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Sample records for embolism-reperfusion injury canine

  1. Canine ovariohysterectomy and orchiectomy increases the prevalence of ACL injury.

    PubMed

    Slauterbeck, J R; Pankratz, K; Xu, K T; Bozeman, S C; Hardy, D M

    2004-12-01

    To determine whether canine ovariohysterectomy or orchiectomy affects the prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament injury, we compared injury rates of anterior cruciate ligaments of animals that had gonadectomy and animals that were sexually intact as a function of gender, breed, or size. Records of 3218 dogs treated in one orthopaedic veterinary practice during a 2-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Anterior cruciate ligament injury, diagnosed by a history of acute hind limb lameness and by positive anterior drawer test, was confirmed at the time of surgery. The prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament rupture in all dogs was 3.48%. Females that had ovariohysterectomy and males that had orchiectomy had a significantly higher prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament rupture than the sexually intact dogs. Larger dogs had an increased prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament injury compared with smaller or medium-sized dogs, with the increased rupture rates for sterilized animals holding across breeds and sizes. Sterilization of either gender increased the prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament injury, suggesting a potential effect of gonadal gender on prevalence of injury of this ligament.

  2. Brain Injury in Canine Models of Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Blue, Mary E.; Wilson, Mary Ann; Beaty, Claude A.; George, Timothy J.; Arnaoutakis, George J.; Haggerty, Kara A.; Jones, Melissa; Brawn, Jeffrey; Manmohan, Shaliza; Lange, Mary S.; Johnston, Michael V.; Baumgartner, William A.; Troncoso, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathology and neurologic impairment were characterized in a clinically relevant canine model of hypothermic (18°C) circulatory arrest (HCA) and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Adult dogs underwent 2 hours of HCA (n = 39), 1 hour of HCA (n = 20), or standard CPB (n = 22) and survived 2 hours, 8 hours, 24 hours or 72 hours. Neurologic impairment and neuropathology were much more severe after 2-hour HCA than after 1-hour HCA or CPB; histopathology and neurologic deficit scores were significantly correlated. Apoptosis developed as early as 2 hours after injury and was most severe in the granule cells of hippocampal dentate gyrus. Necrosis evolved more slowly and was most severe in amygdala and pyramidal neurons in CA hippocampus. Neuronal injury was minimal up to 24 hours post-1-hour HCA, but 1 dog that survived to 72 hours showed substantial necrosis in the hippocampus, suggesting that with longer survival time the injury was worse. Although neuronal injury was minimal after CPB, we observed rare apoptotic and necrotic neurons in hippocampi and caudate nuclei. These results have important implications for CPB in humans and may help explain the subtle cognitive changes experienced by patients after CPB. PMID:25383634

  3. [HEALING MODEL RESEARCH OF ROTATOR CUFF INJURY IN CANINE].

    PubMed

    Ye, Wei; Bao, Nirong; Zhaq, Jianning

    2016-04-01

    To compare the difference of rotator cuff healing between different types of injury andbetween different repair methods, and to explore the animal model to accurately simulate the restorative process afterrepair of rotator cuff injury. Twelve adult male beagle dogs (weighing, 10-15 kg) were divided into 3 groups (n = 4) according to different processing methods: acute rotator cuff injury+Mason-Allen suture repair (group A), huge rotator cuff injury+Mason-Allen suture repair (group B), and huge rotator cuff injury+Mason-Allen combined with autogenous semitendinosus expansion suture repair (group C). The external fixation was used for immobilization after repair. After operation, the general situation of the animals was observed, and the infraspinatus tendon was harvested for gross observation at 6 weeks after operation. The biomechanical test of limit load and histological observation of tendon fibers were carried out. All the animals survived to the end of the experiment. All incisions healed well and no infection occurred. Gross observation showed more scar tissues at the end of infraspinatus muscle tendon than normal tendon in group A; no obvious tendon tissue was observed at the end of infraspinatus muscle tendon in group B; the infraspinatus muscle tendon was covered with some white scar tissue, but the tendon and the general direction could be observed in group C. The limit load of groups A, B, and C were (223.75 ± 24.28), (159.25 ± 34.87), and (233.25 ± 14.24) N respectively, group B was significantly lower than groups A and C (P < 0.05), and no significant differnce was found between group A and group C (P > 0.05). Histological observation showed normal arrangement of tendon fibers in group A; tendon fibers arranged disorderly in group B and tendon cells were significantly less than those of group A; tendon fibers arranged in neat in group C and tendon cells were more than those of group B. Canine autologous semitendinosus expansion repair of massive

  4. Canine hematopoiesis in a model of combined injury

    SciTech Connect

    MacVittie, T.J.; Monroy, R.L.; Fink, M.; Gruber, D.F.; Patchen, M.L.

    1983-04-29

    The development of a large animal model for CI within the context of a nuclear disaster required that we describe, experimentally, the essential features of the radiobiology of acute effects in the canine. The large-animal model is also appropriate for assessing the immunologic, pharmacologic, and surgical modes of intervention of following CI. The canine model of CI at the AFRRI has stressed three developmental aspects: (a) establishing the radiobiology of the canine hemopoietic system, (b) choosing a relevant model for peritoneal sepsis, and (c) identifying several choices for physical trauma. This paper stresses the relevance of the first aspect, the radiation-induced suppression and recovery of the hemopoietic system.

  5. A preliminary retrospective survey of injuries occurring in dogs participating in canine agility.

    PubMed

    Levy, M; Hall, C; Trentacosta, N; Percival, M

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the risks of injury to dogs participating in the relatively new sport of canine agility. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that put the participating dog at risk as well as determine the anatomical sites that were most commonly injured. A retrospective survey using a paper and web-based data collection instrument was used to evaluate dogs participating in the sport of canine agility. Of the 1627 dogs included in the study, 33% were injured, and of those 58% were injured in competition. Most injuries occurred on dry outdoor surfaces. Border Collies were the most commonly injured, and injuries were in excess of what would be expected from their exposure. For all dogs, soft tissue injuries were most common. The shoulders and backs of dogs were most commonly injured. Dogs were most commonly injured by contact with an obstacle. The A-frame, dogwalk and bar jump obstacles were responsible for nearly two-thirds of injuries that resulted from contact with the obstacle. Border Collies are at higher risk for injury than would be expected from their exposure. The A-frame, dogwalk and bar jump obstacles put the shoulders and backs of dogs at risk. For the first time, this study gives us insight into injuries occurring in dogs participating in canine agility. This will help direct prospective studies that evaluate the safety of individual obstacles, direct rule changes and enable practitioners to understand the risks of the sport.

  6. Development of an Arthroscopic Joint Capsule Injury Model in the Canine Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Kovacevic, David; Baker, Andrew R.; Staugaitis, Susan M.; Kim, Myung-Sun; Ricchetti, Eric T.; Derwin, Kathleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The natural history of rotator cuff tears can be unfavorable as patients develop fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy that is often associated with a loss of muscle strength and shoulder function. To facilitate study of possible biologic mechanisms involved in early degenerative changes to rotator cuff muscle and tendon tissues, the objective of this study was to develop a joint capsule injury model in the canine shoulder using arthroscopy. Methods Arthroscopic surgical methods for performing a posterior joint capsulectomy in the canine shoulder were first defined in cadavers. Subsequently, one canine subject underwent bilateral shoulder joint capsulectomy using arthroscopy, arthroscopic surveillance at 2, 4 and 8 weeks, and gross and histologic examination of the joint at 10 weeks. Results The canine subject was weight-bearing within eight hours after index and follow-up surgeries and had no significant soft tissue swelling of the shoulder girdle or gross lameness. Chronic synovitis and macroscopic and microscopic evidence of pathologic changes to the rotator cuff bony insertions, tendons, myotendinous junctions and muscles were observed. Conclusions This study demonstrates feasibility and proof-of-concept for a joint capsule injury model in the canine shoulder. Future work is needed to define the observed pathologic changes and their role in the progression of rotator cuff disease. Ultimately, better understanding of the biologic mechanisms of early progression of rotator cuff disease may lead to clinical interventions to halt or slow this process and avoid the more advanced and often irreversible conditions of large tendon tears with muscle fatty atrophy. PMID:26808837

  7. Canine Hematopoiesis in a Model of Combined Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-29

    were immunized against distemper , hepatitis, and rabies. They were observed for 2 weeks before they entered the experimental protocol. They were...combined injuries and the valid extrapolation to human response. In the context" of our program at AFRRI, radiation exposure in the sublethal range is a

  8. Development of a canine model for recurrent laryngeal injury by harmonic scalpel.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu-Eun; Jee, Hyeon-Gun; Kim, Hoon-Yub; Park, Won-Seo; Park, Sung-Hye; Youn, Yeo-Kyu

    2012-12-01

    Various energy devices had been used in thyroid surgery. Aim of study is to develop canine model for recurrent laryngeal nerve injury by harmonic scalpel and to evaluate feasibility of using this model for evaluating the safety use of harmonic scalpel during thyroid surgery. Nine dogs were divided into 3 groups according to distance between harmonic scalpel application and recurrent laryngeal nerve; group 1 (1 mm), 2 (2 mm), and 3 (3 mm). Vocal cord function was assessed pre- and postoperatively using video laryngoscopy. Harmonic scalpel was applied adjacent to left recurrent laryngeal nerve and, two weeks later, right recurrent laryngeal nerve at assigned distances. Recurrent laryngeal nerves were evaluated for subacute and acute morphologic changes. Laryngoscopy demonstrated 3 abnormal vocal cords in group 1, 1 in group 2, and no in group 3 (P=0.020). Subacute histologic changes were observed in nerves with abnormal function. Acute histologic changes were observed 5/8 (62.5%) in group 1, 1/7 (14.3%) in group 2, and not in group 3. We developed canine model for recurrent laryngeal injury. The functional outcomes matched with the histologic changes. These warrant further study to determine the safety margin for energy device in vicinity of recurrent laryngeal nerve.

  9. Human Recombinant Apyrase Therapy Protects Against Canine Pulmonary Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohsen; Wang, Xingan; Puyo, Carlos A.; Montecalvo, Alessandro; Huang, Howard J.; Hachem, Ramsey R.; Andreetti, Claudio; Menna, Cecilia; Chen, Ridong; Krupnick, Alexander S.; Kreisel, Daniel; Rendina, Erino A.; Gelman, Andrew E.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION There is accumulating evidence that extracellular adenosine triphosphate (eATP) promotes many of the underlying mechanisms that exacerbate acute lung injury. However, much of this data is from inbred rodent models indicating the need for further investigation in higher vertebrates to better establish clinical relevance. To this end we evaluated a human recombinant apyrase therapy in a canine warm pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) model and measured eATP levels in human lung recipients with or without primary lung allograft dysfunction (PGD). METHODS Warm ischemia was induced for 90 minutes in the left lung of 14 mongrel dogs. Seven minutes after reperfusion, the apyrase APT102 (1 mg/kg, N=7) or saline vehicle (N=7) was injected into the pulmonary artery. Arterial blood gases were obtained every 30 minutes up to 180 minutes after reperfusion. Bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed for eATP concentration, cellularity and inflammatory mediator accumulation. Thirty bilateral human lung transplant recipients were graded for immediate early PGD and assessed for BALF eATP levels. RESULTS APT102-treated dogs had progressively better lung function and less pulmonary edema over the 3-hour reperfusion period when compared to vehicle-treated controls. Protection from IRI was observed with lower BALF eATP levels, fewer airway leukocytes and blunted inflammatory mediator expression. Additionally, human lung recipients with moderate to severe PGD had significantly higher eATP levels when compared to recipients without this injury. CONCLUSIONS Extracellular ATP accumulates in acutely injured canine and human lungs. Strategies that target eATP reduction may help protect lung recipients from IRI. PMID:25455749

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in naturally occurring canine spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Amanda R; Welsh, C Jane; Young, Colin; Spoor, Erich; Kerwin, Sharon C; Griffin, John F; Levine, Gwendolyn J; Cohen, Noah D; Levine, Jonathan M

    2014-09-15

    Canine intervertebral disk herniation (IVDH) is a common, naturally occurring form of spinal cord injury (SCI) that is increasingly being used in pre-clinical evaluation of therapies. Although IVDH bears critical similarities to human SCI with respect to lesion morphology, imaging features, and post-SCI treatment, limited data are available concerning secondary injury mechanisms. Here, we characterized cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokines, and chemokines in dogs with acute, surgically treated, thoracolumbar IVDH (n=39) and healthy control dogs (n=21) to investigate early inflammatory events after SCI. A bioplex system was used to measure interleukin (IL)-2, -6, -7, -8, -10, -15, and -18, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC)-like protein, IFN-γ-inducible protein-10, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Cytokine and chemokine concentrations in the CSF of healthy and SCI dogs were compared and, in SCI dogs, were correlated to the duration of SCI, behavioral measures of injury severity at the time of sampling, and neurological outcome 42 days post-SCI as determined by a validated ordinal score. IL-8 concentration was significantly higher in SCI cases than healthy controls (p=0.0013) and was negatively correlated with the duration of SCI (p=0.042). CSF MCP-1 and KC-like protein were positively correlated with CSF microprotein concentration in dogs with SCI (p<0.0001 and p=0.004). CSF MCP-1 concentration was negatively associated with 42-day postinjury outcome (p<0.0001). Taken together, these data indicate that cytokines and chemokines present after SCI in humans and rodent models are associated with SCI pathogenesis in canine IVDH.

  11. Cerebrospinal Fluid Inflammatory Cytokines and Chemokines in Naturally Occurring Canine Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Amanda R.; Welsh, C. Jane; Young, Colin; Spoor, Erich; Kerwin, Sharon C.; Griffin, John F.; Levine, Gwendolyn J.; Cohen, Noah D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Canine intervertebral disk herniation (IVDH) is a common, naturally occurring form of spinal cord injury (SCI) that is increasingly being used in pre-clinical evaluation of therapies. Although IVDH bears critical similarities to human SCI with respect to lesion morphology, imaging features, and post-SCI treatment, limited data are available concerning secondary injury mechanisms. Here, we characterized cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokines, and chemokines in dogs with acute, surgically treated, thoracolumbar IVDH (n=39) and healthy control dogs (n=21) to investigate early inflammatory events after SCI. A bioplex system was used to measure interleukin (IL)-2, -6, -7, -8, -10, -15, and -18, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC)-like protein, IFN-γ-inducible protein-10, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Cytokine and chemokine concentrations in the CSF of healthy and SCI dogs were compared and, in SCI dogs, were correlated to the duration of SCI, behavioral measures of injury severity at the time of sampling, and neurological outcome 42 days post-SCI as determined by a validated ordinal score. IL-8 concentration was significantly higher in SCI cases than healthy controls (p=0.0013) and was negatively correlated with the duration of SCI (p=0.042). CSF MCP-1 and KC-like protein were positively correlated with CSF microprotein concentration in dogs with SCI (p<0.0001 and p=0.004). CSF MCP-1 concentration was negatively associated with 42-day postinjury outcome (p<0.0001). Taken together, these data indicate that cytokines and chemokines present after SCI in humans and rodent models are associated with SCI pathogenesis in canine IVDH. PMID:24786364

  12. Attenuation of ischemia-reperfusion injury by ascorbic acid in the canine renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-il; Son, Hwa-Young; Kim, Myung-cheol

    2006-12-01

    This study examined the effects of ascorbic acid on the attenuation of an ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury after a canine renal transplantation. Eight beagle dogs were subjected to a renal auto-transplantation followed by the administration of ascorbic acid (treatment group) and the same amount of vehicle (physiological saline, control group). Blood samples were collected from these dogs to perform the kidney function tests and the invasive blood pressure was measured in the renal artery at pre- and post-anastomosis. The antioxidant enzymes of level 72 h after the transplant were measured. The kidneys were taken for a histopathology evaluation at day 21. The kidney function tests showed a significant difference between the control and treatment group. The invasive blood pressure in the renal artery was similar in the groups. The activity of the antioxidant enzymes in the blood plasma was significant lower in the control group than in the treatment group. The histopathology findings revealed the treatment group to have less damage than the control group. The results of this study suggest that ascorbic acid alone might play a role in attenuating I/R injury and assist in the recovery of the renal function in a renal transplantation model.

  13. Attenuation of ischemia-reperfusion injury by ascorbic acid in the canine renal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hwa-Young; Kim, Myung-cheol

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effects of ascorbic acid on the attenuation of an ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury after a canine renal transplantation. Eight beagle dogs were subjected to a renal auto-transplantation followed by the administration of ascorbic acid (treatment group) and the same amount of vehicle (physiological saline, control group). Blood samples were collected from these dogs to perform the kidney function tests and the invasive blood pressure was measured in the renal artery at pre- and post- anastomosis. The antioxidant enzymes of level 72 h after the transplant were measured. The kidneys were taken for a histopathology evaluation at day 21. The kidney function tests showed a significant difference between the control and treatment group. The invasive blood pressure in the renal artery was similar in the groups. The activity of the antioxidant enzymes in the blood plasma was significant lower in the control group than in the treatment group. The histopathology findings revealed the treatment group to have less damage than the control group. The results of this study suggest that ascorbic acid alone might play a role in attenuating I/R injury and assist in the recovery of the renal function in a renal transplantation model. PMID:17106230

  14. Controlled low-flow reperfusion after warm brain ischemia reduces reperfusion injury in canine model.

    PubMed

    Munakata, Hiroshi; Okada, Kenji; Hasegawa, Tomomi; Hino, Yutaka; Kano, Hiroya; Matsumori, Masamichi; Okita, Yutaka

    2010-05-01

    Acute occlusion of the carotid artery caused by acute type A aortic dissection (AAD) induces on-going warm brain ischemia. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the hypothesis that low-flow reperfusion could mitigate reperfusion injury after warm ischemic damage to the brain. Experiments were performed using a canine global brain ischemia model, with 15 minutes of ischemia followed by 3 hours reperfusion, which was established by a simple brain reperfusion circuit with a roller pump. The right common carotid artery (RCCA) flow ratio was determined as the mean RCCA flow during reperfusion divided by the mean RCCA flow during pre-ischemia. Animals were divided into two groups according to the RCCA flow ratio; low RCCA flow ratio of 0.3 to 0.6 (Group L, n=5) and control RCCA flow ratio of 1.0 to 1.4 (Group C, n=5). At the 3-hour reperfusion time point, physiological and histopathological assessments were performed in both groups. Electroencephalographic activity recovered in four of five animals (80%) animals in Group L, whereas no recovery (0%) in activity was observed in Group C. Brain water content in Group L animals was significantly less than that in Group C. Apoptosis, number of perivascular edematous regions and NFkappaB expression were apparently suppressed in Group L compared with Group C. There were significant positive correlations of RCCA flow with brain water content, apoptosis and number of perivascular edematous regions. Controlled low-flow reperfusion mitigated reperfusion-induced brain edema and apoptosis, leading to rescue of brain function in the canine model.

  15. Effect of canine mesenchymal stromal cells overexpressing heme oxygenase-1 in spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Kim, Yongsun; Rhew, Daeun; Kim, Ahyoung; Jo, Kwang Rae; Yoon, Yongseok; Choi, Kyeung Uk; Jung, Taeseong; Kim, Wan Hee; Kweon, Oh-Kyeong

    2017-09-30

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress-responsive enzyme that modulates the immune response and oxidative stress associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). This study aimed to investigate neuronal regeneration via transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) overexpressing HO-1. Canine MSCs overexpressing HO-1 were generated by using a lentivirus packaging protocol. Eight beagle dogs with experimentally-induced SCI were divided into GFP-labeled MSC (MSC-GFP) and HO-1-overexpressing MSC (MSC-HO-1) groups. MSCs (1 × 10(7) cells) were transplanted at 1 week after SCI. Spinal cords were harvested 8 weeks after transplantation, after which histopathological, immunofluorescence, and western blot analyses were performed. The MSC-HO-1 group showed significantly improved functional recovery at 7 weeks after transplantation. Histopathological results showed fibrotic changes and microglial cell infiltration were significantly decreased in the MSC-HO-1 group. Immunohistochemical (IHC) results showed significantly increased expression levels of HO-1 and neuronal markers in the MSC-HO-1 group. Western blot results showed significantly decreased expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, cycloogygenase 2, phosphorylated-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, and galactosylceramidase in the MSC-HO-1 group, while expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein, β3-tubulin, neurofilament medium, and neuronal nuclear antigen were similar to those observed in IHC results. Our results demonstrate that functional recovery after SCI can be promoted to a greater extent by transplantation of HO-1-overexpressing MSCs than by normal MSCs.

  16. Intrathecal Transplantation of Autologous Adherent Bone Marrow Cells Induces Functional Neurological Recovery in a Canine Model of Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Gabr, Hala; El-Kheir, Wael Abo; Farghali, Haithem A M A; Ismail, Zeinab M K; Zickri, Maha B; El Maadawi, Zeinab M; Kishk, Nirmeen A; Sabaawy, Hatem E

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in demyelination of surviving axons, loss of oligodendrocytes, and impairment of motor and sensory functions. We have developed a clinical strategy of cell therapy for SCI through the use of autologous bone marrow cells for transplantation to augment remyelination and enhance neurological repair. In a preclinical large mammalian model of SCI, experimental dogs were subjected to a clipping contusion of the spinal cord. Two weeks after the injury, GFP-labeled autologous minimally manipulated adherent bone marrow cells (ABMCs) were transplanted intrathecally to investigate the safety and efficacy of autologous ABMC therapy. The effects of ABMC transplantation in dogs with SCI were determined using functional neurological scoring, and the integration of ABMCs into the injured cords was determined using histopathological and immunohistochemical investigations and electron microscopic analyses of sections from control and transplanted spinal cords. Our data demonstrate the presence of GFP-labeled cells in the injured spinal cord for up to 16 weeks after transplantation in the subacute SCI stage. GFP-labeled cells homed to the site of injury and were detected around white matter tracts and surviving axons. ABMC therapy in the canine SCI model enhanced remyelination and augmented neural regeneration, resulting in improved neurological functions. Therefore, autologous ABMC therapy appears to be a safe and promising therapy for spinal cord injuries.

  17. The altered expression profile of microRNAs in cardiopulmonary bypass canine models and the effects of mir-499 on myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs were enrolled in various cardiovascular disease especially ischemic heart diseases, but the microRNA changes during myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury underwent cardiopulmonary bypass are still unknown. This study screens the microRNA differences in CPB canines and evaluates the relationship of microRNAs with myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. Methods 13 healthy canines received CPB with 60 minutes of aortic clamping and cardioplegic arrest, followed by 90 minutes reperfusion. Left ventricular myocardial samples, blood samples and hemodynamic data were taken at different time points. We performed microRNAs microarray experiments upon the left ventricle myocardium tissue of canines before CPB and after reperfusion for 90 minutes by pooling 3 tissue samples together and used qRT-PCR for confirmation. Results Statistically significant difference was found in mir-499 level before CPB and after reperfusion (T1 vs. T4, p = 0.041). We further examined the mir-499 levels by using qRT-PCR in all 13 canines at 4 different time points (T1 vs. T4, p = 0.029). Mir-499 expression was negatively correlated with cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and creatine kinase- MB (CK-MB) levels of canines in all time points samples (r = 0.469, p < 0.001 and r = 0.273, p = 0.050 respectively). Moreover, higher mir-499 expression level was associated with higher dP/dtmax at 25 minutes and 90 minutes after reperfusion. Conclusion Myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury with cardiopulmonary bypass results in declining level of mir-499 expression in left ventricle myocardium of canines, suggesting mir-499 would be a potential therapeutic target in cardiac protection during open heart surgery. PMID:23800236

  18. Longitudinal extension of myelomalacia by intramedullary and subdural hemorrhage in a canine model of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Henke, Diana; Gorgas, Daniela; Doherr, Marcus G; Howard, Judith; Forterre, Franck; Vandevelde, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In canine intervertebral disc (IVD) extrusion, a spontaneous animal model of spinal cord injury, hemorrhage is a consistent finding. In rodent models, hemorrhage might be involved in secondary tissue destruction by biochemical mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate a causal association between the extents of intramedullary, subdural and epidural hemorrhage and the severity of spinal cord damage following IVD extrusion in dogs. A retrospective study using histologic spinal cord sections from 83 dogs euthanized following IVD extrusion was carried out. The degree of hemorrhage (intramedullary, subdural, epidural), the degree of spinal cord damage in the epicenter (white and gray matter), and the longitudinal extent of myelomalacia were graded. Associations between the extent of hemorrhage and the degree of spinal cord damage were evaluated statistically. Intramedullary and subdural hemorrhages were significantly associated with the degree of white (p<.001/ p=.004) and gray (both p<.001) matter damage, and with the longitudinal extension of myelomalacia (p<.001/p=.005). Intriguingly, accumulation of hemorrhagic cord debris inside or dorsal to a distended and ruptured central canal in segments distant to the epicenter of the lesion was observed exhibiting a wave-like pattern on longitudinal assessment. The occurrence of this debris accumulation was associated with high degrees of tissue destruction (all p<.001). Tissue liquefaction and increased intramedullary pressure associated with hemorrhage are involved in the progression of spinal cord destruction in a canine model of spinal cord injury and ascending or descending myelomalacia. Functional and dynamic studies are needed to investigate this concept further. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Safety of Allogeneic Canine Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Intraspinal Transplantation in Dogs with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Escalhão, Cláudia Cardoso Maciel; Ramos, Isalira Peroba; Hochman-Mendez, Camila; Brunswick, Tais Hanae Kasai; dos Santos Goldenberg, Regina Coeli

    2017-01-01

    This is a pilot clinical study primarily designed to assess the feasibility and safety of X-ray-guided percutaneous intraspinal injection of allogeneic canine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells in dogs with chronic spinal cord injury. Six dogs with chronic paraplegia (≥six months) were intraparenchymally injected with allogeneic cells in the site of lesion. Cells were obtained from subcutaneous adipose tissue of a healthy dog, cultured to passage 3, labeled with 99mTechnetium, and transplanted into the lesion by percutaneous X-ray-guided injection. Digital X-ray efficiently guided cell injection as 99mTechnetium-labeled cells remained in the injection site for at least 24 hours after transplantation. No adverse effects or complications (infection, neuropathic pain, or worsening of neurological function) were observed during the 16-week follow-up period after transplantation. Three animals improved locomotion as assessed by the Olby scale. One animal walked without support, but no changes in deep pain perception were observed. We conclude that X-ray-guided percutaneous intraspinal transplantation of allogeneic cells in dogs with chronic spinal cord injury is feasible and safe. The efficacy of the treatment will be assessed in a new study involving a larger number of animals. PMID:28611846

  20. Retrospective Evaluation of Canine and Feline Maxillomandibular Trauma Cases; Comparison of Lunar Cycle and Seasonality with Non-maxillomandibular Traumatic Injuries (2003-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Mulherin, Brenda L.; Soukup, Jason W.; Hetzel, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To determine relationships between seasonality and lunar cycle and the frequency of maxillomandibular (MM) and non-maxillomandibular (non-MM) injury in canine and feline trauma patients. Methods A medical records database was searched to identify all MM trauma patients (67) and a random sample of non-MM trauma patients (129) according to search criteria. Season of injury, moon phase and moon luminosity were calculated for the date of injury. Results MM injury occurred predominately in the spring and decreased through winter while non-MM injury occurred more frequently in the summer and fall. The difference in the frequency of MM and non-MM injuries during different seasons was not significant (p=0.071). When comparing injuries occurring in the quarters following the full moon and leading up to the full moon, a difference (p=0.007) was noted with an increased percentage of moon was illuminated at the time injuries occurred following a full moon as compared to leading up to the full moon. Clinical Significance These results may guide clinicians to closely evaluate trauma patients that are presented on emergency during a particular season or lunar phase. Based on the season at the time of injury, close evaluation for MM versus non-MM trauma may be appropriate. PMID:24569925

  1. Retrospective evaluation of canine and feline maxillomandibular trauma cases. Comparison of lunar cycle and seasonality with non-maxillomandibular traumatic injuries (2003-2012).

    PubMed

    Mulherin, B L; Snyder, C J; Soukup, J W; Hetzel, S

    2014-01-01

    To determine relationships between seasonality and lunar cycle and the frequency of maxillomandibular (MM) and non-maxillomandibular (non-MM) injury in canine and feline trauma patients. A medical records database was searched to identify all MM trauma patients (n = 67) and a random sample of non-MM trauma patients (n = 129) according to search criteria. Season of injury, moon phase, and moon luminosity were calculated for the date of injury. Maxillomandibular injury occurred predominately in the spring and decreased through winter while non-MM injury occurred more frequently in the summer and fall. The difference in the frequency of MM and non-MM injuries during different seasons was not significant (p = 0.071). When comparing the amount of moon illuminated when injuries occurred during the quarters before or after the full moon, a difference (p = 0.007) was noted with a greater number of injuries occurring immediately following the full moon. These results may guide clinicians to closely evaluate trauma patients that are presented on emergency during a particular season or lunar phase. Based on the season at the time of injury, close evaluation for MM versus non-MM trauma may be appropriate.

  2. Effects of a phosphate buffered extracellular (Ep4) solution in preservation and reperfusion injury in the canine liver.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Y; Ohwada, S; Sakata, K; Ohya, T; Tomizawa, N; Takeyoshi, I; Morishita, Y

    1999-02-01

    The Ep4 solution, a phosphate buffered extracellular-type solution, is effective in canine lung transplantation following a 96-hour hypothermic (4 degrees C) preservation. In this experiment, we used this solution for liver preservation followed by transplantation. We compared the Ep4 solution with the lactated Ringer's (LR) and the Collins' M (CM) solution (a phosphate buffered intracellular-type solution) in two studies, 1) 48-hour liver preservation, and 2) orthotopic liver transplantation after 5-hour preservation. In the preservation study, purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) levels as a marker of endothelial damage, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were significantly lower in the livers immersed into the Ep4 solution than in those immersed into other solutions at 36 and 48 hours after preservation. Microscopically, the endothelial injury occurred 24 hours after preservation in the CM solution, and 36 hours after preservation in the LR and Ep4 solutions. In the transplantation study, serum PNP and ALT levels in the livers immersed in Ep4 solution showed a lower tendency compared with those in other solutions at the time of reperfusion, but the histological differences among three groups were not apparent. The present study suggests that the liver can be stored better for a longer time using Ep4 solution than using LR and CM solutions.

  3. Retrospective evaluation of canine and feline maxillomandibular trauma cases. A comparison of signalment with non-maxillomandibular traumatic injuries (2003-2012).

    PubMed

    Mulherin, B L; Snyder, C J; Soukup, J W; Hetzel, S

    2014-01-01

    To determine differences in signalment between maxillomandibular (MM) and non-maxillomandibular (non-MM) trauma patients to help predict the type of injury sustained. A medical records database was searched from December 2003 to September 2012 to identify all MM trauma patients. A random sample of non-MM trauma patients was generated for comparison. Patient species, age, sex, weight, and injury aetiology were recorded for both populations. Sixty-seven MM trauma patients and 129 non-MM trauma patients were identified. Feline patients were almost twice as likely to be presented for MM trauma compared with non-MM trauma. The median weight of canine patients suffering MM injury was significantly less than that of non-MM patients (p = 0.025). A significant association existed between the causes of injuries associated with MM and non-MM trauma populations (p = 0.000023). The MM trauma patients were more likely to sustain injury as a result of an animal altercation (Bonferroni p = 0.001) while non-MM injuries were more likely to result from motor vehicle accidents (Bonferroni p = 0.001). Overall, animals that were less than one year of age with traumatic injuries were overrepresented (65/196) in comparison to the entire patient population. The results of this study may help guide clinicians in the evaluation and screening of trauma patients that are presented as an emergency. Cats, small dogs and animals suffering from animal altercations should all be closely evaluated for MM injury.

  4. Retrospective Evaluation of Canine and Feline Maxillomandibular Trauma Cases; A Comparison of Signalment with Non-Maxillomandibular Traumatic Injuries (2003-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Mulherin, Brenda L.; Snyder, Christopher J.; Soukup, Jason W.; Hetzel, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To determine differences in signalment between maxillomandibular (MM) and non maxillomandibular (non-MM) trauma patients to help predict the type of injury sustained. Methods A medical records database was searched from December 2003-September 2012 to identify all MM trauma patients, and also a random sample of non-MM trauma patients was generated. Patient species, age, sex, weight, and injury aetiology were recorded for both populations. Results Sixty-seven MM trauma patients and 129 non-MM trauma patients were identified. Feline patients were almost twice as likely to be presented for MM trauma compared with non-MM trauma. The median weight of canine patients suffering MM injury was significantly less than that of non-MM patients (p=0.025). A significant association existed between the causes of injuries associated with MM and non-MM trauma populations (p=0.000023). The MM trauma patients were more likely to sustain injury as a result of an animal altercation (Bonferroni p=0.001) while non-MM injuries were more likely to result from motor vehicle accidents (Bonferroni p=0.001). Overall animals <1yr of age with traumatic injuries were overrepresented (65/196) in comparison to entire patient population. Clinical Significance The results of this study may help guide clinicians in the evaluation and screening of trauma patients that are presented as an emergency. Cats, small dogs and animals suffering from animal altercations should all be closely evaluated for maxillomandibular injury. PMID:24569903

  5. Characterization of chronic axonal degeneration using diffusion tensor imaging in canine spinal cord injury: A quantitative analysis of DTI parameters according to histopathological differences.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hakyoung; Kim, Jaehwan; Moon, Won-Jin; Nahm, Sang-Soep; Zhao, Jun; Kim, Hyoung-Moon; Eom, Kidong

    2017-02-07

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is more sensitive than conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the identification of axonal degeneration. However, no study to date has used DTI to evaluate the severity of axonal degeneration in canine spinal cord injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize multi-grade axonal degeneration (mild, moderate, and severe) in a canine model of spinal cord compression injury using DTI. MRI data were obtained from six normal dogs and five dogs with lumbar spinal cord injury 78 days after spinal cord injury (L1-L3) using a 3T MRI scanner. For DTI, transverse multi-shot echo planar imaging sequences (b-value = 0, 800 s/mm2, 12 directions) were used. Regions of interest on DTI maps were selected based on areas of normal white matter and mild, moderate, and severe axonal degeneration on histopathological images. Statistically significant differences were observed between normal white matter and axonal degeneration, and among different severities of axonal degeneration. The severity of axonal degeneration demonstrated a negative linear correlation with fractional anisotropy and positive linear correlations with spherical index and radial diffusivity; additionally, positive U-shaped correlations were identified between the severity of axonal degeneration and mean diffusivity and axial diffusivity. These results demonstrate a potential clinical application for DTI in the non-invasive monitoring of histological changes after spinal cord injury. DTI could be utilized for the early diagnosis and assessment of spinal cord injury, and ultimately employed to optimize the treatment and rehabilitation of spinal cord injury patients.

  6. Pathological correlations between podocyte injuries and renal functions in canine and feline chronic kidney diseases.

    PubMed

    Ichii, O; Yabuki, A; Sasaki, N; Otsuka, S; Ohta, H; Yamasaki, M; Takiguchi, M; Namiki, Y; Hashimoto, Y; Endoh, D; Kon, Y

    2011-10-01

    Podocytes cover the glomerulus and their adjacent foot processes form a principal barrier called the slit diaphragm. Podocyte dysfunctions, including podocyte loss and slit diaphragm disruptions, induce chronic kidney diseases (CKD). In this study, we analyzed the correlations between podocyte injuries and renal dysfunctions in domestic carnivores. Dogs and cats were divided into normal and CKD groups according to renal histopathology and plasma creatinine values. Immunostaining results showed that linear reactions of slit diaphragm molecules, e.g., nephrin, podocin, and ACTN4, were parallel to glomerular capillaries in all animals. However, in dogs, reactions of nephrin and ACTN4 were changed to a granular pattern in the CKD group, and their intensities significantly decreased with the number of podocytes in the glomerulus. Moreover, the expression of nephrin and ACTN4 negatively correlated with creatinine. Real-time PCR analysis showed that nephrin mRNA expression in the kidneys of CKD dogs was significantly lower than that in normal animals, and negatively correlated with creatinine. Although no significant correlation between renal dysfunction and podocyte injury was detected in cats, histoplanimetric scores of tubulointerstitial lesions in CKD cats were higher than those in both normal cats and diseased dogs. Furthermore, mRNAs of WT1 and SD molecules were detected in urine from CKD animals. In conclusion, podocyte injuries such as podocytopenia and decreased expression of nephrin and ACTN4 in the glomerulus were more strongly correlated with renal dysfunction in dogs than in cats. These findings suggest that the CKD pathogenesis, especially susceptibilities to podocyte injuries, differed between dogs and cats.

  7. Influence of ascorbic acid on BUN, creatinine, resistive index in canine renal ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-il; Kim, Myung-jin; Park, Chang-sik

    2006-01-01

    Renal ischemia as a course of renal transplantation is a common cause of renal dysfunction as renal failure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of ascorbic acid on blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and resistive index (RI) for dog models with renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Renal ischemia was induced on 6 Beagle dogs. The left kidney was exposed to normothermic ischemia for a short period at 30 min followed by reperfusion. On the blood Cr level and RI, there was no significant difference comparing both groups. 14 days after I/R injury a significant reduction on the blood BUN level was observed in the vehicle group (34.06 mg/dl) compared to that of ischemia induced treated group (10.3mg/dl) (p < 0.05). In conclusion, administration of ascorbic acid for renal ischemic-reperfusion injury had influence on blood BUN level, but it was not revealed the influence on blood Cr and RI. PMID:16434855

  8. Influence of ascorbic acid on BUN, creatinine, resistive index in canine renal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-il; Kim, Myung-jin; Park, Chang-sik; Kim, Myung-cheol

    2006-03-01

    Renal ischemia as a course of renal transplantation is a common cause of renal dysfunction as renal failure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of ascorbic acid on blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and resistive index (RI) for dog models with renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Renal ischemia was induced on 6 Beagle dogs. The left kidney was exposed to normothermic ischemia for a short period at 30 min followed by reperfusion. On the blood Cr level and RI, there was no significant difference comparing both groups. 14 days after I/R injury a significant reduction on the blood BUN level was observed in the vehicle group (34.06 mg/dl) compared to that of ischemia induced treated group (10.3 mg/dl) (p < 0.05). In conclusion, administration of ascorbic acid for renal ischemic-reperfusion injury had influence on blood BUN level, but it was not revealed the influence on blood Cr and RI.

  9. Receptor for advanced glycation end products involved in lung ischemia reperfusion injury in cardiopulmonary bypass attenuated by controlled oxygen reperfusion in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Rong, Jian; Ye, Sheng; Liang, Meng-ya; Chen, Guang-xian; Liu, Hai; Zhang, Jin-Xin; Wu, Zhong-kai

    2013-01-01

    Controlled oxygen reperfusion could protect the lung against ischemia-reperfusion injury in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) by downregulating high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a high affinity receptor of HMGB1. This study investigated the effect of controlled oxygen reperfusion on receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) expression and its downstream effects on lung ischemia-reperfusion injury. Fourteen canines received CPB with 60 minutes of aortic clamping and cardioplegic arrest followed by 90 minutes of reperfusion. Animals were randomized to receive 80% FiO2 during the entire procedure (control group) or to a test group receiving a controlled oxygen reperfusion protocol. Pathologic changes in lung tissues, RAGE expression, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were evaluated. The lung pathologic scores after 25 and 90 minutes of reperfusion were significantly lower in the test group compared with the control group (p < 0.001). RAGE expression, TNF-α, and IL-6 were downregulated by controlled oxygen treatment (p < 0.001). RAGE might be involved in the lung ischemia-reperfusion injury in canine model of CPB, which was downregulated by controlled oxygen reperfusion.

  10. Computerized tomography versus perfusion lung scanning in canine radiation lung injury

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, I.H.; Logus, J.W.; El-Khatib, E.; Battista, J.J.; Ferri, H.; Lentle, B.C.; Man, G.C.; Man, S.F. )

    1990-03-01

    Computerized tomographic (CT) measurements of lung density were obtained before and serially after thoracic irradiation in dogs to detect the alterations caused by radiation therapy. Fourteen mongrel dogs were given either 2000 cGy (Group A, 10 dogs, right lower zone irradiation), 1000 cGy (Group B, 2 dogs, right lower zone irradiation), or 500 cGy (Group C, 2 dogs, right lung irradiation) in one fraction. Once before and bi-weekly after irradiation, the anesthetized dogs had thoracic CT scans. CT numbers for the irradiated area were compared to their preirradiation control values. Macro-aggregated albumin (MAA) perfusion lung scans were also obtained before and at weekly intervals after irradiation and were evaluated visually and quantitatively for abnormalities. When both these tests were abnormal, or at the end of the scheduled study, the dogs were sacrificed to confirm radiation lung injury histologically. Our results showed that CT numbers (as a measure of tissue density) were higher with higher doses of radiation. Among all the techniques used, only the quantitative assessment of macro-aggregated albumin perfusion scan detected abnormalities in all the dogs given 2000 cGy. Their abnormalities correlated well with the presence of radiation lung damage histologically, however, the applicability of these methods in the detection of early injury has to be further evaluated.

  11. A novel method for multiple bowel injuries: a pilot canine experiment.

    PubMed

    Ke, Jun; Wu, Weihang; Lin, Nan; Yang, Weijin; Cai, Zhicong; Wu, Wei; Chen, Dongsheng; Wang, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal ligation is the cornerstone for damage control in abdominal emergency, yet it may lead to bowel ischemia. Although intestinal ligation avoids further peritoneal cavity pollution, it may lead to an increased pressure within the bowel segments and rapid bacterial translocation. In this study, we showed that severed intestine could be readily reconnected by using silicon tubes and be secured by using rubber bands in a canine model. Adult Beagle dogs, subject to multiple intestinal transections and hemorrhagic shock by exsanguination, randomly received conventional ligation vs. silicon tubes reconnecting (n = 5 per group). Intestinal transections were carried out under general anesthesia after 24-h fasting. The abdomen was opened with a midline incision. The small intestine was severed at 50, 100, and 150 cm below the Treitz ligament. Hemorrhagic shock was established by streaming blood from the left carotid artery until the mean arterial pressure reached 40 mmHg in 20 min. Fluid resuscitation and surgery began 30 min after the establishment of hemorrhagic shock. Severed intestines were ligated or connected with silicon tubes. Definitive repair was conducted in subjects surviving for at least 48 h. Operation time was comparable between the two groups (39.6 ± 8.9 vs. 36.6 ± 7.8 min in ligation and reconnecting groups, respectively; p = 0.56). The time spent in managing each resection was also comparable (4.6 ± 1.1 vs. 3.8 ± 0.84 min; p = 0.24). Blood loss (341.2 ± 28.6 vs. 333.8 ± 34.6 ml; p = 0.48), and fluid resuscitation within the first 24 h (1676 ± 200.6 vs. 1594 ± 156.5 ml; p = 0.46) were similar. One subject in the ligation group was sacrificed at 36-h due to severe vomiting that led to aspiration. Four remaining dogs in the ligation group received definitive surgery, but two out of four had to be sacrificed at 24-h after definitive repair due to imminent death. All five dogs in the reconnecting group

  12. Alpha II-spectrin Breakdown Products Serve as Novel Markers of Brain Injury Severity in a Canine Model of Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Eric S.; Wang, Kevin K.W.; Allen, Jeremiah G.; Blue, Mary E.; Nwakanma, Lois U.; Liu, Ming Cheng; Lange, Mary S.; Berrong, Jennifer; Wilson, Mary Ann; Gott, Vincent L.; Troncoso, Juan C.; Hayes, Ronald L.; Johnston, Michael V.; Baumgartner, William A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The development of specific biomarkers to aid in diagnosis and prognosis of neuronal injury is of paramount importance in cardiac surgery. Alpha II-spectrin is a structural protein abundant in neurons of the central nervous system and cleaved into signature fragments by proteases involved in necrotic and apoptotic cell death. We measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) alpha II-spectrin breakdown products (αII-SBDP’s) in a canine model of hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Methods Canine subjects were exposed to either 1 hour of HCA (n=8, mean lowest tympanic temperature 18.0 ± 1.2 °C), or standard CPB (n=7). CSF samples were collected prior to treatment and 8 and 24 hours post-treatment. Using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting, SBDP’s were isolated and compared between groups using computer-assisted densitometric scanning. Necrotic versus apoptotic cell death was indexed by measuring calpain and caspase-3 cleaved αII-SBDP’s (SBDP 145+150 and SBDP 120, respectively). Results Animals undergoing HCA demonstrated mild patterns of histological cellular injury and clinically detectable neurologic dysfunction. Calpain-produced αII-SBDP (150kDa+145kDa bands-necrosis) 8 hours post HCA, were significantly increased (p=0.02) as compared to levels prior to HCA and remained elevated at 24 hours post HCA. In contrast caspase-3 αII-SBDP (120kDa band-apoptosis) were not significantly increased. Animals receiving CPB did not demonstrate clinical or histological evidence of injury, with no increases in necrotic or apoptotic cellular markers. Conclusions We report the use of αII-SBDP’s as markers of neurological injury following cardiac surgery. Our analysis demonstrates that Calpain and Caspase produced αII-SBDP’s may be an important and novel marker of neurologic injury following HCA. PMID:19632410

  13. Canine Epidermal Neural Crest Stem Cells: Characterization and Potential as Therapy Candidate for a Large Animal Model of Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gericota, Barbara; Anderson, Joseph S.; Mitchell, Gaela; Borjesson, Dori L.; Sturges, Beverly K.; Nolta, Jan A.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of multipotent neural crest-derived stem cells, named epidermal neural crest stem cells (EPI-NCSC), that persist postnatally in an easy-to-access location—the bulge of hair follicles—opens a spectrum of novel opportunities for patient-specific therapies. We present a detailed characterization of canine EPI-NCSC (cEPI-NCSC) from multiple dog breeds and protocols for their isolation and ex vivo expansion. Furthermore, we provide novel tools for research in canines, which currently are still scarce. In analogy to human and mouse EPI-NCSC, the neural crest origin of cEPI-NCSC is shown by their expression of the neural crest stem cell molecular signature and other neural crest-characteristic genes. Similar to human EPI-NCSC, cEPI-NCSC also expressed pluripotency genes. We demonstrated that cEPI-NCSC can generate all major neural crest derivatives. In vitro clonal analyses established multipotency and self-renewal ability of cEPI-NCSC, establishing cEPI-NCSC as multipotent somatic stem cells. A critical analysis of the literature on canine spinal cord injury (SCI) showed the need for novel treatments and suggested that cEPI-NCSC represent viable candidates for cell-based therapies in dog SCI, particularly for chondrodystrophic dogs. This notion is supported by the close ontological relationship between neural crest stem cells and spinal cord stem cells. Thus, cEPI-NCSC promise to offer not only a potential treatment for canines but also an attractive and realistic large animal model for human SCI. Taken together, we provide the groundwork for the development of a novel cell-based therapy for a condition with extremely poor prognosis and no available effective treatment. PMID:24443004

  14. Canine epidermal neural crest stem cells: characterization and potential as therapy candidate for a large animal model of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Gericota, Barbara; Anderson, Joseph S; Mitchell, Gaela; Borjesson, Dori L; Sturges, Beverly K; Nolta, Jan A; Sieber-Blum, Maya

    2014-03-01

    The discovery of multipotent neural crest-derived stem cells, named epidermal neural crest stem cells (EPI-NCSC), that persist postnatally in an easy-to-access location-the bulge of hair follicles-opens a spectrum of novel opportunities for patient-specific therapies. We present a detailed characterization of canine EPI-NCSC (cEPI-NCSC) from multiple dog breeds and protocols for their isolation and ex vivo expansion. Furthermore, we provide novel tools for research in canines, which currently are still scarce. In analogy to human and mouse EPI-NCSC, the neural crest origin of cEPI-NCSC is shown by their expression of the neural crest stem cell molecular signature and other neural crest-characteristic genes. Similar to human EPI-NCSC, cEPI-NCSC also expressed pluripotency genes. We demonstrated that cEPI-NCSC can generate all major neural crest derivatives. In vitro clonal analyses established multipotency and self-renewal ability of cEPI-NCSC, establishing cEPI-NCSC as multipotent somatic stem cells. A critical analysis of the literature on canine spinal cord injury (SCI) showed the need for novel treatments and suggested that cEPI-NCSC represent viable candidates for cell-based therapies in dog SCI, particularly for chondrodystrophic dogs. This notion is supported by the close ontological relationship between neural crest stem cells and spinal cord stem cells. Thus, cEPI-NCSC promise to offer not only a potential treatment for canines but also an attractive and realistic large animal model for human SCI. Taken together, we provide the groundwork for the development of a novel cell-based therapy for a condition with extremely poor prognosis and no available effective treatment.

  15. In Vivo Evaluation of Intra-Articular Protection in a Novel Model of Canine Cranial Cruciate Ligament Mid-Substance Elongation Injury

    PubMed Central

    LOPEZ, MANDI J.; ROBINSON, SANDRA O.; QUINN, MARGARET M.; HOSGOOD, GISELLE; MARKEL, MARK D.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effects of intra-articular protection (IAP) on the canine cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) and stifle in a CrCL midsubstance elongation injury model. Study Design Experimental longitudinal cohort study. Animals Skeletally mature female mixed breed hounds (n = 12; mean ± SEM weight, 25.6 ± 0.7 kg). Methods After CrCL elongation in 1 stifle of each dog, IAP was applied in 6 joints. In vivo assessment included radiographs, cranial–caudal joint translation, gait analysis, and synovial fluid levels of 3B3(−) (proteoglycan epitope) and C2C (collagen II neoepitope) up to 12 weeks after surgery. Joint translation and rotation were quantified at necropsy. CrCL midsubstance length was determined before and after elongation and at necropsy. CrCLs were subjectively assessed with light microscopy. Comparisons were made between stifles containing elongated CrCLs with and without IAP and unoperated controls. Results Four weeks after surgery, ground reaction forces were significantly decreased in operated limbs. Absolute C2C levels were significantly elevated in operated stifles 4 weeks post-surgery. C2C and 3B3(−) levels normalized to total protein were significantly elevated in IAP + stifles 8 weeks after surgery. Protected CrCLs appeared to have decreased granulation tissue and better collagen fiber alignment. Conclusions IAP has negligible effects on the canine stifle based on the response variables evaluated in this 12-week study. Protection of elongated CrCLs may promote reduced, organized scar formation. Clinical Relevance These results support the healing capacity of the canine CrCL midsubstance following elongation injury and IAP application to potentially reduce cicatrix formation in elongated CrCLs. PMID:17187633

  16. In vivo evaluation of intra-articular protection in a novel model of canine cranial cruciate ligament mid-substance elongation injury.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Mandi J; Robinson, Sandra O; Quinn, Margaret M; Hosgood, Giselle; Markel, Mark D

    2006-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of intra-articular protection (IAP) on the canine cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) and stifle in a CrCL midsubstance elongation injury model. Experimental longitudinal cohort study. Skeletally mature female mixed breed hounds (n=12; mean+/-SEM weight, 25.6+/-0.7 kg). After CrCL elongation in 1 stifle of each dog, IAP was applied in 6 joints. In vivo assessment included radiographs, cranial-caudal joint translation, gait analysis, and synovial fluid levels of 3B3(-) (proteoglycan epitope) and C2C (collagen II neoepitope) up to 12 weeks after surgery. Joint translation and rotation were quantified at necropsy. CrCL midsubstance length was determined before and after elongation and at necropsy. CrCLs were subjectively assessed with light microscopy. Comparisons were made between stifles containing elongated CrCLs with and without IAP and unoperated controls. Four weeks after surgery, ground reaction forces were significantly decreased in operated limbs. Absolute C2C levels were significantly elevated in operated stifles 4 weeks post-surgery. C2C and 3B3(-) levels normalized to total protein were significantly elevated in IAP+ stifles 8 weeks after surgery. Protected CrCLs appeared to have decreased granulation tissue and better collagen fiber alignment. IAP has negligible effects on the canine stifle based on the response variables evaluated in this 12-week study. Protection of elongated CrCLs may promote reduced, organized scar formation. These results support the healing capacity of the canine CrCL midsubstance following elongation injury and IAP application to potentially reduce cicatrix formation in elongated CrCLs.

  17. Functional recovery and neural differentiation after transplantation of allogenic adipose-derived stem cells in a canine model of acute spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hak-Hyun; Lim, Ji-Hey; Byeon, Ye-Eun; Park, Jeong-Ran; Seo, Min-Soo; Lee, Young-Won; Kim, Wan Hee

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated if the implantation of allogenic adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) improved neurological function in a canine spinal cord injury model. Eleven adult dogs were assigned to three groups according to treatment after spinal cord injury by epidural balloon compression: C group (no ASCs treatment as control), V group (vehicle treatment with PBS), and ASC group (ASCs treatment). ASCs or vehicle were injected directly into the injured site 1 week after spinal cord injury. Pelvic limb function after transplantation was evaluated by Olby score. Magnetic resonance imaging, somatosensory evoked potential (SEP), histopathologic and immunohistichemical examinations were also performed. Olby scores in the ASC group increased from 2 weeks after transplantation and were significantly higher than C and V groups until 8 weeks (p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences between the C and V groups. Nerve conduction velocity based on SEP was significantly improved in the ASC group compared to C and V groups (p < 0.05). Positive areas for Luxol fast blue staining were located at the injured site in the ASC group. Also, GFAP, Tuj-1 and NF160 were observed immunohistochemically in cells derived from implanted ASCs. These results suggested that improvement in neurological function by the transplantation of ASCs in dogs with spinal cord injury may be partially due to the neural differentiation of implanted stem cells. PMID:19934591

  18. Transplantation of hUC-MSCs seeded collagen scaffolds reduces scar formation and promotes functional recovery in canines with chronic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xing; Tan, Jun; Xiao, Zhifeng; Zhao, Yannan; Han, Sufang; Liu, Dingyang; Yin, Wen; Li, Jing; Li, Juan; Wanggou, Siyi; Chen, Bing; Ren, Caiping; Jiang, Xingjun; Dai, Jianwu

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) can lead to locomotor deficits, and the repair of chronic SCI is considered one of the most challenging clinical problems. Although extensive studies have evaluated treatments for acute SCI in small animals, comparatively fewer studies have been conducted on large-animal SCI in the chronic phase, which is more clinically relevant. Here, we used a collagen-based biomaterial, named the NeuroRegen scaffold, loaded with human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) in a canine chronic SCI model. To generate chronic SCI, the T8 spinal cord segment was removed by complete transection of the spinal cord. Two months later, glial scar tissue was removed and a NeuroRegen scaffold was transplanted into the lesion area. Functionalized NeuroRegen scaffold implantation promoted both locomotor recovery and endogenous neurogenesis in the lesion area. Moreover, some newly generated neurons successfully matured into 5-HT-positive neurons at 1 year post-injury. In addition, many regenerated axon fibers in the lesion area exhibited remyelination and synapse formation at 1 year post-injury in the functionalized NeuroRegen scaffold group. In conclusion, the NeuroRegen scaffold functionalized with hUC-MSCs is a promising potential therapeutic approach to chronic SCI that promotes neuronal regeneration, reduces glial scar formation, and ultimately improves locomotor recovery. PMID:28262732

  19. Canine Distemper

    MedlinePlus

    ... and, often, the nervous systems of puppies and dogs. The virus also infects wild canids (e.g. ... How is Canine Distemper virus spread? Puppies and dogs usually become infected through airborne exposure to the ...

  20. Canine lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Madewell, B R

    1985-07-01

    This article presents an overview of the literature regarding canine malignant lymphoma. It includes a discussion of etiology, classification, systemic manifestations of disease, therapy, and supportive care for patient management.

  1. Estimation of dynamic, in vivo soft-tissue deformation: experimental technique and application in a canine model of tendon injury and repair.

    PubMed

    Bey, Michael J; Kline, Stephanie K; Baker, Andrew R; McCarron, Jesse A; Iannotti, Joseph P; Derwin, Kathleen A

    2011-06-01

    Outcomes after rotator cuff surgery are typically assessed with measures of strength, joint motion, or pain, but these measures do not provide a direct assessment of tissue function as healing progresses. To address this limitation, this manuscript describes biplane X-ray analysis as a technique for quantifying in vivo soft-tissue deformation. Tantalum beads were implanted in the humerus and infraspinatus tendon in a canine model of tendon injury and repair. Biplane X-ray images were acquired during treadmill trotting and tissue deformation was estimated from the three-dimensional bead positions. Changes over time were characterized by the mean, range, and normalized range (i.e., range/mean) of interbead distance. Intact tendon repair tissue demonstrated significant decreases over time in the mean (p = 0.003), range (p = 0.001), and normalized range (p = 0.001) of interbead distance. Failed tendon repair tissue demonstrated significant decreases over time in the range (p =  0.05) and normalized range (p = 0.04) of interbead distance. In an uninjured control, differences over time in the interbead distance parameters were not detected. This approach is a promising technique for estimating changes over time in soft-tissue deformation. These preliminary data indicate appreciable differences between normal tendons, intact repairs, and failed repairs. Copyright © 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  2. Measuring surface temperature and grading pathological changes of airway tissue in a canine model of inhalational thermal injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ran; Di, La-na; Zhao, Xiao-zhuo; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Guo-an

    2013-06-01

    Airway tissue shows unexpected invulnerability to heated air. The mechanisms of this phenomenon are open to debate. This study was designed to measure the surface temperatures at different locations of the airway, and to explore the relationship between the tissue's surface temperature and injury severity. Twenty dogs were randomly divided into four groups, including three experimental groups (six dogs in each) to inhale heated air at 70-80 °C (group I), 150-160 °C (group II) and 310-320 °C (group III) and a control group (two dogs, only for histological observation). Injury time was 20 min. Mucosal surface temperatures of the epiglottis (point A), cricoid cartilage (point B) and lower trachea (point C) were measured. Dogs in group I-III were divided into three subgroups (two in each), to be assayed at 12, 24 and 36 h after injury, respectively. For each dog, four tissue parts (epiglottis, larynx, lower trachea and terminal bronchiole) were microscopically observed and graded according to an original pathological scoring system (score range: 0-27). Surface temperatures of the airway mucosa increased slowly to 40.60±3.29 °C, and the highest peak temperature was 48.3 °C (group III, point A). The pathological score of burned tissues was 4.12±4.94 (0.0-18.0), suggesting slight to moderate injuries. Air temperature and airway location both influenced mucosal temperature and pathological scores very significantly, and there was a very significant positive correlation between tissue temperature and injury severity. Compared to the inhalational air hyperthermia, airway surface temperature was much lower, but was still positively correlated with thermal injury severity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. Antioxidants prevent ethanol-induced contractions of canine cerebral vascular smooth muscle: relation to alcohol-induced brain injury.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Zheng, T; Altura, B T; Altura, B M

    2001-03-30

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that alpha-tocopherol (Vit. E) and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) might exert direct effects on alcohol-induced contractions of canine basilar cerebral arteries. After precontraction of arterial ring segments with ethanol, PDTC (10(-8)-10(-6) M) and Vit. E (10(-6)-10(-4) M) induced concentration-dependent relaxations of cerebral arteries, compared to untreated controls. The effective concentrations producing approximately 50% of the maximal relaxation responses (EC(50) values) were about 2.48+/-0.09 x 10(-7) M for PDTC, and 1.87+/-0.10 x 10(-5) mM for Vit. E, respectively. Preincubation of these arterial rings with EC(50)'s of PDTC or Vit. E for 40 min attenuate markedly the contractions produced by alcohol, at concentrations of 1-400 mM. However, both PDTC and Vit.E do not relax equi-potent precontractions induced by either KCl or prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) or inhibit their contractions. These data suggest that alcohol-induced contractions of cerebral arteries are mediated via excitation-contraction coupling pathways different from those used by KCl or receptor-mediated agonists such as PGF(2alpha). The present results, when viewed in light of other recently published data, suggest that antioxidants may prove useful in the amelioration and treatment of alcohol-induced brain damage and strokes.

  4. Canine gastritis.

    PubMed

    Webb, Craig; Twedt, David C

    2003-09-01

    Gastritis--inflammation of the stomach--is a frequently cited differential yet rarely characterized diagnosis in cases of canine anorexia and vomiting. Although the list of rule-outs for acute or chronic gastritis is extensive, a review of the veterinary literature reveals fewer than 15 articles that have focused on clinical cases of canine gastritis over the last 25 years. The dog frequently appears in the human literature as an experimentally manipulated model for the study of endoscopic techniques or the effect of medications on gastric mucosa. In the veterinary patient, cases of acute gastritis are rarely pursued with the complete diagnostic armamentarium, and cases of chronic gastritis are rarely found to occur as an entity isolated from the rest of the gastrointestinal tract. This article focuses on those findings most clinically relevant to cases of canine gastritis in veterinary medicine.

  5. Heat dissipation by blood circulation and airway tissue heat absorption in a canine model of inhalational thermal injury.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jiangbo; Zhang, Guoan; Qiu, Yuxuan; Wen, Chunquan; Fu, Tairan

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to further explore heat dissipation by blood circulation and airway tissue heat absorption in an inhalational thermal injury model. Twelve adult male Beagle dogs were divided into four groups to inhale heated air for 10min: the control group, group I (100.5°C), group II (161.5°C), and group III (218°C). The relative humidity and temperature of the inhaled heated air were measured in the heating tube and trachea, as were blood temperatures and flow velocities in both common jugular veins. Formulas were used to calculate the total heat quantity reduction of the heated air, heat dissipation by the blood, and airway tissue heat absorption. The blood temperatures of both the common jugular veins increased by 0.29°C±0.07°C to 2.96°C±0.24°C and the mean blood flow volume after injury induction was about 1.30-1.74 times greater than before injury induction. The proportions of heat dissipated by the blood and airway tissue heat absorption were 68.92%±14.88% and 31.13%±14.87%, respectively. The heat dissipating ability of the blood circulation was demonstrated and improved upon along with tissue heat absorption owing to increased regional blood flow. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. The relationship between lesion severity characterized by diffusion tensor imaging and motor function in chronic canine spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Melissa; Yap, Pew-Thian; McCullough, Susan; Olby, Natasha

    2017-10-03

    Lesion heterogeneity amongst chronically paralyzed dogs after acute, complete thoracolumbar spinal cord injury (TLSCI) is poorly described. We hypothesized that lesion severity quantified by Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) is associated with hind limb motor function. Our objectives were to quantify lesion severity with fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD) and tractography and investigate associations with motor function. Twenty-two dogs with complete TLSCI in the chronic stage were enrolled and compared to 6 control dogs. All underwent thoracolumbar MRI with DTI and gait analysis. FA and MD were calculated on regions of interest (ROI) at the lesion epicenter and cranial and caudal to the visible lesion on conventional MRI and in corresponding ROI in controls. Tractography was performed to detect trans-lesional fibers. Gait was quantified using an ordinal scale (OFS). FA and MD were compared between cases and controls, and relationships between FA, MD, presence of trans-lesional fibers and OFS were investigated. FA at the epicenter (median:0.228, 0.107-0.320), cranial (median:0.420, 0.391-0.561), and caudal to the lesion (median:0.369, 0.265-0.513) were lower than combined ROI in controls (median:0.602, 0.342-0.826, p<0.0001). MD at the epicenter (median:2.06x10-3,1.33-2.96x10-3) and cranially (median:1.52x10-3,1.03-1.87x10-3) were higher than combined ROI in controls (median:1.28x10-3, 0.81-1.44x10-3, p≤0.001). Four dogs had no trans-lesional fibers. Median OFS was 2 (0-6). FA at the lesion epicenter and presence of trans-lesional fibers were associated with OFS (p≤0.0299). DTI can detect degeneration and physical transection after severe TLSCI. Findings suggest DTI quantifies injury severity and suggests motor recovery in apparently complete dogs is due to supraspinal input.

  7. Canine lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    Canine lymphoma has served as the ''workhorse'' for the development of veterinary oncology and as an important animal model for human non-Hodgkins lymphomas. Significant advances have been achieved in understanding the biological behavior of the disease and in its treatment. Although it is unlikely that a cure for lymphoma will be achieved, owners should be encouraged to treat their pets, provided they understand that only prolonged remissions and survivals are likely to result. Cooperative studies, employing large numbers of dogs, are needed to optimize and refine the classification scheme to provide a system with diagnostic and prognostic correlates and derive maximum benefit from therapeutic regimens. Such studies need to be prospective in nature, with a solid statistical base incorporated into their design. Rather than being content with what we have accomplished to date in treatment of canine lymphoma, the opportunity exists for the veterinary profession to make further significant contributions to the understanding and treatment of lymphoma in the dog. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. Intracellular calcium in canine muscle biopsies.

    PubMed

    Valentine, B A; Cooper, B J; Gallagher, E A

    1989-04-01

    Intracellular staining for calcium was studied in muscle biopsies from 15 dogs by the alizarin red S (ARS) stain. Rare positive fibres were present in normal muscle and in denervation atrophy. The percentage of positive fibres was slightly increased in polymyositis, dermatomyositis and canine temporal/masseter myositis and markedly increased in progressive muscular dystrophy. Calcium-positive fibres were usually so-called large-dark (hypercontracted) fibres or necrotic fibres, although there was occasional staining of normal and atrophied fibres. These results indicate the probable involvement of calcium in muscle injury in canine inflammatory myopathies and in canine muscular dystrophy. In addition, use of the ARS stain appears to be useful for detecting the earliest lesions of acute muscle fibre injury.

  9. Canine thymoma.

    PubMed

    Aronsohn, M

    1985-07-01

    Thymoma is an uncommon canine neoplasm of thymic epithelial cells. It is seen in various breeds but may occur more frequently in German Shepherd Dogs. Middle-aged or older dogs can be affected and no sex predilection exists. A paraneoplastic syndrome of myasthenia gravis, nonthymic malignant tumors, and/or polymyositis occurs in a significant number of dogs with thymoma. Clinical signs are variable and are related to a space-occupying cranial mediastinal mass and/or manifestations of the paraneo-plastic syndrome. Dyspnea is the most common presenting clinical sign. Thoracic radiographs usually show a cranial mediastinal mass. Lymphoma is the main differential diagnosis. A definitive diagnosis may be made by closed biopsy but is more likely to be confirmed by thoracotomy. Thymomas may be completely contained within the thymic capsule or may spread by local invasion or metastasis. A staging system allows for an accurate prognosis and a therapeutic plan. Surgical removal of encapsulated thymomas may result in long-term survival or cure. Invasive or metastatic thymomas carry a guarded prognosis. Manifestations of the paraneoplastic syndrome complicate treatment. Adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy may be of value for advanced cases; however, adequate clinical trials have not been done in the dog.

  10. Localization of Impacted Canines

    PubMed Central

    Mehrotra, Praveen; Bhagchandani, Jitendra; Singh, Ashish; Garg, Aarti; Kumar, Snehi; Sharma, Ashish; Yadav, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Impaction of maxillary canines is a frequently encountered clinical problem. The impaction of canine can be prevented in some situationsif the canine displacement is diagnosed in the early mixed dentition period and this would be extremely useful for the clinician. Hence,it is very important to focus on the means of early diagnosis and interception of this clinical situation. In the present article, the differentmodalities used to diagnose the impacted canine are reviewed with an insight into current 3-D modalities. PMID:25738100

  11. Canine tactical field care part three - thoracic and abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Wesley M

    2010-01-01

    Military and law enforcement agencies have seen a dramatic increase in the utilization of working canines both at home and in foreign deployments. Due to the fact that professional veterinary care is sometimes distant from internal disaster or foreign deployment sites, the military medic, police tactical medic, or other first-response medical care provider may be charged with providing emergency or even basic, non-emergency veterinary care to working canines. (Editor's Note: Military veterinary detachments are collocated next to the major human treatment facilities in a deployment environment. In a deployed environment veterinary care is located in areas where they are most needed or where most of the animals are located.) The medical principles involved in treating canines are essentially the same as those for treating humans, but the human healthcare provider needs basic information on canine anatomy and physiology and common emergency conditions in order to provide good basic veterinary care until a higher level of veterinary care can be obtained. This article represents the third in a series of articles designed to provide condensed, basic veterinary information on the medical care of working canines, to include military working dogs (MWDs), police canines, federal agency employed working canines, and search and rescue dogs, to those who are normally charged with tactical or first responder medical care of human patients. This article provides and overview of the diagnosis and treatment of common traumatic injuries to the thorax and abdomen.

  12. Prostate histotripsy for BPH: initial canine results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, William W.; Hall, Timothy L.; Hempel, Christopher R.; Cain, Charles A.

    2009-02-01

    Histotripsy is an extracorporeal ablative technology that utilizes microsecond pulses of intense ultrasound (< 1% duty cycle) to produce nonthermal, mechanical fractionation of targeted tissue. We have previously demonstrated the feasibility of histotripsy prostate ablation. In this study we sought to assess the chronic tissue response, tolerability and safety of histotripsy in a chronic in vivo canine model. Five acute and thirteen chronic canine subjects were anesthetized and treated with histotripsy targeting the prostate. Pulses consisted of 3 cycle bursts of 750 kHz ultrasound at a repetition rate of 300 Hz delivered transabdominally from a highly focused 15 cm aperture array. Transrectal ultrasound imaging provided accurate targeting and real-time monitoring of histotripsy treatment. Prostates were harvested at 0, 7, 28, or 56 days after treatment. Consistent mechanical tissue fractionation and debulking of prostate tissue was seen acutely and at delayed time points without collateral injury. Urothelialization of the treatment cavity was apparent 28 days after treatment. Canine subjects tolerated histotripsy with minimal hematuria or discomfort. Only mild transient lab abnormalities were noted. Histotripsy is a promising non-invasive therapy for prostate tissue fractionation and debulking that appears safe and well tolerated without systemic side effects in the canine model.

  13. A novel trauma model: naturally occurring canine trauma.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kelly E; Sharp, Claire R; Adams, Cynthia R; Beilman, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    In human trauma patients, most deaths result from hemorrhage and brain injury, whereas late deaths, although rare, are the result of multiple organ failure and sepsis. A variety of experimental animal models have been developed to investigate the pathophysiology of traumatic injury and evaluate novel interventions. Similar to other experimental models, these trauma models cannot recapitulate conditions of naturally occurring trauma, and therefore therapeutic interventions based on these models are often ineffective. Pet dogs with naturally occurring traumatic injury represent a promising translational model for human trauma that could be used to assess novel therapies. The purpose of this article was to review the naturally occurring canine trauma literature to highlight the similarities between canine and human trauma. The American College of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Veterinary Committee on Trauma has initiated the establishment of a national network of veterinary trauma centers to enhance uniform delivery of care to canine trauma patients. In addition, the Spontaneous Trauma in Animals Team, a multidisciplinary, multicenter group of researchers has created a clinical research infrastructure for carrying out large-scale clinical trials in canine trauma patients. Moving forward, these national resources can be utilized to facilitate multicenter prospective studies of canine trauma to evaluate therapies and interventions that have shown promise in experimental animal models, thus closing the critical gap in the translation of knowledge from experimental models to humans and increasing the likelihood of success in phases 1 and 2 human clinical trials.

  14. Function of the vascular endothelium after hypothermic storage at four degrees Celsius in a canine tibial perfusion model. The role of adrenomedullin in reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Kato, T; Bishop, A T; Tu, Y K; Wood, M B

    1998-09-01

    The function of the vascular endothelium after cold storage at 4 degrees Celsius for one, three, five, and seven days was investigated in a canine tibial perfusion model. Function was assessed in terms of changes in perfusion pressure, changes in the concentration of endothelin in the venous effluent from the perfused tibiae, adrenomedullin-induced vascular smooth-muscle relaxation, and norepinephrine-induced pressor responses in the presence of acetylcholine, N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine acetate (an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis), or indomethacin (an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis) in phase 1 of the study. In phase 2 of the study, the effect of the infusion of tetraethylammonium (a potassium-channel blocker that inhibits the activity of endothelium-derived hyperpolarized factor) was analyzed. The baseline perfusion pressures increased in a time-dependent manner (p < 0.05). In tibiae that had been stored for one or three days, the production of endothelin-1 was less than one picogram per milliliter, but it markedly increased to a mean (and standard error of the mean) of 8.7 +/- 3.2 and 10.8 +/- 4.3 picograms per milliliter in tibiae that had been stored for five and seven days, respectively (p < 0.05). Acetylcholine attenuated the norepinephrine-induced pressor response in all groups (storage at 4 degrees Celsius for one, three, five, or seven days) compared with the response in the control tibiae (p < 0.05). Perfusion of acetylcholine in the tibiae that had been stored for three days significantly attenuated the pressor response to norepinephrine compared with that in the tibiae that had been stored for five days (p < 0.05). In the presence of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine acetate, the norepinephrine-induced pressor response significantly increased only in the tibiae that had been stored for one day (p < 0.05). In the presence of indomethacin, the norepinephrine-induced pressor response significantly decreased in the tibiae that had been stored at 4 degrees

  15. Canine hearing loss management.

    PubMed

    Scheifele, Lesa; Clark, John Greer; Scheifele, Peter M

    2012-11-01

    Dog owners and handlers are naturally concerned when suspicion of hearing loss arises for their dogs. Questions frequently asked of the veterinarian center on warning signs of canine hearing loss and what can be done for the dog if hearing loss is confirmed. This article addresses warning signs of canine hearing loss, communication training and safety awareness issues, and the feasibility of hearing aid amplification for dogs.

  16. Dog attack: the application of canine DNA profiling in forensic casework.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Melanie; Vandenberg, Nicholas

    2010-09-01

    More than 100,000 dog attacks occur each year in Australia and many go unsolved. Dog attacks are not only a cause of human injury but may also involve injury and death to family pets, prized livestock and wildlife. Canine biological evidence can often be left behind on a victim or at the scene of an attack. Our laboratory provides canine DNA profiling for forensic investigations, utilising an in-house panel of 11 canine-specific autosomal short tandem repeat markers previously validated for use in casework. Case studies will be presented that outline methods for sampling of suspected canine biological evidence, profiling of canine DNA, statistical analysis, case outcomes and challenges for investigators.

  17. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Foroughi-Parvar, Faeze; Hatam, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now. PMID:25628897

  18. Canine distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Martella, Vito; Elia, Gabrielle; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2008-07-01

    Vaccine-based prophylaxis has greatly helped to keep distemper disease under control. Notwithstanding, the incidence of canine distemper virus (CDV)-related disease in canine populations throughout the world seems to have increased in the past decades, and several episodes of CDV disease in vaccinated animals have been reported, with nation-wide proportions in some cases. Increasing surveillance should be pivotal to identify new CDV variants and to understand the dynamics of CDV epidemiology. In addition, it is important to evaluate whether the efficacy of the vaccine against these new strains may somehow be affected.

  19. Impact of local injection of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-expressing mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) combined with intravenous MSC delivery in a canine model of chronic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Kim, Yongsun; Rhew, Daeun; Kim, Ahyoung; Jo, Kwang Rae; Yoon, Yongseok; Choi, Kyeung Uk; Jung, Taeseong; Kim, Wan Hee; Kweon, Oh-Kyeong

    2016-10-28

    The microenvironment of the chronically injured spinal cord does not allow for axonal regeneration due to glial scarring. To ameliorate this, several therapeutic strategies have been used. We investigated whether combined transplantation of chondroitinase ABC (chABC) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) genetically modified to secrete brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) with intravenous (IV) administration of MSCs can promote recovery of hindlimb function after chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Canine BDNF-expressing MSCs were generated using a lentivirus packaging protocol. Twelve beagle dogs with experimentally induced chronic SCI were divided into chABC/MSC-green fluorescent protein (GFP), chABC/MSC-BDNF and chABC/MSC-BDNF/IV groups. The MSCs (1 × 10(7) cells) and chABC were transplanted 3 weeks after SCI in all groups, and IV injection of MSC-GFP (1 × 10(7) cells) was performed 1 and 2 weeks after MSC transplantation in the chABC/MSC-BDNF/IV group. Spinal cords were harvested 8 weeks after transplantation. The dogs in the chABC/MSC-BDNF included groups had significantly improved functional recovery 8 weeks after transplantation compared with those in the chABC/MSC-GFP group. The animals in the chABC/MSC-BDNF/IV group showed significant improvements in functional recovery at 6, 7 and 8 weeks compared with those in the chABC/MSC-BDNF group. Fibrotic changes were significantly decreased in the chABC/MSC-BDNF/IV group. We also observed significant decreases in the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, COX-2, glial fibrillary acidic protein and GalC and increased expression levels of BDNF, β3-tubulin neurofilament medium, and nestin in the chABC/MSC-BDNF/IV group. We suggest that transplantation of combined chABC and BDNF-expressing MSCs, along with IV injection of MSCs, is the optimal therapy for chronic SCI. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical canine dental radiography.

    PubMed

    Bannon, Kristin M

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide small animal veterinarians in private practice a guideline for interpretation of the most common findings in canine intraoral radiology. Normal oral and dental anatomy is presented. A brief review of variations of normal, common periodontal and endodontic pathology findings and developmental anomalies is provided.

  1. Apoptosis in canine distemper.

    PubMed

    Moro, L; de Sousa Martins, A; de Moraes Alves, C; de Araújo Santos, F G; dos Santos Nunes, J E; Carneiro, R A; Carvalho, R; Vasconcelos, A C

    2003-01-01

    Canine distemper is a systemic viral disease characterized by immunosuppression followed by secondary infections. Apoptosis is observed in several immunosuppressive diseases and its occurrence on canine distemper in vivo has not been published. In this study, the occurrence of apoptosis was determined in lymphoid tissues of thirteen naturally infected dogs and nine experimentally inoculated puppies. Healthy dogs were used as negative controls. Samples of lymph nodes, thymus, spleen and brain were collected for histopathological purposes. Sections, 5 microm thick, of retropharingeal lymph nodes were stained by HE, Shorr, Methyl Green-Pyronin and TUNEL reaction. Shorr stained sections were further evaluated by morphometry. Canine distemper virus nucleoprotein was detected by immunohistochemistry. Retropharingeal lymph nodes of naturally and experimentally infected dogs had more apoptotic cells per field than controls. In addition, DNA from thymus of infected dogs were more fragmented than controls. Therefore, apoptosis is increased in lymphoid depletion induced by canine distemper virus and consequently play a role in the immunosuppression seen in this disease.

  2. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost–effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL. PMID:22566950

  3. The Canine Oral Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

    2012-01-01

    Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine oral bacteria are of interest to veterinary and human medical communities for understanding their roles in health and infectious diseases. The bacteria involved are mostly unnamed and not linked by 16S rRNA-gene sequence identity to a taxonomic scheme. This manuscript describes the analysis of 5,958 16S rRNA-gene sequences from 65 clone libraries. Full length 16S rRNA reference sequences have been obtained for 353 canine bacterial taxa, which were placed in 14 bacterial phyla, 23 classes, 37 orders, 66 families, and 148 genera. Eighty percent of the taxa are currently unnamed. The bacterial taxa identified in dogs are markedly different from those of humans with only 16.4% of oral taxa are shared between dogs and humans based on a 98.5% 16S rRNA sequence similarity cutoff. This indicates that there is a large divergence in the bacteria comprising the oral microbiomes of divergent mammalian species. The historic practice of identifying animal associated bacteria based on phenotypic similarities to human bacteria is generally invalid. This report describes the diversity of the canine oral microbiome and provides a provisional 16S rRNA based taxonomic scheme for naming and identifying unnamed canine bacterial taxa. PMID:22558330

  4. Do canine parvoviruses affect canine neurons? An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Url, A; Schmidt, P

    2005-08-01

    In cats (most of which died from panleukopenia), cerebral neurons have recently been shown to be susceptible to canine parvovirus infection. In addition to positive immunostaining and distinct in situ hybridization signals, signs of neurodegeneration were identified by histopathology, mainly in the diencephalic area. Similar histological lesions of the diencephalic regions in dogs have also attracted attention; therefore, an immunohistochemical study was initiated to determine the possible infection of canine neurons with canine parvoviruses. The study was carried out on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain tissue, with and without signs of neurodegeneration, from 40 dogs, most of them dying from parvovirus enteritis. Immunohistochemistry, using polyclonal antiserum against canine parvoviruses, was negative in all 40 cases, suggesting that, unlike cats, canine parvoviruses do not seem capable of infecting canine neurons.

  5. Immunopathogenic and Neurological Mechanisms of Canine Distemper Virus

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Otávio Valério; Botelho, Clarisse Vieira; Ferreira, Caroline Gracielle Torres; Scherer, Paulo Oldemar; Soares-Martins, Jamária Adriana Pinheiro; Almeida, Márcia Rogéria; Silva Júnior, Abelardo

    2012-01-01

    Canine distemper is a highly contagious viral disease caused by the canine distemper virus (CDV), which is a member of the Morbillivirus genus, Paramyxoviridae family. Animals that most commonly suffer from this disease belong to the Canidae family; however, the spectrum of natural hosts for CDV also includes several other families of the order Carnivora. The infectious disease presents worldwide distribution and maintains a high incidence and high levels of lethality, despite the availability of effective vaccines, and no specific treatment. CDV infection in dogs is characterized by the presentation of systemic and/or neurological courses, and viral persistence in some organs, including the central nervous system (CNS) and lymphoid tissues. An elucidation of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in canine distemper disease will lead to a better understanding of the injuries and clinical manifestations caused by CDV. Ultimately, further insight about this disease will enable the improvement of diagnostic methods as well as therapeutic studies. PMID:23193403

  6. MRI cross sectional atlas of normal canine cervical musculoskeletal structure.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, M; Zindl, C; Allen, M J; Knapik, G G; Fitzpatrick, N; Marras, W S

    2016-12-01

    Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been increasingly used as a diagnostic tool for cervical spine injuries in canines, a comprehensive normal MRI anatomy of the canine cervical spine muscles is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to build a magnetic resonance imaging atlas of the normal cross sectional anatomy of the muscles of the canine cervical spine. MRI scans were performed on a canine cadaver using a combination of T1 and T2-weighted images in the transverse, sagittal and dorsal planes acquired at a slice thickness of 1mm. Muscle contours were traced manually in each slice, using local osseous structures as reference points for muscle identification. Twenty-two muscles were traced in 401 slices in the cervical region. A three dimensional surface model of all the contoured muscles was created to illustrate the complex geometrical arrangement of canine neck muscles. The cross-sectional area of the muscles was measured at the mid-level of each vertebra. The accuracy of the location of the mapped muscles was verified by comparing the sagittal view of the 3D model of muscles with still photographs obtained from anatomic canine cadaver dissection. We believe that this information will provide a unique and valuable resource for veterinary researchers, clinicians and surgeons who wish to evaluate MRI images of the cervical spine. It will also serve as the foundation for ongoing work to develop a computational model of the canine cervical spine in which anatomical information is combined with electromyographic, kinematic and kinetic data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Muscle disorders and rehabilitation in canine athletes.

    PubMed

    Steiss, Janet E

    2002-01-01

    Muscle disorders associated with physical exertion in human athletes include delayed-onset muscle soreness, muscle strain, muscle tears, rhabdomyolysis, and acute and chronic compartment syndromes. Given that the structure of muscle is similar among different species, it is reasonable to expect that dogs experience the same phenomena. This article focuses on several of the muscle disorders of bird dogs, namely, coccygeal muscle injury and infraspinatus muscle contracture, and on those of dogs involved in tracking-obedience-protection training, namely, fibrotic myopathy, with an additional discussion of muscle strain. For injury prevention, one important area that can be adapted to canine athletes is the incorporation of warm-up and cool-down into the training program.

  8. Canine parvovirus: current perspective.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Kumar, Manoj

    2010-06-01

    Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) has been considered to be an important pathogen of domestic and wild canids and has spread worldwide since its emergence in 1978. It has been reported from Asia, Australia, New Zealand, the Americas and Europe. Two distinct parvoviruses are now known to infect dogs-the pathogenic CPV-2 and CPV-1 or the minute virus of canine (MVC). CPV-2, the causative agent of acute hemorrhagic enteritis and myocarditis in dogs, is one of the most important pathogenic viruses with high morbidity (100%) and frequent mortality up to 10% in adult dogs and 91% in pups. The disease condition has been complicated further due to emergence of a number of variants namely CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c over the years and involvement of domestic and wild canines. There are a number of different serological and molecular tests available for prompt, specific and accurate diagnosis of the disease. Further, both live attenuated and inactivated vaccines are available to control the disease in animals. Besides, new generation vaccines namely recombinant vaccine, peptide vaccine and DNA vaccine are in different stages of development and offer hope for better management of the disease in canines. However, new generation vaccines have not been issued license to be used in the field condition. Again, the presence of maternal antibodies often interferes with the active immunization with live attenuated vaccine and there always exists a window of susceptibility in spite of following proper immunization regimen. Lastly, judicious use of the vaccines in pet dogs, stray dogs and wild canids keeping in mind the new variants of the CPV-2 along with the proper sanitation and disinfection practices must be implemented for the successful control the disease.

  9. American Canine Hepatozoonosis

    PubMed Central

    Ewing, S. A.; Panciera, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    American canine hepatozoonosis (ACH) is a tick-borne disease that is spreading in the southeastern and south-central United States. Characterized by marked leukocytosis and periosteal bone proliferation, ACH is very debilitating and often fatal. Dogs acquire infection by ingesting nymphal or adult Gulf Coast ticks (Amblyomma maculatum) that, in a previous life stage, ingested the parasite in a blood meal taken from some vertebrate intermediate host. ACH is caused by the apicomplexan Hepatozoon americanum and has been differentiated from Old World canine hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis. Unlike H. canis, which is transmitted by the ubiquitous brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus), H. americanum is essentially an accidental parasite of dogs, for which Gulf Coast ticks are not favored hosts. The geographic portrait of the disease parallels the known distribution of the Gulf Coast tick, which has expanded in recent years. Thus, the endemic cycle of H. americanum involves A. maculatum as definitive host and some vertebrate intermediate host(s) yet to be identified. Although coyotes (Canis latrans) are known to be infected, it is not known how important this host is in maintaining the endemic cycle. This review covers the biology of the parasite and of the tick that transmits it and contrasts ACH with classical canine hepatozoonosis. Clinical aspects of the disease are discussed, including diagnosis and treatment, and puzzling epidemiologic issues are examined. Brief consideration is given to the potential for ACH to be used as a model for study of angiogenesis and of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. PMID:14557294

  10. [Canine histoplasmosis in Japan].

    PubMed

    Sano, Ayako; Miyaji, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and is distributed a worldwide. Although the disease has been treated as an imported mycosis, some autochthonous human, 1 equine and 4 canine cases suggested that the disease is endemic. Histoplasmosis is classified depending on the variety of causative agent. Histoplasmosis farciminosi known as pseudofarcy, is manifested only in Perissodactyla where it invades lymph nodes and lymph ducts, and is recognized by isolation from horses. Historically, Japan was one of the endemic areas of pseudofarcy before World War II, and more than 20,000 cases were recorded in horses used by the military. Interestingly, Japanese canine histoplasmosis uniformly showed skin ulcers and granulomatous lesions on the skin without pulmonary or gastrointestinal involvement, both of which were very similar to pseudofarcy. It was diagnosed as histoplasmosis by the detection of internal transcribed spacer legions of rRNA gene of H. capsulatum from paraffin embedded tissue samples. Furthermore, the fungal isolate from the human case with no history of going abroad or immigrating was identified as H. capsulatum var. farciminosum by a gene sequence. These facts indicated that pseudofarcy is not only an infectious disease in horses, but also a zoonotic fungal infection. Japanese autochthonous canine histoplasmosis might be a heteroecism of pseudofarcy because of its likeness to the human case, the similarity of clinical manifestations and the historical background at this stage.

  11. Restoration of missing or misplaced canines.

    PubMed

    Bower, C F; Reinhardt, R A

    1985-06-01

    Restorative treatments for canines were discussed to correct three clinical abnormalities: (1) fully erupted permanent canine in the lateral incisor position, (2) missing permanent canines, and (3) partially exposed canines in normal arch position. The primary concerns are the development of esthetics, anterior guidance, and adequate support for fixed restorations.

  12. Canine spinal cord glioma.

    PubMed

    Rissi, Daniel R; Barber, Renee; Burnum, Annabelle; Miller, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord glioma is uncommonly reported in dogs. We describe the clinicopathologic and diagnostic features of 7 cases of canine spinal cord glioma and briefly review the veterinary literature on this topic. The median age at presentation was 7.2 y. Six females and 1 male were affected and 4 dogs were brachycephalic. The clinical course lasted from 3 d to 12 wk, and clinical signs were progressive and associated with multiple suspected neuroanatomic locations in the spinal cord. Magnetic resonance imaging of 6 cases revealed T2-weighted hyperintense lesions with variable contrast enhancement in the spinal cord. All dogs had a presumptive clinical diagnosis of intraparenchymal neoplasia or myelitis based on history, advanced imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Euthanasia was elected in all cases because of poor outcome despite anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive treatment or because of poor prognosis at the time of diagnosis. Tumor location during autopsy ranged from C1 to L6, with no clear predilection for a specific spinal cord segment. The diagnosis was based on histopathology and the immunohistochemistry expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2, 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin, and Ki-67. Diagnoses consisted of 4 cases of oligodendroglioma, 2 cases of gliomatosis cerebri, and 1 astrocytoma. This case series further defines the clinicopathologic features of canine spinal glioma and highlights the need for comprehensive immunohistochemistry in addition to routine histopathology to confirm the diagnosis of these tumors.

  13. Canine mammary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Sorenmo, Karin

    2003-05-01

    The National Consensus Group recommends that all women with tumors larger than 1 cm be offered chemotherapy regardless of tumor histology of lymph node status. This recommendation is to ensure that everyone at risk for failing, even though the risk may be low in women with relatively small tumors and favorable histology, has a choice and receives the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. This type of treatment recommendation may also be made in dogs based on recognized, well-accepted prognostic factors such as tumor size, stage, type, and histologic differentiation. Based on the limited clinical information available in veterinary medicine, the drugs that are effective in human breast cancer, such as cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and doxorubicin, may also have a role in the treatment of malignant mammary gland tumors in dogs. Randomized prospective studies are needed, however, to evaluate the efficacy of chemotherapy in dogs with high-risk mammary gland tumors and to determine which drugs and protocols are the most efficacious. Until such studies are performed, the treatment of canine mammary gland tumors will be based on the individual oncologist's understanding of tumor biology, experience, interpretation of the available studies, and a little bit of gut-feeling. Table 2 is a proposal for treatment guidelines for malignant canine mammary gland tumors according to established prognostic factors, results from published veterinary studies, and current recommendations for breast cancer treatment in women.

  14. Coblation of the canine vocal fold: a histologic study.

    PubMed

    Divi, Venu; Benninger, Michael; Kiupel, Matti; Dobbie, Allison

    2012-11-01

    Controlled ablation (coblation) is a radiofrequency bipolar method of tissue ablation, which destroys tissue at very low temperatures. It has been used in a variety of clinical settings and is most frequently used by the otolaryngologist for tonsillectomy. In this study, we have examined the effect of coblation on the canine larynx by applying coblation to the vocal fold and harvesting the larynx on postoperative days (PODs) 0, 4, and 7. Histologic examination was performed with a variety of stains to examine the healing process. Coblation injury demonstrated complete epithelialization by POD 7. No injury to the underlying vocalis muscle was seen. The inflammatory response demonstrates less inflammation than previously reported with CO(2) laser injury. Coblation is a viable method for removal of tissue from the vocal fold resulting in minimal scar formation and a controlled depth of injury. Further studies should be performed to determine clinical utility in the removal of lesions such as respiratory papillomatosis.

  15. Trap-related injuries to gray wolves in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuehn, D.W.; Fuller, T.K.; Mech, L.D.; Paul, W.J.; Fritts, S.H.; Berg, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    Gray wolves (Canis lupus) captured in traps with toothed jaws offset 1.8 cm incurred fewer injuries than those captured in 3 other types of steel traps. Few wolves seriously damaged canine or carnassial teeth while in traps.

  16. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell...

  17. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell...

  18. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell...

  19. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. 113.305 Section 113.305 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION.... Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell...

  20. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. 113.305 Section 113.305 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION.... Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell...

  1. Genomic Sequence of Canine Papillomavirus 19

    PubMed Central

    Tisza, Michael J.; Yuan, Hang; Schlegel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    It is generally assumed that individual papillomas (warts) are caused by infection with individual papillomavirus types. Deep sequencing of virions extracted from a canine oral papilloma revealed the presence of canine papillomavirus 1 (CPV1), CPV2, and a novel canine papillomavirus, CPV19. This suggests that papillomas sometimes harbor multiple viral species. PMID:27932663

  2. The canine stifle.

    PubMed

    Canapp, Sherman O

    2007-11-01

    Cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) injury is a leading cause of lameness in dogs. Recent advances in diagnostic visualization and surgical treatments for CCL injury have stimulated an increased emphasis on early clinical recognition and an early return to function. Many surgical treatments have been described that aim to restore stifle joint stability and minimize the progression of osteoarthritis. Major advances have occurred not only in the treatment of CCL injury, but also in postoperative recovery, specifically, rehabilitation therapy. The benefits of rehabilitation therapy following CCL surgery are multifaceted including pain relief, decreased inflammation and swelling, increased tissue flexibility, strengthening, improved proprioception, improved limb and joint biomechanics, and improved weight-bearing. In this article, we introduce a variety of rehabilitation therapy options for postoperative CCL patients including modalities, manual therapy, therapeutic exercise, and the benchmarks for a full return to function.

  3. BRAF Mutations in Canine Cancers.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Hiroyuki; Kennedy, Katherine; Shapiro, Susan G; Breen, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Activating mutations of the BRAF gene lead to constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway. Although many human cancers carry the mutated BRAF gene, this mutation has not yet been characterized in canine cancers. As human and canine cancers share molecular abnormalities, we hypothesized that BRAF gene mutations also exist in canine cancers. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced the exon 15 of BRAF, mutation hot spot of the gene, in 667 canine primary tumors and 38 control tissues. Sequencing analysis revealed that a single nucleotide T to A transversion at nucleotide 1349 occurred in 64 primary tumors (9.6%), with particularly high frequency in prostatic carcinoma (20/25, 80%) and urothelial carcinoma (30/45, 67%). This mutation results in the amino acid substitution of glutamic acid for valine at codon 450 (V450E) of canine BRAF, corresponding to the most common BRAF mutation in human cancer, V600E. The evolutional conservation of the BRAF V600E mutation highlights the importance of MAPK pathway activation in neoplasia and may offer opportunity for molecular diagnostics and targeted therapeutics for dogs bearing BRAF-mutated cancers.

  4. Canine leishmaniosis in South America

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2009-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis is widespread in South America, where a number of Leishmania species have been isolated or molecularly characterised from dogs. Most cases of canine leishmaniosis are caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) and Leishmania braziliensis. The only well-established vector of Leishmania parasites to dogs in South America is Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum, but many other phlebotomine sandfly species might be involved. For quite some time, canine leishmaniosis has been regarded as a rural disease, but nowadays it is well-established in large urbanised areas. Serological investigations reveal that the prevalence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in dogs might reach more than 50%, being as high as 75% in highly endemic foci. Many aspects related to the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis (e.g., factors increasing the risk disease development) in some South American countries other than Brazil are poorly understood and should be further studied. A better understanding of the epidemiology of canine leishmaniosis in South America would be helpful to design sustainable control and prevention strategies against Leishmania infection in both dogs and humans. PMID:19426440

  5. An EMG-driven biomechanical model of the canine cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, M; Knapik, G G; Dufour, J S; Zindl, C; Allen, M J; Bertran, J; Fitzpatrick, N; Marras, W S

    2017-02-01

    Due to the frequency of cervical spine injuries in canines, the purpose of this effort was to develop an EMG-driven dynamic model of the canine cervical spine to assess a biomechanical understanding that enables one to investigate the risk of neck disorders. A canine subject was recruited in this investigation in order to collect subject specific data. Reflective markers and a motion capture system were used for kinematic measurement; surface electrodes were used to record electromyography signals, and with the aid of force plate kinetics were recorded. A 3D model of the canine subject was reconstructed from an MRI dataset. Muscles lines of action were defined through a new technique with the aid of 3D white light scanner. The model performed well with a 0.73 weighted R(2) value in all three planes. The weighted average absolute error of the predicted moment was less than 10% of the external moment. The proposed model is a canine specific forward-dynamics model that precisely tracks the canine subject head and neck motion, calculates the muscle force generated from the twelve major moment producing muscles, and estimates resulting loads on specific spinal tissues.

  6. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K.; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistry. Of interest, PMab-38 stained the lymphatic endothelial cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts in melanoma tissues, although it did not stain any lymphatic endothelial cells in normal tissues. PMab-38 could be useful for uncovering the function of PDPN in canine melanomas. PMID:27918691

  7. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-12-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistry. Of interest, PMab-38 stained the lymphatic endothelial cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts in melanoma tissues, although it did not stain any lymphatic endothelial cells in normal tissues. PMab-38 could be useful for uncovering the function of PDPN in canine melanomas.

  8. Canine "honing" in Australopithecus afarensis.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, L O

    1990-06-01

    The maxillary canines of Australopithecus afarensis show a distal wear facet that extends from the apex of the crown to a point near the distal cingulum. Although these facets bear a superficial resemblance to the honing facets found on the projecting portions of the canines of other anthropoids, a more detailed examination provided in this paper shows that they are not homologous or functionally equivalent. The facets are not related to the use of the maxillary canine as a weapon or as an additional masticatory surface. Instead, their presence in A. afarensis represented a blunting or dulling of the posterior edge of C so that its occlusion with P3 would be consistent with cheek tooth occlusion.

  9. Mandibular canine index in establishing sex identity.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Shishir; Nagabhushana, D; Rao, B Balaji; Mamatha, G P

    2002-01-01

    An investigation study on sex identity through mandibular canine index directed to detect sexual dimorphism using the Mesio-Distal width of mandibular permanent canines and inter canine and inter canine arch width in the mandible was conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Bapuji Dental College and Hospital, Davangere. 360 patients were subjected to the mesio-distal measurement and inter canine arch width. Males were detected correctly in 83.3% and in females 81%. They were statistically significant and the related literatures reviewed.

  10. Canine tooth size variability in primates.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, G

    1989-01-01

    I present an analysis of canine tooth size variability in male and female primates. The coefficient of variation (CV = SD X 100/mean) as an index of canine size variability proved to be dependent on mean canine size in males and, to a lower extent, in females. Therefore, variability tends to increase with increasing values of mean canine size. Using residuals from the regression of log SD on log mean canine size in male and female primates, I analysed the contribution of diet, habitat and mating system to canine size variability. Habitat and mating system are known to influence to a certain extent the degree of sexual dimorphism in canine size. Given the well-known relationship between sexual dimorphism and phenotypic variability, it was suggested that these factors might influence variability in canine size. Everything else being equal, males of polygynous species are characterized by more variable canine sizes than males of monogamous species. Habitat and diet did not contribute to the level of variability observed in either males or females. It is proposed that a high level of variability in canine size may be related to the likelihood that enlarged canines evolved as a result of male-male competition for mates in polygynous species.

  11. Canine and feline colostrum.

    PubMed

    Chastant-Maillard, S; Aggouni, C; Albaret, A; Fournier, A; Mila, H

    2016-11-30

    Puppy and kitten survival over the first weeks is particularly dependent on colostrum, a specific secretion of the mammary gland produced during the first 2 days post-partum. Colostrum is a source of nutrients and immunoglobulins. It also contributes to the digestive tract maturation. Colostrum differentiates from milk mainly based on its concentration in immunoglobulins G: 20-30 g/L in dog colostrum, 40-50 g/L in cats' vs <1 g/L in milk. IgG concentration rapidly drops after parturition (-50% in 24 hr). Immune quality of colostrum is highly variable between bitches, with no relationship with maternal blood IgG level, dam's age, breed size or litter size. In addition to systemic immune protection, colostrum also plays a major role for local digestive protection, due to IgA, lysozyme, lactoferrin, white blood cells and various cytokines. Energetic concentration of canine and feline colostrum is not superior to that of mature milk. It depends on colostrum fat concentration and is affected by breed size (higher in breeds <10 kg adult body weight). As puppies and kittens are almost agammaglobulinemic at birth, transfer of IgG from their digestive tract into their bloodstream is crucial for their survival, IgG absorption ending at 12-16 hr after birth. Energetic supply over the two first days of life, as evidenced by growth rate over the two first days of life, also affects risk of neonatal mortality. Early and sufficient suckling of colostrum is thus the very first care to be provided to newborns for their later health and survival.

  12. Canine lymphoma: a review.

    PubMed

    Zandvliet, M

    2016-06-01

    Canine lymphoma (cL) is a common type of neoplasia in dogs with an estimated incidence rate of 20-100 cases per 100,000 dogs and is in many respects comparable to non-Hodgkin lymphoma in humans. Although the exact cause is unknown, environmental factors and genetic susceptibility are thought to play an important role. cL is not a single disease, and a wide variation in clinical presentations and histological subtypes is recognized. Despite this potential variation, most dogs present with generalized lymphadenopathy (multicentric form) and intermediate to high-grade lymphoma, more commonly of B-cell origin. The most common paraneoplastic sign is hypercalcemia that is associated with the T-cell immunophenotype. Chemotherapy is the treatment of choice and a doxorubicin-based multidrug protocol is currently the standard of care. A complete remission is obtained for most dogs and lasts for a median period of 7-10 months, resulting in a median survival of 10-14 months. Many prognostic factors have been reported, but stage, immunophenotype, tumor grade, and response to chemotherapy appear of particular importance. Failure to respond to chemotherapy suggests drug resistance, which can be partly attributed to the expression of drug transporters of the ABC-transporter superfamily, including P-gp and BCRP. Ultimately, most lymphomas will become drug resistant and the development of treatments aimed at reversing drug resistance or alternative treatment modalities (e.g. immunotherapy and targeted therapy) are of major importance. This review aims to summarize the relevant data on cL, as well as to provide an update of the recent literature.

  13. Current developments in canine genetics.

    PubMed

    Marschall, Yvonne; Distl, Ottmar

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, canine genetics had made huge progress. In 1999 the first complete karyotype and ideogram of the dog was published. Several linkage and RH maps followed. Using these maps, sets of microsatellite markers for whole genome scans were compiled. In 2003 the sequencing of the DNA of a female Boxer began. Now the second version of the dog genome assembly has been put online, and recently, a microchip SNP array became available. Parallel to these developments, some causal mutations for different traits have been identified. Most of the identified mutations were responsible for monogenic canine hereditary diseases. With the tools available now, it is possible to use the advantages of the population structure of the various dog breeds to unravel complex genetic traits. Furthermore, the dog is a suitable model for the research of a large number of human hereditary diseases and particularly for cancer genetics, heart and neurodegenerative diseases. There are some examples where it was possible to benefit from the knowledge of canine genetics for human research. The search for quantitative trait loci (QTL), the testing of candidate genes and genome-wide association studies can now be performed in dogs. QTL for skeletal size variations and for canine hip dysplasia have been already identified and for these complex traits the responsible genes and their possible interactions can now be identified.

  14. Septic shock in canine babesiosis.

    PubMed

    Matijatko, Vesna; Kis, Ivana; Torti, Marin; Brkljacić, Mirna; Kucer, Nada; Rafaj, Renata Barić; Grden, Darko; Zivicnjak, Tanja; Mrljak, Vladimir

    2009-06-10

    The records of all canine patients (86) that had been diagnosed with babesiosis and that were admitted to the Clinic for Internal Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagreb from January 2007 to December 2007 were reviewed retrospectively. All dogs that had been diagnosed with canine babesiosis and that had systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) followed by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), and refractory hypotension, were included in this study. Of 86 patients diagnosed with canine babesiosis that were admitted during the study period, 10 had evidence of septic shock and were included in this study. Seven of the 10 dogs had a level of parasitaemia above 1%, with the highest level being 20.2%, seven of the 10 dogs were anaemic and three of the 10 dogs were leucopoenic. Thrombocytopenia was present in nine dogs. Hypoglycaemia was noted in two dogs, and bilirubinaemia in nine dogs. Four patients had involvement of two organs, five had involvement of three organs, and one had involvement of four organs. The organ that was most frequently involved was the kidney (nine cases). Central nervous system dysfunction was the rarest complication noted (one case). The mortality rate in non-septic shock canine babesiosis was 2.6%. All dogs that developed septic shock died between the first and the fourth day after admission. The 100% mortality rate that is reported here reflects the fact that in cases in which progression of the inflammatory response leads to the development of septic shock, an unfavourable outcome should be expected.

  15. Ontogeny of canine dimorphism in extant hominoids.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, G T; Dean, C

    2001-07-01

    Many behavioral and ecological factors influence the degree of expression of canine dimorphism for different reasons. Regardless of its socioecological importance, we know virtually nothing about the processes responsible for the development of canine dimorphism. Our aim here is to describe the developmental process(es) regulating canine dimorphism in extant hominoids, using histological markers of tooth growth. Teeth preserve a permanent record of their ontogeny in the form of short- and long-period incremental markings in both enamel and dentine. We selected 52 histological sections of sexed hominoid canine teeth from a total sample of 115, from which we calculated the time and rate of cuspal enamel formation and the rate at which ameloblasts differentiate along the future enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) to the end of crown formation. Thus, we were able to reconstruct longitudinal growth curves for height attainment in male and female hominoid canines. Male hominoids consistently take longer to form canine crowns than do females (although not significantly so for our sample of Homo). Male orangutans and gorillas occasionally take up to twice as long as females to complete enamel formation. The mean ranges of female canine crown formation times are similar in Pan, Gorilla, and Pongo. Interspecific differences between female Pan canine crown heights and those of Gorilla and Pongo, which are taller, result from differences in rates of growth. Differences in canine crown heights between male Pan and the taller, more dimorphic male Gorilla and Pongo canines result both from differences in total time taken to form enamel and from faster rates of growth in Gorilla and Pongo. Although modern human canines do not emerge as significantly dimorphic in this study, it is well-known that sexual dimorphism in canine crown height exists. Larger samples of sexed modern human canines are therefore needed to identify clearly what underlies this.

  16. Novel diabetes mellitus treatment: mature canine insulin production by canine striated muscle through gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Niessen, S J M; Fernandez-Fuente, M; Mahmoud, A; Campbell, S C; Aldibbiat, A; Huggins, C; Brown, A E; Holder, A; Piercy, R J; Catchpole, B; Shaw, J A M; Church, D B

    2012-07-01

    Muscle-targeted gene therapy using insulin genes has the potential to provide an inexpensive, low maintenance alternative or adjunctive treatment method for canine diabetes mellitus. A canine skeletal muscle cell line was established through primary culture, as well as through transdifferentiation of canine fibroblasts after infection with a myo-differentiation gene containing adenovirus vector. A novel mutant furin-cleavable canine preproinsulin gene insert (cppI4) was designed and created through de novo gene synthesis. Various cell lines, including the generated canine muscle cell line, were transfected with nonviral plasmids containing cppI4. Insulin and desmin immunostaining were used to prove insulin production by muscle cells and specific canine insulin ELISA to prove mature insulin secretion into the medium. The canine myoblast cultures proved positive on desmin immunostaining. All cells tolerated transfection with cppI4-containing plasmid, and double immunostaining for insulin and desmin proved present in the canine cells. Canine insulin ELISA assessment of medium of cppI4-transfected murine myoblasts and canine myoblast and fibroblast mixture proved presence of mature fully processed canine insulin, 24 and 48 h after transfection. The present study provides proof of principle that canine muscle cells can be induced to produce and secrete canine insulin on transfection with nonviral plasmid DNA containing a novel mutant canine preproinsulin gene that produces furin-cleavable canine preproinsulin. This technology could be developed to provide an alternative canine diabetes mellitus treatment option or to provide a constant source for background insulin, as well as C-peptide, alongside current treatment options.

  17. Maxillary canine-to-maxillary incisor transposition.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yng-Tzer J

    2013-01-01

    Dental transposition is the positional interchange of two adjacent teeth. Canine transpositions are usually accompanied by other dental anomalies, such as: impaction of the incisors; missing teeth; peg-shaped lateral incisors; severe rotation or malposition of adjacent teeth; dilacerations; and malformations. Local pathologic processes, such as tumors, cysts, retained primary canines, and supernumerary teeth, might be responsible for canine transposition. The purpose of this paper was to present a rare case of maxillary canine-to-maxillary incisor transposition in an 8-year-old girl. The patient presented with noneruption of the permanent maxillary left central incisor, and a radiographic examination revealed an impacted dilacerated incisor. The central incisor was extracted because the root was severely dilacerated. At the 3-year follow-up, an oral examination revealed that the canine had transposed to the extraction site. Through orthodontic traction, combined with reshaping of the tooth, the transposed canine was successfully positioned into the incisor position.

  18. Canine histiocytic neoplasia: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Fulmer, Amanda K.; Mauldin, Glenna E.

    2007-01-01

    Canine histiocytic neoplasms include cutaneous histiocytoma, as well as localized and disseminated histiocytic sarcoma. These tumors have variable biologic behavior, although the malignant disorders often have a poor prognosis. Immunohistochemistry plays an essential role in differentiating histiocytic tumors from other neoplasias that may have similar histological appearances. This allows a definitive diagnosis to be established and provides a more accurate prediction of prognosis. This article reviews the biologic behavior, diagnosis, and treatment of histiocytic tumors in the dog. PMID:17987966

  19. Characterization of canine neutrophil granules.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, R T; Andersen, B R

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate distinct populations of canine neutrophil granules and to compare them with neutrophil granules from other species. Size, shape, density, and content of canine neutrophil granules were determined. Neutrophils obtained by Ficoll-Hypaque sedimentation were homogenized, and granule populations were separated by isopycnic centrifugation on a linear sucrose gradient (rho, 1.14 to 1.22 g/ml). The most dense granule population (rho, 1.197 g/ml) contained all of the myeloperoxidase, beta-glucuronidase, and elastase, more than half of the acid beta-glycerophosphatase, and most of the lysozyme. The population with intermediate density (rho, 1.179 g/ml) contained lactoferrin, vitamin B12-binding protein, and the remainder of the acid beta-glycerophosphatase and lysozyme. The least dense granule population did not contain a major peak of any of the enzymes or binding proteins tested but was distinguished by density and morphology. The size and shape of the granules were determined from scanning electron micrographs and assessment of shape was aided by transmission electron micrographs. By these methods three populations of canine neutrophil granules were characterized and named: myeloperoxidase granules, vitamin B12-binding protein granules, and low-density granules. Images PMID:6292095

  20. Canine adenovirus based rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tordo, N; Foumier, A; Jallet, C; Szelechowski, M; Klonjkowski, B; Eloit, M

    2008-01-01

    Adenovirus based vectors are very attractive candidates for vaccination purposes as they induce in mammalian hosts potent humoral, mucosal and cellular immune responses to antigens encoded by the inserted genes. We have generated E1-deleted and replication-competent recombinant canine type-2 adenoviruses expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (G). The effectiveness of both vectors to express a native G protein has been characterized in vitro in permissive cell lines. We compared the humoral and cellular immune responses induced in mice by intramuscular injection of the recombinant canine adenovirus vectors with those induced by a human (Ad5) E1-deleted virus expressing the same rabies G protein. Humoral responses specific to the adenoviruses or the rabies glycoprotein antigens were studied. The influence of the mouse strain was observed using replication-competent canine adenovirus. A high level of rabies neutralizing antibody was observed upon i.m. inoculation, and 100% of mice survived lethal challenge. These results are very promising in the perspective of oral vaccine for dog rabies control.

  1. Genome Sequence of Canine Herpesvirus

    PubMed Central

    Papageorgiou, Konstantinos V.; Suárez, Nicolás M.; Wilkie, Gavin S.; McDonald, Michael; Graham, Elizabeth M.; Davison, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Canine herpesvirus is a widespread alphaherpesvirus that causes a fatal haemorrhagic disease of neonatal puppies. We have used high-throughput methods to determine the genome sequences of three viral strains (0194, V777 and V1154) isolated in the United Kingdom between 1985 and 2000. The sequences are very closely related to each other. The canine herpesvirus genome is estimated to be 125 kbp in size and consists of a unique long sequence (97.5 kbp) and a unique short sequence (7.7 kbp) that are each flanked by terminal and internal inverted repeats (38 bp and 10.0 kbp, respectively). The overall nucleotide composition is 31.6% G+C, which is the lowest among the completely sequenced alphaherpesviruses. The genome contains 76 open reading frames predicted to encode functional proteins, all of which have counterparts in other alphaherpesviruses. The availability of the sequences will facilitate future research on the diagnosis and treatment of canine herpesvirus-associated disease. PMID:27213534

  2. Fractal pattern of canine trichoblastoma.

    PubMed

    De Vico, Gionata; Cataldi, Marielda; Maiolino, Paola; Carella, Francesca; Beltraminelli, Stefano; Losa, Gabriele A

    2011-06-01

    To assess by fractal analysis the specific architecture, growth pattern, and tissue distribution that characterize subtypes of canine trichoblastoma, a benign tumor derived from or reduplicating the primitive hair germ of embryonic follicular development. Tumor masks and outlines obtained from immunohistologic images by gray threshold segmentation of epithelial components were analyzed by fractal and conventional morphometry. The fractal dimension [FD] of each investigated case was determined from the slope of the regression line describing the fractal region within a bi-asymptotic curve experimentally established. All tumor masks and outlines obtained by gray threshold segmentation of epithelial components showed fractal self-similar properties that were evaluated by peculiar FDs. However, only masks revealed significantly different FD values, ranging from 1.75 to 1.85, enabling the discrimination of canine trichoblastoma subtypes. The FD data suggest that an iterative morphogenetic process, involving both the air germ and associated dermal papilla, may be responsible of the peculiar tissue architecture of trichoblastoma. The present study emphasized the reliability of fractal analysis in achieving the objective characterization of canine trichoblastoma.

  3. Sewage surveillance reveals the presence of canine GVII norovirus and canine astrovirus in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Lizasoain, A; Tort, L F L; García, M; Gómez, M M; Leite, J P G; Miagostovich, M P; Cristina, J; Berois, M; Colina, R; Victoria, Matías

    2015-11-01

    Canine norovirus (NoV) and astrovirus (AstV) were studied in 20 domestic sewage samples collected in two cities in Uruguay. Four samples were characterized as canine AstV after phylogenetic analysis clustering with strains detected in Italy and Brazil in 2008 and 2012, respectively. One sample was characterized as canine NoV and clustered with a strain detected in Hong Kong and recently classified as GVII. This study shows the occurrence of a canine NoV GVII strain for the first time in the American continent and also warns about possible zoonotic infection, since canine strains were detected in domestic sewage.

  4. Canine immune complex diseases.

    PubMed

    Plechner, A J

    1976-11-01

    Though not conclusive, our primary findings indicate that a feature common to many of our tumor and ICD patients is depressed cortisol production. Additionally, the response to ACTH adrenal cortex stimulation tests, at 2-hour intervals between rest and stimulation, have ranged from negative to substantially less than would be expected in normal subjects. Peripheral plasma cortisol values for dogs, at rest and 2 hours after ACTH stimulation, respectively, have been reported as 2-10 and 25-30 mug/dl, 3-8 and 7.5-18 mug/dl, and 1-12.5 and 9.5-22 mug/dl. For representative patients, our resting values have been 1.2-5.2 mug/dl, vs 1.2-7.6 mug after ACTH stimulation (Table 2). Altogether we have studied 42 cases in detail, and we feel that a post-ACTH level of 8.0 mug/dl or less is a conservative indication of adrenocortical insufficiency; all levels have been between 1 and 8 mug/dl. We believe these low cortisol levels indicate either a genetically-induced adrenal cortical insufficiency (evident at 2 months to 1 year of age) or an immune complex adrenal cortical suppression (occurring after 1 year of age in association with other immunodeficiency disorders). Our studies demonstrate a need for biphasic therapy. We have found it necessary to not only initiate cortisone acetate therapy to support the deficient adrenal cortical secretion, but also use other immunosuppressive drugs to control the ICD. If the target organ has been suppressed or destroyed, the need for supplementation is obvious. However, other immune-injury moieties must be suppressed also, eg, ANA, anti-IgG antibodies, etc.

  5. Early prediction of maxillary canine impaction

    PubMed Central

    Storms, Ann-Sophie; Voet, Martine; Fieuws, Steffen; Willems, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to establish prediction criteria for maxillary canine impaction in young patients, based on angular and linear measurements on panoramic radiographs. Methods: From 828 records having at least 2 panoramic radiographs, both taken between the ages of 7 and 14 years, with a minimum 1-year and maximum 3-year interval (T1 and T2), a training data set consisting of 30 subjects with unilateral canine impaction (12 males and 18 females) was selected. The patients' mean age was 10.1 years [standard deviation (SD) 1.3 years] at T1 and 11.9 years (SD 1.1 years) at T2. The training data set also consisted of 30 maxillary canines from the contralateral sides and an additional 60 normal erupted canines from 30 subjects. Those 30 subjects of a test data set were selected based on displaying bilateral maxillary canine eruption at T2 and being matched for gender and age with the subjects of the training data set [12 males and 18 females; mean age at T1, 10.1 years (SD 1.3 years) and at T2, 11.1 years (SD 1.2 years)]. Angular and linear measurements were performed separately by two observers on the total study sample at T1. Linear measurements were expressed as a multiplication of the maxillary central incisor width at the non-impacted side. Results: Significant differences for linear and angular measurements and radiographic factors were found between the maxillary impacted canine and erupted maxillary canine. The three best-discriminating parameters were canine to first premolar angle, canine cusp to midline distance and canine cusp to maxillary plane distance. These three parameters were combined in a multiple logistic regression model to calculate the probability of impaction, yielding a high area under the curve (AUC) equal to 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.94–0.99), with 90% sensitivity and 94% specificity. Conclusions: Prediction of maxillary canine impaction from a combination of parameters relating to angles and distances measured

  6. Molecular signalling pathways in canine gliomas.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, C E; York, D; Higgins, R J; LeCouteur, R A; Dickinson, P J

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we determined the expression of key signalling pathway proteins TP53, MDM2, P21, AKT, PTEN, RB1, P16, MTOR and MAPK in canine gliomas using western blotting. Protein expression was defined in three canine astrocytic glioma cell lines treated with CCNU, temozolamide or CPT-11 and was further evaluated in 22 spontaneous gliomas including high and low grade astrocytomas, high grade oligodendrogliomas and mixed oligoastrocytomas. Response to chemotherapeutic agents and cell survival were similar to that reported in human glioma cell lines. Alterations in expression of key human gliomagenesis pathway proteins were common in canine glioma tumour samples and segregated between oligodendroglial and astrocytic tumour types for some pathways. Both similarities and differences in protein expression were defined for canine gliomas compared to those reported in human tumour counterparts. The findings may inform more defined assessment of specific signalling pathways for targeted therapy of canine gliomas.

  7. Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in China. This article comprehensively reviews the current status of major canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in mainland China, discusses the risks dogs and cats pose with regard to zoonotic transmission of canine and feline parasites, and proposes control strategies and measures. PMID:22839365

  8. Lack of protective effect of thromboxane synthetase inhibitor (CGS-13080) on single dose radiated canine intestine.

    PubMed

    Barter, J F; Marlow, D; Kamath, R K; Harbert, J; Torrisi, J R; Barnes, W A; Potkul, R K; Newsome, J T; Delgado, G

    1991-03-01

    The effect of a thromboxane A2 synthetase inhibitor (CGS-13080) on canine intestine was studied using a single dose of radiation, and radioactive microspheres were used to determine resultant blood flow. Thromboxane A2 causes vasospasm and platelet aggregation and may play a dominant role in radiation injury. However, there was no effect on the intestinal blood flow diminution occurring after radiation in this laboratory model using this thromboxane A2 synthetase inhibitor.

  9. Lack of protective effect of thromboxane synthetase inhibitor (CGS-13080) on single dose radiated canine intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Barter, J.F.; Marlow, D.; Kamath, R.K.; Harbert, J.; Torrisi, J.R.; Barnes, W.A.; Potkul, R.K.; Newsome, J.T.; Delgado, G. )

    1991-03-01

    The effect of a thromboxane A2 synthetase inhibitor (CGS-13080) on canine intestine was studied using a single dose of radiation, and radioactive microspheres were used to determine resultant blood flow. Thromboxane A2 causes vasospasm and platelet aggregation and may play a dominant role in radiation injury. However, there was no effect on the intestinal blood flow diminution occurring after radiation in this laboratory model using this thromboxane A2 synthetase inhibitor.

  10. A review of canine pseudocyesis.

    PubMed

    Gobello, C; de la Sota, R L; Goya, R G

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the most relevant features of the physiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of canine pseudocyesis (PSC). This is a physiological syndrome, characterized by clinical signs such as: nesting, weight gain, mammary enlargement, lactation and maternal behaviour, which appears in non-pregnant bitches at the end of metaoestrus. PSC is a frequent finding in domestic dogs. Although it is generally admitted that prolactin (PRL) plays a central role in the appearance of PSC, its precise aetiophysiology is not completely understood yet. A number of clinical studies suggest that at some point of metaoestrus circulating PRL levels rise in overtly pseudopregnant bitches. Individual differences in sensitivity to PRL as well as the existence of molecular variants of canine PRL with different bioactivity versus immunoreactivity ratios may help clarify the aetiopathology of PSC. Diagnosis of PSC is based on the presence of typical clinical signs in metaoestrous non-pregnant bitches. Considering that PSC is a self limiting physiological state, mild cases usually need no treatment. Discouraging maternal behaviour and sometimes fitting Elizabethan collars to prevent licking of the mammary glands may suffice in these cases. Sex steroids (oestrogens, progestins and androgens) have been traditionally used to treat PSC but the side-effects usually outweigh the benefits of these medications. Inhibition of PRL release by ergot derivatives [bromocriptine (10-100 microg/kg per day for 10-14 days], cabergoline (5 microg/kg per day during 5-10 days), metergoline (0.2 mg/kg per day during 8-10 days) has proved to be effective for the treatment of canine PSC. Although some of these ergot derivatives present some untoward side-effects, they are transient and can usually be managed. Predisposed bitches not intended for breeding should be spayed as ovariectomy is the only permanent preventive measure.

  11. Concomitant canine distemper, infectious canine hepatitis, canine parvoviral enteritis, canine infectious tracheobronchitis, and toxoplasmosis in a puppy.

    PubMed

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Fritzen, Juliana Torres Tomazi; Garcia, João Luis; Weissenböck, Herbert; da Silva, Ana Paula; Bodnar, Livia; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    The concomitant infections of Canine distemper virus (CDV), Canine adenovirus A types 1 (CAdV-1) and 2 (CAdV-2), Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), and Toxoplasma gondii are described in a 43-day-old mixed-breed puppy. Clinically, there were convulsions and blindness with spontaneous death; 14 siblings of this puppy, born to a 10-month-old dam, which was seropositive (titer: 1,024) for T. gondii, also died. Necropsy revealed unilateral corneal edema (blue eye), depletion of intestinal lymphoid tissue, non-collapsible lungs, congestion of meningeal vessels, and a pale area in the myocardium. Histopathology demonstrated necrotizing myocarditis associated with intralesional apicomplexan protozoa; necrotizing and chronic hepatitis associated with rare intranuclear inclusion bodies within hepatocytes; necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis; interstitial pneumonia associated with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies within epithelial cells; atrophy and fusion of intestinal villi with cryptal necrosis; and white matter demyelination of the cerebrum and cerebellum associated with intranuclear inclusion bodies within astrocytes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified the partial fragments (bp) of the CDV N gene (290 bp), CPV-2c VP2 capsid protein gene (583 bp), and CAdV-1 (508 bp) and CAdV-2 (1,030 bp) E gene from urine and tissue samples. The PCR assays demonstrated that the apicomplexan protozoa observed within several organs contained DNA specific for T. gondii; genotyping revealed T. gondii type III. The findings support the characterization of concomitant infections of CDV, CAdV-1, CAdV-2, CPV-2, and T. gondii in this puppy. Further, seroreactivity to T. gondii of the dam in association with the systemic disease observed in the puppy described herein is suggestive of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  12. Canine dysautonomia: two clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, P M; Scudamore, C L; Ruppert, C E; Mauchline, S; Simpson, J W

    2002-01-01

    Two clinical cases of canine dysautonomia are described. Two young female neutered dogs were presented with clinical signs including vomiting, diarrhoea, faecal tenesmus, dysphagia and urinary retention. Decreased tear production, dry mucous membranes, bilateral Horner's syndrome, decreased anal sphincter tone and gastrointestinal hypomotility were also observed. Presumptive diagnoses of dysautonomia were made based on the clinical presentation and investigations. Postmortem histopathological examination in one of the cases demonstrated marked depletion of neuronal cell bodies in the intestinal myenteric plexuses and parasympathetic ganglia, confirming the diagnosis in this case. Criteria for aiding the antemortem diagnosis of this rare condition based on clinical observations and diagnostic testing are proposed.

  13. Canine Breed-Specific Hepatopathies.

    PubMed

    Watson, Penny

    2017-05-01

    Canine hepatopathies, both congenital and acquired, arise from an interaction between genes and environment. Many show increased breed prevalences. This article reviews the current understanding on breed predispositions for congenital portosystemic shunts; microvascular dysplasia and portal vein hypoplasia; ductal plate abnormalities (congenital hepatic fibrosis and Caroli disease); chronic hepatitis (both copper associated and idiopathic); vacuolar hepatopathies; and gallbladder mucocele. Although all these diseases can occur in many breeds and crossbreeds, understanding breed predispositions helps recognition and will guide future research to improve understanding of causes and treatments. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Low extracellular magnesium ions induce lipid peroxidation and activation of nuclear factor-kappa B in canine cerebral vascular smooth muscle: possible relation to traumatic brain injury and strokes.

    PubMed

    Altura, Burton M; Gebrewold, Asefa; Zhang, Aimin; Altura, Bella T

    2003-05-08

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that administration of low extracellular levels of magnesium ions ([Mg(2+)](o)) to primary cultured cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells will cause lipid peroxidation, degradation of IkappaB-alpha, and activation of nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) in cultured cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells. Low [Mg(2+)](o) (0, 0.15, 0.3 and 0.48 mM) resulted in concentration-dependent rises in malondialdehyde (MDA) in as little as 3 h after exposure to low [Mg(2+)](o), rising to levels 3-12xnormal after 18-24 h; the lower the [Mg(2+)](o), the higher the MDA level. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and specific antibodies, low [Mg(2+)](o) caused two DNA-binding proteins (p50, p65) to rise in nuclear extracts in a concentration-dependent manner. High [Mg(2+)](o) (i.e. 4.8 mM) downregulated p50 and p65. Using a rabbit antibody, IkappaB phosphorylation (and degradation) was stimulated by low [Mg(2+)](o) (in a concentration-dependent manner) and inhibited by a low concentration of the NF-kappaB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. These new biochemical and molecular data indicate that low [Mg(2+)](o), in concentrations found in the blood of patients, after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and diverse types of strokes, can elicit rapid lipid peroxidation and activation of NF-kappaB in cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells. The present results, when viewed in light of other recently published data, suggest that low [Mg(2+)](o)-induced lipid peroxidation and activation of NF-kappaB play important roles in TBI and diverse types of strokes.

  15. Generation of Free Radicals during Cold Injury and Rewarming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    an episode of ischemia /reperfusion, with simultaneous generation of free radicals which, at least in part, may be responsible for cellular injury...of oxygen- free radicals in ischemic tissue injury in island skin flaps . Ann Surg 198:87-90, 1983. 12 9. Jolly SR, Kane WJ, Bailie MB, et al. Canine...Young Investigator Awacd Lectuce 0Will be published in J. Angiology 0 o Lililt L:JL c PI I GENERATION OF FREE RADICALS DURING COLD INJURY AND

  16. Aging in the Canine Kidney.

    PubMed

    Cianciolo, R E; Benali, S L; Aresu, L

    2016-03-01

    Given the irreversible nature of nephron loss, aging of the kidney is of special interest to diagnostic and toxicologic pathologists. There are many similarities among histologic lesions in aged human and canine kidneys, including increased frequency of glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, and tubular atrophy. Unfortunately, there are few studies in which renal tissue from aged healthy dogs was adequately examined with advanced diagnostics-namely, transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence-so age-associated changes in canine podocytes and glomerular basement membranes are poorly characterized. An age-associated decrease in the glomerular filtration rate in humans and dogs (specifically small breed dogs) has been documented. Although lesions in aged rats and mice differ somewhat from those of aged dogs and humans, the knowledge gained from rodent models is still vital to elucidating the pathogenesis of age-associated renal disease. Many novel molecules implicated in renal aging have been identified through genetically modified rodent models and transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of human kidneys. These molecules represent intriguing therapeutic targets and diagnostic biomarkers. Likewise, influencing critical pathways of cellular aging, such as telomere shortening, cellular senescence, and autophagy, could improve renal function in the elderly. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Ibuprofen in canine endotoxin shock.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, E R; Soulsby, M E; Bone, R C; Wilson, F J; Hiller, F C

    1982-01-01

    The participation of prostaglandins in the physiologic alterations of endotoxin shock has been well established with the aid of prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors. Our study was designed to investigate the potential of ibuprofen, a highly specific cyclooxygenase inhibitor, to reverse the hemodynamic and acid base abnormalities of canine endotoxin shock. Mean blood pressure fell to 49.8 +/- 6.6 mm Hg in dogs given endotoxin by 5 min after injection, and remained below 83 mm Hg for the duration of the 120-min observation period. In animals given endotoxin followed by ibuprofen, a similar initial drop of systemic blood pressure was seen, but it subsequently recovered to 150.2 +/- 4.1 mm Hg by 120 min (P less than 0.001). Cardiac index increased in animals given ibuprofen (2.3 +/- 0.28 liter/m2 per min) compared with animals given endotoxin alone (1.0 +/- 0.09 liter/m2 per min) by termination of the experiment. The arterial pH dropped in endotoxin treated animals to 7.18 +/- 0.03 by 120 min. Ibuprofen prevented the acidosis, the final pH in ibuprofen and endotoxin treated animals measuring 7.36 +/- 0.01. We conclude that ibuprofen protects against the hypotension, acidosis, and depression of cardiac index of canine endotoxin shock. PMID:7107893

  18. Identification of a Canine Adenovirus (Infectious Canine Hepatitis Virus) Inhibitor in Dog Liver Extracts as Arginase

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, L. E.

    1972-01-01

    Extracts of canine liver inhibited growth of infectious canine hepatitis (ICH) virus, a canine adenovirus. Purified extracts from mammalian, but not avian, liver tissue contained the inhibitor, and evidence is presented that the inhibitory factor is the enzyme arginase (arginine ureohydrolase). This study further emphasized the need for arginine in adenovirus growth and may explain some of the difficulties in isolating small amounts of ICH virus from suspensions of liver. Images PMID:4344396

  19. Canine size, shape, and bending strength in primates and carnivores.

    PubMed

    Plavcan, J Michael; Ruff, Christopher B

    2008-05-01

    Anthropoid primates are well known for their highly sexually dimorphic canine teeth, with males possessing canines that are up to 400% taller than those of females. Primate canine dimorphism has been extensively documented, with a consensus that large male primate canines serve as weapons for intrasexual competition, and some evidence that large female canines in some species may likewise function as weapons. However, apart from speculation that very tall male canines may be relatively weak and that seed predators have strong canines, the functional significance of primate canine shape has not been explored. Because carnivore canine shape and size are associated with killing style, this group provides a useful comparative baseline for primates. We evaluate primate maxillary canine tooth size, shape and relative bending strength against body size, skull size, and behavioral and demographic measures of male competition and sexual selection, and compare them to those of carnivores. We demonstrate that, relative to skull length and body mass, primate male canines are on average as large as or larger than those of similar sized carnivores. The range of primate female canine sizes embraces that of carnivores. Male and female primate canines are generally as strong as or stronger than those of carnivores. Although we find that seed-eating primates have relatively strong canines, we find no clear relationship between male primate canine strength and demographic or behavioral estimates of male competition or sexual selection, in spite of a strong relationship between these measures and canine crown height. This suggests either that most primate canines are selected to be very strong regardless of variation in behavior, or that primate canine shape is inherently strong enough to accommodate changes in crown height without compromising canine function.

  20. Evidence for canine rehabilitation and physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Millis, Darryl L; Ciuperca, Ionut Alexandru

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews some important studies regarding canine physical rehabilitation. Bones, cartilage, muscles, ligaments, and tendons undergo atrophy if loading is decreased. Knowledge of the changes that occur with immobilization and the time course of events helps in the development of a rehabilitation program to improve tissue integrity. Outcome assessment instruments are clinically useful indicators of patient progress and the success of rehabilitation programs. A number of physical modalities are used in canine rehabilitation, although there are relatively few canine-specific studies. Rehabilitation has specific benefits in the treatment of various orthopedic and neurologic conditions.

  1. Aspects of canine distemper virus and measles virus encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Summers, B A; Appel, M J

    1994-12-01

    Canine distemper (CD) is a frequently fatal, systemic morbillivirus infection in the dog and other carnivores: encephalomyelitis is the common cause of death. Susceptibility to canine distemper virus (CDV) is now recognized in a wide range of non-domestic animals, most recently in captive lions, tigers and leopards. Furthermore, closely related viruses have produced CD-like diseases in marine mammals. CDV induces an inclusion-body encephalomyelitis in the dog and demyelination is often a conspicuous feature. Myelin injury is associated with the presence of virus but the mechanism of demyelination remains incompletely understood. Oligodendrocyte infection may be defective, as has been shown in vitro. CDV and measles virus (MV) produce similar systemic disorders in their respective hosts but differ markedly in the frequency of central nervous system (CNS) involvement, and in the pathogenesis of the more common neurological sequelae. Both CDV and MV have been considered as multiple sclerosis agents, and the association of CDV with other human disease has been suggested.

  2. Clinicopathological study of canine transmissible venereal tumour in leishmaniotic dogs.

    PubMed

    Marino, G; Gaglio, G; Zanghì, A

    2012-06-01

    Canine transmissible venereal tumour is occasionally observed in leishmaniotic dogs, and Leishmania amastigotes can be harboured in canine transmissible venereal tumour cells. The aim of this paper was to investigate the clinicopathological significance of the association of both diseases. Nineteen dogs affected by canine transmissible venereal tumour and canine leishmaniasis were studied retrospectively. In these dogs, the tumour manifested a large size and often aggressive behaviour (42%) and no predictive sign of spontaneous regression was observed. Sporadic Leishmania amastigotes were found within the canine transmissible venereal tumour in three cases, probably transported by infected macrophages often infiltrating the tumour. A high Leishmania parasitisation of canine transmissible venereal tumour was observed in two other cases and verified by immunohistochemistry. Canine transmissible venereal tumour is a tumour of the dog able to harbour a large number of Leishmania parasites. Alternatively, the systemic disease (canine leishmaniasis) may lower the immune defence against malignancy (canine transmissible venereal tumour). © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  3. Canine distemper virus infection of canine footpad epidermis.

    PubMed

    Gröne, Andrea; Doherr, Marcus G; Zurbriggen, Andreas

    2004-06-01

    Infection of the footpad epidermis can occur in natural canine distemper virus (CDV) infection of dogs. Footpads from 19 dogs experimentally inoculated with virulent distemper strain A75/17 and from two nonexposed dogs were examined histopathologically and assessed for the presence of viral antigen and nucleoprotein mRNA, as well as number of inflammatory and apoptotic cells. Dogs were divided into four groups based on inoculation status and postmortem examination: inoculated dogs with severe distemper (group 1, n = 7); inoculated dogs with mild distemper (group 2, n = 4); inoculated dogs without distemper (group 3, n = 8); and noninoculated dogs (group 4, n = 2). Footpads from dogs of all groups had a comparably thick epidermis. Eosinophilic viral inclusions and syncytial cells were present in footpad epidermis of one dog of group 1. Footpads of group 1 dogs contained viral antigen and mRNA in the epidermis with strongest staining in a subcorneal location. Additionally, in these dogs footpad dermal structures including eccrine glands and vascular walls were positive for virus particles. No CDV antigen or mRNA was present in the footpad epidermis and dermis of any other dog. Group 1 dogs had more CD3-positive cells and apoptotic cells within the basal layer of the epidermis when compared to the other groups. These findings demonstrate that in experimental infection CDV antigen and mRNA were colocalized in all layers of the infected canine footpad epidermis. The scarcity of overt pathological reactions with absence of keratinocyte degeneration indicates a noncytocidal persisting infection of footpad keratinocytes by CDV.

  4. Estimating canine tooth crown height in early Australopithecus.

    PubMed

    Plavcan, J Michael; Ward, Carol V; Paulus, Faydre L

    2009-07-01

    Canine tooth size reduction and the associated reduction in canine dimorphism is a basal hominin character that also provides important evidence for models of behavioral evolution. Two specimens of Australopithecus anamensis (KNM-KP 29287 and KNM-KP 29283) that do not preserve the canine crown, but do preserve the root or alveolus, appear to suggest that canine size variation and canine dimorphism in this species may have been greater than in other hominins. We evaluate canine root and crown dimensions in a series of extant hominoids, and estimate canine crown height in Australopithecus afarensis and A. anamensis. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to generate estimates of canine crown height from basal canine crown and root dimensions with a moderate degree of accuracy. Estimates of maxillary canine crown size for A. anamensis are slightly larger than those of A. afarensis, and are approximately the same size as canines of modern female chimpanzees. Estimated mandibular canine crown height is very similar in the two species. Variation within the A. anamensis sample of estimated canine crown heights is similar to that of modern humans, suggesting a low degree of sexual dimorphism. Inclusion of estimates for KNM-KP 29287 and KNM-KP 29283 does not substantially increase either the estimate of overall canine size or variation for A. anamensis.

  5. Comparative functional characterization of canine IgG subclasses.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Lisa M; McCandless, Erin E; Dunham, Steve; Dunkle, Bill; Zhu, Yaqi; Shelly, John; Lightle, Sandra; Gonzales, Andrea; Bainbridge, Graeme

    2014-01-15

    To date, very little is known about the functional characteristics of the four published canine IgG subclasses. It is not clear how each subclass engages the immune system via complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), or how long each antibody may last in serum. Such information is critical for understanding canine immunology and for the discovery of canine therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. Through both in vitro and ex vivo experiments to evaluate canine Fc's for effector function, complement binding, FcRn binding, and ADCC, we are now able to categorize canine subclasses by function. The subclasses share functional properties with the four human IgG subclasses and are reported herein with their function-based human analog. Canine Fc fusions, canine chimeras, and caninized antibodies were characterized. Canine subclasses A and D appear effector-function negative while subclasses B and C bind canine Fc gamma receptors and are positive for ADCC. All canine subclasses bind the neonatal Fc receptor except subclass C. By understanding canine IgGs in this way, we can apply what is known of human immunology toward translational and veterinary medicine. Thus, this body of work lays the foundation for evaluating canine IgG subclasses for therapeutic antibody development and builds upon the fundamental scholarship of canine immunology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cardiac troponin I levels in canine pyometra

    PubMed Central

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Lagerstedt, Anne-Sofie; Fransson, Boel A; Bergström, Annika; Häggström, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Background Myocardial injury may contribute to unexpected deaths due to pyometra. To detect myocardial damage, measurement of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is currently the most sensitive and specific method. The aims of the present study were to evaluate presence of myocardial damage in canine pyometra by analysis of cTnI, to explore whether myocardial injury was associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and to evaluate whether other clinical or laboratory parameters were associated with cTnI increase. Methods Preoperative plasma levels of cTnI were investigated in 58 female dogs with pyometra and 9 controls. The value of physical examination findings, haematological, serum biochemical and pro-inflammatory (CRP and TNF-α) parameters as possible predictors of increased cTnI levels was also evaluated. Results Seven dogs with pyometra (12%) and one control dog (11%) had increased levels of cTnI. In the pyometra group, the levels ranged between 0.3–0.9 μg l-1 and in the control dog the level was 0.3 μg l-1. The cTnI levels did not differ significantly between the two groups. No cardiac abnormalities were evident on preoperative physical examinations. Four of the pyometra patients died within two weeks of surgery, of which two were examined post mortem. In one of these cases (later diagnosed with myocarditis and disseminated bacterial infection) the cTnI levels increased from 0.9 μg l-1 preoperatively to 180 μg l-1 the following day when also heart arrhythmia was also detected. The other patient had cTnI levels of 0.7 μg l-1 with no detectable heart pathology post mortem. CTnI increase was not associated with presence of SIRS. There was a trend for the association of cTnI increase with increased mortality. No preoperative physical examination findings and few but unspecific laboratory parameters were associated with increased cTnI levels. Conclusion Increased cTnI levels were observed in 12% of the dogs with pyometra. The proportions of dogs

  7. The role of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of spontaneous canine CNS diseases.

    PubMed

    Spitzbarth, I; Baumgärtner, W; Beineke, A

    2012-06-15

    is characterized by an early virus-induced up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines with chronic bystander immune-mediated demyelinating processes. Lastly, canine spinal cord injury (SCI) shares many similarities with the human counterpart and most commonly results from intervertebral disk disease. The knowledge of its pathogenesis is largely restricted to experimental studies in rodents, and the impact of immune processes that accompany secondary injury is discussed controversially. Recent investigations on canine SCI highlight the pivotal role of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression that is paralleled by a dominating reaction of microglia/macrophages potentially indicating a polarization of these immune cells into a neurotoxic and harmful phenotype. This report will review the role of cytokines in the immune processes of the mentioned representative canine CNS diseases and highlight the importance of cytokine/cytokine interaction as a useful therapeutic target in canine CNS diseases.

  8. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    PubMed

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment.

  9. Parturition prediction and timing of canine pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, YeunHee; Travis, Alexander J.; Meyers-Wallen, Vicki N.

    2007-01-01

    An accurate method of predicting the date of parturition in the bitch is clinically useful to minimize or prevent reproductive losses by timely intervention. Similarly, an accurate method of timing canine ovulation and gestation is critical for development of assisted reproductive technologies, e.g. estrous synchronization and embryo transfer. This review discusses present methods for accurately timing canine gestational age and outlines their use in clinical management of high-risk pregnancies and embryo transfer research. PMID:17904630

  10. [Fractures of the canines require attention].

    PubMed

    van Foreest, Andries

    2005-01-15

    Hardly any attention was paid to a barely visible fracture of a canine tooth (104) in an 18-month-old dog. When the dog was 6-years old, a fistulous opening was seen on the bridge of the nose. A year later, radiography revealed a periapical process. The investigations performed and treatment given are described, as is the correct way to handle fractures of the canines.

  11. Canine adenovirus type 1 in a fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Hyun-Kyoung; Kim, Seong-Hee; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Oem, Jae-Ku

    2014-12-01

    A 10-mo-old female fennec fox (Vulpes zerda) with drooling suddenly died and was examined postmortem. Histologic examination of different tissue samples was performed. Vacuolar degeneration and diffuse fatty change were observed in the liver. Several diagnostic methods were used to screen for canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus, canine influenza virus, canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and canine adenovirus (CAdV). Only CAdV type 1 (CAdV-1) was detected in several organs (liver, lung, brain, kidney, spleen, and heart), and other viruses were not found. CAdV-1 was confirmed by virus isolation and nucleotide sequencing.

  12. Endodontic treatment of a multirooted permanent maxillary canine.

    PubMed

    Galhotra, Virat; Pandit, I K; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to report an unusual case of multirooted permanent maxillary canine. A 16-year-old female patient presented with pain and swelling related to the upper right permanent canine. Radiographic examination revealed a multirooted permanent maxillary canine--an unusual finding. Endodontic treatment was performed after amputation of 2 extra roots, and then the tooth was intentionally reimplanted. The prevalence of birooted permanent mandibular canines in the Japanese population has been reported, but the prevalence of this 3-rooted maxillary canine is still unknown. This report also states the potential etiological factors, effects on the developing dentition, and various treatment options for the multirooted maxillary permanent canine.

  13. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

  14. Canine viral enteritis. Recent developments.

    PubMed

    Pollock, R V; Carmichael, L

    1979-05-01

    Two apparently novel viral gastroenteritides of dogs were recognized in 1978: one caused by a parvo-like virus (CPV) and one by a corona-like virus (CCV). A rotavirus has also been tentatively associated with neonatal pup enteritis. Canine viral enteritis is characterized by a sudden onset of vomiting and diarrhea, rapid spread and high morbidity. Treatment is only supportive but must be initiated promptly. Infected animals should be isolated immediately; the extremely contagious nature of these diseases makes them difficult to contain. Feces from infected dogs appear to be the primary means of transmission. Sodium hypochlorite solutions (eg, Clorox) are recommended for disinfection. The development of effective vaccines is an immediate and pressing problem.

  15. Biomarkers in canine parvovirus enteritis.

    PubMed

    Schoeman, J P; Goddard, A; Leisewitz, A L

    2013-07-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis has, since its emergence in 1978, remained a common and important cause of morbidity and mortality in young dogs. The continued incidence of parvoviral enteritis is partly due to the virus' capability to evolve into more virulent and resistant variants with significant local gastrointestinal and systemic inflammatory sequelae. This paper reviews current knowledge on historical-, signalment-, and clinical factors as well as several haematological-, biochemical- and endocrine parameters that can be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in CPV enteritis. These factors include season of presentation, purebred nature, bodyweight, vomiting, leukopaenia, lymphopaenia, thrombocytopaenia, hypercoagulability, hypercortisolaemia, hypothyroxinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, elevated C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor, hypocholesterolaemia and hypocitrullinaemia. Factors contributing to the manifestations of CPV infection are multiple with elements of host, pathogen, secondary infections, underlying stressors and environment affecting severity and outcome. The availability of several prognosticators has made identification of patients at high risk of death and their subsequent targeted management more rewarding.

  16. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths.

    PubMed

    Traversa, Donato; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Di Cesare, Angela; La Torre, Francesco; Drake, Jason; Pietrobelli, Mario

    2014-02-13

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings.

  17. Age estimation from canine volumes.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Gaudio, Daniel; Guercini, Nicola; Cipriani, Filippo; Gibelli, Daniele; Caputi, Sergio; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Techniques for estimation of biological age are constantly evolving and are finding daily application in the forensic radiology field in cases concerning the estimation of the chronological age of a corpse in order to reconstruct the biological profile, or of a living subject, for example in cases of immigration of people without identity papers from a civil registry. The deposition of teeth secondary dentine and consequent decrease of pulp chamber in size are well known as aging phenomena, and they have been applied to the forensic context by the development of age estimation procedures, such as Kvaal-Solheim and Cameriere methods. The present study takes into consideration canines pulp chamber volume related to the entire teeth volume, with the aim of proposing new regression formulae for age estimation using 91 cone beam computerized scans and a freeware open-source software, in order to permit affordable reproducibility of volumes calculation.

  18. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  19. Platelets Inhibit Migration of Canine Osteosarcoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Bulla, S C; Badial, P R; Silva, R C; Lunsford, K; Bulla, C

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between platelets and tumour cells is important for tumour growth and metastasis. Thrombocytopenia or antiplatelet treatment negatively impact on cancer metastasis, demonstrating potentially important roles for platelets in tumour progression. To our knowledge, there is no information regarding the role of platelets in cancer progression in dogs. This study was designed to test whether canine platelets affected the migratory behaviour of three canine osteosarcoma cell lines and to give insights of molecular mechanisms. Intact platelets, platelet lysate and platelet releasate inhibited the migration of canine osteosarcoma cell lines. Addition of blood leucocytes to the platelet samples did not alter the inhibitory effect on migration. Platelet treatment also significantly downregulated the transcriptional levels of SNAI2 and TWIST1 genes. The interaction between canine platelets or molecules released during platelet activation and these tumour cell lines inhibits their migration, which suggests that canine platelets might antagonize metastasis of canine osteosarcoma. This effect is probably due to, at least in part, downregulation of genes related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Prevalence of asymmetric molar and canine relationship.

    PubMed

    Behbehani, Faraj; Roy, Rino; Al-Jame, Badreia

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and severity of occlusal asymmetries in the molar and canine regions in a large population-based sample of adolescent Kuwaitis. Using a stratified cluster sampling method, 1299 Kuwaiti adolescents (674 boys mean age 13.3 years and 625 girls mean age 13.2 years), representing approximately 6.7 per cent of that age stratum in the population, were examined clinically for sagittal molar and canine relationships, with a view to recording half and full-step asymmetries. In this sample, 1244 subjects were examined clinically, while for the remaining 55, pre-treatment study models were assessed. All subjects were in the early permanent dentition stage. Descriptive statistical analyses were used to determine the proportion of different molar and canine asymmetries. Antero-posterior asymmetries were found to be a distinctive and common feature of the dental arches, with half-step outweighing full-step asymmetries both in the anterior and posterior regions. The total prevalence of an asymmetric molar or canine relationship was 29.7 and 41.4 per cent, respectively, with more than 95 per cent falling in the mild category. Patient gender did not influence the prevalence or magnitude of asymmetry. The results showed a clinically significant prevalence of asymmetric molar and canine relationships, which were mainly in the category of half-step asymmetry. Class II half and full-step asymmetries were more prevalent than Class III asymmetries in the molar and canine regions.

  1. Genetic and Biochemical Biomarkers in Canine Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Graham, K L; McCowan, C; White, A

    2017-03-01

    In many health-related fields, there is great interest in the identification of biomarkers that distinguish diseased from healthy individuals. In addition to identifying the diseased state, biomarkers have potential use in predicting disease risk, monitoring disease progression, evaluating treatment efficacy, and informing pathogenesis. This review details the genetic and biochemical markers associated with canine primary glaucoma. While there are numerous molecular markers (biochemical and genetic) associated with glaucoma in dogs, there is no ideal biomarker that allows early diagnosis and/or identification of disease progression. Genetic mutations associated with canine glaucoma include those affecting ADAMTS10, ADAMTS17, Myocilin, Nebulin, COL1A2, RAB22A, and SRBD1. With the exception of Myocilin, there is very limited crossover in genetic biomarkers identified between human and canine glaucomas. Mutations associated with canine glaucoma vary between and within canine breeds, and gene discoveries therefore have limited overall effects as a screening tool in the general canine population. Biochemical markers of glaucoma include indicators of inflammation, oxidative stress, serum autoantibodies, matrix metalloproteinases, tumor necrosis factor-α, and transforming growth factor-β. These markers include those that indicate an adaptive or protective response, as well as those that reflect the damage arising from oxidative stress.

  2. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine...

  3. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine...

  4. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT..., shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has been...

  5. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT..., shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has been...

  6. Animal-Assisted Therapy for persons with disabilities based on canine tail language interpretation via fuzzy emotional behavior model.

    PubMed

    Phanwanich, Warangkhana; Kumdee, Orrawan; Ritthipravat, Panrasee; Wongsawat, Yodchanan

    2011-01-01

    Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) is the science that employs the merit of human-animal interaction to alleviate mental and physical problems of persons with disabilities. However, to achieve the goal of AAT for persons with severe disabilities (e.g. spinal cord injury and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), real-time animal language interpretation is needed. Since canine behaviors can be visually distinguished from its tail, this paper proposes the automatic real-time interpretation of canine tail language for human-canine interaction in the case of persons with severe disabilities. Canine tail language is captured via two 3-axis accelerometers. Directions and frequency are selected as our features of interests. New fuzzy rules and center of gravity (COG)-based defuzzification method are proposed in order to interpret the features into three canine emotional behaviors, i.e., agitate, happy, and scare as well as its blended emotional behaviors. The emotional behavior model is performed in the simulated dog. The average recognition rate in real dog is 93.75% accuracy.

  7. Factors affecting self-eruption of displaced permanent maxillary canines.

    PubMed

    Smailienė, Dalia; Sidlauskas, Antanas; Lopatienė, Kristina; Guzevičienė, Vesta; Juodžbalys, Gintaras

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of the spontaneous eruption of displaced unerupted maxillary canines after the extraction of the deciduous canine and dental arch expansion and to determine the impact of initial canine position on treatment success rate. Materials and METHODS. The study sample included 50 patients (mean age, 13.5 years [SD, 2.2]) with unilaterally displaced unerupted maxillary canines. Deciduous canines were extracted, and the space for displaced canine was created at the beginning of the study. The follow-up period for the spontaneous eruption was 12 months. The initial vertical, horizontal, labio-palatal position and angle of inclination to the midline of the displaced canine were assessed on panoramic radiographs. RESULTS. Only 42% of displaced canines erupted spontaneously within one-year period (52.9% of labially displaced canines and 36.4% of palatally displaced canines). A significant difference of inclination was determined between spontaneously erupted and unerupted teeth in the labially displaced canine group (P<0.01), with no difference in the palatally displaced canine group. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the critical angle of inclination for the spontaneous eruption of the retained canine was 20º (sensitivity 0.759; specificity 0.571; P<0.05). The majority of unerupted canines (75.9%) were inclined more than 20º. The initial height of canine was crucial for spontaneous eruption (sensitivity 0.966; specificity 0.81; P<0.001). This was true for both palatal and labial cases. CONCLUSIONS. The initial vertical position of the labially and palatally displaced canines and the inclination of the labially displaced canines were the most important predictors for spontaneous eruption of the cuspid.

  8. Correlated response, competition, and female canine size in primates.

    PubMed

    Plavcan, J M

    1998-12-01

    Recently, comparative analyses of female canine tooth size in primates have yielded two hypotheses to explain interspecific variation in female relative canine size. Greenfield ([1992] Int. J. Primatol. 13:631-657; [1992] Yrbk. Phys. Anthropol. 35:153-184; [1996] J. Hum. Evol. 31:1-19) suggested that covariation in male and female canine size across species indicates that female canine size reflects correlated response (in which the expression of a trait in one sex causes the expression of the same trait in the other sex). Plavcan et al. ([1995] J. Hum. Evol. 28:245-276) noted that female canine size in primates is associated with variation in categorical estimates of the intensity of female-female agonistic competition, suggesting that selection favors large female canine size in many species. While it may seem that the two models are in conflict, they are not. To simultaneously evaluate these two models, this analysis examines the joint relations between male canine size, female canine size, and estimates of female-female competition in a sample of 108 primate species. Overall, female canine size is correlated with variation in male canine size. Controlling for variation in male canine size, female canine size is also correlated with estimates of the intensity of female-female agonistic competition. The relation between these variables differs strongly between anthropoid and strepsirhine primates. In anthropoids, the data suggest that selection for the development of large canines in females is not constrained by any affect of correlated response. In strepsirhines, the evidence suggests that sexual selection may affect male canine size but that correlated response affects female canine size, resulting in monomorphism for most species. These observations help reconcile the observations of Greenfield ([1992] Int. J. Primatol. 13:631-657; [1996] J. Hum. Evol. 31:1-19) and Plavcan et al. ([1995] J. Hum. Evol. 28:245-276) and provide a more precise model for

  9. Role of canine circovirus in dogs with acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Anderson, A; Hartmann, K; Leutenegger, C M; Proksch, A L; Mueller, R S; Unterer, S

    2017-02-27

    Canine circovirus (CanineCV) has been detected in some dogs with severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea, but its pathogenic role is unclear. This study evaluated a suspected association between the presence of CanineCV and acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome (AHDS) in dogs. The prevalence of CanineCV in dogs with AHDS was compared with that in healthy dogs and those infected with canine parvovirus (CPV). Additionally, time to recovery and mortality rate were compared between CanineCV-positive and CanineCV-negative dogs. Faecal samples of dogs with AHDS (n=55), healthy dogs (n=66) and dogs infected with CPV (n=54) were examined by two real-time TaqMan PCR assays targeting the replicase and capsid genes of CanineCV. CanineCV was detected in faecal samples of two dogs with AHDS, three healthy controls and seven dogs infected with CPV. Among the three groups, there was no significant difference in prevalence of CanineCV. CPV-infected animals that were coinfected with CanineCV had a significantly higher mortality rate compared with those negative for CanineCV. CanineCV does not appear to be the primary causative agent of AHDS in dogs, but might play a role as a negative co-factor in disease outcome in dogs with CPV infection.

  10. Molecular cloning of canine Wilms' tumor 1 for immunohistochemical analysis in canine tissues.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Osamu; Sakurai, Masashi; Sakai, Hiroki; Kubo, Masahito; Hiraoka, Hiroko; Baba, Kenji; Okuda, Masaru; Mizuno, Takuya

    2017-07-28

    Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) expression has been investigated in various human cancers as a target molecule for cancer immunotherapy. However, few studies have focused on WT1 expression in dogs. Firstly, cDNA of canine WT1 (cWT1) was molecularly cloned from normal canine kidney. The cross-reactivity of the anti-human WT1 monoclonal antibody (6F-H2) with cWT1 was confirmed via Western blotting using cells overexpressing cWT1. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that cWT1 expression was detected in all canine lymphoma tissues and in some normal canine tissues, including the kidney and lymph node. cWT1 is a potential immunotherapy target against canine cancers.

  11. The effect of buccal corticotomy on accelerating orthodontic tooth movement of maxillary canine

    PubMed Central

    Jahanbakhshi, Mohammad Reza; Motamedi, Ali Mohammad Kalantar; Feizbakhsh, Masoud; Mogharehabed, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Selective alveolar corticotomy is defined as an intentional injury to cortical bone. This technique is an effective means of accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of buccal corticotomy in accelerating maxillary canine retraction. Materials and Methods: The sample in this clinical trial study consisted of 15 adult female patients with therapeutic need for extraction of maxillary first premolars and maximum canine retraction. By use of split-mouth design, at the time of premolars extraction, buccal corticotomy was performed around the maxillary first premolar, randomly on one side of maxilla, and the other side was reserved as the control side. Canine retraction was performed by use of friction – less mechanic with simple vertical loop. Every 2 weeks, distance between canines and second premolars was measured until complete space closure. The velocity of space closure was calculated to evaluate the effect of this technique in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using independent t-test, and the significance was set at 0.05. Results: The rate of canine retraction was significantly higher on the corticotomy side than the control side by an average of 1.8 mm/month versus 1.1 mm/month in the corticotomy side and control side, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Based on result of this study, corticotomy can accelerates the rate of orthodontic tooth movement about two times faster than conventional orthodontics and it is significant in early stages after surgical porsedure. Therefore Buccal corticotomy is a useful adjunct technique for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement. PMID:27605986

  12. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    McRee, Anna; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Dawson, Jessica; Parry, Roger; Foggin, Chris; Adams, Hayley; Odoi, Agricola; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-09-05

    Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV). These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34%) had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84%) had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13%) dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.

  13. Canine distemper virus infection: proliferation of canine footpad keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Gröne, A; Engelhardt, P; Zurbriggen, A

    2003-09-01

    The proliferation of footpad keratinocytes of canine distemper virus (CDV)-infected dogs was investigated. Footpads of 19 dogs inoculated experimentally with a virulent distemper strain (A75/17) and of two noninoculated control dogs were collected at necropsy. Dogs were divided into four groups according to results of the postmortem examination: dogs with severe distemper (group 1), dogs with mild distemper (group 2), inoculated dogs without distemper (group 3) and noninoculated dogs (group 4). There was no distinct difference of epidermal thickness among the four groups. Infection of the footpad epidermis with CDV was demonstrated using immunohistochemistry for viral nucleoprotein and in situ hybridization for nucleoprotein messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). Only group 1 dogs had viral antigen and mRNA in the footpad epidermis with the same distribution. Footpad epidermis of group 1 dogs had more mitotic figures in the basal layer, and significantly more basal keratinocytes were positive for the proliferation markers Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Double-staining for Ki-67 and viral nucleoprotein identified rare double-labeled basal keratinocytes. These findings suggest that the presence of CDV particles in the footpad epidermis is associated with keratinocyte proliferation.

  14. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper Vaccine...

  15. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper Vaccine...

  16. Antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2011-01-01

    Serum antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) were investigated in 1031 healthy adult household dogs (2 to 18 years old) given an annual inoculation in the previous 11 to 13 months. The number of dogs retaining significant titers of antibodies against CPV-2, CDV, and CAV-1 were 888 (86%), 744 (72%), and 732 (71%), respectively. There were no differences between males and females in antibody titers against the 3 viruses. Antibody titer for CPV-2 was significantly higher in younger dogs than in older dogs, CDV antibody was significantly higher in older dogs than in younger dogs, and CAV titer was not associated with age. PMID:22379198

  17. Booster effect of canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and infectious canine hepatitis combination vaccine in domesticated adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Tsuchiya, Ryo; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2012-08-01

    Domesticated adult dogs with antibody titer classified as below 'high' to one or more of canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAdV-1) were then given an additional inoculation, and the effectiveness of this booster evaluated 2 months later. Consequently, CDV and CAdV-1 antibody titer experienced a significant increase, but the same effect was not observed in the antibody titer of CPV-2. These findings suggest that with additional inoculation, a booster effect may be expected in increasing antibody titers for CDV and CAdV-1, but it is unlikely to give an increase in CPV-2 antibody titer.

  18. Antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2011-09-01

    Serum antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) were investigated in 1031 healthy adult household dogs (2 to 18 years old) given an annual inoculation in the previous 11 to 13 months. The number of dogs retaining significant titers of antibodies against CPV-2, CDV, and CAV-1 were 888 (86%), 744 (72%), and 732 (71%), respectively. There were no differences between males and females in antibody titers against the 3 viruses. Antibody titer for CPV-2 was significantly higher in younger dogs than in older dogs, CDV antibody was significantly higher in older dogs than in younger dogs, and CAV titer was not associated with age.

  19. Orthodontic Traction of Impacted Canine Using Cantilever

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, João Roberto; Cassano, Daniel Serra; Bianchi, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    The impaction of the maxillary canines causes relevant aesthetic and functional problems. The multidisciplinary approach to the proper planning and execution of orthodontic traction of the element in question is essential. Many strategies are cited in the literature; among them is the good biomechanical control in order to avoid possible side effects. The aim of this paper is to present a case report in which a superior canine impacted by palatine was pulled out with the aid of the cantilever on the Segmented Arch Technique (SAT) concept. A 14.7-year-old female patient appeared at clinic complaining about the absence of the upper right permanent canine. The proposed treatment prioritized the traction of the upper right canine without changing the occlusion and aesthetics. For this, it only installed the upper fixed appliance (Roth with slot 0.018), opting for SAT in order to minimize unwanted side effects. The use of cantilever to the traction of the upper right canine has enabled an efficient and predictable outcome, because it is of statically determined mechanics. PMID:27800192

  20. Canine kobuvirus infections in Korean dogs.

    PubMed

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2014-10-01

    To investigate canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) infection, fecal samples (n = 59) were collected from dogs with or without diarrhea (n = 21 and 38, respectively) in the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 2012. CaKoV infection was detected in four diarrheic samples (19.0 %) and five non-diarrheic samples (13.2 %). All CaKoV-positive dogs with diarrhea were found to be infected in mixed infections with canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus or canine adenovirus. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of CaKoV in dogs with and without diarrhea. By phylogenetic analysis based on partial 3D genes and complete genome sequences, the Korean isolates were found to be closely related to each other regardless of whether they were associated with diarrhea, and to the canine kobuviruses identified in the USA and UK. This study supports the conclusion that CaKoVs from different countries are not restricted geographically and belong to a single lineage.

  1. Canine pyometra: What is new?

    PubMed

    Hagman, R

    2016-11-03

    Pyometra is a common disease in countries where elective spaying is not routinely performed. Hormonal and bacterial factors are fundamental in the pathogenesis of the disease, which manifests itself as a potentially life-threatening bacterial infection of the uterus. Surgical ovariohysterectomy is the safest and most effective treatment for pyometra, and it has recently been shown that laparoscopically assisted methods for surgical treatment are feasible to use in selected cases. New protocols for improved medical treatment alternatives have also been tested with promising results. To be able to predict outcome and presence of complications early would be valuable in clinical practice for optimizing therapy and increasing survival. Results of commonly investigated clinical and laboratory investigations have been shown to be useful as predictive markers, with leucopenia being associated with increased risk of peritonitis as well as prolonged post-operative hospitalization after surgical treatment. A cage-side rapid and cost-effective diagnostic test would be highly valuable in clinical practice, and detection of pyometra-specific upregulated genes in the uterus and the corresponding products is a potential start in identifying novel markers suitable for such as test. The focus of the present review is to highlight recent findings on pathogenesis, prediction of outcome, diagnosis and treatment. Additionally, central research questions and suggestions for future investigations about several aspects of canine pyometra will be addressed.

  2. Canine and feline abortion diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Schlafer, D H

    2008-08-01

    Knowledge of the causes of canine or feline pregnancy loss is limited and the success rate for making a definitive diagnosis is disappointingly low. Although these facts are discouraging, there are some things that can be done to improve success rates. This paper will address limitations and explore ways for improvement. For abortions caused by microbial infections, there are many reasons why it may not possible to identify the agents. "Non-infectious" causes are much more difficult to diagnose, and their relative importance is unknown. These include endocrine failure, underlying endometrial disease, genetic abnormalities, nutritional deficiencies, and toxicosis from drugs or environmental sources. Genetic abnormalities are a major cause of human pregnancy loss, yet we have little specific information about genetic diseases leading to abortion in animals. This paper addresses ways clinicians and diagnosticians can work together to improve diagnostic success. Necropsy techniques for fetal and placental examination and sampling are briefly reviewed. It is hoped that this series of papers will stimulate discussion on the causes and pathogenesis of pregnancy failure, and focus attention on areas where abortion diagnostics can be improved.

  3. Conditions associated with canine hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Panciera, D L

    2001-09-01

    Careful review of the literature regarding clinical signs caused by hypothyroidism in dogs has shown that some assumptions regarding the relation of hypothyroidism to other conditions are based on anecdotal evidence. Cutaneous manifestations are present in most hypothyroid dogs, but the specific abnormalities and breed variations remain to be clearly defined. Decreased metabolic rate manifested by obesity and lethargy is also common. Neurologic manifestations, although uncommon, clearly occur in hypothyroid dogs. Cardiac abnormalities seem to be common, but their clinical significance is questionable. The only consistent hematologic abnormality that occurs in hypothyroid dogs is anemia; evidence for acquired von Willebrand's disease or other bleeding disorders is negligible. Reproductive dysfunction secondary to hypothyroidism is unlikely to occur in male dogs, and there is no evidence to support abnormalities in female dogs. The relation of megaesophagus, laryngeal paralysis, ocular abnormalities, and gastrointestinal disorders with hypothyroidism remains to be established. Future research into canine hypothyroidism may serve to convert dogma into a more clear understanding of the manifestations and pathophysiologic findings of this common endocrinopathy.

  4. The effect of canine characteristics and symmetry on perceived smile attractiveness when canine teeth are substituted for lateral incisors.

    PubMed

    Rayner, Wendy Jane; Barber, Sophy K; Spencer, Richard James

    2015-03-01

    To determine the effect of canine tooth characteristics and symmetry on perceived smile attractiveness when maxillary canine teeth are substituted for missing lateral incisors. Prospective, cross-sectional study. Non-clinical study undertaken from Leeds Dental Institute, UK. A composite full-face image of a smiling female was used to display various dentitions; a control image with an 'ideal' smile, plus six further images substituting the maxillary lateral incisors with canine teeth either unilaterally or bilaterally with varying size, shape, colour and gingival margin level. The seven images were shown to orthodontists (n = 30), dentists (n = 30) and lay people (n = 30) who were asked to rate smile attractiveness using a visual analogue scale. Dental professionals rated smiles with canine substitution for lateral incisor agenesis to be significantly less attractive than an ideal smile unless the substituted canine teeth approximated the lateral incisor in terms of size, shape, colour and gingival margin. Lay people did not find smiles where canine teeth were substituted for lateral incisors significantly more or less attractive than an ideal smile regardless of the canine tooth characteristics. Dental professionals were significantly more perceptive than lay people to the deviation from ideal smile aesthetics due to canine substitution. Smiles with unilateral canine substitution were not found to be significantly less attractive than bilateral canine substitution by all groups. Canine characteristics and observer status will affect how canine substitution for lateral incisor agenesis is viewed in terms of aesthetic outcome.

  5. Biomarkers in canine inflammatory bowel disease diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Wdowiak, M; Rychlik, A; Kołodziejska-Sawerska, A

    2013-01-01

    Canine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a heterogeneous group of chronic gastrointestinal disorders. The etiology, similar to human IBD, remains unknown. Canine IBD is diagnosed by exclusion, which is a long, time and money-consuming process due to the need of elimination of other diseases presenting with similar symptoms. Therefore, a search for a specific and sensitive marker is needed to overcome these difficulties. The article is divided into 3 sections presenting up-to-date information about laboratory markers, immunohistochemical markers and changes in the neurochemical coding of the enteric nervous system, concentrating on their usefulness and future applications. Data concerning laboratory and immunohistochemical markers is based mainly on canine IBD, while the neuroimmunohistochemistry section presents knowledge from human IBD due to the lack of such studies in veterinary medicine.

  6. Canine Rabies Ecology in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Rabies is a widespread disease in African domestic dogs and certain wild canine populations. Canine rabies became established in Africa during the 20th century, coinciding with ecologic changes that favored its emergence in canids. I present a conceptual and terminologic framework for understanding rabies ecology in African canids. The framework is underpinned by 2 distinct concepts: maintenance and persistence. Maintenance encompasses the notion of indefinite transmission of infection within a local population and depends on an average transmission ratio >1. Maintenance in all local populations is inherently unstable, and the disease frequently becomes extinct. Persistence, the notion of long-term continuity, depends on the presence of rabies in >1 local population within the canine metapopulation at any time. The implications for understanding rabies ecology and control are reviewed, as are previous studies on rabies ecology in African canids. PMID:16229759

  7. Oncolytic Virotherapy of Canine and Feline Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gentschev, Ivaylo; Patil, Sandeep S.; Petrov, Ivan; Cappello, Joseph; Adelfinger, Marion; Szalay, Aladar A.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of disease-related death in companion animals such as dogs and cats. Despite recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of advanced canine and feline cancer, overall patient treatment outcome has not been substantially improved. Virotherapy using oncolytic viruses is one promising new strategy for cancer therapy. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) preferentially infect and lyse cancer cells, without causing excessive damage to surrounding healthy tissue, and initiate tumor-specific immunity. The current review describes the use of different oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy and their application to canine and feline cancer. PMID:24841386

  8. Canine hematopoietic tumors: diagnosis, treatment and complications

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1986-02-01

    Canine hematopoietic tumors constitute a group of neoplasms that are frequently encountered in veterinary practice. Although common, they are also a diagnostically confusing group of tumors due to continued revision of their definition and classification. The confusion that arises from these changes presents the clinician with a perpetual challenge of diagnosis and therapy. Therapy of canine hematopoietic tumors has traditionally evolved from treatment of human patients with similar diseases, and in turn, these neoplasms have served as models for evaluating newer therapies for possible application in human patients. Methods of treatment have included chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and hyperthermia. 9 tabs.

  9. Oncolytic virotherapy of canine and feline cancer.

    PubMed

    Gentschev, Ivaylo; Patil, Sandeep S; Petrov, Ivan; Cappello, Joseph; Adelfinger, Marion; Szalay, Aladar A

    2014-05-16

    Cancer is the leading cause of disease-related death in companion animals such as dogs and cats. Despite recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of advanced canine and feline cancer, overall patient treatment outcome has not been substantially improved. Virotherapy using oncolytic viruses is one promising new strategy for cancer therapy. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) preferentially infect and lyse cancer cells, without causing excessive damage to surrounding healthy tissue, and initiate tumor-specific immunity. The current review describes the use of different oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy and their application to canine and feline cancer.

  10. Canine olfactory detection of malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Leon Frederick; Farmery, Luke; George, Susannah Mary Creighton; Farrant, Paul B J

    2013-01-01

    Our patient is a 75-year-old man who presented after his pet dog licked persistently at an asymptomatic lesion behind his right ear. Examination revealed a nodular lesion in the postauricular sulcus. Histology confirmed malignant melanoma, which was subsequently excised. Canine olfactory detection of human malignancy is a well-documented phenomenon. Advanced olfaction is hypothesised to explain canine detection of bladder, breast, colorectal, lung, ovarian, prostate and skin cancers. Further research in this area may facilitate the development of a highly accurate aid to diagnosis for many malignancies, including melanoma. PMID:24127369

  11. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... before. Often, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  12. Back Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... extending from your neck to your pelvis. Back injuries can result from sports injuries, work around the house or in the garden, ... back is the most common site of back injuries and back pain. Common back injuries include Sprains ...

  13. The Seroprevalence of Canine Parvovirus-2 in a Selected Sample of the Canine Population in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Carman, P. S.; Povey, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Canine sera, collected from dogs presented to the Ontario Veterinary College between 1976 and 1980, were assessed for canine parvovirus-2 antibody using a microtitre hemagglutination-inhibition test. Special emphasis was made on the period from September 1979 to October 1980 (2892 samples). No antibody was detected in samples collected in 1976 or 1977. The first positive sera were obtained in January 1978. By the end of 1978 antibodies to canine parvovirus-2 were widespread in Ontario dogs and in 1980, 683 of 2191 dogs (31.2%) had antibody. This was before widespread vaccination was being practised and indicates canine parvovirus-2 infection occurred frequently. Evaluation of clinical records of these dogs suggested that most infections had been subclinical. PMID:17422418

  14. Canine parvovirus enteritis, canine distemper, and major histocompatibility complex genetic variation in Mexican wolves.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Philip W; Lee, Rhonda N; Buchanan, Colleen

    2003-10-01

    The endangered Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) was recently reintroduced into Arizona and New Mexico (USA). In 1999 and 2000, pups from three litters that were part of the reintroduction program died of either canine parvovirus or canine distemper. Overall, half (seven of 14) of the pups died of either canine parvovirus or canine distemper. The parents and their litters were analyzed for variation at the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene DRB1. Similar MHC genes are related to disease resistance in other species. All six of the surviving pups genotyped for the MHC gene were heterozygous while five of the pups that died were heterozygous and one was homozygous. Resistance to pathogens is an important aspect of the management and long-term survival of endangered taxa, such as the Mexican wolf.

  15. Serologic response of maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) to canine and canine parvovirus vaccination distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Maia, O B; Gouveia, A M

    2001-03-01

    This study evaluated the immune response of 47 (22 males, 25 females) captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) to modified-live canine parvovirus and canine distemper virus (Onderstepoort and Rockborn strains) vaccines. Sera were collected from 33 adults and 14 pups, including five free-ranging pups captured at 1 yr of age or younger. All the adults and four captive-born pups had been vaccinated prior to this first blood collection. Virus neutralization and hemagglutination-inhibition assays were performed for quantitating antibodies against canine distemper and canine parvovirus, respectively. Distemper antibody titers > or = 100 were present in 57% of adults and 14% of pups. All adults and 29% of pups had parvovirus antibody titers > or = 80. After vaccination, 72% of the wolves developed antibody titers > or = 100 against distemper and 98% developed titers > or = 80 against parvovirus. Both vaccines used were safe and immunogenic to juvenile and adult maned wolves, regardless of prior vaccination history.

  16. Forty years of canine vaccination.

    PubMed

    Appel, M J

    1999-01-01

    During the last 40 years vaccines have been developed that have greatly reduced the incidence of infectious diseases of dogs. In general, modified live products have been superior to inactivated vaccines for dogs. It can be expected that recombinant and/or DNA vaccines may dominate the market in the future. Although most vaccines on the market are safe and efficacious, there have been exceptions where disease was induced by vaccination or dogs were not protected. The failure of protection may in part be due to variations in individual vaccine batches. Only potency tests but not efficacy tests are required, which may not be sufficient. For example, a virus titer in a vaccine may be meaningless if the minimum protective dose is not known. Overattenuated virus (e.g., CDV-Ond or parvovirus in cat cells) may have a high titer in tissue culture but is not immunogenic. The question of frequency of vaccination of dogs should be addressed. Annual revaccinations for CDV, CPV, and CAV are probably not needed. However, it would be desirable to collect more data to support less frequent vaccinations. Annual immunization for bacterial diseases such as kennel cough, Lyme disease, and leptospirosis should continue. It also would be desirable to develop more oro/nasal vaccines, perhaps combined with newly developed vectors that are less likely to induce undesirable side effects that may be seen after parenteral vaccination. Finally a word of warning against homeopathic "nosodes" to replace tested canine vaccines. They will appear highly effective as long as the majority of dogs remain vaccinated. As soon as a nonvaccinated dog population is large enough to allow virulent agents to spread, disease outbreaks will occur and we will be back where we began 40 years ago.

  17. Washing older blood units before transfusion reduces plasma iron and improves outcomes in experimental canine pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong; Sun, Junfeng; Solomon, Steven B.; Remy, Kenneth E.; Fernandez, Melinda; Feng, Jing; Kanias, Tamir; Bellavia, Landon; Sinchar, Derek; Perlegas, Andreas; Solomon, Michael A.; Kelley, Walter E.; Popovsky, Mark A.; Gladwin, Mark T.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Klein, Harvey G.; Natanson, Charles

    2014-01-01

    In a randomized controlled blinded trial, 2-year-old purpose-bred beagles (n = 24), with Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia, were exchanged-transfused with either 7- or 42-day-old washed or unwashed canine universal donor blood (80 mL/kg in 4 divided doses). Washing red cells (RBC) before transfusion had a significantly different effect on canine survival, multiple organ injury, plasma iron, and cell-free hemoglobin (CFH) levels depending on the age of stored blood (all, P < .05 for interactions). Washing older units of blood improved survival rates, shock score, lung injury, cardiac performance and liver function, and reduced levels of non-transferrin bound iron and plasma labile iron. In contrast, washing fresh blood worsened all these same clinical parameters and increased CFH levels. Our data indicate that transfusion of fresh blood, which results in less hemolysis, CFH, and iron release, is less toxic than transfusion of older blood in critically ill infected subjects. However, washing older blood prevented elevations in plasma circulating iron and improved survival and multiple organ injury in animals with an established pulmonary infection. Our data suggest that fresh blood should not be washed routinely because, in a setting of established infection, washed RBC are prone to release CFH and result in worsened clinical outcomes. PMID:24366359

  18. Washing older blood units before transfusion reduces plasma iron and improves outcomes in experimental canine pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Puch, Irene; Wang, Dong; Sun, Junfeng; Solomon, Steven B; Remy, Kenneth E; Fernandez, Melinda; Feng, Jing; Kanias, Tamir; Bellavia, Landon; Sinchar, Derek; Perlegas, Andreas; Solomon, Michael A; Kelley, Walter E; Popovsky, Mark A; Gladwin, Mark T; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B; Klein, Harvey G; Natanson, Charles

    2014-02-27

    In a randomized controlled blinded trial, 2-year-old purpose-bred beagles (n = 24), with Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia, were exchanged-transfused with either 7- or 42-day-old washed or unwashed canine universal donor blood (80 mL/kg in 4 divided doses). Washing red cells (RBC) before transfusion had a significantly different effect on canine survival, multiple organ injury, plasma iron, and cell-free hemoglobin (CFH) levels depending on the age of stored blood (all, P < .05 for interactions). Washing older units of blood improved survival rates, shock score, lung injury, cardiac performance and liver function, and reduced levels of non-transferrin bound iron and plasma labile iron. In contrast, washing fresh blood worsened all these same clinical parameters and increased CFH levels. Our data indicate that transfusion of fresh blood, which results in less hemolysis, CFH, and iron release, is less toxic than transfusion of older blood in critically ill infected subjects. However, washing older blood prevented elevations in plasma circulating iron and improved survival and multiple organ injury in animals with an established pulmonary infection. Our data suggest that fresh blood should not be washed routinely because, in a setting of established infection, washed RBC are prone to release CFH and result in worsened clinical outcomes.

  19. Canine distemper virus associated proliferation of canine footpad keratinocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, P; Wyder, M; Zurbriggen, A; Gröne, A

    2005-04-25

    Infection of canine footpads with canine distemper virus (CDV) can result in so-called hard pad disease characterized by footpad epidermal proliferation and hyperkeratosis. Cultured canine footpad keratinocytes (CFK) were inoculated with a virulent canine distemper virus strain (A75/17-CDV) to study the effects of CDV-infection on keratinocyte proliferation. Infection was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization for CDV nucleoprotein (N-protein) antigen and mRNA. CDV caused a persistent, non-cytocidal infection with spread from single cells to infection of the confluent cell layer 7 days post infection (p.i.). Absolute cell numbers were significantly higher in infected cultures compared to control cultures from day 4 until day 6 p.i. Infected cultures contained significantly more total DNA on day 5 p.i. compared to controls. Immunohistochemical investigation of proliferation markers Ki67 and BrdU demonstrated a nearly two-fold increase in numbers of positive cells on day 5 p.i. compared to controls. These findings demonstrate that canine distemper virus infection of canine footpad keratinocytes in vitro was associated with proliferation.

  20. Management of a multiple dentoalveolar trauma in permanent dentition with avulsion of a canine: a 4-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Senes, Andrea Melo; Sakai, Vivien T; Oliveira, Thais Marchini; Machado, Maria Aparecida A M; Santos, Carlos F; Marzola, Clóvis

    2008-03-01

    Traumatic dental injuries are relatively frequent accidents that typically involve teeth in the maxillary anterior segment. The emergency treatment and the clinical decisions must be efficiently made at the time of injury, and there is a need for long-term follow-up because of the high incidence of complications. The aim of this article was to present the emergency and rehabilitation treatments of a multiple dentoalveolar trauma in the permanent dentition involving different extensions of enamel-dentin crown fracture, pulp exposure, and the avulsion of a canine. The treatment outcomes are reported up to the 4-year follow-up, and the clinical approaches and their rationale are discussed.

  1. Experimental Forelimb Allotransplantation in Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    As reconstructive transplantation is gaining popularity as a viable alternative for upper limb amputees, it is becoming increasingly important for plastic surgeons to renew surgical skills and knowledge of this area. Forelimb allotransplantation research has been performed previously in rodent and swine models. However, preclinical canine forelimb allotransplantation studies are lacking in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the surgical skills necessary to successfully perform forelimb transplantation in canines as a means to prepare for clinical application. A total of 18 transplantation operations on canines were performed. The recipient limb was shortened at the one-third proximal forearm level. The operation was performed in the following order: bones (two reconstructive plates), muscles and tendons (separately sutured), nerves (median, ulnar, and radial nerve), arteries (two), and veins (two). The total mean time of transplantation was 5 hours ± 30 minutes. All of the animals that received transplantation were treated with FK-506 (tacrolimus, 2 mg/kg) for 7 days after surgery. Most allografts survived with perfect viability without vascular problems during the early postoperative period. The canine forelimb allotransplantation model is well qualified to be a suitable training model for standard transplantation and future research work. PMID:27597952

  2. Canine distemper outbreak in rhesus monkeys, China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang; Hu, Rongliang

    2011-08-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People's Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%-60% disease incidence); 5%-30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

  3. Immune-mediated canine and feline keratitis.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Stacy E

    2008-03-01

    Although the normal cornea is devoid of vasculature and lymphatics, there are still several immune-mediated corneal conditions that can occur in dogs and cats. An overview of corneal immunology is presented. Diseases of dogs, including chronic superficial keratitis, superficial punctate keratitis, and canine adenovirus endotheliitis, as well as feline diseases, including eosinophilic keratitis and herpesvirus-related conditions, are discussed.

  4. Seroprevalence of Canine Distemper Virus in Cats

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Kazuya; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Chen, Ming-Chu; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Lin, James A.; Mikami, Takeshi; Kai, Chieko; Takahashi, Eiji

    2001-01-01

    A seroepidemiological survey of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in Asian felids revealed that the prevalence of antibodies varied depending on region and, in some cases, exposure to dogs. The serologic pattern in cats with antibodies indicated that they had likely been exposed to field strains rather than typical CDV vaccine strains. PMID:11329473

  5. Canine cytochrome P450 (CYP) pharmacogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Court, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The cytochrome P450 (CYP) drug metabolizing enzymes are essential for the efficient elimination of many clinically used drugs. These enzymes typically display high interindividual variability in expression and function resulting from enzyme induction, inhibition, and genetic polymorphism thereby predisposing patients to adverse drug reactions or therapeutic failure. There are also substantial species differences in CYP substrate specificity and expression that complicate direct extrapolation of information from humans to veterinary species. This article reviews the available published data regarding the presence and impact of genetic polymorphisms on CYP-dependent drug metabolism in dogs in the context of known human-dog CYP differences. Canine CYP1A2, which metabolizes phenacetin, caffeine, and theophylline, is the most widely studied polymorphic canine CYP. A single nucleotide polymorphism resulting in a CYP1A2 premature stop codon (c.1117C>T; R383X) with a complete lack of enzyme is highly prevalent in certain dog breeds including Beagle and Irish wolfhound. This polymorphism was shown to substantially affect the pharmacokinetics of several experimental compounds in Beagles during preclinical drug development. However, the impact on the pharmacokinetics of phenacetin (a substrate specific for human CYP1A2) was quite modest probably because other canine CYPs are capable of metabolizing phenacetin. Other canine CYPs with known genetic polymorphisms include CYP2C41 (gene deletion), as well as CYP2D15, CYP2E1, and CYP3A12 (coding SNPs). However the impact of these variants on drug metabolism in vitro or on drug pharmacokinetics is unknown. Future systematic investigations are needed to comprehensively identify CYP genetic polymorphisms that are predictive of drug effects in canine patients. PMID:23890236

  6. Duration of serological response to canine parvovirus-type 2, canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type 1 and canine parainfluenza virus in client-owned dogs in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, S A; Zwijnenberg, R J; Huang, J; Hodge, A; Day, M J

    2012-12-01

    To determine whether client-owned dogs in Australia, last vaccinated with Canvac(®) vaccines containing canine parvovirus-type 2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) ± canine parainfluenza virus (CPiV) at least 18 months ago, were seropositive or responded serologically to revaccination. A total of 235 dogs were recruited from 23 veterinary clinics, representing a variety of breeds, ages and time since last vaccination (TSLV: range 1.5-9 years, mean 2.8 years). Dogs had a blood sample taken and were revaccinated on day 0. A second blood sample was taken 7-14 days later. Blood samples were assessed for antibody titres to CPV-2 (by haemagglutination inhibition) and CDV, CAV type 1 (CAV-1) and CPiV (by virus neutralisation). Dogs with a day 0 titre >10 or a four-fold increase in titre following revaccination were considered to be serological responders. The overall percentage of dogs classified as serological responders was 98.7% for CPV-2, 96.6% for CDV, 99.6% for CAV-1 and 90.3% for CPiV. These results suggest that the duration of serological response induced by modified-live vaccines against CPV-2, CDV, CAV-1 and CPiV, including Canvac(®) vaccines, is beyond 18 months and may extend up to 9 years. Accordingly, these vaccines may be considered for use in extended revaccination interval protocols as recommended by current canine vaccine guidelines. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  7. Mandibular canine dimensions as an aid in gender estimation

    PubMed Central

    Rajarathnam, Basetty Neelakantam; David, Maria Priscilla; Indira, Annamalai Ponnuswamy

    2016-01-01

    Background: All humans have an identity in life; compassionate societies require this identity to be recognized even after death. Objectives: To measure the dimensions of the mandibular canine and assess the usefulness of the mandibular canine as an aid in gender estimation. Materials and Methods: The study population comprised 200 subjects inclusive of 100 males and 100 females with an age range of 18–25 years. Measurements made in mm at the contact point were of mesiodistal width of the right and left canines and intercanine distance both intraorally and on casts, and the mandibular canine index (MCI) was calculated. The obtained data were subjected to t-test/Mann-Whitney test and discriminant function analysis. Results: All parameters of mandibular canines, namely, intercanine distance, canine width, and canine index were greater in males compared to females suggesting significant sexual dimorphism of mandibular canines. On subjecting the data to discriminant function analysis, it classified sex correctly in 73% of the samples. Conclusion: The result of our study establishes the existence of significant sexual dimorphism in mandibular canines. We can therefore, recommend the use of mandibular canine dimensions as an applicable and additional method for gender determination in human identification. PMID:27555724

  8. Molecular and Functional Characterization of Canine Interferon-Epsilon

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Limin; Xu, Lei; Li, Yun; Li, Jing; Bi, Yuhai

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we provide the first comprehensive annotation of the entire family of canine interferons (IFNs). Canine IFN-ɛ (IFNE), IFN-κ (IFNK), and IFN-λ (IFNL) were discovered for the first time. Ten functional and 2 truncated IFN-α (IFNA) pseudogenes were found in the genome, which also enriched the existing knowledge about canine IFNA. The canine type I IFN genes are clustered on chromosome 11, and their relative arrangements are illustrated. To further investigate the biological activity of canine IFNE, it was expressed and purified in Escherichia coli. Recombinant canine IFNE (rCaIFN-ɛ) displayed potent antiviral activity on both homologous and heterologous animal cells in vitro, indicating that rCaIFN-ɛ has more broad cross-species activity than recombinant canine IFNA (rCaIFN-α). The antiviral activities of rCaIFN-ɛ and rCaIFN-α7 against different viruses on MDCK cells were also evaluated. The antiviral activities of recombinant canine IFNK and IFNL were demonstrated using a VSV-MDCK virus-target cell system. rCaIFN-ɛ exhibited a significant anti-proliferative response against A72 canine tumor cells and MDCK canine epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. rCaIFN-α7 was approximately 16-fold more potent than rCaIFN-ɛ in promoting natural killer cell cytotoxicity activity. Further, rCaIFN-ɛ can activate the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. PMID:23964570

  9. Deciduous canine and permanent lateral incisor differential root resorption.

    PubMed

    Davies, K R; Schneider, G B; Southard, T E; Hillis, S L; Wertz, P W; Finkelstein, M; Hogan, M M

    2001-10-01

    When a permanent maxillary canine erupts apical to the permanent lateral incisor and the deciduous canine, resorption typically takes place only on the deciduous canine root. An understanding of this differential resorption could provide insight into the reasons for excessive iatrogenic root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. The purpose of the present study was to examine the response of roots of permanent lateral incisors and deciduous canines to simulated resorption, and to acid and enzyme attack, reflecting the physiologic environment of an erupting permanent canine. Groups of maxillary permanent lateral incisor and deciduous canine roots were exposed to 5 combinations of Ten Cate demineralizing solution, Ten Cate demineralizing solution with EDTA, and a Type I collagenase solution. Sections of the roots were examined under a polarized light microscope. Analysis of variation of the resulting root lesions demonstrated that the lesion depths for deciduous canines were greater than those for permanent lateral incisors when averaged across 4 of the conditions (F(1,24) = 7.49, P =.0115). On average, deciduous canine roots demonstrated lesions 10% deeper than did permanent lateral incisor roots. We concluded that when deciduous canine and permanent lateral incisor roots are subjected to acid and enzyme attack, reflecting the physiologic environment of an erupting permanent canine, significantly deeper demineralized lesions are seen in the deciduous roots compared with the permanent roots. This finding may partially explain the differential root resorption during permanent tooth eruption.

  10. Intrasexual competition and canine dimorphism in anthropoid primates.

    PubMed

    Plavcan, J M; van Schaik, C P

    1992-04-01

    A number of factors, including sexual selection, body weight, body-weight dimorphism, predation, diet, and phylogenetic inertia have been proposed as influences on the evolution of canine dimorphism in anthropoid primates. Although these factors are not mutually exclusive, opinions vary as to which is the most important. The role of sexual selection has been questioned because mating system, which should reflect its strength, poorly predicts variation in canine dimorphism, particularly among polygynous species. Kay et al. (1988) demonstrate that a more refined estimate of intermale competition explains a large proportion of the variation in canine dimorphism in platyrrhine primates. We expand their analysis, developing a more generalized measure of intermale competition based on the frequency and intensity of male-male agonism. We examine the relative influences of predation (inferred by substrate use), female body weight, body-weight dimorphism, diet, and sexual selection on the evolution of anthropoid canine dimorphism. Intermale competition is very strongly associated with canine dimorphism. Predation also has a marked effect on canine dimorphism, in that savanna-dwelling species consistently show greater canine dimorphism than other species, all other factors being held equal. Body-weight dimorphism is also strongly associated with canine dimorphism, though apparently through a common selective basis, rather than through allometric effects. Body weight seems to play only a minor, indirect role in the evolution of canine dimorphism. Diet plays no role. Likewise, we find little evidence that phylogenetic inertia is a constraint on the evolution of canine dimorphism.

  11. Thermal effects of neutralization therapy and water dilution for acute alkali exposure in canines.

    PubMed

    Homan, C S; Singer, A J; Henry, M C; Thode, H C

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the change in temperature of the gastric mucosa and lumen contents when a weak acid or water is used to manage acute alkali exposure. A prospective in-vivo canine model was used in a university-based animal laboratory setting. Eighteen adult canines weighing 20-25 kg were placed under a surgical plane of anesthesia and a laparotomy was performed. A gastrotomy was then made later ligation of the distal esophagus and proximal duodenum. Separate mucosa and lumen temperature probes were placed. Then 25 mL of room-temperature (24-26 degrees C) 50% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was instilled in the gastric lumen. After 5 minutes, each canine was given treatment. Group 1 (n = 10) was treated with 75 mL of room-temperature orange juice. Group 2 (n = 8) was treated with 75 mL of room-temperature water. Continuous mucosa and lumen temperatures were observed and recorded at baseline and at specified intervals for 35 minutes after the alkali insult. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate the overall temperature profile. Signed-rank tests were used to compare the changes in temperature immediately following neutralization treatment. Significant temperature decreases of 1.1 degrees C and 2.1 degrees C were observed for both mucosa (p = 0.002) and lumen (p < 0.001) temperature, respectively, following neutralization therapy with room-temperature orange juice. In the group treated with room-temperature water, significant temperature decreases of 2.1 degrees C for mucosa (p = 0.01) and 2.4 degrees C for lumen (p = 0.01) were observed. Posttreatment temperatures did not exceed baseline for the entire observation period. Neutralization therapy with room-temperature orange juice or water dilution for acute gastric injuries by liquid alkali does not cause a rise in mucosal or intraluminal temperatures in an in-vivo canine model.

  12. Refinement in the Management of the Denervated Canine Urinary Bladder Using an Abdominal Vesicostomy

    PubMed Central

    Agelan, Alexis; Braverman, Alan S.; Dean, Gregory E.; Ruggieri, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of the neurogenic bladder in canine models of spinal cord injury presents challenges in ensuring bladder drainage. While vesicostomy is routine for humans, the procedure is not common in canines. Our study of bladder reinnervation involved transection of the nerve roots that mediate bladder contraction in 34 canines. An abdominal vesicostomy was created by fixing the everted mucosa to the skin incision. After euthanasia, we assessed the contractility of in vitro bladder muscle strips in response to muscarinic receptor stimulation. There were a total of 11 complications in 9 of the 34 animals. In two animals, the vesicostomy narrowed such that it could not be catheterized and in two other animals the vesicostomy closed to between 5 and 10 mm diameter. Another animal removed the stitches prior to complete healing, requiring further surgical procedures. In five animals, partial prolapse of the bladder through the vesicostomy required surgical repair, and in one animal the bladder became infected and required antibiotic treatment. In the few animals in which irritation resulted from the constant contact of urine with the skin, daily topical application of petrolatum ointment alleviated this symptom. Gross inspection of the bladder at euthanasia and in vitro contractility of bladder muscle strips from these animals revealed no evidence of changes associated with bladder hypertrophy. This study demonstrated that permanent cutaneous vesicostomy is an optimal refinement method for management of the neurogenic bladder in canines. The procedure avoids the distress as well as potential bladder hypertrophy induced by multiple daily interventions to empty the bladder by either catheterization or manual compression. PMID:18506057

  13. Survivin expression in canine epidermis and in canine and human cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Bongiovanni, Laura; Colombi, Isabella; Fortunato, Carmine; Della Salda, Leonardo

    2009-10-01

    Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, is ubiquitously expressed during tissue development, undetectable in most normal tissues, but re-expressed in most cancers, including skin malignancies. Expression of survivin was evaluated retrospectively in 19 canine cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs; one in situ; 16 well differentiated; one invasive, one lymph node metastasis) and 19 well differentiated SCCs from human beings. Seven specimens of normal canine skin were included. Immunohistochemical expression of full-length survivin was determined using a commercially available antibody. In addition, apoptotic rate [Terminal deoxynucleotidyl Transferase Biotin-dUTP Nick End Labelling index (TUNEL) index] and mitotic index (MI), counting mitoses in 10 high power fields (HPF), were determined. Scattered survivin positive nuclei were identified in the epidermal basal cell layer of normal canine skin. Nuclear survivin expression was identified in 18 of 19 human and in all canine SCCs, mainly along the base of the tumour cell population. Cytoplasmic survivin expression was rarely observed in human SCCs and in 84.2% of canine SCCs. The TUNEL index ranged from 0.1 to 2.6 in human beings and from 7.5 to 69.4 in dogs, while MIs ranged from 0 to 4 in human beings and dogs. No correlation was found between survivin expression and apoptotic or mitotic rates. Canine and human tumours showed similar nuclear survivin expression, indicating similar functions of the molecule. We demonstrated survivin expression in normal adult canine epidermis. Increased nuclear survivin expression in pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions demonstrates a possible association of survivin with development of SCCs in human beings and dogs.

  14. Sexual dimorphism in canine shape among extant great apes.

    PubMed

    Kelley, J

    1995-04-01

    There have been numerous attempts to sex fossil specimens using the canine dentition. Whether focused on canine size or canine shape, most of these efforts share two deficiencies: lack of quantification of male-female differences in the adopted criteria and a failure to adequately explore among extant species the discriminatory power of these criteria. Here, canine shape indices relating to relative canine height, upper canine root/crown proportionality, and relative length of the lower canine mesial ridge were calculated for males and females of all species and subspecies of extant great apes and two species of gibbons. The accuracy of these indices for identifying the sex of the extant ape specimens was investigated through discriminant analysis and the use of bivariate plots of the two upper and two lower canine indices. The indices were found to be highly accurate in identifying the sex of great ape individuals, not only in single-species and subspecies samples but in mixed-species samples as well; assignment error rates were mostly between 0 and 4%. Accuracy was lowest in Pan (error rates as high as 15%) and highest in Pongo (one error). In most cases, error rates were lower in the upper canines. The effectiveness of these shape indices for sexing might be related to the degree of absolute canine size dimorphism; the indices did not effectively segregate males and females among minimally canine-dimorphic gibbons. The mixed-species results reveal that same-sex index values are remarkably concordant across great ape species, as are the patterns of spatial segregation of males and females in the bivariate plots. Results suggest that, while the indices can be used with some confidence to sex individual fossil specimens, their greatest utility will be for identifying the sex of groups of canines united by size and morphology.

  15. Unilateral Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Koç, Nagihan; Çağırankaya, L. Berna; Akkaya, Nursel

    2014-01-01

    Congenital absence of maxillary permanent canines is an extremely rare condition, which may appear as part of a syndrome or as a nonsyndromic form. Nonsyndromic canine agenesis combined with other types of tooth agenesis has occasionally been described in the literature but isolated cases are rarely observed. This report presents an isolated case of maxillary permanent canine agenesis in a healthy 18-year-old female patient and a literature review on the prevalence, etiology, and differential diagnosis of the condition. PMID:25177502

  16. European canine lymphoma network consensus recommendations for reporting flow cytometry in canine hematopoietic neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Comazzi, S; Avery, P R; Garden, O A; Riondato, F; Rütgen, B; Vernau, W

    2017-09-01

    Flow cytometry (FC) is assuming increasing importance in diagnosis in veterinary oncology. The European Canine Lymphoma Network (ECLN) is an international cooperation of different institutions working on canine lymphoma diagnosis and therapy. The ECLN panel of experts on FC has defined the issue of reporting FC on canine lymphoma and leukemia as their first hot topic, since a standardized report that includes all the important information is still lacking in veterinary medicine. The flow cytometry panel of the ECLN started a consensus initiative using the Delphi approach. Clinicians were considered the main target of FC reports. A panel of experts in FC was interrogated about the important information needed from a report. Using the feedback from clinicians and subsequent discussion, a list of information to be included in the report was made, with four different levels of recommendation. The final report should include both a quantitative part and a qualitative or descriptive part with interpretation of the salient results. Other items discussed included the necessity of reporting data regarding the quality of samples, use of absolute numbers of positive cells, cutoff values, the intensity of fluorescence, and possible aberrant patterns of antigen expression useful from a clinical point of view. The consensus initiative is a first step toward standardization of diagnostic approach to canine hematopoietic neoplasms among different institutions and countries. This harmonization will improve communication and patient care and also facilitate the multicenter studies necessary to further our knowledge of canine hematopoietic neoplasms. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  17. Interstitial pneumonia in neonatal canine pups with evidence of canine distemper virus infection.

    PubMed

    Pandher, Karamjeet; Podell, Brendan; Gould, Daniel H; Johnson, Bill J; Thompson, Sheri

    2006-03-01

    Four dead canine pups (5-12 days old) from 3 litters in Douglas County of north central Colorado were submitted to the Colorado State University Diagnostic Laboratory for necropsy. Pups were originally presented to the referring clinics for respiratory tract illness, with or without diarrhea. At necropsy, the lungs from all pups had similar lesions, including random foci of hemorrhage and failure to collapse on opening of the thoracic cavity. The lungs were histologically characterized by subacute interstitial pneumonia, with alveolar septa expanded by a histiocyte-rich infiltrate with a few lymphocytes and neutrophils. The alveolar spaces were filled with moderate amounts of proteinaceous fluid, foamy macrophages, and a few neutrophils. Lungs from 3 of the 4 pups were test positive for canine distemper virus (CDV) by use of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Immunohistochemically stained lungs, including those from the pup that were CDV negative, by use of RT-PCR analysis, were test positive for CDV antigen in bronchial and bronchiolar epithelial cells and in a few alveolar macrophages. Central nervous system lesions were not observed in any of the 4 pups. These cases represent an unusual presentation of canine distemper in neonatal pups marked by respiratory tract lesions without central nervous system involvement. Canine distemper should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neonatal canine respiratory tract illness.

  18. Turkey model for flexor tendon research: in vitro comparison of human, canine, turkey, and chicken tendons.

    PubMed

    Kadar, Assaf; Thoreson, Andrew R; Reisdorf, Ramona L; Amadio, Peter C; Moran, Steven L; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2017-08-01

    Flexor tendon injuries are one of the most common hand injuries and remain clinically challenging for functional restoration. Canine and chicken have been the most commonly used animal models for flexor tendon-related research but possess several disadvantages. The purpose of this study was to explore a potential turkey model for flexor tendon research. The third digit from human cadaveric hands, canine forepaws, turkey foot, and chicken foot were used for this study. Six digits in each of four species were studied in detail, comparing anatomy of the flexor apparatus, joint range of motioņ tendon excursion, tendon cross-sectional area, work of flexion, gliding resistance at the level of the A2 pulley, modulus of elasticity, suture retention strength, and histology across species. Anatomically, the third digit in the four species displayed structural similarities; however, the tendon cross-sectional area of the turkey and human were similar and larger than canine and chicken. Furthermore, the turkey digit resembles the human's finger with the lack of webbing between digits, similar vascularization, tendon excursion, work of flexion, gliding resistance, mechanical properties, and suture holding strength. More importantly, human and turkey tendons were most similar in histological appearance. Turkey flexor tendons have many properties that are comparable to human flexor tendons which would provide a clinically relevant, economical, nonhuman companion large animal model for flexor tendon research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sports Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  20. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  1. Interceptive approach to treatment of impacted maxillary canines.

    PubMed

    de Mendonça, Marcos Rogério; Verri, Ana Caroline Gonçales; Martins, Lídia Pimenta; Fabre, Aubrey Fernando; Cuoghi, Osmar Aparecido

    2012-01-01

    Impaction of maxillary canines can be prevented by early intervention in the mixed dentition phase after the correct diagnosis of malocclusion, reducing the complexity of the treatment. This article reports the case of a 10-year-old patient who possessed impacted maxillary canines and, after early extraction of primary canines, had reestablished favorable permanent successors' eruption axis. This 5-year radiographic follow-up study with panoramic radiography shows that this can be used in practice and that an effective control strategy ensures the accuracy in the inclination of the impacted canines. Treatment success is related to early diagnosis and strategic interceptive treatment choice.

  2. What factors are associated with impacted canines in cleft patients?

    PubMed

    Westerlund, Anna; Sjöström, Mats; Björnström, Lena; Ransjö, Maria

    2014-11-01

    It is important to predict and prevent the impaction of canines. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of impacted canines in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and to identify factors associated with impaction. This retrospective cohort study included patients with nonsyndromic UCLP. The predictors were pre-eruptive inclination angle, deviation in tooth number (agenesis or supernumerary lateral incisors), and reoperation of bone transplant. The outcome variable was impacted and surgically exposed canines. The prevalence of impacted and surgically exposed canines in the 68 consecutive patients with UCLP was 20.6%. The pre-eruptive inclination angle was significantly larger (34.4°) for the impacted canines on the cleft side compared with the spontaneously erupted canines on the cleft and non-cleft sides (25.5° vs 15.4; P < .05). Reoperation of the bone transplant significantly increased canine impaction (50%; P < .05). The eruption of maxillary canines needs to be supervised carefully in patients with UCLP, because the prevalence of impaction is 10 times higher compared with the general population. Factors associated with canine impaction are a pre-eruptive inclination larger than 30° and reoperation of the bone transplant. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Developmental processes and canine dimorphism in primate evolution.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Gary T; Miller, Ellen R; Gunnell, Gregg F

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the evolutionary history of canine sexual dimorphism is important for interpreting the developmental biology, socioecology and phylogenetic position of primates. All current evidence for extant primates indicates that canine dimorphism is achieved through bimaturism rather than via differences in rates of crown formation time. Using incremental growth lines, we charted the ontogeny of canine formation within species of Eocene Cantius, the earliest known canine-dimorphic primate, to test whether canine dimorphism via bimaturism was developmentally canalized early in primate evolution. Our results show that canine dimorphism in Cantius is achieved primarily through different rates of crown formation in males and females, not bimaturism. This is the first demonstration of rate differences resulting in canine dimorphism in any primate and therefore suggests that canine dimorphism is not developmentally homologous across Primates. The most likely interpretation is that canine dimorphism has been selected for at least twice during the course of primate evolution. The power of this approach is its ability to identify underlying developmental processes behind patterns of morphological similarity, even in long-extinct primate species.

  4. Hamstring injuries.

    PubMed

    Ropiak, Christopher R; Bosco, Joseph A

    2012-01-01

    Hamstring injuries are a frequent injury in athletes. Proximal injuries are common, ranging from strain to complete tear. Strains are managed nonoperatively, with rest followed by progressive stretching and strengthening. Reinjury is a concern. High grade complete tears are better managed surgically, with reattachment to the injured tendon or ischial tuberosity. Distal hamstring injury is usually associated with other knee injuries, and isolated injury is rare.

  5. Canine islets in an ultrafiltered environment.

    PubMed

    Merrell, R C; Basadonna, G

    1985-11-01

    Molecular sieve membranes can protect pancreatic islets against immune recognition in diabetic patients treated by endocrine tissue replacement. These biocompatible membranes permit the passage of small peptides such as insulin, and preclude the diffusion of immunoglobulins and immunogenic molecules. However, the tissue must function indefinitely in an ultrafiltered environment determined by the sequestering membranes. The chronic perifusion of canine islet tissue was compared in ultrafiltered and microfiltered chambers. The biphasic pattern of insulin release by similar numbers of islets from the same pancrease preparation was not significantly different when tissue was cultured in a micro- or an ultrafiltered environment. The cumulative insulin output of the two systems was quite similar over 3 days of culture. Canine islet tissue can be sustained in an ultrafiltered environment with maintenance of insulin release to glucose stimulation, which is quantitatively similar to islet tissue maintained in chronic perifusion without ultrafiltration.

  6. Reevaluating canine perspective-taking behavior.

    PubMed

    Udell, Monique A R; Wynne, Clive D L

    2011-12-01

    Udell, Dorey, and Wynne (2011) demonstrated that both domesticated and nondomesticated canids-specifically, gray wolves-have the capacity to succeed on perspective-taking tasks, suggesting that dogs' ability to respond to the human attentional state is not a by-product of domestication alone. Furthermore, not all dogs were successful on the task. Instead, the occluder type used was a strong predictor of performance, indicating the important role of environment and experience for tasks of this type. Here, we address several commentaries reflecting on the methods and design of that study, as well as the interpretation of the results. We also discuss the positive shift toward more interactive approaches in the field of canine behavior and cognition. Finally, we question the functionality of describing canine social behavior in terms of theory of mind.

  7. Mapping lubricin in canine musculoskeletal tissues.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yulong; Berger, Evelyn J; Zhao, Chunfeng; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C; Jay, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Lubricin, also known as superficial zone protein or PRG4, has many distinct biological functions, including lubrication, antiadhesion, and as a regulator of cell growth. This study investigated lubricin in canine musculoskeletal tissues using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. One or more variants were noted in canine flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon, Achilles tendon, patellar tendon, A2 pulley, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), knee lateral collateral ligament (LCL), articular cartilage, meniscus, muscle, and skin. We found 6 N-terminal lubricin splicing variants. The variants with larger sizes were identified in FDP tendon, ACL, LCL, A2 pulley, and cartilage. Lubricin was distributed both on the tissue surfaces and at the interface of fiber bundles within tissues, but this distribution varied by tissue type. We conclude that lubricin is present in many tissues; variations in splicing and physical distribution suggest that the variants of lubricin may play different roles in different locations.

  8. Kynanthropy: canine madness in Byzantine late antiquity.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Nadine

    2015-09-01

    Those afflicted bark like dogs, scramble on all fours and loiter around graveyards - canine madness, referred to as kynanthropy, was an illness concept in its own right in the medicine of late antiquity. At roughly the same time as the medical description produced by Aëtius of Amida, the Syrian chronicler John of Ephesus, also from Amida, reported an epidemic of dog-like madness sweeping his home town in ad 560. The symptoms are identical and both authors are from Amida - what is the connection between the two depictions? In addition to the history of the medical concept, the example of the canine madness of Amida and its cultural embedding allows us to contextualize and interpret the significance of dog-like behaviour for the people of the sixth century AD. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Isolation and cultivation of canine uveal melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Dawson-Baglien, Ethan M; Winkler, Paige A; Bruewer, Ashlee R; Petersen-Jones, Simon M; Bartoe, Joshua T

    2015-07-01

    To establish a method for isolation and culture of canine uveal melanocytes. Uveal explants from five mixed-breed dogs. Donor globes were dissected, and the anterior uvea removed. The uveal explants were placed in trypsin solution for enzymatic digestion. Extracted cells were cultured in modified F12 media. Immunocytochemistry was performed to confirm the identity of the extracted cells. Melanocytes were successfully isolated from uveal explants. Contaminating cell types were not observed. Repeated passaging of the melanocytes resulted in a gradual decrease in intracellular pigment. Melanocyte cell lines could be cryopreserved, thawed, and cultures successfully reestablished. This extraction technique allows for generation of large populations of canine uveal melanocytes in a relatively short period of time. This technique could be a useful tool for future studies investigating both normal cellular characteristics and alterations found in melanocytes from dogs with ocular melanocytic disorders. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  10. The treatment of canine demodecosis with amitraz.

    PubMed

    Davis, D A

    1985-03-01

    The treatment of a series of 27 clinical cases of canine demodecosis is reported. Three of 4 applications of a wash containing 0,025% amitraz, together with antimicrobial and antipruritic therapy where necessary, were sufficient to effect clinical cure in 25 out of 26 cases mildly to severely affected. In one case, very severely affected, 9 weekly applications, together with antimicrobial and antipruritic therapy, effected clinical and parasitological cure.

  11. [Restoration of canine guidance using bonded prostheses].

    PubMed

    Maroto García, J; Maroto García, F

    1989-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer an easy, accurate and aesthetical solution to the problem of the loss, by wastage, of anterior guides in those patients who show facets in initial stages of bruxism (central of peripheral). Using the acid-etch non-precious metals(Cr-Ni-Be) technique we make a metalic plaque covering the posterior face of the upper canines, on which we place a porcelain incisal rim. All of this is fixed with a composed material.

  12. Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Expression in Canine Liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Avallone, G; Pellegrino, V; Roccabianca, P; Lepri, E; Crippa, L; Beha, G; De Tolla, L; Sarli, G

    2017-03-01

    The expression of tyrosine kinase receptors is attracting major interest in human and veterinary oncological pathology because of their role as targets for adjuvant therapies. Little is known about tyrosine kinase receptor (TKR) expression in canine liposarcoma (LP), a soft tissue sarcoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of the TKRs fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFRβ); their ligands, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB); and c-kit in canine LP. Immunohistochemical labeling was categorized as high or low expression and compared with the mitotic count and MIB-1-based proliferation index. Fifty canine LPs were examined, classified, and graded. Fourteen cases were classified as well differentiated, 7 as myxoid, 25 as pleomorphic, and 4 as dedifferentiated. Seventeen cases were grade 1, 26 were grade 2, and 7 were grade 3. A high expression of FGF2, FGFR1, PDGFB, and PDGFRβ was identified in 62% (31/50), 68% (34/50), 81.6% (40/49), and 70.8% (34/48) of the cases, respectively. c-kit was expressed in 12.5% (6/48) of the cases. Mitotic count negatively correlated with FGF2 ( R = -0.41; P < .01), being lower in cases with high FGF2 expression, and positively correlated with PDGFRβ ( R = 0.33; P < .01), being higher in cases with high PDGFRβ expression. No other statistically significant correlations were identified. These results suggest that the PDGFRβ-mediated pathway may have a role in the progression of canine LP and may thus represent a promising target for adjuvant cancer therapies.

  13. Serologic investigations of canine parvovirus and canine distemper in relation to wolf (Canis lupus) pup mortalities.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M R; Boyd, D K; Pletscher, D H

    1994-04-01

    Twenty-one serum samples from 18 wolves (Canis lupus) were collected from 1985 to 1990 from northwestern Montana (USA) and southeastern British Columbia, Canada, and evaluated for antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper (CD), infectious canine hepatitis, and Lyme disease; we found prevalences of 13 (65%) of 19, five (29%) of 17, seven (36%) of 19, and 0 of 20 wolves for these diseases, respectively. Pups died or disappeared in three of the eight packs studied. In these three packs, adult pack members had CPV titers > or = 1,600 or CD titers > or = 1,250. In packs that successfully raised pups, CPV and CD titers were low. We propose that CPV or CD may have caused some pup mortalities.

  14. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73) and rainfall (r2 0.39), >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  15. Canine kobuviruses in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Barbara; Di Felice, Elisabetta; Ceci, Chiara; Di Profio, Federica; Marsilio, Fulvio

    2013-09-27

    Canine kobuviruses (CaKVs) are newly recognized picornaviruses recently detected in dogs in the US. By molecular analysis of the whole genome, CaKV that appeared genetically closest to the murine kobuvirus (MuKV) and to the human Aichi virus (AiV), may be classified in the Kobuvirus genus as new genotype (CaKV type 1) within the species Aichivirus A. To date, there are no information on the epidemiology of these novel viruses in other continents. In this study, by screening a collection of 256 dog fecal samples either from diarrhoeic or asymptomatic animals, CaKV was identified in six specimens with an overall prevalence of 2.34% (6/256). All the positive dogs presented diarrhea and were found to be infected by CaKV alone or in mixed infections with canine coronavirus (CCoV) and/or canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2). By molecular analysis of the partial 3D gene, all the strains detected displayed a close relatedness with the CaKVs recently identified in the US. This study provides evidence that CaKVs circulate in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy and are not geographically restricted to the North American continent, where they were first signaled. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Rugby injuries.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Andrew S

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to review critically the existing studies on the epidemiology of pediatric rugby injuries and discuss suggestions for injury prevention and further research. Data were sourced from the sports medicine and science literature mainly since 1990, and from a prospective injury surveillance project in rugby undertaken by the University of New South Wales (UNSW) in Sydney during 2002. Literature searches were performed using Medline and SportsDiscus. Reported injury rates were between 7 and 18 injuries per 1,000 hours played, with the rate of injuries resulting in loss of playing or training time measured at 6.5-10.6 per 1,000 hours played. Injury rates increased with age and level of qualification. Head injury and concussion accounted for 10-40% of all injuries. In the UNSW study, concussion accounted for 25% of injuries resulting in loss of playing or training time in the under 13 year age group. Upper and lower extremity injuries were equally apportioned, with musculoskeletal injuries being the main type of injury. Fractures were observed in the upper extremity and ankle, and joint/ligament injuries affected the shoulder, knee and ankle. The tackle was associated with around 50% of all injuries. The scrum produced fewer injuries, but is historically associated with spinal cord injury. Rugby is a contact sport with injury risks related to physical contact, primarily in the tackle. Most injuries affect the musculoskeletal system, with the exception of concussion. Spinal cord injury is rare, but catastrophic. Research is required to understand better injury risks and to reduce the incidence of shoulder, knee and ankle joint injuries, concussion and spinal injury.

  17. Feasibility and repeatability for in vivo measurements of stiffness gradients in the canine gastrocnemius tendon using an acoustoelastic strain gauge

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, Michelle; Kobayashi, Hirohito; Delaney, Fern; Danielson, Kelson; Vanderby, Ray; Muir, Peter; Forrest, Lisa J

    2014-01-01

    B-mode ultrasound is an established imaging modality for evaluating canine tendon injury. However, full extent of tendon injury often remains difficult to estimate, as small changes in sonographic appearance are associated with large changes in biomechanical strength. The acoustoelastic strain gauge (ASG) is an ultrasound-based tissue evaluation technique that relates the change in echo intensity observed during relaxation or stretching of tendons to the tissue’s mechanical properties. This technique deduces stiffness gradient (the rate of change of normalized stiffness as a function of tissue strain) by analyzing the ultrasound dynamic images captured from gradually deforming tissue. Acoustoelastic strain gauge has been proven to accurately model strain and stiffness within tendons in vitro. To determine the feasibility and repeatability for in vivo ASG measurements of canine tendon function, stiffness gradients for the gastrocnemius tendons of ten clinically normal dogs were recorded by two non-independent observers at three sites (musculotendinous junction, mid tendon, and insertion). Average stiffness gradient indices (0.0132, 0.0141, 0.0136) and dispersion values (0.0053, 0.0054, 0.0057) for each site, respectively, were consistent with published mechanical properties for normal canine tendon. Mean differences of the average stiffness gradient index and dispersion value between observers and between limbs for each site were less than 16%. Using interclass coefficients (ICC), intraobserver (ICC 0.79–0.98) and interobserver (ICC 0.77–0.95) reproducibility was good to excellent. Right and left limb values were symmetric (ICC 0.74–0.92). Findings from this study indicated that ASG is a feasible and repeatable technique for measuring stiffness gradients in canine tendons. PMID:23663072

  18. Cloning and characterization of canine PAX6 and evaluation as a candidate gene in a canine model of aniridia.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Linda S; Sidjanin, Duska J; Hijar, Manuel Villagrasa; Johnson, Jennifer L; Kirkness, Ewen; Acland, Gregory M; Aguirre, Gustavo D

    2007-03-26

    Mutations in PAX6 cause human aniridia. The small eye (sey) mouse represents an animal model for aniridia. However, no large animal model currently exists. We cloned and characterized canine PAX6, and evaluated PAX6 for causal associations with inherited aniridia in dogs. Canine PAX6 was cloned from a canine retinal cDNA library using primers designed from human and mouse PAX6 consensus sequences. An RH3000 radiation hybrid panel was used to localize PAX6 within the canine genome. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood of dogs with inherited aniridia, and association testing was performed using markers on CFA18. Fourteen PAX6 exons were sequenced and scanned for mutations, and a Southern blot was used to test for large deletions. Like the human gene, canine PAX6 has 13 exons and 12 introns, plus an alternatively spliced exon (5a). PAX6 nucleotide and amino acid sequences were highly conserved between dog, human, and mouse. The canine PAX6 cDNA sequence determined in this study spans 2 large gaps present in the current canine genomic sequence. Radiation hybrid mapping placed canine PAX6 on CFA18 in a region with synteny to HSA11p13. Exon-scanning revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms, but no pathological mutations, and Southern blot analysis revealed no differences between normal and affected animals. Canine PAX6 was cloned and characterized, and results provide sequence information for gaps in the current canine genome sequence. Canine PAX6 nucleotide and amino acid sequences, as well as gene organization and map location, were highly homologous with that of the human gene. PAX6 was evaluated in dogs with an inherited form of aniridia, and sequence analysis indicated no pathological mutations in the coding regions or splice sites of aniridia-affected dogs, and Southern blot analysis showed no large deletions.

  19. Canine evolution in sabretoothed carnivores: natural selection or sexual selection?

    PubMed

    Randau, Marcela; Carbone, Chris; Turvey, Samuel T

    2013-01-01

    The remarkable elongated upper canines of extinct sabretoothed carnivorous mammals have been the subject of considerable speculation on their adaptive function, but the absence of living analogues prevents any direct inference about their evolution. We analysed scaling relationships of the upper canines of 20 sabretoothed feliform carnivores (Nimravidae, Barbourofelidae, Machairodontinae), representing both dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, and 33 non-sabretoothed felids in relation to body size in order to characterize and identify the evolutionary processes driving their development, using the scaling relationships of carnassial teeth in both groups as a control. Carnassials display isometric allometry in both sabretooths and non-sabretooths, supporting their close relationship with meat-slicing, whereas the upper canines of both groups display positive allometry with body size. Whereas there is no statistical difference in allometry of upper canine height between dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, the significantly stronger positive allometry of upper canine height shown by sabretooths as a whole compared to non-sabretooths reveals that different processes drove canine evolution in these groups. Although sabretoothed canines must still have been effective for prey capture and processing by hypercarnivorous predators, canine morphology in these extinct carnivores was likely to have been driven to a greater extent by sexual selection than in non-sabretooths. Scaling relationships therefore indicate the probable importance of sexual selection in the evolution of the hypertrophied sabretooth anterior dentition.

  20. First detection of canine parvovirus type 2c in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Streck, André Felipe; de Souza, Carine Kunzler; Gonçalves, Karla Rathje; Zang, Luciana; Pinto, Luciane Dubina; Canal, Cláudio Wageck

    2009-01-01

    The presence of canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), 2a and 2b has been described in Brazil, however, the type 2c had not been reported until now. In the current study, seven out of nine samples from dogs with diarrhea were characterized as CPV-2c, indicating that this virus is already circulating in the Brazilian canine population. PMID:24031389

  1. 9 CFR 113.316 - Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.316 Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine. Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed which has been established as pure, safe, and...

  2. 9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.306 Canine Distemper Vaccine. Canine Distemper Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established...

  3. 9 CFR 113.316 - Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.316 Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine. Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed which has been established as pure, safe, and...

  4. 9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.306 Canine Distemper Vaccine. Canine Distemper Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established...

  5. 9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.306 Canine Distemper Vaccine. Canine Distemper Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established...

  6. 9 CFR 113.316 - Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.316 Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine. Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed which has been established as pure, safe, and...

  7. Adult treatment with removal of all four permanent canines.

    PubMed

    Freeman, R S

    1994-11-01

    The permanent canines-especially in the maxillary arch-have always been considered of prime importance, even before the "cuspid protection" hypothesis became well known to most orthodontists in the 1960s. In the adult case presented, periodontal considerations and other factors led to the unconventional (and likely controversial) extraction of all four canines.

  8. Sex differences in anthropoid mandibular canine lateral enamel formation.

    PubMed

    Guatelli-Steinberg, Debbie; Ferrell, Rebecca J; Spence, Jennifer; Talabere, Tiffany; Hubbard, Amelia; Schmidt, Stacey

    2009-10-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that great ape and macaque males achieve large canine crown sizes primarily through extended canine growth periods. Recent work has suggested, however, that platyrrhine males may achieve larger canine sizes by accelerating rather than prolonging growth. This study tested the hypothesis that the ontogenetic pathway leading to canine sexual dimorphism in catarrhines differs from that of platyrrhines. To test this hypothesis, males and females of several catarrhine genera (Hylobates, Papio, Macaca, Cercopithecus, and Cercocebus) and three platyrrhine genera (Cebus, Ateles, and Callicebus) were compared in the number and spacing of perikymata (enamel growth increments) on their canine crowns. In addition, perikymata periodicities (the number of days of growth perikymata represent) were determined for five genera (Hylobates, Papio, Macaca, Cebus, and Ateles) using previously published as well as original data gathered for this study. The central findings are as follows: 1) males have more perikymata than females for seven of eight genera (in five of the seven, the differences are statistically significant); 2) in general, the greater the degree of sexual dimorphism, the greater the sex difference in male and female perikymata numbers; 3) there is no evidence of a systematic sex difference in primate periodicities; and 4) there is some evidence that sex differences in enamel formation rates may make a minor contribution to canine sexual dimorphism in Papio and Cercopithecus. These findings strongly suggest that in both catarrhines and platyrrhines prolongation of male canine growth is the primary mechanism by which canine crown sexual dimorphism is achieved.

  9. Canine tooth size and fitness in male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    PubMed

    Leigh, Steven R; Setchell, Joanna M; Charpentier, Marie; Knapp, Leslie A; Wickings, E Jean

    2008-07-01

    Sexual selection theory explains the evolution of exaggerated male morphologies and weaponry, but the fitness consequences of developmental and age-related changes in these features remain poorly understood. This long-term study of mandrill monkeys (Mandrillus sphinx) demonstrates how age-related changes in canine tooth weaponry and adult canine size correlate closely with male lifetime reproductive success. Combining long-term demographic and morphometric data reveals that male fitness covaries simply and directly with canine ontogeny, adult maximum size, and wear. However, fitness is largely independent of other somatometrics. Male mandrills sire offspring almost exclusively when their canines exceed approximately 30 mm, or two-thirds of average adult value (45 mm). Moreover, sires have larger canines than nonsires. The tooth diminishes through wear as animals age, corresponding with, and perhaps influencing, reproductive senescence. These factors combine to constrain male reproductive opportunities to a brief timespan, defined by the period of maximum canine length. Sexually-selected weaponry, especially when it is nonrenewable like the primate canine tooth, is intimately tied to the male life course. Our analyses of this extremely dimorphic species indicate that sexual selection is closely intertwined with growth, development, and aging, pointing to new directions for sexual selection theory. Moreover, the primate canine tooth has potential as a simple mammalian system for testing genetically-based models of aging. Finally, the tooth may record details of life histories in fossil primates, especially when sexual selection has played a role in the evolution of dimorphism.

  10. Limitations of the mandibular canine index in sex assessment.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Ashith B; Mainali, Sneedha

    2009-02-01

    Measuring teeth is a useful adjunct in sex assessment. Canines, in particular, have the greatest degree of sexual dimorphism, resist disease and survive postmortem trauma, rendering them highly valuable in identification. Hence, their exclusive use in odontometric sex assessment using the Mandibular Canine Index (MCI) has been advocated before. The MCI is derived as the ratio of the mesiodistal (MD) dimension of canines and the inter-canine arch width. This study has tested the use of the MCI in assessing sex on a sample from Nepal and compared its accuracy to that of absolute canine measurements. Measurements were obtained from one hundred-and-seventeen dental stone casts that belonged to 63 males and 54 females, all young adults in the age-group 19-28 years. Independent samples t-test revealed no significant sexual dimorphism in the MCI. In addition, discriminant analysis of the MCI also had poor ability to differentiate the sexes. In contrast, the absolute canine measurements revealed statistically significant male-female difference and superior ability to differentiate sex using discriminant analysis. The poor ability of the MCI in sex assessment is attributed to it being a relative value-it is obtained as the ratio of two absolute measurements (MD dimension of canines and inter-canine arch width) and does not reflect sex differences that exist in the absolute measurements per se.

  11. The Aerodynamics and Transport Phenomena of Canine Olfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craven, Brent; Settles, Gary; Paterson, Eric

    2008-11-01

    A high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the canine nasal airway, developed from a 3-D reconstruction of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, is used to study the aerodynamics of canine olfaction. Simulation results reveal that a unique olfactory airflow pattern exists within the canine nasal cavity during sniffing that is critical for efficient olfaction. The physics of olfactory mass transport are next considered via a reduced-order numerical model of multi-phase odorant transport in mucus-lined olfactory airways. Calculations show that this novel olfactory airflow pattern provides a crucial residence time for odorant absorption in the sensory region and promotes spatiotemporal fractionation of odorant mixtures along the olfactory epithelium. Consequently, the aerodynamics and transport phenomena of canine olfaction are highly-optimized for odorant transfer and olfactory discrimination, which may largely explain the high olfactory acuity of the canine.

  12. Morphology and immunoreactivity of canine and feline extramedullary plasmacytomas.

    PubMed

    Mikiewicz, M; Otrocka-Domagała, I; Paździor-Czapula, K; Gesek, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of morphology and immunophenotype of canine (19 cases) and feline (7 cases) extramedullary plasmacytomas. Tumours, located in skin, oral cavity and spleen were surgically excised, fixed and processed for histopathology and immunohistochemistry (CD79α, CD18, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, metallothionein). Histologically, tumours were classified into mature, cleaved, asynchronous, polymorphous blastic, hyalin, or monomorphous blastic type. All evaluated tumours showed cytoplasmic expression of CD79α antigen. The expression of CD18 was observed in canine cutaneous and splenic tumours. In canine tumours expression of metallothionein was low to moderate, while in feline plasmacytomas - absent or low. In canine tumours, the mitotic index and proliferating cell nuclear antigen index were positively correlated with the expression of metallothionein. In feline tumours no correlation between mitotic index, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and metallothionein was found. This is the first study describing expression of metallothionein in canine and feline extramedullary plasmacytoma.

  13. RAS gene hot-spot mutations in canine neoplasias.

    PubMed

    Richter, A; Murua Escobar, H; Günther, K; Soller, J T; Winkler, S; Nolte, I; Bullerdiek, J

    2005-01-01

    Point mutations in the cellular homologues HRAS, KRAS2, and NRAS of the viral Harvey and Kirsten rat sarcoma virus oncogenes are commonly involved in the onset of malignancies in humans and other species such as dog, mouse, and rat. Most often, three particular hot-spot codons are affected, with one amino acid exchange being sufficient for the induction of tumor growth. While RAS genes have been shown to play an important role in canine tumors such as non-small lung cell carcinomas, data about RAS mutations in canine fibrosarcomas as well as KRAS2 mutations in canine melanomas is sparse. To increase the number of tumors examined, we recently screened 13 canine fibrosarcomas and 11 canine melanomas for point mutations, particularly within the mutational hot spots. The results were compared to the already existing data from other studies about these tumors in dogs.

  14. Canine brain tumours: a model for the human disease?

    PubMed

    Hicks, J; Platt, S; Kent, M; Haley, A

    2017-03-01

    Canine brain tumours are becoming established as naturally occurring models of disease to advance diagnostic and therapeutic understanding successfully. The size and structure of the dog's brain, histopathology and molecular characteristics of canine brain tumours, as well as the presence of an intact immune system, all support the potential success of this model. The limited success of current therapeutic regimens such as surgery and radiation for dogs with intracranial tumours means that there can be tremendous mutual benefit from collaboration with our human counterparts resulting in the development of new treatments. The similarities and differences between the canine and human diseases are described in this article, emphasizing both the importance and limitations of canines in brain tumour research. Recent clinical veterinary therapeutic trials are also described to demonstrate the areas of research in which canines have already been utilized and to highlight the important potential benefits of translational research to companion dogs.

  15. Recombinant canine distemper virus serves as bivalent live vaccine against rabies and canine distemper.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xijun; Feng, Na; Ge, Jinying; Shuai, Lei; Peng, Liyan; Gao, Yuwei; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu; Bu, Zhigao

    2012-07-20

    Effective, safe, and affordable rabies vaccines are still being sought. Attenuated live vaccine has been widely used to protect carnivores from canine distemper. In this study, we generated a recombinant canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine strain, rCDV-RVG, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) by using reverse genetics. The recombinant virus rCDV-RVG retained growth properties similar to those of vector CDV in Vero cell culture. Animal studies demonstrated that rCDV-RVG was safe in mice and dogs. Mice inoculated intracerebrally or intramuscularly with rCDV-RVG showed no apparent signs of disease and developed a strong rabies virus (RABV) neutralizing antibody response, which completely protected mice from challenge with a lethal dose of street virus. Canine studies showed that vaccination with rCDV-RVG induced strong and long-lasting virus neutralizing antibody responses to RABV and CDV. This is the first study demonstrating that recombinant CDV has the potential to serve as bivalent live vaccine against rabies and canine distemper in animals.

  16. Reliability of mandibular canine and mandibular canine index in sex determination: A study using Uyghur population.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Raza; Zhang, Shuang; Mi, Congbo

    2015-07-01

    Sex determination is a key process that is required to establish the forensic profile of an individual. Mandibular canine index (MCI) method yields fairly positive results for sex determination. However, this method has been challenged by a few authors. This study aimed to examine the reliability of MCI in Chinese Uyghur population and to establish its normal value for this ethnic group. Dental casts of 216 students (117 males and 119 females) from the College of Stomatology of Xinjiang Medical University in China were used to determine the sexing accuracy of MCI. The mesiodistal (MD) dimension of mandibular canine crowns, the inter-canine distance, and the MCI were calculated. The accuracy of the standard MCI derived from the current data was compared with that of the standard MCIs derived from previous data. Results were statistically described using the independent-samples t-test. The MD dimension of mandibular crown, the inter-canine distance, and the MCI exhibited statistically significant sexual dimorphism. Sex determination using the MCI derived from the current data revealed fairly reliable results. Therefore, MCI is a reliable method for sex determination for Uyghur population, with 0.248 as standard MCI value.

  17. Nosocomial Outbreak of Serious Canine Infectious Tracheobronchitis (Kennel Cough) Caused by Canine Herpesvirus Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Kazuo; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Ken; Imai, Ayako; Ohashi, Emi; Matsunaga, Satoru; Tohya, Yukinobu; Ohshima, Takahisa; Mochizuki, Masami

    2010-01-01

    Canine herpesvirus (CHV; Canid herpesvirus 1) is principally a perinatal pathogen of pregnant bitches and newborn pups and secondarily a respiratory tract pathogen of older pups and dogs. Infectious disease of the canine respiratory tract frequently occurs among dogs in groups, in which it is called “ infectious tracheobronchitis” (ITB). Mortality from ITB is generally negligible, and the clinical importance of CHV as an ITB pathogen is considered to be low. The present report describes a novel ITB outbreak accompanied by death among aged dogs in an animal medical center. Most inpatient dogs had received medications that could induce immunosuppression. CHV was the only pathogen identified, and several CHV isolates were recovered in cell culture. No other viral pathogens or significant bacterial pathogens were found. Molecular and serological analyses revealed that the causative CHV isolates were from a single source but that none was a peculiar strain when the strains were compared with previous CHV strains. The virus had presumably spread among the dogs predisposed to infection in the center. The present results serve as a warning to canine clinics that, under the specific set of circumstances described, such serious CHV outbreaks may be expected wherever canine ITB occurs. PMID:20107103

  18. Interleukin-31: its role in canine pruritus and naturally occurring canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Andrea J; Humphrey, William R; Messamore, James E; Fleck, Timothy J; Fici, Gregory J; Shelly, John A; Teel, Janet F; Bammert, Gary F; Dunham, Steven A; Fuller, Troy E; McCall, Robert B

    2013-02-01

    Interleukin-31 (IL-31) is a member of the gp130/interleukin-6 cytokine family that is produced by cell types such as T helper 2 lymphocytes and cutaneous lymphocyte antigen positive skin homing T cells. When overexpressed in transgenic mice, IL-31 induces severe pruritus, alopecia and skin lesions. In humans, IL-31 serum levels correlate with the severity of atopic dermatitis in adults and children. To determine the role of IL-31 in canine pruritus and naturally occurring canine atopic dermatitis (AD). Purpose-bred beagle dogs were used for laboratory studies. Serum samples were obtained from laboratory animals, nondiseased client-owned dogs and client-owned dogs diagnosed with naturally occurring AD. Purpose-bred beagle dogs were administered canine interleukin-31 (cIL-31) via several routes (intravenous, subcutaneous or intradermal), and pruritic behaviour was observed/quantified via video monitoring. Quantitative immunoassay techniques were employed to measure serum levels of cIL-31 in dogs. Injection of cIL-31 into laboratory beagle dogs caused transient episodes of pruritic behaviour regardless of the route of administration. When evaluated over a 2 h period, dogs receiving cIL-31 exhibited a significant increase in pruritic behaviour compared with dogs that received placebo. In addition, cIL-31 levels were detectable in 57% of dogs with naturally occurring AD (≥ 13 pg/mL) but were below limits of quantification (<13 pg/mL) in normal, nondiseased laboratory or client-owned animals. Canine IL-31 induced pruritic behaviours in dogs. Canine IL-31 was detected in the majority of dogs with naturally occurring AD, suggesting that this cytokine may play an important role in pruritic allergic skin conditions, such as atopic dermatitis, in this species. © 2013 Pfizer Inc. Veterinary Dermatology © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  19. Three-year duration of immunity in dogs following vaccination against canine adenovirus type-1, canine parvovirus, and canine distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Gore, Thomas C; Lakshmanan, Nallakannu; Duncan, Karen L; Coyne, Michael J; Lum, Melissa A; Sterner, Frank J

    2005-01-01

    A challenge-of-immunity study was conducted to demonstrate immunity in dogs 3 years after their second vaccination with a new multivalent, modified-live vaccine containing canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine parvovirus (CPV), and canine distemper virus (CDV). Twenty-three seronegative pups were vaccinated at 7 and 11 weeks of age. Eighteen seronegative pups, randomized into groups of six dogs, served as challenge controls. Dogs were kept in strict isolation for 3 years following the vaccination and then challenged sequentially with virulent canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1), CPV, and CDV. For each viral challenge, a separate group of six control dogs was also challenged. Clinical signs of CAV-1, CPV, and CDV infections were prevented in 100% of vaccinated dogs, demonstrating that the multivalent, modified-live test vaccine provided protection against virulent CAV-1, CPV, and CDV challenge in dogs 7 weeks of age or older for a minimum of 3 years following second vaccination.

  20. Cloning and characterization of canine SHARP1 and its evaluation as a positional candidate for canine early retinal degeneration (erd).

    PubMed

    Kukekova, Anna V; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Acland, Gregory M

    2003-07-17

    Canine early retinal degeneration (erd) is an early onset form of canine progressive retinal atrophy phenotypically similar to human retinitis pigmentosa. In a previous study, the locus responsible for erd was mapped to canine chromosome 27 in the region corresponding to HSA12p, a region where no human retinal degeneration loci have been mapped. Canine SHARP1 gene has been localized on CFA27 in the erd interval by RH mapping, and considered as a positional candidate gene for erd. SHARP1 was cloned and sequenced from normal and erd affected dogs, and no disease-causing mutations were identified. Genotyping of 117 dogs from informative pedigrees did not reveal any recombinants between SHARP1 and erd. To date SHARP1 gene is the closest gene-specific marker to erd; genotyping additional informative pedigrees, and sequencing SHARP1 upstream regions from normal and affected dogs will be necessary to establish if SHARP1 is involved in this canine retinal disease.

  1. Coryneform bacteria associated with canine otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Aalbæk, Bent; Bemis, David A; Schjærff, Mette; Kania, Stephen A; Frank, Linda A; Guardabassi, Luca

    2010-10-26

    This study aims to investigate the occurrence of coryneform bacteria in canine otitis externa. A combined case series and case-control study was carried out to improve the current knowledge on frequency and clinical significance of coryneform bacteria in samples from canine otitis externa. A total of 16 cases of otitis externa with involvement of coryneform bacteria were recorded at two referral veterinary hospitals in Denmark and the US, respectively. Coryneform bacteria were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Corynebacterium auriscanis was the most common coryneform species (10 cases). Small colony variants of this species were also observed. Other coryneform isolates were identified as Corynebacterium amycolatum (3 cases), Corynebacterium freneyi (2 cases) and an Arcanobacterium-like species (1 case). The coryneform bacteria were in all cases isolated together with other bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus pseudintermedius alone (n=5) or in combination with Malassezia pachydermatis (n=5). Some coryneform isolates displayed resistance to fusidic acid or enrofloxacin, two antimicrobial agents commonly used for the treatment of otitis externa in dogs. The frequency of isolation of coryneform bacteria was 16% among 55 cases of canine otitis externa examined at the Danish hospital during 2007. In contrast, detectable levels of coryneform bacteria were not demonstrated in samples from the acustic meatus of 35 dogs with apparently healthy ears, attending the hospital during the same year. On basis of the current knowledge, these coryneform bacteria should be regarded as potential secondary pathogens able to proliferate in the environment of an inflamed ear canal. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Extraglandular and intraglandular vascularization of canine prostate.

    PubMed

    Stefanov, Miroslav

    2004-03-01

    The literature on the vascularization of the canine prostate is reviewed and the clinical significance of prostate morphology is described. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), combined with improved corrosion casting methods, reveal new morphological details that promise better diagnostics and treatment but also require expansion of clinical nomenclature. A proposal is made for including two previously unnamed veins in Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (NAV). The canine prostate has two lobes with independent vascularization. Each lobe is supplied through the left and right a. prostatica, respectively. The a. prostatica sprouts three small vessels (cranial, middle, and caudal) towards the prostate gland. A. prostatica is a small-size artery whose wall structure is similar to the arteries of the muscular type. V. prostatica is a small-size valved vein. The canine prostate has capsular, parenchymal, and urethral vascular zones. The surface vessels of the capsule are predominantly veins and the diameter of arterial vessels is larger than that of the veins. The trabecular vessels are of two types: direct and branched. The prostate parenchyma is supplied by branches of the trabecular vessels. The periacinary capillaries are fenestrated and form a net in a circular pattern. The processes of the myoepithelial cells embrace both the acins and the periacinar capillaries. In the prostate ductal system. there are spermatozoa. The prostatic part of the urethra is supplied by an independent branch of a. prostatica. The prostatic urethral part is drained by v. prostatica, the vein of the urethral bulb and the ventral prostate veins. M. urethralis begins as early as the urethral prostatic part. The greater part of the white muscle fibers in m. urethralis suggest an enhanced anaerobic metabolism.

  3. Snowboard injuries.

    PubMed

    Pino, E C; Colville, M R

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective survey of 267 snowboarders was undertaken to determine the population at risk and types and mechanisms of injuries sustained in this sport. Snowboarders are young (average age, 21 years), male (greater than 90%), view themselves in average or above average physical condition (96%), and have varied sports interests. One hundred ten injuries that resulted in a physician visit were reported. Ligament sprains, fractures, and contusions were the most frequent types of injury. Fifty percent of all injuries occurred in the lower extremities, with ankle injuries being the most common. Snowboard riders using equipment with increased ankle support seem to be more protected from lower extremity injuries. The lower extremity injuries were concentrated in the forward limb of the snowboarder, where the rider's weight is disproportionately distributed. Differences in the mechanism and spectrum of injury between snowboarding and skiing injuries were noted, including: impact rather than torsion as the major mechanism of injury, a significant lack of thumb injuries, comparative increase in ankle injuries, a decrease in knee injuries, and a higher percentage of upper extremity injuries.

  4. Creation of distal canine limb lymphedema

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.C.; Pribaz, J.J.; O'Brien, B.M.; Knight, K.R.; Morrison, W.A.

    1989-06-01

    A canine model of distal limb lymphedema was established in order to study the treatment of this condition by lymph node transfer. This model was more difficult to establish than whole-limb lymphedema. Significant edema was achieved by a combination of preoperative irradiation and circumferential removal of skin from the irradiated areas followed by removal of the contents of the popliteal fossa. Despite these measures, it was not possible to produce lymphedema in every case, possibly because of the presence of lymphaticovenous shunts and panvascular compensation mechanisms.

  5. Definition, Classification, and Pathophysiology of Canine Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Pizzirani, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Glaucoma is a common ocular condition in humans and dogs leading to optic nerve degeneration and irreversible blindness. Primary glaucoma is a group of spontaneous heterogeneous diseases. Multiple factors are involved in its pathogenesis and these factors vary across human ethnic groups and canine breeds, so the clinical phenotypes are numerous and their classification can be challenging and remain superficial. Aging and oxidative stress are major triggers for the manifestation of disease. Multiple, intertwined inflammatory and biochemical cascades eventually alter cellular and extracellular physiology in the optic nerve and trabecular meshwork and lead to vision loss.

  6. Surgery of the canine vagina and vulva.

    PubMed

    Mathews, K G

    2001-03-01

    Accurate diagnosis of canine vaginal abnormalities often requires general anesthesia, vaginoscopy, and contrast radiography. Abdominal ultrasonography, thoracic radiography, computed tomography, and histopathology may also be advised for the workup of mass lesions before surgery. Many procedures such as episioplasty and resection of pedunculated vaginal masses or edematous tissue are easily performed with proper planning and equipment (e.g., electrocautery). Consideration should be given to referring more complicated procedures such as resection of large vaginal masses or vaginal stenoses to a board-certified surgeon. Finally, preoperative placement of a fentanyl patch and pre- or postoperative epidural analgesia are highly recommended for any vulvovaginal surgical procedure.

  7. Functional Characterization of Canine Interferon-Lambda

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Wenhui; Xu, Lei; Ren, Liqian; Qu, Hongren; Li, Jing; Liang, Jingjing; Liu, Wenjun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we provide the first comprehensive annotation of canine interferon-λ (CaIFN-λ, type III IFN). Phylogenetic analysis based on genomic sequences indicated that CaIFN-λ is located in the same branch with Swine IFN-λ1 (SwIFN-λ), Bat IFN-λ1 (BaIFN-λ), and human IFN-λ1 (HuIFN-λ1). CaIFN-λ was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to further investigate the biological activity in vitro. The recombinant CaIFN-λ (rCaIFN-λ) displayed potent antiviral activity on both homologous and heterologous animal cells in terms of inhibiting the replication of the New Jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), canine parvovirus, and influenza virus A/WSN/33 (H1N1), respectively. In addition, we also found that rCaIFN-λ exhibits a significant antiproliferative response against A72 canine tumor cells and MDCK cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CaIFN-λ activated the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. To evaluate the expression of CaIFN-λ induced by virus and the expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) induced by rCaIFN-λ in the MDCK cells, we measured the relative mRNA level of CaIFN-λ and ISGs (ISG15, Mx1, and 2′5′-OAS) by quantitative real-time PCR and found that the mRNA level of CaIFN-λ and the ISGs significantly increased after treating the MDCK cells with viruses and rCaIFN-λ protein, respectively. Finally, to evaluate the binding activity of rCaIFN-λ to its receptor, we expressed the extracellular domain of the canine IFN-λ receptor 1 (CaIFN-λR1-EC) and determined the binding activity via ELISA. Our results demonstrated that rCaIFN-λ bound tightly to recombinant CaIFN-λR1-EC (rCaIFN-λR1-EC). PMID:24950142

  8. Canine distemper epizootic in Everglades mink.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, M W; Shindle, D B; Allison, A B; Terrell, S P; Mead, D G; Owen, M

    2009-10-01

    Four free-ranging mink, Neovison vison, collected between June and September 2004 in the Fakahatchee Strand Preserve State Park (FSPSP, Florida, USA), were examined for canine distemper virus (CDV) infection. Microscopic lesions and viral inclusions consistent with CDV infection were observed in three mink. Virus isolation and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction performed on all mink were positive for CDV. Anecdotal records of mink observations in FSPSP suggest a postepizootic decline in the mink population followed by an apparent recovery. We recommend further research to assess the status of the Everglades mink and the impact of CDV on this and other American mink populations in Florida.

  9. Maxillary canine restoration: a case report.

    PubMed

    Morris, G A; Lehman, G A

    1999-09-01

    The replacement of a single tooth with osseointegrated dental implants presents a unique challenge to both the prosthodontist and the surgeon. When anterior teeth are replaced, it is difficult to design an occlusal scheme that will direct forces down the long axis of an implant. This is especially true when the canine is involved. Wide-diameter implants offer advantages, such as increased surface area of implant to bone, stronger prosthetics, stronger implants, and less screw loosening or breakage when compared to standard-diameter implants. The single-stage technique is advantageous in terms of soft-tissue predictability, and it eliminates the need for second-stage surgery.

  10. The Genetics of Canine Skull Shape Variation

    PubMed Central

    Schoenebeck, Jeffrey J.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2013-01-01

    A dog’s craniofacial diversity is the result of continual human intervention in natural selection, a process that began tens of thousands of years ago. To date, we know little of the genetic underpinnings and developmental mechanisms that make dog skulls so morphologically plastic. In this Perspectives, we discuss the origins of dog skull shapes in terms of history and biology and highlight recent advances in understanding the genetics of canine skull shapes. Of particular interest are those molecular genetic changes that are associated with the development of distinct breeds. PMID:23396475

  11. Snowboarding injuries.

    PubMed

    Sachtleben, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    Snowboarding has gained immense popularity during the past 30 years and continues to appeal to many young participants. Injury patterns and characteristics of injuries seen commonly in snowboarders have rapidly evolved during this time. Risk factors have emerged, and various methods of reducing injuries to snowboarders have been investigated. It is important that medical providers are knowledgeable about this growing sport and are prepared to adequately evaluate and treat snowboarding injuries. This article will review the issues and discuss diagnostic and treatment principles regarding injuries seen commonly in snowboarders. Injury prevention should be emphasized, particularly with young riders and beginners.

  12. Skateboard injuries.

    PubMed

    Cass, D T; Ross, F

    1990-08-06

    The recent increase in skateboard injuries is causing concern. Over a 30-month period there were 80 admissions (69 children) to Westmead Hospital because of skateboard injuries. Among children most injuries were minor, involving fractures to the upper limbs (47) or minor head injuries (8). The only serious injuries were a ruptured urethra and a closed head injury. Over the same time period skateboard riding caused five deaths in New South Wales. These all involved head injuries and in four instances collisions with cars. The data strongly support other studies that show skateboard riding is particularly dangerous near traffic and should be proscribed. However, in parkland and around the home the skateboard is an enjoyable toy with an acceptable risk of minor injury. Helmets should be worn and would have prevented all the head injury admissions in this series. Children under 10 have a higher risk of fractures and head injuries due to insufficient motor development to control the boards and the resultant falls. Skateboard injuries are an example of injuries caused by a "fad epidemic". To cope with these types of periodic events up-to-date data collection is needed, followed rapidly by an intervention programme so that serious injuries can be kept to a minimum.

  13. Priming effects of lipopolysaccharide and inflammatory cytokines on canine granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kenichi; Sakonju, Iwao; Kanda, Aya; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Kakuta, Tomoko; Shimamura, Shunsuke; Okano, Shozo; Takase, Katsuaki

    2010-01-01

    Granulocytes play a pivotal role in natural immunity. Under inflammatory conditions, granulocytes are universally primed by several agents, such as endotoxins and inflammatory cytokines. Primed granulocytes exert potent adhesiveness, chemotaxis, phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, effectively eliminating invading agents. Reactivity against priming agents is known to vary with species; however, there have been few reports on the effects of priming agents on canine granulocytes. In the present study, we assayed the priming effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), recombinant canine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rcTNF-alpha) and recombinant canine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rcGM-CSF) on canine granulocyte function in vitro. Isolated recombinant canine were primed with various concentrations of LPS, rcTNF-alpha and rcGM-CSF, and CD11b expression was assayed. Furthermore, actin polymerization, phagocytosis and ROS production were then assayed at primer concentrations where enhancement of CD11b expression was observed. LPS did not enhance canine granulocyte function. Phagocytosis and actin polymerization were not enhanced by priming agents; however, rcTNF-alpha and rcGM-CSF enhanced CD11b expression and ROS production in canine granulocytes. These results suggest that priming effects are mainly reflected in CD11b expression and ROS production, with rcGM-CSF and rcTNF-alpha having a priming effect similar to that observed in humans.

  14. Upper canine inclination influences the aesthetics of a smile.

    PubMed

    Bothung, C; Fischer, K; Schiffer, H; Springer, I; Wolfart, S

    2015-02-01

    This current study investigated which angle of canine inclination (angle between canine tooth axis (CA-line) and the line between the lateral canthus and the ipsilateral labial angle (EM-line)) is perceived to be most attractive in a smile. The second objective was to determine whether laymen and dental experts share the same opinion. A Q-sort assessment was performed with 48 posed smile photographs to obtain two models of neutral facial attractiveness. Two sets of images (1 male model set, 1 female model set), each containing seven images with incrementally altered canine and posterior teeth inclinations, were generated. The images were ranked for attractiveness by three groups (61 laymen, 59 orthodontists, 60 dentists). The images with 0° inclination, that is CA-line (maxillary canine axis) parallel to EM-line (the line formed by the lateral canthus and the ipsilateral corner of the mouth) (male model set: 54·4%; female model set: 38·9%), or -5° (inward) inclination (male model set: 20%; female model set: 29·4%) were perceived to be most attractive within each set. Images showing inward canine inclinations were regarded to be more attractive than those with outward inclinations. Dental experts and laymen were in accordance with the aesthetics. Smiles were perceived to be most attractive when the upper canine tooth axis was parallel to the EM-line. In reconstructive or orthodontic therapy, it is thus important to incline canines more inwardly than outwardly. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Skeletal maturity assessment using mandibular canine calcification stages.

    PubMed

    Džemidžić, Vildana; Tiro, Alisa; Zukanović, Amila; Redžić, Ismeta; Nakaš, Enita

    2016-11-01

    The aims of this study were: to investigate the relationship between mandibular canine calcification stages and skeletal maturity; and to evaluate whether the mandibular canine calcification stages may be used as a reliable diagnostic tool for skeletal maturity assessment. This study included 151 subjects: 81 females and 70 males, with ages ranging from 9 to 16 years (mean age: 12.29±1.86 years). The inclusion criteria for subjects were as follows: age between 9 and 16 years; good general health without any hormonal, nutritional, growth or dental development problems. Subjects who were undergoing or had previously received orthodontic treatment were not included in this study. The calcification stages of the left permanent mandibular canine were assessed according to the method of Demirjian, on panoramic radiographs. Assessment of skeletal maturity was carried out using the cervical vertebral maturation index (CVMI), as proposed by the Hassel-Farman method, on lateral cephalograms. The correlation between the calcification stages of mandibular canine and skeletal maturity was estimated separately for male and female subjects. Correlation coefficients between calcification stages of mandibular canine and skeletal maturity were 0.895 for male and 0.701 for female subjects. A significant correlation was found between the calcification stages of the mandibular canine and skeletal maturity. The calcification stages of the mandibular canine show a satisfactory diagnostic performance only for assessment of pre-pubertal growth phase. Copyright © 2016 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  16. Canine Models for Copper Homeostasis Disorders.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Leegwater, Peter A J; Fieten, Hille

    2016-02-04

    Copper is an essential trace nutrient metal involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Hereditary defects in copper metabolism result in disorders with a severe clinical course such as Wilson disease and Menkes disease. In Wilson disease, copper accumulation leads to liver cirrhosis and neurological impairments. A lack in genotype-phenotype correlation in Wilson disease points toward the influence of environmental factors or modifying genes. In a number of Non-Wilsonian forms of copper metabolism, the underlying genetic defects remain elusive. Several pure bred dog populations are affected with copper-associated hepatitis showing similarities to human copper metabolism disorders. Gene-mapping studies in these populations offer the opportunity to discover new genes involved in copper metabolism. Furthermore, due to the relatively large body size and long life-span of dogs they are excellent models for development of new treatment strategies. One example is the recent use of canine organoids for disease modeling and gene therapy of copper storage disease. This review addresses the opportunities offered by canine genetics for discovery of genes involved in copper metabolism disorders. Further, possibilities for the use of dogs in development of new treatment modalities for copper storage disorders, including gene repair in patient-derived hepatic organoids, are highlighted.

  17. Expression of Bcl-2 in canine osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Piro, F.; Leonardi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignancy of bone. It is responsible for 80-85% of the primary bone tumors affecting dogs and it is characterized by aggressive and invasive behavior, with a high metastatic potential. Several studies on cancer and related tumorigenesis, show an involvement of the mechanisms of programmed cell death and cell survival. Many signals seem to be involved in the related mechanism of autophagy and in particular, our interest is focused on the expression of a family of Bcl-2 that seems to be involved either in the control of biomolecular mechanisms like autophagy and apoptosis. In this study we investigated the expression of Bcl-2 in different cases of spontaneous canine osteosarcoma and the related preliminary results are described. We found Bcl-2 activity was increased in OS tissue compared to normal bone tissue. These results suggested that Bcl-2 activity may play an important role in the formation of OS and as a diagnostic for neoplastic activity. However, further research is needed to confirm the role of Bcl-2 activity in OS in canines. PMID:26623359

  18. Canine Models for Copper Homeostasis Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Fieten, Hille

    2016-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace nutrient metal involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Hereditary defects in copper metabolism result in disorders with a severe clinical course such as Wilson disease and Menkes disease. In Wilson disease, copper accumulation leads to liver cirrhosis and neurological impairments. A lack in genotype-phenotype correlation in Wilson disease points toward the influence of environmental factors or modifying genes. In a number of Non-Wilsonian forms of copper metabolism, the underlying genetic defects remain elusive. Several pure bred dog populations are affected with copper-associated hepatitis showing similarities to human copper metabolism disorders. Gene-mapping studies in these populations offer the opportunity to discover new genes involved in copper metabolism. Furthermore, due to the relatively large body size and long life-span of dogs they are excellent models for development of new treatment strategies. One example is the recent use of canine organoids for disease modeling and gene therapy of copper storage disease. This review addresses the opportunities offered by canine genetics for discovery of genes involved in copper metabolism disorders. Further, possibilities for the use of dogs in development of new treatment modalities for copper storage disorders, including gene repair in patient-derived hepatic organoids, are highlighted. PMID:26861285

  19. Intracellular route of canine parvovirus entry.

    PubMed

    Vihinen-Ranta, M; Kalela, A; Mäkinen, P; Kakkola, L; Marjomäki, V; Vuento, M

    1998-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the endocytic pathway involved in canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. Reduced temperature (18 degrees C) or the microtubule-depolymerizing drug nocodazole was found to inhibit productive infection of canine A72 cells by CPV and caused CPV to be retained in cytoplasmic vesicles as indicated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Consistent with previously published results, these data indicate that CPV enters a host cell via an endocytic route and further suggest that microtubule-dependent delivery of CPV to late endosomes is required for productive infection. Cytoplasmic microinjection of CPV particles was used to circumvent the endocytosis and membrane fusion steps in the entry process. Microinjection experiments showed that CPV particles which were injected directly into the cytoplasm, thus avoiding the endocytic pathway, were unable to initiate progeny virus production. CPV treated at pH 5.0 prior to microinjection was unable to initiate virus production, showing that factors of the endocytic route other than low pH are necessary for the initiation of infection by CPV.

  20. Intracellular Route of Canine Parvovirus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Kalela, Anne; Mäkinen, Päivi; Kakkola, Laura; Marjomäki, Varpu; Vuento, Matti

    1998-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the endocytic pathway involved in canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. Reduced temperature (18°C) or the microtubule-depolymerizing drug nocodazole was found to inhibit productive infection of canine A72 cells by CPV and caused CPV to be retained in cytoplasmic vesicles as indicated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Consistent with previously published results, these data indicate that CPV enters a host cell via an endocytic route and further suggest that microtubule-dependent delivery of CPV to late endosomes is required for productive infection. Cytoplasmic microinjection of CPV particles was used to circumvent the endocytosis and membrane fusion steps in the entry process. Microinjection experiments showed that CPV particles which were injected directly into the cytoplasm, thus avoiding the endocytic pathway, were unable to initiate progeny virus production. CPV treated at pH 5.0 prior to microinjection was unable to initiate virus production, showing that factors of the endocytic route other than low pH are necessary for the initiation of infection by CPV. PMID:9420290

  1. Immunohistochemical characterization of canine transmissible venereal tumor.

    PubMed

    Mozos, E; Méndez, A; Gómez-Villamandos, J C; Martín De Las Mulas, J; Pérez, J

    1996-05-01

    The collective immunohistochemical expression of human lysozyme, human alpha-1-antitrypsin, human CD3 antigen, calf vimentin, human keratins, human lambda light chains,canine immunoglobulins IgG, IgM, and bovine protein S-100 has been analyzed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 25 spontaneous canine transmissible venereal tumors (CTVT) from both genital and extragenital locations using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex technique. Lysozyme immunoreactivity was detected in 10/25 CTVT, alpha-1-antitrypsin in 14/25 CTVT, and vimentin in 25/25 CTVT. All CTVT cells were negative to keratins 5 + 8 of the Moll catalogue (RCK-102), S-100 protein, lambda light-chain immunoglobulins, IgG, IgM, and CD3 antigen. The intratumoral T-and B-lymphocyte infiltrate was differentiated using CD3 antigen, lambda light-chain immunoglobulins, IgG, and IgM, and this technique could be useful to evaluate the regressive or progressive growth stage of venereal tumors. Our findings support the hypothesis of a histiocytic immunophenotype for CTVT, and these staining techniques could be used in the differential diagnosis with lymphomas.

  2. Cytology of the canine reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Wright, P J; Parry, B W

    1989-09-01

    The methods for semen collection, its laboratory examination, and the interpretation of findings are presented in this article. The lack of comprehensive data for normal dogs and the lack of data associating actual percentages of spermatozoa with specific abnormalities with fertility or infertility are highlighted. Consequently, there is a need for standardization and completeness of semen examination procedures, especially in studies destined for publication. Collection and analysis of prostatic samples then is discussed, and the distinguishing cytological features of benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatic adenocarcinoma, prostatis (including prostatic abscessation), and prostatic cysts are presented. This is followed by an assessment of the clinical usefulness of vaginal cytology, particularly to assist in the management of normal canine reproduction and in the diagnosis of reproductive disorders. The ways in which vaginal smears can facilitate the diagnosis of the stage of the estrous cycle and the diagnosis of abnormalities of the cycle and other disorders of reproduction are presented. Further consideration is given to its use to estimate the time of ovulation retrospectively and estimate the time of whelping prospectively. Finally, two specific diseases that can affect dogs and bitches are reviewed, namely, canine brucellosis and transmissible venereal tumor.

  3. Knee Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... your knee, like keeping it from bending outward. anterior cruciate ligament (ACL): The ACL connects your femur to your ... Injuries Sports and Exercise Safety Osgood-Schlatter Disease Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries Bones, Muscles, and Joints Meniscus Tears ...

  4. Birth Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Up to Date Additional Content Medical News Birth Injury By Arthur E. Kopelman, MD, Professor of ... Problems in Newborns Overview of Problems in Newborns Birth Injury Prematurity Postmaturity Small for Gestational Age (SGA) ...

  5. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... you can inhale that can cause acute internal injuries. Particles in the air from fires and toxic ... and lung diseases worse. Symptoms of acute inhalation injuries may include Coughing and phlegm A scratchy throat ...

  6. Corneal injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... as sand or dust Ultraviolet injuries: Caused by sunlight, sun lamps, snow or water reflections, or arc- ... a corneal injury if you: Are exposed to sunlight or artificial ultraviolet light for long periods of ...

  7. Urethral Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Related Injuries (Video) Rotator Cuff Injury (News) Violent Video Games May Not 'Desensitize' Players, Brain Scans ... Comfort Am I Correct? More Videos News HealthDay Violent Video Games May Not 'Desensitize' Players, Brain Scans ...

  8. Cycling injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, G. C.

    1993-01-01

    Bicycle-related injuries have increased as cycling has become more popular. Most injuries to recreational riders are associated with overuse or improper fit of the bicycle. Injuries to racers often result from high speeds, which predispose riders to muscle strains, collisions, and falls. Cyclists contact bicycles at the pedals, seat, and handlebars. Each is associated with particular cycling injuries. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8471908

  9. Canine mammary tumour cell lines established in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hellmén, E

    1993-01-01

    Mammary tumours are the most common tumours in the female dog. The tumours have a complex histology and exist in epithelial, mixed and mesenchymal forms. To study the biology of canine mammary tumours, five cell lines have been established and characterized. The results indicate that canine mammary tumours might be derived from mammary stem cells and that the tumour growth is independent of oestrogens. The established canine mammary tumour cell lines will be valuable tools in further studies of the histogenesis and pathogenesis of these tumours.

  10. Intranasal vaccine trial for canine infectious tracheobronchitis (kennel cough).

    PubMed

    Glickman, L T; Appel, M J

    1981-08-01

    Two field trials were conducted during periods of endemic (summer) and epizootic (winter) canine infectious tracheobronchitis activity to evaluate the efficacy of three intranasal vaccines in a closed commercial beagle breeding kennel. A trivalent vaccine containing Bordetella bronchiseptica, canine parainfluenza, and canine adenovirus-2 was administered at 3 weeks of age. The vaccine was 71.2% and 81.8% effective in decreasing the incidence of coughing during the winter and summer trials, respectively. The number of deaths was lower in each of the vaccine groups than in the placebo groups. No adverse reactions were observed with any of the intranasal vaccines.

  11. Enhancement of canine coronary collateral flow by nafazatrom.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, V B; Mardin, M

    1986-11-04

    The ability of oral nafazatrom treatment (10 mg/kg) 2 h preceding occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 6 h to limit expansion of myocardial injury was studied in anaesthetized canine hearts. Collateral blood flow was obtained with a load line analysis, employing aortic pressure, post-stenotic coronary pressure, and retrograde coronary flow from the occluded vessel. Contractile changes in the subendocardial ischemic perfused muscles were measured with ultrasonic techniques. Infarct size was determined post-mortem by a biochemical staining method and excision of necrosis. Post-stenotic coronary pressure was slightly below aortic pressure in both groups before coronary occlusion, and fell to 29 and 27% of aortic pressure in vehicle- and drug-treated hearts, respectively, after the insult. Retrograde flow was 2.4 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.1 +/- 0.7 ml/min in tylose- or nafazatrom-treated hearts. Collateral flow amounted to 1.5 +/- 0.06 vs. 2.5 +/- 0.04 ml/min in controls and drug-protected hearts. Contractility (dP/dtmax) and the %-segment shortening were greater in the ischaemic myocardium after nafazatrom treatment. Infarct size was 38 +/- 5.2 vs. 17 +/- 3.4 g/100 g left ventricle in the vehicle controls and nafazatrom group, respectively. Nafazatrom reduced infarct size by 46%. Besides other mechanisms, this was due to improved %-segment shortening and increased periinfarction collateral blood supply to jeopardized but viable myocardium. The drug may be of value in ischaemic heart disease as shown by the enhanced regional myocardial perfusion and improved contractility.

  12. Skateboard injuries

    PubMed Central

    Christian, M. Sheila; Khan, O.

    1980-01-01

    One hundred and nineteen cases of injuries sustained by skateboard users are reviewed. A significant proportion of the injuries sustained were fractures. The absence of adequate protective measures was noted. A decrease in the popularity of the sport, as judged by the annual incidence of skateboard injuries, is apparent in this series. Imagesp102-ap102-b PMID:7407446

  13. Orienteering injuries

    PubMed Central

    Folan, Jean M.

    1982-01-01

    At the Irish National Orienteering Championships in 1981 a survey of the injuries occurring over the two days of competition was carried out. Of 285 individual competitors there was a percentage injury rate of 5.26%. The article discusses the injuries and aspects of safety in orienteering. Imagesp236-ap237-ap237-bp238-ap239-ap240-a PMID:7159815

  14. Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Wild Canines (Fox, Jackal, and Wolf) in Northeastern Iran Using Parasitological, Serological, and Molecular Methods

    PubMed Central

    Mohebali, Mehdi; Arzamani, Kourosh; Zarei, Zabiholah; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Hajjaran, Homa; Raeghi, Saber; Heidari, Zahra; Motavalli-Haghi, Seyed Mousa; Elikaee, Samira; Mousazadeh-Mojarrad, Ahmad; Kakoei, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although many studies had been conducted on various aspects of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in domestic dogs in the endemic areas of Iran, investigations on CVL in wild canines are rare. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2012 to 2013 in northeast of Iran where human VL is endemic. Wild canines were trapped around the areas where human VL cases had been previously identified. Wild canines were collected and examined both clinically and serologically using direct agglutination test (DAT). Microscopically examinations were performed in all the seropositive wild canines for the presence of the amastigote form of Leishmania spp. Some Leishmania sp. which had been isolated from the spleens of wild canines, were examined analyzed by conventional PCR and sequencing techniques using α-tubulin and GAPDH genes. Results: Altogether, 84 wild canines including foxes (Vulpes vulpes, n=21), Jackals (Canis aureus, n=60) and wolves (Canis lupus, n=3) were collected. Four foxes and seven jackals showed anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies with titers of 1:320–1:20480 in DAT. Furthermore, one fox and one jackal were parasitologically (microscopy and culture) positive and L. infantum was confirmed by sequence analysis. Conclusion: The present study showed that sylvatic cycle of L. infantum had been established in the studied endemic areas of VL in northeastern Iran. PMID:28032106

  15. Kinetics of canine dental calculus crystallization: an in vitro study on the influence of inorganic components of canine saliva.

    PubMed

    Borah, Ballav M; Halter, Timothy J; Xie, Baoquan; Henneman, Zachary J; Siudzinski, Thomas R; Harris, Stephen; Elliott, Matthew; Nancollas, George H

    2014-07-01

    This work identifies carbonated hydroxyapatite (CAP) as the primary component of canine dental calculus, and corrects the long held belief that canine dental calculus is primarily CaCO3 (calcite). CAP is known to be the principal crystalline component of human dental calculus, suggesting that there are previously unknown similarities in the calcification that occurs in these two unique oral environments. In vitro kinetic experiments mimicking the inorganic components of canine saliva have examined the mechanisms of dental calculus formation. The solutions were prepared so as to mimic the inorganic components of canine saliva; phosphate, carbonate, and magnesium ion concentrations were varied individually to investigate the roll of these ions in controlling the nature of the phases that is nucleated. To date, the inorganic components of the canine oral systems have not been investigated at concentrations that mimic those in vivo. The mineral composition of the synthetic calculi grown under these conditions closely resembled samples excised from canines. This finding adds new information about calculus formation in humans and canines, and their sensitivity to chemicals used to treat these conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Thermography based diagnosis of ruptured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in canines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lama, Norsang; Umbaugh, Scott E.; Mishra, Deependra; Dahal, Rohini; Marino, Dominic J.; Sackman, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture in canines is a common orthopedic injury in veterinary medicine. Veterinarians use both imaging and non-imaging methods to diagnose the disease. Common imaging methods such as radiography, computed tomography (CT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have some disadvantages: expensive setup, high dose of radiation, and time-consuming. In this paper, we present an alternative diagnostic method based on feature extraction and pattern classification (FEPC) to diagnose abnormal patterns in ACL thermograms. The proposed method was experimented with a total of 30 thermograms for each camera view (anterior, lateral and posterior) including 14 disease and 16 non-disease cases provided from Long Island Veterinary Specialists. The normal and abnormal patterns in thermograms are analyzed in two steps: feature extraction and pattern classification. Texture features based on gray level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM), histogram features and spectral features are extracted from the color normalized thermograms and the computed feature vectors are applied to Nearest Neighbor (NN) classifier, K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) classifier and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier with leave-one-out validation method. The algorithm gives the best classification success rate of 86.67% with a sensitivity of 85.71% and a specificity of 87.5% in ACL rupture detection using NN classifier for the lateral view and Norm-RGB-Lum color normalization method. Our results show that the proposed method has the potential to detect ACL rupture in canines.

  17. Reduced Pancreatic Exocrine Function and Organellar Disarray in a Canine Model of Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Bhugul, Pravin Avinash; Huang, Xince; Liu, Lewei; Pan, Liangliang; Ni, Haizhen; Chen, Bicheng; Sun, Hongwei; Zhang, Qiyu; Hehir, Michael; Zhou, Mengtao

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the pancreatic exocrine function in a canine model and to analyze the changes in organelles of pancreatic acinar cells during the early stage of acute pancreatitis (AP). AP was induced by retrograde injection of 5% sodium taurocholate (0.5 ml/kg) into the main pancreatic duct of dogs. The induction of AP resulted in serum hyperamylasemia and a marked reduction of amylase activity in the pancreatic fluid (PF). The pancreatic exocrine function was markedly decreased in subjects with AP compared with the control group. After the induction of AP, histological examination showed acinar cell edema, cytoplasmic vacuolization, fibroblasts infiltration, and inflammatory cell infiltration in the interstitium. Electron micrographs after the induction of AP revealed that most of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) were dilated and that some of the ribosomes were no longer located on the RER. The mitochondria were swollen, with shortened and broken cristae. The present study demonstrated, in a canine model, a reduced volume of PF secretion with decreased enzyme secretion during the early stage of AP. Injury of mitochondria and dilatation and degranulation of RER may be responsible for the reduced exocrine function in AP. Furthermore, the present model and results may be useful for researching novel therapeutic measures in AP. PMID:26895040

  18. Two anatomic resources of canine pelvic limb muscles based on CT and MRI.

    PubMed

    Sunico, Sarena K; Hamel, Corentin; Styner, Martin; Robertson, Ian D; Kornegay, Joe N; Bettini, Chris; Parks, Jerry; Wilber, Kathy; Smallwood, J Edgar; Thrall, Donald E

    2012-01-01

    Advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and three-dimensional (3D) modeling software provide the tools necessary to create sophisticated, interactive anatomic resources that can assist in the interpretation of MR images of extremities, and learning the structure and function of limb musculature. Modeling provides advantages over dissection or consultation of print atlases because of the associated speed, flexibility, 3D nature, and elimination of superimposed arrows and labels. Our goals were to create a diagnostic atlas of pelvic limb muscles that will facilitate interpretation of MR images of patients with muscle injury and to create a 3D model of the canine pelvic limb musculature to facilitate anatomic learning. To create these resources, we used structural segmentation of MR images, a process that groups image pixels into anatomically meaningful regions. The Diagnostic Atlas is an interactive, multiplanar, web-based MR atlas of the canine pelvic limb musculature that was created by manually segmenting clinically analogous MR sequences. Higher resolution volumetric MR and computed tomography (CT) data were segmented into separately labeled volumes of data and then transformed into a multilayered 3D computer model. The 3D Model serves as a resource for students of gross anatomy, encouraging integrative learning with its highly interactive and selective display capabilities. For clinicians, the 3D Model also serves to bridge the gap between topographic and tomographic anatomy, displaying both formats alongside, or even superimposed over each other. Both projects are hosted on an open-access website, http://3dvetanatomy.ncsu.edu/

  19. Increased serum urea to creatinine ratio and its negative correlation with arterial pressure in canine babesiosis.

    PubMed

    Zygner, Wojciech; Gójska-Zygner, Olga

    2014-09-01

    The increase of the serum urea to creatinine ratio (UCR) was observed in dogs infected with Babesia canis. Previous studies have suggested that decrease of blood pressure can be one of the reasons for this phenomenon. In this work statistically significant increase of the UCR was observed in dogs with babesiosis. Comparison of the UCR between 23 azotaemic dogs and 25 non-azotaemic dogs infected with Babesia canis showed statistically significantly higher mean of the UCR in azotaemic dogs. Correlations between UCR and systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure (SAP, DAP and MAP) in 48 dogs infected with B. canis were negative (UCR and SAP: r = -0.3909; UCR and DAP: r = -0.3182; UCR and MAP: r = -0.3682) and statistically significant (p < 0.05). This result may indicate contribution of hypotension in the increase of the UCR in canine babesiosis. However, the correlations were not high, and there was no statistically significant correlation between UCR and arterial pressures in azotaemic dogs. Thus, it seems that decrease of blood pressure in dogs with babesiosis explains only partially the cause of increased UCR in infected dogs. The other authors suggested hyperureagenesis and myocardial injury as a potential reason for the increased UCR in canine babesiosis. Thus, further studies are needed to determine causes of increased UCR in dogs with babesiosis, especially on the connection between UCR changes and the concentrations of plasma cardiac troponins and ammonia, and the occurrence of occult blood on fecal examination.

  20. Clinical and serological response of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) to vaccination against canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and rabies.

    PubMed

    van Heerden, J; Bingham, J; van Vuuren, M; Burroughs, R E J; Stylianides, E

    2002-03-01

    Wild dogs Lycaon pictuis (n = 8) were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8) (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper) and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8) over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use in domestic dogs, were used. None of the vaccinated dogs showed any untoward clinical signs. The inactivated canine distemper vaccine did not result in seroconversion whereas the attenuated live vaccine resulted in seroconversion in all wild dogs. Presumably protective concentrations of antibodies to canine distemper virus were present in all wild dogs for at least 451 days. Canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres were present in all wild dogs prior to the administration of vaccine and protective concentrations persisted for at least 451 days. Vaccination against parvovirus infection resulted in a temporary increase in canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres in most dogs. Administration of both inactivated parenteral and live oral rabies vaccine initially resulted in seroconversion in 7 of 8 dogs. These titres, however, dropped to very low concentrations within 100 days. Booster administrations resulted in increased antibody concentrations in all dogs. It was concluded that the vaccines were safe to use in healthy subadult wild dogs and that a vaccination protocol in free-ranging wild dogs should at least incorporate booster vaccinations against rabies 3-6 months after the first inoculation.

  1. Waterbike injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, R S; Caiach, S

    1991-01-01

    Jet skiing is a rapidly growing sport. The craft incorporate safety features and the manufacturers issue detailed safety instructions. Racing is conducted with adequate attention to clothing, safety and insurance. However, casual use is widespread and is sometimes irresponsible. Serious injuries to riders are uncommon: dental and knee injuries are described. A case of renal contusion and a head injury were caused by other riders and two potentially fatal injuries illustrate the risk for other water users. The number of injuries associated with the use of personal watercraft is likely to increase and may be influenced by appropriate organization or regulation. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1810620

  2. Bicycling injuries.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Marc R

    2013-01-01

    Bicycling injuries can be classified into bicycle contact, traumatic, and overuse injuries. Despite the popularity of cycling, there are few scientific studies regarding injuries. Epidemiological studies are difficult to compare due to different methodologies and the diverse population of cyclists studied. There are only three studies conducted on top level professionals. Ninety-four percent of professionals in 1 year have experienced at least one overuse injury. Most overuse injuries are mild with limited time off the bike. The most common site of overuse injury is the knee, and the most common site of traumatic injury is the shoulder, with the clavicle having the most common fracture. Many overuse and bicycle contact ailments are relieved with simple bike adjustments.

  3. A candidate gene study of canine joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Clements, Dylan N; Short, Andrea D; Barnes, Annette; Kennedy, Lorna J; Ferguson, John F; Butterworth, Steven J; Fitzpatrick, Noel; Pead, Matthew; Bennett, David; Innes, John F; Carter, Stuart D; Ollier, William E R

    2010-01-01

    Canine osteoarthritis (OA) commonly occurs in association with articular diseases, such as hip dysplasia (HD), elbow dysplasia (ED), or cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR). We hypothesized that a common genomic risk for the development of canine joint disease and canine OA would be identified by evaluating the allele frequencies of candidate gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in dogs with OA associated with different articular diseases when compared with a general population of breed-matched dogs. DNA was extracted from blood samples obtained from Labrador Retrievers and Golden Retrievers surgically treated for ED, HD, and CCLR and confirmed to have radiographic evidence of OA. One hundred and thirteen SNPs in 20 candidate genes were genotyped. No significant associations were identified for SNPs or haplotypes in the candidate genes for the diseases evaluated. The candidate gene approach for the study of genetic association is unlikely to be successful for complex canine diseases such as OA without prior trait mapping evaluation.

  4. Death of a wild wolf from canine parvovirus enteritis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Kurtz, H.J.; Goyal, S.

    1997-01-01

    A 9-mo-old female wolf (Canis lupus) in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota (USA) died from a canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. This is the first direct evidence that this infection effects free-ranging wild wolves.

  5. Management of Class II malocclusion with ectopic maxillary canines

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas, Rohan; Parveen, Shahista; Ansari, Tariq Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Correction of Class II relationship, deep bite and ectopically erupting canines is an orthodontic challenge for the clinician. A 13-year-old male patient presented with Class II malocclusion, ectopically erupting canines, and cross bite with maxillary left lateral incisor. He was treated with a combination of Headgear, Forsus™ fatigue resistant device [FFRD] with fixed mechanotherapy for the management of space deficiency and correction of Class II malocclusions. Headgear was used to distalize upper first molars and also to prevent further downward and forward growth of the maxilla. Then Forsus™ FFRD was used for the advancement of the mandible. The molar and canine relationship were corrected from a Class II to a Class I. The objectives were to establish good occlusion and enable eruption of unerupted canines. All these objectives were achieved and remained stable. PMID:26097371

  6. Canine heartworm disease: a review and pilot study.

    PubMed

    Haddock, K C

    1987-01-01

    Canine heartworm disease is a mosquito vectored illness resulting from parasitization by the filariid worm Dirofilaria immitis. While presenting some danger to humans, the filariid has its greatest impact on the canine population. In recent years the disease has become established throughout much of the United States, perhaps as the result of diffusion from a suspected hearth in the southeastern coastal plain. While its distribution is known in general terms, much research remains to be done to assess the pattern of distribution as well as the impact of D. immitis on canine populations and their human owners for many locales. The present study provides a review of the literature on the parasite; on its distribution, particularly in the United States; and on the ecology of canine heartworm disease. A pilot study is presented which emphasizes the problems encountered in establishing a data base for observations on the disease at the local level.

  7. THORACIC RADIOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CANINE INFLUENZA VIRUS IN SIX DOGS.

    PubMed

    Secrest, Scott A; Sharma, Ajay

    2016-09-01

    Canine influenza virus is an emerging, highly contagious, respiratory pathogen that has not previously been radiographically described. In this retrospective case series study, we describe the thoracic radiographic appearance of confirmed canine influenza virus in six dogs. Radiographic findings varied, but included abnormal unstructured interstitial (one) and unstructured interstitial and alveolar (five) pulmonary patterns, which were distributed cranioventral (four), diffuse (one), and caudodorsal (one). The right middle (five), left cranial (five), and right cranial (four) lung lobes were most commonly affected. Additionally, mild pleural effusion was present in one dog. Intrathoracic lymphadenopathy and cranial mediastinal widening/fluid accumulation were not detected in any dog. Canine influenza virus should be considered as a differential diagnosis for canine patients with respiratory signs and a cranioventral unstructured interstitial to alveolar pulmonary pattern. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  8. 41. overall view showing building 158, canine kennels on far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. overall view showing building 158, canine kennels on far right, and building 156, Warhead Building, at far left, looking west - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  9. The Comparative Diagnostic Features of Canine and Human Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Seelig, Davis M.; Avery, Anne C.; Ehrhart, E. J.; Linden, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    The non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are a heterogeneous family of lymphoid malignancies that are among the most common neoplasms of both dogs and humans. Owing to shared molecular, signaling, incidence, and pathologic features, there is a strong framework supporting the utilization of canine lymphoma as a comparative, large animal model of human NHL. In alignment with the biologic similarities, the current approach towards the diagnosis and classification of canine lymphoma is based upon the human World Health Organization guidelines. While this approach has contributed to an increasing appreciation of the potential biological scope of canine lymphoma, it has also become apparent that the most appropriate diagnostic philosophy must be multimodal, namely by requiring knowledge of microscopic, immunophenotypic, and clinical features before establishing a final disease diagnosis. This review seeks to illustrate the comparative similarities and differences in the diagnosis of canine lymphoma through the presentation of the microscopic and immunophenotypic features of its most common forms. PMID:28435836

  10. Difficulties in estimating the human burden of canine rabies.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Louise H; Hampson, Katie; Fahrion, Anna; Abela-Ridder, Bernadette; Nel, Louis H

    2017-01-01

    Current passive surveillance data for canine rabies, particularly for the regions where the burden is highest, are inadequate for appropriate decision making on control efforts. Poor enforcement of existing legislation and poor implementation of international guidance reduce the effectiveness of surveillance systems, but another set of problems relates to the fact that canine rabies is an untreatable condition which affects very poor sectors of society. This results in an unknown, but potentially large proportion of rabies victims dying outside the health system, deaths that are unlikely to be recorded by surveillance systems based on health center records. This article critically evaluates the potential sources of information on the number of human deaths attributable to canine rabies, and how we might improve the estimates required to move towards the goal of global canine rabies elimination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular cloning and expression of canine prolactin gene.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Osamu; Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Sugiyama, Yuka; Kawaminami, Mitsumori; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    We isolated canine prolactin cDNA from a dog pituitary cDNA library. The 930-bp nucleotide sequence covered the entire open reading frame encoding the putative 229 amino acids. It was located in chromosome 35, and had five exons. The amino acid sequence was highly homologous to the feline and porcine sequences. To generate recombinant canine prolactin, plasmids for full-length canine prolactin were constructed and transfected into the mammalian HEK293 cell line. The recombinant prolactin was secreted into the medium as an N-linked glycosylated (31 kDa) or non-glycosylated (27 kDa) protein. Western blotting revealed both of these bands were canine pituitary protein extracts.

  12. Bilateral agenesis of maxillary permanent canines: Review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Oligodontia, or agenesis of six or more teeth, excluding third molars, which involves canine agenesis is rare, and restorative management can be challenging. Bilateral agenesis of a permanent canine in the general population often indicates a several missing adult teeth. The most common sign of it is the primary canine retention beyond its exfoliation age. The multistage restorative management includes the early diagnosis, excluding associated medical problems as well as assessment of patient's malocclusion and facial skeletal pattern, life span of deciduous teeth, possibility of premolar substitution, minimum required number of prosthetic units, patient's preferences, and the cost of treatment. A 10-year-old boy with bilateral agenesis of maxillary permanent canines is described. Some thoughts on the multidisciplinary restorative management of this case are discussed. PMID:25657989

  13. Effects of the zygoma anchorage system on canine retraction.

    PubMed

    Cetinsahin, Alev; Dinçer, Müfide; Arman-Ozçirpici, Ayça; Uçkan, Sina

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the Gjessing (PG) retraction spring used with and without the zygoma anchorage system (ZAS) on canine retraction. Thirty patients, with an Angle Class I or Class II malocclusion, whose upper first premolars were scheduled for extraction, were divided into two equal groups. Group 1 comprised maximum anchorage cases (nine females and six males with a mean age of 16 years 8 months) in which the ZAS was used to improve posterior anchorage and the PG retraction springs for canine retraction. Moderate anchorage cases (10 females and 5 males with a mean age of 15 years 5 month) were included in group 2 and canine retraction was achieved using only PG retraction springs. Study models and lateral cephalometric radiographs obtained at the initial and final stages of canine retraction were used for comparison of the groups to determine the effects of zygoma anchorage on canine retraction. All measurements were evaluated statistically using a Student's t-test, 2 × 2 repeated measures analysis of variance, Bonferroni-adjusted t-test, and Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests according to the normality of the distribution of the variables. Mesial crown movement of the molars was 0.63 mm (P < 0.05) in group 1 and 1.50 mm (P < 0.001) in group 2. There was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) between the groups. No significant difference was observed between the groups for the rate of canine retraction or sagittal and vertical movement of the canines. The ZAS is a reliable and successful anchorage reinforcement method for canine retraction in extraction cases.

  14. Longitudinal study of viruses associated with canine infectious respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Erles, Kerstin; Dubovi, Edward J; Brooks, Harriet W; Brownlie, Joe

    2004-10-01

    In this investigation a population of dogs at a rehoming center was monitored over a period of 2 years. Despite regular vaccination of incoming dogs against distemper, canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), and canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), respiratory disease was endemic. Tissue samples from the respiratory tract as well as paired serum samples were collected for analysis. The development of PCR assays for the detection of CPIV, canine adenovirus types 1 and 2, and canine herpesvirus (CHV) is described. Surprisingly, canine adenovirus was not detected in samples from this population, whereas 19.4% of tracheal and 10.4% of lung samples were positive for CPIV and 12.8% of tracheal and 9.6% of lung samples were positive for CHV. As reported previously, a novel canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) was detected in this population (K. Erles, C. Toomey, H. W. Brooks, and J. Brownlie, Virology 310:216-223, 2003). Infections with CRCoV occurred mostly during the first week of a dog's stay at the kennel, whereas CPIV and CHV were detected at later time points. Furthermore, the evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to CPIV and an immunofluorescence assay for detection of antibodies to CHV is described. This study shows that CPIV is present at kennels despite vaccination. In addition, other agents such as CHV and CRCoV may play a role in the pathogenesis of canine respiratory disease, whereas CAV-2 and canine distemper virus were not present in this population, indicating that their prevalence in the United Kingdom is low due to widespread vaccination of dogs.

  15. Cloning and characterization of canine prostate-specific membrane antigen.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sonja; Fracasso, Giulio; Colombatti, Marco; Naim, Hassan Y

    2013-05-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a promising biomarker in the diagnosis of prostate cancer and a potential target for antibody-based therapeutic strategies. We isolated the canine PSMA cDNA and investigated the cellular and biochemical characteristics of the recombinant protein as a potential target for animal preclinical studies of antibody based-therapies. Canine PSMA cDNA was isolated by PCR, cloned into expression vectors and transfected into COS-1 and MDCK cells. The biosynthesis and glycosylation of the recombinant protein were investigated in pulse-chase experiments, the cellular localization by confocal laser microscopy, the mode of association of PSMA with the membrane with solubilization in different detergents and its quaternary structure in sucrose-density gradients. Canine PSMA shows 91% amino acid homology to human PSMA, whereby the major difference is a longer cytoplasmic tail of canine PSMA compared to its human counterpart. Canine PSMA is trafficked efficiently along the secretory pathway, undergoes homodimerization when it acquires complex glycosylated mature form. It associates with detergent-resistant membranes, which act as platforms along its intracellular trafficking. Confocal analysis revealed canine PSMA at the cell surface, Golgi, and the endoplasmic reticulum. A similar distribution is revealed for human PSMA, yet with reduced cell surface levels. The cloning, expression, biosynthesis, processing and localization of canine PSMA in mammalian cells is described. We demonstrate that canine PSMA reveals similar characteristics to human PSMA rendering this protein useful as a translational model for investigations of prostate cancer as well as a suitable antigen for targeted therapy studies in dogs. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Longitudinal Study of Viruses Associated with Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Erles, Kerstin; Dubovi, Edward J.; Brooks, Harriet W.; Brownlie, Joe

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation a population of dogs at a rehoming center was monitored over a period of 2 years. Despite regular vaccination of incoming dogs against distemper, canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), and canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), respiratory disease was endemic. Tissue samples from the respiratory tract as well as paired serum samples were collected for analysis. The development of PCR assays for the detection of CPIV, canine adenovirus types 1 and 2, and canine herpesvirus (CHV) is described. Surprisingly, canine adenovirus was not detected in samples from this population, whereas 19.4% of tracheal and 10.4% of lung samples were positive for CPIV and 12.8% of tracheal and 9.6% of lung samples were positive for CHV. As reported previously, a novel canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) was detected in this population (K. Erles, C. Toomey, H. W. Brooks, and J. Brownlie, Virology 310:216-223, 2003). Infections with CRCoV occurred mostly during the first week of a dog's stay at the kennel, whereas CPIV and CHV were detected at later time points. Furthermore, the evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to CPIV and an immunofluorescence assay for detection of antibodies to CHV is described. This study shows that CPIV is present at kennels despite vaccination. In addition, other agents such as CHV and CRCoV may play a role in the pathogenesis of canine respiratory disease, whereas CAV-2 and canine distemper virus were not present in this population, indicating that their prevalence in the United Kingdom is low due to widespread vaccination of dogs. PMID:15472304

  17. Alternative lengthening of telomeres does exist in various canine sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Kreilmeier, Theresa; Sampl, Sandra; Deloria, Abigail J; Walter, Ingrid; Reifinger, Martin; Hauck, Marlene; Borst, Luke B; Holzmann, Klaus; Kleiter, Miriam

    2017-03-01

    Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is a telomere maintenance mechanism (TMM) found in some human tumors such as sarcomas. Canine tumors are not characterized for ALT and the study aim was to identify if the ALT phenotype exists in canine sarcomas. Sixty-four canine sarcoma samples (20 snap-frozen, 44 FFPE) as well as six canine sarcoma cell lines were screened for ALT by C-circle assay. ALT was further evaluated by measuring telomere length via qPCR and telomere restriction-fragments including pulsed-field electrophoresis. ALT-associated proteins were validated by immunohistochemistry. Further, telomerase activity (TA) and gene expression were analyzed by TRAP and qPCR. DNA from 20 human neuroblastomas and 8 sarcoma cell lines served as comparative controls. ALT was detected in 9.4% (6/64) canine sarcomas including aggressive subtypes as hemangiosarcoma, osteosarcoma, and histiocytic sarcoma. C-circle levels were comparable with human ALT-positive controls. All ALT tumors demonstrated loss of ATRX expression and 5/6 showed strong p53 expression. TA was detected in 93% (14/15) snap-frozen samples including a sarcoma with ALT activity. This tumor showed long heterogeneous telomeres, and a high level of colocalization of DAXX with telomeres. One sarcoma was ALT and TA negative. All canine and human sarcoma cell lines were ALT negative. In this study, we demonstrated that canine sarcomas use ALT. As in humans, ALT was identified in aggressive sarcomas subtypes and coexisted with TA in one tumor. Overall, canine sarcomas seem to share many similarities with their human counterparts and appear an attractive model for comparative telomere research. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Three-year serologic immunity against canine parvovirus type 2 and canine adenovirus type 2 in dogs vaccinated with a canine combination vaccine.

    PubMed

    Larson, L J; Schultz, R D

    2007-01-01

    A group of client-owned dogs and a group of dogs at a commercial kennel were evaluated for duration of antibody responses against canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) and canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1) after receiving a combination vaccine containing recombinant canarypox-vectored canine distemper virus (CDV) and modified-live CPV-2, CAV-2, and canine parainfluenza virus, with (C6) or without (C4) two serovars of Leptospira (Recombitek C4 or C6, Merial). Duration of antibody, which correlates with protective immunity, was found to be at least 36 months in both groups. Recombitek combination vaccines can confidently be given every 3 years with assurance of protection in immunocompetent dogs against CPV-2 and CAV-1 as well as CDV. This allows this combination vaccine, like other, similar modified- live virus combination products containing CDV, CAV-2, and CPV-2, to be administered in accordance with the recommendations of the American Animal Hospital Association Canine Vaccine Task Force.

  19. Canine Distemper in Endangered Ethiopian Wolves

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Christopher H.; Hussein, Alo; Laurenson, M. Karen; Malcolm, James R.; Marino, Jorgelina; Regassa, Fekede; Stewart, Anne-Marie E.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) is the world’s rarest canid; ≈500 wolves remain. The largest population is found within the Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP) in southeastern Ethiopia, where conservation efforts have demonstrated the negative effect of rabies virus on wolf populations. We describe previously unreported infections with canine distemper virus (CDV) among these wolves during 2005–2006 and 2010. Death rates ranged from 43% to 68% in affected subpopulations and were higher for subadult than adult wolves (83%–87% vs. 34%–39%). The 2010 CDV outbreak started 20 months after a rabies outbreak, before the population had fully recovered, and led to the eradication of several focal packs in BMNP’s Web Valley. The combined effect of rabies and CDV increases the chance of pack extinction, exacerbating the typically slow recovery of wolf populations, and represents a key extinction threat to populations of this highly endangered carnivore. PMID:25898177

  20. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2008-01-01

    Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi), bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis), and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum) that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance) of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies. PMID:18691408

  1. European Surveillance for Pantropic Canine Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Cordonnier, Nathalie; Demeter, Zoltan; Egberink, Herman; Elia, Gabriella; Grellet, Aurélien; Le Poder, Sophie; Mari, Viviana; Martella, Vito; Ntafis, Vasileios; von Reitzenstein, Marcela; Rottier, Peter J.; Rusvai, Miklos; Shields, Shelly; Xylouri, Eftychia; Xu, Zach; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2013-01-01

    Highly virulent pantropic canine coronavirus (CCoV) strains belonging to subtype IIa were recently identified in dogs. To assess the distribution of such strains in Europe, tissue samples were collected from 354 dogs that had died after displaying systemic disease in France (n = 92), Hungary (n = 75), Italy (n = 69), Greece (n = 87), The Netherlands (n = 27), Belgium (n = 4), and Bulgaria (n = 1). A total of 124 animals tested positive for CCoV, with 33 of them displaying the virus in extraintestinal tissues. Twenty-four CCoV strains (19.35% of the CCoV-positive dogs) detected in internal organs were characterized as subtype IIa and consequently assumed to be pantropic CCoVs. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the 5′ end of the spike protein gene showed that pantropic CCoV strains are closely related to each other, with the exception of two divergent French viruses that clustered with enteric strains. PMID:23100349

  2. Canine distemper in endangered Ethiopian wolves.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher H; Banyard, Ashley C; Hussein, Alo; Laurenson, M Karen; Malcolm, James R; Marino, Jorgelina; Regassa, Fekede; Stewart, Anne-Marie E; Fooks, Anthony R; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2015-05-01

    The Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) is the world's rarest canid; ≈500 wolves remain. The largest population is found within the Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP) in southeastern Ethiopia, where conservation efforts have demonstrated the negative effect of rabies virus on wolf populations. We describe previously unreported infections with canine distemper virus (CDV) among these wolves during 2005-2006 and 2010. Death rates ranged from 43% to 68% in affected subpopulations and were higher for subadult than adult wolves (83%-87% vs. 34%-39%). The 2010 CDV outbreak started 20 months after a rabies outbreak, before the population had fully recovered, and led to the eradication of several focal packs in BMNP's Web Valley. The combined effect of rabies and CDV increases the chance of pack extinction, exacerbating the typically slow recovery of wolf populations, and represents a key extinction threat to populations of this highly endangered carnivore.

  3. Immunohistochemical characteristics of normal canine eyes.

    PubMed

    Labelle, P; Reilly, C M; Naydan, D K; Labelle, A L

    2012-09-01

    Immunohistochemistry is widely utilized in diagnostic laboratories to study neoplastic and nonneoplastic diseases. Knowledge of the immunohistochemical characteristics of normal tissue is essential for interpretation of immunoreactivity in pathologic conditions. In this study, immunohistochemistry was performed with a broad panel of diagnostically relevant antibodies on 4 normal canine globes--namely, vimentin, pan-cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 8/18, cytokeratin 20, α-smooth muscle actin, muscle specific actin, desmin, Melan-A, microphthalmia transcription factor, S-100, glial fibrillary acidic protein, triple neurofilaments, neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, laminin and CD31. Results include cytokeratin immunoreactivity limited to the conjunctival epithelium, corneal epithelium, and retinal pigment epithelium; distinct patterns of immunopositivity of muscle markers; and widespread immunoreactivity for vimentin and most neural/neuroendocrine markers. These findings in normal eyes provide the basis for interpretation of ocular immunohistochemistry in dogs. Published immunophenotypes of primary ocular neoplasms are also reviewed.

  4. Canine renal failure syndrome in three dogs.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Won Il; Do, Sun Hee; Jeong, Da Hee; Chung, Jae Yong; Yang, Hai Jie; Yuan, Dong Wei; Hong, Il Hwa; Park, Jin Kyu; Goo, Moon Jung; Jeong, Kyu Shik

    2006-09-01

    Three dead dogs were brought to the College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University for study. Clinically, all the dogs showed emaciation, anorexia, depression, hemorrhagic vomiting and diarrhea for 7-10 days before death. All the clinical signs were first noted for about one month after feeding the dogs with commercial diets. At necropsy, all 3 dogs had severe renal damage with the same green-yellowish colored nephroliths in the renal pelvis. They also showed systemic hemorrhage and calcification of several organs, which might have been induced by uremia. Microscopically, necrosis, calcification and calculi were detected in the renal tubules, and especially in the proximal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts of the kidney. These findings were supportive of a mycotoxic effect, and especially on their kidneys. However, the precise cause of the toxic effect in these cases of canine renal failure could not be determined.

  5. Canine inflammatory myopathy: analysis of cellular infiltrates.

    PubMed

    Pumarola, Marti; Moore, Peter F; Shelton, G Diane

    2004-06-01

    Inflammatory myopathies (IMs) occur relatively frequently in dogs, and, with the exception of masticatory muscle myositis (MMM), have not been characterized. This study analyzed the distribution and types of cellular infiltrates in 21 cases of generalized IM, 3 cases of focal IM (MMM), and 1 case with features of both generalized and focal IM, using a panel of monoclonal antibodies to cell surface markers. In generalized IM, mononuclear cells showed an endomysial and perimysial distribution with invasion of non-necrotic fibers similar to human IM. T lymphocytes with T-cell receptor (TCR)alphabeta predominated. Distinct differences were seen in MMM including prominent B-cell infiltration, dendritic cells and macrophages in greater numbers than T cells, and numerous T cells with TCRgammadelta. Thus, generalized IM and MMM appear to be distinct diseases with different mechanisms. Canine generalized IM may be an important animal model for human IM.

  6. Calcareous degeneration of the canine cornea.

    PubMed

    Sansom, Jane; Blunden, Tony

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a specific presentation of canine corneal calcification. Fourteen cases are described. In seven cases the corneal lesions were bilaterally symmetrical. In five cases the corneal lesion was unilateral. Two dogs were uniocular, the contralateral eye had been enucleated between 1 and 3 months previously by the referring veterinary surgeon following corneal ulceration and perforation. Of a total of 21 eyes with corneal calcification, 16 eyes had associated ulceration. The ulceration presented as follows: two eyes had descemetocoeles, four eyes had corneal perforations, eight eyes had stromal ulceration, and two eyes had superficial punctate ulceration. The cause of the corneal mineralization remains undetermined but underlying systemic disease, particularly hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing's Syndrome), is suspected as a possible contributing factor in some of these cases. Histopathology was carried out on three cases following a keratectomy and placement of a conjunctival pedicle flap into the ulcerated lesion.

  7. Ultrasonographic evaluation of canine supraspinatus calcifying tendinosis.

    PubMed

    Mistieri, Maria Ligia A; Wigger, Antje; Canola, Julio C; Filho, João G P; Kramer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Supraspinatus calcifying tendinosis is an uncommon finding in dogs. Although its radiographic appearance has been described previously, radiographs alone do not provide detailed information about the tendon parenchyma. Tendon ultrasonography has been widely applied for the diagnosis of human tendinosis, but it remains underused in dogs. This article reviews the ultrasonographic technique and variable appearance of canine supraspinatus calcifying tendinosis observed in 33 tendons. The ultrasonographic findings are described. The most common ultrasonographic finding was a hyperechoic area accompanied by distal acoustic shadowing. No relationship with bicipital tenosynovitis was found. A color Doppler examination was possible in only five of the tendons, revealing no blood flow in those tendons. There was evidence that the presence of a hypoechoic area surrounding the calcification was related to clinical signs of pain, suggesting an active inflammatory process. Ultrasonography was an excellent technique to evaluate lesions of the supraspinatus tendon and it revealed details not apparent on radiographs.

  8. Why segment the maxilla between laterals and canines?

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Lucas Senhorinho; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Sullivan, Steven M.; Martins, Luana Maria Rosário; Ávila, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Maxillary surgery on a bone segment enables movement in the sagittal and vertical planes. When performed on multiple segments, it further provides movement in the transverse plane. Typical sites for interdental osteotomies are between laterals and canines, premolars and canines, or between incisors. Additionally, osteotomies can be bilateral, unilateral or asymmetric. The ability to control intercanine width, buccolingual angulation of incisors, and correct Bolton discrepancy are some of the advantages of maxillary segmentation between laterals and canines. Objective: This article describes important features to be considered in making a clinical decision to segment the maxilla between laterals and canines when treating a dentoskeletal deformity. It further discusses the history of this surgical approach, the indications for its clinical use, the technique used to implement it, as well as its advantages, disadvantages, complications and stability. It is therefore hoped that this paper will contribute to disseminate information on this topic, which will inform the decision-making process of those professionals who wish to make use of this procedure in their clinical practice. Conclusions: Segmental maxillary osteotomy between laterals and canines is a versatile technique with several indications. Furthermore, it offers a host of advantages compared with single-piece osteotomy, or between canines and premolars. PMID:27007769

  9. Antigen profiling analysis of vaccinia virus injected canine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Cecil, Alexander; Gentschev, Ivaylo; Adelfinger, Marion; Nolte, Ingo; Dandekar, Thomas; Szalay, Aladar A

    2014-01-01

    Virotherapy on the basis of oncolytic vaccinia virus (VACV) strains is a novel approach for cancer therapy. In this study we describe for the first time the use of dynamic boolean modeling for tumor growth prediction of vaccinia virus GLV-1h68-injected canine tumors including canine mammary adenoma (ZMTH3), canine mammary carcinoma (MTH52c), canine prostate carcinoma (CT1258), and canine soft tissue sarcoma (STSA-1). Additionally, the STSA-1 xenografted mice were injected with either LIVP 1.1.1 or LIVP 5.1.1 vaccinia virus strains.   Antigen profiling data of the four different vaccinia virus-injected canine tumors were obtained, analyzed and used to calculate differences in the tumor growth signaling network by type and tumor type. Our model combines networks for apoptosis, MAPK, p53, WNT, Hedgehog, TK cell, Interferon, and Interleukin signaling networks. The in silico findings conform with in vivo findings of tumor growth. Boolean modeling describes tumor growth and remission semi-quantitatively with a good fit to the data obtained for all cancer type variants. At the same time it monitors all signaling activities as a basis for treatment planning according to antigen levels. Mitigation and elimination of VACV- susceptible tumor types as well as effects on the non-susceptible type CT1258 are predicted correctly. Thus the combination of Antigen profiling and semi-quantitative modeling optimizes the therapy already before its start. PMID:25482233

  10. Comparison of the canine and human olfactory receptor gene repertoires

    PubMed Central

    Quignon, Pascale; Kirkness, Ewen; Cadieu, Edouard; Touleimat, Nizar; Guyon, Richard; Renier, Corinne; Hitte, Christophe; André, Catherine; Fraser, Claire; Galibert, Francis

    2003-01-01

    Background Olfactory receptors (ORs), the first dedicated molecules with which odorants physically interact to arouse an olfactory sensation, constitute the largest gene family in vertebrates, including around 900 genes in human and 1,500 in the mouse. Whereas dogs, like many other mammals, have a much keener olfactory potential than humans, only 21 canine OR genes have been described to date. Results In this study, 817 novel canine OR sequences were identified, and 640 have been characterized. Of the 661 characterized OR sequences, representing half of the canine repertoire, 18% are predicted to be pseudogenes, compared with 63% in human and 20% in mouse. Phylogenetic analysis of 403 canine OR sequences identified 51 families, and radiation-hybrid mapping of 562 showed that they are distributed on 24 dog chromosomes, in 37 distinct regions. Most of these regions constitute clusters of 2 to 124 closely linked genes. The two largest clusters (124 and 109 OR genes) are located on canine chromosomes 18 and 21. They are orthologous to human clusters located on human chromosomes 11q11-q13 and HSA11p15, containing 174 and 115 ORs respectively. Conclusions This study shows a strongly conserved genomic distribution of OR genes between dog and human, suggesting that OR genes evolved from a common mammalian ancestral repertoire by successive duplications. In addition, the dog repertoire appears to have expanded relative to that of humans, leading to the emergence of specific canine OR genes. PMID:14659017

  11. Canine RBC osmotic tolerance and membrane permeability.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Christian, J A; Critser, J K

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the cryobiological characteristics of canine red blood cells (RBC). These included the hydraulic conductivity (L(p)), the permeability coefficients (P(s)) of common cryoprotectant agents (CPAs), the associated reflection coefficient (sigma), the activation energies (E(a)) of L(p) and P(s) and the osmotic tolerance limits. By using a stopped-flow apparatus, the changes of fluorescence intensity emitted by intracellularly entrapped 5-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) were recorded when cells were experiencing osmotic volume changes. After the determination of the relationship between fluorescence intensity and cell volume, cell volume changes were calculated. These volume changes were used in three-parameter fitting calculations to determine the values of L(p), P(s), and sigma for common CPAs. These volume measurements and data analyses were repeated at three different temperatures (22, 14, 7 degrees C). Using the Arrhenius equation, the activation energies of L(p) and P(s) in the presence of CPAs were determined. The osmotic tolerance limits for canine RBC were determined by measuring the percentage of free hemoglobin in NaCl solutions with various osmolalities compared to that released by RBC incubated in double distilled water. The upper and lower osmotic tolerance limits were found to be 150mOsm (1.67V(iso)) and 1200mOsm (0.45V(iso)), respectively. These parameters were then used to calculate the amount of non-permeating solute needed to keep cell volume excursions within the osmotic tolerance limits during CPA addition and removal.

  12. Molecular cloning of the canine fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene and Fhit protein expression in canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Hiroko; Minami, Koji; Kaneko, Naoki; Shimokawa Miyama, Takako; Mizuno, Takuya; Okuda, Masaru

    2009-05-01

    A fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene has been studied as a tumor-associated gene in humans. The aberrant FHIT gene and its protein expression have been reported in many types of human cancers. The present study explored the canine FHIT gene structure and its protein expression in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy dogs by RT-PCR, RACE and immunoblot analysis. The obtained canine FHIT gene contained nine small exons and was located on canine chromosome 20. Furthermore, we identified an alternative splicing form of the FHIT transcript. The deduced amino acid sequence was well conserved between species, and anti-human Fhit antibody could be used to detect the canine Fhit protein. These findings will be useful for future research.

  13. Evaluation of the efficacy and duration of immunity of a canine combination vaccine against virulent parvovirus, infectious canine hepatitis virus, and distemper virus experimental challenges.

    PubMed

    Abdelmagid, Omar Y; Larson, Laurie; Payne, Laurie; Tubbs, Anna; Wasmoen, Terri; Schultz, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    The results of this study confirmed that dogs vaccinated subcutaneously with a commercially available multivalent vaccine containing modified-live canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type 2, canine parvovirus type 2b, and canine parainfluenza virus antigens were protected against sequential experimental challenge 55 to 57 months after initial vaccination given at 7 to 8 weeks of age. All 10 vaccinates were protected against clinical diseases and mortality following parvovirus and infectious canine hepatitis experimental infections. All vaccinates were protected against mortality and 90% against clinical disease following distemper challenge. These data support at least a 4-year duration of immunity for these three "core" fractions in the combination vaccine.

  14. Paclitaxel inhibits post-traumatic recurrent laryngeal nerve regeneration into the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Park, Andrea M; Bhatt, Neel K; Paniello, Randal C

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the efficacy of paclitaxel, a potent microtubule inhibitor with a more favorable therapeutic index as compared with vincristine, in preventing post-traumatic nerve regeneration of the recurrent laryngeal nerve into the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle in a canine laryngeal model. Experimental animal study. Forty-nine canine hemilaryngeal specimens were divided into five experimental groups. Under general anesthesia, a tracheostomy, recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) transection and repair, and laryngeal adductory pressures (LAP) were measured pre-RLN injury. The approach to the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscle for neurotoxin injection was transoral or open transcervical, at 0 or 3 months. At 6 months, postinjury LAPs were measured and the animals were sacrificed at 6 months to allow for laryngeal harvesting and analysis. Paclitaxel demonstrated increased mean laryngeal adductory pressures (70.6%) as compared with saline control (55.5%). The effect of paclitaxel was the same as observed with vincristine at 0 months and with a delayed injection at 3 months. There was no difference between transoral or open injection groups. PCA muscle injection with paclitaxel resulted in improved strength of laryngeal adduction. This effect was similar to that of vincristine at both 0 and 3 months following nerve injury. A single intramuscular injection of paclitaxel was well tolerated. Additional human studies are needed to determine the degree of clinical benefit of this intervention. NA Laryngoscope, 127:651-655, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Skiing Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    In the broad spectrum of orthopedic skiing injuries, ‘second aid’ on the mountain and at the base by the physician is very important. All skiing physicians should carry minimal medical supplies, including narcotic medication. Diagnosis and treatment of injuries at the hospital are outlined. Most ski fractures of the tibia can be treated by conservative methods. A more aggressive approach to diagnosis and treatment of ligamentous injuries of the knee is recommended. PMID:20469236

  16. Improvement of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer procedure.

    PubMed

    Jang, G; Oh, H J; Kim, M K; Fibrianto, Y H; Hossein, M S; Kim, H J; Kim, J J; Hong, S G; Park, J E; Kang, S K; Lee, B C

    2008-01-15

    The purpose of the present study on canine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) was to evaluate the effects of fusion strength, type of activation, culture media and site of transfer on developmental potential of SCNT embryos. We also examined the potential of enucleated bovine oocytes to serve as cytoplast recipients of canine somatic cells. Firstly, we evaluated the morphological characteristics of in vivo-matured canine oocytes collected by retrograde flushing of the oviducts 72 h after ovulation. Secondly, the effectiveness of three electrical strengths (1.8, 2.3 and 3.3 kV/cm), used twice for 20 micros, on fusion of canine cytoplasts with somatic cells were compared. Then, we compared: (1) chemical versus electrical activation (a) after parthenogenetic activation or (b) after reconstruction of canine oocytes with somatic cells; (2) culture of resulting intergeneric (IG) embryos in either (a) mSOF or (b) TCM-199. The exposure time to 6-DMAP was standardized by using bovine oocytes reconstructed with canine somatic cells. Bovine oocytes were used for SCNT after a 22 h in vitro maturation interval. The fusion rate was significantly higher in the 3.3 kV/cm group than in the 1.8 and 2.3 kV/cm treatment groups. After parthenogenesis or SCNT with chemical activation, 3.4 and 5.8%, respectively, of the embryos developed to the morula stage, as compared to none of the embryos produced using electrical activation. Later developmental stages (8-16 cells) were transferred to the uterine horn of eight recipients, but no pregnancy was detected. However, IG cloned embryos (bovine cytoplast/canine somatic cell) were capable of in vitro blastocyst development. In vitro developmental competence of IG cloned embryos was improved after exposure to 6-DMAP for 4 h as compared to 0, 2 or 6h exposure, although the increase was not significantly different among culture media. In summary, for production of canine SCNT embryos, we recommend fusion at 3.3 kV/cm, chemical activation

  17. Environmental injuries.

    PubMed

    Leikin, J B; Aks, S E; Andrews, S; Auerbach, P S; Cooper, M A; Jacobsen, T D; Krenzelok, E P; Shicker, L; Weiner, S L

    1997-12-01

    Environmental injuries and illnesses can happen in home, work, or recreational settings. The variety and severity of these injuries might require the clinician to call on skills from internal medicine, emergency medicine, and toxicology. Diseases of thermoregulation are hypothermia and hyperthermia. In each instance, treatment is based on the need to restore the patient's core temperature to normal and on monitoring for complications. The victim of a fire might suffer inhalation injury in addition to burns, and it is more likely that the inhalation injury will be fatal. Oxygen deprivation and inhalation of irritant or asphyxiant chemicals contribute to injury. Toxic plants can be the source of poisoning emergencies, especially in children. Misinformation and myths that surround common plants can create diagnostic problems (i.e., which plants really are toxic and require emergency measures). Venomous marine organisms can cause a wide range of injury, from cutaneous eruption to fatal envenomation. Most are encountered in a recreational setting, such as water sports, but keepers of home aquariums are subject to stings from venomous fish. Lightning injury can present many diagnostic and treatment dilemmas. An important point in this regard is that lightning injury and high-voltage electrical injury are different in pathology and require different approaches for treatment. A discussion of electrical, chemical, and thermal burns makes such differences apparent.

  18. Paragliding injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-01-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during starting procedures and nine during flight. The mean patient age was 29.6 years. There were 34.9% spinal injuries, 13.4% upper extremity injuries and 41.3% lower limb injuries. Over half of these injuries were treated surgically and in 54 instances permanent disability remained. In paragliding the lower extremities are at greatest risk of injury during landing. Proper equipment, especially sturdy footwear, exact training in landing techniques as well as improved instruction in procedures during aborted or crash landings is required to reduce the frequency of these injuries. Images p99-a p100-a p100-b p100-c PMID:1751899

  19. Paragliding injuries.

    PubMed

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-06-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during starting procedures and nine during flight. The mean patient age was 29.6 years. There were 34.9% spinal injuries, 13.4% upper extremity injuries and 41.3% lower limb injuries. Over half of these injuries were treated surgically and in 54 instances permanent disability remained. In paragliding the lower extremities are at greatest risk of injury during landing. Proper equipment, especially sturdy footwear, exact training in landing techniques as well as improved instruction in procedures during aborted or crash landings is required to reduce the frequency of these injuries.

  20. A case of severe anal injury in an adolescent male due to bestial sexual experimentation.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Roger O

    2009-10-01

    This report delineates a case of anal injury in a 12-year-old boy who gave a detailed history of bestial behavior with a male bulldog. The child described how he had seen this behavior modeled on the internet and subsequently initiated contact with his own dog, causing the dog to penetrate him anally. This type of juvenile bestial behavior with injury has only been reported once previously in the medical literature. Zoophilia, along with a number of other paraphilias, frequently has its onset in the adolescent age group. Adolescents evidencing paraphilic behaviors require thorough psychological evaluation. Spontaneous sexual assault of a human by a canine has never been described in the human or veterinary medical literature, nor is such a thing likely. A clinician involved in evaluating serious ano-genital injury in a child reportedly due to spontaneous canine sexual assault must consider other possible traumatic etiologies including sexual abuse. Investigation in any such case is essential.

  1. Seawater Immersion Aggravates Burn Injury Causing Severe Blood Coagulation Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong; Mao, Qingxiang; Ma, Yongda; Wang, Li; Chen, Xian; Hu, Yi; Ge, Hengjiang

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the endothelial function in a canine model of burn injury combined with seawater immersion. The model of burn injury was established. The dogs were randomly divided into four groups including dogs with burn injury (B group), or burn injury combined with seawater immersion (BI group), or only immersion in seawater (I group), or control animals with no injury or immersion (C group). The circulating endothelial cell (CEC) count and coagulation-fibrinolysis parameters were measured. The CEC count in B group increased at 4 h, 7 h, and 10 h after injury and then reduced, whereas it continuously increased to a greater extent in BI group (P < 0.05). The von Willebrand factor (vWF) activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), and the ratio of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) to 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-K-PGF1α ) in BI group had a marked increase after injury, and the tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) in the BI group decreased. Microscope observations revealed thrombus formation in lungs of the animals in BI group, but not in C, I, or B groups. Burn injury causes endothelial dysfunction, and seawater immersion lastingly aggravates this injury, leading to a higher risk of developing thrombosis.

  2. [Establishment of prostatic hyperplasia model with castration beagle canines].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Hui; Sun, Zu-Yue; Zhu, Yan; Zhong, En-Hong; He, Gui-Lin; Liu, Gui-Ming

    2003-09-01

    To establish a prostatic hyperplasia model with Beagle canines. Twenty-four two-year-old male Beagle canines were divided into treatment and control groups at random and were administrated testosterone propionate (TP) through intramuscular injection two months after castration. Three treatment groups were given 0.8, 2.5 and 7.5 mg/kg TP respectively, and the control was given the same volume of vehicle. Two months later, half of the animals were killed and the serum and prostate were prepared. After the wet weight and volume of prostate were measured, the dihydrotestosterone (DHT) level of serum and prostate were detected with DHT radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit, and paraffine section from canine prostate was stained by the HE methods. Pictures were taken by digital camera under microscope, and all the pictures were analyzed by computer for epithelial cell height and acinar luminal area of prostate with micro image analysis software. The canine prostate volume was measured with ultrasonic diagnosis instrument before castration, at two months after castration and at two months after being given TP. The ultrasonic results showed that the prostate volumes of all the canines were smaller at two months after castration than before castration (P < 0.05), and after having been administrated TP for two months, and the prostate volumes of all treatment groups were larger than those of the control group (P < 0.01). The wet weight of the prostate of the treatment group was higher than that of the control group (P < 0.05), and both had dose-dependent relationship. The DHT level of serum and prostate of the canines became higher with the increase of TP dose. The results of micro image analysis showed that the acinar luminal area of prostate was enlarged, and the epithelial cell height increased with larger dose of TP. It is practicable to establish prostatic hyperplasia model in Beagle canines after two months of TP administration.

  3. Canine detection of free-ranging brown treesnakes on Guam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savidge, J.A.; Stanford, J.W.; Reed, R.N.; Haddock, G.R.; Adams, A.A.Y.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated canine teams (dogs and their handlers) on Guam as a potential tool for finding invasive brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) in the wild. Canine teams searched a 40 ?? 40 m forested area for a snake that had consumed a dead mouse containing a radio-transmitter. To avoid tainting the target or target area with human scent, no snake was handled or closely approached prior to searches. Trials were conducted during the morning when these nocturnal snakes were usually hidden in refugia. A radiotracker knew the snake's location, but dog handlers and search navigators did not. Of 85 trials conducted over four months, the two canine teams had an average success rate of 35% of correctly defining an area ??? 5 ?? 5 m that contained the transmittered snake; the team with more experience prior to the trials had a success rate of 44% compared with 26% for the less experienced team. Canine teams also found 11 shed skins from wild snakes. Although dogs alerted outside the vicinity of transmittered snakes, only one wild, non-transmittered snake was found during the trials, possibly reflecting the difficulty humans have in locating non-transmittered brown treesnakes in refugia. We evaluated success at finding snakes as a function of canine team, number of prior trials (i.e. experience gained during the trials), recent canine success at finding a target snake, various environmental conditions, snake perch height, and snake characteristics (snout-vent length and sex). Success rate increased over the course of the trials. Canine team success also increased with increasing average humidity and decreased with increasing average wind speed. Our results suggest dogs could be useful at detecting brown treesnakes in refugia, particularly when compared to daytime visual searches by humans, but techniques are needed to help humans find and extract snakes once a dog has alerted. ?? New Zealand Ecological Society.

  4. Young’s Modulus of Canine Vocal Fold Cover Layers

    PubMed Central

    Chhetri, Dinesh K.; Rafizadeh, Sassan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to measure the elastic modulus (Young’s modulus) of canine vocal fold cover layers. Study Design Basic science study. Methods Cover layers from vocal folds of eight canine larynges were dissected. Cover layer samples from the mid-membranous, medial vocal fold surface area were used to measure material stiffness using a previously validated indentation method. Cover layers from two human larynges were also measured as control references. Superior and inferior medial cover layers were measured separately. A total of 15 superior medial surface and 17 inferior medial surface specimens from the canine, and 2 and 4 specimens respectively from the human, were tested. Results In the canine larynges, the mean Young’s modulus of the superior medial surface was 4.2 kPa (range 3.0 kPa – 5.4 kPa, SD 0.6 kPa), and of the inferior medial surface was 6.8 kPa (range 5.4 – 8.5 kPa, SD 0.8 kPa). Measurements on human cover samples were 5.0 kPa (range 4.7 – 5.4 kPa, SD 0.5 kPa) and 7.0 kPa (range 6.7 – 7.3 kPa, SD 0.3 kPa) for the superior medial and inferior medial surface, respectively. Human measurements were similar to the previously validated measurements. There was no difference between the stiffness measurements in the human and canine cover layer samples (p>0.05). Conclusions The elastic stiffness (Young’s modulus) of the canine and human vocal fold cover layers is similar. Findings support the use of canine larynx as an externally valid model to study voice production. PMID:24491497

  5. Young's modulus of canine vocal fold cover layers.

    PubMed

    Chhetri, Dinesh K; Rafizadeh, Sassan

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the elastic modulus (Young's modulus) of canine vocal fold cover layers. Basic science study. Cover layers from vocal folds of eight canine larynges were dissected. Cover layer samples from the mid-membranous, medial vocal fold surface area were used to measure material stiffness using a previously validated indentation method. Cover layers from two human larynges were also measured as control references. Superior and inferior medial cover layers were measured separately. A total of 15 superior medial surface and 17 inferior medial surface specimens from the canine and two and four specimens, respectively, from the human were tested. In the canine larynges, the mean Young's modulus of the superior medial surface was 4.2 kPa (range, 3.0-5.4 kPa; standard deviation [SD], 0.6 kPa) and of the inferior medial surface was 6.8 kPa (range, 5.4-8.5 kPa; SD, 0.8 kPa). Measurements on human cover samples were 5.0 kPa (range, 4.7-5.4 kPa; SD, 0.5 kPa) and 7.0 kPa (range, 6.7-7.3 kPa; SD, 0.3 kPa) for the superior medial and inferior medial surface, respectively. Human measurements were similar to the previously validated measurements. There was no difference between the stiffness measurements in the human and canine cover layer samples (P>0.05). The elastic stiffness (Young's modulus) of the canine and human vocal fold cover layers is similar. Findings support the use of canine larynx as an externally valid model to study voice production. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Canine atopic dermatitis: detailed guidelines for diagnosis and allergen identification.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Patrick; Santoro, Domenico; Favrot, Claude; Hill, Peter; Griffin, Craig

    2015-08-11

    Canine atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, genetically predisposed, inflammatory and pruritic skin disease. The variation in clinical presentations, due to genetic factors, extent of the lesions, stage of the disease, secondary infections, as well as resemblance to other non-atopic related skin diseases, can complicate a diagnosis of canine AD. A sub-group of the International Committee for Allergic Diseases in Animals (ICADA) was tasked with the development of a set of practical guidelines that can be used to assist practitioners and researchers in the diagnosis of canine AD. Online citation databases and abstracts from international meetings were searched for publications related to the topic, and combined with expert opinion where necessary. The final set of guidelines was approved by the entire ICADA committee. A total of 81 publications relevant for this review were identified. The guidelines generated focus on three aspects of the diagnostic approach: 1. Ruling out of other skin conditions with clinical signs resembling, or overlapping with canine AD. 2. Detailed interpretation of the historical and clinical features of patients affected by canine AD. 3. Allergy testing by intradermal versus allergen-specific IgE serum testing. The diagnosis of canine AD is based on meeting clinical criteria and ruling out other possible causes with similar clinical signs. Flea combing, skin scraping and cytology should be performed, where necessary, as part of a thorough work-up. Elimination diet trials are required for patients with perennial pruritus and/or concurrent gastrointestinal signs. Once a clinical diagnosis of canine AD is made, allergy testing can be performed to identify potential causative allergens for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  7. Expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin in canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Klukowska-Rötzler, Jolanta; Chervet, Ludovic; Müller, Eliane J; Roosje, Petra; Marti, Eliane; Janda, Jozef

    2013-02-01

    In humans, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) plays a central role in the development of allergic inflammation, such as atopic dermatitis (AD), but it is unknown whether it is involved in the pathogenesis of canine AD (CAD). Our aim was to characterize canine TSLP and to assess its expression in CAD. Canine TSLP was identified based on sequence homology with human TSLP and the complementary DNA (cDNA) cloned by RT-PCR. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR was established to assess the expression of canine TSLP in cultured canine keratinocytes and in skin biopsy specimens from lesional and nonlesional skin of 12 dogs with CAD and eight healthy control dogs. Partial canine TSLP cDNA was cloned and characterized. It contained four exons that shared 70 and 73% nucleotide identity with human and equine TSLP, respectively, encoding the signal peptide and full-length secreted protein. We found significantly increased TSLP expression in lesional and nonlesional skin of dogs with CAD compared with healthy control dogs (P < 0.05), whereas no difference was measured between lesional and nonlesional samples. In cultured primary canine keratinocytes, we found increased TSLP expression after stimulation with house dust mite allergen extract or Toll-like receptor ligands lipopolysaccharide and poly I:C. Increased TSLP expression in the skin of dogs with CAD supports an involvement of TSLP in the pathogenesis of CAD similar to that in humans. Further studies should elucidate the function and therapeutic potential of TSLP in CAD. © 2013 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  8. Canine retraction: A systematic review of different methods used

    PubMed Central

    Kulshrestha, Rohit S; Tandon, Ragni; Chandra, Pratik

    2015-01-01

    Canine retraction is a very important step in treatment of patients with crowding, or first premolar extraction cases. In severe crowding cases until, the canines have been distilized to relive the crowding, space to correctly align the incisors will not be available. Correct positioning of the canines after retraction is of great importance for the function, stability, and esthetics. The aim of this systematic review was to examine, in an evidence-based way, which kinds of canine retraction methods/techniques are most effective and which have the least side effects. A literature survey was performed by applying the Medline Database (Entrez PubMed) and Science Direct database covering the period from 1985 to 2014, to find out efficient ways to accomplish canine retraction. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective and retrospective controlled studies, and clinical trials were included. Two reviewers selected and extracted the data independently and assessed the quality of the retrieved studies. The search strategy resulted in 324 articles, of which 22 met the inclusion criteria. Due to the vast heterogeneity in study methods, the scientific evidence was too weak to evaluate retraction efficiency during space closure. The data so far reviewed proved that elastomeric power chains, elastic threads, magnets, NiTi coil springs, corticotomies, distraction osteogenesis, and laser therapy, all are able to provide optimum rate of tooth movements. All the methods were nearly similar to each other for retraction of canines Most of the techniques lead to anchorage loss in various amounts depending on the methods used. Most of the studies had serious problems with small sample size, confounding factors, lack of method error analysis, and no blinding in measurements. To obtain reliable scientific evidence, controlled RCT's with sufficient sample sizes are needed to determine which method/technique is the most effective in the respective retraction situation. Further

  9. Rowing injuries.

    PubMed

    Rumball, Jane S; Lebrun, Constance M; Di Ciacca, Stephen R; Orlando, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Participation in the sport of rowing has been steadily increasing in recent decades, yet few studies address the specific injuries incurred. This article reviews the most common injuries described in the literature, including musculoskeletal problems in the lower back, ribs, shoulder, wrist and knee. A review of basic rowing physiology and equipment is included, along with a description of the mechanics of the rowing stroke. This information is necessary in order to make an accurate diagnosis and treatment protocol for these injuries, which are mainly chronic in nature. The most frequently injured region is the low back, mainly due to excessive hyperflexion and twisting, and can include specific injuries such as spondylolysis, sacroiliac joint dysfunction and disc herniation. Rib stress fractures account for the most time lost from on-water training and competition. Although theories abound for the mechanism of injury, the exact aetiology of rib stress fractures remains unknown. Other injuries discussed within, which are specific to ribs, include costochondritis, costovertebral joint subluxation and intercostal muscle strains. Shoulder pain is quite common in rowers and can be the result of overuse, poor technique, or tension in the upper body. Injuries concerning the forearm and wrist are also common, and can include exertional compartment syndrome, lateral epicondylitis, deQuervain's and intersection syndrome, and tenosynovitis of the wrist extensors. In the lower body, the major injuries reported include generalised patellofemoral pain due to abnormal patellar tracking, and iliotibial band friction syndrome. Lastly, dermatological issues, such as blisters and abrasions, and miscellaneous issues, such as environmental concerns and the female athlete triad, are also included in this article.Pathophysiology, mechanism of injury, assessment and management strategies are outlined in the text for each injury, with special attention given to ways to correct

  10. The anti-canine distemper virus activities of ex vivo-expanded canine natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yun; Shin, Dong-Jun; Lee, Soo-Hyeon; Lee, Je-Jung; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Cho, Duck; Kim, Sang-Ki

    2015-04-17

    Natural killer (NK) cells play critical roles in induction of antiviral effects against various viruses of humans and animals. However, few data on NK cell activities during canine distemper virus (CDV) infections are available. Recently, we established a culture system allowing activation and expansion of canine non-B, non-T, large granular NK lymphocytes from PBMCs of normal dogs. In the present study, we explored the ability of such expanded NK cells to inhibit CDV infection in vitro. Cultured CD3-CD5-CD21- NK cells produced large amounts of IFN-γ, exhibited highly upregulated expression of mRNAs encoding NK-cell-associated receptors, and demonstrated strong natural killing activity against canine tumor cells. Although the expanded NK cells were dose-dependently cytotoxic to both normal and CDV-infected Vero cells, CDV infection rendered Vero cells more susceptible to NK cells. Pretreatment with anti-CDV serum from hyperimmunized dogs enhanced the antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of NK cells against CDV-infected Vero cells. The culture supernatants of NK cells, added before or after infection, dose-dependently inhibited both CDV replication and development of CDV-induced cytopathic effects (CPEs) in Vero cells. Anti-IFN-γ antibody neutralized the inhibitory effects of NK cell culture supernatants on CDV replication and CPE induction in Vero cells. Such results emphasize the potential significance of NK cells in controlling CDV infection, and indicate that NK cells may play roles both during CDV infection and in combating such infections, under certain conditions.

  11. Antibody responses of red wolves to canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus vaccination.

    PubMed

    Harrenstien, L A; Munson, L; Ramsay, E C; Lucash, C F; Kania, S A; Potgieter, L N

    1997-07-01

    Twenty captive red wolves (Canis rufus), including 16 intended for release into Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Cades Cove, Tennessee (USA), and four housed at Knoxville Zoological Gardens, Inc., Knoxville, Tennessee, were evaluated for immunologic response to vaccination between June 1994 and April 1995. Wolves were vaccinated with modified-live (MLV) canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV2). Sera were collected, and immunofluorescent staining was performed for determination of immunoglobulin titers (CDV IgM, CDV IgG, and CPV2 IgG). A capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed for validation purposes, to confirm the reactivity of our standard diagnostic reagents with red wolf serum. All wolves produced a measurable antibody response to CDV and CPV2 vaccination. Titers against CDV and CPV2 varied widely among individual wolves, but between-litter differences in mean titers were not significant. No consistent response between the degree of response to CDV versus CPV2 vaccination was observed in individual wolves. No differences were seen between IgG responses of pups vaccinated with univalent vaccines given concurrently or during alternating weeks. Pups had an IgG response to CDV and CPV2 vaccination as early as 9 wk of age. Mean post-vaccination IgG titers against CDV were at or above the level normally measured in vaccinated domestic dogs. Mean post-vaccination IgG titers against CPV2 were below the level normally measured in domestic dogs. Adult previously-vaccinated wolves had measurable CDV and CPV2 IgG titers more than 1 yr after vaccination, but did not have significant IgG titer increases after revaccination. We conclude that red wolves are capable of producing an antibody response after vaccination with commercial canine products but that their response to CPV2 vaccination was minimal. This response can be assayed using tests developed for domestic dogs.

  12. Improved efficiency of canine nucleus transfer using roscovitine-treated canine fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Oh, H J; Hong, S G; Park, J E; Kang, J T; Kim, M J; Kim, M K; Kang, S K; Kim, D Y; Jang, G; Lee, B C

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether roscovitine (the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 inhibitor) effectively induces synchronization of the donor cell cycle at G0/G1 and to examine the effect of donor cell cycle synchronization protocols on canine somatic cell nucleus transfer. Canine fibroblasts were obtained from skin biopsy cultures taken from a 7-yr-old retriever. The donor cell cycle was synchronized either by culturing cells to reach confluency or by treating cells with 15 microg/mL roscovitine for 24h. Cell cycle stages and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. After synchronization of the donor cell cycle, cells were placed with enucleated in vivo-matured dog oocytes, fused by electric stimulation, activated, and transferred into 18 naturally estrus-synchronized surrogates. There was no significant difference in cell cycle synchronization and apoptosis rates between the confluent and roscovitine groups. After transfer of reconstructed embryos, pregnancy was detected in three of nine surrogates that received cloned embryos reconstructed with roscovitine-treated cells, whereas only one of nine surrogates was pregnant after transfer of cloned embryos reconstructed with confluent cells. One pregnant female from the confluent cell group delivered one live and one dead pup, but the live one died within 5 days after birth. Three pregnant females from the roscovitine-treated cell group delivered eight live pups and one dead pup, and one of eight live pups died within 6 days after birth. In conclusion, the current results demonstrated that reconstructing embryos with roscovitine-treated cells resulted in increased efficiency of canine somatic cell nucleus transfer.

  13. Cloning and establishment of canine desmocollin-1 as a major autoantigen in canine pemphigus foliaceus.

    PubMed

    Bizikova, Petra; Dean, Gregg A; Hashimoto, Takashi; Olivry, Thierry

    2012-10-15

    Pemphigus foliaceus (PF) is the most common antibody-mediated autoimmune skin disease of dogs. Desmoglein-1 (DSG1), the major human PF antigen, represents only a minor autoantigen in canine PF (cPF). A recent immunomapping study proposed desmocollin-1 (DSC1) as a relevant candidate autoantigen for cPF. To investigate this hypothesis, 85 cPF sera were screened for the presence of anti-DSC1 IgG using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on live canine DSC1-transfected 293T cells. Seventy-five sera contained detectable antikeratinocyte IgG on IIF using footpad substrate (IIFpos cPF), while 10 did not (IIFneg cPF). Sera from 35 healthy dogs, eight from exfoliative superficial pyoderma (ESP)-affected dogs and 21 dogs with non-PF autoimmune blistering skin diseases served as controls. All sera were tested concurrently by IIF on canine DSG1-transfected as well as nontransfected cells. None of the healthy dog or ESP sera labelled any of the transfected or nontransfected cells. Fifty-seven of 75 IIFpos cPF (86%) and 7/10 of IIFneg cPF sera (70%) contained detectable anti-DSC1 IgG. None of these sera recognized nontransfected cells. Five cPF sera (6%) recognized DSG1 in addition to DSC1. Finally, 5/21 (24%) sera from dogs with non-PF autoimmune blistering diseases contained low anti-DSC1 IgG titers. In 7/10 dogs (70%), from whom serial serum samples were collected during treatment, anti-DSC1 IgG titers decreased in parallel with the reduction in disease clinical severity. Altogether, these findings suggest that DSC1 is a major autoantigen in cPF. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Phylogenetic analyses of dimorphism in primates: evidence for stronger selection on canine size than on body size.

    PubMed

    Thorén, Sandra; Lindenfors, Patrik; Kappeler, Peter M

    2006-05-01

    Phylogenetic comparative methods were used to analyze the consequences of sexual selection on canine size and canine size dimorphism in primates. Our analyses of previously published body mass and canine size data revealed that the degree of sexual selection is correlated with canine size dimorphism, as well as with canine size in both sexes, in haplorhine but not in strepsirrhine primates. Consistent with these results, male and female canine size was found to be highly correlated in all primates. Since canine dimorphism and canine size in both sexes in haplorhines were found to be not only related to mating system but also to body size and body size dimorphism (characters which are also subject to or the result of sexual selection), it was not apparent whether the degree of canine dimorphism is the result of sexual selection on canine size itself, or whether canine dimorphism is instead a consequence of selection on body size, or vice versa. To distinguish among these possibilities, we conducted matched-pairs analyses on canine size after correcting for the effects of body size. These tests revealed significant effects of sexual selection on relative canine size, indicating that canine size is more important in haplorhine male-male competition than body size. Further analyses showed, however, that it was not possible to detect any evolutionary lag between canine size and body size, or between canine size dimorphism and body size dimorphism. Additional support for the notion of special selection on canine size consisted of allometric relationships in haplorhines between canine size and canine size dimorphism in males, as well as between canine size dimorphism and body size dimorphism. In conclusion, these analyses revealed that the effects of sexual selection on canine size are stronger than those on body size, perhaps indicating that canines are more important than body size in haplorhine male-male competition.

  15. ACL Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an ACL injury? ACL refers to the anterior cruciate ligament. It is 1 of 4 ligaments in your ... best results. After surgery, you will need intense physical therapy to ... allow the ligament to heal naturally. Living with an ACL injury ...

  16. Whiplash injuries.

    PubMed

    Malanga, Gerard; Peter, Jason

    2005-10-01

    Whiplash injuries are very common and usually are associated with rear-end collisions. However, a whiplash injury can be caused by any event that results in hyperextension and flexion of the cervical spine. These injuries are of serious concern to all consumers due to escalating cost of diagnosis, treatment, insurance, and litigation. Most acute whiplash injury cases respond well to conservative treatments, which result in resolution of symptoms usually within weeks to a few months after the injury occurred. Chronic whiplash injuries often are harder to diagnose and treat and often result in poor outcomes. Current research shows that various structures in the cervical spine receive nociceptive innervation and potentially may be the cause of chronic pain symptoms. One potential pain generator showing promise is the facet or zygapophyseal joints. Various researchers have proven that these joints are injured during whiplash injuries and that diagnosis and temporary pain relief can be obtained with facet joint injections. The initial evaluation of any patient should follow an organized and stepwise approach, and more serious causes of neck pain must first be ruled out through the history, physical examination, and diagnostic testing. Treatment regimens should be evidence-based, focusing on treatments that have proven to be effective in treating acute and chronic whiplash injuries.

  17. Injury Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Dramatic Rise, Including Bath Salts Household (and Child & Elderly) Injuries Avoiding Household Burns Do I Need A Tetanus Shot? Falls Are The Leading Injury-Related Cause of ER Visits Prevent Poison! ACEP Observes ... on Children Swallowing Objects Like Magnets, Coins or Batteries School & ...

  18. Mechanical advantage of the canine triangularis sterni.

    PubMed

    De Troyer, A; Legrand, A

    1998-02-01

    Recent studies on the canine parasternal intercostal, sternomastoid, and scalene muscles have shown that the maximal changes in airway opening pressure (delta Pao) obtained per unit muscle mass (delta Pao/m) during isolated contraction are closely related to the fractional changes in muscle length per unit volume increase of the relaxed chest wall. In the present study, we have examined the validity of this relationship for the triangularis sterni, an important expiratory muscle of the rib cage in dogs. Passive inflation above functional residual capacity (FRC) induced a virtually linear increase in muscle length, such that, with a 1.0-liter inflation, the muscle lengthened by 17.9 +/- 1.6 (SE) % of its FRC length. When the muscle in one interspace was maximally stimulated at FRC, Pao increased by 0.84 +/- 0.11 cmH2O. However, in agreement with the length-tension characteristics of the muscle, when lung volume was increased by 1.0 liter before stimulation, the rise in Pao amounted to 1.75 +/- 0.12 cmH2O. At the higher volume, delta Pao/m therefore averaged +.053 +/- 0.05 cmH2O/g, such that the coefficient of proportionality between the change in triangularis sterni length during passive inflation and delta Pao/m was the same as that previously obtained for the parasternal intercostal and neck inspiratory muscles. These observations, therefore, confirm that there is a unique relationship between the fractional changes in length of the respiratory muscles, both inspiratory and expiratory, during passive inflation and their delta Pao/m. Consequently, the maximal effect of a particular muscle on the lung can be predicted on the basis of its change in length during passive inflation and its mass. A geometric analysis of the rib cage also established that the lengthening of the canine triangularis sterni during passive inflation is much greater than the shortening of the parasternal intercostals because, in dogs, the costal cartilages slope downward from the sternum.

  19. Ciprofloxacin Pharmacokinetics in Clinical Canine Patients.

    PubMed

    Papich, M G

    2017-09-01

    Ciprofloxacin generic tablets approved for human use frequently are administered to dogs for treatment of bacterial infections because they are inexpensive and readily available. However, previous work indicated low and variable oral absorption in healthy research dogs. To examine orally administered ciprofloxacin in a group of clinical canine patients using population pharmacokinetics in order to identify minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) that potentially could be achieved with orally administered ciprofloxacin in dogs. Thirty-four clinical canine patients; mean weight, 22.95 kg (range, 4.6-57 kg). Ciprofloxacin generic tablets intended for human use were administered to dogs in a prospective study (mean dose, 23.5 mg/kg). Sparse blood sampling was used to obtain population pharmacokinetic results with nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. These data were used to estimate a breakpoint for susceptible bacteria. Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine the probability of target attainment (PTA) for an area under the curve (AUC)/MIC ratio of ≥100, the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic target for fluoroquinolones. The values for volume of distribution, peak concentration, and half-life were 10.7 L/kg (11.7%), 1.9 μg/mL (11.66%), and 4.35 hours (7.62%), respectively (mean, % coefficient of variation [CV]). The size of the dog was an important covariate with larger dogs achieving lower plasma drug concentrations than smaller dogs, despite a similar mg/kg dose. Ninety percent PTA was obtained for a MIC ≤ 0.06 μg/mL. A breakpoint (susceptible) of ≤0.06 μg/mL should be considered when ciprofloxacin tablets are administered to dogs at a dose of 25 mg/kg once daily, which is much lower than the breakpoint of ≤1 μg/mL in humans. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  20. Volleyball injuries.

    PubMed

    Eerkes, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in the numbers of people playing indoor and beach volleyball since the early 1980s and, consequently, an increase in injuries. Most injuries are related to repetitive jumping and hitting the ball overhead. The ankle is the most commonly injured joint, but the knee, shoulder, low back, and fingers also are vulnerable. The shoulder in particular is subject to extreme torque when hitting and jump serving the ball. Some injuries have a predilection for those playing on sand versus those playing in an indoor court. The clinician caring for volleyball players should be aware of the types of injuries these players sustain and how to help them return to play promptly and appropriately. This article reviews the specific injuries that are most common as a result of participating in the sport of volleyball.

  1. Sexual selection and canine dimorphism in New World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kay, R F; Plavcan, J M; Glander, K E; Wright, P C

    1988-11-01

    Social and ecological factors are important in shaping sexual dimorphism in Anthropoidea, but there is also a tendency for body-size dimorphism and canine dimorphism to increase with increased body size (Rensch's rule) (Rensch: Evolution Above the Species Level. London: Methuen, 1959.) Most ecologist interpret Rensch's rule to be a consequence of social and ecological selective factors that covary with body size, but recent claims have been advanced that dimorphism is principally a consequence of selection for increased body size alone. Here we assess the effects of body size, body-size dimorphism, and social structure on canine dimorphism among platyrrhine monkeys. Platyrrhine species examined are classified into four behavioral groups reflecting the intensity of intermale competition for access to females or to limiting resources. As canine dimorphism increases, so does the level of intermale competition. Those species with monogamous and polyandrous social structures have the lowest canine dimorphism, while those with dominance rank hierarchies of males have the most canine dimorphism. Species with fission-fusion social structures and transitory intermale breeding-season competition fall between these extremes. Among platyrrhines there is a significant positive correlation between body size and canine dimorphism However, within levels of competition, no significant correlation was found between the two. Also, with increased body size, body-size dimorphism tends to increase, and this correlation holds in some cases within competition levels. In an analysis of covariance, once the level of intermale competition is controlled for, neither molar size nor molar-size dimorphism accounts for a significant part of the variance in canine dimorphism. A similar analysis using body weight as a measure of size and dimorphism yields a less clear-cut picture: body weight contributes significantly to the model when the effects of the other factors are controlled. Finally, in a

  2. The Effect of Using a Modified Dentoalveolar Distractor on Canine Angulation following Rapid Canine Retraction: A Split-mouth Design Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Al-Ainawi, Khaled I; Al-Mdalal, Yaser; Hajeer, Mohammad Y

    2016-01-01

    New studies have been published and aimed to retract canines by means of distraction osteogenesis to reduce treatment time. Although a great care has been given to achieve a bodily movement of the canines, a significant amount of tipping of the canines has been observed. This trial aimed to assess the effect of applying a modified distractor on canine angulation. The sample of the study consisted of 14 canines in seven patients (16-25 years). After the osteotomy procedure, two distractors were applied (one distractor on each side). After 5 days of a latency period, the two distractors were activated at a rate of 1 mm/day. There was a significant difference between the two distractors regarding the time required to retract the canines (p = 0.008) and the observed change in canine angulation following retraction (p = 0.028). The change in the overjet and the mandibular plane angle was statistically insignificant. Eight out of 14 distracted canines reacted positively to the pulp vitality tester after 3 months of completion of distraction. There was no clinical sign of discoloration or pulpal pain in any canine. Within the limits of this study, the modified distractor caused a bodily movement of the canine with a minimal tipping. Further research is required on a long-term basis on a larger group of patients to gain more insight on the observed changes.

  3. Discriminant canine index – a novel approach in sex determination

    PubMed Central

    Kiran, Chennoju Sai; Ramaswamy, Pachigolla; Swathi, Erva; Smitha, Balla; Sudhakar, Shankaran

    2015-01-01

    Summary Context Assessment of sex has significant contribution in construction of a physical profile of the decedent along with other parameters like race, stature and age. Sex determination with aid of skeletal remains is difficult procedure when, only a part of the body is obtainable. To solve this difficulty, tooth size standards based on odontometric data can be used in age and sex determination. The present study was undertaken with the objective to evaluate the reliability of sex determination using discriminant canine index (DCI). Methods A total of 120 subjects, with healthy periodontium and between the age groups of 15 to 40 years were selected randomly. Subjects with hard tissue abnormalities were excluded from the study. The maximum mesiodistal widths of left mandibular canines were measured intraorally with the help of divider and digital vernier caliper. Data was collected and analyzed statistically. Results A significant increase in the mesiodistal width of canines in males (7.21 ± 0.45 mm) when compared to females (6.77 ± 0.29 mm) was observed. The discriminant canine index (DCI) has identified 68.3% of males and 76.7% of females correctly with an overall accuracy rate of 72.5%. Conclusion The present study indicated that the DCI can produce reliable results and can be used as an alternative for mandibular canine index (MCI), for sex determination. PMID:26330903

  4. Stem cell growth factor receptor in canine vs. feline osteosarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Wolfesberger, Birgitt; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea; Hlavaty, Juraj; Meyer, Florian R.; Hofer, Martin; Steinborn, Ralf; Gebhard, Christiane; Walter, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is considered the most common bone cancer in cats and dogs, with cats having a much better prognosis than dogs, since the great majority of dogs with osteosarcoma develop distant metastases. In search of a factor possibly contributing to this disparity, the stem cell growth factor receptor KIT was targeted, and the messenger (m)RNA and protein expression levels of KIT were compared in canine vs. feline osteosarcomas, as well as in normal bone. The mRNA expression of KIT was quantified by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and was observed to be significantly higher in canine (n=14) than in feline (n=5) osteosarcoma samples (P<0.001). KIT protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, which revealed that 21% of canine osteosarcoma samples did not exhibit KIT staining in their neoplastic cells, while in 14% of samples, a score of 1 (<10% positive tumour cells) was observed, and in 50% and 14% of samples, a score of 2 (10–50% positivity) and 3 (>50% positivity), respectively, was observed. By contrast, the cancer cells of all the feline bone tumour samples analysed were entirely negative for KIT. Notably, canine and feline osteocytes of healthy bone tissue lacked any KIT expression. These results could be the first evidence that KIT may be involved in the higher aggressiveness of canine osteosarcoma compared with feline osteosarcoma. PMID:27698817

  5. Eliminating canine rabies: the role of public-private partnerships.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Louise

    2013-05-01

    Canine rabies has been eliminated from industrialized countries, but infected dogs remain the principal source of human infections in the developing world. Despite the availability of effective tools for prevention and post-exposure prophylaxis, canine rabies inflicts a heavy burden on the poorest people of Africa, Asia and Latin America, resulting in more than 60,000 deaths each year. Public-private partnerships offer a new approach to the challenge of eliminating canine rabies in the developing world, by bringing together stakeholders to share responsibilities and reduce costs. The leading partnership for rabies control, the Partners for Rabies Prevention, is an informal international group that includes representatives of major health organizations (WHO, PAHO, FAO, OIE), the European Commission, universities, nongovernmental organizations, the human and animal health industries, and private global health institutions. This article describes how the Partners for Rabies Prevention is working toward the global elimination of canine rabies. It forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on the elimination of canine rabies.

  6. Alpha basic crystallin expression in canine mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Guvenc, Tolga; Gulbahar, Mustafa Yavuz; Yarim, Murat; Kabak, Yonca Betil; Karayigit, Onder; Sozmen, Mahmut

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate prognostic and/or diagnostic factors of canine mammary tumors by immunohistochemically analyzing the expression of alpha basic crystallin (αB-c). For this, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks of 51 naturally-occurring canine mammary tumors (11 benign and 40 malignant) were used. Tissue from eight normal canine mammary glands were served as a control. Immunohistochemically, in the control mammary tissues, a few luminal epithelial cells were αB-c positive but myoepithelial cells were negative. In benign or simple type malignant tumors, αB-c expression was observed in luminal epithelial cells while the myoepithelial basal cells were negative. In benign or complex type malign tumors, positive staining was predominantly found in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells. Immunoreactivity of αB-c was also observed in neoplastic myoepithelial cells. Statistically, the number of cells immunolabeled with αB-c was found to be significantly different among tissues from normal canine mammary glands, benign lesions, and malignant tumors (p < 0.05). αB-c immunoreactivity was higher in malignant tumors than the control mammary tissues (p < 0.001). Data obtained in the current study revealed a strong association between high expression levels of αB-c and primary mammary gland tumors in canines.

  7. Accuracy of Trained Canines for Detecting Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal

    2014-12-01

    Detection of low-level bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), infestations is essential for early intervention, confirming eradication of infestations, and reducing the spread of bed bugs. Despite the importance of detection, few effective tools and methods exist for detecting low numbers of bed bugs. Scent dogs were developed as a tool for detecting bed bugs in recent years. However, there are no data demonstrating the reliability of trained canines under natural field conditions. We evaluated the accuracy of 11 canine detection teams in naturally infested apartments. All handlers believed their dogs could detect infestations at a very high rate (≥95%). In three separate experiments, the mean (min, max) detection rate was 44 (10-100)% and mean false-positive rate was 15 (0-57)%. The false-positive rate was positively correlated with the detection rate. The probability of a bed bug infestation being detected by trained canines was not associated with the level of bed bug infestations. Four canine detection teams evaluated on multiple days were inconsistent in their ability to detect bed bugs and exhibited significant variance in accuracy of detection between inspections on different days. There was no significant relationship between the team's experience or certification status of teams and the detection rates. These data suggest that more research is needed to understand factors affecting the accuracy of canine teams for bed bug detection in naturally infested apartments.

  8. Permanent Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Somya; Patil, Raju Umaji; Asokan, Alexander; Kambalimath, Deepashri

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Congenitally missing teeth (CMT) are among one of the commonly known dental anomalies. The most frequently missing teeth in the permanent dentition, excluding the third molars, are mandibular second premolars and maxillary lateral incisors. Exclusive agenesis of both maxillary canines is an extremely rare occurrence and only a few cases have been reported. Previous studies showed that the prevalence of maxillary canine agenesis varies between 0.07 and 0.13%. In recent studies on Indian population, no cases of maxillary canine agenesis have been documented. This paper reports a case of non-syndromic bilateral agenesis of permanent maxillary canines, along with agenesis of both mandibular central incisors in a healthy 13-year-old Indian female patient; and a brief literature review on prevalence, etiology and treatment modalities of the condition. How to cite this article: Kambalimath HV, Jain S, Patil RU, Asokan A, Kambalimath D. Permanent Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Rare Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015; 8(3):242-246. PMID:26604546

  9. Citizen science: a new direction in canine behavior research.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Julie; Spicer Rice, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Researchers increasingly rely on members of the public to contribute to scientific projects-from collecting or identifying, to analyzing and disseminating data. The "citizen science" model proves useful to many thematically distinctive fields, like ornithology, astronomy, and phenology. The recent formalization of citizen science projects addresses technical issues related to volunteer participation--like data quality--so that citizen scientists can make longstanding, meaningful contributions to scientific projects. Since the late 1990s, canine science research has relied with greater frequency on the participation of the general public, particularly dog owners. These researchers do not typically consider the methods and technical issues that those conducting citizen science projects embrace and continue to investigate. As more canine science studies rely on public input, an in-depth knowledge of the benefits and challenges of citizen science can help produce relevant, high-quality data while increasing the general public's understanding of canine behavior and cognition as well as the scientific process. We examine the benefits and challenges of current citizen science models in an effort to enhance canine citizen science project preparation, execution, and dissemination. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior.

  10. Three-dimensional canine heart model for cardiac elastography

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Varghese, Tomy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: A three-dimensional finite element analysis based canine heart model is introduced that would enable the assessment of cardiac function. Methods: The three-dimensional canine heart model is based on the cardiac deformation and motion model obtained from the Cardiac Mechanics Research Group at UCSD. The canine heart model is incorporated into ultrasound simulation programs previously developed in the laboratory, enabling the generation of simulated ultrasound radiofrequency data to evaluate algorithms for cardiac elastography. The authors utilize a two-dimensional multilevel hybrid method to estimate local displacements and strain from the simulated cardiac radiofrequency data. Results: Tissue displacements and strains estimated along both the axial and lateral directions (with respect to the ultrasound scan plane) are compared to the actual scatterer movement obtained using the canine heart model. Simulation and strain estimation algorithms combined with the three-dimensional canine heart model provide high resolution displacement and strain curves for improved analysis of cardiac function. The use of principal component analysis along parasternal cardiac short axis views is also presented. Conclusions: A 3D cardiac deformation model is proposed for evaluating displacement tracking and strain estimation algorithms for cardiac strain imaging. Validation of the model is shown using ultrasound simulations to generate axial and lateral displacement and strain curves that are similar to the actual axial and lateral displacement and strain curves. PMID:21158300

  11. Ontogenetic bases of canine dimorphism in anthropoid primates.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Steven R; Setchell, Joanna M; Buchanan, Laurel S

    2005-07-01

    This study tests hypotheses regarding the ontogeny of canine tooth size dimorphism in five anthropoid primate species (Saguinus fuscicollis, Macaca mulatta, Cercocebus atys, Papio hamadryas, and Mandrillus sphinx). Canine measurements and chronological age data are analyzed to determine if bimaturism, a sex difference in the age at which eruption ceases, accounts for canine tooth sexual dimorphism. Canine height measurements are evaluated through a variety of regression techniques. Results show a lack of sexual dimorphism in Saguinus. While size dimorphism is absent in the deciduous teeth of all species analyzed, the adult teeth in cercopithecines become increasingly dimorphic through ontogeny. Female adult tooth eruption regularly precedes male tooth eruption, and regression-based eruption trajectories for both sexes intersect at about the age at which the female tooth reaches adult size. Males erupt the tooth later and more rapidly than females. Males also reach a larger adult size than females by erupting the tooth for much longer periods of time. Bimaturism is primary in the production of dimorphism, but rates of eruption show modest variation. These results point to the scheduling of sexual selection through intermale competition as a primary factor determining male eruption timing, rates of eruption, and adult size. Life history factors may play a role in determining the relations between the scheduling of intrasexual competition and canine eruption. Female contributions to sexual dimorphism are apparent in these species, suggesting that similar levels of dimorphism can be attained through diverse ontogenetic pathways.

  12. Fluctuating asymmetry, sexual selection and canine teeth in primates.

    PubMed

    Manning, J T; Chamberlain, A T

    1993-02-22

    Fluctuating asymmetry arises as small deviations from symmetry which can be expressed on either side of the body. Increases in fluctuating asymmetry can suggest genomic stress such as results from directional selection. It has been argued that epigamic structures and weapons should show high levels of fluctuating asymmetry because sexual selection is essentially directional in nature. We tested this prediction by examining the expression of fluctuating asymmetry in the upper canines of 21 species of Old World primates. We found, for males but not for females, that asymmetry was correlated with measures of sexual selection including canine dimorphism, canine size, mass dimorphism, and intra-male competition. However, there was no significant correlation with diet type and body mass, which are only weakly associated with sexual selection. Phylogenetic inertia did not account for the association between fluctuating asymmetry and sexual selection. We also found that species with high values of canine dimorphism and intra-male competition tended to have a negative correlation between asymmetry and mean canine height, and this latter effect was present in both males and females. The implications of these findings for sexual selection theory are discussed.

  13. Antiviral and antiproliferative effects of canine interferon-λ1.

    PubMed

    Ichihashi, Tomonori; Asano, Atsushi; Usui, Tatsufumi; Takeuchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Yasuko; Yamano, Yoshiaki

    2013-11-15

    Interferon (IFN)-λs, members of the type III IFN group, were recently identified in several vertebrates. Although IFN-λs have the potential to be utilized as antiviral and antitumor agents in veterinary medicine, the biological properties of IFN-λs have not yet been studied in companion animals. In this study, we analyzed the expression of canine IFN-λs and their receptors, produced a recombinant canine IFN-λ1 protein, and investigated its antiviral and antiproliferative activities using a canine kidney epithelial cell line, MDCK cells. MDCK cells were found to express type III IFN molecules, IFN-λ1 and IFN-λ3, and the receptors, IFNλR1 and IL10R2. IFN-λ1 was induced faster than IFN-λ3 by stimulation with poly (I:C). His-tagged IFN-λ1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli inhibited cytolytic plaque formation by influenza A virus infection, and induced the expression of interferon-stimulated genes, Mx1 and OAS1, in MDCK cells. In addition, recombinant IFN-λ1 inhibited the proliferation of MDCK cells slightly. These effects were observed in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that canine IFN-λ1 has antiviral effect, and suggest the potential applicability of canine IFN-λ1 as a therapeutic agent.

  14. Predicted primary and antigenic structure of canine corticotropin releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Mol, J A; van Wolferen, M; Kwant, M; Meloen, R

    1994-07-01

    Although the dog has been recognized as a useful model for the study of the cerebrospinal and peripheral actions of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) the exact amino acid composition of canine CRH is still unknown. In the present study the structure of canine CRH was predicted from the partial sequence of the gene encoding canine CRH. The CRH gene was amplified from genomic DNA obtained from white blood cells by a polymerase chain reaction and subsequently sequenced using the dideoxy method. The likely structure of canine CRH is: SEEPPISLDLTFHLLREVLEMARAEQLAQQAHSNRKLMEII-NH2, which is identical to the structure of human, rat and equine CRH. PEPSCAN analysis of 3 different CRH antisera predicted an antiserum raised against a conjugate of human CRH and CNBr -activated thyroglobulin to be the antiserum of choice for the measurement of CRH in the dog. Preliminary data confirmed the existence of the highest cross-reactivity of a canine hypothalamus extract, known to have a high content of CRH, with antisera directed against human, rat CRH. As a result of the present study immunological tools for CRH estimations are characterized. Also, a homologous DNA probe for in situ hybridizations has become available for further investigations.

  15. Biological effects on canine bladder by Nd:YAP laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui-Guo; Zhang, Mei-Jue; Zhu, Jing

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To observe the difference of biological effects on canine bladder by Nd:YAP laser with different power and different irradiation time. Methods: The canine bladder was irradiated with different power and different irradiation time. The effects of ablation and thermal coagulation in different laser settings were observed. The damage scale was evaluated macroscopically, with microscope and with electroscope. Results: The thermal coagulation effects is mostly and ablation effects is subordinate on the canine bladder by irradiation of Nd:YAP laser on. Pathology vision shows the thermal coagulation dose on perforation is 10W、6s;20W、4s;30W、3s;40W、2s;50-60W、1s;the dose of whole audience wear through is 10W、6s 20W、4s 30W、3s;40W、2s;50-60W、1s. Conclusions: The thermal coagulation effects is mostly and ablation effects is subordinate on biological effect of Nd:YAP laser on canine bladder. The better safety dose is power 10W、duration time less than 6s; power 20W、duration time less than 4s. power 30W、time less than 3s. power 40W、time less than 2s. The ablation and thermal coagulation effects of Nd:YAP laser on canine bladder is homocercal of power and time.

  16. Optical measurement of isolated canine lung filtration coefficients after alloxan infusion.

    PubMed

    Klaesner, J W; Pou, N A; Parker, R E; Finney, C; Roselli, R J

    1998-04-01

    In this study, lung filtration coefficient (Kfc) was measured in eight isolated canine lung preparations by using three methods: standard gravimetric (Std), blood-corrected gravimetric (BC), and optical. The lungs were held in zone III conditions and were subjected to an average venous pressure increase of 8.79 +/- 0.93 (mean +/- SD) cmH2O. The permeability of the lungs was increased with an infusion of alloxan (75 mg/kg). The resulting Kfc values (in milliliters . min-1 . cmH2O-1 . 100 g dry lung weight-1) measured by using Std and BC gravimetric techniques before vs. after alloxan infusion were statistically different: Std, 0.527 +/- 0.290 vs. 1. 966 +/- 0.283; BC, 0.313 +/- 0.290 vs. 1.384 +/- 0.290. However, the optical technique did not show any statistical difference between pre- and postinjury with alloxan, 0.280 +/- 0.305 vs. 0.483 +/- 0. 297, respectively. The alloxan injury, quantified by using multiple-indicator techniques, showed an increase in permeability and a corresponding decrease in reflection coefficient for albumin (sigmaf). Because the optical method measures the product of Kfc and sigmaf, this study shows that albumin should not be used as an intravascular optical filtration marker when permeability is elevated. However, the optical technique, along with another means of measuring Kfc (such as BC), can be used to calculate the sigmaf of a tracer (in this study, sigmaf of 0.894 at baseline and 0.348 after injury). Another important finding of this study was that the ratio of baseline-to-injury Kfc values was not statistically different for Std and BC techniques, indicating that the percent contribution of slow blood-volume increases does not change because of injury.

  17. Evaluation of the antiviral activity of chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite against feline calicivirus, human influenza virus, measles virus, canine distemper virus, human herpesvirus, human adenovirus, canine adenovirus and canine parvovirus.

    PubMed

    Sanekata, Takeshi; Fukuda, Toshiaki; Miura, Takanori; Morino, Hirofumi; Lee, Cheolsung; Maeda, Ken; Araki, Kazuko; Otake, Toru; Kawahata, Takuya; Shibata, Takashi

    2010-06-01

    We evaluated the antiviral activity of a chlorine dioxide gas solution (CD) and sodium hypochlorite (SH) against feline calicivirus, human influenza virus, measles virus, canine distemper virus, human herpesvirus, human adenovirus, canine adenovirus and canine parvovirus. CD at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 ppm produced potent antiviral activity, inactivating >or= 99.9% of the viruses with a 15 sec treatment for sensitization. The antiviral activity of CD was approximately 10 times higher than that of SH.

  18. Development of an Animal Model for Burn-Blast Combined Injury and Cardiopulmonary System Changes in the Early Shock Stage.

    PubMed

    Hu, Quan; Chai, Jiake; Hu, Sen; Fan, Jun; Wang, Hong-Wei; Ma, Li; Duan, Hong-Jie; Liu, Lingying; Yang, Hongming; Li, Bai-Ling; Wang, Yi-He

    2015-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to establish an animal model for burn-blast combined injury research and elaborate cardiopulmonary system changes in the early shock stage. In this study, royal demolition explosive or RDX (hexagon, ring trimethylene nitramine) was used as an explosive source, and the injury conditions of the canine test subjects at various distances to the explosion (30, 50, and 70 cm) were observed by gross anatomy and pathology to determine a larger animal model of moderate blast injury. The canines were then subjected to a 35 % total body surface area (TBSA) full-thickness flame injury using napalm, which completed the development of a burn-blast combined injury model. Based on this model, the hemodynamic changes and arterial blood gas analysis after the burn-blast combined injury were measured to identify the cardiopulmonary system characteristics. In this research, RDX explosion and flame injury were used to develop a severe burn-blast injury animal model that was stable, close to reality, and easily controllable. The hemodynamic and arterial blood gas changes in the canine subjects after burn-blast injury changed distinctly from the burn and blast injuries. Blood pressure and cardiac output fluctuated, and the preload was significantly reduced, whereas the afterload significantly increased. Meanwhile, the oxygen saturation (SO2) decreased markedly with carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2), and lactic acid (Lac) rose, and oxygen partial pressure (PO2) reduced. These changes suggested that immediate clinical treatment is important during burn-blast injury both to stabilize cardiac function and supply blood volume and to reduce the vascular permeability, thereby preventing acute pneumonedema or other complications.

  19. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Questions Glossary Contact Us Visitor Feedback mild Traumatic Brain Injury mild Traumatic Brain Injury VIDEO STORIES What is TBI Measuring Severity ... most common deployment injuries is a mild Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). A mild TBI is an injury ...

  20. Recombinant vaccine for canine parvovirus in dogs.

    PubMed

    López de Turiso, J A; Cortés, E; Martínez, C; Ruiz de Ybáñez, R; Simarro, I; Vela, C; Casal, I

    1992-05-01

    VP2 is the major component of canine parvovirus (CPV) capsids. The VP2-coding gene was engineered to be expressed by a recombinant baculovirus under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. A transfer vector that contains the lacZ gene under the control of the p10 promoter was used in order to facilitate the selection of recombinants. The expressed VP2 was found to be structurally and immunologically indistinguishable from authentic VP2. The recombinant VP2 shows also the capability to self-assemble, forming viruslike particles similar in size and appearance to CPV virions. These viruslike particles have been used to immunize dogs in different doses and combinations of adjuvants, and the anti-CPV responses have been measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, monolayer protection assays, and an assay for the inhibition of hemagglutination. A dose of ca. 10 micrograms of VP2 was able to elicit a good protective response, higher than that obtained with a commercially available, inactivated vaccine. The results indicate that these viruslike particles can be used to protect dogs from CPV infection.

  1. Recombinant vaccine for canine parvovirus in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    López de Turiso, J A; Cortés, E; Martínez, C; Ruiz de Ybáñez, R; Simarro, I; Vela, C; Casal, I

    1992-01-01

    VP2 is the major component of canine parvovirus (CPV) capsids. The VP2-coding gene was engineered to be expressed by a recombinant baculovirus under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. A transfer vector that contains the lacZ gene under the control of the p10 promoter was used in order to facilitate the selection of recombinants. The expressed VP2 was found to be structurally and immunologically indistinguishable from authentic VP2. The recombinant VP2 shows also the capability to self-assemble, forming viruslike particles similar in size and appearance to CPV virions. These viruslike particles have been used to immunize dogs in different doses and combinations of adjuvants, and the anti-CPV responses have been measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, monolayer protection assays, and an assay for the inhibition of hemagglutination. A dose of ca. 10 micrograms of VP2 was able to elicit a good protective response, higher than that obtained with a commercially available, inactivated vaccine. The results indicate that these viruslike particles can be used to protect dogs from CPV infection. Images PMID:1313899

  2. Canine detection odor signatures for explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Marc; Johnston, J. M.; Cicoria, Matt; Paletz, E.; Waggoner, L. Paul; Edge, Cindy C.; Hallowell, Susan F.

    1998-12-01

    Dogs are capable of detecting and discriminating a number of compounds constituting a complex odor. However, they use only a few of these to recognize a substance. The focus of this research is to determine the compounds dogs learn to use in recognizing explosives. This is accomplished by training dogs under behavioral laboratory conditions to respond differentially on separate levers to 1) blank air, 2) a target odor, such as an explosive, and 3) all other odors (non-target odors). Vapor samples are generated by a serial dilution vapor generator whose operation and output is characterized by GC/MS. Once dogs learn this three-lever discrimination, testing sessions are conducted containing a number of probe trials in which vapor from constituent compounds of the target is presented. Which lever the dogs respond to on these probe trials indicates whether they can smell the compound at all (blank lever) or whether it smells like toe target odor (e.g., the explosive) or like something else. This method was conducted using TNT, C-4, and commercial dynamite. The data show the dogs' reactions to each of the constituent compounds tested for each explosive. Analysis of these data reveal the canine detection odor signature for these explosives.

  3. Canine Butterfly Glioblastomas: A Neuroradiological Review

    PubMed Central

    Rossmeisl, John H.; Clapp, Kemba; Pancotto, Theresa E.; Emch, Samantha; Robertson, John L.; Debinski, Waldemar

    2016-01-01

    In humans, high-grade gliomas may infiltrate across the corpus callosum resulting in bihemispheric lesions that may have symmetrical, winged-like appearances. This particular tumor manifestation has been coined a “butterfly” glioma (BG). While canine and human gliomas share many neuroradiological and pathological features, the BG morphology has not been previously reported in dogs. Here, we describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of BG in three dogs and review the potential differential diagnoses based on neuroimaging findings. All dogs presented for generalized seizures and interictal neurological deficits referable to multifocal or diffuse forebrain disease. MRI examinations revealed asymmetrical (2/3) or symmetrical (1/3), bihemispheric intra-axial mass lesions that predominantly affected the frontoparietal lobes that were associated with extensive perilesional edema, and involvement of the corpus callosum. The masses displayed heterogeneous T1, T2, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery signal intensities, variable contrast enhancement (2/3), and mass effect. All tumors demonstrated classical histopathological features of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), including glial cell pseudopalisading, serpentine necrosis, microvascular proliferation as well as invasion of the corpus callosum by neoplastic astrocytes. Although rare, GBM should be considered a differential diagnosis in dogs with an MRI evidence of asymmetric or symmetric bilateral, intra-axial cerebral mass lesions with signal characteristics compatible with glioma. PMID:27458589

  4. Investigation of nanodiamonds interactions in canine blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WÄ sowicz, Michał; Marek, Kulka; Cićkiewicz, Maciej; Cymerman, Magdalena

    2017-02-01

    The whole blood contains red cells, white cells, and platelets suspended in plasma. In the following study we investigated an impact of nanodiamond particles on blood elements over various periods of time.The material used in the study consisted of samples taken from ten healthy canines (Canis lupus f. domestica) of various age, different blood types and both sexes. The markings were conducted by adding to the blood unmodified diamonds (SND), modified O2 (SO2) suspended in 0,9% NaCl. The blood was put under an impact of two diamond concentrations: 20μl and 100μl. The amount of abnormal cells increased with time. The percentage of echinocytes as a result of interaction with nanodiamonds in various time periods for individual specimens was scarce. In the examined microscopic image a summary was made for 100 white blood cells. Following cells were included in said group: band neutrophils, segmented neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes with granulates, stimulated lymphocytes, lymphocytes with vacuoles, metamielocytes and smudge cells. The impact of the three diamond types had no clinical importance on red blood cells. After the diamonds mixed with white blood cells, atypical cells came into being, in the range of agranulocytes in stimulated form or with granulates and/or vacuoles. It is supposed that as a result of longlasting exposure a stimulation and vacuolisation takes place, because of the function of the cells.

  5. Genotyping of Canine parvovirus in western Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pedroza-Roldán, César; Páez-Magallan, Varinia; Charles-Niño, Claudia; Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; De Cervantes-Mireles, Raúl Leonel; López-Amezcua, Mario Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is one of the most common infectious agents related to high morbidity rates in dogs. In addition, the virus is associated with severe gastroenteritis, diarrhea, and vomiting, resulting in high death rates, especially in puppies and nonvaccinated dogs. To date, there are 3 variants of the virus (CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c) circulating worldwide. In Mexico, reports describing the viral variants circulating in dog populations are lacking. In response to this deficiency, a total of 41 fecal samples of suspected dogs were collected from October 2013 through April 2014 in the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Guadalajara in western Mexico. From these, 24 samples resulted positive by polymerase chain reaction, and the viral variant was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Five positive diagnosed samples were selected for partial sequencing of the vp2 gene and codon analysis. The results demonstrated that the current dominant viral variant in Mexico is CPV-2c. The current study describes the genotyping of CPV strains, providing valuable evidence of the dominant frequency of this virus in a dog population from western Mexico. © 2014 The Author(s).

  6. The molecular defect underlying canine fucosidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Skelly, B J; Sargan, D R; Herrtage, M E; Winchester, B G

    1996-01-01

    Fucosidosis is a lysosomal storage disease which affects humans and English springer spaniel dogs. The disease is recessively inherited in both species and results from a deficiency of the enzyme alpha-L-fucosidase. We have recently cloned and sequenced the canine fucosidase gene (EMBL sequence admission number X92448 (cDNA) and X92671-X92678 (individual exonic data)). The gene spans 12 kb and consists of eight exons. SSCP based mutation analysis of affected animals was carried out on the coding region of this gene both with exonic primers, and intronic primer pairs for each exon. A 14 base pair deletion of the cDNA was identified at the 3' end of exon 1 in fucosidosis affected animals. Surprisingly, PCR based genomic cloning of DNA from these animals showed an identical deletion in this DNA, ending at the start of intron 1. This change causes a frameshift and, in consequence, 25 novel codons are transcribed in exon 2 before the first of two adjacent premature stop codons is encountered. Images PMID:8730282

  7. [Diagnostic tools for canine parvovirus infection].

    PubMed

    Proksch, A L; Hartmann, K

    2015-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection is one of the most important and common infectious diseases in dogs, in particular affecting young puppies when maternal antibodies have waned and vaccine-induced antibodies have not yet developed. The mortality rate remains high. Therefore, a rapid and safe diagnostic tool is essential to diagnose the disease to 1) provide intensive care treatment and 2) to identify virus-shedding animals and thus prevent virus spread. Whilst the detection of antibodies against CPV is considered unsuitable to diagnose the disease, there are several different methods to directly detect complete virus, virus antigen or DNA. Additionally, to test in commercial laboratories, rapid in-house tests based on ELISA are available worldwide. The specificity of the ELISA rapid in-house tests is reported to be excellent. However, results on sensitivity vary and high numbers of false-negative results are commonly reported, which potentially leads to misdiagnosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a very sensitive and specific diagnostic tool. It also provides the opportunity to differentiate vaccine strains from natural infection when sequencing is performed after PCR.

  8. Leishmania (infantum) chagasi in canine urinary sediment.

    PubMed

    de Mendonça, Ivete Lopes; Batista, Joilson Ferreira; Alves, Leucio Camara

    2015-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is difficult to diagnosis, mainly due to the presence of asymptomatic animals, the diversity of clinical symptoms and the difficulty in obtaining diagnostic evidence of high sensitivity and specificity. The purpose of this study was to diagnose CVL in urinary sediment of 70 dogs of different breeds, sexes and ages from the veterinary hospital of the Federal University of Piauí and Zoonosis Control Center of Teresina, Brazil. The serological tests were TR DPP® for CVL and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for CVL, parasitological exams of bone marrow and lymph nodes and urine sediment cultures. Leishmania was detected in the bone marrow and/or lymph node of 61.0% of the animals (43/70), and urine sediment culture was positive in 9.30% (4/43) of these animals. In the serological exams, 70.0% (49/70) were reactive using the DPP and 78.2% (55/70) were reactive using ELISA. The goal of this study was to diagnose the presence of L. (infantum) chagasi in a culture of urinary sediment.

  9. Canine Butterfly Glioblastomas: A Neuroradiological Review.

    PubMed

    Rossmeisl, John H; Clapp, Kemba; Pancotto, Theresa E; Emch, Samantha; Robertson, John L; Debinski, Waldemar

    2016-01-01

    In humans, high-grade gliomas may infiltrate across the corpus callosum resulting in bihemispheric lesions that may have symmetrical, winged-like appearances. This particular tumor manifestation has been coined a "butterfly" glioma (BG). While canine and human gliomas share many neuroradiological and pathological features, the BG morphology has not been previously reported in dogs. Here, we describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of BG in three dogs and review the potential differential diagnoses based on neuroimaging findings. All dogs presented for generalized seizures and interictal neurological deficits referable to multifocal or diffuse forebrain disease. MRI examinations revealed asymmetrical (2/3) or symmetrical (1/3), bihemispheric intra-axial mass lesions that predominantly affected the frontoparietal lobes that were associated with extensive perilesional edema, and involvement of the corpus callosum. The masses displayed heterogeneous T1, T2, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery signal intensities, variable contrast enhancement (2/3), and mass effect. All tumors demonstrated classical histopathological features of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), including glial cell pseudopalisading, serpentine necrosis, microvascular proliferation as well as invasion of the corpus callosum by neoplastic astrocytes. Although rare, GBM should be considered a differential diagnosis in dogs with an MRI evidence of asymmetric or symmetric bilateral, intra-axial cerebral mass lesions with signal characteristics compatible with glioma.

  10. Experimental columnar metaplasia in the canine oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Gillen, P; Keeling, P; Byrne, P J; West, A B; Hennessy, T P

    1988-02-01

    Regeneration of canine oesophageal mucosa was studied under basal conditions and in the presence of gastro-oesophageal reflux. In normal circumstances mucosal defects in the oesophagus regenerate by squamous epithelium. In the presence of gastro-oesophageal reflux of either acid or a combination of acid and bile, regeneration was frequently by columnar epithelium (Barrett's oesophagus). This columnar regeneration was not seen with bile reflux alone. By the use of squamous barriers to proximal migration of columnar epithelium in the stomach, it was demonstrated that columnar re-epithelialization may occur from cells intrinsic to the oesophagus and is not dependent on proximal migration of cardiac columnar epithelium. The cell of origin of this epithelium may be located in oesophageal gland ducts and is likely to be a multipotential stem cell since the regenerated columnar epithelium may contain goblet and parietal cells not normally found in the oesophagus. This epithelium is morphologically distinct on mucin histochemistry from cardiac columnar epithelium. These findings support the concept that Barrett's epithelium is metaplastic.

  11. Gastrin biosynthesis in canine G cells.

    PubMed

    Stepan, Vinzenz; Sugano, Kentaro; Yamada, Tadataka; Park, Jung; Dickinson, Chris J

    2002-05-01

    Gastrin requires extensive posttranslational processing for full biological activity. It is presumed that progastrin is cleaved at pairs of basic amino acids by a prohormone convertase to form a glycine-extended intermediate (G-Gly) that serves as a substrate for peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), resulting in COOH-terminally amidated gastrin. To confirm the nature of progastrin processing in a primary cell line, we performed [(35)S]methionine-labeled pulse-chase biosynthetic experiments in canine antral G cells. Radiolabeled progastrin reached a peak earlier than observed for G-Gly or amidated gastrin. G-Gly radioactivity accumulated in G cells and preceded the appearance of radioactivity in amidated gastrin. The conversion of G-Gly to amidated gastrin was enhanced by the PAM cofactor ascorbic acid. To determine whether one member of the prohormone convertase family (PC2) was responsible for progastrin cleavage, G cells were incubated with PC2 antisense oligonucleotide probes. Cells treated with antisense probes had reduced PC2 expression, an accumulation of radiolabeled progastrin, and a delay in the formation of amidated gastrin. Progastrin in antral G cells is cleaved via PC2 to form G-Gly that is converted to amidated gastrin via the actions of PAM.

  12. Molecular epizootiology of canine hepatozoonosis in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vojta, Lea; Mrljak, Vladimir; Curković, Snjezana; Zivicnjak, Tatjana; Marinculić, Albert; Beck, Relja

    2009-08-01

    An epizootiological survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence of hepatozoonosis in a population of 924 apparently asymptomatic dogs from different regions of Croatia. DNA was isolated from canine blood and screening PCR on the 666 bp fragment of 18S rRNA revealed that 108 (11.8%) of dogs were infected. Positive samples were confirmed by partial sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene. The consensus sequences, derived from various sequence data sets, were compared with sequences of 18S ssrRNA of Hepatozoon spp. available in GenBank. The alignments revealed 106 Hepatozoon canis and two Hepatozoon sp. sequences. Among H. canis isolates, we found a certain amount of heterogeneity, while both Hepatozoon sp. isolates were identical to the Spanish isolate (Accession No. AY600625) from Clethrionomys glareolus. On the basis of eight commonly mutated nucleotide positions in the partial 18S rRNA gene sequence, we divided the H. canis isolates into five groups. The results obtained indicate a higher prevalence and significance of hepatozoonosis in Croatia than previously believed and demonstrate that the organisms belonging to H. canis that infect European dogs are genetically very heterogeneous.

  13. In vivo canine muscle function assay.

    PubMed

    Childers, Martin K; Grange, Robert W; Kornegay, Joe N

    2011-04-05

    We describe a minimally-invasive and reproducible method to measure canine pelvic limb muscle strength and muscle response to repeated eccentric contractions. The pelvic limb of an anesthetized dog is immobilized in a stereotactic frame to align the tibia at a right angle to the femur. Adhesive wrap affixes the paw to a pedal mounted on the shaft of a servomotor to measure torque. Percutaneous nerve stimulation activates pelvic limb muscles of the paw to either push (extend) or pull (flex) against the pedal to generate isometric torque. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation activates tibiotarsal extensor muscles. Repeated eccentric (lengthening) contractions are induced in the tibiotarsal flexor muscles by percutaneous peroneal nerve stimulation. The eccentric protocol consists of an initial isometric contraction followed by a forced stretch imposed by the servomotor. The rotation effectively lengthens the muscle while it contracts, e.g., an eccentric contraction. During stimulation flexor muscles are subjected to an 800 msec isometric and 200 msec eccentric contraction. This procedure is repeated every 5 sec. To avoid fatigue, 4 min rest follows every 10 contractions with a total of 30 contractions performed.

  14. Phonation instability flow in excised canine larynges

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Matthew R.; Rieves, Adam L.; Budde, Adam J.; Surender, Ketan; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Jack J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Disordered voices are often associated with abnormal changes in aerodynamic parameters of subglottal pressure and airflow. Phonation instability pressure (PIP) has been previously proposed to evaluate subglottal pressure at the onset of chaotic phonation. We propose the concept of and measure phonation instability flow (PIF), the airflow at which phonation becomes chaotic. Phonation flow range (PFR), PIF minus phonation threshold flow (PTF), is proposed to assess the range over which normal vocal fold vibration occurs. Study Design Repeated measures with each ex vivo larynx serving as its own control. Methods Pressure and airflow were measured at phonation onset and chaos onset in seven excised canine larynges under three experimental conditions: 0% elongation with no glottal gap; 20% elongation with no glottal gap; 20% elongation with a 3 mm posterior glottal gap. Paired t-tests were performed to determine if experimental measurements differed between elongations (0% and 20%) or degrees of abduction (20% elongation with and without a 3 mm glottal gap). Results Both PIF and PFR were dependent on abduction but not elongation. PIP was not significantly dependent on either condition. PIF and PFR showed greater differences for abduction than either phonation threshold pressure (PTP) or PTF. Conclusions PIF and PFR may be useful parameters in the experimental or clinical settings, particularly when evaluating disorders characterized by a glottal gap such as vocal fold paralysis and presbylaryngis. PMID:21555205

  15. Molecular epidemiology of canine parvovirus in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Amrani, Nadia; Desario, Costantina; Kadiri, Ahlam; Cavalli, Alessandra; Berrada, Jaouad; Zro, Khalil; Sebbar, Ghizlane; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Parisi, Antonio; Elia, Gabriella; Buonavoglia, Canio; Malik, Jamal; Decaro, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    Since it first emergence in the mid-1970's, canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) has evolved giving rise to new antigenic variants termed CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c, which have completely replaced the original strain and had been variously distributed worldwide. In Africa limited data are available on epidemiological prevalence of these new types. Hence, the aim of the present study was to determine circulating variants in Morocco. Through TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay, 91 samples, collected from symptomatic dogs originating from various cities between 2011 and 2015, were diagnosed. Positive specimens were characterised by means of minor groove binder (MGB) probe PCR. The results showed that all samples but one (98.9%) were CPV positive, of which 1 (1.1%) was characterised as CPV-2a, 43 (47.7%) as CPV-2b and 39 (43.3%) as CPV-2c. Interestingly, a co-infection with CPV-2b and CPV-2c was detected in 4 (4.4%) samples and 3 (3.3%) samples were not characterised. Sequencing of the full VP2 gene revealed these 3 uncharacterised strains as CPV-2c, displaying a change G4068A responsible for the replacement of aspartic acid with asparagine at residue 427, impacting the MGB probe binding. In this work we provide a better understanding of the current status of prevailing CPV strains in northern Africa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity in experimentally induced and naturally occurring canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis).

    PubMed

    Mylonakis, Mathios E; Xenoulis, Panagiotis G; Theodorou, Konstantina; Siarkou, Victoria I; Steiner, Jörg M; Harrus, Shimon; Leontides, Leonidas; Rallis, Timoleon; Suchodolski, Jan S; Koutinas, Christos K; Koutinas, Alexander F

    2014-03-14

    Ehrlichia canis infection causes multisystemic disease in dogs (canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, CME) which is associated with variable morbidity and mortality. Atypical clinical manifestations, including gastrointestinal signs, may occasionally occur in CME and approximately 10-15% of dogs are presented with historical or clinical evidence of vomiting, diarrhea, and/or abdominal discomfort. The objective of this study was to investigate if there are any alterations in serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) in dogs with experimentally induced or naturally occurring monocytic ehrlichiosis. Serum samples from 10 Beagle dogs experimentally infected with E. canis and two healthy uninfected Beagles were serially examined; samples from 20 naturally infected dogs (10 with non-myelosuppressive [NME] and 10 with myelosuppressive [ME] ehrlichiosis) were also examined at a given point in time (cross-sectional sampling). None of the experimentally infected Beagles showed gastrointestinal signs or increased cPLI concentrations prior to or following the artificial infection. Three naturally infected dogs with NME and one with ME demonstrated serum cPLI concentrations in the diagnostic range for pancreatitis (>400 μg/L) without showing gastrointestinal signs. The results of the present study indicated that 4/20 (20%) of dogs naturally infected with E. canis demonstrated increased serum cPLI concentrations consistent with mild and clinically inapparent pancreatitis.

  17. Prevalence of antibodies against canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus among foxes and wolves from Spain.

    PubMed

    Sobrino, R; Arnal, M C; Luco, D F; Gortázar, C

    2008-01-01

    Viral diseases can influence the population dynamics of wild carnivores and can have effects on carnivore conservation. Hence, a serologic survey was conducted in an opportunistic sample of 137 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 37 wolves (Canis lupus) in Spain for 1997-2007 to detect antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV) and against canine parvovirus (CPV) by indirect ELISA. Antibodies against CDV were detected in 18.7% of the analyzed animals and antibodies against CPV in 17.2%. There was no difference in antibody prevalence to CDV between both species, even in the same region (P>0.05), but there was a significant difference in antibody prevalence to CPV between foxes (5.1%) and wolves (62.2%) (P<0.05). In fox populations there was a significant difference in antibody prevalence to CDV between geographic areas (Aragón 26.4%, La Mancha 7.8%, P<0.05). In wolf populations there was significantly higher antibody prevalence against CPV (P<0.05) in Castilla y León (100%) than in the Cantabric region (53.3%). There was no significant sex or age-related difference in the antibody prevalence against CDV or CPV in foxes. These results indicate that contact with CDV is widespread among wild canid populations in Spain and that CPV is endemic in the Iberian wolf population. The implications of these results are briefly discussed.

  18. Finite element analysis of rapid canine retraction through reducing resistance and distraction

    PubMed Central

    XUE, Junjie; YE, Niansong; YANG, Xin; WANG, Sheng; WANG, Jing; WANG, Yan; LI, Jingyu; MI, Congbo; LAI, Wenli

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to compare different surgical approaches to rapid canine retraction by designing and selecting the most effective method of reducing resistance by a three-dimensional finite element analysis. Material and Methods Three-dimensional finite element models of different approaches to rapid canine retraction by reducing resistance and distraction were established, including maxillary teeth, periodontal ligament, and alveolar. The models were designed to dissect the periodontal ligament, root, and alveolar separately. A 1.5 N force vector was loaded bilaterally to the center of the crown between first molar and canine, to retract the canine distally. The value of total deformation was used to assess the initial displacement of the canine and molar at the beginning of force loading. Stress intensity and force distribution were analyzed and evaluated by Ansys 13.0 through comparison of equivalent (von Mises) stress and maximum shear stress. Results The maximum value of total deformation with the three kinds of models occurred in the distal part of the canine crown and gradually reduced from the crown to the apex of the canine; compared with the canines in model 3 and model 1, the canine in model 2 had the maximum value of displacement, up to 1.9812 mm. The lowest equivalent (von Mises) stress and the lowest maximum shear stress were concentrated mainly on the distal side of the canine root in model 2. The distribution of equivalent (von Mises) stress and maximum shear stress on the PDL of the canine in the three models was highly concentrated on the distal edge of the canine cervix. Conclusions Removal of the bone in the pathway of canine retraction results in low stress intensity for canine movement. Periodontal distraction aided by surgical undermining of the interseptal bone would reduce resistance and effectively accelerate the speed of canine retraction. PMID:24626249

  19. Comparative mapping of canine and human proximal Xq and genetic analysis of canine X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Deschenes, S.M.; Puck, J.M.; Dutra, A.S.

    1994-09-01

    Parallel genetic analysis of animal and human genetic diseases can facilitate the identification and characterization of the causative gene defects. For example, canine X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is characterized by clinical, pathological, and immunological manifestations similar to the most common form of human SCID. To derive a canine syntenic map including genes that in humans are located in proximal Xq, near human X-linked SCID, poly (TG) polymorphisms were identified at the canine phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and choroideremia (CHM) loci. These plus a polymorphic poly (CAG) sequence in exon 1 of the canine androgen receptor gene (AR) were used to genotype members of the colony informative for X-linked SCID. No recombinations among SCIDX1, AR, PGK, or CHM were observed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization localized PGK and CHM to proximal Xq in the dog, in the same chromosomal location occupied by the human genes. Somatic cell hybrid analysis and methylation differences at AR demonstrated that female dogs carrying X-linked SCID have the same lymphocyte-limited skewed X-chromosome inactivation patterns as human carriers. These genetic and phenotypic findings provide evidence that mutations in the same gene, now identified as the {gamma} chain of the IL-2 receptor, cause canine and human X-linked SCID. This approach is an efficient method for comparative gene mapping and disease identification. 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Pain, discomfort, and use of analgesics following the extraction of primary canines in children with palatally displaced canines.

    PubMed

    Naoumova, Julia; Kjellberg, Heidrun; Kurol, Jüri; Mohlin, Bengt

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Pain following the extraction of the primary canine in children with palatally displaced canines (PDC) as an interceptive treatment has not been investigated. AIMS. To describe pain, discomfort, dental anxiety, and use of analgesics following the extraction of primary canines in children with PDC. DESIGN. Forty-four children, aged 10-13 with PDC, were included. Pain intensity, discomfort, and analgesic consumption were rated the first evening and 1 week after the extraction of the primary canine. Dental anxiety was assessed pre-extraction, using the dental anxiety scale (DAS). A matched reference group also completed the DAS. RESULTS. No significant differences were found between the study and the reference group regarding the pre-extraction assessments. Post-extraction pain and discomfort was low. The experience of the injection was graded worse than the extraction, and more pain was rated at the evening post-extraction than during the extraction. Analgesics were used only the first evening. High correlation was detected between DAS and pain during injection and extraction. CONCLUSIONS. The experience of pain and discomfort during and after extraction of the primary canines is low, despite that 42% of the children used analgesics. Therefore, appropriate analgesics and recommendation doses pre- and post-extraction should be prescribed.

  1. Ophthalmologic injuries.

    PubMed

    Diamond, G R; Quinn, G E; Pashby, T J; Easterbrook, M

    1982-11-01

    Increasing numbers of young people are being attracted to organized sports. Racquet sports, as they are individual sports, will give a lifetime of continual pleasure. Increasing numbers of eye injuries are being seen, however. Now that adequate eye protection is available, it behooves all physicians who are interested in prevention of eye injury to encourage players to wear polycarbonate or industrial safety thickness lenses, or protective face cages in suitable sports frames, to prevent any of the catastrophic, serious, and blinding eye injuries seen in the past.

  2. The anatomy and internal aerodynamics of canine olfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craven, Brent; Paterson, Eric; Settles, Gary

    2007-11-01

    High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the nasal airway of a large dog reveal an intricate scrollwork of nasal conchae providing large surface area for heat, moisture, and odorant transfer. From these anatomical scans we reconstruct a 3-D surface model of the nasal passage and extract detailed morphometric data providing insight into the internal airflows of canine olfaction. A complicated airway network is revealed, wherein the branched maxilloturbinate and ethmoturbinate scrolls are structurally distinct. 3-D airway connectivity also reveals separate respiratory and olfactory flow paths. Knowing the approximate airflow rate and frequency of canine sniffing, we find Reynolds numbers that are, surprisingly, well below the turbulent-flow threshold. Finally, the internal aerodynamics and transport phenomena of canine olfaction are considered via non-dimensional analysis and initially-simple theoretical and computational models. (To appear in the Anatomical Record.)

  3. Canine osteosarcoma cells exhibit resistance to aurora kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cannon, C M; Pozniak, J; Scott, M C; Ito, D; Gorden, B H; Graef, A J; Modiano, J F

    2015-03-01

    We evaluated the effect of Aurora kinase inhibitors AZD1152 and VX680 on canine osteosarcoma cells. Cytotoxicity was seen in all four cell lines; however, half-maximal inhibitory concentrations were significantly higher than in human leukaemia and canine lymphoma cells. AZD1152 reduced Aurora kinase B phosphorylation, indicating resistance was not because of failure of target recognition. Efflux mediated by ABCB1 and ABCG2 transporters is one known mechanism of resistance against these drugs and verapamil enhanced AZD1152-induced apoptosis; however, these transporters were only expressed by a small percentage of cells in each line and the effects of verapamil were modest, suggesting other mechanisms contribute to resistance. Our results indicate that canine osteosarcoma cells are resistant to Aurora kinase inhibitors and suggest that these compounds are unlikely to be useful as single agents for this disease. Further investigation of these resistance mechanisms and the potential utility of Aurora kinase inhibitors in multi-agent protocols is warranted.

  4. Feline and Canine Coronaviruses: Common Genetic and Pathobiological Features

    PubMed Central

    Le Poder, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    A new human coronavirus responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was identified in 2003, which raised concern about coronaviruses as agents of serious infectious disease. Nevertheless, coronaviruses have been known for about 50 years to be major agents of respiratory, enteric, or systemic infections of domestic and companion animals. Feline and canine coronaviruses are widespread among dog and cat populations, sometimes leading to the fatal diseases known as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and pantropic canine coronavirus infection in cats and dogs, respectively. In this paper, different aspects of the genetics, host cell tropism, and pathogenesis of the feline and canine coronaviruses (FCoV and CCoV) will be discussed, with a view to illustrating how study of FCoVs and CCoVs can improve our general understanding of the pathobiology of coronaviruses. PMID:22312347

  5. Feline and canine coronaviruses: common genetic and pathobiological features.

    PubMed

    Le Poder, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    A new human coronavirus responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was identified in 2003, which raised concern about coronaviruses as agents of serious infectious disease. Nevertheless, coronaviruses have been known for about 50 years to be major agents of respiratory, enteric, or systemic infections of domestic and companion animals. Feline and canine coronaviruses are widespread among dog and cat populations, sometimes leading to the fatal diseases known as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and pantropic canine coronavirus infection in cats and dogs, respectively. In this paper, different aspects of the genetics, host cell tropism, and pathogenesis of the feline and canine coronaviruses (FCoV and CCoV) will be discussed, with a view to illustrating how study of FCoVs and CCoVs can improve our general understanding of the pathobiology of coronaviruses.

  6. Assessment of canine neonatal viability-the Apgar score.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, M C

    2016-09-01

    Perinatal mortality is relatively high in dogs, with deaths peaking around the time of birth and during the first week of age. Among the several causes of canine perinatal mortality, whelping is the greatest cause. Therefore, early neonatal assistance at birth should be mandatory with dogs. In comparison with human neonatology, knowledge and technological ability in canine neonatology is tremendously scarce. The Apgar score for the newborn viability assessment at birth represents a feasible method for the prompt recognition of newborns that will need special assistance immediately after birth. The five parameters of the Apgar score were adapted to the canine species by different studies. Advantages and limits, as well as clinical applications, are presented and discussed in further detail. It was concluded that the Apgar score represents the easiest and simplest, non-invasive and reliable method, that could be performed under every clinical and practical condition, for newborn puppies viability evaluations and short-term survival prognosis.

  7. The Cost of Canine Rabies on Four Continents.

    PubMed

    Anderson, A; Shwiff, S A

    2015-08-01

    We estimated the economic impacts of canine rabies in Latin America, Africa and Asia. Direct and indirect costs of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis, dog vaccination and control, rabies diagnostic testing and cattle mortality-related costs were accounted for. The number of human deaths was updated from previous estimates based on population growth, and the costs associated with the risk of human mortality were incorporated. We accounted for uncertainty associated with the parameter estimates using a Monte Carlo simulation and estimated that the global burden of canine rabies is approximately $124 billion annually. This result illustrates the potential benefits that could be realized if canine rabies was eliminated and provides an important benchmark against which the cost of any potential elimination campaign can be compared.

  8. Glucosamine and chondroitin use in canines for osteoarthritis: A review.

    PubMed

    Bhathal, Angel; Spryszak, Meredith; Louizos, Christopher; Frankel, Grace

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a slowly progressive and debilitating disease that affects canines of all breeds. Pain and decreased mobility resulting from osteoarthritis often have a negative impact on the affected canine's quality of life, level of comfort, daily functioning, activity, behaviour, and client-pet companionship. Despite limited and conflicting evidence, the natural products glucosamine hydrochloride (HCl) and chondroitin sulfate are commonly recommended by veterinarians for treating osteoarthritis in dogs. There is a paucity of well-designed clinical veterinary studies investigating the true treatment effect of glucosamine and chondroitin. The purposes of this review article are to provide a brief background on glucosamine and chondroitin use in canine osteoarthritis and to critically review the available literature on the role of these products for improving clinical outcomes. Based on critical review, recommendations for practice are suggested and a future study design is proposed.

  9. Canine Leishmaniasis in North America: Emerging or Newly Recognized?

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Christine A.; Barr, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Canine Leishmaniasis is a fatal zoonotic visceralizing disease usually associated with tropical areas. The etiologic agent is an obligate intracellular protozoan, Leishmania infantum. In 1999, an outbreak of a canine leishmaniasis was reported in a Foxhound kennel in New York, and since that report, several other outbreaks have occurred across the United States in additional Foxhound kennels. Because of the high mortality and transmissibility associated with these outbreaks, it is essential that clinicians be aware of this disease to permit its rapid recognition and institution of control measures. Cases with a travel history may suggest imported disease, these are mainly observed from Southern Europe (south of France, Spain, Italy). Breeds from these and other endemic areas may be at higher risk of infection with Leishmania due to vertical transmission. The purpose of this report is to discuss the clinical signs, epidemiology, diagnosis, control and treatment of canine leishmaniasis with focus on the aspects of this disease within North America. PMID:19932363

  10. Serotonin transporter activity in platelets and canine aggression.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Belén; García-Belenguer, Sylvia; Palacio, Jorge; Chacón, Gema; Villegas, Ainara; Alcalde, Ana I

    2010-10-01

    Several studies have suggested an inhibitory action of the serotonergic system in the regulation of canine aggression, but the role of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter (5-HTT) has not been investigated. Platelet 5-HT uptake has been proposed as a peripheral marker of brain 5-HTT. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between platelet 5-HTT activity and canine aggression by measuring the rate of 5-HT uptake mediated by 5-HTT in platelets and serum concentrations of 5-HT in both aggressive (n=14) and non-aggressive dogs (n=17). Aggressive dogs showed significantly higher 5-HT uptake by 5-HTT in platelets and lower serum concentrations of 5-HT, compared with the control group. These results suggested an association between an alteration in the serotonergic system and canine aggression, possibly mediated by an increased 5-HT transport.

  11. Dose-dependent radiation-induced hypotension in the canine

    SciTech Connect

    Cockerham, L.G.; Hampton, J.D.; Doyle, T.F.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation-induced early transient incapacitation (ETI) is often accompanied by severe systemic hypotension. However, postradiation hypotension does not occur with equal frequency in all species and is not reported with consistency in the canine. In an attempt to clarify the differences in reported canine post-radiation blood pressures, canine systemic blood pressures were determined both before and after exposure to gamma radiation of either 80 or 100 Gy. Data obtained from six sham-radiated beagles and 12 radiated beagles indicated that 100-Gy, whole-body, gamma radiation produced a decrease in systemic mean blood pressure while 80-Gy, whole-body, gamma radiation did not. Analysis of this data could be consistent with a quantal response to a gamma radiation dose between 80 Gy and 100 Gy.

  12. Expression and significance of PTEN in canine mammary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Changwei; Lin, Degui; Wang, Jinqiu; Wang, Lei

    2008-10-01

    To explore the expression and clinical importance of the anti-oncogene phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) in canine mammary gland tumours, PTEN expression was compared in 50 cases of canine mammary tumour and four examples of normal mammary tissue using real-time quantitative PCR. PTEN expression was similar in benign mammary tumours and normal mammary tissues (P>0.05), but was lower in malignant tumours than in normal mammary tissues or benign mammary tumours (P<0.001). PTEN expression was also low in the lymph node metastases of malignant mammary tumours. The expression profile of PTEN in malignant mammary tumours compared to those without lymph node metastasis varied significantly. Low-level PETN expression might play an important role in carcinogenesis and the progression of canine mammary tumours, and PTEN protein detection might be useful in evaluating tumour development and prognosis.

  13. Testosterone biotransformation by the isolated perfused canine pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-del Castillo, C.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Varela-Fascinetto, G.; Altamirano, A.; Odor-Morales, A.; Lopez-Medrano, R.M.; Robles-Diaz, G. )

    1991-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that the pancreas is under the influence of sex steroid hormones, and that it may even participate in their biosynthesis and metabolism. In the present study, (3H)testosterone was perfused into the isolated canine pancreas, and measured in the effluent with several of its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol). Results show that testosterone is readily transformed by the canine pancreas. The main product found in the effluent is androstenedione. The testis and spleen were also perfused with (3H)testosterone and used as controls. In both cases, this hormone appeared mostly unchanged in the effluent as compared to the pancreatic perfusion (p less than 0.0001). From our data, we conclude that the canine pancreas has the capacity to transform sex steroid hormones, and could be considered an extragonadal site of sex steroid biosynthesis.

  14. Severe canine distemper outbreak in unvaccinated dogs in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Zacarias, Julieta; Dimande, Alberto; Achá, Sara; Dias, Paula T; Leonel, Elisa M; Messa, Aurora; Macucule, Baltazar; Júnior, José L; Bila, Custódio G

    2016-07-15

    Although significant animal suffering caused by preventable diseases is frequently seen in developing countries, reports of this are scarce. This report describes avoidable animal suffering owing to a suspected canine distemper (CD) outbreak in unvaccinated dogs owned by low-income families in Mozambique that killed approximately 200 animals. Affected dogs exhibited clinical signs, and gross and microscopic lesions compatible with CD. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of canine distemper virus (CDV) in the kidney of one dog from the cohort. This brief communication again illustrates that large outbreaks of CDV in unvaccinated dogs occur and that large-scale avoidable suffering and threats to the health of dogs and wild canines continue. Mass vaccination supported by government and non-government organisations is recommended.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in acute canine distemper virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bathen-Noethen, A; Stein, V M; Puff, C; Baumgaertner, W; Tipold, A

    2008-09-01

    Demyelination is the prominent histopathological hallmark in the acute stage of canine distemper virus infection. Magnetic resonance imaging is an important diagnostic tool in human beings to determine demyelination in the brain, for example in multiple sclerosis. Five young dogs with clinically suspected canine distemper virus infection were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations. Hyperintense lesions and loss of contrast between grey and white matter were detected in T2-weighted images in the cerebellum and/or in the brainstem of three dogs, which correlated with demyelination demonstrated in histopathological examination. Furthermore, increased signal intensities in T2-weighted images were seen in the temporal lobe of four dogs with no evidence of demyelination. Magnetic resonance imaging seems to be a sensitive tool for the visualisation of in vivo myelination defects in dogs with acute canine distemper virus infection. Postictal oedema and accumulation of antigen positive cells have to be considered an important differential diagnosis.

  16. Canine tip wear in male and female anthropoids.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, L O

    1998-09-01

    One component of the "dual selection hypothesis" (Greenfield [1992a] Year. Phys. Anthropol. 35:153-185) is that the tips of female canines are commonly blunted and more frequently so than those of conspecific males. Data derived from two randomly selected age-graded samples of Macaca fascicularis (n = 70) and Colobus badius (n = 59) show that at least 80% of the females exhibit tip blunting on one or both canines and that frequencies of blunting are far greater than those of conspecific males in both jaws. Sexual dimorphism in mandibular canine morphology and wear and other recently critiqued aspects of the "dual selection hypothesis" (Plavcan and Kelley [1996] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 99:379-387.) are also discussed.

  17. Canine dysautonomia in a litter of Havanese puppies.

    PubMed

    Hull, Noah C; O'Toole, Donal; Miller, Myrna M; Shoults, Hannah; Deck, Robin; Jones, Warren; Johnson, Gayle C; Shaw, Daniel P; Schumaker, Brant A

    2015-09-01

    Canine dysautonomia is a sporadic, generally fatal disease that rarely affects groups of related animals. Four 10-week-old Havanese puppies from a litter of 5 developed clinical signs of canine dysautonomia. The 4 affected dogs were exposed to an outdoor environment, whereas the fifth littermate was not exposed to the outdoors and remained clinically healthy. Clinical signs of dysautonomia developed 10-16 days after going outside the house. An unrelated dog also developed dysautonomia after exposure to 1 of the affected Havanese littermates. All 5 dogs had morphological changes consistent with dysautonomia (widespread neuronal degeneration in autonomic ganglia, select brainstem nuclei, and ventral horn motor neurons). Differential diagnoses were excluded through negative toxicological evaluation, fecal parasite screening, negative Canine distemper virus reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, fluorescent antibody testing, attempted virus isolation, and electron microscopy. The 5 affected dogs were in the Kansas City, Missouri area, where there is a high incidence of dysautonomia.

  18. [Infectious canine hepatitis in 4 dogs in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Müller, C; Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N; Decaro, N; Keller, S; Quante, S; Tschuor, F; Wenger, M; Reusch, C

    2010-02-01

    Infectious canine hepatitis in 4 Dogs in Switzerland. Four dogs presented with nonspecific symptoms of lethargy, vomiting, diarrhea, fever and weakness. Laboratory results were consistent with hepatopathy and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Three dogs died, one survived. In the three deceased dogs, a diagnosis of infectious canine hepatitis (ICH) was made based on histological findings and positive immunhistochemistry results for canine adenovirus-1 (CAV-1). In the surviving dog, an antemortem diagnosis of ICH was determined via positive polymerase chain reaction results from blood, occular, nasal and preputial discharge as well as from urine. Since the introduction of widespread vaccination, the incidence of CAV-1 infection in dogs is low. However, the disease has not been eradicated and should be considered when clinical signs consistent with ICH are present.

  19. Toward a framework linkage map of the canine genome.

    PubMed

    Langston, A A; Mellersh, C S; Wiegand, N A; Acland, G M; Ray, K; Aguirre, G D; Ostrander, E A

    1999-01-01

    Selective breeding to maintain specific physical and behavioral traits has made the modern dog one of the most physically diverse species on earth. One unfortunate consequence of the common breeding practices used to develop lines of dogs with the desired traits is amplification and propagation of genetic diseases within distinct breeds. To map disease loci we have constructed a first-generation framework map of the canine genome. We developed large numbers of highly polymorphic markers, constructed a panel of canine-rodent hybrid cell lines, and assigned those markers to chromosome groups using the hybrid cell lines. Finally, we determined the order and spacing of markers on individual canine chromosomes by linkage analysis using a reference panel of 17 outbred pedigrees. This article describes approaches and strategies to accomplish these goals.

  20. Fractal branching pattern of the monopodial canine airway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping M; Kraman, Steve S

    2004-06-01

    Unlike the human lung, monopodial canine airway branching follows an irregular dichotomized pattern with fractal features. We studied three canine airway molds and found a self-similarity feature from macro- to microscopic scales, which formed a fractal set up to seven scales in the airways. At each fractal scale, lateral branches evenly lined up along an approximately straight main trunk to form three to four two-dimensional structures, and each lateral branch was the monopodial main trunk of the next fractal scale. We defined this pattern as the fractal main lateral-branching pattern, which exhibited similar structures from macro- to microscopic scales, including lobes, sublobes, sub-sublobes, etc. We speculate that it, rather than a mother-daughter pattern, could better describe the actual asymmetrical architecture of the monopodial canine airway.

  1. In vitro safety assessment of food ingredients in canine renal proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Koči, J; Jeffery, B; Riviere, J E; Monteiro-Riviere, N A

    2015-03-01

    In vitro models are useful tools to initially assess the toxicological safety hazards of food ingredients. Toxicities of cinnamaldehyde (CINA), cinnamon bark oil, lemongrass oil (LGO), thymol, thyme oil (TO), clove leaf oil, eugenol, ginger root extract (GRE), citric acid, guanosine monophosphate, inosine monophosphate and sorbose (SORB) were assessed in canine renal proximal tubule cells (CPTC) using viability assay and renal injury markers. At LC50, CINA was the most toxic (0.012mg/ml), while SORB the least toxic (>100mg/ml). Toxicities (LC50) of positive controls were as follows: 4-aminophenol (0.15mg/ml in CPTC and 0.083mg/ml in human PTC), neomycin (28.6mg/ml in CPTC and 27.1mg/ml in human PTC). XYL displayed lowest cytotoxic potency (LC50=82.7mg/ml in CPTC). In vivo renal injury markers in CPTC were not significantly different from controls. The LGO toxicity mechanism was analyzed using qPCR and electron microscopy. Out of 370 genes, 57 genes (15.4%) were significantly up (34, 9.1%) or down (23, 6.2%) regulated, with the most upregulated gene gsta3 (∼200-fold) and the most affected pathway being oxidative stress. LGO induced damage of mitochondria, phospholipid accumulation and lack of a brush border. Viability assays along with mechanistic studies in the CPTC model may serve as a valuable in vitro toxicity screening tool.

  2. Soft tissue effects of the THC:YAG laser on canine vocal cords.

    PubMed

    Kay, S L; Oz, M C; Haber, M; Blitzer, A; Treat, M R; Trokel, S L

    1992-09-01

    Recently, a laser based on a thulium-holmium-chromium (THC) doped Yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) rod has been developed that produces light of 2.15 microns wavelength and can be transmitted through a low OH- silica fiberoptic cable. This wavelength falls on one of the peaks of the energy absorption spectrum of water. Thus, the THC:YAG laser eliminates the disadvantage of a cumbersome delivery system found in the CO2 laser while still providing precise cutting and minimal tissue injury inherent in lasers emitting light absorbed by water. We evaluated the soft tissue effects of this laser on canine vocal cords. Ablative lesions were produced by the THC:YAG laser and histologically examined on postoperative days 1, 7, and 28. Results indicate that the depth of tissue penetration is easily controlled and the healing response to tissue injury is comparable to that of the CO2 laser. The THC:YAG laser should prove to be a superior laser for use in otorhinolaryngology, especially when adapted to a flexible endoscope.

  3. Expression of growth factors in canine flexor tendon after laceration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tsubone, Tetsu; Moran, Steven L; Amadio, Peter C; Zhao, Chunfeng; An, Kai-Nan

    2004-10-01

    Growth factors, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), are critical components of the cutaneous wound healing process. Little is known, however, about the expression of these growth factors in normal flexor tendon healing. In this study, we wished to examine which of these growth factors are present at 10 days following tendon injury in a canine flexor tendon repair model. Using immunohistochemical analysis, we found positive staining for all growth factors in both timing groups. TGF-beta was detected around the repair site and proximal to it. PDGF-AA, PDGF-BB and VEGF appeared in the whole tendon section following repair. EGF, IGF and bFGF were not seen in tenocytes but were present in inflammatory cells surrounding the repair site. These findings provide evidence that TGF-beta, EGF, PDGF-AA, PDGF-BB, IGF, bFGF and VEGF are all expressed at 10 days after tendon injury but by different cell types and in different locations. The time course of growth factor expression is an important element in wound healing, and a better understanding of where and when such factors are expressed may help in the development of methods to manipulate this expression, accelerate healing, and reduce adhesions.

  4. Cloning of the canine beta-glucuronidase cDNA, mutation identification in canine MPS VII, and retroviral vector-mediated correction of MPS VII cells.

    PubMed

    Ray, J; Bouvet, A; DeSanto, C; Fyfe, J C; Xu, D; Wolfe, J H; Aguirre, G D; Patterson, D F; Haskins, M E; Henthorn, P S

    1998-03-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII) is an inherited disease resulting from deficient activity of the lysosomal acid hydrolase beta-glucuronidase (GUSB) and has been reported in humans, mice, cats, and dogs. To characterize canine MPS VII, we have isolated and sequenced the canine GUSB cDNA from normal and affected animals. A single nucleotide substitution was detected in the GUSB cDNA derived from MPS VII dogs. This guanosine to adenine base change at nucleotide position 559 in the canine cDNA sequence causes an arginine to histidine substitution at amino acid position 166. Introduction of the G to A substitution at position 559 in a mammalian expression vector containing the normal canine GUSB cDNA nearly eliminated the GUSB enzymatic activity, demonstrating that this mutation is the cause of canine MPS VII. A retroviral vector expressing the full-length canine beta-glucuronidase cDNA corrected the deficiency in MPS VII cells.

  5. Oncolytic virotherapy in veterinary medicine: current status and future prospects for canine patients.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sandeep S; Gentschev, Ivaylo; Nolte, Ingo; Ogilvie, Gregory; Szalay, Aladar A

    2012-01-04

    Oncolytic viruses refer to those that are able to eliminate malignancies by direct targeting and lysis of cancer cells, leaving non-cancerous tissues unharmed. Several oncolytic viruses including adenovirus strains, canine distemper virus and vaccinia virus strains have been used for canine cancer therapy in preclinical studies. However, in contrast to human studies, clinical trials with oncolytic viruses for canine cancer patients have not been reported. An 'ideal' virus has yet to be identified. This review is focused on the prospective use of oncolytic viruses in the treatment of canine tumors - a knowledge that will undoubtedly contribute to the development of oncolytic viral agents for canine cancer therapy in the future.

  6. Improved yield of canine islet isolation from deceased donors.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Stephen; Williams, S Janette; Otte, Vern; Barchman, Sally; Jones, Cheryl; Ramachandran, Karthik; Stehno-Bittel, Lisa

    2017-08-22

    Canine diabetes is a strikingly prevalent and growing disease, and yet the standard treatment of a twice-daily insulin injection is both cumbersome to pet owners and only moderately effective. Islet transplantation has been performed with repeated success in canine research models, but has unfortunately not been made available to companion animals. Standard protocols for islet isolation, developed primarily for human islet transplantation, include beating-heart organ donation, vascular perfusion of preservation solutions, specialized equipment. Unfortunately, these processes are prohibitively complex and expensive for veterinary use. The aim of the study was to develop a simplified approach for isolating canine islets that is compatible with the financial and logistical restrictions inherent to veterinary medicine for the purpose of translating islet transplantation to a clinical treatment for canine diabetes. Here, we describe simplified strategies for isolating quality islets from deceased canine donors without vascular preservation and with up to 90 min of cold ischemia time. An average of more than 1500 islet equivalents per kg of donor bodyweight was obtained with a purity of 70% (N = 6 animals). Islets were 95% viable and responsive to glucose stimulation for a week. We found that processing only the body and tail of the pancreas increased isolation efficiency without sacrificing islet total yield. Islet yield per gram of tissue increased from 773 to 1868 islet equivalents when the head of the pancreas was discarded (N = 3/group). In summary, this study resulted in the development of an efficient and readily accessible method for obtaining viable and functional canine islets from deceased donors. These strategies provide an ethical means for obtaining donor islets.

  7. Consequences of crown shortening canine teeth in Greenland sled dogs.

    PubMed

    Kortegaard, H E; Anthony Knudsen, T; Dahl, S; Agger, J F G; Eriksen, T

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the consequences of crown shortening, focusing on the prevalence of pulp exposure and periapical pathology in Greenland sled dogs that had had their canine crowns shortened at an early age. Five cadaver heads and 54 sled dogs underwent an oral examination for dental fractures and pulp exposure of canines. All canines were radiographed and evaluated for periapical pathology. The prevalence of canine pulp exposure in 12 (5 heads and 7 dogs) crown shortened dogs was 91 · 7%, and 21 · 3% in 47 not-crown shortened dogs. A significant (P < 0 · 001) risk of pulp exposure of the canines in the crown shortened group compared to the not-crown shortened group was seen with a relative risk of 4 · 3 on a dog basis and a relative risk of 12 · 2 on a tooth basis. In dogs with pulp exposure of canines (n = 51) the prevalence of periapical pathology was 82 · 4%, but only 0 · 8% in dogs without pulp exposure (n = 133) resulting in a significant (relative risk, 109 · 5; P < 0 · 001) risk of periapical pathology in teeth with pulp exposure compared to teeth without pulp exposure. The high risk of periapical pathology observed in teeth with pulp exposure confirms that these teeth should not be neglected in affected dogs. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  8. Canine Central Nervous System Neoplasm Phenotyping Using Tissue Microarray Technique.

    PubMed

    Spitzbarth, I; Heinrich, F; Herder, V; Recker, T; Wohlsein, P; Baumgärtner, W

    2017-05-01

    Tissue microarrays (TMAs) represent a useful technique for the simultaneous phenotyping of large sample numbers and are particularly suitable for histopathologic tumor research. In this study, TMAs were used to evaluate semiquantitatively the expression of multiple antigens in various canine central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms and to identify markers with potential discriminative diagnostic relevance. Ninety-seven canine CNS neoplasms, previously diagnosed on hematoxylin and eosin sections according to the World Health Organization classification, were investigated on TMAs, with each tumor consisting of 2 cylindrical samples from the center and the periphery of the neoplasm. Tumor cells were phenotyped using a panel of 28 monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, and hierarchical clustering analysis was applied to group neoplasms according to similarities in their expression profiles. Hierarchical clustering generally grouped cases with similar histologic diagnoses; however, gliomas especially exhibited a considerable heterogeneity in their positivity scores. Multiple tumor groups, such as astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas, significantly differed in the proportion of positive immunoreaction for certain markers such as p75(NTR), AQP4, GFAP, and S100 protein. The study highlights AQP4 and p75(NTR) as novel markers, helping to discriminate between canine astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma. Furthermore, the results suggest that p75(NTR) and proteolipid protein may represent useful markers, whose expression inversely correlates with malignant transformation in canine astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas, respectively. Tissue microarray was demonstrated to be a useful and time-saving tool for the simultaneous immunohistochemical characterization of multiple canine CNS neoplasms. The present study provides a detailed overview of the expression patterns of different types of canine CNS neoplasms.

  9. MicroRNA expression in canine mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Boggs, R Michelle; Wright, Zachary M; Stickney, Mark J; Porter, Weston W; Murphy, Keith E

    2008-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 18-22-nt noncoding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of genes. Oncomirs, a subclass of miRNAs, include genes whose expression, or lack thereof, are associated with cancers. Until the last decade, the domestic dog was an underused model for the study of various human diseases that have genetic components. The dog exhibits marked genetic and physiologic similarity to the human, thereby making it an excellent model for study and treatment of various hereditary diseases. Furthermore, because the dog presents with distinct, spontaneously occurring mammary tumors, it may serve as a model for genetic analysis and treatments of humans with malignant breast tumors. Because miRNAs have been found to act as both tumor suppressors and oncogenes in several different cancers, expression patterns of ten miRNAs (miR-15a, miR-16, miR-17-5p, miR-21, miR-29b, miR-125b, miR-145, miR-155, miR-181b, let-7f) known to be associated with human breast cancers were compared to malignant canine mammary tumors (n = 6) and normal canine mammary tissue (n = 10). Resulting data revealed miR-29b and miR-21 to have a statistically significant (p < 0.05 by MANOVA analysis) upregulation in cancerous samples. The ten canine miRNAs follow the same pattern of expression as in the human, except for miR-145 which does not show a difference in expression between the normal and cancerous canine samples. In addition, when analyzed according to specific cancer phenotypes, miR-15a and miR-16 show a significant downregulation in canine ductal carcinomas while miRsR-181b, -21, -29b, and let-7f show a significant upregulation in canine tubular papillary carcinomas.

  10. Diagnosis of canine monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis): an overview.

    PubMed

    Harrus, Shimon; Waner, Trevor

    2011-03-01

    Canine monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (CME), caused by the rickettsia Ehrlichia canis, an important canine disease with a worldwide distribution. Diagnosis of the disease can be challenging due to its different phases and multiple clinical manifestations. CME should be suspected when a compatible history (living in or traveling to an endemic region, previous tick exposure), typical clinical signs and characteristic hematological and biochemical abnormalities are present. Traditional diagnostic techniques including hematology, cytology, serology and isolation are valuable diagnostic tools for CME, however a definitive diagnosis of E. canis infection requires molecular techniques. This article reviews the current literature covering the diagnosis of infection caused by E. canis.

  11. Comprehensive characterization of commercially available canine training aids.

    PubMed

    Tipple, Christopher A; Caldwell, Patricia T; Kile, Brian M; Beussman, Douglas J; Rushing, Blake; Mitchell, Natalie J; Whitchurch, Christian J; Grime, Martin; Stockham, Rex; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2014-09-01

    Effective and reliable training aids for victim recovery canine teams is essential for law enforcement and investigative purposes. Without adequate training aids, the rate of recovery for sub surface or surface human remains deposition using canine teams may be adversely affected and result in confusing information. The composition of three commercially available canine training aids that purportedly generate volatile components responsible for the odor of human decomposition is relatively simple and not closely related to those compounds experimentally determined to be present at the site of surface or sub-surface human remains. In this study, these different commercial formulations were chemically characterized using six different sampling approaches, including two applications of direct liquid injection, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), purge and trap, ambient preconcentration/thermal desorption, and cryogenic preconcentration/thermal desorption. Direct liquid injections resulted in the fewest number of detected compounds, while a cryogen based thermal desorption method detected the greatest number of compounds in each formulation. Based solely upon the direct liquid injection analysis, Pseudo™ Scent I was composed of approximately 29±4% and 71±5% of 2-pyrrolidinone and 4-aminobutanoic acid, respectively. This same analysis showed that Pseudo™ Scent II was composed of approximately 11±1, 11±1, 24±5, and 54±7% of putrescine, cadaverine, 2-pyrrolidinone, and 4-aminobutanoic acid, respectively. Headspace analysis was conducted to more closely simulate the process whereby a canine's nose would capture a volatiles profile. More compounds were detected using the headspace sampling method; however, the vast majority was not consistent with current data on human decomposition. Additionally, the three formulations were tested in outdoor and indoor scenarios by a double-blinded canine team, using a certified and specifically trained victim recovery canine

  12. Canine distemper spillover in domestic dogs from urban wildlife.

    PubMed

    Kapil, Sanjay; Yeary, Teresa J

    2011-11-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes a major disease of domestic dogs that develops as a serious systemic infection in unvaccinated or improperly vaccinated dogs. Domesticated dogs are the main reservoir of CDV, a multihost pathogen. This virus of the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae occurs in other carnivorous species including all members of the Canidae and Mustelidae families and in some members of the Procyonidae, Hyaenidae, Ursidae, and Viverridae families. Canine distemper also has been reported in the Felidae family and marine mammals. The spread and incidences of CDV epidemics in dogs and wildlife here and worldwide are increasing.

  13. Retraction of canines using bonded tube-brackets.

    PubMed

    Davis, H D

    1983-10-01

    Investigations using a Force Analyser were carried out to test the characteristics of retractor springs fitted to a removable appliance and designed for insertion into a tube-bracket, bonded to the buccal surface of a canine. The retractors were shown to produce a counter-rotation couple when activated on the typodont. This type of canine retraction was then used clinically, and was found to produce less distal tilting than is noted with the single-point contact of a cantilever spring. Some spontaneous reduction in overjet was found to occur in each case of a small series. Possible mechanisms to account for this effect are discussed.

  14. Metallothionein expression in benign and malignant canine mammary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Erginsoy, S D; Sozmen, M; Caldin, M; Furlanello, T

    2006-08-01

    The presence of metallothioneins (MTs) were demonstrated immunohistochemically using a monoclonal antibody (E9) against a conserved epitope of I and II isoforms in canine mammary tumours. In a semiquantitative analysis MT expression in the tumour cells was observed in 54/54 cases of benign and 32/40 malignant mammary neoplasms. A statistically significant difference at the level of P<0.01 was observed for MT expression between benign and malign mammary tumours in terms of immunoreactivity score. It is concluded that immunohistochemically demonstrated MT expression is significantly associated with benign canine mammary tumours.

  15. Role of platelets in the pathogenesis of canine endotoxin shock.

    PubMed Central

    From, A H; Fong, J S; Chiu, T; Good, R A

    1976-01-01

    Endotoxin-platelet interactions are thought to be of major importance in the response of dogs and other species to bacterial endotoxin; the mechanisms postulated are: (i) the release of vasoactive substances, (ii) the formation of occlusive platelet aggregates, and (iii) induction of intravascular coagulation. The role of platelets in canine endotoxin shock was examined in animals with thrombocytopenia induced by estrogen pretreatment (less than 10,000 platelets/mm3) and in controls. After intravenously administered endotoxin, the hemodynamic responses, mortality, and gross necropsy findings were similar in both groups. These data indicate that endotoxin-platelet interactions are not determinative in the pathogenesis of canine endotoxin shock. PMID:786877

  16. Interdisciplinary approach for the management of bilaterally impacted maxillary canines

    PubMed Central

    Sukh, Ram; Singh, Gyan P.; Tandon, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary approach for the management of malocclusion provides a holistic approach of patient management. Prudent treatment planning is necessary to achieve the various treatment goals. This case report describes the orthodontic management of a 16-year-old adolescent female patient with bilateral labially impacted maxillary canines. The problems associated with impacted maxillary canines and the biomechanical interventions used for this patient are discussed. The treatment protocol involved surgical intervention, followed by sequential traction of the impacted teeth. An interdisciplinary approach to treatment with different mechanical strategies led to the achievement of the desired esthetic, functional, and occlusal treatment goals. PMID:25395776

  17. Golf Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... main causes of these injuries include: Lack of flexibility Poor conditioning Excessive play or practice Poor swing mechanics Ground impact forces Intermittent play Poor flexibility is a key risk factor for a golf ...

  18. Testicular Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Also, the location of the testicles makes them prime targets to be accidentally struck on the playing ... you might also feel nauseated for a short time. If it's a minor testicular injury, the pain ...

  19. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... devastating types of trauma resulting from exposure to fire and smoke. PREVENT you and your loved ones! ... people die annually in the United States from fire injuries. • Over half of these deaths result from ...

  20. Electrical injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... damage, especially to the heart, muscles, or brain. Electric current can cause injury in three ways: Cardiac arrest ... How long you were in contact with the electricity How the electricity moved through your body Your ...

  1. Spinal injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... and drive. Do not dive into pools, lakes, rivers, and other bodies of water, particularly if you cannot determine the depth of the ... Central nervous system Spinal cord injury Spinal anatomy Two person roll - ...

  2. [Thorax injuries].

    PubMed

    Schelzig, H; Kick, J; Orend, K H; Sunder-Plassmann, L

    2006-03-01

    Thorax injuries may be divided etiologically into blunt and penetrating types, depending on the nature of the insult. In European practice, the former predominates by far, and in only about 5% of cases thoracotomy provides the necessary thorax drainage. Morbidity in this type of injury typically involves concomitant lung contusion, sometimes with fatal acute respiratory distress syndrome. In these cases, special ventilation forms, optimal reduction of pain, and organ replacement are the decisive therapeutic methods. In contrast, about 80% of penetrating trauma to the thorax require prompt transpleural or trans-sternal surgery, depending on the type of injury. Emergency first aid must follow the principle of "scoop and run". Each minute elapsed until emergent thoracotomy can be decisive to survival in these cases, and the fastest possible transport from the place of injury takes priority over time-consuming stabilization.

  3. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... object that's stuck in the wound. previous continue Concussions Concussions — the temporary loss of normal brain function due ... also a type of internal head injury. Repeated concussions can permanently damage the brain. In many cases, ...

  4. Xenotransfusion with canine blood in the feline species: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bovens, Catherine; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim

    2013-02-01

    Xenotransfusion (the transfusion of blood from another species) of canine blood to cats has been historically performed commonly and is still performed nowadays in some countries. Considering the current lack of commercial availability of haemoglobin-based oxygen carrier solution (Oxyglobin), there may be rare occasions when treating an anaemic cat when compatible feline blood cannot be obtained, and where a transfusion with canine blood may need to be considered as a life-saving procedure. This article reviews the published evidence about feline xenotransfusion with canine blood and the results that can be expected with this procedure. Published evidence in a limited number of cases (62 cats) indicates that cats do not appear to have naturally-occurring antibodies against canine red blood cell antigens: compatibility tests prior to the first transfusion did not demonstrate any evidence of agglutination or haemolysis of canine red cells in feline serum or plasma. No severe acute adverse reactions have been reported in cats receiving a single transfusion with canine whole blood. Anaemic cats receiving canine blood are reported to improve clinically within hours. However, antibodies against canine red blood cells are produced rapidly and can be detected within 4-7 days of the transfusion, leading to the destruction of the transfused canine red cells in a delayed haemolytic reaction. The average lifespan of the transfused canine red cells is less than 4 days. Any repeated transfusion with canine blood later than 4-6 days after the first transfusion causes anaphylaxis, which is frequently fatal.

  5. SURVEILLANCE FOR ANTIBODIES AGAINST SIX CANINE VIRUSES IN WILD RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR) IN JAPAN.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Emiko; Soma, Takehisa; Yokoyama, Mayumi; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Sasai, Kazumi

    2017-10-01

    Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are found worldwide. They are frequently seen in crowded inner cities as well as in forests or wooded areas, often living in proximity to humans and their pets. We examined sera from 100 wild raccoons in Japan for antibodies to six canine viruses with veterinary significance to assess their potential as reservoirs. We also aimed to understand the distribution of potentially infected wildlife. We found that 7% of samples were seropositive for canine distemper virus (CDV), 10% for canine parvovirus type 2, 2% for canine adenovirus type 1, 6% for canine adenovirus type 2, and 7% for canine coronavirus. No samples were found to be seropositive for canine parainfluenza virus. Seropositivity rates for canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus type 2 were significantly different between areas, and younger raccoons (<1 yr old) were more frequently seropositive than older raccoons. Because raccoons belong to the suborder Caniformia, similar to dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), our results suggest that they can act as reservoirs for some of these important canine viruses and might be involved in viral transmission. Further study should include isolation and analysis of canine viruses in wild raccoons from a wider area.

  6. [Root anatomy and root canal morphology of mandibular canines in Israeli population].

    PubMed

    Shemesh, A; Levin, A; Katzenell, V; Itzhak, J B; Avraham, Z; Levinson, O; Solomonov, M

    2016-01-01

    Furcated root and root canal separation are anatomic variations of mandibular canines. Other studies found that up to 20% of mandibular canines have root canal separation and up to 6.8% are bifurcated teeth. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of two-rooted mandibular canines and the root canal morphology of mandibular canines. A total of 1,020 Israeli patients' cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were screened and evaluated. A total of 1,981 mandibular canines were examined and the prevalence of furcated mandibular canines and root canal separation was recorded and analyzed. The overall prevalence of furcated mandibular canines and root canal separation in mandibular canines were 1.9% and 10.3% respectively. The bilateral prevalence of furcated mandibular canines was 22.5%. Statistically significant difference was detected by the side of occurrence (left vs right side, p < 0.05) and by gender in right mandibular canine (p < 0.05). the prevalence of furcated roots and root canal separation in mandibular canines was not frequent. Clinicians should be aware of the special characteristic of those anatomic variations.

  7. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for Canine Hip Dysplasia and Canine Elbow Dysplasia in Bernese Mountain Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Pfahler, Sophia; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    A genome-wide association study for canine hip dysplasia (CHD) and canine elbow dysplasia (CED) using the Illumina canine high density bead chip had been performed for 174 Bernese mountain dogs. General and mixed linear model analysis identified two different regions with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on dog chromosome (CFA) 14 significantly associated with CHD and a further significantly CHD-associated region on CFA37. For CED, four SNPs on CFA11 and 27 were significantly associated. The identified SNPs of four associated regions included nearby candidate genes. These possible positional candidates were the genes PON2 on CFA14 and FN1 on CFA37 for CHD and the genes LMNB1 on CFA11 and WNT10B on CFA27 for CED. PMID:23189162

  8. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for canine hip dysplasia and canine elbow dysplasia in Bernese mountain dogs.

    PubMed

    Pfahler, Sophia; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    A genome-wide association study for canine hip dysplasia (CHD) and canine elbow dysplasia (CED) using the Illumina canine high density bead chip had been performed for 174 Bernese mountain dogs. General and mixed linear model analysis identified two different regions with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on dog chromosome (CFA) 14 significantly associated with CHD and a further significantly CHD-associated region on CFA37. For CED, four SNPs on CFA11 and 27 were significantly associated. The identified SNPs of four associated regions included nearby candidate genes. These possible positional candidates were the genes PON2 on CFA14 and FN1 on CFA37 for CHD and the genes LMNB1 on CFA11 and WNT10B on CFA27 for CED.

  9. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  10. Infection and Pathogenesis of Canine, Equine, and Human Influenza Viruses in Canine Tracheas

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Gaelle; Marshall, John F.; Morrell, Joanna; Robb, David; McCauley, John W.; Perez, Daniel R.; Parrish, Colin R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza A viruses (IAVs) can jump species barriers and occasionally cause epidemics, epizootics, pandemics, and panzootics. Characterizing the infection dynamics at the target tissues of natural hosts is central to understanding the mechanisms that control host range, tropism, and virulence. Canine influenza virus (CIV; H3N8) originated after the transfer of an equine influenza virus (EIV) into dogs. Thus, comparing CIV and EIV isolates provides an opportunity to study the determinants of influenza virus emergence. Here we characterize the replication of canine, equine, and human IAVs in the trachea of the dog, a species to which humans are heavily exposed. We define a phenotype of infection for CIV, which is characterized by high levels of virus replication and extensive tissue damage. CIV was compared to evolutionarily distinct EIVs, and the early EIV isolates showed an impaired ability to infect dog tracheas, while EIVs that circulated near the time of CIV emergence exhibited a CIV-like infection phenotype. Inoculating dog tracheas with various human IAVs (hIAVs) showed that they infected the tracheal epithelium with various efficiencies depending on the virus tested. Finally, we show that reassortant viruses carrying gene segments of CIV and hIAV are viable and that addition of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of CIV to the 2009 human pandemic virus results in a virus that replicates at high levels and causes significant lesions. This provides important insights into the role of evolution on viral emergence and on the role of HA and NA as determinants of pathogenicity. IMPORTANCE Influenza A viruses (IAVs) have entered new host species in recent history, sometimes with devastating consequences. Canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N8 originated from a direct transfer of an equine influenza virus (EIV) in the early 2000s. We studied the infection patterns of IAVs that circulate in dogs or to which dogs are commonly exposed and showed that CIV

  11. Infection and pathogenesis of canine, equine, and human influenza viruses in canine tracheas.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Gaelle; Marshall, John F; Morrell, Joanna; Robb, David; McCauley, John W; Perez, Daniel R; Parrish, Colin R; Murcia, Pablo R

    2014-08-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) can jump species barriers and occasionally cause epidemics, epizootics, pandemics, and panzootics. Characterizing the infection dynamics at the target tissues of natural hosts is central to understanding the mechanisms that control host range, tropism, and virulence. Canine influenza virus (CIV; H3N8) originated after the transfer of an equine influenza virus (EIV) into dogs. Thus, comparing CIV and EIV isolates provides an opportunity to study the determinants of influenza virus emergence. Here we characterize the replication of canine, equine, and human IAVs in the trachea of the dog, a species to which humans are heavily exposed. We define a phenotype of infection for CIV, which is characterized by high levels of virus replication and extensive tissue damage. CIV was compared to evolutionarily distinct EIVs, and the early EIV isolates showed an impaired ability to infect dog tracheas, while EIVs that circulated near the time of CIV emergence exhibited a CIV-like infection phenotype. Inoculating dog tracheas with various human IAVs (hIAVs) showed that they infected the tracheal epithelium with various efficiencies depending on the virus tested. Finally, we show that reassortant viruses carrying gene segments of CIV and hIAV are viable and that addition of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of CIV to the 2009 human pandemic virus results in a virus that replicates at high levels and causes significant lesions. This provides important insights into the role of evolution on viral emergence and on the role of HA and NA as determinants of pathogenicity. Influenza A viruses (IAVs) have entered new host species in recent history, sometimes with devastating consequences. Canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N8 originated from a direct transfer of an equine influenza virus (EIV) in the early 2000s. We studied the infection patterns of IAVs that circulate in dogs or to which dogs are commonly exposed and showed that CIV emergence was likely

  12. Electric injury, Part II: Specific injuries.

    PubMed

    Fish, R M

    2000-01-01

    Electric injury can cause disruption of cardiac rhythm and breathing, burns, fractures, dislocations, rhabdomyolysis, eye and ear injury, oral and gastrointestinal injury, vascular damage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, peripheral and spinal cord injury, and Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. Secondary trauma from falls, fires, flying debris, and inhalation injury can complicate the clinical picture. Diagnostic and treatment considerations for electric injuries are described in this article, which is the second part of a three-part series on electric injuries.

  13. Myogenic Potential of Canine Craniofacial Satellite Cells

    PubMed Central

    La Rovere, Rita Maria Laura; Quattrocelli, Mattia; Pietrangelo, Tiziana; Di Filippo, Ester Sara; Maccatrozzo, Lisa; Cassano, Marco; Mascarello, Francesco; Barthélémy, Inès; Blot, Stephane; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Fulle, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The skeletal fibers have different embryological origin; the extraocular and jaw-closer muscles develop from prechordal mesoderm while the limb and trunk muscles from somites. These different origins characterize also the adult muscle stem cells, known as satellite cells (SCs) and responsible for the fiber growth and regeneration. The physiological properties of presomitic SCs and their epigenetics are poorly studied despite their peculiar characteristics to preserve muscle integrity during chronic muscle degeneration. Here, we isolated SCs from canine somitic [somite-derived muscle (SDM): vastus lateralis, rectus abdominis, gluteus superficialis, biceps femoris, psoas] and presomitic [pre-somite-derived muscle (PSDM): lateral rectus, temporalis, and retractor bulbi] muscles as myogenic progenitor cells from young and old animals. In addition, SDM and PSDM-SCs were obtained also from golden retrievers affected by muscular dystrophy (GRMD). We characterized the lifespan, the myogenic potential and functions, and oxidative stress of both somitic and presomitic SCs with the aim to reveal differences with aging and between healthy and dystrophic animals. The different proliferation rate was consistent with higher telomerase activity in PSDM-SCs compared to SDM-SCs, although restricted at early passages. SDM-SCs express early (Pax7, MyoD) and late (myosin heavy chain, myogenin) myogenic markers differently from PSDM-SCs resulting in a more efficient and faster cell differentiation. Taken together, our results showed that PSDM-SCs elicit a stronger stem cell phenotype compared to SDM ones. Finally, myomiR expression profile reveals a unique epigenetic signature in GRMD SCs and miR-206, highly expressed in dystrophic SCs, seems to play a critical role in muscle degeneration. Thus, miR-206 could represent a potential target for novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:24860499

  14. Microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra

    PubMed Central

    Coggan, Jennifer Anne; Melville, Priscilla Anne; de Oliveira, Clair Motos; Faustino, Marcelo; Moreno, Andréa Micke; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2008-01-01

    As pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch the purposes of this study were to evaluate microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra and to research the virulence factors of the E. coli isolates identifying possible risks to human health. The microbiological isolation from the intrauterine contents of 100 dogs with pyometra was carried out and the virulence factors in the E. coli strains were identified using PCR method. This study also consisted of the counting of microorganisms colonies forming units in samples of intrauterine content, tests of antimicrobial susceptibility of the E. coli isolates and the histological examination of the uterus. E. coli was the most prevalent microorganism isolated (76.6%) and 120 strains (79.5%) were positive for sfa, 86 (56.9%) were positive for cnf, 87 (57.6%) were positive for pap, 52 (34.4%) were positive for hly, 51 (33.8%) were positive for iuc and 5 (3.3%) were positive for afa genes. One observed more sensitivity of E. coli to norfloxacin, polimixin B, sulphazotrin, chloranfenicol and enrofloxacin. In 42% of the samples of uterine walls where microorganisms were isolated, the sizes of the areas of the inflammatory responses corresponded to 39–56%. Virulence factors were identified in 98.0% of the strains evaluated, demonstrating a high frequency of potentially pathogenic E. coli. It must be considered that dogs are animals that are living in close proximity to man for thousands of years and have an important role in the transmission of E. coli to other animals and to man. PMID:24031249

  15. Gastrin receptors on isolated canine parietal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Soll, A.H.; Amirian, D.A.; Thomas, L.P.; Reedy, T.J.; Elashoff, J.D.

    1984-05-01

    The receptors in the fundic mucosa that mediate gastrin stimulation of acid secretion have been studied. Synthetic human gastrin-17-I (G17) with a leucine substitution in the 15th position ((Leu15)-G17) was iodinated by chloramine T; high saturable binding was found to enzyme-dispersed canine fundic mucosal cells. /sup 127/I-(Leu15)-G17, but not /sup 127/I-G17, retained binding potency and biological activity comparable with uniodinated G17. Fundic mucosal cells were separated by size by using an elutriator rotor, and specific /sup 125/I-(Leu-15)-G17 binding in the larger cell fractions was highly correlated with the distribution of parietal cells. There was, however, specific gastrin binding in the small cell fractions, not accounted for by parietal cells. Using sequential elutriation and stepwise density gradients, highly enriched parietal and chief cell fractions were prepared; /sup 125/I-(Leu15)-G17 binding correlated positively with the parietal cell (r . 0.98) and negatively with chief cell content (r . -0.96). In fractions enriched to 45-65% parietal cells, specific /sup 125/I-(Leu15)-G17 binding was rapid, reaching a steady state at 37 degrees C within 30 min. Dissociation was also rapid, with the rate similar after 100-fold dilution or dilution plus excess pentagastrin. At a tracer concentration from 10 to 30 pM, saturable binding was 7.8 +/- 0.8% per 10(6) cells (mean +/- SE) and binding in the presence of excess pentagastrin accounted for 11% of total binding. G17 and carboxyl terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (26-33) were equipotent in displacing tracer binding and in stimulating parietal cell function ((/sup 14/C)aminopyrine accumulation), whereas the tetrapeptide of gastrin (14-17) had a much lower potency. Proglumide inhibited gastrin binding and selectively inhibited gastrin stimulation of parietal cell function.

  16. Chromatography purification of canine adenoviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Segura, María Mercedes; Puig, Meritxell; Monfar, Mercè; Chillón, Miguel

    2012-06-01

    Canine adenovirus vectors (CAV2) are currently being evaluated for gene therapy, oncolytic virotherapy, and as vectors for recombinant vaccines. Despite the need for increasing volumes of purified CAV2 preparations for preclinical and clinical testing, their purification still relies on the use of conventional, scale-limited CsCl ultracentrifugation techniques. A complete downstream processing strategy for CAV2 vectors based on membrane filtration and chromatography is reported here. Microfiltration and ultra/diafiltration are selected for clarification and concentration of crude viral stocks containing both intracellular and extracellular CAV2 particles. A DNase digestion step is introduced between ultrafiltration and diafiltration operations. At these early stages, concentration of vector stocks with good recovery of viral particles (above 80%) and removal of a substantial amount of protein and nucleic acid contaminants is achieved. The ability of various chromatography techniques to isolate CAV2 particles was evaluated. Hydrophobic interaction chromatography using a Fractogel propyl tentacle resin was selected as a first chromatography step, because it allows removal of the bulk of contaminating proteins with high CAV2 yields (88%). An anion-exchange chromatography step using monolithic supports is further introduced to remove the remaining contaminants with good recovery of CAV2 particles (58-69%). The main CAV2 viral structural components are visualized in purified preparations by electrophoresis analyses. Purified vector stocks contained intact icosahedral viral particles, low contamination with empty viral capsids (10%), and an acceptable total-to-infectious particle ratio (below 30). The downstream processing strategy that was developed allows preparation of large volumes of high-quality CAV2 stocks.

  17. Detection of Bacteriuria by Canine Olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Maureen; McCulloch, Michael; Willey, Angel M.; Hirsch, Wendi; Dewey, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Background. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a significant medical problem , particularly for patients with neurological conditions and the elderly. Detection is often difficult in these patients, resulting in delayed diagnoses and more serious infections such as pyelonephritis and life-threatening sepsis. Many patients have a higher risk of UTIs because of impaired bladder function, catheterization, and lack of symptoms. Urinary tract infections are the most common nosocomial infection; however, better strategies are needed to improve early detection of the disease. Methods. In this double-blinded, case-control, validation study, we obtained fresh urine samples daily in a consecutive case series over a period of 16 weeks. Dogs were trained to distinguish urine samples that were culture-positive for bacteriuria from those of culture-negative controls, using reward-based clicker and treat methods. Results. Samples were obtained from 687 individuals (from 3 months to 92 years of age; 86% female and 14% male; 34% culture-positive and 66% culture-negative controls). Dogs detected urine samples positive for 100 000 colony-forming units/mL Escherichia coli (N = 250 trials; sensitivity 99.6%, specificity 91.5%). Dilution of E coli urine with distilled water did not affect accuracy at 1% (sensitivity 100%, specificity 91.1%) or 0.1% (sensitivity 100%, specificity 93.6%) concentration. Diagnostic accuracy was similar to Enterococcus (n = 50; sensitivity 100%, specificity 93.9%), Klebsiella (n = 50; sensitivity 100%, specificity 95.1%), and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 50; sensitivity 100%, specificity 96.3%). All dogs performed with similarly high accuracy: overall sensitivity was at or near 100%, and specificity was above 90%. Conclusions. Canine scent detection is an accurate and feasible method for detection of bacteriuria. PMID:27186578

  18. A 3-year follow-up study of various types of orthodontic canine-to-canine retainers.

    PubMed

    Artun, J; Spadafora, A T; Shapiro, P A

    1997-10-01

    The present study was performed to test the tendency for plaque and calculus build-up along the wire of different types of bonded orthodontic canine-to-canine retainers, whether the presence of such retainers causes any damage to the teeth involved, the failure rate of the retainers, and any changes in incisor alignment during a 3-year period of retention. The four test groups received either retainers made of thick plain wire bonded only to the canines (n = 11); thick spiral wire bonded only to the canines (n = 13); thin, flexible spiral wire bonded to each tooth (n = 11); or removable retainers (n = 14). Accumulation of plaque and calculus along the gingival margin, gingival inflammation and probing attachment level were scored in lingual areas from canine to canine at the time of fixed appliance removal and again 3 years after retainer insertion. Incisor irregularity was measured on plaster models made at the same time periods. Accumulation of plaque and calculus and development of caries along the wire were scored at follow-up. Retainer failures were recorded whenever they occurred. The results revealed no intergroup differences in changes between baseline and follow-up examinations or status along the retainer wire for any of the variables. Gingival inflammation and plaque accumulation were scored less frequently after 3 years in retention than at the time of debonding. No signs of caries were seen adjacent to the wire. Failures were observed of one, four and three of the fixed retainer types, respectively. These patients showed a greater increase in incisor irregularity than the other patients.

  19. The effect of muscle contusion on cortical bone and muscle perfusion following reamed, intramedullary nailing: a novel canine tibia fracture model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Management of tibial fractures associated with soft tissue injury remains controversial. Previous studies have assessed perfusion of the fractured tibia and surrounding soft tissues in the setting of a normal soft tissue envelope. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of muscle contusion on blood flow to the tibial cortex and muscle during reamed, intramedullary nailing of a tibial fracture. Methods Eleven adult canines were distributed into two groups, Contusion or No-Contusion. The left tibia of each canine underwent segmental osteotomy followed by limited reaming and locked intramedullary nailing. Six of the 11 canines had the anterior muscle compartment contused in a standardized fashion. Laser doppler flowmetry was used to measure cortical bone and muscle perfusion during the index procedure and at 11 weeks post-operatively. Results Following a standardized contusion, muscle perfusion in the Contusion group was higher compared to the No-Contusion group at post-osteotomy and post-reaming (p < 0.05). Bone perfusion decreased to a larger extent in the Contusion group compared to the No-Contusion group following osteotomy (p < 0.05), and the difference in bone perfusion between the two groups remained significant throughout the entire procedure (p < 0.05). At 11 weeks, muscle perfusion was similar in both groups (p > 0.05). There was a sustained decrease in overall bone perfusion in the Contusion group at 11 weeks, compared to the No-Contusion group (p < 0.05). Conclusions Injury to the soft tissue envelope may have some deleterious effects on intraosseous circulation. This could have some influence on the fixation method for tibia fractures linked with significant soft tissue injury. PMID:21118566

  20. Development of a Vaccine Incorporating Killed Virus of Canine Origin for the Prevention of Canine Parvovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Povey, C.

    1982-01-01

    A parvovirus of canine origin, cultured in a feline kidney cell line, was inactivated with formalin. Three pilot serials were produced and three forms of finished vaccine (nonadjuvanted, single adjuvanted and double adjuvanted) were tested in vaccination and challenge trials. A comparison was also made with two inactivated feline panleukopenia virus vaccines, one of which has official approval for use in dogs. The inactivated canine vaccine in nonadjuvanted, adjuvanted or double adjuvanted form was immunogenic in 20 of 20 vaccinated dogs. The double adjuvanted vaccine is selected as the one of choice on the basis of best and most persistent seriological response. PMID:7039811

  1. Molecular detection of canine parvovirus in flies (Diptera) at open and closed canine facilities in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, Clarence; Isdell, Allen E; Thiruvaiyaru, Dharma S; Brisbin, I Lehr; Sanchez, Susan

    2014-06-01

    More than thirty years have passed since canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged as a significant pathogen and it continues to pose a severe threat to world canine populations. Published information suggests that flies (Diptera) may play a role in spreading this virus; however, they have not been studied extensively and the degree of their involvement is not known. This investigation was directed toward evaluating the vector capacity of such flies and determining their potential role in the transmission and ecology of CPV. Molecular diagnostic methods were used in this cross-sectional study to detect the presence of CPV in flies trapped at thirty-eight canine facilities. The flies involved were identified as belonging to the house fly (Mucidae), flesh fly (Sarcophagidae) and blow/bottle fly (Calliphoridae) families. A primary surveillance location (PSL) was established at a canine facility in south-central South Carolina, USA, to identify fly-virus interaction within the canine facility environment. Flies trapped at this location were pooled monthly and assayed for CPV using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. These insects were found to be positive for CPV every month from February through the end of November 2011. Fly vector behavior and seasonality were documented and potential environmental risk factors were evaluated. Statistical analyses were conducted to compare the mean numbers of each of the three fly families captured, and after determining fly CPV status (positive or negative), it was determined whether there were significant relationships between numbers of flies captured, seasonal numbers of CPV cases, temperature and rainfall. Flies were also sampled at thirty-seven additional canine facility surveillance locations (ASL) and at four non-canine animal industry locations serving as negative field controls. Canine facility risk factors were identified and evaluated. Statistical analyses were conducted on the number of CPV cases reported within the past year

  2. Targeting Translational Successes through CANSORT-SCI: Using Pet Dogs To Identify Effective Treatments for Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah A; Granger, Nicolas; Olby, Natasha J; Spitzbarth, Ingo; Jeffery, Nick D; Tipold, Andrea; Nout-Lomas, Yvette S; da Costa, Ronaldo C; Stein, Veronika M; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J; Blight, Andrew R; Grossman, Robert G; Basso, D Michele; Levine, Jonathan M

    2017-03-22

    Translation of therapeutic interventions for spinal cord injury (SCI) from laboratory to clinic has been historically challenging, highlighting the need for robust models of injury that more closely mirror the human condition. The high prevalence of acute, naturally occurring SCI in pet dogs provides a unique opportunity to evaluate expeditiously promising interventions in a population of animals that receive diagnoses and treatment clinically in a manner similar to persons with SCI, while adhering to National Institutes of Health guidelines for scientific rigor and transparent reporting. In addition, pet dogs with chronic paralysis are often maintained long-term by their owners, offering a similarly unique population for study of chronic SCI. Despite this, only a small number of studies have used the clinical dog model of SCI. The Canine Spinal Cord Injury Consortium (CANSORT-SCI) was recently established by a group of veterinarians and basic science researchers to promote the value of the canine clinical model of SCI. The CANSORT-SCI group held an inaugural meeting November 20 and 21, 2015 to evaluate opportunities and challenges to the use of pet dogs in SCI research. Key challenges identified included lack of familiarity with the model among nonveterinary scientists and questions about how and where in the translational process the canine clinical model would be most valuable. In light of these, we review the natural history, outcome, and available assessment tools associated with canine clinical SCI with emphasis on their relevance to human SCI and the translational process.

  3. Detection of canine distemper virus antigen in canine serum and its application to diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Soma, T; Ishii, H; Hara, M; Ohe, K; Hagimori, I; Ishikawa, Y; Taneno, A

    2003-10-18

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) antigen was detected in the serum of dogs by an ELISA and the results of this assay were compared with an anti-CDV immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody test. In paired sera from 26 naturally infected dogs, the antigen-positive rate was 26.9 per cent at the first examination and 11.5 per cent at the second examination two to three weeks later. The antigen was detected in three of the 10 dogs which were negative for anti-CDV IgM antibody at the first examination. It could also be detected in the serum of between eight and two of 40 specific pathogen-free dogs vaccinated against CDV, for up to four weeks after they were vaccinated.

  4. Comparative analyses of canine distemper viral isolates from clinical cases of canine distemper in vaccinated dogs.

    PubMed

    Lan, N T; Yamaguchi, R; Inomata, A; Furuya, Y; Uchida, K; Sugano, S; Tateyama, S

    2006-06-15

    Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of three isolates of canine distemper virus (CDV) isolated from three dogs with a vaccination history were compared with the same analyses of vaccine virus isolated from a vaccine used for dogs. The three dogs showed clinical signs of a recent major type of CD in Japan, including oculonasal discharge and diarrhea, and pathological findings including non-suppurative encephalitis, pneumonia, mild gastroenteritis and lymphoid depletion. Inclusion bodies were in the stomach without inflammation and encephalitis was without clinical signs. One of the highest titers of CDV in different organs of the three dogs was commonly systemic lymphatic organs, including the spleen, lymph nodes and tonsils. New isolates of CDV joined to the clades of the Asia 1 group that is far from the vaccine group. These results surely indicate that wild strains of CDV from dogs with a vaccination history were not reversed vaccine virus, and that the dogs showed characteristics of recent CD in Japan.

  5. Detection of canine pneumovirus in dogs with canine infectious respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Judy A; Cardwell, Jacqueline M; Renshaw, Randall W; Dubovi, Edward J; Brownlie, Joe

    2013-12-01

    Canine pneumovirus (CnPnV) was recently identified during a retrospective survey of kenneled dogs in the United States. In this study, archived samples from pet and kenneled dogs in the United Kingdom were screened for CnPnV to explore the relationship between exposure to CnPnV and the development of canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD). Within the pet dog population, CnPnV-seropositive dogs were detected throughout the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, with an overall estimated seroprevalence of 50% (n = 314/625 dogs). In the kennel population, there was a significant increase in seroprevalence, from 26% (n = 56/215 dogs) on the day of entry to 93.5% (n = 201/215 dogs) after 21 days (P <0001). Dogs that were seronegative on entry but seroconverted while in the kennel were 4 times more likely to develop severe respiratory disease than those that did not seroconvert (P < 0.001), and dogs with preexisting antibodies to CnPnV on the day of entry were significantly less likely to develop respiratory disease than immunologically naive dogs (P < 0.001). CnPnV was detected in the tracheal tissues of 29/205 kenneled dogs. Detection was most frequent in dogs with mild to moderate respiratory signs and histopathological changes and in dogs housed for 8 to 14 days, which coincided with a significant increase in the risk of developing respiratory disease compared to the risk of those housed 1 to 7 days (P < 0.001). These findings demonstrate that CnPnV is present in the United Kingdom dog population; there is a strong association between exposure to CnPnV and CIRD in the kennel studied and a potential benefit in vaccinating against CnPnV as part of a wider disease prevention strategy.

  6. Detection of Canine Pneumovirus in Dogs with Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cardwell, Jacqueline M.; Renshaw, Randall W.; Dubovi, Edward J.; Brownlie, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Canine pneumovirus (CnPnV) was recently identified during a retrospective survey of kenneled dogs in the United States. In this study, archived samples from pet and kenneled dogs in the United Kingdom were screened for CnPnV to explore the relationship between exposure to CnPnV and the development of canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD). Within the pet dog population, CnPnV-seropositive dogs were detected throughout the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, with an overall estimated seroprevalence of 50% (n = 314/625 dogs). In the kennel population, there was a significant increase in seroprevalence, from 26% (n = 56/215 dogs) on the day of entry to 93.5% (n = 201/215 dogs) after 21 days (P <0001). Dogs that were seronegative on entry but seroconverted while in the kennel were 4 times more likely to develop severe respiratory disease than those that did not seroconvert (P < 0.001), and dogs with preexisting antibodies to CnPnV on the day of entry were significantly less likely to develop respiratory disease than immunologically naive dogs (P < 0.001). CnPnV was detected in the tracheal tissues of 29/205 kenneled dogs. Detection was most frequent in dogs with mild to moderate respiratory signs and histopathological changes and in dogs housed for 8 to 14 days, which coincided with a significant increase in the risk of developing respiratory disease compared to the risk of those housed 1 to 7 days (P < 0.001). These findings demonstrate that CnPnV is present in the United Kingdom dog population; there is a strong association between exposure to CnPnV and CIRD in the kennel studied and a potential benefit in vaccinating against CnPnV as part of a wider disease prevention strategy. PMID:24088858

  7. Rabies, canine distemper, and canine parvovirus exposure in large carnivore communities from two Zambian ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Berentsen, Are R; Dunbar, Mike R; Becker, Matthew S; M'soka, Jassiel; Droge, Egil; Sakuya, Nicholas M; Matandiko, Wigganson; McRobb, Rachel; Hanlon, Cathleen A

    2013-09-01

    Disease transmission within and among wild and domestic carnivores can have significant impacts on populations, particularly for threatened and endangered species. We used serology to evaluate potential exposure to rabies virus, canine distemper virus (CDV), and canine parvovirus (CPV) for populations of African lions (Panthera leo), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in Zambia's South Luangwa National Park (SLNP) and Liuwa Plain National Park (LPNP) as well as community lands bordering these areas. In addition, domestic dogs in the study region were evaluated for exposure to CDV and rabies. We provide the first comprehensive disease exposure data for these species in these ecosystems. Twenty-one lions, 20 hyenas, 13 wild dogs, and 38 domestic dogs were sampled across both regions from 2009 to 2011. Laboratory results show 10.5% of domestic dogs, 5.0% of hyenas, and 7.7% of wild dogs sampled were positive for CDV exposure. All lions were negative. Exposure to CPV was 10.0% and 4.8% for hyenas and lions, respectively. All wild dogs were negative, and domestic dogs were not tested due to insufficient serum samples. All species sampled were negative for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies except lions. Forty percent of lions tested positive for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies. Because these lions appeared clinically healthy, this finding is consistent with seroconversion following exposure to rabies antigen. To our knowledge, this finding represents the first ever documentation of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies consistent with rabies exposure that did not lead to clinical disease in free-ranging African lions from this region. With ever-increasing human pressure on these ecosystems, understanding disease transmission dynamics is essential for proper management and conservation of these carnivore species.

  8. When Reading Gets Ruff: Canine-Assisted Reading Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Holly B.; Zavada, Shannon D. W.

    2013-01-01

    Canine-assisted reading programs show promise as an innovative method for engaging reluctant readers and motivating them to practice. In such programs, specially trained dogs visit classrooms and libraries, and children read to them. Children who struggle with reading may be motivated to read more because they find dogs to be calming and…

  9. Ultrasonography of the canine shoulder joint and its pathological changes.

    PubMed

    Piórek, A; Adamiak, Z

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to present and discuss the available data on canine shoulder joint ultrasonography. The paper presents the method of ultrasonographic examination of the shoulder joint area, describes the normal structure of the shoulder joint in dogs, and discusses the most frequently encountered shoulder joint pathologies.

  10. Detection of six novel papillomavirus sequences within canine pigmented plaques

    PubMed Central

    Luff, Jennifer A.; Affolter, Verena K.; Yeargan, Bret; Moore, Peter F.

    2013-01-01

    In dogs, papillomaviruses are thought to cause oral and cutaneous papillomas and pigmented plaques. Eight canine papillomaviruses have been fully sequenced to date. Four of these canine papillomaviruses, including Canis familiaris papillomavirus (CPV)-3, CPV-4, CPV-5, and CPV-8, were amplified from pigmented plaques. Given this recent identification of several different canine papillomaviruses within pigmented plaques, it is likely that there are additional papillomavirus sequences that have not been previously identified. The aim of this study was to detect papillomavirus DNA sequences from pigmented plaques and identify potentially novel PV sequences through nucleotide sequence analysis. Polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify DNA sequences of the papillomavirus L1 gene from 27 pigmented plaques. Identification of novel papillomavirus sequences was based upon less than 90% shared DNA homology to any known papillomavirus. Ten different papillomaviruses were detected within the pigmented plaques, including 6 novel PV sequences. CPV-4 was detected within 41% (11/27) of the pigmented plaques, while CPV-5 was identified within 2 pigmented plaques and CPV-3 within a single pigmented plaque. A previously identified novel papillomavirus sequence was identified within 2 pigmented plaques in this study. The remaining 11 pigmented plaques contained 6 papillomavirus DNA sequences that have not been previously reported. These novel PV sequences were most similar to papillomaviruses that have been detected within canine pigmented plaques. PMID:22529129

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Canine Papillomavirus Type 10

    PubMed Central

    Luff, Jennifer; Moore, Peter; Zhou, Dan; Wang, Jingang; Usuda, Yukari; Affolter, Verena; Schlegel, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Papillomaviruses are epitheliotropic, nonenveloped, circular, double-stranded DNA viruses within the family Papillomaviridae that are associated with benign and malignant tumors in humans and animals. We report the complete genome sequence of canine papillomavirus type 10 identified from a pigmented plaque located on the head of a mixed-breed bloodhound. PMID:22997424

  12. Autochthonous Outbreak and Expansion of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis, Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Satragno, Dinora; Faral-Tello, Paula; Canneva, Bruno; Verger, Lorenzo; Lozano, Alejandra; Vitale, Edgardo; Greif, Gonzalo; Soto, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    We report an outbreak of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Uruguay. Blood specimens from 11/45 dogs tested positive for Leishmania spp. Specimens of Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies were captured; typing revealed Leishmania infantum. Our findings document an expansion of visceral leishmaniasis to southern South America and risk for vectorborne transmission to humans. PMID:28221113

  13. The Human-Canine Bond: Closer than Family Ties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Sandra B.; Barker, Randolph T.

    1988-01-01

    Used Family Life Space Diagram to compare relationship between human family members with the human-canine relationship. Subjects were 29 dog enthusiasts, 66 typical pet owners, and 27 elementary school students with dogs. Results suggest that individuals may perceive their relationship with their pet dog as being as close as their relationship…

  14. In vitro canine platelet aggregation caused by Dirofilaria immitis extract

    PubMed Central

    TAKASHIMA, Yasuhiro; ONODA, Isako; CHIOU, Shin-Pin; KITOH, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    Platelet function hyper-activity has been reported in Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm, HW)-infected dogs. Although the mechanism of increased platelet hyper-activity has not yet been elucidated, it is suggested to be mediated by unknown factors, which may be related to adult HW components. This study aims to determine whether adult male HW whole body extract induces canine platelet aggregation in vitro. The results indicate that HW extract caused an aggregation of canine platelets in a concentration-dependent manner. This aggregation ability of the HW extract was not mediated by the adenosine diphosphate receptor. In addition, the mechanisms of aggregation did not require cyclooxygenase-dependent pathways, and the aggregating activity of substances contained in the HW extract was heat stable; therefore, the active substances may be different from collagen. Furthermore, the platelet aggregating activity remained within the molecular weight (MW)≥100,000 fraction obtained by ultrafiltrating the HW extract. In contrast, the MW <100,000 fraction also had a platelet aggregation ability, but the aggregation pattern was reversible and the maximum extent decreased, compared with the MW≥100,000 fraction response. Our experiments have been conducted using a whole body extract from adult HWs to determine with certainty the aggregating activity of HW elements on canine platelets. More studies are necessary to evaluate the effects of the metabolic products released from live adult worms in pulmonary arteries and the symbiont bacterium Wolbachia-derived antigens on canine platelet aggregation. PMID:28049921

  15. When Reading Gets Ruff: Canine-Assisted Reading Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Holly B.; Zavada, Shannon D. W.

    2013-01-01

    Canine-assisted reading programs show promise as an innovative method for engaging reluctant readers and motivating them to practice. In such programs, specially trained dogs visit classrooms and libraries, and children read to them. Children who struggle with reading may be motivated to read more because they find dogs to be calming and…

  16. A three-dimensional culture model of canine uterine glands.

    PubMed

    Stadler, K; Handler, J; Schoenkypl, S; Walter, I

    2009-01-01

    The canine endometrium is frequently affected by severe alterations with unclear pathogenesis and is, therefore, an important subject of research in veterinary gynecology. Therefore, the aim of our study was to establish a three-dimensional in vitro system of the canine endometrium suitable for experimental approaches. For this reason, intact uterine glands were isolated from canine uteri and placed together with stromal cells on culture dishes coated with several extracellular matrix components (collagen I, IV, fibronectin, laminin, gelatin, Matrigel) for up to 4 d to support differentiation of cultured cells. Immunohistochemical detection of laminin on freshly isolated glands showed a partial preservation of the basement membrane--an important factor for epithelial differentiation. Glandular structures were differentiated and polarized during culture time as shown by electron microscopy. Signs of degeneration and loss of cell-cell adhesions as seen occasionally on day 4 depended on the individual dog. In general, morphology was best preserved on Matrigel matrix. No significant changes of cultured glandular explants were observed concerning proliferation and steroid receptor (estrogen, progesterone) expression when compared with the original uterine tissue as assessed by immunohistochemical staining. Lectin histochemistry revealed comparable results for the in vivo endometrial glands and the cultured glandular explants during the whole culture period. This in vitro reconstitution of the canine endometrium is a promising tool to study the cyclic events in the normal endometrium as well as alterations in the affected uterus.

  17. Successful experimental challenge of dogs with canine parvovirus-2.

    PubMed Central

    Carman, S; Povey, C

    1982-01-01

    Withholding food from dogs for 24 hours prior to, and for 48 hours following oral challenge with a gut mucosal homogenate of canine parvovirus-2, was a successful means of reproducing gastroenteric signs of canine parvovirus-2 infection. Twenty-one of 24 dogs, which had previously received various vaccine preparations of mink enteritis virus or were unvaccinated, and which were starved at challenge, developed soft or liquid feces with large or without large clots of mucus. Altered feces were most frequent on postexposure day 11. Seven dogs passed frank blood in their stools on one or more occasions and seven dogs vomited sporadically. Pyrexia was noted in 71.6% of the dogs on postexposure day 6 and lymphopenia was detected on postexposure day 5 or 6 in 50% of the dogs monitored. In contrast, four dogs not starved at the time of challenge remained free of gastrointestinal signs apart from one dog which passed a soft stool with scant mucus on one day, postexposure day 6. Also four dogs vaccinated with a killed canine parvovirus-2 vaccine preparation and subsequently starved at the time of challenge, remained clinically healthy. Apart from these last mentioned four dogs, all others shed canine parvovirus-2 in their feces following challenge. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:6280819

  18. Molecular Characterization of Canine Rabies Virus, Mali, 2006-2013.

    PubMed

    Traoré, Abdallah; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Mauti, Stephanie; Biarnais, Melanie; Balmer, Oliver; Samaké, Kassim; Kamissoko, Badian; Tembely, Saïdou; Sery, Amadou; Traoré, Abdel K; Coulibaly, Amy P; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Zinsstag, Jakob; Cliquet, Florence

    2016-05-01

    We genetically characterized 32 canine rabies viruses isolated in Mali during 2006-2013 and identified 3 subgroups that belonged to the Africa 2 lineage. We also detected subgroup F rabies virus. This information should be useful for development of mass vaccination campaigns for dogs and eventual large-scale control programs in this country.

  19. 9 CFR 113.317 - Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.317 Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine recommended for use in dogs shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed which has been established as...

  20. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine...

  1. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine...

  2. 9 CFR 113.317 - Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.317 Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine recommended for use in dogs shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed which has been established as...

  3. 9 CFR 113.317 - Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.317 Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine recommended for use in dogs shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed which has been established as...

  4. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine...

  5. Dilated Canine Hearts: A Specimen for Teaching Cardiac Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Lee Anne

    2008-01-01

    Dilated canine hearts were used to teach undergraduate students internal and external cardiac anatomy. The specimens were dilated using hydrostatic pressure and then fixed using 5% formalin. These specimens provided the students with an alternative to prepackaged embalmed hearts and anatomical models for studying the external and internal cardiac…

  6. Cloning of canine GM-CSF and SCF genes.

    PubMed

    Shin, I S; Nam, M J; Park, S J; Youn, H Y; Han, H R

    2001-12-01

    Cytokines have pleiotropic regulatory effects on hematopoietic cells and many other cell types that participate in host defence and repair processes. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) mediates the growth and differentiation of granulocytes and macrophages and regulates the biological functions expressed by mature cells of these lineages. Stem cell factor (SCF) is a multifunctional cytokine involved in hematopoiesis, melanogenesis and gametogenesis. In order to determine the complementary DNA (cDNA) of canine GM-CSF and canine SCF, cDNA clones were generated from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and bone marrow cells by reverse transcription PCR amplification. The canine GM-CSF cDNA obtained in this study contains an open reading frame encoding 144 amino acid residues and has 53-75% homology with those of human, cat, sheep, pig, cow and mouse, Canine SCF cDNA consist of an open reading frame encoding 274 amino acid residues and shares 81-92% homology with those of human, cat, pig, cow and mouse.

  7. Efficient generation of canine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Isotani, Mayu; Katsuma, Kensuke; Tamura, Kyoichi; Yamada, Misato; Yagihara, Hiroko; Azakami, Daigo; Ono, Kenichiro; Washizu, Tsukimi; Bonkobara, Makoto

    2006-08-01

    Because of their unsurpassed potency in presenting antigens to naive T cells, dendritic cells are considered to be an important candidate in the development of immunotherapeutic strategies. Despite the high potential of dendritic cell-based immunotherapy, as a so-called dendritic cell vaccination, few clinical approaches using dendritic cell vaccination have been performed in the dog because of very limited information regarding the generation of canine dendritic cells and their functional properties. We therefore established a protocol for the efficient generation of dendritic cells from canine bone marrow cells using recombinant feline granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and canine interleukin-4. Dendritic cells were generated efficiently: a yield of 1-9 x 10(6) cells per approximately 0.5 ml of canine bone marrow aspiration was achieved. These dendritic cells showed features shared with mouse and human dendritic cells: dendrite morphology, expression of surface markers MHC class II and CD11c, and up-regulation of molecules related to antigen presentation (MHC class II, B7-1, and B7-2) by activation with lipopolysaccharide. Moreover, the dendritic cells demonstrated phagocytic activity, processing activity of pinocytosed proteins, and activation of allogeneic T cells far more potent than that by macrophages. Our findings suggest that the bone marrow-derived dendritic cells are functional for the capturing and processing of antigens and the initiation of T cell responses.

  8. The Human-Canine Bond: Closer than Family Ties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Sandra B.; Barker, Randolph T.

    1988-01-01

    Used Family Life Space Diagram to compare relationship between human family members with the human-canine relationship. Subjects were 29 dog enthusiasts, 66 typical pet owners, and 27 elementary school students with dogs. Results suggest that individuals may perceive their relationship with their pet dog as being as close as their relationship…

  9. Generation of functional platelets from canine induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Toshiya; Hatoya, Shingo; Kanegi, Ryoji; Sugiura, Kikuya; Wijewardana, Viskam; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Tanaka, Miyuu; Yamate, Jyoji; Izawa, Takeshi; Takahashi, Masahiro; Kawate, Noritoshi; Tamada, Hiromichi; Imai, Hiroshi; Inaba, Toshio

    2013-07-15

    Thrombocytopenia (TTP) is a blood disease common to canines and human beings. Currently, there is no valid therapy for this disease except blood transfusion. In this study, we report the generation of canine induced pluripotent stem cells (ciPSCs) from canine embryonic fibroblasts, and a novel protocol for creating mature megakaryocytes (MKs) and functional platelets from ciPSCs. The ciPSCs were generated using lentiviral vectors, and differentiated into MKs and platelets on OP9 stromal cells supplemented with growth factors. Our ciPSCs presented in a tightly domed shape and showed expression of a critical pluripotency marker, REX1, and normal karyotype. Additionally, ciPSCs differentiated into cells derived from three germ layers via the formation of an embryoid body. The MKs derived from ciPSCs had hyperploidy and transformed into proplatelets. The proplatelets released platelets early on that expressed specific MK and platelet marker CD41/61. Interestingly, these platelets, when activated with adenosine diphosphate or thrombin, bind to fibrinogen. Moreover, electron microscopy showed that the platelets had the same ultrastructure as peripheral platelets. Thus, we have demonstrated for the first time the generation of ciPSCs that are capable of differentiating into MKs and release functional platelets in vitro. Our system for differentiating ciPSCs into MKs and platelets promises a critical therapy for canine TTP and appears to be extensible in principle to resolve human TTP.

  10. Altered states part 2: addressing nausea in canine research subjects.

    PubMed

    Hampshire, Victoria

    2016-02-01

    Nausea and emesis can occur for multiple reasons. While research staff can readily empathize with this type of discomfort, proper assessment and treatment can be challenging. In order to provide optimal care for canine research subjects, it is critical that institutions develop a treatment plan and take preemptive measures to control nausea and emesis when they occur.

  11. Transport dentoalveolar distraction osteogenesis-assisted rapid orthodontic canine retraction.

    PubMed

    Kharkar, Viraj R; Kotrashetti, S M

    2010-05-01

    A recent innovative use of distraction osteogenesis technique in the field of orthodontic tooth movement is the application of the principle of distraction to move individual tooth segments rapidly, thus reducing orthodontic treatment time. Twelve maxillary canine teeth were rapidly retracted using the concept of dentoalveolar distraction osteogenesis. They were evaluated for the time required to complete the retraction, canine tipping, anchorage loss, and root resorption using intraoral radiographs and lateral cephalograms. The vitality of the canine was also evaluated using an electric pulp tester. Canines can be rapidly retracted by dentoalveolar distraction, and subsequently the total orthodontic treatment time can be reduced as described in this technique. The time taken is 12.5 +/- 0.50 days with a minimal amount of tipping and acceptable amount of anchorage loss. All the teeth were vital with no evidence of root resorption. The concept of distraction osteogenesis for rapid orthodontic tooth movement is thought to be promising and feasible for clinical practice. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular Characterization of Canine Rabies Virus, Mali, 2006–2013

    PubMed Central

    Traoré, Abdallah; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Mauti, Stephanie; Biarnais, Melanie; Balmer, Oliver; Samaké, Kassim; Kamissoko, Badian; Tembely, Saïdou; Sery, Amadou; Traoré, Abdel K.; Coulibaly, Amy P.; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    We genetically characterized 32 canine rabies viruses isolated in Mali during 2006–2013 and identified 3 subgroups that belonged to the Africa 2 lineage. We also detected subgroup F rabies virus. This information should be useful for development of mass vaccination campaigns for dogs and eventual large-scale control programs in this country. PMID:27089307

  13. [Immunosuppression in dogs and pigs infected with canine distemper virus].

    PubMed

    Sereda, A D; Nogina, I V

    2011-01-01

    Immunosuppression manifesting itself as leukopenia and a considerably lower lymphocyte proliferative response to T- and B-cell mitogens develops in pigs and dogs within 2-3 weeks after intramuscular or oral infection with canine distemper virus (CDV). CDV antigens are detectable in the oral secretions of the animals within 2-2.5 week after infection.

  14. Tooth size in dentitions with buccal canine ectopia.

    PubMed

    Chaushu, Stella; Sharabi, Shaltiel; Becker, Adrian

    2003-10-01

    Much interest has been expressed in recent years regarding various features common to dentitions with palatally displaced canines (PDC), particularly in relation to delayed dental development and reduced tooth size. The aims of the present study were to determine whether dentitions with buccally displaced canines (BDC) have features in common, which may be specific for the condition, when compared with PDC dentitions and those with normally erupting canines. Mesiodistal and buccolingual tooth dimensions were determined for 41 subjects with BDC (21 females and 20 males) aged between 11 and 15 years, who formed the experimental sample. The PDC sample was made up of 58 individuals (37 females and 21 males) and the control group comprised 40 age-matched and consecutively treated subjects (20 males and 20 females), exhibiting normally erupted and undisplaced maxillary canines. The results revealed marked sexual dimorphism. Larger-than-average teeth were present in BDC females, whereas the teeth in BDC males were normally sized. Unilaterally affected females had smaller teeth than bilaterally affected females. Tooth size in BDC was consistently larger than in PDC subjects, although the reason was different between the sexes. In females the PDC teeth were normally sized versus large BDC teeth, whereas in the males, the PDC teeth were small and the BDC teeth normal. It is concluded that combining male and female subjects into an overall BDC group obscures important differences that exist between the two sexes.

  15. Nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene of canine parvovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Rhode, S L

    1985-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the canine parvovirus (CPV2) from map units 33 to 95 has been determined. This includes the entire coat protein gene and noncoding sequences at the 3' end of the gene, exclusive of the terminal inverted repeat. The predicted capsid protein structures are discussed and compared with those of the rodent parvoviruses H-1 and MVM. PMID:3989914

  16. Dilated Canine Hearts: A Specimen for Teaching Cardiac Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Lee Anne

    2008-01-01

    Dilated canine hearts were used to teach undergraduate students internal and external cardiac anatomy. The specimens were dilated using hydrostatic pressure and then fixed using 5% formalin. These specimens provided the students with an alternative to prepackaged embalmed hearts and anatomical models for studying the external and internal cardiac…

  17. Autochthonous Outbreak and Expansion of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis, Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Satragno, Dinora; Faral-Tello, Paula; Canneva, Bruno; Verger, Lorenzo; Lozano, Alejandra; Vitale, Edgardo; Greif, Gonzalo; Soto, Carlos; Robello, Carlos; Basmadjián, Yester

    2017-03-01

    We report an outbreak of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Uruguay. Blood specimens from 11/45 dogs tested positive for Leishmania spp. Specimens of Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies were captured; typing revealed Leishmania infantum. Our findings document an expansion of visceral leishmaniasis to southern South America and risk for vectorborne transmission to humans.

  18. In vitro canine platelet aggregation caused by Dirofilaria immitis extract.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Yasuhiro; Onoda, Isako; Chiou, Shin-Pin; Kitoh, Katsuya

    2017-02-28

    Platelet function hyper-activity has been reported in Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm, HW)-infected dogs. Although the mechanism of increased platelet hyper-activity has not yet been elucidated, it is suggested to be mediated by unknown factors, which may be related to adult HW components. This study aims to determine whether adult male HW whole body extract induces canine platelet aggregation in vitro. The results indicate that HW extract caused an aggregation of canine platelets in a concentration-dependent manner. This aggregation ability of the HW extract was not mediated by the adenosine diphosphate receptor. In addition, the mechanisms of aggregation did not require cyclooxygenase-dependent pathways, and the aggregating activity of substances contained in the HW extract was heat stable; therefore, the active substances may be different from collagen. Furthermore, the platelet aggregating activity remained within the molecular weight (MW)≥100,000 fraction obtained by ultrafiltrating the HW extract. In contrast, the MW <100,000 fraction also had a platelet aggregation ability, but the aggregation pattern was reversible and the maximum extent decreased, compared with the MW≥100,000 fraction response. Our experiments have been conducted using a whole body extract from adult HWs to determine with certainty the aggregating activity of HW elements on canine platelets. More studies are necessary to evaluate the effects of the metabolic products released from live adult worms in pulmonary arteries and the symbiont bacterium Wolbachia-derived antigens on canine platelet aggregation.

  19. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.201 Section 113.201 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE..., Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has...

  20. 9 CFR 113.316 - Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine. 113.316 Section 113.316 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed which has been established as pure, safe, and...

  1. 9 CFR 113.317 - Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). 113.317 Section 113.317 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed which has been established as...

  2. 9 CFR 113.316 - Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine. 113.316 Section 113.316 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed which has been established as pure, safe, and...

  3. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). 113.214 Section 113.214 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE..., Killed Virus, recommended for use in dogs, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only...

  4. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.201 Section 113.201 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE..., Killed Virus, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has...

  5. 9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine. 113.306 Section 113.306 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established...

  6. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). 113.214 Section 113.214 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE..., Killed Virus, recommended for use in dogs, shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only...

  7. 9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine. 113.306 Section 113.306 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established...

  8. 9 CFR 113.317 - Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). 113.317 Section 113.317 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed which has been established as...

  9. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to cold can produce a variety of injuries that occur as a result of man's inability to adapt to cold. These injuries can be divided into localized injury to a body part, systemic hypothermia, or a combination of both. Body temperature may fall as a result of heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Hypothermia or systemic cold injury occurs when the core body temperature has decreased to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F) or less. The causes of hypothermia are either primary or secondary. Primary, or accidental, hypothermia occurs in healthy individuals inadequately clothed and exposed to severe cooling. In secondary hypothermia, another illness predisposes the individual to accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia affects multiple organs with symptoms of hypothermia that vary according to the severity of cold injury. The diagnosis of hypothermia is easy if the patient is a mountaineer who is stranded in cold weather. However, it may be more difficult in an elderly patient who has been exposed to a cold environment. In either case, the rectal temperature should be checked with a low-reading thermometer. The general principals of prehospital management are to (1) prevent further heat loss, (2) rewarm the body core temperature in advance of the shell, and (3) avoid precipitating ventricular fibrillation. There are two general techniques of rewarming--passive and active. The mechanisms of peripheral cold injury can be divided into phenomena that affect cells and extracellular fluids (direct effects) and those that disrupt the function of the organized tissue and the integrity of the circulation (indirect effects). Generally, no serious damage is seen until tissue freezing occurs. The mildest form of peripheral cold injury is frostnip. Chilblains represent a more severe form of cold injury than frostnip and occur after exposure to nonfreezing temperatures and damp conditions. Immersion (trench) foot, a disease of the sympathetic nerves and blood

  10. Management of root resorption with mineral trioxide aggregate complicated by a luxation injury: report of a case with six-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kusgoz, Adem; Yildirim, Tahsin; Alp, Cemile Kedici; Tanriver, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Trauma to the oral region occurs frequently, comprising 5% of all injuries. The most common dental injuries are lateral luxations which can be seen with a prevalence of up to 27% among dental injuries. Ectopic eruption of maxillary canines can lead to root resorption on maxillary lateral incisors especially on apical and middle thirds of the roots. Half of these resorbed lateral incisors show severe resorption, in which the pulp is exposed. This case report describes non-surgical treatment with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and a six-year follow-up of a maxillary lateral incisor, resorbed by ectopic eruption of the canine and affected by lateral luxation injury. The tooth was asymptomatic, and radiographic examination showed that the resorbed region had been successfully repaired with new hard tissue deposition within the six-year follow-up. MTA can be considered an effective repair material in nonsurgical treatment of this type of root resorption.

  11. Load System of Segmental T-Loops for Canine Retraction

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Zeyang; Chen, Jie; Jiang, Feifei; Li, Shuning; Viecilli, Rodrigo F; Liu, Sean Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The orthodontic load system, especially the ideal moment-to-force ratios (M/F), is the commonly used design parameter of segmental T-loops for canine retraction. However, the load system, including M/F, may be affected by the changes in canine angulations and interbracket distance (IBD). Here, we hypothesize that clinical changes in canine position and angulation during canine retraction will significantly affect the load system delivered to the tooth. Methods The load systems of two T-loop groups, one for translation (TR) and the other for controlled tipping (CT), from nine bilateral canine retraction patients were made to the targeted values obtained from finite element analyses and validated. Each loop was tested on the corresponding maxillary dental cast obtained in the clinic. The casts were made before and after each treatment interval so that both initial and residual load systems could be obtained. The pre- and post-treatment IBDs were recorded for calculating IBD changes. Results As the IBDs decreased, the averaged retraction-force-drop per IBD reduction was 36 cN/mm, a 30% drop per 1 mm IBD decrease. The averaged anti-tipping-moment-drops per IBD reductions were 0.02 N-mm/mm for CT and 1.4 N-mm/mm for TR, ~0.6 % and 17% drop per 1 mm IBD decrease, respectively. Consequently, the average M/F increases per 1 mm IBD reduction were 1.24 mm/mm for CT and 6.34 mm/mm for TR. There was significant residual load left, which could continue to move the tooth if the patient missed the scheduled appointment. Conclusions Clinical changes in canine position and angulation during canine retraction significantly affect the load system. The initial planned M/F needs to be lower to reach the expected average ideal value. Patients should be required to follow the office visit schedule closely to avoid negative effects due to significant M/F increases with time. PMID:24075663

  12. Magnetic resonance thermometry for predicting thermal damage: an application of interstitial laser coagulation in an in vivo canine prostate model.

    PubMed

    Peters, R D; Chan, E; Trachtenberg, J; Jothy, S; Kapusta, L; Kucharczyk, W; Henkelman, R M

    2000-12-01

    Magnetic resonance image-guidance for interstitial thermal therapy has proven to be a valuable tool in its traditional role in device localization and, more recently, in monitoring heat deposition within tissue. However, a quantitative understanding of how temperature-time exposure relates to thermal damage is crucial if the predictive value of real-time MR thermal-monitoring is to be fully realized. Results are presented on interstitial laser coagulation of two canine prostate models which are shown to provide an opportunity to evaluate three models of thermal damage based on a threshold maximum temperature, an Arrhenius damage integral, and a temperature-time product. These models were compared to the resultant lesion margin as derived from post-treatment T(1)- and T(2)-weighted MR images, as well as from direct histological evaluation of the excised canine prostate. Histological evaluation shows that the thermal-injury boundary can be predicted from a threshold-maximum temperature of approximately 51 degrees C or an equivalent Arrhenius t(43) period of 200 minutes, but it is not reliably predicted using the temperature-time product. The methods described in this study are expected to have implications for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer with interstitial laser coagulation, which will be the focus of future human studies.

  13. Comparative trial of the canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine adenovirus type 2 fractions of two commercially available modified live vaccines.

    PubMed

    Bergman, J G H E; Muniz, M; Sutton, D; Fensome, R; Ling, F; Paul, G

    2006-11-25

    The results of vaccinating two groups of puppies with commercial vaccines, both of which claimed to provide adequate protection with a final vaccination at 10 weeks of age, were compared. Groups of 19 and 20 puppies with similar titres of maternally derived antibodies against canine parvovirus (cpv), canine distemper virus (cdv) and canine adenovirus type 2 (cav-2) at four weeks of age were vaccinated at six and 10 weeks of age and their responses to each vaccination were measured by comparing the titres against cpv, cdv and cav-2 in the serum samples taken immediately before the vaccination and four weeks later. After the vaccination at six weeks of age, all 19 of the puppies in group 1 had responded to cpv and cdv, and 14 had responded to cav-2; in group 2, 17 of the 20 had responded to cpv, 19 to cdv and 15 to cav-2. In both groups the puppies that did not respond to the first vaccination had responded serologically to cpv, cdv and cav-2 at 10 weeks of age.

  14. Effects of body weight on antibody titers against canine parvovirus type 2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type 1 in vaccinated domestic adult dogs.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Saito, Miyoko; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether post-vaccination antibody titers vary according to body weight in adult dogs. Antibody titers against canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV), and canine adenovirus type 1 (CAdV-1) were measured for 978 domestic adult dogs from 2 to 6 y of age. The dogs had been vaccinated approximately 12 mo earlier with a commercial combination vaccine. The dogs were divided into groups according to their weight. It was found that mean antibody titers in all weight groups were sufficient to prevent infection. Intergroup comparison, however, revealed that CPV-2 antibody titers were significantly higher in the Super Light (< 5 kg) group than in the Medium (10 to 19.9 kg) and Heavy (> 20 kg) groups and were also significantly higher in the Light (5 to 9.9 kg) group than in the Heavy group. Antibody titers against CDV were significantly higher in the Super Light, Light, and Medium groups than in the Heavy group. There were no significant differences among the groups for the CAdV-1 antibody titers.

  15. Genetic mapping of canine fear and aggression.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Isain; Serpell, James A; Alvarez, Carlos E

    2016-08-08

    Fear/anxiety and anger/aggression greatly influence health, quality of life and social interactions. They are a huge burden to wellbeing, and personal and public economics. However, while much is known about the physiology and neuroanatomy of such emotions, little is known about their genetics - most importantly, why some individuals are more susceptible to pathology under stress. We conducted genomewide association (GWA) mapping of breed stereotypes for many fear and aggression traits across several hundred dogs from diverse breeds. We confirmed those findings using GWA in a second cohort of partially overlapping breeds. Lastly, we used the validated loci to create a model that effectively predicted fear and aggression stereotypes in a third group of dog breeds that were not involved in the mapping studies. We found that i) known IGF1 and HMGA2 loci variants for small body size are associated with separation anxiety, touch-sensitivity, owner directed aggression and dog rivalry; and ii) two loci, between GNAT3 and CD36 on chr18, and near IGSF1 on chrX, are associated with several traits, including touch-sensitivity, non-social fear, and fear and aggression that are directed toward unfamiliar dogs and humans. All four genome loci are among the most highly evolutionarily-selected in dogs, and each of those was previously shown to be associated with morphological traits. We propose that the IGF1 and HMGA2 loci are candidates for identical variation being associated with both behavior and morphology. In contrast, we show that the GNAT3-CD36 locus has distinct variants for behavior and morphology. The chrX region is a special case due to its extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD). Our evidence strongly suggests that sociability (which we propose is associated with HS6ST2) and fear/aggression are two distinct GWA loci within this LD block on chrX, but there is almost perfect LD between the peaks for fear/aggression and animal size. We have mapped many canine fear and

  16. Release of canine parvovirus from endocytic vesicles.

    PubMed

    Suikkanen, Sanna; Antila, Mia; Jaatinen, Anne; Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Vuento, Matti

    2003-11-25

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a small nonenveloped virus with a single-stranded DNA genome. CPV enters cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and requires an acidic endosomal step for productive infection. Virion contains a potential nuclear localization signal as well as a phospholipase A(2) like domain in N-terminus of VP1. In this study we characterized the role of PLA(2) activity on CPV entry process. PLA(2) activity of CPV capsids was triggered in vitro by heat or acidic pH. PLA(2) inhibitors inhibited the viral proliferation suggesting that PLA(2) activity is needed for productive infection. The N-terminus of VP1 was exposed during the entry, suggesting that PLA(2) activity might have a role during endocytic entry. The presence of drugs modifying endocytosis (amiloride, bafilomycin A(1), brefeldin A, and monensin) caused viral proteins to remain in endosomal/lysosomal vesicles, even though the drugs were not able to inhibit the exposure of VP1 N-terminal end. These results indicate that the exposure of N-terminus of VP1 alone is not sufficient to allow CPV to proliferate. Some other pH-dependent changes are needed for productive infection. In addition to blocking endocytic entry, amiloride was able to block some postendocytic steps. The ability of CPV to permeabilize endosomal membranes was demonstrated by feeding cells with differently sized rhodamine-conjugated dextrans together with the CPV in the presence or in the absence of amiloride, bafilomycin A(1), brefeldin A, or monensin. Dextran with a molecular weight of 3000 was released from vesicles after 8 h of infection, while dextran with a molecular weight of 10,000 was mainly retained in vesicles. The results suggest that CPV infection does not cause disruption of endosomal vesicles. However, the permeability of endosomal membranes apparently changes during CPV infection, probably due to the PLA(2) activity of the virus. These results suggest that parvoviral PLA(2) activity is essential for productive

  17. Cryopreservation of canine semen - new challenges.

    PubMed

    Farstad, W

    2009-07-01

    Egg yolk (EY) protects cell membranes against cold shock, and it prevents or restores the loss of phospholipids from the membrane. EY has been widely used in semen extenders. It has been added to Tris-Glucose buffer and has been widely used for cooling and cryopreservation of canine semen. EY is not a defined entity, but a complex biological compound containing proteins, vitamins, phospholipids, glucose and antioxidants which are all potentially useful for cell membrane integrity. Unfortunately, it also is a biologically hazardous compound. Hence, whole EY needs to be replaced by other chemically defined components for semen processing in dogs. Freezing poor semen does not improve its quality, so attention must be focused on how to cope with dogs whose semen does not freeze well, and on designing individual freezing extenders for semen from such males. Furthermore, differences have been found among canid species in the ability of their spermatozoa to withstand freezing. There are differences in sperm membrane fatty acid composition among species, which may explain part of these differences. If the presence of long-chained polyunsaturated fatty acids contributes to increased membrane fluidity, this relationship may be biphasic, i.e. either too much membrane fluidity, or too little, could compromise successful sperm cryopreservation. An increase in fluidity of the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane has been shown in frozen thawed dog spermatozoa. The protective effect of exogenous lipids may lie in close association with the membrane rather than in modification or rearrangement of the membrane. This also points at lipids as an important, if not entirely new group of substances, which may substitute standard EY-based diluents in preserving sperm survival during freezing. EY-derived phospholipids or lecithin could be used to replace whole EY. Vegetable lecithin is currently investigated to avoid using substances of animal origin. EY also contains antioxidants which

  18. Canine heartworms in coyotes in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Thomas A; Gregory, David G; Laursen, Jeffrey R

    2003-07-01

    Canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease affects wild canids and may be a factor impacting the health and population dynamics of coyotes (Canis latrans). Coyotes may serve also as a potential reservoir for transmission of these parasites to domestic dogs. We investigated 920 coyotes harvested by hunters and trappers throughout Illinois (USA) from 1995-1997. The objectives of the study were to: 1) survey the regional prevalence and intensity of heartworms in coyotes in Illinois, 2) determine whether heartworm intensity correlates with physical condition, particularly body weight and winter fat levels, and 3) evaluate the relationship between heartworm infections and the reproductive success of females. Prevalence of heartworms statewide was 16.0%. Prevalence was significantly higher in males (17.7%) than in females (14.1%; P = 0.04) and was higher in the older age-classes (P < 0.0001). The regional prevalence of heartworms increased from northern to southern Illinois. Intensity ranged from 1 to 111 with a mean of 8.7 (SD = 13.2) worms. Intensities did not differ significantly between sexes (P = 0.53) or among age-classes (P = 0.84). Most infected coyotes had low intensity infections, 78.2% carried < 12 heartworms, 11.6% had 12-24 worms, and 10.2% were infected with > 24 worms. Body weights were not correlated with the presence of heartworms, nor were levels of kidney fat and marrow fat. However, reproductive success was lower in infected females. The percent of yearling females that bred was lower among infected females, as was the number of offspring produced by adults > or = 3.5 yr old. Our study demonstrates that heavy infections adversely affect fur quality and reduce fecundity of some females, but these effects are small and few coyotes (4.1%) had enough worms to trigger them. Coyote populations have increased in Illinois during the past 20 yr, but prevalence and intensity of heartworm disease appears to have changed little in that period. We conclude

  19. Lightning injuries.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe Gatewood, Medley; Zane, Richard D

    2004-05-01

    Lightning is persistently one of the leading causes of death caused by environmental or natural disaster. To understand the pathophysiology and treatment of lightning injuries one must first discount the innumerable myths, superstitions, and misconceptions surrounding lightning. The fundamental difference between high voltage electrical injury and lightning is the duration of exposure to current. Reverse triage should be instituted in lightning strike victims because victims in cardiopulmonary arrest might gain the greatest benefit from resuscitation efforts, although there is no good evidence suggesting that lightning strike victims might benefit from longer than usual resuscitation times. Many of the injuries suffered by lightning strike victims are unique to lightning, and long-term sequelae should be anticipated and addressed in the lightning victim.

  20. Blast Injury

    PubMed Central

    de Candole, C. A.

    1967-01-01

    The shock wave generated by an explosion (“blast wave”) may cause injury in any or all of the following: (1) direct impact on the tissues of variations in environmental pressure; (2) flying glass and other debris set in motion by it; (3) propulsion of the body. Injuries in the first category affect gas-containing organs (ears, lungs and intestines), and acute death is attributed to air forced into the coronary vessels via damaged pulmonary alveoli. It is estimated that overpressure sufficient to cause lung injury may occur up to five miles from a 20-megaton nuclear explosion. The greatest single hazard from blast is, however, flying glass, and serious wounding from this cause is possible up to 12 miles from an explosion of this magnitude. PMID:6015742