hundred and twelve 7th, 9th and 11th grade students (59% female) in a…

  16. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment.

    PubMed

    Kay, Daniel B; Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H

    2015-02-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement reported by older adults with insomnia. Participants were 63 adults >60 years of age with insomnia, and 51 controls. At baseline, participants completed sleep diaries for 7 days while wearing wrist actigraphs. After receiving cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, insomnia patients repeated this sleep assessment. Sleep discrepancy variables were calculated by subtracting actigraphic sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from respective self-reported estimates, pre- and post-treatment. Mean level and night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy were investigated. Baseline sleep discrepancies were compared between groups. Pre-post-treatment changes in Insomnia Severity Index score and sleep discrepancy variables were investigated within older adults with insomnia. Sleep discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable across nights in older adults with insomnia than controls, P ≤ 0.001 for all. Treatment with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia was associated with significant reduction in the Insomnia Severity Index score that correlated with changes in mean level and night-to-night variability in wake after sleep onset discrepancy, P < 0.001 for all. Study of sleep discrepancy patterns may guide more targeted treatments for late-life insomnia.

  17. Analysis of surface structures of major strike-slip faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Shang Yu; Neubauer, Franz

    2013-04-01

    Strike-slip faults commonly appear with complex fractures and deformation structures on the surface, which also reveal the 3-D geometry with variable structures at depth. The aim of our study is finding the systematic features and correlations of various surface expressions including width, length, height and angle (to the main fault trace) of individual structures like pressure ridges, sag ponds, riedel and anti-riedel faults and oversteps, and also doing a classification with these data. The variation might by caused by distinct convergence angles along strike-slip fault. We study the above mentioned properties on Altyn Tagh fault (ATF), Kunlun, San Andrea and Greendale (Darfield earthquake) faults, which are large strike-slip tectonic structures accommodating major displacement along plate boundaries. Especially the recent events of 2001 Kunlun earthquake and 2010 Darfield earthquake allow a detailed study of structures formed by a single earthquake. Along the fault valley of a 610 km segment of ATF, many large-scale pressure ridges, few pressure basins and horizontal offsets of wadi channels were found; similarly, around 20 features with large scale pressure ridges and pressure basins are found in Carrizo Plain of San Andreas fault. Surface ruptures are uncommon, and dominated by anti-riedels in the case of the Altyn fault. Interpretations show the range of length, width and height in pressure ridges located between 150 and ~6400 m, 35 and ~800 m, and 1 to ~80 m, respectively, along ATF and 255 to ~5750 m, 33 to ~800 m, 2 to ~65 m in Carrizo plain of San Andreas fault. These parameters exhibit a good correlation among each other implying a common cause. Compared with these two strike-slip faults, fault valley portions of the Greendale and Kunlun faults show more surface ruptures for instance riedel shears and anti-riedel structures, which have been caused by the last major earthquake, and also the scale of deformations along the ATF and San Andreas fault is

  18. A rationale for treating leg length discrepancy using photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisland, Stuart K.; Johnson, Crystal; Diab, Mohammed; Wilson, Brian C.; Burch, Shane

    2005-09-01

    This study investigates the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in regulating bone development with a view to its potential role in treating Juvenile leg length discrepancy (LLD). Transgenic mice expressing the luciferase firefly gene upon activation of a promoter sequence specific to the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene were subject to benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid (BPD-MA)-mediated PDT in the right, tibial epiphyseal growth plate at the age of 3 weeks. BPD-MA was administered intracardially (2mg/kg) followed 10 mins later by a laser light (690 +/- 5 nm) at a range of doses (5-27J, 50 mW output) delivered either as a single or repeat regimen (x2-3). Contra-lateral legs served as no-light controls. Further controls included animals that received light treatment in the absence of photosensitizer or no treatment. Mice were imaged for VEGF related bioluminescence (photons/sec/steradian) at t= 0, 24, 48, 72 h and 1-4 weeks post PDT. FaxitronTM x-ray images provided accurate assessment of bone morphometry. Upon sacrifice, the tibia and femur of the treated and untreated limbs were harvested, imaged and measured again and prepared for histology. A number of animals were sacrificed at 24 h post PDT to allow immunohistochemical staining for CD31, VEGF and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1 alpha) within the bone. PDT-treated (10 J, x2) mice displayed enhanced bioluminescence at the treatment site (and ear nick) for up to 4 weeks post treatment while control mice were bioluminescent at the ear-nick site only. Repeat regimens provided greater shortening of the limb than the corresponding single treatment. PDT-treated limbs were shorter by 3-4 mm on average as compared to the contra lateral and light only controls (10 J, x2). Immunohistochemistry confirmed the enhanced expression VEGF and CD31 at 4 weeks post-treatment although no increase in HIF-1α was evident at either 24 h or 4 weeks post PDT treatment. Results confirm the utility of PDT to provide localized

  19. Relationship of Gender Discrepancy to Psychological Correlates of Disordered Eating in Female Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Courtney E.; Petrie, Trent A.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship of gender discrepancy to a broad range of physical and psychological correlates of eating disorders in 144 female undergraduates. Findings reveal that women with no gender discrepancy were psychologically healthier in many aspects than women who wanted to be more masculine or more feminine. (RJM)

  20. Understanding Parent-Child Social Informant Discrepancy in Youth with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Matthew D.; Calhoun, Casey D.; Mikami, Amori Yee; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2012-01-01

    We investigated discrepancies between parent- and self-reported social functioning among youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Three distinct samples showed discrepancies indicating that parents viewed their children as performing one standard deviation below a standardization mean, while youth viewed themselves as comparably-skilled…

  1. Intergenerational Value Discrepancies in Immigrant and Host-National Families and Their Impact on Psychological Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, David Lackland; Virta, Erkki

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between intergenerational value discrepancies and psychological adaptation among adolescents with immigrant background in Norway and Sweden. Results indicated that immigrant adolescents on the whole neither differed from their host peers with respect to psychological adaptation nor on value discrepancies. Value…

  2. 48 CFR 242.1405 - Discrepancies incident to shipment of supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Traffic and Transportation Management 242.1405 Discrepancies incident to shipment of supplies. (a) See... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrepancies incident...

  3. Working Memory in Children with Learning Disabilities: Rethinking the Criterion of Discrepancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehler, Claudia; Schuchardt, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    The criterion of discrepancy is used to distinguish children with learning disorders from children with intellectual disabilities. The justification of the criterion of discrepancy for the diagnosis of learning disorders relies on the conviction of fundamental differences between children with learning difficulties with versus without discrepancy…

  4. Does Hot Water Freeze Faster Than Cold? Or Why Mpemba's Ice Cream Is a Discrepant Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Bill

    1993-01-01

    A discrepant event is a happening contrary to our current beliefs. Discrepant events are said to be useful in clarifying concepts. This is one of the interesting features of current theories of constructivism. The story of Mpemba's ice cream is quite well known, but it is the educational aspects of the experiment that are of interest in this…

  5. Nonverbal and Verbal Cognitive Discrepancy Profiles in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Influence of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ankenman, Katy; Elgin, Jenna; Sullivan, Katherine; Vincent, Logan; Bernier, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that discrepant cognitive abilities are more common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and may indicate an important ASD endophenotype. The current study examined the frequency of IQ discrepancy profiles (nonverbal IQ greater than verbal IQ [NVIQ greater than VIQ], verbal IQ greater than nonverbal IQ [VIQ greater…

  6. Can the Media Affect Us? Social Comparison, Self-Discrepancy, and the Thin Ideal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessenoff, Gayle R.

    2006-01-01

    The current study explored body image self-discrepancy as moderator and social comparison as mediator in the effects on women from thin-ideal images in the media. Female undergraduates (N = 112) with high and low body image self-discrepancy were exposed to advertisements either with thin women (thin ideal) or without thin women…

  7. Discrepancy between Mother and Child Reports of Parental Knowledge and the Relation to Risk Behavior Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Matusiewicz, Alexis K.; Schreiber, Whitney M.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2011-01-01

    The study examined discrepancies in mother and child reports of parental knowledge (PK) of a child's whereabouts, activities, and companions, as well as the extent to which discrepancies in reports of PK are related to child risk-taking behavior concurrently and prospectively across two time points. The sample consisted of 219 mother and early…

  8. Maximizing the Impact of Program Evaluation: A Discrepancy-Based Process for Educational Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Jeffrey A.

    This paper describes a formative/summative process for educational program evaluation, which is appropriate for higher education programs and is based on M. Provus' Discrepancy Evaluation Model and the principles of instructional design. The Discrepancy Based Methodology for Educational Program Evaluation facilitates systematic and detailed…

  9. Great Expectations: Examining the Discrepancy between Expectations and Experiences on College Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleitz, Jacob D.; MacDougall, Alexandra E.; Terry, Robert A.; Buckley, M. Ronald; Campbell, Nicole J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to build upon previous efforts evaluating the degree to which the discrepancy between student expectations and experiences can result in greater rates of attrition in education. Data were collected from 225 students at a large Midwestern public university and analyzed to assess the discrepancy between expectations…

  10. The Effect of Behavioral Commitment and Ability Discrepancy on Attitudinal Persistence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DasGupta, Bikram; Liang, Ann

    1988-01-01

    Manipulated behavioral commitment and negative task discrepancy to observe effects on attitudinal persistence on feminist issues and perceived threat of trivia test score. Results indicated that non-active feminists (N=20) perceived greater threat from discrepant test score than did active feminists (N=20) and showed greater agreement to feminist…

  11. 19 CFR 125.34 - Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's...

  12. 19 CFR 125.34 - Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's...

  13. 19 CFR 125.34 - Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's...

  14. 19 CFR 125.34 - Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's...

  15. 19 CFR 125.34 - Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's...

  16. 75 FR 67453 - Identity Theft Red Flags and Address Discrepancies Under the Fair and Accurate Credit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Identity Theft Red Flags and Address Discrepancies Under the Fair and...: Identity Theft Red Flags and Address Discrepancies under the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of... issue jointly guidelines for financial institutions and creditors regarding identity theft with...

  17. Discrepancies, Responses, and Patterns: Selecting a Method of Assessment for Specific Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihori, Derek; Olvera, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act allows three methods of determining whether a student qualifies for special education as a student with a specific learning disability (SLD). The first and most controversial is the Discrepancy model, which requires a significant discrepancy between the student's intellectual ability and…

  18. 12 CFR 717.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Examples of reasonable policies and procedures. (i) Comparing the information in the consumer report... CREDIT UNIONS FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies... applies to a user of consumer reports (user) that receives a notice of address discrepancy from a...

  19. 12 CFR 571.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Examples of reasonable policies and procedures. (i) Comparing the information in the consumer report... CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal... consumer reports (user) that receives a notice of address discrepancy from a consumer reporting...

  20. 12 CFR 571.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Examples of reasonable policies and procedures. (i) Comparing the information in the consumer report... CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal... consumer reports (user) that receives a notice of address discrepancy from a consumer reporting...

  1. 12 CFR 717.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Examples of reasonable policies and procedures. (i) Comparing the information in the consumer report... CREDIT UNIONS FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies... applies to a user of consumer reports (user) that receives a notice of address discrepancy from a...

  2. Discrepancies Confer Vulnerability to Depressive Symptoms: A Three-Wave Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherry, Simon B.; Mackinnon, Sean P.; Macneil, Matthew A.; Fitzpatrick, Skye

    2013-01-01

    Discrepancies (i.e., a subjective sense of falling short of one's own standards) are a key part of the perfectionism construct. Theory suggests discrepancies confer vulnerability to depressive symptoms. Since most research in this area is cross-sectional, longitudinal research is needed to disentangle directionality of relationships and to permit…

  3. Self-discrepancy and reduced autobiographical memory specificity in ruminating students and depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Schoofs, Hanne; Hermans, Dirk; Griffith, James W; Raes, Filip

    2013-01-01

    This work uses self-discrepancies as a unifying framework to understand the relationship between autobiographical memory specificity (AMS) and components of rumination (reflection and brooding). Rumination can be triggered by the awareness of a discrepancy between one's current state of being and one's desired state of being. Such discrepancies may partly underlie the phenomenon of reduced AMS (a.k.a. overgeneral memory), which is a phenomenon of great clinical importance especially for depression. The aim of the present studies was to experimentally investigate the impact of a self-discrepancy manipulation on AMS in a student sample (Study 1) and in a depressed sample (Study 2). Results failed to reveal a direct effect of a self-discrepancy manipulation on AMS, but in both studies, actual-ideal discrepancies interacted with the reflection component of rumination with respect to memory specificity. In the self-discrepancy condition, there was a negative association between reflection and change in AMS: Higher reflection was associated with a greater decrease in AMS from pre- to post-testing. The results of these two studies suggest that the interplay between components of rumination and self-discrepancy has an effect on memory specificity.

  4. Discrepant Questioning as a Tool To Build Complex Mental Models of Respiration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rea-Ramirez, Mary Anne; Nunez-Oviedo, Maria C.

    Discrepant questioning is a teaching technique that can help students "unlearn" misconceptions and process science ideas for deep understanding. Discrepant questioning is a technique in which teachers question students in a way that requires them to examine their ideas or models, without giving information prematurely to the student or passing…

  5. College Students' Affective Distress: The Role of Expectation Discrepancies and Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agliata, Allison Kanter; Renk, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    The discrepancy between college students' performance and parents' expectations may be related to college students' affective distress. Further, the role that parent-college student communication reciprocity may play in the context of these discrepancies has not been examined. As a result, this study examined parent-college student expectation…

  6. The Discrepancy between Teachers' Beliefs and Practices: A Study of Kindergarten Teachers in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Wai Ling

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the discrepancy between teachers' beliefs and practices in Hong Kong kindergartens and the factors that influence this discrepancy. Three kindergartens, considered by the Hong Kong Education Bureau to be of varying quality, were chosen from different areas of Hong Kong. Questionnaires about teaching beliefs were administered to…

  7. Remembering and telling self-consistent and self-discrepant memories.

    PubMed

    Mutlutürk, Aysu; Tekcan, Ali I

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued that memories that are inconsistent with one's self would differ from those that are consistent with the self. The present study addresses retrieval, phenomenology, rehearsal and narrative characteristics of autobiographical memories that are consistent versus discrepant with one's self. One hundred participants were asked to recall one self-consistent and one self-discrepant memory as well as an episode of telling these memories to others. They also filled out the Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire and the Centrality of Event Scale for each memory. Results showed no difference between self-consistent and self-discrepant memories in retrieval time, specificity or phenomenology. However, self-discrepant memory narratives contained more meaning-making statements and less autonomy than self-consistent memories. Compared to self-consistent memories, self-discrepant memories were told to fewer people, and listener responses were more negative when they were told. Results are discussed in relation to the functions these memories serve.

  8. The regression-based discrepancy definition of learning disability: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Cahan, Sorel; Fono, Dafna; Nirel, Ronit

    2012-01-01

    The regression-based discrepancy definition of learning disabilities has been suggested by Rutter and Yule as an improvement of the well-known and much criticized achievement-intelligence discrepancy definition, whereby the examinee's predicted reading attainment is substituted for the intelligence score in the discrepancy expression. Even though the regression-based discrepancy definition has been with us for more than 30 years, critical examination of this approach is scarce. This article fills this lacuna by examining the implications of two variables in the model on the diagnosis of learning disabilities: (a) the effect of predictive validity on the proportion of examinees identified as learning disabled, and (b) the effect of the predictor's identity on the identity of the examinees diagnosed with learning disabilities. Implications of these effects concerning the validity of the regression-based discrepancy model and of the results of its implementation are discussed.

  9. Identifying and Characterizing Discrepancies Between Test and Analysis Results of Compression-Loaded Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornburgh, Robert P.; Hilburger, Mark W.

    2005-01-01

    Results from a study to identify and characterize discrepancies between validation tests and high-fidelity analyses of compression-loaded panels are presented. First, potential sources of the discrepancies in both the experimental method and corresponding high-fidelity analysis models were identified. Then, a series of laboratory tests and numerical simulations were conducted to quantify the discrepancies and develop test and analysis methods to account for the discrepancies. The results indicate that the discrepancies between the validation tests and high-fidelity analyses can be attributed to imperfections in the test fixture and specimen geometry; test-fixture-induced changes in specimen geometry; and test-fixture-induced friction on the loaded edges of the test specimen. The results also show that accurate predictions of the panel response can be obtained when these specimen imperfections and edge conditions are accounted for in the analysis. The errors in the tests and analyses, and the methods used to characterize these errors are presented.

  10. The Right to Strike in Public Employment. Key Issues Series--No. 15. Second Edition, Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterret, Grace; Aboud, Antone

    Since the 1960s, the number of strikes by public employees, especially local government employees, has increased, and the number of employees belonging to unions or associations has about tripled. Recently, attention has been focused on strikes by public employees as a result of the strike in 1981 by air traffic controllers and their subsequent…

  11. Causes and Consequences of Strikes in New York Public School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresswell, Anthony M.; Gerdin, Carolyn N.

    This study tests the fit of competing models of strike causes on a sample of public school districts in New York. The models are based on differing assumptions. One is that strikes are the result of mistakes or imperfect information; the other is that strikes are rational choices made in expectation of gain. The differences in these views are…

  12. Magma storage in a strike-slip caldera.

    PubMed

    Saxby, J; Gottsmann, J; Cashman, K; Gutiérrez, E

    2016-01-01

    Silicic calderas form during explosive volcanic eruptions when magma withdrawal triggers collapse along bounding faults. The nature of specific interactions between magmatism and tectonism in caldera-forming systems is, however, unclear. Regional stress patterns may control the location and geometry of magma reservoirs, which in turn may control the spatial and temporal development of faults. Here we provide new insight into strike-slip volcano-tectonic relations by analysing Bouguer gravity data from Ilopango caldera, El Salvador, which has a long history of catastrophic explosive eruptions. The observed low gravity beneath the caldera is aligned along the principal horizontal stress orientations of the El Salvador Fault Zone. Data inversion shows that the causative low-density structure extends to ca. 6 km depth, which we interpret as a shallow plumbing system comprising a fractured hydrothermal reservoir overlying a magmatic reservoir with vol% exsolved vapour. Fault-controlled localization of magma constrains potential vent locations for future eruptions. PMID:27447932

  13. A Probabilistic, Facility-Centric Approach to Lightning Strike Location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, Lisa L.; Roeder, William p.; Merceret, Francis J.

    2012-01-01

    A new probabilistic facility-centric approach to lightning strike location has been developed. This process uses the bivariate Gaussian distribution of probability density provided by the current lightning location error ellipse for the most likely location of a lightning stroke and integrates it to determine the probability that the stroke is inside any specified radius of any location, even if that location is not centered on or even with the location error ellipse. This technique is adapted from a method of calculating the probability of debris collisionith spacecraft. Such a technique is important in spaceport processing activities because it allows engineers to quantify the risk of induced current damage to critical electronics due to nearby lightning strokes. This technique was tested extensively and is now in use by space launch organizations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Future applications could include forensic meteorology.

  14. [Intrinsic ureteral endometriosis: description of a striking instance].

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Alessandro; Finotto, Elena; Zambolin, Tiziano; Fisogni, Simona; Simeone, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic ureteral endometriosis is a very rare condition. A 41 y. o. woman with right hydroureteronephrosis and other aspecific symptoms came to our attention. The CT scan showed an ureteral obstacle causing the hydroureteronephrosis. She underwent ureterorenoscopy with biopsies of the lesion that did not result to be diriment. Suspecting a ureteral neoplasm, the patient then underwent ureteral resection and ureterocystoneostomy, and the extemporary histological examination resulted as endometriosis. The abdominal exploration showed a parametrial and a peritoneal growth - both compatible with the extemporary histological examination - that were also excised. The post-operative course was uneventful. The definitive hystological examination confirmed the perioperatory diagnosis. Intrinsic ureteral endometriosis is confirmed as a rare pathology with an indefinite clinical presentation; its typical presentation, namely cyclic hematuria, seems to be an anecdotal feature. Therefore the diagnostics of intrinsic ureteral endometriosis is still difficult even despite such a striking presentation.

  15. Magma storage in a strike-slip caldera.

    PubMed

    Saxby, J; Gottsmann, J; Cashman, K; Gutiérrez, E

    2016-07-22

    Silicic calderas form during explosive volcanic eruptions when magma withdrawal triggers collapse along bounding faults. The nature of specific interactions between magmatism and tectonism in caldera-forming systems is, however, unclear. Regional stress patterns may control the location and geometry of magma reservoirs, which in turn may control the spatial and temporal development of faults. Here we provide new insight into strike-slip volcano-tectonic relations by analysing Bouguer gravity data from Ilopango caldera, El Salvador, which has a long history of catastrophic explosive eruptions. The observed low gravity beneath the caldera is aligned along the principal horizontal stress orientations of the El Salvador Fault Zone. Data inversion shows that the causative low-density structure extends to ca. 6 km depth, which we interpret as a shallow plumbing system comprising a fractured hydrothermal reservoir overlying a magmatic reservoir with vol% exsolved vapour. Fault-controlled localization of magma constrains potential vent locations for future eruptions.

  16. Evaluating fault rupture hazard for strike-slip earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.; Cao, T.; Dawson, Tim; Frankel, A.; Wills, C.; Schwartz, D.; ,

    2004-01-01

    We present fault displacement data, regressions, and a methodology to calculate in both a probabilistic and deterministic framework the fault rupture hazard for strike-slip faults. To assess this hazard we consider: (1) the size of the earthquake and probability that it will rupture to the surface, (2) the rate of all potential earthquakes on the fault (3) the distance of the site along and from the mapped fault, (4) the complexity of the fault and quality of the fault mapping, (5) the size of the structure that will be placed at the site, and (6) the potential and size of displacements along or near the fault. Probabilistic fault rupture hazard analysis should be an important consideration in design of structures or lifelines that are located within about 50m of well-mapped active faults.

  17. Magma storage in a strike-slip caldera

    PubMed Central

    Saxby, J.; Gottsmann, J.; Cashman, K.; Gutiérrez, E.

    2016-01-01

    Silicic calderas form during explosive volcanic eruptions when magma withdrawal triggers collapse along bounding faults. The nature of specific interactions between magmatism and tectonism in caldera-forming systems is, however, unclear. Regional stress patterns may control the location and geometry of magma reservoirs, which in turn may control the spatial and temporal development of faults. Here we provide new insight into strike-slip volcano-tectonic relations by analysing Bouguer gravity data from Ilopango caldera, El Salvador, which has a long history of catastrophic explosive eruptions. The observed low gravity beneath the caldera is aligned along the principal horizontal stress orientations of the El Salvador Fault Zone. Data inversion shows that the causative low-density structure extends to ca. 6 km depth, which we interpret as a shallow plumbing system comprising a fractured hydrothermal reservoir overlying a magmatic reservoir with vol% exsolved vapour. Fault-controlled localization of magma constrains potential vent locations for future eruptions. PMID:27447932

  18. Water accumulation below Europa's strike-slip faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalousova, K.; Tobie, G.; Soucek, O.; Choblet, G.; Cadek, O.

    2015-10-01

    The onset of melting below Europa's recently active strike-slip faults and the gravitational/thermal stability of partially molten ice are investigated by solving the equations for a two-phase compressible mixture of water ice and liquid water in 2D geometry. As a first step, the relative motion between ice and water is neglected, i.e. the meltwater is transported by the flowing ice. Our preliminary results suggest that for sufficiently large shear heating rate of˜2×10-4W m-3 melting can occur at depths as shallow as˜3km below Europa's surface. Moreover, the reservoirs of partially molten ice with˜5-10% of liquid water can remain within the cold lid for a few hundreds of kiloyears if the underlying ice is sufficiently cold (vis-cous) and free of fractures.

  19. A striking reduction of simple loudness adaptation in autism

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Rebecca P.; Aylward, Jessica; White, Sarah; Rees, Geraint

    2015-01-01

    Reports of sensory disturbance, such as loudness sensitivity or sound intolerance, are ubiquitous in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) but a mechanistic explanation for these perceptual differences is lacking. Here we tested adaptation to loudness, a process that regulates incoming sensory input, in adults with ASD and matched controls. Simple loudness adaptation (SLA) is a fundamental adaptive process that reduces the subjective loudness of quiet steady-state sounds in the environment over time, whereas induced loudness adaptation (ILA) is a means of generating a reduction in the perceived volume of louder sounds. ASD participants showed a striking reduction in magnitude and rate of SLA relative to age and ability-matched typical adults, but in contrast ILA remained intact. Furthermore, rate of SLA predicted sensory sensitivity coping strategies in the ASD group. These results provide the first evidence that compromised neural mechanisms governing fundamental adaptive processes might account for sound sensitivity in ASD. PMID:26537694

  20. Magma storage in a strike-slip caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxby, J.; Gottsmann, J.; Cashman, K.; Gutiérrez, E.

    2016-07-01

    Silicic calderas form during explosive volcanic eruptions when magma withdrawal triggers collapse along bounding faults. The nature of specific interactions between magmatism and tectonism in caldera-forming systems is, however, unclear. Regional stress patterns may control the location and geometry of magma reservoirs, which in turn may control the spatial and temporal development of faults. Here we provide new insight into strike-slip volcano-tectonic relations by analysing Bouguer gravity data from Ilopango caldera, El Salvador, which has a long history of catastrophic explosive eruptions. The observed low gravity beneath the caldera is aligned along the principal horizontal stress orientations of the El Salvador Fault Zone. Data inversion shows that the causative low-density structure extends to ca. 6 km depth, which we interpret as a shallow plumbing system comprising a fractured hydrothermal reservoir overlying a magmatic reservoir with vol% exsolved vapour. Fault-controlled localization of magma constrains potential vent locations for future eruptions.

  1. Electrical Characterizations of Lightning Strike Protection Techniques for Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szatkowski, George N.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Mielnik, John J.

    2009-01-01

    The growing application of composite materials in commercial aircraft manufacturing has significantly increased the risk of aircraft damage from lightning strikes. Composite aircraft designs require new mitigation strategies and engineering practices to maintain the same level of safety and protection as achieved by conductive aluminum skinned aircraft. Researchers working under the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project are investigating lightning damage on composite materials to support the development of new mitigation, diagnosis & prognosis techniques to overcome the increased challenges associated with lightning protection on composite aircraft. This paper provides an overview of the electrical characterizations being performed to support IVHM lightning damage diagnosis research on composite materials at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  2. Reactivated strike slip faults: examples from north Cornwall, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Seog; Andrews, Jim R.; Sanderson, David J.

    2001-10-01

    Several strike-slip faults at Crackington Haven, UK show evidence of right-lateral movement with tip cracks and dilatational jogs, which have been reactivated by left-lateral strike-slip movement. Evidence for reactivation includes two slickenside striae on a single fault surface, two groups of tip cracks with different orientations and very low displacement gradients or negative (left-lateral) displacements at fault tips. Evidence for the relative age of the two strike-slip movements is (1) the first formed tip cracks associated with right-lateral slip are deformed, whereas the tip cracks formed during left-lateral slip show no deformation; (2) some of the tip cracks associated with right-lateral movement show left-lateral reactivation; and (3) left-lateral displacement is commonly recorded at the tips of dominantly right-lateral faults. The orientation of the tip cracks to the main fault is 30-70° clockwise for right-lateral slip, and 20-40° counter-clockwise for left-lateral slip. The structure formed by this process of strike-slip reactivation is termed a "tree structure" because it is similar to a tree with branches. The angular difference between these two groups of tip cracks could be interpreted as due to different stress distribution (e.g., transtensional/transpressional, near-field or far-field stress), different fracture modes or fractures utilizing pre-existing planes of weakness. Most of the d- x profiles have similar patterns, which show low or negative displacement at the segment fault tips. Although the d- x profiles are complicated by fault segments and reactivation, they provide clear evidence for reactivation. Profiles that experienced two opposite slip movements show various shapes depending on the amount of displacement and the slip sequence. For a larger slip followed by a smaller slip with opposite sense, the profile would be expected to record very low or reverse displacement at fault tips due to late-stage tip propagation. Whereas for a

  3. Deformation patters above intrusive complexes in strike-slip settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, G.; van Wyk de Vries, B.

    2003-04-01

    Long-lived intrusions below volcanic complexes are weak, ductile zones in the crust. In volcanic areas with strike-slip deformation pull-apart complexes are often associated with volcanoes, especially calderas. The Masaya-Las Sierras volcano in Nicaragua is a basaltic caldera complex situated in a developing pull-apart (Managua Graben). The pull-apart faults are responsible for highly damaging earthquakes (Managua 1931, 68, 72). We raise the hypothesis that pull-apart and caldera intrusive system are interrelated and that joint surveillance of faults and volcano could provide the best monitoring strategy. To test relationships between intrusive complex and tectonics we have run a series of ‘sand-box’ analogue models. Displacement is created by a motor on a basal discontinuity and computer-controlled. The models have a lower ductile crust (silicone layer), an upper brittle crust (sand and plaster), and an intrusion made of silicone or varying density and viscosity. Experiments show that a pull apart always forms around a ductile intrusion, irrespective of its density, however that a non-ductile intrusive complex has no significant influence. Whatever the shape of the intrusion, the fault pattern forms a typical rhombohedral pull-apart shape. Fault patterns spaying out from the models resemble closely the Managua fault pattern. With large displacements two zones of thrusting were observed in the system. Such deformation is not present at Masaya, but may be at other calderas with more active strike-slip activity. We provide one possible example in the Atacama, N Chile.

  4. Lightning Strike Induced Damage Mechanisms of Carbon Fiber Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Hirohide

    Composite materials have a wide application in aerospace, automotive, and other transportation industries, because of the superior structural and weight performances. Since carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites possess a much lower electrical conductivity as compared to traditional metallic materials utilized for aircraft structures, serious concern about damage resistance/tolerance against lightning has been rising. Main task of this study is to clarify the lightning damage mechanism of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy polymer composites to help further development of lightning strike protection. The research on lightning damage to carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites is quite challenging, and there has been little study available until now. In order to tackle this issue, building block approach was employed. The research was started with the development of supporting technologies such as a current impulse generator to simulate a lightning strike in a laboratory. Then, fundamental electrical properties and fracture behavior of CFRPs exposed to high and low level current impulse were investigated using simple coupon specimens, followed by extensive parametric investigations in terms of different prepreg materials frequently used in aerospace industry, various stacking sequences, different lightning intensity, and lightning current waveforms. It revealed that the thermal resistance capability of polymer matrix was one of the most influential parameters on lightning damage resistance of CFRPs. Based on the experimental findings, the semi-empirical analysis model for predicting the extent of lightning damage was established. The model was fitted through experimental data to determine empirical parameters and, then, showed a good capability to provide reliable predictions for other test conditions and materials. Finally, structural element level lightning tests were performed to explore more practical situations. Specifically, filled-hole CFRP plates and patch

  5. Precision Strike Training in Lean Manufacturing: A Workplace Literacy Guidebook [and] Final Report on Precision Strike Workplace Literacy Training at CertainTeed Corporation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Alliance of Business, Inc., Washington, DC.

    CertainTeed's Precision Strike training program was designed to close the gaps between the current status of its workplace and where that work force needed to be to compete successfully in global markets. Precision Strike included Skills and Knowledge in Lifelong Learning (SKILL) customized, computerized lessons in basic skills, one-on-one…

  6. Strikes by nursing personnel: a challenge for nurse managers in KwaZulu-Natal Province.

    PubMed

    Kunene, P J; Nzimande, P N

    1996-09-01

    A descriptive survey was conducted to investigate strikes by nursing personnel as a challenge for nurse managers in KwaZulu-Natal Province. Data was collected from nurse managers and various categories of nursing personnel excluding student and pupil nurses. Results confirmed that patient care is adversely affected by nurses' strikes. There is division in opinions on the nurses' strikes. It is recommended that minimising or prevention of nurses' strikes should be a joint responsibility of all stakeholders in health care, that is employing authorities, management, nursing personnel and consumers of health care. Long term planning for continued, safe patient care during strikes should be given priority attention.

  7. Lightning strike density for the contiguous United States from thunderstorm duration records

    SciTech Connect

    MacGorman, D.R.; Maier, M.W.; Rust, W.D.

    1984-05-01

    An improved lightning ground strike climatology has been obtained from thunderstorm duration data recorded by 450 air weather stations. From lightning strike location data collected in Florida and Oklahoma, it was found that strike density could be estimated from thunderstorm duration by the equation N/sub s/ = 0.054H/sup 1/ /sup 1/, where N/sub s/ is the number of strikes per square kilometer and H is thunderstorm duration in hours. This relationship was applied to thunderstorm duration data from the aviation stations to obtain lightning strike density for the contiguous United States.

  8. The role of self-image concerns in discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Laws, Valerie L; Rivera, Luis M

    2012-11-01

    Four experiments examined the hypothesis that individuals who hold discrepant implicit and explicit self-esteem possess relatively strong self-image concerns. As a result, they may act irrationally when expressing sexual health attitudes. In support of the hypothesis, Experiments 1a and 1b demonstrate that large self-esteem discrepancy participants possess strong implicit self-image ambivalence relative to small self-esteem discrepancy participants. In Experiments 2 and 3, participants who varied in self-esteem discrepancies received either negative or positive (or no) feedback on an intelligence test, and then they were given an opportunity to express implicit and explicit attitudes toward condoms. Large self-esteem discrepancy participants who received a self-threat responded irrationally and expressed relatively strong negative implicit (but not explicit) attitudes toward condoms. However, this detrimental effect was completely reversed following a self-affirmation to large discrepancy participants. The implicit and explicit attitudes toward condoms of small discrepancy participants were unaffected by a self-threat or a self-affirmation.

  9. A graphic method for timing the correction of leg-length discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, D M; Cole, W G

    1995-09-01

    We have developed a clinical method for the graphic recording, analysis and planning of treatment of leg-length discrepancy during growth. Initially, the clinically determined discrepancy is plotted against the chronological age yearly, and then in late childhood at six-monthly intervals. CT and measurements of skeletal age are made in middle and late childhood to confirm the clinical findings. In a prospective study in 20 children, we observed that only eight had a linear increase in discrepancy. The observed pattern of increase was therefore used to estimate the mature discrepancy. Epiphyseodesis reference slopes were used to determine the most appropriate time and type of epiphyseodesis. In all children, the leg-length discrepancy at maturity was within 1 cm of the predicted amount. Changes in discrepancy due to leg lengthening or correction of deformity were also plotted graphically. We conclude that the clinical graphic method is simple to use, takes into account the varying patterns of discrepancy, and minimises radiation dosage.

  10. Gender Role Discrepancy Stress, High-Risk Sexual Behavior, and Sexually Transmitted Disease.

    PubMed

    Reidy, Dennis E; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Gentile, Brittany; Berke, Danielle S; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-02-01

    Nearly 20 million new sexually transmitted infections occur every year in the United States. Traditionally, men have demonstrated much greater risk for contraction of and mortality from STDs perhaps because they tend to engage in a number of risky sexual activities. Research on masculinity suggests that gender roles influence males' sexual health by encouraging risk-taking behavior, discouraging access to health services, and narrowly defining their roles as partners. However, despite the propensity of highly masculine men to engage in high-risk sexual behavior, there is reason to suspect that men at the other end of the continuum may still be driven to engage in similar high-risk behaviors as a consequence of gender socialization. Discrepancy stress is a form of gender role stress that occurs when men fail to live up to the ideal manhood derived from societal prescriptions (i.e., Gender Role Discrepancy). In the present study, we surveyed a national sample of 600 men via Amazon Mechanical Turk to assess perceived gender role discrepancy, experience of discrepancy stress, and the associations with risky sexual behavior and potential contraction of STDs. Results indicated that men who believe they are less masculine than the typical man (i.e., gender role discrepancy) and experience distress stemming from this discrepancy (i.e., discrepancy stress) engage in high-risk sexual behavior and are subsequently diagnosed with more STDs. Findings are discussed in relation to implications for primary prevention strategies.

  11. En Route to Depression: Self-Esteem Discrepancies and Habitual Rumination.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Wendy J; Hine, Donald W

    2016-02-01

    Dual-process models of cognitive vulnerability to depression suggest that some individuals possess discrepant implicit and explicit self-views, such as high explicit and low implicit self-esteem (fragile self-esteem) or low explicit and high implicit self-esteem (damaged self-esteem). This study investigated whether individuals with discrepant self-esteem may employ depressive rumination in an effort to reduce discrepancy-related dissonance, and whether the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and future depressive symptoms varies as a function of rumination tendencies. Hierarchical regressions examined whether self-esteem discrepancy was associated with rumination in an Australian undergraduate sample at Time 1 (N = 306; M(age) = 29.9), and whether rumination tendencies moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms assessed 3 months later (n = 160). Damaged self-esteem was associated with rumination at Time 1. As hypothesized, rumination moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms at Time 2, where fragile self-esteem and high rumination tendencies at Time 1 predicted the highest levels of subsequent dysphoria. Results are consistent with dual-process propositions that (a) explicit self-regulation strategies may be triggered when explicit and implicit self-beliefs are incongruent, and (b) rumination may increase the likelihood of depression by expending cognitive resources and/or amplifying negative implicit biases.

  12. Effect of self-discrepancy on specificity of autobiographical memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Schoofs, Hanne; Hermans, Dirk; Raes, Filip

    2012-01-01

    Research using a cue word paradigm has consistently shown that depression, in both adults and adolescents, is associated with difficulties in retrieving specific autobiographical memories. Inspired by previous work stating that depressed feelings are related to a perceived discrepancy between attributes of the actual and the ideal self, the present study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that cues bringing discrepancies between the actual and ideal selves to the foreground might promote or facilitate the recall of overgeneral (instead of specific) autobiographical memories. In two studies adolescents provided autobiographical memories in response to 10 high-discrepant and 10 low-discrepant words. As predicted, results in both studies showed an effect of cue word discrepancy on the specificity of autobiographical memories such that participants retrieved a smaller proportion of specific and a greater proportion of overgeneral memories in response to high-discrepant words as compared to low-discrepant words. The findings are discussed in terms of the self-memory system (SMS) as a conceptual framework of autobiographical memory (Conway & Pleydell-Pearce, 2000).

  13. The Prevalence and Determinants of Controlled Substance Discrepancies in a Level I Trauma Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Anyanwu, Chukwuma; Egwim, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthcare institutions are often faced with challenges and accreditation requirements for improving treatment quality, reducing waste, and avoiding diversion of drugs, particularly controlled substances. Many automated systems have replaced manual systems but may be fraught with challenges, especially when multiple users are involved. Objective To describe the characteristics of controlled substance discrepancies observed in a Level I trauma hospital for Medicare. Methods Discrepancy data were captured for each user involved in a transaction for a controlled substance at the Level I trauma hospital (in Ben Taub Hospital, Houston, TX), and the information was stored in a computerized database repository. Data for the 1-year study period (from January 1 through December 31, 2013) were collected for Medicare beneficiaries, using an Excel 2013 spreadsheet, and were analyzed according to basic discrepancy characteristics and descriptive statistics. Results During the 12-month study period, 114,000 controlled substance discrepancies were found for 100,000 Medicare patients at this Level I trauma hospital. Vending activities accounted for the majority (52.6%) of these discrepancies. Discrepancies were most likely to occur on Wednesdays, and the medications involved most frequently were combination drugs of hydrocodone and acetaminophen. Conclusion Approximately 1 (1.14) discrepancy involving a controlled substance occurred for each Medicare patient treated at the study facility. Healthcare institutions need to improve their efforts to ensure high-quality care and prevent diversion of drugs. PMID:27606038

  14. San Andreas-sized Strike-slip Fault on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This mosaic of the south polar region of Jupiter's moon Europa shows the northern 290 kilometers (180 miles) of a strike-slip fault named Astypalaea Linea. The entire fault is about 810 kilometers (500 miles) long, about the size of the California portion of the San Andreas fault, which runs from the California-Mexico border north to the San Francisco Bay.

    In a strike-slip fault, two crustal blocks move horizontally past one another, similar to two opposing lanes of traffic. Overall motion along the fault seems to have followed a continuous narrow crack along the feature's entire length, with a path resembling steps on a staircase crossing zones that have been pulled apart. The images show that about 50 kilometers (30 miles) of displacement have taken place along the fault. The fault's opposite sides can be reconstructed like a puzzle, matching the shape of the sides and older, individual cracks and ridges broken by its movements.

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The red line marks the once active central crack of the fault. The black line outlines the fault zone, including material accumulated in the regions which have been pulled apart.

    Bends in the fault have allowed the surface to be pulled apart. This process created openings through which warmer, softer ice from below Europa's brittle ice shell surface, or frozen water from a possible subsurface ocean, could reach the surface. This upwelling of material formed large areas of new ice within the boundaries of the original fault. A similar pulling-apart phenomenon can be observed in the geological trough surrounding California's Salton Sea, in Death Valley and the Dead Sea. In those cases, the pulled-apart regions can include upwelled materials, but may be filled mostly by sedimentary and eroded material from above.

    One theory is that fault motion on Europa is induced by the pull of variable daily tides generated by Jupiter's gravitational tug on Europa. Tidal tension

  15. The assessment of lethal propeller strike injuries in sea mammals.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W; Winskog, Calle; Machado, Aaron; Boardman, Wayne

    2012-04-01

    Assessment of injuries in marine mammals may be required to help authorities determine whether human activity was involved. Three cases of marine animal deaths involving propeller blade strikes are reported to demonstrate characteristic features of such cases and diagnostic difficulties that may occur. Case 1: A juvenile New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) suffered two parallel linear incised wounds of the flank and died following small intestinal herniation. Case 2: An Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin neonate (Tursiops aduncus) died from a deeply incised wound of the left side of the head with shattering of the skull and laceration of the underlying brain.Case 3: An adult female Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (T. aduncus) died from two parallel chop wounds to the torso with opening of the thoracic and abdominal cavities with fractures of the ribs and vertebrae. Given that some animals may recover, and that the carcasses of those that are killed may simply not be found or reported, it is impossible to provide an estimate of the incidence of this type of injury amongst wild sea mammals. In cases that do come to forensic attention accurate evaluation of the type of injury may potentially have great medicolegal significance. Post-mortem putrefaction and post-mortem feeding by other sea animals may complicate assessments. PMID:22391002

  16. Displacements and segment linkage in strike-slip fault zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, D. C. P.

    Small-scale, well exposed strike-slip fault zones near Kirkcudbright, Scotland, cut sub-vertical bedding, so that mapped bed separations allow the displacements, linkage and evolution of fault segments to be assessed. Displacement variations along the segments can be related to lithologic variations, conjugate relationships, offsets, segment linkage and fault bends. High displacement gradients at the tips of conjugate and offset faults produce convex-upwards ( E-type) displacement-distance ( d-x) profiles. Contractional fault bends and linkage points are marked by a decrease in fault displacement, producing partially concave-upwards ( D-type) d-x profiles. Where fault displacement gradients are steep, wallrocks are marked by structures such as synthetic faults, normal drag folding, ductile strain and veining, which transfer displacement. The faults studied tend to have lower r/ dMAX ratios (where r = distance between the point of maximum displacement and the fault tip on a particular profile, and dMAX = maximum displacement on the profile) than are shown by normal faults in map view. This may be because r is measured parallel to the displacement direction and/or because of lithologic variations.

  17. Elastic energy storage in the mantis shrimp's fast predatory strike.

    PubMed

    Zack, T I; Claverie, T; Patek, S N

    2009-12-01

    Storage of elastic energy is key to increasing the power output of many biological systems. Mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) must store considerable elastic energy prior to their rapid raptorial strikes; however, little is known about the dynamics and location of elastic energy storage structures in this system. We used computed tomography (CT) to visualize the mineralization patterns in Gonodactylaceus falcatus and high speed videography of Odontodactylus scyllarus to observe the dynamics of spring loading. Using a materials testing apparatus, we measured the force and work required to contract the elastic structures in G. falcatus. There was a positive linear correlation between contraction force and contraction distance; alternative model tests further supported the use of a linear model. Therefore, we modeled the system as a Hookean spring. The force required to fully compress the spring was positively correlated with body mass and appendage size, but the spring constant did not scale with body size, suggesting a possible role of muscle constraints in the scaling of this system. One hypothesized elastic storage structure, the saddle, only contributed approximately 11% of the total measured force, thus suggesting that primary site of elastic energy storage is in the mineralized ventral bars found in the merus segment of the raptorial appendages. Furthermore, the intact system exhibited 81% resilience and severing the saddle resulted in a non-significant reduction to 77% resilience. The remarkable shapes and mineralization patterns that characterize the mantis shrimp's raptorial appendage further reveal a highly integrated mechanical power amplification system based on exoskeletal elastic energy storage. PMID:19946078

  18. Perceptions of Counselor Expertness: The Effects of Interpretation Content, Discrepancy, and Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohmer, Douglas C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined the effects of the counselor's use of interpretation on participants' perceptions of counselor expertness. A main effect for interpretation type (propositional versus semantic interpretation) and an interaction between degree of discrepancy and interpretation type were found. (Author/BL)

  19. A Case for Not Going SAT-Optional: Students with Discrepant SAT and HSGPA Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Presented at the national conference for the American Educational Research Association (AERA) in 2010. This presentation describes an alternative way of presenting the unique information provided by the SAT over HSGPA, namely examining students with discrepant SAT-HSGPA performance.

  20. The drinking partnership and marital satisfaction: The longitudinal influence of discrepant drinking

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to determine whether discrepancies between husbands’ and wives’ past year heavy drinking predicted decreased marital satisfaction over time. Participants were recruited at the time they applied for their marriage licenses (N= 634). Couples completed questionnaires about their alcohol use and marital satisfaction at the time of marriage, and again at their first and second anniversaries. Generalized estimating equation models were used to evaluate the association between discrepancies in husbands’ and wives’ heavy drinking in the year prior to marriage and marital satisfaction at the first wedding anniversary and the association between discrepancies in heavy alcohol use in the first year of marriage and marital satisfaction at the second wedding anniversary. In these prospective time-lagged analyses, discrepancies in husbands’ and wives’ heavy drinking predicted decreased marital satisfaction over time while controlling for heavy drinking. Over time, these couples may be at greater risk for decreased marital functioning that may lead to relationship dissolution. PMID:17295562

  1. Body self-discrepancies and women's social physique anxiety: the moderating role of the feared body.

    PubMed

    Woodman, Tim; Steer, Rebecca

    2011-05-01

    We explored ideal, ought, and feared body image self-discrepancies as predictors of social physique anxiety within Carver, Lawrence, and Scheier's and Woodman and Hemmings' interaction frameworks. One hundred women completed actual, ideal, ought, and feared body self-discrepancy visual analogue scales, the Social Physique Anxiety Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Moderated hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the relationship between ought body fat discrepancies and social physique anxiety was moderated by proximity to the feared fat self. Specifically, the positive relationship between ought fat discrepancies and social physique anxiety was stronger when women were far from their feared body self. The results highlight the importance of considering the feared self in order to more fully understand the relationship between body image and social physique anxiety. PMID:21492139

  2. The geometries and development of late orogenic strike-slip faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. W.; Peacock, D. C. P.

    2003-04-01

    Strike-slip faults are commonly the final phase of contraction in orogenic belts, occurring when the folds have locked-up and the thrusts have become too steep for further displacement to occur. Where the maximum stress axis (sigma1) is perpendicular to the orogenic belt (i.e. pure shear), the strike-slip faults are conjugate and represent strike-perpendicular shortening and necessary strike-parallel extension. An example of such behaviour occurs in the steeply dipping Silurian sandstones and shales in Kirkcudbrightshire, in the Southern Uplands of Scotland. If sigma1 is at ~ 70°; to the strike of the orogenic belt, the conjugate strike-slip faults become asymmetric. One set of strike-slip faults occurs at a high angle to the strike of bedding, and the conjugate set has a ramp-flat trajectory across steeply dipping beds. An example of this behaviour occurs in the steeply dipping Silurian turbidites at Ardglass, in the Longford-Down terrane of Northern Ireland. If sigma1 is at a lower angle to the orogenic belt (i.e. transpression), one set of strike-slip faults tends to dominate. In some cases, the dominant strike-slip fault set is parallel to the strike of the orogenic belt, the Caledonian-age Great Glen Fault of Scotland being such an example. In other cases, block rotation occurs on the set of strike-slip faults that are at a high angle to the orogenic belt, as in the Variscan Orogenic Belt of SW England. An annulus model is presented to illustrate the variations in geometries of late-orogenic strike-slip faults from pure shear to transpression.

  3. Discrepancy analysis, communication, and feedback for cytotechnologist quality improvement of nongynecologic cytopathology.

    PubMed

    Whigham, Peggy; Ilario, Marius John Marc; Flanagan, Melina B; Mauser, Nancy; Raab, Stephen S; Ohori, N Paul

    2006-04-01

    The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA '88) detail the requirements for the cytotechnologist (CT) who evaluates gynecologic cytopathology specimens. However, the role of the CT in nongynecologic cytopathology is not clearly defined. Furthermore, non gynecologic cytopathology cases are diverse and the screening, interpretative, and diagnostic issues may be quite different from the gynecologic cases. At our institution, the CT and pathologist review nongynecologic cytopathology cases. Since CLIA '88 does not require the CT to screen nongynecologic cytopathology cases, there are few guidelines for quality assessment or quality improvement for the CT regarding nongynecologic cytopathology cases. To provide better understanding of the expectations of the CT and the needs of the pathologist, we developed a system comparing the CT's interpretation to the pathologist's interpretation as a means for enhanced communication and feedback. Using our Laboratory Information System (LIS), we generate a daily report that lists all cases with discrepancy in diagnoses between the CT and pathologist. The general supervisor reviews this report for diagnostic discrepancy in each case. To determine the degree of discrepancy, numerical values are assigned to each primary interpretation. Minor discrepancies are defined as differences less than +/-2.0. Major discrepancies are defined as differences greater than or equal to +/-2.0. For the entire laboratory, the overall percentage of concordant cases was consistently above 80% for each of the 6 mo analysis. Regarding the monthly discrepancies, the proportion of minor discrepancies ranged from 11.09% to 15.44% and the proportion of major discrepancies ranged from 1.40% to 3.56%. The frequency distribution of discrepancies by degree approximates a normal (Gaussian) curve and serves as baseline information that may be used for comparison when there are changes in practice or personnel. The CTs attend slide review sessions

  4. Patterns and Predictors of Mother-Adolescent Discrepancies across Family Constructs.

    PubMed

    Rote, Wendy M; Smetana, Judith G

    2016-10-01

    Parent-child discrepancies pervade the family literature; they appear in reports of relationship dynamics (e.g., conflict; Laursen et al. 1998), parent and child behaviors (e.g., monitoring; De Los Reyes et al. 2010), and individual family members' beliefs (e.g., parental legitimate authority; Smetana 2011). Discrepancies are developmentally normative (Steinberg 2001) but also may be indicators of relationship and adjustment problems for teens (Ohannessian 2012). Because of this variation, it is important to consider the extent to which parent-child discrepancies are a function of both the dyad and the family construct considered. The present study contributed to our understanding of informant discrepancies in family relationships by considering the patterning, consistency, and correlates of mother-adolescent discrepancies across three family constructs that vary in their objectivity. Using person-centered analyses, discrepancies in adolescents' and mothers' ratings of parents' right to know about teens' activities, mothers' knowledge of them, and positive mother-adolescents relationships were examined in 167 middle class, primarily European American mother-adolescent dyads (M teen age = 15.68 years, SD = .64, 53 % female). Each construct was best described by three profiles, one where adolescents' standardized ratings were consistently higher than mothers', one showing the reverse, and one revealing little disagreement. Adolescent-reported problem behavior (but not depression), behavioral and psychological control, and mothers' wellbeing significantly predicted profile membership. Most dyads maintained consistent membership in a discrepancy profile across at least two family constructs. Results contribute to understanding the different sources of discrepancies in views of the family.

  5. Patterns and Predictors of Mother-Adolescent Discrepancies across Family Constructs.

    PubMed

    Rote, Wendy M; Smetana, Judith G

    2016-10-01

    Parent-child discrepancies pervade the family literature; they appear in reports of relationship dynamics (e.g., conflict; Laursen et al. 1998), parent and child behaviors (e.g., monitoring; De Los Reyes et al. 2010), and individual family members' beliefs (e.g., parental legitimate authority; Smetana 2011). Discrepancies are developmentally normative (Steinberg 2001) but also may be indicators of relationship and adjustment problems for teens (Ohannessian 2012). Because of this variation, it is important to consider the extent to which parent-child discrepancies are a function of both the dyad and the family construct considered. The present study contributed to our understanding of informant discrepancies in family relationships by considering the patterning, consistency, and correlates of mother-adolescent discrepancies across three family constructs that vary in their objectivity. Using person-centered analyses, discrepancies in adolescents' and mothers' ratings of parents' right to know about teens' activities, mothers' knowledge of them, and positive mother-adolescents relationships were examined in 167 middle class, primarily European American mother-adolescent dyads (M teen age = 15.68 years, SD = .64, 53 % female). Each construct was best described by three profiles, one where adolescents' standardized ratings were consistently higher than mothers', one showing the reverse, and one revealing little disagreement. Adolescent-reported problem behavior (but not depression), behavioral and psychological control, and mothers' wellbeing significantly predicted profile membership. Most dyads maintained consistent membership in a discrepancy profile across at least two family constructs. Results contribute to understanding the different sources of discrepancies in views of the family. PMID:27295041

  6. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceived Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Poor Chinese Families.

    PubMed

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relationships between parent-adolescent discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics (indexed by parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and parental control) and adolescent developmental outcomes (indexed by achievement motivation and psychological competence) in poor families in Hong Kong. A sample of 275 intact families having at least one child aged 11-16 experiencing economic disadvantage were invited to participate in the study. Fathers and mothers completed the Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale, and adolescents completed the Social-Oriented Achievement Motivation Scale and Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale in addition to paternal and maternal Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale. Results indicated that parents and adolescents had different perceptions of parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and paternal control, with adolescents generally perceived lower levels of parenting behaviors than did their parents. While father-adolescent discrepancy in perceived paternal responsiveness and mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceived maternal control negatively predicted adolescent achievement motivation, mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceptions of maternal responsiveness negatively predicted psychological competence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present findings provided support that parent-child discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics have negative impacts on the developmental outcomes of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present study addresses parent-child discrepancies in perceived parental behaviors as "legitimate" constructs, and explores their links with adolescent psychosocial development, which sheds light for researchers and clinical practitioners in helping the Chinese families experiencing economic disadvantage.

  7. Discrepantly poor verbal skills in poor readers: a failure of learning or ability?

    PubMed

    Langdon, D W; Rosenblatt, N; Mellanby, J H

    1998-05-01

    Poor verbal skills in poor readers have long been reported in the literature. There have been many attempts to understand the interaction between poor verbal ability and poor verbal achievement. The methodological problems are considerable, including the measurement of verbal ability, which has been confounded by previous learning. A new reasoning test, the VESPAR, has been designed to measure novel problem solving and thus to be less reliant on acquired verbal skills. One hundred and seventy 14-year-olds completed the VESPAR, the Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT) and a single-word reading test. Overall, verbal scores were weaker than spatial scores. A subgroup of 38 pupils with particularly marked discrepancies between verbal and non-verbal CAT was identified. The especially discrepant pupils were matched with other non-discrepant pupils from the year group for either verbal or non-verbal CAT. The discrepant group's reading was at the same level as the matched verbal CAT group. However, the primary verbal ability of the discrepancy group, as measured on the VESPAR, was greater than the matched verbal CAT group. This raises the possibility that CAT- but not VESPAR-discrepant pupils may be at particular risk of under-achievement in the verbal domain.

  8. Discrepant Perspectives on Conflict Situations Among Urban Parent-Adolescent Dyads.

    PubMed

    Parker, Elizabeth M; Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah R; Jones, Vanya C; Haynie, Denise L; Cheng, Tina L

    2016-03-01

    Parents influence urban youths' violence-related behaviors. To provide effective guidance, parents should understand how youth perceive conflict, yet little empirical research has been conducted regarding parent and youth perceptions of conflict. The aims of this article are to (a) report on the nature of discrepancies in attribution of fault, (b) present qualitative data about the varying rationales for fault attribution, and (c) use quantitative data to identify correlates of discrepancy including report of attitudes toward violence, parental communication, and parents' messages about retaliatory violence. Interviews were conducted with 101 parent/adolescent dyads. The study population consisted of African American female caretakers (n = 92; that is, mothers, grandmothers, aunts) and fathers (n = 9) and their early adolescents (mean age = 13.6). A total of 53 dyads were discrepant in identifying instigators in one or both videos. When discrepancy was present, the parent was more likely to identify the actor who reacted to the situation as at fault. In the logistic regression models, parental attitudes about retaliatory violence were a significant correlate of discrepancy, such that as parent attitudes supporting retaliatory violence increased, the odds of discrepancy decreased. The results suggest that parents and adolescents do not always view conflict situations similarly, which may inhibit effective parent-child communication, parental advice, and discipline. Individuals developing and implementing family-based violence prevention interventions need to be cognizant of the complexity of fault attribution and design strategies to promote conversations around attribution of fault and effective conflict management.

  9. Friendship, real-ideal discrepancies, and well-being: gender differences in college students.

    PubMed

    Demir, Melikşah; Orthel, Haley

    2011-01-01

    Do men and women have different ideals for their friendships? What do men and women experience when their actual friendship experiences fall short of their ideals? The authors of the current study investigated gender differences in real-ideal same-sex best friendships and friendship discrepancy scores. Correlates of friendship discrepancies were also examined. For this purpose, a sample of 382 college students completed the McGill Friendship Questionnaire (M. J. Mendelson & F. E. Aboud, 1999), the Friendship Conflict Scale (M. Demir & L. A. Weitekamp, 2007), the Need Satisfaction Scale (J. G. La Guardia, R. M. Ryan, C. E. Couchman, & E. L. Deci, 2000), and the PANAS (D. Watson, L. A. Clark, & A. Tellegen, 1988). Results showed that (a) the real and ideal best friendships of women were higher in quality and lower in conflict when compared to those of men; and (b) men's discrepancy scores for friendship quality were significantly higher when compared to women, whereas no differences were obtained on friendship conflict discrepancy scores. Findings also revealed that for both women and men, discrepancy scores were negatively related to friendship satisfaction, happiness, and satisfaction of basic psychological needs. The authors discuss the findings in light of theory, highlight ways to address relationship discrepancies, and make suggestions for future research. PMID:21560803

  10. National dosimetric audit network finds discrepancies in AAA lung inhomogeneity corrections.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Leon; Lehmann, Joerg; Lye, Jessica; Kenny, John; Kron, Tomas; Alves, Andrew; Cole, Andrew; Zifodya, Jackson; Williams, Ivan

    2015-07-01

    This work presents the Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service's (ACDS) findings of an investigation of systematic discrepancies between treatment planning system (TPS) calculated and measured audit doses. Specifically, a comparison between the Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm (AAA) and other common dose-calculation algorithms in regions downstream (≥2cm) from low-density material in anthropomorphic and slab phantom geometries is presented. Two measurement setups involving rectilinear slab-phantoms (ACDS Level II audit) and anthropomorphic geometries (ACDS Level III audit) were used in conjunction with ion chamber (planar 2D array and Farmer-type) measurements. Measured doses were compared to calculated doses for a variety of cases, with and without the presence of inhomogeneities and beam-modifiers in 71 audits. Results demonstrate a systematic AAA underdose with an average discrepancy of 2.9 ± 1.2% when the AAA algorithm is implemented in regions distal from lung-tissue interfaces, when lateral beams are used with anthropomorphic phantoms. This systemic discrepancy was found for all Level III audits of facilities using the AAA algorithm. This discrepancy is not seen when identical measurements are compared for other common dose-calculation algorithms (average discrepancy -0.4 ± 1.7%), including the Acuros XB algorithm also available with the Eclipse TPS. For slab phantom geometries (Level II audits), with similar measurement points downstream from inhomogeneities this discrepancy is also not seen. PMID:25921329

  11. WISC-R Verbal and Performance IQ Discrepancy in an Unselected Cohort: Clinical Significance and Longitudinal Stability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; Silva, P. A.

    1987-01-01

    Examined children whose Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) verbal and performance Intelligence Quotient discrepancies placed them beyond the 90th percentile. Longitudinal study showed 23 percent of the discrepant cases to be discrepant at two or more ages. Studied frequency of perinatal difficulties, early childhood…

  12. Commentary: Definitely More than Measurement Error--But How Should We Understand and Deal with Informant Discrepancies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achenbach, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    The special section articles demonstrate the importance of informant discrepancies. They also illustrate challenges posed by discrepancies, plus opportunities for advancing research and practice. This commentary addresses these cross-cutting issues: (a) Discrepancies affect many kinds of assessment besides ratings of children's problems. (b)…

  13. Fault displacement hazard for strike-slip faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.D.; Dawson, T.E.; Chen, R.; Cao, T.; Wills, C.J.; Schwartz, D.P.; Frankel, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology, data, and regression equations for calculating the fault rupture hazard at sites near steeply dipping, strike-slip faults. We collected and digitized on-fault and off-fault displacement data for 9 global strikeslip earthquakes ranging from moment magnitude M 6.5 to M 7.6 and supplemented these with displacements from 13 global earthquakes compiled byWesnousky (2008), who considers events up to M 7.9. Displacements on the primary fault fall off at the rupture ends and are often measured in meters, while displacements on secondary (offfault) or distributed faults may measure a few centimeters up to more than a meter and decay with distance from the rupture. Probability of earthquake rupture is less than 15% for cells 200 m??200 m and is less than 2% for 25 m??25 m cells at distances greater than 200mfrom the primary-fault rupture. Therefore, the hazard for off-fault ruptures is much lower than the hazard near the fault. Our data indicate that rupture displacements up to 35cm can be triggered on adjacent faults at distances out to 10kmor more from the primary-fault rupture. An example calculation shows that, for an active fault which has repeated large earthquakes every few hundred years, fault rupture hazard analysis should be an important consideration in the design of structures or lifelines that are located near the principal fault, within about 150 m of well-mapped active faults with a simple trace and within 300 m of faults with poorly defined or complex traces.

  14. Assessment of performing an MST strike in Tank 21H

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, Michael R.

    2014-09-29

    Previous Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) tank mixing studies performed for the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) project have shown that 3 Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) installed in Tank 41 are sufficient to support actinide removal by MST sorption as well as subsequent resuspension and removal of settled solids. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is pursuing MST addition into Tank 21 as part of the Large Tank Strike (LTS) project. The preliminary scope for LTS involves the use of three standard slurry pumps (installed in N, SE, and SW risers) in a Type IV tank. Due to the differences in tank size, internal interferences, and pump design, a separate mixing evaluation is required to determine if the proposed configuration will allow for MST suspension and strontium and actinide sorption. The author performed the analysis by reviewing drawings for Tank 21 [W231023] and determining the required cleaning radius or zone of influence for the pumps. This requirement was compared with previous pilot-scale MST suspension data collected for SCIX that determined the cleaning radius, or zone of influence, as a function of pump operating parameters. The author also reviewed a previous Tank 50 mixing analysis that examined the ability of standard slurry pumps to suspend sludge particles. Based on a review of the pilot-scale SCIX mixing tests and Tank 50 pump operating experience, three standard slurry pumps should be able to suspend sludge and MST to effectively sorb strontium and actinides onto the MST. Using the SCIX data requires an assumption about the impact of cooling coils on slurry pump mixing. The basis for this assumption is described in this report. Using the Tank 50 operating experience shows three standard slurry pumps should be able to suspend solids if the shear strength of the settled solids is less than 160 Pa. Because Tank 21 does not contain cooling coils, the shear strength could be larger.

  15. Along Strike Variations in Episodic Tremor and Slip Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalzle, G. M.; Creager, K. C.; Delbridge, B. G.; Wech, A.; Khazaradze, G.

    2012-12-01

    The geodetic signal due to Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS) along strike of the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) is much larger in Washington north of ~46°N than in Oregon from 2004 to 2011. Similarly, ETS recurrence in Cascadia increases from two years in Oregon to ~14 months near Puget Sound, Washington. Among the four seismically and geodetically detected ETS events that ruptured northern to central Oregon (June 2011, August 2009, July 2007 and November 2005), only the 2009 event ruptured from southern Puget Sound to central Oregon, crossing ~46°N. Seismically observed tremor and geodetic displacements are used to inspect the August 2009 ETS event. Elastic half-space models indicate interface slip north of 45.6+0.3/-0.5°N is large (64 mm at 112° CCW from north) and reduces by ~52% (31 mm at 119° CCW from north) to the south. The moment magnitude is 6.8. We seek to understand why there is more apparent slip in Washington than in Oregon for the 2009 event as well as for the average GPS displacement per year (sum of vector displacements of each ETS event since 2004 divided by GPS site duration of operation). We use an elastic half space model with GPS time series from the Pacific Northwest Geodetic Network (PANGA) and the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) to invert for the slow slip rate and explore key model parameters such as the width of the slipping zone, fault dip and depth to try to explain the apparent difference in average GPS displacement per year caused by ETS events. If the slip deficit observed in Oregon is real, then how will it eventually be accommodated?

  16. Direction of an approaching stimulus on coincident timing performance of a ballistic striking task.

    PubMed

    Coker, Cheryl A

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of stimulus direction and velocity on the coincident timing performance of a ballistic striking task. 26 subjects randomly performed 20 trials at each of two stimulus velocities (4 and 8 mph) and two striking variations (moving with an approaching stimulus or in opposition to it). Analysis indicated the direction of an approaching stimulus does not appear to influence the coincident timing of a ballistic striking action.

  17. Experimental and numerical study of a bird strike against a windshield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plassard, Fabien; Hereil, Pierre-Louis; Joseph, Pierric; Mespoulet, Jérôme

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes a bird strike study performed at THIOT-INGENIERIE laboratory. For aeronautic requirements, the 220 mm version of the gas gun TITAN is used to perform bird strike on instrumented structures. This paper shows a bird strike on a polycarbonate windshield instrumented with high speed cameras, velocity and force sensors. A crossed work with numerical simulation has been performed to design target support and diagnostic tools. It permits also to demonstrate reliability of the numerical tools.

  18. The distribution and characterization of strike-slip faults on Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Emily S.

    2016-03-01

    Strike-slip faulting is typically characterized by lateral offsets on icy satellites of the outer solar system. However, strike-slip faults on Enceladus lack these typical lateral offsets and instead are marked by the presence of tailcracks or en echelon cracks. These features are used here to develop the first near-global distribution of strike-slip faults on Enceladus. Strike-slip faults on Enceladus fall into three broad categories: tectonic terrain boundaries, reactivated linear features, and primary strike-slip faults. All three types of strike-slip faults are found predominantly, or within close proximity to, the antipodal cratered terrains on the Saturnian and anti-Saturnian hemispheres. Stress modeling suggests that strike-slip faulting on Enceladus is not controlled by nonsynchronous rotation, as on Europa, suggesting a fundamentally different process driving Enceladus's strike-slip faulting. The motion along strike-slip faults at tectonic terrain boundaries suggests large-scale northward migration of the ice shell on the leading hemisphere of Enceladus, occurring perpendicular to the opening direction of the tiger stripes in the south polar terrain.

  19. Strike-parallel and strike-normal coordinate system around geometrically complicated rupture traces: use by NGA-West2 and further improvements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spudich, Paul A.; Chiou, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional system of generalized coordinates for use with geometrically complex fault ruptures that are neither straight nor continuous. The coordinates are a generalization of the conventional strike-normal and strike-parallel coordinates of a single straight fault. The presented conventions and formulations are applicable to a single curved trace, as well as multiple traces representing the rupture of branching faults or noncontiguous faults. An early application of our generalized system is in the second round of the Next Generation of Ground-Motion Attenuation Model project for the Western United States (NGA-West2), where they were used in the characterization of the hanging-wall effects. We further improve the NGA-West2 strike-parallel formulation for multiple rupture traces with a more intuitive definition of the nominal strike direction. We also derive an analytical expression for the gradient of the generalized strike-normal coordinate. The direction of this gradient may be used as the strike-normal direction in the study of polarization effects on ground motions.

  20. Incidence and Variation of Discrepancies in Recording Chronic Conditions in Australian Hospital Administrative Data

    PubMed Central

    Assareh, Hassan; Achat, Helen M.; Stubbs, Joanne M.; Guevarra, Veth M.; Hill, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic data routinely collected for hospital admitted patients and used for case-mix adjustment in care provider comparisons and reimbursement are prone to biases. We aim to measure discrepancies, variations and associated factors in recorded chronic morbidities for hospital admitted patients in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Of all admissions between July 2010 and June 2014 in all NSW public and private acute hospitals, admissions with over 24 hours stay and one or more of the chronic conditions of diabetes, smoking, hepatitis, HIV, and hypertension were included. The incidence of a non-recorded chronic condition in an admission occurring after the first admission with a recorded chronic condition (index admission) was considered as a discrepancy. Poisson models were employed to (i) derive adjusted discrepancy incidence rates (IR) and rate ratios (IRR) accounting for patient, admission, comorbidity and hospital characteristics and (ii) quantify variation in rates among hospitals. The discrepancy incidence rate was highest for hypertension (51% of 262,664 admissions), followed by hepatitis (37% of 12,107), smoking (33% of 548,965), HIV (27% of 1500) and diabetes (19% of 228,687). Adjusted rates for all conditions declined over the four-year period; with the sharpest drop of over 80% for diabetes (47.7% in 2010 vs. 7.3% in 2014), and 20% to 55% for the other conditions. Discrepancies were more common in private hospitals and smaller public hospitals. Inter-hospital differences were responsible for 1% (HIV) to 9.4% (smoking) of variation in adjusted discrepancy incidences, with an increasing trend for diabetes and HIV. Chronic conditions are recorded inconsistently in hospital administrative datasets, and hospitals contribute to the discrepancies. Adjustment for patterns and stratification in risk adjustments; and furthermore longitudinal accumulation of clinical data at patient level, refinement of clinical coding systems and standardisation of comorbidity

  1. What Factors Moderate Self-Other Discrepancies in Decision Making? Results from a Vaccination Scenario.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Dafina; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; van der Pligt, Joop

    2016-01-01

    When we make risky decisions for others, we tend to follow social norms about risks. This often results in making different decisions for others than we would make for ourselves in a similar situation (i.e., self-other discrepancies). In an experiment, we investigated self-other discrepancies in young adults' decisions to purchase a vaccine against a sexually-transmitted virus for themselves or for another person (i.e., the target of the decision). When the target's preferences were in line with social norms, surrogates showed large self-other discrepancies in line with these norms. When the target's preferences were contrary to social norms, surrogates did not show self-other discrepancies in line with these preferences; instead they still followed social norms, F(1, 140) = 21.45, p < .001, η p 2 = .13. Surrogates with lower numeracy, F(2, 128) = 3.44, p = .035, η p 2 = .05, and higher empathy, F(2, 128) = 3.72, p = .027, η p 2 = .06, showed self-other discrepancies more in line with the target's preferences, even when these were contrary to the norm. Surrogates whose own risk attitudes were contrary to social norms showed larger self-other discrepancies, F(1, 128) = 5.38, p = .022, η p 2 = .04. These results demonstrate that perceived social norms about risk can predict self-other discrepancies in risky decisions, even when the target's preferences are known and at odds with the social norm. Further, the surrogates' numeracy, empathy, and propensity to take risks influence the extent to which risky decisions for others resemble risky decisions for oneself. PMID:27646872

  2. Incidence and Variation of Discrepancies in Recording Chronic Conditions in Australian Hospital Administrative Data.

    PubMed

    Assareh, Hassan; Achat, Helen M; Stubbs, Joanne M; Guevarra, Veth M; Hill, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic data routinely collected for hospital admitted patients and used for case-mix adjustment in care provider comparisons and reimbursement are prone to biases. We aim to measure discrepancies, variations and associated factors in recorded chronic morbidities for hospital admitted patients in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Of all admissions between July 2010 and June 2014 in all NSW public and private acute hospitals, admissions with over 24 hours stay and one or more of the chronic conditions of diabetes, smoking, hepatitis, HIV, and hypertension were included. The incidence of a non-recorded chronic condition in an admission occurring after the first admission with a recorded chronic condition (index admission) was considered as a discrepancy. Poisson models were employed to (i) derive adjusted discrepancy incidence rates (IR) and rate ratios (IRR) accounting for patient, admission, comorbidity and hospital characteristics and (ii) quantify variation in rates among hospitals. The discrepancy incidence rate was highest for hypertension (51% of 262,664 admissions), followed by hepatitis (37% of 12,107), smoking (33% of 548,965), HIV (27% of 1500) and diabetes (19% of 228,687). Adjusted rates for all conditions declined over the four-year period; with the sharpest drop of over 80% for diabetes (47.7% in 2010 vs. 7.3% in 2014), and 20% to 55% for the other conditions. Discrepancies were more common in private hospitals and smaller public hospitals. Inter-hospital differences were responsible for 1% (HIV) to 9.4% (smoking) of variation in adjusted discrepancy incidences, with an increasing trend for diabetes and HIV. Chronic conditions are recorded inconsistently in hospital administrative datasets, and hospitals contribute to the discrepancies. Adjustment for patterns and stratification in risk adjustments; and furthermore longitudinal accumulation of clinical data at patient level, refinement of clinical coding systems and standardisation of comorbidity

  3. Incidence and Variation of Discrepancies in Recording Chronic Conditions in Australian Hospital Administrative Data.

    PubMed

    Assareh, Hassan; Achat, Helen M; Stubbs, Joanne M; Guevarra, Veth M; Hill, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic data routinely collected for hospital admitted patients and used for case-mix adjustment in care provider comparisons and reimbursement are prone to biases. We aim to measure discrepancies, variations and associated factors in recorded chronic morbidities for hospital admitted patients in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Of all admissions between July 2010 and June 2014 in all NSW public and private acute hospitals, admissions with over 24 hours stay and one or more of the chronic conditions of diabetes, smoking, hepatitis, HIV, and hypertension were included. The incidence of a non-recorded chronic condition in an admission occurring after the first admission with a recorded chronic condition (index admission) was considered as a discrepancy. Poisson models were employed to (i) derive adjusted discrepancy incidence rates (IR) and rate ratios (IRR) accounting for patient, admission, comorbidity and hospital characteristics and (ii) quantify variation in rates among hospitals. The discrepancy incidence rate was highest for hypertension (51% of 262,664 admissions), followed by hepatitis (37% of 12,107), smoking (33% of 548,965), HIV (27% of 1500) and diabetes (19% of 228,687). Adjusted rates for all conditions declined over the four-year period; with the sharpest drop of over 80% for diabetes (47.7% in 2010 vs. 7.3% in 2014), and 20% to 55% for the other conditions. Discrepancies were more common in private hospitals and smaller public hospitals. Inter-hospital differences were responsible for 1% (HIV) to 9.4% (smoking) of variation in adjusted discrepancy incidences, with an increasing trend for diabetes and HIV. Chronic conditions are recorded inconsistently in hospital administrative datasets, and hospitals contribute to the discrepancies. Adjustment for patterns and stratification in risk adjustments; and furthermore longitudinal accumulation of clinical data at patient level, refinement of clinical coding systems and standardisation of comorbidity

  4. The predatory strike of free ranging praying mantises, Sphodromantis lineola (Burmeister). II: Strikes in the horizontal plane.

    PubMed

    Cleal, K S; Prete, F R

    1996-01-01

    The predatory behavior of free ranging praying mantises, Sphodromantis lineola (Burmeister), in response to prey at various positions in the horizontal plane was examined using high speed (200 frames per second) videography. We found that the movements of the meso- and metathoracic legs over the course of the strike were analogous in many respects to those made by the cockroach Periplaneta americana during escape turns. When mantises struck at prey directly ahead of them, they were propelled forward by extensions of the metathoracic femur-tibia, and the meso- and metathoracic coxa-femur joints (changes in the latter were determined indirectly via changes in the femur-pterothorax angles). This pattern of movements is similar to that of cockroach Type 1 turns. However, when prey lay to either side of the pterothorax-abdomen axis, mantises turned toward the prey as they stuck. These turning movements were the result, primarily, of changes in the femur-thorax angles. Specifically, as the mantises turned toward the prey, contralateral mesothoracic femora and metathoracic tibiae and femora extended, and the corresponding ipsilateral joints extended to a lesser degree or flexed. This pattern of movements is similar to that of cockroach Type 2 turns. In addition, these leg movements were accompanied by flexion of the prothorax-abdomen angle which turned the prothorax even further in the direction of the prey. We found a stronger relationship between mantis leg movements and the position of the prey in relationship to the pterothorax than between the leg movements and the position of the prey in the visual field. Our data suggest that the praying mantis' central nervous system integrates proprioceptive and visual information in order to determine the location of prey in "pterothorax-centered' rather than "head-centered' space. PMID:8886390

  5. Pre/post-strike atmospheric assessment system (PAAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Peglow, S. G., LLNL; Molitoris, J. D., LLNL

    1997-02-03

    The Pre/Post-Strike Atmospheric Assessment System was proposed to show the importance of local meteorological conditions in the vicinity of a site suspected of storing or producing toxic agents and demonstrate a technology to measure these conditions, specifically wind fields. The ability to predict the collateral effects resulting from an attack on a facility containing hazardous materials is crucial to conducting effective military operations. Our study approach utilized a combination of field measurements with dispersion modeling to better understand which variables in terrain and weather were most important to collateral damage predictions. To develop the PAAS wind-sensing technology, we utilized a combination of emergent and available technology from micro-Doppler and highly coherent laser systems. The method used for wind sensing is to probe the atmosphere with a highly coherent laser beam. As the beam probes, light is back-scattered from particles entrained in the air to the lidar transceiver and detected by the instrument. Any motion of the aerosols with a component along the beam axis leads to a Doppler shift of the received light. Scanning in a conical fashion about the zenith results in a more accurate and two-dimensional measurement of the wind velocity. The major milestones in the benchtop system development were to verify the design by demonstrating the technique in the laboratory, then scale the design down to a size consistent with a demonstrator unit which could be built to take data in the field. The micro-Doppler heterodyne system we developed determines absolute motion by optically mixing a reference beam with the return signal and has shown motion sensitivity to better than 1 cm/s. This report describes the rationale, technical approach and laboratory testing undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of a system to provide local meteorological data and predict atmospheric particulate motion. The work described herein was funded by

  6. The effects of height and distance on the force production and acceleration in martial arts strikes.

    PubMed

    Bolander, Richard P; Neto, Osmar Pinto; Bir, Cynthia A

    2009-11-01

    Almost all cultures have roots in some sort of self defence system and yet there is relatively little research in this area, outside of a sports related environment. This project investigated different applications of strikes from Kung Fu practitioners that have not been addressed before in the literature. Punch and palm strikes were directly compared from different heights and distances, with the use of a load cell, accelerometers, and high speed video. The data indicated that the arm accelerations of both strikes were similar, although the force and resulting acceleration of the target were significantly greater for the palm strikes. Additionally, the relative height at which the strike was delivered was also investigated. The overall conclusion is that the palm strike is a more effective strike for transferring force to an object. It can also be concluded that an attack to the chest would be ideal for maximizing impact force and moving an opponent off balance. Key PointsIt has been determined that the palm strike is more effective than the punch for developing force and for transferring momentum, most likely the result of a reduced number of rigid links and joints.A strike at head level is less effective than a strike at chest level for developing force and transferring momentum.Distance plays an effect on the overall force and momentum changes, and most likely is dependent on the velocity of the limb and alignment of the bones prior to impact.The teaching of self defence for novices and law enforcement would benefit from including the palm strike as a high priority technique.

  7. The Effects of Height and Distance on the Force Production and Acceleration in Martial Arts Strikes

    PubMed Central

    Bolander, Richard P.; Neto, Osmar Pinto; Bir, Cynthia A.

    2009-01-01

    Almost all cultures have roots in some sort of self defence system and yet there is relatively little research in this area, outside of a sports related environment. This project investigated different applications of strikes from Kung Fu practitioners that have not been addressed before in the literature. Punch and palm strikes were directly compared from different heights and distances, with the use of a load cell, accelerometers, and high speed video. The data indicated that the arm accelerations of both strikes were similar, although the force and resulting acceleration of the target were significantly greater for the palm strikes. Additionally, the relative height at which the strike was delivered was also investigated. The overall conclusion is that the palm strike is a more effective strike for transferring force to an object. It can also be concluded that an attack to the chest would be ideal for maximizing impact force and moving an opponent off balance. Key Points It has been determined that the palm strike is more effective than the punch for developing force and for transferring momentum, most likely the result of a reduced number of rigid links and joints. A strike at head level is less effective than a strike at chest level for developing force and transferring momentum. Distance plays an effect on the overall force and momentum changes, and most likely is dependent on the velocity of the limb and alignment of the bones prior to impact. The teaching of self defence for novices and law enforcement would benefit from including the palm strike as a high priority technique. PMID:24474886

  8. The effects of height and distance on the force production and acceleration in martial arts strikes.

    PubMed

    Bolander, Richard P; Neto, Osmar Pinto; Bir, Cynthia A

    2009-11-01

    Almost all cultures have roots in some sort of self defence system and yet there is relatively little research in this area, outside of a sports related environment. This project investigated different applications of strikes from Kung Fu practitioners that have not been addressed before in the literature. Punch and palm strikes were directly compared from different heights and distances, with the use of a load cell, accelerometers, and high speed video. The data indicated that the arm accelerations of both strikes were similar, although the force and resulting acceleration of the target were significantly greater for the palm strikes. Additionally, the relative height at which the strike was delivered was also investigated. The overall conclusion is that the palm strike is a more effective strike for transferring force to an object. It can also be concluded that an attack to the chest would be ideal for maximizing impact force and moving an opponent off balance. Key PointsIt has been determined that the palm strike is more effective than the punch for developing force and for transferring momentum, most likely the result of a reduced number of rigid links and joints.A strike at head level is less effective than a strike at chest level for developing force and transferring momentum.Distance plays an effect on the overall force and momentum changes, and most likely is dependent on the velocity of the limb and alignment of the bones prior to impact.The teaching of self defence for novices and law enforcement would benefit from including the palm strike as a high priority technique. PMID:24474886

  9. Discrepancies in autobiographical memories— implications for the assessment of asylum seekers: repeated interviews study

    PubMed Central

    Herlihy, Jane; Scragg, Peter; Turner, Stuart

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the consistency of autobiographical memory of people seeking asylum, in light of the assumption that discrepancies in asylum seekers' accounts of persecution mean that they are fabricating their stories. Design Repeated interviews. Setting England, 1999 and 2000. Participants Community sample of 27 Kosovan and 12 Bosnian refugees. Main outcome measures Discrepancies in repeated descriptions of one traumatic and one non-traumatic event, including specific details, rated as central or peripheral to the event. Self report measures of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. Results Discrepancies between an individual's accounts were common. For participants with high levels of post-traumatic stress, the number of discrepancies increased with length of time between interviews. More discrepancies occurred in details peripheral to the account than in details that were central to the account. Conclusion The assumption that inconsistency of recall means that accounts have poor credibility is questionable. Discrepancies are likely to occur in repeated interviews. For refugees showing symptoms of high levels of post-traumatic stress, the length of the application process may also affect the number of discrepancies. Recall of details rated by the interviewee as peripheral to the account is more likely to be inconsistent than recall of details that are central to the account. Thus, such inconsistencies should not be relied on as indicating a lack of credibility. What is already known on this topicDiscrepancies between accounts of an event are often used to judge the credibility of asylum seekersWhat this study addsDiscrepancies arise between two accounts of the same event even when there is no reason for fabricationRefugees with high levels of post-traumatic stress are more likely to give inconsistent accounts if they have a long time to wait between interviewsInterviewees are more likely to be inconsistent in details that they rate as peripheral

  10. The discrepancy between implicit and explicit attitudes in predicting disinhibited eating.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Stephanie P; Forman, Evan M; Meiran, Nachshon; Herbert, James D; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Butryn, Meghan L

    2014-01-01

    Disinhibited eating (i.e., the tendency to overeat, despite intentions not to do so, in the presence of palatable foods or other cues such as emotional stress) is strongly linked with obesity and appears to be associated with both implicit (automatic) and explicit (deliberative) food attitudes. Prior research suggests that a large discrepancy between implicit and explicit food attitudes may contribute to greater levels of disinhibited eating; however this theory has not been directly tested. The current study examined whether the discrepancy between implicit and explicit attitudes towards chocolate could predict both lab-based and self-reported disinhibited eating of chocolate. Results revealed that, whereas neither implicit nor explicit attitudes alone predicted disinhibited eating, absolute attitude discrepancy positively predicted chocolate consumption. Impulsivity moderated this effect, such that discrepancy was less predictive of disinhibited eating for those who exhibited lower levels of impulsivity. The results align with the meta-cognitive model to indicate that attitude discrepancy may be involved in overeating.

  11. Neural correlates of reflection on actual versus ideal self-discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhenhao; Ma, Yina; Wu, Bing; Wu, Xinhuai; Wang, Yuanye; Han, Shihui

    2016-01-01

    Subjective feelings of actual/ideal self-discrepancy vary across individuals and influence one's own affective states. However, the neural correlates of actual/ideal self-discrepancy and their genetic individual differences remain unknown. We investigated neural correlates of actual/ideal self-discrepancy and their associations with the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) that moderates human affective states during self-reflection. We scanned short/short and long/long allele carriers of 5-HTTLPR, using functional MRI, during reflection on the distance between actual and ideal self in personality traits. We found that larger actual/ideal self-discrepancy was associated with activations in the ventral/dorsal striatum and dorsal medial and lateral prefrontal cortices. Moreover, these brain activities were stronger in short/short than long/long allele carriers and predicted self-report of life satisfaction in short/short carriers but trait depression in long/long carriers. Our findings revealed neural substrates of actual/ideal self-discrepancy and their associations with affective states that are sensitive to individuals' genetic makeup.

  12. Discrepancy Between ASTER- and MODIS- Derived Land Surface Temperatures: Terrain Effects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanbo; Noumi, Yousuke; Yamaguchi, Yasushi

    2009-01-01

    The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) are onboard the same satellite platform NASA TERRA. Both MODIS and ASTER offer routine retrieval of land surface temperatures (LSTs), and the ASTER- and MODIS-retrieved LST products have been used worldwide. Because a large fraction of the earth surface consists of mountainous areas, variations in elevation, terrain slope and aspect angles can cause biases in the retrieved LSTs. However, terrain-induced effects are generally neglected in most satellite retrievals, which may generate discrepancy between ASTER and MODIS LSTs. In this paper, we reported the terrain effects on the LST discrepancy with a case examination over a relief area at the Loess Plateau of China. Results showed that the terrain-induced effects were not major, but nevertheless important for the total LST discrepancy. A large local slope did not necessarily lead to a large LST discrepancy. The angle of emitted radiance was more important than the angle of local slope in generating the LST discrepancy. Specifically, the conventional terrain correction may be unsuitable for densely vegetated areas. The distribution of ASTER-to-MODIS emissivity suggested that the terrain correction was included in the generalized split window (GSW) based approach used to rectify MODIS LSTs. Further study should include the classification-induced uncertainty in emissivity for reliable use of satellite-retrieved LSTs over relief areas.

  13. Discrepancy Between ASTER- and MODIS- Derived Land Surface Temperatures: Terrain Effects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanbo; Noumi, Yousuke; Yamaguchi, Yasushi

    2009-01-01

    The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) are onboard the same satellite platform NASA TERRA. Both MODIS and ASTER offer routine retrieval of land surface temperatures (LSTs), and the ASTER- and MODIS-retrieved LST products have been used worldwide. Because a large fraction of the earth surface consists of mountainous areas, variations in elevation, terrain slope and aspect angles can cause biases in the retrieved LSTs. However, terrain-induced effects are generally neglected in most satellite retrievals, which may generate discrepancy between ASTER and MODIS LSTs. In this paper, we reported the terrain effects on the LST discrepancy with a case examination over a relief area at the Loess Plateau of China. Results showed that the terrain-induced effects were not major, but nevertheless important for the total LST discrepancy. A large local slope did not necessarily lead to a large LST discrepancy. The angle of emitted radiance was more important than the angle of local slope in generating the LST discrepancy. Specifically, the conventional terrain correction may be unsuitable for densely vegetated areas. The distribution of ASTER-to-MODIS emissivity suggested that the terrain correction was included in the generalized split window (GSW) based approach used to rectify MODIS LSTs. Further study should include the classification-induced uncertainty in emissivity for reliable use of satellite-retrieved LSTs over relief areas. PMID:22399955

  14. Shallow Hydrothermal Flow in a Strike-Slip Fault System, Mt Isa, Australia: A Proterozoic Analog for Modern Geothermal Systems Along Strike-Slip Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibson, R. H.; Ghisetti, F.; Begbie, M.

    2014-12-01

    Strong E-W shortening during the Isan Orogeny (1590-1500 Ma) led to crustal thickening and compressional inversion of former intracontinental rift basins. The resulting metamorphic/plutonic basement complex is disrupted by conjugate, mutually cross-cutting sets of brittle, late-orogenic strike-slip faults. Dextral strike-slip faults (separations < 25 km) strike NE-NNE, while conjugate sinistral faults strike SE-SSE, defining a wrench regime (σv = σ2) with horizontal maximum compression, σ1, trending c. 100°. The strike-slip faults are recessive except in dilational sites where upwelling hydrothermal fluids have silicified the cataclastic shear zones (CSZ) which protrude as blade-like ridges extending for kilometres across the semi-arid terrain. The mineralized fault segments include sinuous releasing bends where the fault trace is deflected <10° as well as more abrupt dilational stepovers with distributed extension fracturing linking en echelon fault segments. Other components of structural permeability include: (1) innumerable fault-parallel quartz-veins (cm to m thickness) within the CSZ; (2) irregular stringer veins; and (3) a regional set of predominantly extensional, subvertical planar quartz veins oriented 080-120° at moderate angles to the main faults. Broad contemporaneity is indicated by mutual cross-cutting relationships between all structural components. Measured strike separations along shear fractures are consistent with seismic slip increments which refreshed fracture permeability and promoted hydrothermal flow. Textures suggest the faults were exhumed from epithermal boiling environments (<1-2 km depth). Restoration of fault cohesive strength by hydrothermal cementation was critical in allowing continued vein formation by hydraulic extension fracturing. The distribution of hydrothermal quartz within the fault system provides a guide to structural localization of upflow zones in geothermal fields developed along strike-slip faults.

  15. Variation in Foot Strike Patterns among Habitually Barefoot and Shod Runners in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Daniel E; Castillo, Eric R; Otarola-Castillo, Erik; Sang, Meshack K; Sigei, Timothy K; Ojiambo, Robert; Okutoyi, Paul; Pitsiladis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    Runners are often categorized as forefoot, midfoot or rearfoot strikers, but how much and why do individuals vary in foot strike patterns when running on level terrain? This study used general linear mixed-effects models to explore both intra- and inter-individual variations in foot strike pattern among 48 Kalenjin-speaking participants from Kenya who varied in age, sex, body mass, height, running history, and habitual use of footwear. High speed video was used to measure lower extremity kinematics at ground contact in the sagittal plane while participants ran down 13 meter-long tracks with three variables independently controlled: speed, track stiffness, and step frequency. 72% of the habitually barefoot and 32% of the habitually shod participants used multiple strike types, with significantly higher levels of foot strike variation among individuals who ran less frequently and who used lower step frequencies. There was no effect of sex, age, height or weight on foot strike angle, but individuals were more likely to midfoot or forefoot strike when they ran on a stiff surface, had a high preferred stride frequency, were habitually barefoot, and had more experience running. It is hypothesized that strike type variation during running, including a more frequent use of forefoot and midfoot strikes, used to be greater before the introduction of cushioned shoes and paved surfaces. PMID:26154285

  16. Expert Anticipatory Skill in Striking Sports: A Review and a Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Sean; Abernethy, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Expert performers in striking sports can hit objects moving at high speed with incredible precision. Exceptionally well developed anticipation skills are necessary to cope with the severe constraints on interception. In this paper, we provide a review of the empirical evidence regarding expert interception in striking sports and propose a…

  17. Labor Conflict on the National Stage: Metaphoric Lenses in Israel's Teachers' Strike

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenkar, Miriam; Shenkar, Oded

    2011-01-01

    Teachers often embed their labor demands within a broader context to claim high moral ground and build community support. We analyze a recent teachers' strike in Israel, looking at how the strike played out in a country where the challenges of globalization collided with a socialist legacy in the face of an existential threat. The analysis reveals…

  18. Factors affecting defensive strike behavior in Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) provoked by humans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, McKayka M.; Lardner, Bjorn; Mazurek, M.J.; Reed, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    Striking is a typical antipredator defense exhibited by many species of snakes. While trapping Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) on Guam, we observed that snakes most frequently struck at an approaching person at a site where snakes had been trapped, marked, and handled in the past. Using a combination of between-sites and within-site comparisons, we assessed if the propensity to strike was correlated with capture histories (both recent and long-term), snake size, body condition (a proxy to nutritional stress), sex, or tail condition (broken or intact), while controlling for confounding variables. We confirmed that propensity to strike was higher at the site where we had been conducting capture-mark-recapture for several years. However, we were unable to demonstrate a correlation between striking tendencies and individual recent or long-term capture histories. The only morphological covariate that had an effect on strike propensity was sex, with females striking more often than males. After removing the site effect from our model, we found that snakes missing parts of their tails were more likely to strike than snakes with intact tails. We have yet to identify the factor(s) that cause the pronounced difference across sites in snake propensity to strike, and data from additional sites might help elucidate any geographical patterns.

  19. Variation in Foot Strike Patterns among Habitually Barefoot and Shod Runners in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Daniel E.; Castillo, Eric R.; Otarola-Castillo, Erik; Sang, Meshack K.; Sigei, Timothy K.; Ojiambo, Robert; Okutoyi, Paul; Pitsiladis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    Runners are often categorized as forefoot, midfoot or rearfoot strikers, but how much and why do individuals vary in foot strike patterns when running on level terrain? This study used general linear mixed-effects models to explore both intra- and inter-individual variations in foot strike pattern among 48 Kalenjin-speaking participants from Kenya who varied in age, sex, body mass, height, running history, and habitual use of footwear. High speed video was used to measure lower extremity kinematics at ground contact in the sagittal plane while participants ran down 13 meter-long tracks with three variables independently controlled: speed, track stiffness, and step frequency. 72% of the habitually barefoot and 32% of the habitually shod participants used multiple strike types, with significantly higher levels of foot strike variation among individuals who ran less frequently and who used lower step frequencies. There was no effect of sex, age, height or weight on foot strike angle, but individuals were more likely to midfoot or forefoot strike when they ran on a stiff surface, had a high preferred stride frequency, were habitually barefoot, and had more experience running. It is hypothesized that strike type variation during running, including a more frequent use of forefoot and midfoot strikes, used to be greater before the introduction of cushioned shoes and paved surfaces. PMID:26154285

  20. Batter's Choice: Lessons for Teaching Tactics in a Modified Striking/Fielding Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Christina

    2004-01-01

    When played in their standard form, striking/fielding games are often a favorite among elementary students; yet they allow for only limited participation, which is contradictory to quality physical education. This article presents a sequence of lessons leading to Batter's Choice, a modified striking/fielding game, designed to maximize the…

  1. An Inexpensive Device for Modelling Strike-Slip and Oblique-Slip Fault Zones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larter, Richard C. L.; Allison, Iain

    1983-01-01

    Describes construction/use of a device to simulate structures produced in fault zones of dominantly strike-dip motion. Apparatus modifications allow simulation of transtension and transpression as well as pure strike-slip fault motion. Illustrates formation of several structures using the apparatus, comparing them with natural examples. Includes…

  2. Picket Fencing: Amid Fewer Strikes, Some See Waning Sympathy for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, Joetta L.

    2006-01-01

    Once as familiar in the back-to-school ritual as falling leaves, teacher strikes seem headed for a winter freeze. According to the nation's largest teacher's union, about 15 of the National Education Association's (NEA) 14,000 local affiliates have gone on strike since the start of this school year. In Pennsylvania--a traditional union…

  3. 48 CFR 1252.222-71 - Strikes or picketing affecting access to a DOT facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 1252.222-71 Strikes or picketing affecting access to a DOT facility. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1222.101-71(b), insert the following clause: Strikes or Picketing Affecting Access to a... affecting access to a DOT facility. 1252.222-71 Section 1252.222-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations...

  4. Fans' Judgments About the 1994-95 Major League Baseball Players' Strike.

    PubMed

    Mellor, S; Paley, M J; Holzworth, R J

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we used a multilevel analysis to examine how strike tactics influenced fans' support of the 1994-95 Major League Baseball player's strike. Strike tactics were discounted ticket prices for season games, replacement players in games, and picket lines of striking players. Tactics were varied within judgment scenarios (i.e., baseball game announcements) and fans' responses to scenarios were used as within-person variables to estimate tactic influences. Fans' perceptions of themselves (e.g., extent of fanship) and the strike situation (e.g., extent to which the dispute was perceived as a labor dispute) were used as between-person variables to predict individual differences in tactic influences. Results indicated that more replacement players has a positive influence on support for the strike and higher discounted prices had a negative influence on strike support. The influences of replacement players on judgments was not associated with individual differences, whereas the influence of discounted prices on judgments did show such differences. The findings were used to discuss implications for winning support from consumers in a professional entertainment workers' strike.

  5. Discrepancy between Mother and Child Reports of Parental Knowledge and the Relation to Risk Behavior Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Matusiewicz, Alexis K.; Schreiber, Whitney M.; Lejuez, C.W.

    2011-01-01

    The study examined discrepancies in mother and child reports of parental knowledge (PK) of a child’s whereabouts, activities, and companions, as well as the extent to which discrepancies in reports of PK are related to child risk-taking behavior concurrently and prospectively across two time points. The sample consisted of 219 mother and early adolescent youth (Mn age = 11.0, SD = .8) dyads. Mother and child reports of PK significantly differed and, at both waves, scores on the risk taking composite related negatively to both mother and child reports of PK and positively to the discrepancy between the two reports. A significant interaction between mother and child reports was found at wave 2, such that the relation between child reported PK and risk behavior was stronger when mothers reported high levels of parental knowledge versus low levels of parental knowledge. Prospective analyses indicated a main effect of mother report. PMID:21229444

  6. Controllability discrepancy and irreducibility/reducibility of Floquet factorisations in linear continuous-time periodic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jun; Lu, Xinbiao; Qian, Huimin

    2016-09-01

    The paper reports interesting but unnoticed facts about irreducibility (resp., reducibility) of Flouqet factorisations and their harmonic implication in term of controllability in finite-dimensional linear continuous-time periodic (FDLCP) systems. Reducibility and irreducibility are attributed to matrix logarithm algorithms during computing Floquet factorisations in FDLCP systems, which are a pair of essential features but remain unnoticed in the Floquet theory so far. The study reveals that reducible Floquet factorisations may bring in harmonic waves variance into the Fourier analysis of FDLCP systems that in turn may alter our interpretation of controllability when the Floquet factors are used separately during controllability testing; namely, controllability interpretation discrepancy (or simply, controllability discrepancy) may occur and must be examined whenever reducible Floquet factorisations are involved. On the contrary, when irreducible Floquet factorisations are employed, controllability interpretation discrepancy can be avoided. Examples are included to illustrate such observations.

  7. Development of WAIS-III General Ability Index Minus WMS-III memory discrepancy scores.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J; Tulsky, David S

    2006-09-01

    Analysis of the discrepancy between intellectual functioning and memory ability has received some support as a useful means for evaluating memory impairment. In recent additions to Wechlser scale interpretation, the WAIS-III General Ability Index (GAI) and the WMS-III Delayed Memory Index (DMI) were developed. The purpose of this investigation is to develop base rate data for GAI-IMI, GAI-GMI, and GAI-DMI discrepancy scores using data from the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample (weighted N = 1250). Base rate tables were developed using the predicted-difference method and two simple-difference methods (i.e., stratified and non-stratified). These tables provide valuable data for clinical reference purposes to determine the frequency of GAI-IMI, GAI-GMI, and GAI-DMI discrepancy scores in the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample.

  8. Development of WAIS-III General Ability Index Minus WMS-III memory discrepancy scores.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J; Tulsky, David S

    2006-09-01

    Analysis of the discrepancy between intellectual functioning and memory ability has received some support as a useful means for evaluating memory impairment. In recent additions to Wechlser scale interpretation, the WAIS-III General Ability Index (GAI) and the WMS-III Delayed Memory Index (DMI) were developed. The purpose of this investigation is to develop base rate data for GAI-IMI, GAI-GMI, and GAI-DMI discrepancy scores using data from the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample (weighted N = 1250). Base rate tables were developed using the predicted-difference method and two simple-difference methods (i.e., stratified and non-stratified). These tables provide valuable data for clinical reference purposes to determine the frequency of GAI-IMI, GAI-GMI, and GAI-DMI discrepancy scores in the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample. PMID:16895854

  9. Weight discrepancy and body appreciation of Zimbabwean women in Zimbabwe and Britain.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Mada, Rujeko; Tovée, Martin J

    2012-09-01

    Few studies have investigated a cultural group's corporeal experiences in both its country of origin and a host, Western country using the same methodology. To overcome this dearth in the literature, the present study examined body image among 140 women in Harare, Zimbabwe, and an age-matched sample of 138 Zimbabwean migrants in Britain. Participants completed measures of actual-ideal weight discrepancy, body appreciation, and lifetime exposure to Western and Zimbabwean media. Preliminary analyses showed that there were no significant differences in body mass index between the two groups. Further analyses showed that Zimbabwean women in Britain had significantly greater weight discrepancy and lower body appreciation than their counterparts in Zimbabwe. In addition, weight discrepancy and body appreciation among both samples were significantly associated with exposure to Western media, but not Zimbabwean media. These findings support the contention that transcultural migration may place individuals at risk for symptoms of negative body image.

  10. Leap and strike kinetics of an acoustically 'hunting' barn owl (Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Usherwood, James R; Sparkes, Emily L; Weller, Renate

    2014-09-01

    Barn owls are effective hunters of small rodents. One hunting technique is a leap from the ground followed by a brief flight and a plummeting 'strike' onto an acoustically targeted - and potentially entirely hidden - prey. We used forceplate measurements to derive kinetics of the leap and strike. Leaping performance was similar to reported values for guinea fowl. This is likely achieved despite the owl's considerably smaller size because of its relatively long legs and use of wing upstroke. Strikes appear deliberately forceful: impulses could have been spread over larger periods during greater deflections of the centre of mass, as observed in leaping and an alighting landing measurement. The strike, despite forces around 150 times that of a mouse body weight, is not thought to be crucial to the kill; rather, forceful strikes may function primarily to enable rapid penetration of leaf litter or snow cover, allowing grasping of hidden prey. PMID:24948629

  11. Leap and strike kinetics of an acoustically 'hunting' barn owl (Tyto alba).

    PubMed

    Usherwood, James R; Sparkes, Emily L; Weller, Renate

    2014-09-01

    Barn owls are effective hunters of small rodents. One hunting technique is a leap from the ground followed by a brief flight and a plummeting 'strike' onto an acoustically targeted - and potentially entirely hidden - prey. We used forceplate measurements to derive kinetics of the leap and strike. Leaping performance was similar to reported values for guinea fowl. This is likely achieved despite the owl's considerably smaller size because of its relatively long legs and use of wing upstroke. Strikes appear deliberately forceful: impulses could have been spread over larger periods during greater deflections of the centre of mass, as observed in leaping and an alighting landing measurement. The strike, despite forces around 150 times that of a mouse body weight, is not thought to be crucial to the kill; rather, forceful strikes may function primarily to enable rapid penetration of leaf litter or snow cover, allowing grasping of hidden prey.

  12. A STUDY OF THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN FEDERAL AND STATE MEASUREMENTS OF ON-HIGHWAY FUEL CONSUMPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, HL

    2003-08-11

    Annual highway fuel taxes are collected by the Treasury Department and placed in the Highway Trust Fund (HTF). There is, however, no direct connection between the taxes collected by the Treasury Department and the gallons of on-highway fuel use, which can lead to a discrepancy between these totals. This study was conducted to determine how much of a discrepancy exists between the total fuel usages estimated based on highway revenue funds as reported by the Treasury Department and the total fuel usages used in the apportionment of the HTF to the States. The analysis was conducted using data from Highway Statistics Tables MF-27 and FE-9 for the years 1991-2001. It was found that the overall discrepancy is relatively small, mostly within 5% difference. The amount of the discrepancy varies from year to year and varies among the three fuel types (gasoline, gasohol, special fuels). Several potential explanations for these discrepancies were identified, including issues on data, tax measurement, gallon measurement, HTF receipts, and timing. Data anomalies caused by outside forces, such as deferment of tax payments from one fiscal year to the next, can skew fuel tax data. Fuel tax evasion can lead to differences between actual fuel use and fuel taxes collected. Furthermore, differences in data collection and reporting among States can impact fuel use data. Refunds, credits, and transfers from the HTF can impact the total fuel tax receipt data. Timing issues, such as calendar year vs. fiscal year, can also cause some discrepancy between the two data sources.

  13. Interaction between slip events, erosion and sedimentation along an active strike-slip fault: Insights from analog models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatton, M.; Malavieille, J.; Dominguez, S.; Manighetti, I.; Romano, C.; Beauprêtre, S.; Garembois, S.; Larroque, C.

    2012-04-01

    device is indeed coupled with a rainfall system, while an optical measurement apparatus that includes digital cameras and a laser interferometer, allows observing and measuring continuously at very high resolution the evolution of the model surface morphology. The analog material is a mix of granular materials -glass microbeads, silica powder and plastic powder saturated in water, whose mass composition and, consequently, mechanical properties lead to a geometric scaling of about 1:10 000 and to a temporal scaling on the order of one second equivalent to a few dozens of years. The protocol allows monitoring together the evolution of the fault and that of the morphological markers that the fault progressively offsets as slip events are imposed. We have conducted several experiences in different settings and we will present the preliminary results that we have obtained. We basically could survey the formation and evolution of a strike-slip fault from its immature stages up to one hundred repeated slip events. Under the combined effects of accumulating slip, erosion and sedimentation, the model surface exhibits tectonic and morphological structures similar to natural features (Riedel's shears, pressure and shutter ridges, pull-apart basins, alluvial fans, terrace risers, braided rivers, etc), whose space and time evolution can be precisely analyzed. Deformation partitioning, sequential formation of alluvial terraces, stream captures, development of 'traps' filling with sediments, etc, are especially observed. The control on the imposed amplitude and frequency of the rainfall cycles allows us to examine the impact of these rainfalls on the fault morphology and the evolution of the associated morphological markers. Finally, we can compare the imposed slip events (number, amplitudes, repeat times) with the cumulative offsets eventually visible and measurable at the model surface. Marked discrepancies are found between imposed and final apparent offsets that shed light on the

  14. Developing personal values: trainees' attitudes toward strikes by health care providers.

    PubMed

    Li, Su-Ting T; Srinivasan, Malathi; Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Kravitz, Richard L; Wilkes, Michael S

    2011-05-01

    Worldwide, health care providers use strikes and job actions to influence policy. For health care providers, especially physicians, strikes create an ethical tension between an obligation to care for current patients (e.g., to provide care and avoid abandonment) and an obligation to better care for future patients by seeking system improvements (e.g., improvements in safety, to access, and in the composition and strength of the health care workforce). This tension is further intensified when the potential benefit of a strike involves professional self-interest and the potential risk involves patient harm or death. By definition, trainees are still forming their professional identities and values, including their opinions on fair wages, health policy, employee benefits, professionalism, and strikes. In this article, the authors explore these ethical tensions, beginning with a discussion of reactions to a potential 2005 nursing strike at the University of California, Davis, Medical Center. The authors then propose a conceptual model describing factors that may influence health care providers' decisions to strike (including personal ethics, personal agency, and strike-related context). In particular, the authors explore the relationship between training level and attitudes toward taking a job action, such as going on strike. Because trainees' attitudes toward strikes continue to evolve during training, the authors maintain that open discussion around the ethics of health care professionals' strikes and other methods of conflict resolution should be included in medical education to enhance professionalism and systems-based practice training. The authors include sample case vignettes to help initiate these important discussions. PMID:21436671

  15. Developing personal values: trainees' attitudes toward strikes by health care providers.

    PubMed

    Li, Su-Ting T; Srinivasan, Malathi; Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Kravitz, Richard L; Wilkes, Michael S

    2011-05-01

    Worldwide, health care providers use strikes and job actions to influence policy. For health care providers, especially physicians, strikes create an ethical tension between an obligation to care for current patients (e.g., to provide care and avoid abandonment) and an obligation to better care for future patients by seeking system improvements (e.g., improvements in safety, to access, and in the composition and strength of the health care workforce). This tension is further intensified when the potential benefit of a strike involves professional self-interest and the potential risk involves patient harm or death. By definition, trainees are still forming their professional identities and values, including their opinions on fair wages, health policy, employee benefits, professionalism, and strikes. In this article, the authors explore these ethical tensions, beginning with a discussion of reactions to a potential 2005 nursing strike at the University of California, Davis, Medical Center. The authors then propose a conceptual model describing factors that may influence health care providers' decisions to strike (including personal ethics, personal agency, and strike-related context). In particular, the authors explore the relationship between training level and attitudes toward taking a job action, such as going on strike. Because trainees' attitudes toward strikes continue to evolve during training, the authors maintain that open discussion around the ethics of health care professionals' strikes and other methods of conflict resolution should be included in medical education to enhance professionalism and systems-based practice training. The authors include sample case vignettes to help initiate these important discussions.

  16. [ABO/D discrepancies in the era of automation and molecular immunohematology].

    PubMed

    Hamouche, Elias; Bouix, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    ABO/D grouping errors are still causing fatalities despite the substantial decrease observed over the past thirty years. This risk reduction is due, in part, to the increased automation of immunohematology techniques, a better control of clerical errors and a better knowledge of group discrepancies. The first part of the text will summarize the etiologies of group discrepancies while the second part will expose briefly the historical and technical evolution in immunohematology. Finally in the third part, the role of molecular techniques in immunohematology will be discussed.

  17. Overview of cenozoic strike-slip displacement of the caribbean plate

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, P.

    1985-01-01

    Geologic and tectonic studies in the Caribbean region have traditionally focused on Cretaceous and Paleogene arc rocks which, for the most part, record a long period (approx. = 100 Ma) of plate convergence. Since the recognition of the plate structure of the Caribbean by Molnar and Sykes in 1969, there has been steadily increasing interest in mapping widespread ares of Neogene sedimentary and volcanic rocks that generally record a long period (65.-40 Ma) of eastward displacement of the Caribbean plate relative to the Americas. The purpose of this talk is to review different aspects of present knowledge on this strike-slip displacement, namely: 1) location of major strike-slip faults within the northern and southern plate boundary zones; 2) sense, offset, rate of slip of major strike-slip faults; 3) secondary deformational features related to strike-slip displacements; 4) intraplate deformational features related to interplate strike-slip movements; 5) relation of seismicity to major strike-slip faults; and 6) constraints imposed by strike-slip fault systems on plate motion models. Based on these observations, several critical problems which future studies might help resolve are pointed out.

  18. A kinematic method to detect foot contact during running for all foot strike patterns.

    PubMed

    Milner, Clare E; Paquette, Max R

    2015-09-18

    The biomechanics of distance running are studied in relation to both understanding injury mechanisms and improving performance. Kinematic methods must be used to identify the stance phase of running when data are recorded during running on a standard treadmill or outside the laboratory. Recently, a focus on foot strike patterns has emerged in the field. Thus, there is a need for a kinematic method to identify foot contact that is equally effective for both rearfoot and non-rearfoot strike patterns. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a new kinematic method could accurately determine foot contact during running in both rearfoot and non-rearfoot strikers. Overground gait data were collected at on 22 runners, 11 with a rearfoot strike pattern and 11 with a non-rearfoot strike pattern. Data were processed to identify foot contact from: vertical ground reaction force, two previously published kinematic methods, and our new kinematic method. Limits of agreement were used to determine bias and random error of each kinematic method compared to ground reaction force onset. The new method had comparable random error at 200 Hz sampling frequency (5 ms per frame) to the previous methods (7 frames vs 6-9 frames) and produced the same offset for both strike patterns (3 frames), while the existing methods had different offsets for different strike patterns (4 or 7 frames). Study findings support use of this new method, as it can be applied to all running strike patterns without adjusting the frame offset, simplifying data processing.

  19. Analyzing Discrepancies in a Software Development Project Change Request (CR) Assessment Process and Recommendations for Process Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Kenneth James

    2003-01-01

    The Change Request (CR) assessment process is essential in the display development cycle. The assessment process is performed to ensure that the changes stated in the description of the CR match the changes in the actual display requirements. If a discrepancy is found between the CR and the requirements, the CR must be returned to the originator for corrections. Data was gathered from each of the developers to determine the type of discrepancies and the amount of time spent assessing each CR. This study sought to determine the most common types of discrepancies, and the amount of time required to assessing those issues. The study found that even though removing discrepancy before an assessment would save half the time needed to assess an CR with a discrepancy, the number of CR's found to have a discrepancy was very small compared to the total number of CR's assessed during the data gathering period.

  20. Variation in Foot Strike Patterns during Running among Habitually Barefoot Populations

    PubMed Central

    Hatala, Kevin G.; Dingwall, Heather L.; Wunderlich, Roshna E.; Richmond, Brian G.

    2013-01-01

    Endurance running may have a long evolutionary history in the hominin clade but it was not until very recently that humans ran wearing shoes. Research on modern habitually unshod runners has suggested that they utilize a different biomechanical strategy than runners who wear shoes, namely that barefoot runners typically use a forefoot strike in order to avoid generating the high impact forces that would be experienced if they were to strike the ground with their heels first. This finding suggests that our habitually unshod ancestors may have run in a similar way. However, this research was conducted on a single population and we know little about variation in running form among habitually barefoot people, including the effects of running speed, which has been shown to affect strike patterns in shod runners. Here, we present the results of our investigation into the selection of running foot strike patterns among another modern habitually unshod group, the Daasanach of northern Kenya. Data were collected from 38 consenting adults as they ran along a trackway with a plantar pressure pad placed midway along its length. Subjects ran at self-selected endurance running and sprinting speeds. Our data support the hypothesis that a forefoot strike reduces the magnitude of impact loading, but the majority of subjects instead used a rearfoot strike at endurance running speeds. Their percentages of midfoot and forefoot strikes increased significantly with speed. These results indicate that not all habitually barefoot people prefer running with a forefoot strike, and suggest that other factors such as running speed, training level, substrate mechanical properties, running distance, and running frequency, influence the selection of foot strike patterns. PMID:23326341

  1. Power and Violence: The Relation between Communication Patterns, Power Discrepancies, and Domestic Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, Julia C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined discrepancies in economic status, decision-making power, communication patterns, and communication skill in three groups of spouses (n=95): domestically violent, maritally distressed/nonviolent, and maritally happy/nonviolent. Domestically violent couples were more likely than nonviolent groups to engage in husband-demand/wife-withdraw…

  2. Breaking the Discrepancy Code: A Meta-Analysis of the Specific Learning Disability Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachmeier, Randy J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous "selective" meta-analyses of the literature relating to the IQ-achievement discrepancy model of specific learning disability identification have concluded that "underachieving" and "low-achieving" poor readers do not differ in any educationally meaningful way. Underachievers are those poor readers who qualify as learning disabled using an…

  3. Women Arrested for Partner Violence and Substance Use: An Exploration of Discrepancies in the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Catherine A.; Lehmann, Peter; Cobb, Norman

    2008-01-01

    Discrepancies exist in research examining substance problems within groups of women arrested for intimate partner violence (IPV). In some studies women IPV arrestees have been found to be at high risk for substance-related problems, whereas in others they are found to be at low risk for substance-related problems. The current study explores these…

  4. Nucleotide sequence discrepancies within the GA strain of Marek's disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparative genomics between 9 gallid herpesvirus type 2 strains have singled out the virulent (v) prototype strain GA as phylogenetically distant from other v pathotypes. Multiple amino acid alignments of otherwise highly conserved unique long (UL) genes have indicated sequence discrepancies within...

  5. Atomic bomb induced 152Eu: reconciliation of discrepancy between measurements and calculation.

    PubMed

    Komura, K; Hoshi, M; Endo, S; Imanaka, T; Egbert, S D; Rühm, W; Fukushima, H; Fujita, S

    2007-04-01

    In order to resolve the discrepancy between the measured and calculated 152Eu activity induced by the atomic bomb at Hiroshima, extremely low background gamma-ray spectrometry was performed for 17 granite samples collected from 134 m to more than 3 km from the hypocenter. Measurements agreed well with theoretical calculations based on DS02 up to 1.4 km from hypocenter.

  6. Linking Informant Discrepancies to Observed Variations in Young Children's Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2009-01-01

    Prior work has not tested the basic theoretical notion that informant discrepancies in reports of children's behavior exist, in part, because different informants observe children's behavior in different settings. We examined patterns of observed preschool disruptive behavior across varying social contexts in the laboratory and whether they…

  7. The Discrepancy Evaluation Model: A Strategy for Improving a Simulation and Determining Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morra, Linda G.

    This paper presents the Discrepancy Evaluation Model (DEM) as an overall strategy or framework for both the improvement and assessment of effectiveness of simulation/games. While application of the evaluation model to simulation/games rather than educational programs requires modification of the model, its critical features remain. These include:…

  8. Selective Exposure to Discrepant Entertainment and News/Documentary Television Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surlin, Stuart H.

    This study tests the hypothesis that discrepant information will receive greater exposure and will reach the desired audience when presented within the context of a news/documentary television program (task-oriented programming) instead of televised entertainment (non-task-oriented programming). After 134 college students completed a scale that…

  9. College Students' Adjustment: The Role of Parent-College Student Expectation Discrepancies and Communication Reciprocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agliata, Allison Kanter; Renk, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    Parents' influence on college students' adjustment is underestimated frequently. As college students often set goals based on their perceptions of their parents' expectations, discrepancies between college students' and their parents' expectations may be related to their adjustment. The purpose of this study was to examine parent-college student…

  10. The association between physical self-discrepancies and women's physical activity: the mediating role of motivation.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine; Castonguay, Andree; Ferguson, Leah; Bessette, Natalia

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the associations between physical self-discrepancies (actual:ideal and actual:ought) and physical activity behavior, and to examine whether motivational regulations mediate these associations using self-discrepancy (Higgins, 1987) and organismic integration (Deci & Ryan, 1985) theories as guiding frameworks. Young women (N = 205; M(age) = 18.87 years, SD = 1.83) completed self-report questionnaires. Main analyses involved path analysis using a polynomial regression approach, estimation of direct and indirect effects, and evaluation of response surface values. Agreement between actual and ideal (or ought) physical self-perceptions was related to physical activity both directly and indirectly as mediated by the motivational regulations (R(2) = .24-.30). Specifically, when actual and ideal self-perceptions scores were similar, physical activity levels increased as actual and ideal scores increased. Furthermore, physical activity levels were lower when the discrepancy was such that ideal or ought self were higher than actual self. These findings provide support for integrating self-discrepancy and organismic integration theories to advance research in this area.

  11. 41 CFR 101-26.803-3 - Reporting of discrepancies in transportation, shipments, material, or billings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Reporting of discrepancies in transportation, shipments, material, or billings. 101-26.803-3 Section 101-26.803-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT...

  12. Magnitude and Direction of WISC-R Verbal-Performance IQ Discrepancies among Adjudicated Male Delinquents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubble, L. M.; Groff, M.

    1981-01-01

    A field study is reported in which the discrepancy between verbal and nonverbal skills among 150 adjudicated male delinquents was assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, and evaluated with regard to three interpretations of the observed differences. (Author/GK)

  13. WISC-R Verbal Performance IQ Discrepancies among Quay-Classified Adolescent Male Delinquents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubble, L.M.; Groff, M. G.

    1982-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that the Wechsler Verbal/Performance Intelligence quotient discrepancy would be larger or more frequent for persons classified as exhibiting a psychopathic delinquent adjustment than for persons classified as either neurotic or subculturally delinquent. (Author/PN)

  14. The Valued Living Questionnaire for Alcohol Use: Measuring value-behavior discrepancy in college student drinking.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mary Beth; Meier, Ellen; Lombardi, Nathaniel; Leavens, Eleanor L; Grant, DeMond M; Leffingwell, Thad R

    2016-09-01

    Developing discrepancy between one's values and behaviors is theoretically important in motivating change; however, existing studies lack a validated measure of value-behavior discrepancy for alcohol misuse. The current studies aimed to modify Wilson & DuFrene (2008) Valued Living Questionnaire (VLQ) to assess consistency of alcohol use with important values. In Study 1, the initial factor structure and test-retest reliability of the VLQ for Alcohol Use (VLQ-A) was tested in a sample of college students who regularly drink alcohol (N = 150). Results guided modifications to the measure. In Study 2, the revised measure's factor structure and predictive validity were tested with a second sample of college students who drink alcohol (N = 222). In both studies, exploratory factor analysis supported a unidimensional factor structure. Perceived discrepancy between alcohol use and important values predicted greater readiness to change, while perceived consistency between alcohol use and important values predicted more frequent heavy episodic drinking. Certain values were more useful in predicting outcomes than others. Alcohol use (heavy vs. moderate drinking) did not moderate outcomes. The VLQ-A is a brief and reliable self-report measure of perceived discrepancy between drinking behaviors and important values that may increase readiness to change. Future research examining the generalizability of findings to various samples and the efficacy of the VLQ-A as a supplement to brief interventions is warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27537000

  15. The SAT® and SAT Subject Tests™: Discrepant Scores and Incremental Validity. Research Report 2012-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Patterson, Brian F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines student performance on the SAT and SAT Subject Tests in order to identify groups of students who score differently on these two tests, and to determine whether certain demographic groups score higher on one test compared to the other. Discrepancy scores were created to capture individuals' performance differences on the…

  16. Discrepancies between Competence and Importance in Self-Perceptions of Children in Integrated Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clever, Andrew; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study of self-perceptions of fifth graders found that children with learning disabilities (n=35) and children with low achievement (n=27) had significantly larger discrepancies between perceived competence and importance in the scholastic domain than 122 normally achieving children. Little evidence for a discounting mechanism to protect…

  17. Misleading University Rankings: Cause and Cure for Discrepancies between Nominal and Attained Weights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soh, Kaycheng

    2013-01-01

    Recent research into university ranking methodologies uncovered several methodological problems among the systems currently in vogue. One of these is the discrepancy between the nominal and attained weights. The problem is the summation of unstandardized indicators for the total scores used in ranking. It is demonstrated that weight discrepancy…

  18. 33 CFR 62.65 - Procedure for reporting defects and discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM Public Participation in the Aids to Navigation System § 62.65 Procedure for reporting defects and discrepancies. (a) Mariners should notify the nearest Coast Guard facility immediately of any observed aids to navigation defects...

  19. 33 CFR 62.65 - Procedure for reporting defects and discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM Public Participation in the Aids to Navigation System § 62.65 Procedure for reporting defects and discrepancies. (a) Mariners should notify the nearest Coast Guard facility immediately of any observed aids to navigation defects...

  20. 33 CFR 62.65 - Procedure for reporting defects and discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM Public Participation in the Aids to Navigation System § 62.65 Procedure for reporting defects and discrepancies. (a) Mariners should notify the nearest Coast Guard facility immediately of any observed aids to navigation defects...

  1. 33 CFR 62.65 - Procedure for reporting defects and discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM Public Participation in the Aids to Navigation System § 62.65 Procedure for reporting defects and discrepancies. (a) Mariners should notify the nearest Coast Guard facility immediately of any observed aids to navigation defects...

  2. 33 CFR 62.65 - Procedure for reporting defects and discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM Public Participation in the Aids to Navigation System § 62.65 Procedure for reporting defects and discrepancies. (a) Mariners should notify the nearest Coast Guard facility immediately of any observed aids to navigation defects...

  3. What Is Asthma Control? Discrepancies between Parents' Perceptions and Official Definitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozier, Ann; Aligne, C. Andrew; Schlabach, Mary Beth

    2006-01-01

    National guidelines define asthma control as the prevention of asthma symptoms rather than the treatment of asthma exacerbations. We hypothesized that we would find a discrepancy between what parents consider adequate control compared to what health care professionals mean by "control." Data from a telephone survey conducted for the local asthma…

  4. The Drinking Partnership and Marital Satisfaction: The Longitudinal Influence of Discrepant Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homish, Gregory G.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2007-01-01

    The objective was to determine whether discrepancies between husbands' and wives' past year heavy drinking predicted decreased marital satisfaction over time. Participants (N = 634) were recruited at the time they applied for their marriage licenses. Couples completed questionnaires about their alcohol use and marital satisfaction at the time of…

  5. When Discrepant Events Change the Plans: An Unexpected Investigation of Physical Properties and Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Lauren; Seifried, Joyce; Farnum, Kerry; D'Armiento, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Discrepant events are often used by science educators to incite interest and excitement in learners, yet sometimes their results are farther-reaching. The following article describes how one such event--dissolving packing peanuts in acetone--led to a change in the course of a college-level elementary science teaching methods class and to the…

  6. The Discrepancy Evaluation Model: A Systematic Approach for the Evaluation of Career Planning and Placement Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttram, Joan L.; Covert, Robert W.

    The Discrepancy Evaluation Model (DEM), developed in 1966 by Malcolm Provus, provides information for program assessment and program improvement. Under the DEM, evaluation is defined as the comparison of an actual performance to a desired standard. The DEM embodies five stages of evaluation based upon a program's natural development: program…

  7. Easy on the Mind, Easy on the Wrongdoer: Discrepantly Fluent Violations Are Deemed Less Morally Wrong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laham, Simon M.; Alter, Adam L.; Goodwin, Geoffrey P.

    2009-01-01

    The present experiment tested the hypothesis that discrepancies in processing fluency influence the perceived wrongness of moral violations. Participants were presented with numerous moral violations in easy or difficult to read fonts. For some violations, experienced perceptual fluency was consistent with the fluency associated with previous…

  8. Media Representations of Bullying toward Queer Youth: Gender, Race, and Age Discrepancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paceley, Megan S.; Flynn, Karen

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, media coverage on the bullying of queer youth increased dramatically. This study examined online news media's portrayal of the gender, race, and age of bullying victims. Content analyses of ten sources were compared to research on the dynamics of sexuality-based bullying. Discrepancies were found for gender and race (with White males…

  9. 19 CFR 123.9 - Explanation of a discrepancy in a manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Explanation of a discrepancy in a manifest. 123.9 Section 123.9 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO General Provisions § 123.9 Explanation...

  10. Impact of IQ Discrepancy on Executive Function in High-Functioning Autism: Insight into Twice Exceptionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalbfleisch, M. Layne; Loughan, Ashlee R.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the impact of IQ discrepancy (IQD) within (1) and above (1+) one standard deviation on executive function in HFA using the BRIEF. We hypothesized that IQD would benefit executive function. IQD 1 is hallmarked by deficits in BRIEF indices and subscales inhibit, shift, initiate, working memory, planning and organization, and monitor…

  11. Analysis of Reading Discrepancies for 1986-1987: Cleveland City School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zafirau, S. James

    Fifth in a series of studies examining reading discrepancies in Cleveland, Ohio public schools, this report analyzed the spring 1986-1987 reading data so that accurate and usable information and recommendations would be available to decision-makers for related planning, curriculum design, and implementation functions of the district. Students in…

  12. How Effective Is the Principal? Discrepancy between New Zealand Teachers' and Principals' Perceptions of Principal Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnema, Claire E. L.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.; Ludlow, Larry; Pope, Denyse

    2015-01-01

    Multi-source evaluation of school principals is likely to become increasingly common in education contexts as the evidence accumulates about the relationship between principal effectiveness and student achievement. The purpose of this study was to examine (1) the magnitude and direction of discrepancy between how principals and their teachers…

  13. 16 CFR 641.1 - Duties of users of consumer reports regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... policies and procedures. (i) Comparing the information in the consumer report provided by the consumer... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duties of users of consumer reports... CREDIT REPORTING ACT DUTIES OF USERS OF CONSUMER REPORTS REGARDING ADDRESS DISCREPANCIES § 641.1...

  14. 12 CFR 334.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Examples of reasonable policies and procedures. (i) Comparing the information in the consumer report... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address... section applies to a user of consumer reports (user) that receives a notice of address discrepancy from...

  15. 16 CFR 641.1 - Duties of users of consumer reports regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... policies and procedures. (i) Comparing the information in the consumer report provided by the consumer... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duties of users of consumer reports... CREDIT REPORTING ACT DUTIES OF USERS OF CONSUMER REPORTS REGARDING ADDRESS DISCREPANCIES § 641.1...

  16. Discourse Analysis of Interpersonal Meaning to Understand the Discrepancy between Teacher Knowing and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilhan, Emine Gül Çelebi; Erbas, Ayhan Kürsat

    2016-01-01

    As is well known, bridging teacher knowledge or learning with practice is not a straightforward task. This paper aims to explore this discrepancy between a mathematics teacher's knowing and practices and to offer ways of alignment between the two based on the social/interpersonal meanings and their realization through teacher's discourse. In this…

  17. Understanding Discrepancy in Perceptions of Values: Individuals with Mild to Moderate Dementia and Their Family Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reamy, Allison M.; Kim, Kyungmin; Zarit, Steven H.; Whitlatch, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: We explore discrepancies in perceptions of values and care preferences between individuals with dementia (IWDs) and their family caregivers. Design and Methods: We interviewed 266 dyads consisting of an individual with mild to moderate dementia and his or her family caregiver to determine IWDs' beliefs for 5 values related to…

  18. Consonant Differentiation Mediates the Discrepancy between Non-verbal and Verbal Abilities in Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, A. P.; Yoder, P. J.; Stone, W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate verbal communication disorders reflected in lower verbal than non-verbal abilities. The present study examined the extent to which this discrepancy is associated with atypical speech sound differentiation. Methods: Differences in the amplitude of auditory event-related…

  19. The Importance of Breaking Set: Socialized Cognitive Strategies and the Gender Discrepancy in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villalobos, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Theories that explain the gender discrepancy in mathematics almost universally explain why boys are "better at math" than girls while failing to adequately account for girls' higher grades in math classes or better performances on tests of computational ability. This article develops a new, more comprehensive theoretical model that explains girls'…

  20. Explaining Discrepancies in Arrest Rates between Black and White Male Juveniles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fite, Paula J.; Wynn, Porche'; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated discrepancies in arrest rates between Black and White male juveniles by examining the role of early risk factors for arrest. Two hypotheses were evaluated: (a) Disproportionate minority arrest is due to increased exposure to early risk factors, and (b) a differential sensitivity to early risk factors contributes to…

  1. Official Policies and Teachers' Tendency to Act: Exploring the Discrepancies in Teachers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Gilat, Israel Z.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate whether there are discrepancies between teachers' perceptions of the "official policies" and their "tendency to act," based on their ethical decision-making. A qualitative analysis of 60 Israeli teachers' questionnaires consisting of critical ethical incidents revealed multifaceted ethical…

  2. 12 CFR 222.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Reports Regarding Identity Theft § 222.82 Duties of users regarding address discrepancies. (a) Scope. This... consumer's identity in accordance with the requirements of the Customer Identification Program (CIP) rules implementing 31 U.S.C. 5318(l) (31 CFR 103.121); (B) Maintains in its own records, such as applications,...

  3. 12 CFR 222.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Identity Theft § 222.82 Duties of users regarding address discrepancies. (a) Scope. This section applies to... consumer's identity in accordance with the requirements of the Customer Identification Program (CIP) rules implementing 31 U.S.C. 5318(l) (31 CFR 103.121); (B) Maintains in its own records, such as applications,...

  4. 12 CFR 222.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Reports Regarding Identity Theft § 222.82 Duties of users regarding address discrepancies. (a) Scope. This... consumer's identity in accordance with the requirements of the Customer Identification Program (CIP) rules implementing 31 U.S.C. 5318(l) (31 CFR 103.121); (B) Maintains in its own records, such as applications,...

  5. 12 CFR 222.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Identity Theft § 222.82 Duties of users regarding address discrepancies. (a) Scope. This section applies to... consumer's identity in accordance with the requirements of the Customer Identification Program (CIP) rules implementing 31 U.S.C. 5318(l) (31 CFR 103.121); (B) Maintains in its own records, such as applications,...

  6. 12 CFR 222.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Identity Theft § 222.82 Duties of users regarding address discrepancies. (a) Scope. This section applies to... consumer's identity in accordance with the requirements of the Customer Identification Program (CIP) rules implementing 31 U.S.C. 5318(l) (31 CFR 103.121); (B) Maintains in its own records, such as applications,...

  7. The Impact of Discrepant Verbal-Nonverbal Messages in the Teacher-Student Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    Noting that teachers' nonverbal behaviors are frequently inconsistent with their verbal messages, a situation that detracts from student learning, this paper offers an activity for focusing prospective teachers' attentions on the frequency and impact of discrepant verbal-nonverbal messages occurring in the classroom. The step-by-step process is…

  8. Intelligence quotient discrepancy indicates levels of motor competence in preschool children at risk for developmental delays

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tzu-Ying; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Chou, Willy; Yang, Shu-Han; Kung, Sheng-Chun; Lee, Ya-Chen; Tung, Li-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to establish 1) whether a group difference exists in the motor competence of preschool children at risk for developmental delays with intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD; refers to difference between verbal intelligence quotient [VIQ] and performance intelligence quotient [PIQ]) and 2) whether an association exists between IQD and motor competence. Methods Children’s motor competence and IQD were determined with the motor subtests of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence™ – Fourth Edition. A total of 291 children were included in three groups: NON-IQD (n=213; IQD within 1 standard deviation [SD]), VIQ>PIQ (n=39; VIQ>PIQ greater than 1 SD), and PIQ>VIQ (n=39; PIQ>VIQ greater than 1 SD). Results The results of one-way analysis of variance indicated significant differences among the subgroups for the “Gross and fine motor” subdomains of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers, especially on the subtests of “body-movement coordination” (F=3.87, P<0.05) and “visual-motor coordination” (F=6.90, P<0.05). Motor competence was significantly worse in the VIQ>PIQ group than in the NON and PIQ>VIQ groups. Significant negative correlations between IQD and most of the motor subtests (r=0.31–0.46, P<0.01) were found only in the VIQ>PIQ group. Conclusion This study demonstrates that 1) IQD indicates the level of motor competence in preschoolers at risk for developmental delays and 2) IQD is negatively associated with motor competence in preschoolers with significant VIQ>PIQ discrepancy. The first finding was that preschoolers with VIQ>PIQ discrepancy greater than 1 SD performed significantly worse on motor competence than did preschoolers without significant IQD and preschoolers with PIQ>VIQ discrepancy greater than 1 SD. However, preschoolers with significant PIQ>VIQ discrepancy performed better on motor competence than

  9. Civil helicopter wire strike assessment study. Volume 1: Findings and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuomela, C. H.; Brennan, M. F.

    1980-01-01

    Approximately 208 civil helicopter wire strike accidents for a ten year period 1970 to 1979 are analyzed. It is found that 83% of the wire strikes occurred during bright clear weather. Analysis of the accidents is organized under pilot, environment, and machine factors. Methods to reduce the wire strike accident rate are discussed, including detection/warning devices, identification of wire locations prior to flight, wire cutting devices, and implementation of training programs. The benefits to be gained by implementing accident avoidance methods are estimated to be fully justified by reduction in injury and death and reduction of aircraft damage and loss.

  10. Response Determination Of Propeller To Bird Strike Using High Speed Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertke, R. S.; Edinger, R. L.

    1984-11-01

    Static bench type impact tests of 4.0 and 1.5 pound artificial birds striking the leading edge of composite propeller blades are conducted to determine the damage response of the blades to bird strike. The artificial birds (cylindrical in shape) are launched at velo-cities up to 900 ft/sec (275 m/sec) to demonstrate that composite construction propeller blades will pass the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) bird strike requirements. A high speed framing camera is used to determine the impact velocity of the birds, maximum tip deflections, bird/blade contact time, and the elapsed time required to achieve maximum deflection.

  11. The misconception of the regression-based discrepancy operationalization in the definition and research of learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, Wim

    2002-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the regression-based discrepancy method used in the diagnosis of learning disabilities is invalid because it is inconsistent with the underlying underachievement concept of which it is intended to be the operationalization. I mathematically demonstrate that the regression-based discrepancy method largely reflects achievement-specific determinants, thereby defeating its own object of describing aptitude-achievement discrepancies. The implications for research examining the role of intelligence in learning disabilities are outlined.

  12. Gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicts girls' and boys' trait-state discrepancy in math anxiety.

    PubMed

    Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Wolter, Ilka; Hall, Nathan C

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary) math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait vs. state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain) was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2-3 weeks (N within = 6207). As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students' self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts). Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.

  13. Investigating the discrepancy between the predicted and actual energy performance of buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demanuele, Christine

    The threat of climate change has increased the demand for energy efficiency in buildings, with various stakeholders requesting more accurate predictions of energy consumption, and energy consultants coming under increased pressure to guarantee the energy performance of buildings. This study aims to investigate the factors causing the discrepancy which currently exists between the predicted and actual energy performance of buildings, which will lead to a deeper understanding of this discrepancy and, ultimately, more accurate energy predictions. As part of this study, a non-domestic building in London was modelled and monitored, so as to identify the main contributors to the discrepancy between the predicted and actual energy consumption. In addition, sensitivity analysis was carried out on a number of input variables to establish the set of influential parameters, and to determine whether using such techniques would successfully predict the range in which building energy consumption is likely to fall. The results show that the uncertainty calculated from differential sensitivity analysis encompasses the actual energy performance of the building. The most variable and influential parameters are those which are controlled by occupants, therefore it is paramount that management and occupants are well-informed about the building operation for energy targets to be achieved. Although the sensitivity analysis methods employed are impractical for commercial use, it is possible to develop simpler methods, encompassing all stages of building design and operation, which would decrease the discrepancy between the actual and predicted energy performance of buildings. Such techniques would be invaluable to energy consultants, for whom the cost resting on uncertainties in predictions is substantial due to more demanding clients and fines liable to be paid if energy predictions go wrong. A better understanding of the discrepancy, together with more accurate predictions, would

  14. Gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicts girls' and boys' trait-state discrepancy in math anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Wolter, Ilka; Hall, Nathan C.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary) math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait vs. state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain) was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2–3 weeks (Nwithin = 6207). As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students' self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts). Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed. PMID:26441778

  15. Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Summer 2013 ... removed. That is the most common form of skin cancer and not as dangerous as melanoma. Photo: ...

  16. Strike-dip determination of fractures in drill cores by an astatic-magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, M.; Furutani, N.

    1982-10-01

    The strike and dip of fractures in drillcores from Well HT-4 drilled in the Hatchobaru geothermal field, Kyushu, Japan, have been determined using an astatic-magnetometer. Since the drill cores consist mainly of younger andesite lavas, the measurements of the declination and inclination of remnant magnetism should yield the strike and dip of the fractures. The results show that they dip generally southward with angles from 40/sup 0/ to 80/sup 0/ (62.5 on the average), and strike NW-SE or NE-SW. The NW-SE trending fractures predominate in the Pleistocene series, which persists at depths shallower than 1000 m, while the NE-SW trending ones occur in the Neogene system at deeper levels, and are considered to be older than the former. The stress field can also be estimated by the strike-dip data and the direction of lineation on a slickenside.

  17. Leap and strike kinetics of an acoustically ‘hunting’ barn owl (Tyto alba)

    PubMed Central

    Usherwood, James R.; Sparkes, Emily L.; Weller, Renate

    2014-01-01

    Barn owls are effective hunters of small rodents. One hunting technique is a leap from the ground followed by a brief flight and a plummeting ‘strike’ onto an acoustically targeted – and potentially entirely hidden – prey. We used forceplate measurements to derive kinetics of the leap and strike. Leaping performance was similar to reported values for guinea fowl. This is likely achieved despite the owl's considerably smaller size because of its relatively long legs and use of wing upstroke. Strikes appear deliberately forceful: impulses could have been spread over larger periods during greater deflections of the centre of mass, as observed in leaping and an alighting landing measurement. The strike, despite forces around 150 times that of a mouse body weight, is not thought to be crucial to the kill; rather, forceful strikes may function primarily to enable rapid penetration of leaf litter or snow cover, allowing grasping of hidden prey. PMID:24948629

  18. Wildlife strike risk assessment in several Italian airports: lessons from BRI and a new methodology implementation.

    PubMed

    Soldatini, Cecilia; Albores-Barajas, Yuri Vladimir; Lovato, Tomas; Andreon, Adriano; Torricelli, Patrizia; Montemaggiori, Alessandro; Corsa, Cosimo; Georgalas, Vyron

    2011-01-01

    The presence of wildlife in airport areas poses substantial hazards to aviation. Wildlife aircraft collisions (hereafter wildlife strikes) cause losses in terms of human lives and direct monetary losses for the aviation industry. In recent years, wildlife strikes have increased in parallel with air traffic increase and species habituation to anthropic areas. In this paper, we used an ecological approach to wildlife strike risk assessment to eight Italian international airports. The main achievement is a site-specific analysis that avoids flattening wildlife strike events on a large scale while maintaining comparable airport risk assessments. This second version of the Birdstrike Risk Index (BRI2) is a sensitive tool that provides different time scale results allowing appropriate management planning. The methodology applied has been developed in accordance with the Italian Civil Aviation Authority, which recognizes it as a national standard implemented in the advisory circular ENAC APT-01B.

  19. Depression Strikes Nearly 3 Million U.S. Teens a Year

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159763.html Depression Strikes Nearly 3 Million U.S. Teens a Year ... million U.S. teens suffered a major bout of depression, a new government report shows. "Adolescence is a ...

  20. Strike-slip accommodated core complexes in the Najd fault system, Arabian-Nubian shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, S. E.; Passchier, C. W.; Abu-Alam, T. S.; Stuewe, K.

    2013-12-01

    Metamorphic core complexes are usually developed as extensional features during crustal thinning in a continental collision zone, such as the Basin and Range and the Aegean Terrane. The Najd fault system in Saudi Arabia is a 2000 km-long and 400 km-wide complex network of crustal-scale strike-slip shear zones in a Neoproterozoic collision zone. Locally, the anastomosing shear zones lead to exhumation of lower crustal segments and represent a new kinematic model for the development of core complexes. We report on two such dome structures: the Qazaz complex in Saudi Arabia and the Hafafit complex in Egypt. The 15-km-wide Qazaz complex is a triangular dome of gently dipping mylonitic foliations within the 140-km-long sinistral strike-slip Qazaz mylonite zone. The gneissic dome consists of high-grade rocks, surrounded by low-grade metasediments and metavolcanics. The main SE trending strike-slip Qazaz shear zone splits southwards into two branches around the gneiss dome: the western branch is continuous with the shallow dipping mylonites of the dome core, without overprinting, and curves by more than 90 degrees eastwards from a NS trending strike slip zone to an EW trending 40 degree south dipping detachment that bounds the gneiss dome to the south. The eastern SE trending sinistral strike slip shear zone branch is slightly younger and transects the central dome fabrics. The gneiss dome appears to have formed along a jog in the strike slip shear zone during 40 km of strike slip motion, which caused local exhumation of lower crustal rocks by 25 km along the detachment. The eastern shear zone branch formed late during exhumation, transacted the gneiss dome and offset the two parts by another 70 km. The Hafafit core complex in Egypt is of similar shape and size to the Qazaz structure, but forms the northern termination of a sinistral strike-slip zone that is at least 100 km in length. This zone may continue into Saudi Arabia as the Ajjaj shear zone for another 100 km. The

  1. Origin and structure of major orogen-scale exhumed strike-slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shuyun; Neubauer, Franz

    2016-04-01

    The formation of major exhumed strike-slip faults represents one of the most important dynamic processes affecting the evolution of the Earth's lithosphere and surface. Detailed models of the potential initiation and properties and architecture of orogen-scale exhumed strike-slip faults and how these relate to exhumation are rare. In this study, we deal with key properties controlling the development of major exhumed strike-slip fault systems, which are equivalent to the deep crustal sections of active across fault zones. We also propose two dominant processes for the initiation of orogen-scale exhumed strike-slip faults: (1) pluton-controlled and (2) metamorphic core complex-controlled strike-slip faults. In these tectonic settings, the initiation of faults occurs by rheological weakening along hot-to-cool contacts and guides the overall displacement and ultimate exhumation. These processes result in a specific thermal and structural architecture of such faults. These types of strike-slip dominated fault zones are often subparallel to mountain ranges and expose a wide variety of mylonitic, cataclastic and non-cohesive fault rocks, which were formed at different structural levels of the crust during various stages of faulting. The high variety of distinctive fault rocks is a potential evidence for recognition of these types of strike-slip faults. Exhumation of mylonitic rocks is, therefore, a common feature of such reverse oblique-slip strike-slip faults, implying major transtensive and/or transpressive processes accompanying pure strike-slip motion during exhumation. Some orogen-scale strike-slip faults nucleate and initiate along rheologically weak zones, e.g. at granite intrusions, zones of low-strength minerals, thermally weakened crust due to ascending fluids, and lateral borders of hot metamorphic core complexes. A further mechanism is the juxtaposition of mechanically strong mantle lithosphere to hot asthenosphere in continental transform faults (e.g., San

  2. Upward streamers produced by a lightning strike to radio transmission towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krider, E. Philip; Wetmore, Ralph H.

    1987-01-01

    A lightning strike to the center of three 78-m radio transmission towers produced upward discharges with lengths of 40 and 79 m from each of the neighboring towers. This strike also caused a number of insulators on guy wires that supported the tower to flash over, and the locations of these points and the two-dimensional geometry of the discharge channels are projected onto a vertical plane that is centered on the tower.

  3. The single match approach to strike rate adjustments in batting performance measures in cricket.

    PubMed

    Lemmer, Hermanus H

    2011-01-01

    Batting performance measures containing strike rate adjustments take into account the important fact that if two batsmen had scored the same number of runs in a match, the one with the better strike rate had performed best. But match conditions can influence the batting and bowling performances of cricket players. On a good pitch a batsman can get a good score at a high strike rate, but if the pitch was bad, a similar good score is normally accompanied by a much lower strike rate. The main objective of this study is to propose a method that can be used to make batsmen's scores comparable despite the fact that playing conditions might have been very different. The number of runs scored by a batsman is adjusted by comparing his strike rate with the overall strike rate of all the players in the specific match. These adjusted runs are then used in the most appropriate formula to calculate the average of the batsman. The method is illustrated by using the results of the Indian Premier League 2009 Twenty20 Series played during May and June 2009. The main conclusion is that the traditional average is not the most appropriate measure to compare batsmen's performances after conclusion of a short series. Key pointsIt is unfair to compare the score of a batsman obtained on a good pitch under ideal batting conditions with that of a batsman who had to battle under severe conditions.By comparing a batsman's strike rate with the overall strike rate of the players in the specific match, his score can be adjusted to get a better figure for his true performance.The results demonstrate clearly that the use of adjusted scores lead to rankings that differ from those based on the traditional measures.

  4. Physicians and strikes: can a walkout over the malpractice crisis be ethically justified?

    PubMed

    Fiester, Autumn

    2004-01-01

    Malpractice insurance rates have created a crisis in American medicine. Rates are rising and reimbursements are not keeping pace. In response, physicians in the states hardest hit by this crisis are feeling compelled to take political action, and the current action of choice seems to be physician strikes. While the malpractice insurance crisis is acknowledged to be severe, does it justify the extreme action of a physician walkout? Should physicians engage in this type of collective action, and what are the costs to patients and the profession when such action is taken? I will offer three related arguments against physician strikes that constitute a prima facie prohibition against such action: first, strikes are intended to cause harm to patients; second, strikes are an affront to the physician-patient relationship; and, third, strikes risk decreasing the public's respect for the medical profession. As with any prima facie obligation, there are justifying conditions that may override the moral prohibition, but I will argue that the current malpractice crisis does not rise to the level of such a justifying condition. While the malpractice crisis demands and justifies a political response on the part of the nation's physicians, strikes and slow-downs are not an ethically justified means to the legitimate end of controlling insurance costs.

  5. Contextual influences on baseball ball-strike decisions in umpires, players, and controls.

    PubMed

    MacMahon, Clare; Starkes, Janet L

    2008-05-01

    Baseball umpires, players, and control participants with no baseball experience were asked to call balls and strikes for video clips. In a basic judgement task, umpires and players were significantly better at calling pitches than controls. In a direct information task, borderline pitches were presented following clips of definite balls and definite strikes. Participants called target pitches closer to the strike end of the scale when viewed after definite balls than when they followed definite strikes. Similarly, when borderline pitches were shown in different pitch counts, participants called pitches more towards the strike end of the scale when there were three balls in the count (3-0, 3-2). These findings indicate that the standard for evaluation changes based on the context in which stimuli are processed. Moreover, the strength of the contextual factors is illustrated in that the effects were shown in observers with and without experience in the task. Overall, however, umpires had a greater tendency to call strikes, indicating that they may use a norm of "hastening the game".

  6. Indeterminate and discrepant rapid HIV test results in couples' HIV testing and counselling centres in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many HIV voluntary testing and counselling centres in Africa use rapid antibody tests, in parallel or in sequence, to establish same-day HIV status. The interpretation of indeterminate or discrepant results between different rapid tests on one sample poses a challenge. We investigated the use of an algorithm using three serial rapid HIV tests in cohabiting couples to resolve unclear serostatuses. Methods Heterosexual couples visited the Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group testing centres in Kigali, Rwanda, and Lusaka, Zambia, to assess HIV infection status. Individuals with unclear HIV rapid antibody test results (indeterminate) or discrepant results were asked to return for repeat testing to resolve HIV status. If either partner of a couple tested positive or indeterminate with the screening test, both partners were tested with a confirmatory test. Individuals with indeterminate or discrepant results were further tested with a tie-breaker and monthly retesting. HIV-RNA viral load was determined when HIV status was not resolved by follow-up rapid testing. Individuals were classified based on two of three initial tests as "Positive", "Negative" or "Other". Follow-up testing and/or HIV-RNA viral load testing determined them as "Infected", "Uninfected" or "Unresolved". Results Of 45,820 individuals tested as couples, 2.3% (4.1% of couples) had at least one discrepant or indeterminate rapid result. A total of 65% of those individuals had follow-up testing and of those individuals initially classified as "Negative" by three initial rapid tests, less than 1% were resolved as "Infected". In contrast, of those individuals with at least one discrepant or indeterminate result who were initially classified as "Positive", only 46% were resolved as "Infected", while the remainder was resolved as "Uninfected" (46%) or "Unresolved" (8%). A positive HIV serostatus of one of the partners was a strong predictor of infection in the other partner as 48% of individuals who

  7. A study of preservice elementary teachers enrolled in a discrepant-event-based physical science class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilly, James Edward

    This research evaluated the POWERFUL IDEAS IN PHYSICAL SCIENCE (PIiPS) curriculum model used to develop a physical science course taken by preservice elementary teachers. The focus was on the evaluation of discrepant events used to induce conceptual change in relation to students' ideas concerning heat, temperature, and specific heat. Both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were used for the analysis. Data was collected during the 1998 Fall semester using two classes of physical science for elementary school teachers. The traditionally taught class served as the control group and the class using the PIiPS curriculum model was the experimental group. The PIiPS curriculum model was evaluated quantitatively for its influence on students' attitude toward science, anxiety towards teaching science, self efficacy toward teaching science, and content knowledge. An analysis of covariance was performed on the quantitative data to test for significant differences between the means of the posttests for the control and experimental groups while controlling for pretest. It was found that there were no significant differences between the means of the control and experimental groups with respect to changes in their attitude toward science, anxiety toward teaching science and self efficacy toward teaching science. A significant difference between the means of the content examination was found (F(1,28) = 14.202 and p = 0.001), however, the result is questionable. The heat and energy module was the target for qualitative scrutiny. Coding for discrepant events was adapted from Appleton's 1996 work on student's responses to discrepant event science lessons. The following qualitative questions were posed for the investigation: (1) what were the ideas of the preservice elementary students prior to entering the classroom regarding heat and energy, (2) how effective were the discrepant events as presented in the PIiPS heat and energy module, and (3) how much does the "risk taking

  8. Post-Late Jurassic, pre-late Eocene strike-slip faulting in west-central Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.P.

    1993-04-01

    Two events of strike-slip faulting interpreted to be of Late Mesozoic-Early Tertiary age are recorded in the northern Deep Creek Mountains. These fault systems display principal detachment zones that strike N50W and N84E. Both fault systems are manifested as fault mosaics, locally anastomosing with local duplex formation. They are interpreted to represent first-order structures that operated independently of other strain regimes. A quartz monzonite stock dated 38 Ma displays strong control of the intrusion by the NW-striking faults. That, in addition to cross-cutting relationships between the NW-striking faults and a granodiorite dated 152 Ma place age constraints on the strike-slip faulting. The ENE-striking faults are younger than the NW-striking faults and are interpreted to be older than the quartz monzonite, although this relationship is ambiguous. Strike-separation on the major NW-striking faults is on the order of 3 km. Offsets of similar magnitude or greater are interpreted for the ENE-striking faults, although this remains unquantified. Despite the small area of influence, relatively minor displacements, and broad time frame of occurrence, these faults have some regional significance. If Cretaceous-aged, the strike-slip faults are markedly different than the extensional structures that formed in the internal zone' of the Cordilleran thrust belt. If Tertiary-aged, the strike-slip faults represent an age of structure with few documented examples in the eastern Basin and Range.

  9. School Psychology Crossroads in America: Discrepancies between Actual and Preferred Discrete Practices and Barriers to Preferred Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filter, Kevin J.; Ebsen, Sara; Dibos, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    A nationally representative sample of American school psychology practitioners were surveyed to analyze discrepancies that they experience between their actual discrete practices and their preferred discrete practices relative to several domains of practice including assessment, intervention, meetings, and continuing education. Discrepancies were…

  10. Optimism and Pessimism as Mediators of the Relations Between Self-Discrepancies and Distress Among Asian and European Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Erin E.; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the role of undesired self-discrepancies in predicting emotional distress among Asian and European Americans, whether undesired self-discrepancies are stronger predictors of distress for Asian than for European Americans, and whether optimism and pessimism mediate the relations between ideal, ought, and undesired…

  11. The Relations among Measurements of Informant Discrepancies within a Multisite Trial of Treatments for Childhood Social Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Alfano, Candice A.; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2010-01-01

    Discrepancies between informants' reports of children's behavior are robustly observed in clinical child research and have important implications for interpreting the outcomes of controlled treatment trials. However, little is known about the basic psychometric properties of these discrepancies. This study examined the relation between…

  12. Parent-Child Acculturation Discrepancy, Perceived Parental Knowledge, Peer Deviance, and Adolescent Delinquency in Chinese Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yijie; Kim, Su Yeong; Anderson, Edward R.; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Yan, Ni

    2012-01-01

    Parent-child acculturation discrepancy has been considered a risk factor for child maladjustment. The current study examined parent-child acculturation discrepancy as an ongoing risk factor for delinquency, through the mediating pathway of parental knowledge of the child's daily experiences relating to contact with deviant peers. Participants were…

  13. Emergency imaging discrepancy rates at a level 1 trauma center: identifying the most common on-call resident "misses".

    PubMed

    Tomich, Jennifer; Retrouvey, Michele; Shaves, Sarah

    2013-12-01

    The focus of our research is to identify the most frequently reported on-call discrepancies at our hospital by modality and level of resident training. Our intent is to identify specific areas of concern that may be amenable to improvement through initiation of dedicated resident training in the field of emergency radiology. Our study included 648 significant discrepancies from 193,722 studies ordered through the emergency department over a 7-year period. The overall discrepancy rates were calculated for each resident level of training and modality type. Significance was determined using χ2 testing with α = 0.05. The most common types of discrepancies were identified. The overall rate of reported discrepancies was low for all levels of training (0.23-0.42 %) with a small, but statistically significant, decrease in rate for the senior residents. Common categories of discrepancies for all residents included fractures on radiographs (XR) and computed tomography (CT), masses and hemorrhage on CT, and lung nodules and pulmonary infiltrates on radiographs. Specific discrepancies reported more frequently for new call-takers included phalangeal fractures on XR as well as white matter disease, hepatic lacerations, pyelonephritis, peritoneal fluid, lymphadenopathy, and pneumothoraces on CT. It is our recommendation that radiology resident training programs ensure that the common discrepancies illustrated herein are specifically addressed as part of a dedicated emergency radiology course.

  14. Performance Discrepancies on the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II) in the Standardization Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donders, Jacobus

    2006-01-01

    The standardization data for the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II; D. C. Delis, J. H. Kramer, E. Kaplan, & B. A. Ober, 2000) were used to evaluate the base rate of 6 specific discrepancies between various key variables. The results indicated that CVLT-II performance discrepancies should equal or exceed 1 or 1.5 z score…

  15. Intergenerational Discrepancies of Parental Control among Chinese American Families: Links to Family Conflict and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda P.; Syed, Moin; Takagi, Miyuki

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated how discrepancies between adolescents' and parents' endorsement of parental control contribute to adolescent depressive symptoms. Family conflict was hypothesized to mediate the link between parent-adolescent discrepancies and depressive symptoms. The sample consisted of 166 pairs of Chinese American adolescents and their…

  16. Discrepant ratios of arterial versus venous thrombosis in hemophilia A as compared with hemophilia B.

    PubMed

    Girolami, Antonio; Bertozzi, Irene; de Marinis, Giulia Berti; Tasinato, Valentina; Sambado, Luisa

    2014-04-01

    The occurrence of thrombosis in patients with congenital bleeding disorders represents an exceptional event. Hemophilia A and hemophilia B patients have been showed to present both arterial and venous thrombosis (85 cases of arterial thrombosis and 34 cases of venous thrombosis). The great majority of arterial thrombosis are myocardial infarction or other acute coronary syndromes, whereas the majority of venous thrombosis are deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolisms. However there are discrepancies in the proportion of arterial and venous thrombosis seen in hemophilia A versus hemophilia B. The ratio of arterial versus venous thrombosis in hemophilia A is 3.72 whereas that for hemophilia B is 1.12. This indicates that arterial thrombosis is more frequent in hemophilia A as compared to hemophilia B and the opposite is true for venous thrombosis. The potential significance of this discrepancy is discussed.

  17. Probing the depths of informant discrepancies: contextual influences on divergence and convergence.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Anselma G; Zakriski, Audrey L; Wright, Jack C

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how a contextual approach to child assessment can clarify the meaning of informant discrepancies by focusing on children's social experiences and their if…then reactions to them. In a sample of 123 children (M(age) = 13.30) referred to a summer program for children with behavior problems, parent-teacher agreement for syndromal measures of aggression and withdrawal was modest. Agreement remained low when informants assessed children's reactions to specific peer and adult events. The similarity of these events increased consistency within informants but had no effect on agreement between parents and teachers. In contrast, similarity in the pattern of social events children encountered at home and school predicted informant agreement for syndromal aggression and for aggression to aversive events. Our results underscore the robustness of informant discrepancies and illustrate how they can be studied as part of the larger mosaic of person-environment interactions.

  18. Smoking identities and behavior: evidence of discrepancies, issues for measurement and intervention.

    PubMed

    Ridner, S Lee; Walker, Kandi L; Hart, Joy L; Myers, John A

    2010-06-01

    Although researchers and health care practitioners tend to use standard categories to classify smokers and nonsmokers, recent research suggests that individual smokers may use a variety of self-definitions regarding their smoking behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine smoking identity and smoking behavior among college students, specifically, the relationship between self-identifying as a smoker, nonsmoker, occasional smoker, or social smoker and number of days smoked in the past month. Data were obtained during a campuswide health assessment of randomly selected full-time students (N = 741). Results indicate discrepancy between smoking identity and cigarette use. Twenty percent of students who smoked in the past 30 days self-identified as nonsmokers. Such discrepancies have implications for data collection in research as well as on questionnaires and in health care interviews. Failure to understand actual smoking behavior may increase the risk that individuals will not receive effective smoking prevention and cessation interventions.

  19. Enhancing DSN Operations Efficiency with the Discrepancy Reporting Management System (DRMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatillon, Mark; Lin, James; Cooper, Tonja M.

    2003-01-01

    The DRMS is the Discrepancy Reporting Management System used by the Deep Space Network (DSN). It uses a web interface and is a management tool designed to track and manage: data outage incidents during spacecraft tracks against equipment and software known as DRs (discrepancy Reports), to record "out of pass" incident logs against equipment and software in a Station Log, to record instances where equipment has be restarted or reset as Reset records, and to electronically record equipment readiness status across the DSN. Tracking and managing these items increases DSN operational efficiency by providing: the ability to establish the operational history of equipment items, data on the quality of service provided to the DSN customers, the ability to measure service performance, early insight into processes, procedures and interfaces that may need updating or changing, and the capability to trace a data outage to a software or hardware change. The items listed above help the DSN to focus resources on areas of most need.

  20. Radiative Heating in MSL Entry: Comparison of Flight Heating Discrepancy to Ground Test and Predictive Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruden, Brett A.; Brandis, Aaron M.; White, Todd R.; Mahzari, Milad; Bose, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    During the recent entry of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), the heat shield was equipped with thermocouple stacks to measure in-depth heating of the thermal protection system (TPS). When only convective heating was considered, the derived heat flux from gauges in the stagnation region was found to be underpredicted by as much as 17 W/sq cm, which is significant compared to the peak heating of 32 W/sq cm. In order to quantify the contribution of radiative heating phenomena to the discrepancy, ground tests and predictive simulations that replicated the MSL entry trajectory were performed. An analysis is carried through to assess the quality of the radiation model and the impact to stagnation line heating. The impact is shown to be significant, but does not fully explain the heating discrepancy.

  1. The apsidal motion of the eccentric eclipsing binary DI Herculis - An apparent discrepancy with general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinan, E. F.; Maloney, F. P.

    1985-01-01

    The apsidal motion of the eccentric eclipsing binary DI Herculis (HD 175227) is determined from an analysis of the available observations and eclipse timings from 1959 to 1984. Least squares solutions to the primary and secondary minima extending over an 84-yr interval yielded a small advance of periastron omega dot of 0.65 deg/100 yr + or - 0.18/100 yr. The observed advance of the periastron is about one seventh of the theoretical value of 4.27 deg/100 yr that is expected from the combined relativistic and classical effects. The discrepancy is about -3.62 deg/100 yr, or a magnitude of about 20 sigma. Classical mechanisms which explain the discrepancy are discussed, together with the possibility that there may be problems with general relativity itself.

  2. Caregiver and Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceptions of Violence and Their Associations with Early Adolescent Aggression.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah; Reichenberg, Raymond; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Haynie, Denise L; Cheng, Tina L

    2016-10-01

    This article examined the role of caregiver messages about violence and exposure to neighborhood violence on adolescent aggression in light of research regarding discrepancies between parents and their children. Drawing upon data from an urban African American sample of 144 caregiver/early adolescent dyads (M = 12.99; SD = 0.93; 58.7 % female) we examined covariates of discrepancies between caregiver and adolescent reports of perceptions of violence as well as their association with adolescent aggression. Analyses suggested that concordance in perceptions of violence was associated with children's attitudes about violence and caregivers' perceptions of family communication. Structural equation modeling indicated a unique role for individual perceptions and suggested that agreement in awareness of neighborhood violence could be protective for early adolescent involvement in aggression.

  3. Caregiver and Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceptions of Violence and Their Associations with Early Adolescent Aggression.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah; Reichenberg, Raymond; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Haynie, Denise L; Cheng, Tina L

    2016-10-01

    This article examined the role of caregiver messages about violence and exposure to neighborhood violence on adolescent aggression in light of research regarding discrepancies between parents and their children. Drawing upon data from an urban African American sample of 144 caregiver/early adolescent dyads (M = 12.99; SD = 0.93; 58.7 % female) we examined covariates of discrepancies between caregiver and adolescent reports of perceptions of violence as well as their association with adolescent aggression. Analyses suggested that concordance in perceptions of violence was associated with children's attitudes about violence and caregivers' perceptions of family communication. Structural equation modeling indicated a unique role for individual perceptions and suggested that agreement in awareness of neighborhood violence could be protective for early adolescent involvement in aggression. PMID:27230117

  4. Weight discrepancy and body appreciation among women in Poland and Britain.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Donna; Szpakowska, Ilona; Swami, Viren

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the process of transmigration has detrimental effects on the body image of migrants relative to women in the country of origin. In the present work, we examined the body image of Polish migrants in Britain (n=153), Polish women in Poland (n=153), and a comparison group of British White women (n=110). Participants completed a measure of actual-ideal weight discrepancy and the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS). Contrary to hypotheses, our results showed that Polish women in Poland had significantly higher weight discrepancy than their counterparts in Britain. Further analyses showed that the BAS reduced to two dimensions among Polish participants, with Polish participants in Poland having significantly lower body appreciation than Polish migrants. We suggest that the sociocultural changes that have taken place in Eastern Europe may place women in that region at relatively high risk for developing negative body image. PMID:23972729

  5. A novel JK null allele associated with typing discrepancies among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Billingsley, Katrina L; Posadas, Jeff B; Moulds, Joann M; Gaur, Lakshmi K

    2013-01-01

    The Jknun (Jk-3) phenotype, attributable to null or silenced alleles, has predominantly been found in persons of Polynesian descent. With the increased use of molecular genotyping, many new silencing mutations have been identified in persons of other ethnic backgrounds. To date, only two JK null alleles have been reported in African Americans, JK*01N.04 and JK*OlN.OS.A comparative study was undertaken to determine whether JK mutations were present in the regional African American population. Results of donor genotyping were compared with previously recorded results of serologic tests, and discrepant results were investigated. Although the two previously identified polymorphisms were not detected in the discrepant samples, a novel allele (191G>A) was identified and was assigned the ISBT number JK*02N.09. This study illustrates a limitation of using single-nucleotide polymorphisms for prediction of blood group antigens. PMID:24689685

  6. THGEM gain calculations using Garfield++: solving discrepancies between simulation and experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, C. D. R.; Correia, P. M. M.; Carramate, L. F. N. D.; Silva, A. L. M.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.

    2016-08-01

    Discrepancies between the measured and simulated gain in Thick-Micropatterned gaseous detectors (MPGD), namely THGEM, have been observed by several groups. In order to simulate the electron avalanches and the gain the community relies on the calculations performed in Garfield++, known to produce differences of 2 orders of magnitude in comparison to the experimental data for thick MPGDs. In this work, simulations performed for Ne/5%CH4, Ar/5%CH4 and Ar/30%CO2 mixtures shows that Garfield++ is able to perfectly describe the experimental data if Penning effect is included in the simulation. The comparison between the number of excitations which may lead to a Penning transfer, is shown for THGEM and GEM, explaining the less pronounced gain discrepancies observed in GEM.

  7. Specific and global coagulation assays in the diagnosis of discrepant mild hemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, Annette E; Van Veen, Joost J; Goodeve, Anne C; Kitchen, Steve; Makris, Michael

    2013-12-01

    The activity of the factor VIII coagulation protein can be measured by three methods: a one or two-stage clotting assay and a chromogenic assay. The factor VIII activity of most individuals with mild hemophilia A is the same regardless of which method is employed. However, approximately 30% of patients show marked discrepancies in factor VIII activity measured with the different methods. The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence of assay discrepancy in our center, assess the impact of alternative reagents on factor VIII activity assays and determine the usefulness of global assays of hemostasis in mild hemophilia A. Factor VIII activity was measured in 84 individuals with mild hemophilia A using different reagents. Assay discrepancy was defined as a two-fold or greater difference between the results of the one-stage and two-stage clotting assays. Rotational thromboelastometry and calibrated automated thrombography were performed. Assay discrepancy was observed in 31% of individuals; 12% with lower activity in the two-stage assay and 19% with lower activity in the one-stage assay. The phenotype could not always be predicted from the individual's genotype. Chromogenic assays were shown to be a suitable alternative to the two-stage clotting assay. Thromboelastometry was found to have poor sensitivity in hemophilia. Calibrated automated thrombography supported the results obtained by the two-stage and chromogenic assays. The current international guidelines do not define the type of assay to be used in the diagnosis of mild hemophilia A and some patients could be misclassified as normal. In our study, 4% of patients would not have been diagnosed on the basis of the one-stage factor VIII assay. Laboratories should use both one stage and chromogenic (or two-stage) assays in the diagnosis of patients with possible hemophilia A.

  8. Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem Discrepancies, Victimization and the Development of Late Childhood Internalizing Problems.

    PubMed

    Leeuwis, Franca H; Koot, Hans M; Creemers, Daan H M; van Lier, Pol A C

    2015-07-01

    Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem have been linked with internalizing problems among mainly adolescents and adults. Longitudinal research on this association in children is lacking. This study examined the longitudinal link between self-esteem discrepancies and the development of internalizing problems in children. It furthermore examined the possible mediating role of self-esteem discrepancies in the longitudinal link between experiences of peer victimization and internalizing problems development. Children (N = 330, M(age) = 11.2 year; 52.5 % female) were followed over grades five (age 11 years) and six (age 12 years). Self-report measures were used annually to test for victimization and internalizing problems. Implicit self-esteem was assessed using an implicit association test, while explicit self-esteem was assessed via self-reports. Self-esteem discrepancies represented the difference between implicit and explicit self-esteem. Results showed that victimization was associated with increases in damaged self-esteem (higher levels of implicit than explicit self-esteem. Additionally, damaged self-esteem at age 11 years predicted an increase in internalizing problems in children over ages 11 to 12 years. Furthermore, damaged self-esteem mediated the relationship between age 11 years victimization and the development of internalizing problems. No impact of fragile self-esteem (lower levels of implicit than explicit self-esteem) on internalizing problems was found. The results thus underscore that, as found in adolescent and adult samples, damaged self-esteem is a predictor of increases in childhood internalizing problems. Moreover, damaged self-esteem might explain why children who are victimized develop internalizing problems. Implications are discussed.

  9. Computerized Versus Motivational Interviewing Alcohol Interventions: Impact on Discrepancy, Motivation, and Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, James G.; Dennhardt, Ashley A.; Skidmore, Jessica R.; Martens, Matthew P.; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.

    2016-01-01

    The authors conducted two randomized clinical trials with ethnically diverse samples of college student drinkers in order to determine (a) the relative efficacy of two popular computerized interventions versus a more comprehensive motivational interview approach (BASICS) and (b) the mechanisms of change associated with these interventions. In Study 1, heavy drinking participants recruited from a student health center (N = 74, 59% women, 23% African American) were randomly assigned to receive BASICS or the Alcohol 101 CD-ROM program. BASICS was associated with greater post-session motivation to change and self-ideal and normative discrepancy relative to Alcohol 101, but there were no group differences in the primary drinking outcomes at 1-month follow-up. Pre to post session increases in motivation predicted lower follow-up drinking across both conditions. In Study 2, heavy drinking freshman recruited from a core university course (N = 133, 50% women, 30% African American) were randomly assigned to BASICS, a web-based feedback program (e-CHUG), or assessment-only. BASICS was associated with greater post-session self-ideal discrepancy than e-CHUG, but there were no differences in motivation or normative discrepancy. There was a significant treatment effect on typical weekly and heavy drinking, with participants in BASICS reporting significantly lower follow-up drinking relative to assessment only participants. In Study 2, change in the motivation or discrepancy did not predict drinking outcomes. Across both studies, African American students assigned to BASICS reported medium effect size reductions in drinking whereas African American students assigned to Alcohol 101, e-CHUG, or assessment did not reduce their drinking. PMID:21198224

  10. On a possible cause of discrepancy between Yohkoh and SMM calcium abundance determinations in flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylwester, J.; Kepa, A.; Bentley, R. D.

    2002-07-01

    We have investigated problems concerning the discrepancy between estimates of absolute calcium abundances (A Ca) in solar flares as derived from soft X-ray high resolution spectra as obtained from Yohkoh and Solar Maximum Mission ( SMM) Bragg spectrometers. The analysis of these spectra allows for determination of absolute calcium abundance since both Ca XIX resonance line and neighbouring continuum are reliably measured in these experiments. The abundance determinations are possible by means of fitting the synthetic spectra to the observed ones. In previous work, we attributed part (around 50%) of the observed disagreement to a possible instrumental problem in Yohkoh. In the present research, we consider in more details possible causes of the other part of the discrepancy. We first investigate whether the estimates of (A Ca) depend substantially on the extension of the observed short wavelength wing of the Ca XIX resonance line. This problem is important in the case of the analysis of Yohkoh spectra, since the extension of the spectrum towards the short wavelengths depends on the position of the flare along North—South direction on the Sun. After verifying the robustness of results of the spectral fitting technique, we have considered possible physical scenario which may cause the observed discrepancy. The hypothesis tested was that the Ca abundance in flares is correlated with brightness in the source — namely that it is a few times higher in the centre of the source (flaring kernel) than outside. We have found that postulated model may account for a part of the noted discrepancy as the SMM spectrometer has been equipped with the 6 × 6 arcmin collimator and no collimator has been used on Yohkoh.

  11. The discrepancies in the results of bioinformatics tools for genomic structural annotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawełkowicz, Magdalena; Nowak, Robert; Osipowski, Paweł; Rymuszka, Jacek; Świerkula, Katarzyna; Wojcieszek, Michał; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2014-11-01

    A major focus of sequencing project is to identify genes in genomes. However it is necessary to define the variety of genes and the criteria for identifying them. In this work we present discrepancies and dependencies from the application of different bioinformatic programs for structural annotation performed on the cucumber data set from Polish Consortium of Cucumber Genome Sequencing. We use Fgenesh, GenScan and GeneMark to automated structural annotation, the results have been compared to reference annotation.

  12. Discrepancies between Multi-Electrode LFP and CSD Phase-Patterns: A Forward Modeling Study.

    PubMed

    Hindriks, Rikkert; Arsiwalla, Xerxes D; Panagiotaropoulos, Theofanis; Besserve, Michel; Verschure, Paul F M J; Logothetis, Nikos K; Deco, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Multi-electrode recordings of local field potentials (LFPs) provide the opportunity to investigate the spatiotemporal organization of neural activity on the scale of several millimeters. In particular, the phases of oscillatory LFPs allow studying the coordination of neural oscillations in time and space and to tie it to cognitive processing. Given the computational roles of LFP phases, it is important to know how they relate to the phases of the underlying current source densities (CSDs) that generate them. Although CSDs and LFPs are distinct physical quantities, they are often (implicitly) identified when interpreting experimental observations. That this identification is problematic is clear from the fact that LFP phases change when switching to different electrode montages, while the underlying CSD phases remain unchanged. In this study we use a volume-conductor model to characterize discrepancies between LFP and CSD phase-patterns, to identify the contributing factors, and to assess the effect of different electrode montages. Although we focus on cortical LFPs recorded with two-dimensional (Utah) arrays, our findings are also relevant for other electrode configurations. We found that the main factors that determine the discrepancy between CSD and LFP phase-patterns are the frequency of the neural oscillations and the extent to which the laminar CSD profile is balanced. Furthermore, the presence of laminar phase-differences in cortical oscillations, as commonly observed in experiments, precludes identifying LFP phases with those of the CSD oscillations at a given cortical depth. This observation potentially complicates the interpretation of spike-LFP coherence and spike-triggered LFP averages. With respect to reference strategies, we found that the average-reference montage leads to larger discrepancies between LFP and CSD phases as compared with the referential montage, while the Laplacian montage reduces these discrepancies. We therefore advice to conduct

  13. Toward resolving model-measurement discrepancies of radon entry into houses

    SciTech Connect

    Garbesi, K

    1994-10-01

    Analysis of the literature indicated that radon transport models significantly and consistently underpredict the advective entry into houses of soil-gas borne radon. Advective entry is the dominant mechanism resulting in high concentrations of radon indoors. The author investigated the source of the model-measurement discrepancy via carefully controlled field experiments conducted at an experimental basement located in natural soil in Ben Lomond, California. Early experiments at the structure confirmed the existence and magnitude of the model-measurement discrepancy, ensuring that it was not merely an artifact of inherently complex and poorly understood field sites. The measured soil-gas entry rate during structure depressurization was found to be an order of magnitude larger than predicted by a current three-dimensional numerical model of radon transport. The exact magnitude of the discrepancy depends on whether the arithmetic or geometric mean of the small-scale measurements of permeability is used to estimate the effective permeability of the soil. This factor is a critical empirical input to the model and was determined for the Ben Lomond site in the typical fashion using single-probe static depressurization measurements at multiple locations. The remainder of the dissertation research tests a hypothesis to explain the observed discrepancy: that soil permeability assessed using relatively small-scale probe measurements does not reflect bulk soil permeability for flows that is likely to occur at larger scales of several meters or more in real houses and in the test structure. The idea is that soil heterogeneity is of a nature that, as flows occur over larger scales, larger scales of heterogeneity are encountered that facilitate larger flux rates, resulting in a scale dependence of effective soil permeability.

  14. Toward resolving model-measurement discrepancies of radon entry into houses

    SciTech Connect

    Garbesi, K.

    1993-06-01

    Analysis of the literature indicated that radon transport models significantly and consistently underpredict the advective entry into houses of soil-gas borne radon. Advective entry is the dominant mechanism resulting in high concentrations of radon indoors. My dissertation research investigated the source of the model-measurement discrepancy via carefully controlled field experiments conducted at an experimental basement located in natural soil in Ben Lomond, California. Early experiments at the structure confirmed the existence and magnitude of the model-measurement discrepancy, ensuring that it was not merely an artifact of inherently complex and poorly understood field sites. The measured soil-gas entry rate during structure depressurization was found to be an order of magnitude larger than predicted by a current three-dimensional numerical model of radon transport. The exact magnitude of the discrepancy depends on whether the arithmetic or geometric mean of the small-scale measurements of permeability is used to estimate the effective permeability of the soil. This factor is a critical empirical input to the model and was determined for the Ben Lomond site in the typical fashion using single-probe static depressorization measurements at multiple locations. The remainder of the dissertation research tests a hypothesis to explain the observed discrepancy: That soil permeability assessed using relatively small-scale probe measurements (0.1--0.5 m) does not reflect bulk soil permeability for flows that is likely to occur at larger scales of several meters or more in real houses and in the test structure. The idea is that soil heterogeneity is of a nature that, as flows occur over larger scales, larger scales of heterogeneity are encountered that facilitate larger flux rates, resulting in a scale dependence of effective soil permeability.

  15. In vitro evaluation of the marginal and internal discrepancies of different esthetic restorations

    PubMed Central

    SAKRANA, Amal Abdelsamad

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the fit of two types of all-ceramic single crowns and indirect composite resin full coverage crowns. Material and Methods Thirty intact human mandibular first premolars were selected for this study and prepared using a machine to standardize the dimensions and randomly divided into 3 groups. Slip cast (IC) (In-Ceram Zirconia, Vita Zahnfabrik), copy-milled zirconia (CM) (ICE, Zirkonzahn) and indirect composite resin crowns (NECO, HeraeusKulzer, Hanau, Germany), (N=30, 10 per group) were fabricated according to each manufacturer's recommendations. Before cementation, discrepancies were measured at the marginal zone in each crown. Crowns were then cemented with G-Cem capsule self-adhesive luting cement (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). Four positions were marked for each zone (mid-facial, mid-mesial, mid-distal, and mid-lingual) and three measurements were made at each of the four positions yielding to a total of 12 measurements per crown before and after cementation. The measurements were performed at a different magnification using a stereo microscope (SZ11, Olympus, Japan). Marginal, axial and occlusal zone discrepancies (µm) were evaluated after cementation. The data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results Before cementation, significantly less marginal discrepancies were noted compared with after cementation in all groups (p<0.05). No significant differences were found within each zone (Marginal= IC: 84.2, NECO: 95.22, CM: 84.22; Axial= IC: 54.22, NECO: 64.2, CM: 55.22; Occlusal= IC: 119.97, NECO: 129.18, CM: 121.15) in the three crown systems (p>0.05). Occlusal zone discrepancies were significantly higher than those of the marginal and axial zones in all groups (p<0.05). Conclusions Slip cast and copy-milled zirconia crowns showed comparable fit to composite resin crowns in all marginal, axial and occlusal areas. PMID:24473725

  16. THE RADIUS DISCREPANCY IN LOW-MASS STARS: SINGLE VERSUS BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Spada, F.; Demarque, P.; Kim, Y.-C.; Sills, A.

    2013-10-20

    A long-standing issue in the theory of low-mass stars is the discrepancy between predicted and observed radii and effective temperatures. In spite of the increasing availability of very precise radius determinations from eclipsing binaries and interferometric measurements of radii of single stars, there is no unanimous consensus on the extent (or even the existence) of the discrepancy and on its connection with other stellar properties (e.g., metallicity, magnetic activity). We investigate the radius discrepancy phenomenon using the best data currently available (accuracy ∼< 5%). We have constructed a grid of stellar models covering the entire range of low-mass stars (0.1-1.25 M{sub ☉}) and various choices of the metallicity and mixing length parameter, α. We used an improved version of the Yale Rotational stellar Evolution Code, implementing surface boundary conditions based on the most up-to-date PHOENIX atmosphere models. Our models are in good agreement with others in the literature and improve and extend the low mass end of the Yale-Yonsei isochrones. Our calculations include rotation-related quantities, such as moments of inertia and convective turnover timescales, useful in studies of magnetic activity and rotational evolution of solar-like stars. Consistent with previous works, we find that both binaries and single stars have radii inflated by about 3% with respect to the theoretical models; among binaries, the components of short orbital period systems are found to be the most deviant. We conclude that both binaries and single stars are comparably affected by the radius discrepancy phenomenon.

  17. Cephalometric and in vivo measurements of maxillomandibular anteroposterior discrepancies: a preliminary regression study.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Virgilio Ferruccio; Serrao, Graziano; Ciusa, Veronica; Morini, Maria; Sforza, Chiarella

    2002-12-01

    One of the aims of the present investigation was to assess three-dimensionally the anteroposterior discrepancy of dental bases using a noninvasive direct procedure. A second aim was to verify the relationship of three-dimensional soft-tissue measurement to the well-established two-dimensional cephalometric assessments of anteroposterior discrepancy. Dental and facial landmarks were directly digitized on 20 orthodontic and maxillofacial surgery patients aged 8 to 26 years using an electromagnetic three-dimensional computerized digitizer. The anteroposterior maxillomandibular discrepancy was measured by calculating the linear distances between the projections of subnasal and sublabial landmarks on the occlusal plane, subnasal and sublabial landmarks on Camper's plane, and insertion of maxillary and mandibular median labial frenula on the occlusal plane. From lateral cephalograms of the same patients, the following measurements were obtained: subspinale point-nasion-supramentale point (ANB) angle; corrected ANB angle that compensates for the position of the maxilla and rotation of the mandible relative to the cranial base; Wits appraisal; MM-Wits, linear distance between the projections of points A and B on the bisector of the palatal plane to mandibular plane angle; and soft-tissue Wits, linear distance between the projections of soft-tissue points A and B on the bisecting occlusal plane. The best two-dimensional vs three-dimensional linear regression (r = 0.91) was found between Wits appraisal and the linear distances between the projections of maxillary and mandibular median labial frenula on the occlusal plane (Wits = -1.05 x 3D measurement - 3.75). The three-dimensional evaluation of the sagittal discrepancy of the jaws directly performed in vivo may allow a more complete analysis of a patient's soft-tissue drape together with the underlying hard-tissue structure.

  18. Discrepancies between Multi-Electrode LFP and CSD Phase-Patterns: A Forward Modeling Study.

    PubMed

    Hindriks, Rikkert; Arsiwalla, Xerxes D; Panagiotaropoulos, Theofanis; Besserve, Michel; Verschure, Paul F M J; Logothetis, Nikos K; Deco, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Multi-electrode recordings of local field potentials (LFPs) provide the opportunity to investigate the spatiotemporal organization of neural activity on the scale of several millimeters. In particular, the phases of oscillatory LFPs allow studying the coordination of neural oscillations in time and space and to tie it to cognitive processing. Given the computational roles of LFP phases, it is important to know how they relate to the phases of the underlying current source densities (CSDs) that generate them. Although CSDs and LFPs are distinct physical quantities, they are often (implicitly) identified when interpreting experimental observations. That this identification is problematic is clear from the fact that LFP phases change when switching to different electrode montages, while the underlying CSD phases remain unchanged. In this study we use a volume-conductor model to characterize discrepancies between LFP and CSD phase-patterns, to identify the contributing factors, and to assess the effect of different electrode montages. Although we focus on cortical LFPs recorded with two-dimensional (Utah) arrays, our findings are also relevant for other electrode configurations. We found that the main factors that determine the discrepancy between CSD and LFP phase-patterns are the frequency of the neural oscillations and the extent to which the laminar CSD profile is balanced. Furthermore, the presence of laminar phase-differences in cortical oscillations, as commonly observed in experiments, precludes identifying LFP phases with those of the CSD oscillations at a given cortical depth. This observation potentially complicates the interpretation of spike-LFP coherence and spike-triggered LFP averages. With respect to reference strategies, we found that the average-reference montage leads to larger discrepancies between LFP and CSD phases as compared with the referential montage, while the Laplacian montage reduces these discrepancies. We therefore advice to conduct

  19. Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem Discrepancies, Victimization and the Development of Late Childhood Internalizing Problems.

    PubMed

    Leeuwis, Franca H; Koot, Hans M; Creemers, Daan H M; van Lier, Pol A C

    2015-07-01

    Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem have been linked with internalizing problems among mainly adolescents and adults. Longitudinal research on this association in children is lacking. This study examined the longitudinal link between self-esteem discrepancies and the development of internalizing problems in children. It furthermore examined the possible mediating role of self-esteem discrepancies in the longitudinal link between experiences of peer victimization and internalizing problems development. Children (N = 330, M(age) = 11.2 year; 52.5 % female) were followed over grades five (age 11 years) and six (age 12 years). Self-report measures were used annually to test for victimization and internalizing problems. Implicit self-esteem was assessed using an implicit association test, while explicit self-esteem was assessed via self-reports. Self-esteem discrepancies represented the difference between implicit and explicit self-esteem. Results showed that victimization was associated with increases in damaged self-esteem (higher levels of implicit than explicit self-esteem. Additionally, damaged self-esteem at age 11 years predicted an increase in internalizing problems in children over ages 11 to 12 years. Furthermore, damaged self-esteem mediated the relationship between age 11 years victimization and the development of internalizing problems. No impact of fragile self-esteem (lower levels of implicit than explicit self-esteem) on internalizing problems was found. The results thus underscore that, as found in adolescent and adult samples, damaged self-esteem is a predictor of increases in childhood internalizing problems. Moreover, damaged self-esteem might explain why children who are victimized develop internalizing problems. Implications are discussed. PMID:25403344

  20. Discrepancies between Multi-Electrode LFP and CSD Phase-Patterns: A Forward Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Hindriks, Rikkert; Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.; Panagiotaropoulos, Theofanis; Besserve, Michel; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.; Logothetis, Nikos K.; Deco, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Multi-electrode recordings of local field potentials (LFPs) provide the opportunity to investigate the spatiotemporal organization of neural activity on the scale of several millimeters. In particular, the phases of oscillatory LFPs allow studying the coordination of neural oscillations in time and space and to tie it to cognitive processing. Given the computational roles of LFP phases, it is important to know how they relate to the phases of the underlying current source densities (CSDs) that generate them. Although CSDs and LFPs are distinct physical quantities, they are often (implicitly) identified when interpreting experimental observations. That this identification is problematic is clear from the fact that LFP phases change when switching to different electrode montages, while the underlying CSD phases remain unchanged. In this study we use a volume-conductor model to characterize discrepancies between LFP and CSD phase-patterns, to identify the contributing factors, and to assess the effect of different electrode montages. Although we focus on cortical LFPs recorded with two-dimensional (Utah) arrays, our findings are also relevant for other electrode configurations. We found that the main factors that determine the discrepancy between CSD and LFP phase-patterns are the frequency of the neural oscillations and the extent to which the laminar CSD profile is balanced. Furthermore, the presence of laminar phase-differences in cortical oscillations, as commonly observed in experiments, precludes identifying LFP phases with those of the CSD oscillations at a given cortical depth. This observation potentially complicates the interpretation of spike-LFP coherence and spike-triggered LFP averages. With respect to reference strategies, we found that the average-reference montage leads to larger discrepancies between LFP and CSD phases as compared with the referential montage, while the Laplacian montage reduces these discrepancies. We therefore advice to conduct

  1. Using IQ discrepancy scores to examine the neural correlates of specific cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Amy; Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun; Algermissen, Molly; Erickson, Cole; Klahr, Kristin W; Naglieri, Jack A; Peterson, Bradley S

    2013-08-28

    The underlying neural determinants of general intelligence have been studied intensively, and seem to derive from the anatomical and functional characteristics of a frontoparietal network. Little is known, however, about the underlying neural correlates of domain-specific cognitive abilities, the other factors hypothesized to explain individual performance on intelligence tests. Previous preliminary studies have suggested that spatially distinct neural structures do not support domain-specific cognitive abilities. To test whether differences between abilities that affect performance on verbal and performance tasks derive instead from the morphological features of a single anatomical network, we assessed in two independent samples of healthy human participants (N=83 and N=58; age range, 5-57 years) the correlation of cortical thickness with the magnitude of the verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ)-performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) discrepancy. We operationalized the VIQ-PIQ discrepancy by regressing VIQ onto PIQ (VIQ-regressed-on-PIQ score), and by regressing PIQ onto VIQ (PIQ-regressed-on-VIQ score). In both samples, a progressively thinner cortical mantle in anterior and posterior regions bilaterally was associated with progressively greater (more positive) VIQ-regressed-on-PIQ scores. A progressively thicker cortical mantle in anterior and posterior regions bilaterally was associated with progressively greater (more positive) PIQ-regressed-on-VIQ scores. Variation in cortical thickness in these regions accounted for a large portion of the overall variance in magnitude of the VIQ-PIQ discrepancy. The degree of hemispheric asymmetry in cortical thickness accounted for a much smaller but statistically significant portion of variance in VIQ-PIQ discrepancy. PMID:23986248

  2. Outcome of premolar extractions on Bolton's overall ratio and tooth size discrepancies in South India

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Shaji T.; Yerasi, Purushothama R.; Jose, Lijo K.; Mohammed Haris, T. P.; Mathew, Tom; Ealla, Kranti K. R.

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Attainment of ideal occlusion is often restricted by disproportionate sizes of individual teeth, which is otherwise termed as tooth size discrepancy (TSD). While extraction of teeth for orthodontic purposes is not uncommon, there is considerable resistance against this school of thought. The extraction of premolars, in particular, received considerable attention because of the potential TSD that could result following the extraction of premolars. The aim of the present study was to identify the consequence of premolar extractions on Bolton's overall ratios in South Indian population. Materials and Methods: One hundred participants were recruited into the study through purposive nonproportionate quota sampling. Pretreatment dental casts of the study participants were measured for mesiodistal tooth widths to determine Bolton's overall ratio before the hypothetical tooth extractions were performed. The hypothetical extractions were executed in four different combinations as follows: (a) Maxillary and mandibular first premolars, (b) maxillary first premolars and mandibular second premolars, (c) maxillary second premolars and mandibular first premolars, and (d) maxillary and mandibular second premolars. Bolton's overall ratios were calculated after the hypothetical tooth extractions were performed. Statistical analysis was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 20 software. Results: It was observed that extractions performed in any of the combinations followed in this study resulted in a decrease of overall Bolton's ratios. However, the discrepancy in tooth size was highest with the extraction of all first premolars, whereas least discrepancy was recorded with all second premolars extraction. It was also found that, based on the combination of teeth chosen for extraction, there was significant difference in Bolton's overall ratios between males and females. Conclusion: In formulating a treatment plan involving premolar

  3. Smile design for the adolescent patient--interdisciplinary management of anterior tooth size discrepancies.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Alexander B

    2008-05-01

    Adolescent patients often seek orthodontic treatment to correct spacing of the maxillary anterior teeth. If the spacing is caused by a tooth size discrepancy that affects one or more anterior teeth, an interdisciplinary treatment plan involving orthodontic, restorative, and periodontal treatment is recommended to achieve a harmonious esthetic result. This article describes a clinical approach for treatment of these complex cases, focusing on the importance of tooth form, gingival esthetics, and treatment sequencing.

  4. Tooth-size discrepancy: A comparison between manual and digital methods

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Gabriele Dória Cabral; Habib, Fernando Antonio Lima; Vogel, Carlos Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Technological advances in Dentistry have emerged primarily in the area of diagnostic tools. One example is the 3D scanner, which can transform plaster models into three-dimensional digital models. Objective This study aimed to assess the reliability of tooth size-arch length discrepancy analysis measurements performed on three-dimensional digital models, and compare these measurements with those obtained from plaster models. Material and Methods To this end, plaster models of lower dental arches and their corresponding three-dimensional digital models acquired with a 3Shape R700T scanner were used. All of them had lower permanent dentition. Four different tooth size-arch length discrepancy calculations were performed on each model, two of which by manual methods using calipers and brass wire, and two by digital methods using linear measurements and parabolas. Results Data were statistically assessed using Friedman test and no statistically significant differences were found between the two methods (P > 0.05), except for values found by the linear digital method which revealed a slight, non-significant statistical difference. Conclusions Based on the results, it is reasonable to assert that any of these resources used by orthodontists to clinically assess tooth size-arch length discrepancy can be considered reliable. PMID:25279529

  5. Photogrammetric determination of discrepancies between actual and planned position of dental implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forlani, G.; Rivara, F.

    2014-05-01

    The paper describes the design and testing of a photogrammetric measurement protocol set up to determine the discrepancies between the planned and actual position of computer-guided template-based dental implants. Two moulds with the implants positioned in pre- and post- intervention are produced and separately imaged with a highly redundant block of convergent images; the model with the implants is positioned on a steel frame with control points and with suitable targets attached. The theoretical accuracy of the system is better than 20 micrometers and 0.3-0.4° respectively for positions of implants and directions of implant axes. In order to compare positions and angles between the planned and actual position of an implant, coordinates and axes directions are brought to a common reference system with a Helmert transformation. A procedure for comparison of positions and directions to identify out-of-tolerance discrepancies is presented; a numerical simulation study shows the effectiveness of the procedure in identifying the implants with significant discrepancies between pre- and post- intervention.

  6. Health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms among Hispanic adolescents: Examining acculturation discrepancies and family functioning.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Unger, Jennifer B; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Romero, Andrea J; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lizzi, Karina M; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2016-03-01

    Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning 2 models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement 6 months postbaseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms 1 year postbaseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning; (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS; (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS.

  7. Effects of CO-CR discrepancy in daily orthodontic treatment planning

    PubMed Central

    COSTEA, CARMEN MARIA; BADEA, MÎNDRA EUGENIA; VASILACHE, SORIN; MESAROŞ, MICHAELA

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Nowadays centric relation is defined as a musculoskeletal stable position, with the condyles forward, as far upward as possible, centered transversely and with the articular disc properly interposed. On the other hand, centric occlusion or maximum intercuspidation is a dental determined position. The purpose of this pilot study is to evaluate the direction, frequency and magnitude of the discrepancy between centric occlusion and centric relation in all three axial directions, in a muscular non-deprogrammed population, before the beginning of orthodontic treatment. Methods The study group was represented by 40 symptomatic and asymptomatic patients seeking orthodontic treatment in a private dental office in Cluj-Napoca, Romania between 2014 and 2015. All patients had full records and articulator mounted models. All measurements were analyzed three-dimensionally. Results 85% of the patients had vertical and 87.5% had horizontal CO-CR discrepancy for both condyles. 87.5% of the cases have had a significant condylar displacement in at least one of the three planes. Conclusions We should be aware of the dental occlusion determined by the dental contacts and the occlusion dictated by the musculoskeletal stable position of the condyles. The bigger the discrepancy between these two positions at the level of the condyles, the greater the chances to have either a patient who will develop a form of TMD before/during or after the orthodontic or prosthetic treatment, or a patient suffering already, but poorly diagnosed. PMID:27152081

  8. Procedure for statistical analysis of one-parameter discrepant experimental data.

    PubMed

    Badikov, Sergey A; Chechev, Valery P

    2012-09-01

    A new, Mandel-Paule-type procedure for statistical processing of one-parameter discrepant experimental data is described. The procedure enables one to estimate a contribution of unrecognized experimental errors into the total experimental uncertainty as well as to include it in analysis. A definition of discrepant experimental data for an arbitrary number of measurements is introduced as an accompanying result. In the case of negligible unrecognized experimental errors, the procedure simply reduces to the calculation of the weighted average and its internal uncertainty. The procedure was applied to the statistical analysis of half-life experimental data; Mean half-lives for 20 actinides were calculated and results were compared to the ENSDF and DDEP evaluations. On the whole, the calculated half-lives are consistent with the ENSDF and DDEP evaluations. However, the uncertainties calculated in this work essentially exceed the ENSDF and DDEP evaluations for discrepant experimental data. This effect can be explained by adequately taking into account unrecognized experimental errors.

  9. Foot strike pattern and gait changes during a 161-km ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Kasmer, Mark E; Wren, Jeremy J; Hoffman, Martin D

    2014-05-01

    Foot strike pattern has not been examined during ultramarathons where fatigue or avoidance of impact might have greater effect on foot strike and other gait parameters than in shorter events. In this study, video analysis from 3 level sites at a 161-km ultramarathon was used to: (a) examine changes in foot strike pattern, stride rate, and stride length; (b) determine if foot strike pattern is related to performance; and (c) ascertain if post-race blood creatine phosphokinase (CK) concentrations differ by foot strike pattern. Rear-foot strike (RFS) prevalence was 79.9, 89.0, and 83.9% at 16.5, 90.3, and 161.1 km, respectively. There was a significant distance effect observed between the 90.3 and 161.1-km site for stride rate (p < 0.05) and across all distances for stride length (p < 0.0001), but stride rate and length were stable among the top 20 finishers. There was no effect (p = 0.3) of foot strike pattern on performance. However, top 20 finishers had greater use (p = 0.02) of a non-RFS pattern at 161.1 km than the remaining finishers. There was a trend toward greater post-race blood CK values among non-RFS runners compared with RFS runners, reaching significance at the 90.3 km site (p < 0.05). Thus, the increased RFS prevalence by race midpoint was likely because of greater muscular demands of non-RFS patterns as supported by the higher post-race blood CK concentrations among non-RFS runners. Faster runners maintained higher stride rates and lengths throughout the race and made greater use of a non-RFS pattern at the end of the race compared with the slower finishers.

  10. Along-strike variation in subducting plate velocity induced by along-strike variation in overriding plate structure: Insights from 3D numerical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-González, Juan; Billen, Magali I.; Negredo, Ana M.; Montesi, Laurent G. J.

    2016-10-01

    Subduction dynamics can be understood as the result of the balance between driving and resisting forces. Previous work has traditionally regarded gravitational slab pull and viscous mantle drag as the main driving and resistive forces for plate motion respectively. However, this paradigm fails to explain many of the observations in subduction zones. For example, subducting plate velocity varies significantly along-strike in many subduction zones and this variation is not correlated to the age of subducting lithosphere. Here we present three-dimensional and time-dependent numerical models of subduction. We show that along-strike variations of the overriding plate thermal structure can lead to along-strike variations in subducting plate velocity. In turn, velocity variations lead to significant migration of the Euler pole over time. Our results show that the subducting plate is slower beneath the colder portion of the overriding plate due to two related mechanisms. First, the mantle wedge beneath the colder portion of the overriding plate is more viscous, which increases mantle drag. Second, where the mantle wedge is more viscous, hydrodynamic suction increases, leading to a lower slab dip. Both factors contribute to decreasing subducting plate velocity in the region; therefore, if the overriding plate is not uniform, the resulting velocity varies significantly along-strike, which causes the Euler pole to migrate closer to the subducting plate. We present a new mechanism to explain observations of subducting plate velocity in the Cocos and Nazca plates. These results shed new light on the balance of forces that control subduction dynamics and prove that future studies should take into consideration the three-dimensional structure of the overriding plate.

  11. The Hills are Alive: Dynamic Ridges and Valleys in a Strike-Slip Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvall, A. R.; Tucker, G. E.

    2014-12-01

    Strike-slip fault zones have long been known for characteristic landforms such as offset and deflected rivers, linear strike-parallel valleys, and shutter ridges. Despite their common presence, questions remain about the mechanics of how these landforms arise or how their form varies as a function of slip rate, geomorphic process, or material properties. We know even less about what happens far from the fault, in drainage basin headwaters, as a result of strike-slip motion. Here we explore the effects of horizontal fault slip rate, bedrock erodibility, and hillslope diffusivity on river catchments that drain across an active strike-slip fault using the CHILD landscape evolution model. Model calculations demonstrate that lateral fault motion induces a permanent state of landscape disequilibrium brought about by fault offset-generated river lengthening alternating with abrupt shortening due to stream capture. This cycle of shifting drainage patterns and base level change continues until fault motion ceases thus creating a perpetual state of transience unique to strike-slip systems. Our models also make the surprising prediction that, in some cases, hillslope ridges oriented perpendicular to the fault migrate laterally in conjunction with fault motion. Ridge migration happens when slip rate is slow enough and/or diffusion and river incision are fast enough that the hillslopes can respond to the disequilibrium brought about by strike-slip motion. In models with faster slip rates, stronger rocks or less-diffusive hillslopes, ridge mobility is limited or arrested despite the fact that the process of river lengthening and capture continues. Fast-slip cases also develop prominent steep fault-facing hillslope facets proximal to the fault valley and along-strike topographic profiles with reduced local relief between ridges and valleys. Our results demonstrate the dynamic nature of strike-slip landscapes that vary systematically with a ratio of bedrock erodibility (K) and

  12. When do self-discrepancies have specific relations to emotions? The second-generation question of Tangney, Niedenthal, Covert, and Barlow (1998)

    PubMed

    Higgins, E T

    1999-12-01

    Self-discrepancy theory (E. T. Higgins, 1987) hypothesizes that actual-ideal discrepancies are uniquely related to dejection emotions, whereas actual-ought discrepancies are uniquely related to agitation emotions. A review of the literature testing this hypothesis supports an affirmative-answer to the question "Is there an effect?" However, as the results of J. P. Tangney, P. M. Niedenthal, M. V. Covert, and D. H. Barlow's (1998) study indicate, the predicted unique relations are not always found. Their article contributes to the development of self-discrepancy theory by shifting attention to the second-generation question "When is there an effect?" Four variables that moderate the likelihood of finding unique discrepancy-emotion relations are discussed in the present article: the magnitude of a self-discrepancy, the accessibility of a self-discrepancy, the applicability and relevance of a self-discrepancy in a current context, and the importance of a self-discrepancy to the person.

  13. Estimate of the probability of a lightning strike to the Galileo probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borucki, W. J.

    1985-04-01

    Lightning strikes to aerospace vehicles occur mainly in or near clouds. As the Galileo entry probe will pass most of its operational life in the clouds of Jupiter, which is known to have lightning activity, the present study is concerned with the risk of a lightning strike to the probe. A strike to the probe could cause physical damage to the structure and/or damage to the electronic equipment aboard the probe. It is thought to be possible, for instance, that the instrument failures which occurred on all four Pioneer Venus entry probes at an altitude of 12 km were due to an external electric discharge. The probability of a lightning strike to the Galileo probe is evaluated. It is found that the estimate of a strike to the probe is only 0.001, which is about the same as the expected failure rate due to other design factors. In the case of entry probes to cloud-covered planets, a consideration of measures for protecting the vehicle and its payload from lightning appears to be appropriate.

  14. Repeated Strike Process During Disconnector Operation in Ultra-High Voltage Gas-Insulated Switchgear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Yonggang; Cai, Yuanji; Chen, Weijiang; Liu, Weidong; Li, Zhibing; Yue, Gongchang; Zhang, Junmin

    2016-03-01

    Very fast transient over-voltage (VFTO), induced by disconnector operations in gas-insulated switchgears, has become the limiting dielectric stress at ultra-high voltage levels. Much work has been done to investigate single-strike waveforms of VFTO. However, little study has been carried out investigating the repeated strike process, which would influence VFTO significantly. In this paper, we carried out 450 effective experiments in an ultra-high voltage test circuit, and conducted calculations through the Monte Carlo simulation method, to investigate the repeated strike process. Firstly, the mechanism of the repeated strike process is proposed, based on the experimental results. Afterwards, statistical breakdown characteristics of disconnectors are obtained and analyzed. Finally, simulations of the repeated strike process are conducted, which indicate that the dielectric strength recovery speed and polarity effect factor have a joint effect on VFTO. This study enhances the understanding of the nature of VFTO, and may help to optimize the disconnector designed to minimize VFTO. supported in part by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51277106) and in part by the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (No. 2011CB209405)

  15. Neotectonics of a subduction/strike-slip transition: the northeastern Dominican Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Winslow, M.A.; McCann, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Septentrional fault system in the northeastern Dominican Republic marks the zone where the North American-Carribean plate boundary is evolving from subduction to strike-slip motion, and where terranes appear to be forming and migrating laterally in a subduction complex/forearc region. On the Island of Hispaniola, slip vectors are oblique to the strike of the Puerto Rico trench, and oblique subduction thrusts the upper plate over normal seafloor. The offshore geology and seismicity of the northern Caribbean suggest that uplift, broad crustal warping, thrusting, and strike-slip faulting (ie. collisional tectonics) should be present in the northern part of the Dominican Republic. The high topography (>1000m), high levels of seismicity, and large earthquakes support the hypothesis of contemporary deformation in Hispaniola. In this region, the subduction regime dies out toward the west, and deformation is transferred to onshore, oblique-slip faults. As this change in tectonic style has occurred in Neogene to Recent times, we are investigating the modern evolution of a plate boundary. We have already documented: (1) the presence of a strike-slip faulting in the northeastern Dominican Republic; (2) an anomalous push-up structure; and (3) a region of numerous splay faults. In conclusion, recent seismicity suggest a wide zone of deformation and variations in interplate motions near Hispaniola. This island lies at the western limit of active underthrusting and at the eastern limit of onshore faulting, i.e., at an important transition from a subduction to strike-slip regime.

  16. Do warning displays predict striking behavior in a viperid snake, the cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus)?

    SciTech Connect

    Glaudas, X. and C.T. Winne

    2007-01-01

    Warning displays are defined as signals designed to intimidate predators or indicate a proclivity to fight. However, support for the idea that warning behaviors signal an intent to fight is largely based on anecdotes and isolated observations, and a complete understanding of antipredator behavior will only be achieved if specific hypotheses are experimentally tested. Herein, we tested in a North American viperid snake, the cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus), the hypothesis that warning displays serve as a reliable signal to potential predators that a snake will strike. The cottonmouth exhibits two stereotypical warning displays during predator confrontation, i.e., mouth gaping and tail vibrations, making it an ideal study organism to experimentally test the relationship between warning displays and defensive striking. To test this idea, we recorded the sequence of defensive behavior--gaping, tail vibrating, and striking--of cottonmouths towards a standardized predatory stimulus in the laboratory. As predicted, snakes that gaped during the trials were subsequently more likely to strike than snakes that did not. In contrast, striking behavior was independent of the occurrence of tail vibrations. Our results suggest that gaping behavior--but not tail-vibrating behavior--may provide an honest signal to would-be predators.

  17. Risk factors associated with participation in the Ontario, Canada doctors' strike.

    PubMed Central

    Kravitz, R L; Shapiro, M F; Linn, L S; Froelicher, E S

    1989-01-01

    To identify factors associated with participation in the 1986 Ontario, Canada doctors' strike, we surveyed 1,028 physicians; 69 percent responded, of whom 42 percent participated in the strike. Risk factors for participation included income greater than $135,000, being a surgeon or gynecologist, having previously "opted out" of the Ontario Health Insurance Plan, being professionally dissatisfied, being politically conservative, favoring political activism by physicians, holding a positive view of the social consequences of extrabilling, and perceiving family, associates, patients and the public to favor the strike. Eighty percent of strikers, but 32 percent of non-strikers, met criteria we established for four strike-prone groups: the "economically rational," the "ideologically committed," the "professionally disaffected," and the "socially malleable." Respondents belonging to one or more of these groups were much more likely to have participated in the strike (64 percent vs 17 percent). Strategies to deal with physician militancy should address the multiplicity of motives that appeared to have influenced doctors in Ontario. PMID:2764198

  18. Lightning Strike Ablation Damage Characteristic Analysis for Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composite Laminate with Fastener

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J. J.; Li, S. L.; Yao, X. L.; Chang, F.; Li, L. K.; Zhang, X. H.

    2016-08-01

    In order to analyze the lightning strike ablation damage characteristic of composite laminate with fastener, based on the energy-balance relationship in lightning strike, mathematical analysis model of ablation damage of composite laminate with fastener was constructed. According to the model, an effective three dimensional thermal-electrical coupling analysis finite element model of composite laminate with fastener suffered from lightning current was established based on ABAQUS, and lightning strike ablation damage characteristic was analyzed. Analytical results reveal that lightning current could conduct through the thickness direction of the laminate due to the existence of metallic fastener, and then distribute to all layers, finally conducted in-the-plane of each layer, conductive ability of different layup orientations depend on potential distribution and in-the-plane electrical conductivity along potential gradient declining direction; different potential boundaries correspond to different potential distribution in each layer, and result in conductive ability of different layup orientations was changed, then caused different lightning strike ablation damage distribution. According to the investigation in this paper, we can recognize the lightning strike ablation damage characteristic of composite laminate with fastener qualitatively.

  19. The verification of lightning location accuracy in Finland deduced from lightning strikes to trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkelä, Antti; Mäkelä, Jakke; Haapalainen, Jussi; Porjo, Niko

    2016-05-01

    We present a new method to determine the ground truth and accuracy of lightning location systems (LLS), using natural lightning strikes to trees. Observations of strikes to trees are being collected with a Web-based survey tool at the Finnish Meteorological Institute. Since the Finnish thunderstorms tend to have on average a low flash rate, it is often possible to identify from the LLS data unambiguously the stroke that caused damage to a given tree. The coordinates of the tree are then the ground truth for that stroke. The technique has clear advantages over other methods used to determine the ground truth. Instrumented towers and rocket launches measure upward-propagating lightning. Video and audio records, even with triangulation, are rarely capable of high accuracy. We present data for 36 quality-controlled tree strikes in the years 2007-2008. We show that the average inaccuracy of the lightning location network for that period was 600 m. In addition, we show that the 50% confidence ellipse calculated by the lightning location network and used operationally for describing the location accuracy is physically meaningful: half of all the strikes were located within the uncertainty ellipse of the nearest recorded stroke. Using tree strike data thus allows not only the accuracy of the LLS to be estimated but also the reliability of the uncertainty ellipse. To our knowledge, this method has not been attempted before for natural lightning.

  20. Hydrodynamic constraints on prey-capture performance in forward-striking snakes

    PubMed Central

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Brecko, Jonathan; Aerts, Peter; Stouten, Ilona; Vanheusden, Gwen; Camps, Andy; Van Damme, Raoul; Herrel, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Some specialized aquatic snakes such as Natrix tessellata strike at fish by rapidly accelerating their head towards the prey with their mouth opened widely. This strategy is believed to be suboptimal as relatively high drag forces act on the open jaws and, therefore, probably limit strike speed. Moreover, the bow wave in front of the snake's jaws could push prey away from the mouth, thus potentially explaining the relatively low capture success observed in these animals (<20%). Here, we used laser-scan based computational fluid dynamics to test these potential constraints on prey-capture performance for N. tessellata. Our simulations showed that drag force indeed increases drastically for striking at a high gape angle. However, we estimated the overall cost in slowing down strike speed to be less pronounced due to the instationary dynamics of the system. In contrast to the expectations, forward displacement of prey was relatively limited (<13% of head length), and forceful collisions between prey and the leading edge of the jaw regularly occurred. However, our models showed that precise aiming by the snake was needed to reduce the chance of deviating the prey to a path bypassing the mouth. Our study also indicated several hydrodynamic advantages for snakes to strike at relatively large prey. PMID:19828500