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Sample records for emeishan cfb province

  1. Silicic ash beds bracket Emeishan Large Igneous province to < 1 m.y. at ~ 260 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hu; Cawood, Peter A.; Hou, Ming-Cai; Yang, Jiang-Hai; Ni, Shi-Jun; Du, Yuan-Sheng; Yan, Zhao-Kun; Wang, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Claystone beds directly below and above the Emeishan basalts in SW China formed around the Guadalupian-Lopingian (G - L) boundary. Zircons from both levels give U-Pb ages of 260 Ma, and are identical within-error to ages reported for the Emeishan Large Igneous Province (LIP). The claystones lack Nb - Ta anomalies on primitive mantle normalized elemental diagrams; zircons from these claystones have a geochemical affinity to within-plate-type magmas. These features, combined with the strong negative Eu anomalies in the zircons and high Al2O3/TiO2 ratios, indicate that claystones around the G - L boundary have a silicic volcanic component related to Emeishan LIP. Zircons from the underlying claystone bed have much higher U/Yb and Th/Nb ratios and lower εHf(t) values than those overlying the LIP, suggesting that early-stage silicic volcanic rocks had a higher crustal contamination or assimilation during magmatic processes. In terms of stratigraphic correlation, our data demonstrate that silicic eruptions occurred not only at the end, but also at the beginning of the Emeishan LIP, and the overall duration of the main basaltic phase was short (< 1 m.y).

  2. Voluminous silicic eruptions during late Permian Emeishan igneous province and link to climate cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianghai; Cawood, Peter A.; Du, Yuansheng

    2015-12-01

    Silicic eruptive units can constitute a substantive component in flood-basalts-dominated large igneous provinces, but usually constitute only a small proportion of the preserved volume due to poor preservation. Thus, their environmental impact can be underestimated or ignored. Establishing the original volume and potential climate-sensitive gas emissions of silicic eruptions is generally lacking for most large igneous provinces. We present a case study for the ∼260 Ma Emeishan province, where silicic volcanic rocks are a very minor component of the preserved rock archive due to extensive erosion during the Late Permian. Modal and geochemical data from Late Permian sandstones derived from the province suggest that silicic volcanic rocks constituted some ∼30% by volume of the total eroded Emeishan volcanic source rocks. This volume corresponds to > 3 ×104 km3 on the basis of two independent estimate methods. Detrital zircon trace element and Hf isotopic data require the silicic source rocks to be formed mainly by fractional crystallization from associated basaltic magmas. Based on experimental and theoretical calculations, these basalt-derived ∼104 km3 silicic eruptions released ∼1017 g sulfur gases into the higher atmosphere and contribute to the contemporaneous climate cooling at the Capitanian-Wuchiapingian transition (∼260 Ma). This study highlights the potentially important impact on climate of silicic eruptions associated with large igneous province volcanism.

  3. Plume or no plume: Emeishan Large Igneous Province in Southwest China revisited from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chuansong; Santosh, M.; Wu, Jianping; Chen, Xuanhua

    2014-07-01

    The Late Permian Emeishan Large Igneous Province at the western margin of the Yangtze craton and eastern Tibet is popularly regarded as the signature of mantle plume impingement onto the lithosphere. In this study, we investigate the crustal structure and upper mantle discontinuities of this region by employing H-k stacking of receiver function and depth domain receiver function. Our results image the mantle transition zone. However, no vestiges of any mantle plume upwelling in this area are recorded in our results, and the region is characterized by a largely cold domain. In contrast, our data reveal a region of lower crustal delamination that coincides with the cold mantle transition zone. We therefore suggest that the delaminated lower crustal material was recycled into the upper mantle or the mantle transition zone, turning the latter into a cold domain. The delamination of the lower crust might have also led to asthenospheric upwelling and plume-like upwelling from the mantle transition zone that generated the basalts in the Emeishan Large Igneous Province.

  4. Late Permian basalts in the Yanghe area, eastern Sichuan Province, SW China: Implications for the geodynamics of the Emeishan flood basalt province and Permian global mass extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Zhaochong; Santosh, M.; Lü, Linsu; Han, Liu; Liu, Wei

    2017-02-01

    We report the finding of a ∼20 m thick sequence of massive pyroxene-plagioclase-phyric basalt lava flows in the Yanghe area of the northeastern Sichuan Basin, within the Yangtze craton of SW China, which were previously considered to be located outside the Emeishan flood basalt province. This basaltic sequence above the middle Permian Maokou Formation (Fm.) is overlain by the late Permian Longtan Fm. Thus, the Yanghe basalts should be stratigraphically correlated with the Emeishan flood basalts. The Yanghe basalts show typical oceanic island basalt (OIB) affinity, and geochemically resemble Emeishan basalts, especially in the case of high-Ti (HT) basalts from the eastern domain of the Emeishan flood basalt province. The rocks have low age-corrected (87Sr/86Sr)t (t = 260 Ma) ratios (0.704158-0.704929) and Pb isotopic ratios [206Pb/204Pb(t) (18.264-18.524), 207Pb/204Pb(t) (15.543-15.58), and 208Pb/204Pb(t) (38.147-38.519)], and positive εNd(t) values (+3.15 to +3.61), suggesting that the lavas have not undergone any significant crustal contamination. The crystallization temperature of clinopyroxene is estimated to be 1368-1420 °C, suggesting anomalously thermal inputs from a mantle source and a possible plume-head origin. The fractionation of middle rare earth elements (MREE) to heavy REE (HREE) suggests that these rocks were produced by small degrees of partial melting of mantle peridotite within the garnet-spinel transition region. The stratigraphic relationships and similar geochemical signatures with the Emeishan flood basalts suggest that the Yanghe basalts are part of the Emeishan flood basalt province and can be considered as the northeastern limit of the Emeishan flood basalt province. Our finding extends the diameter of the Emeishan flood basalt province to ∼1200-1400 km, covering an area of up to ∼7 × 105 km2, two times more than previously estimated. The larger areal extent and giant eruption volume, incorporating the Sichuan Basin, lend support

  5. Did volcanic activity of the Emeishan large igneous province expand in Wuchiapingian times?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagherpour, Borhan; Bucher, Hugo; Yuan, Dong-Xun; Shen, Shu-zhong; Leu, Marc; Zhang, Chao

    2017-04-01

    Emplacement of the Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP) in the Capitanian (Middle Permian) is associated with several environmental changes (e.g. facies change, carbon cycle perturbation and temperature rise) across the Guadalupian-Lopingian (G-L) interval in South China. However, most of the reported changes are within the Capitanian stage or close to the G-L boundary. Here, we report an episode of drastic environmental changes from the Pingtang syncline (S. Guizhou) that is similar with the previously known ones but which is significantly younger. The studied section represents a protracted and stepwise facies change from a benthos rich, thick-bedded and light grey shallow water limestone (Unit A) to a 30 m-thick unit with thin-bedded dark (OM-rich) radiolarian-spiculitic facies (Unit B). The latter is overlain by an 8 m-thick unit of volcaniclastic sandstone and silts defining a succession of decimetric, cyclic and thinning upward layers (Unit C). The base of the overlying medium-bedded limestone unit (Unit D) contain radiolarian and sponge spicules whose abundance progressively decrease up section with a progressive replacement by abundant benthic faunas concomitant with the transition to thick bedded limestone. A total of five conodont index species (assigned to Clarkina) of early Wuchiapingian age were recognized from Unit A and Unit B. The observed facies transition from Unit A to Unit B indicates a drastic drowning event. Unit C represents a distal turbiditic succession and the overlying Unit D shows an upward shallowing trend back to the initial shallow marine condition. Compilation of sedimentary records across G-L in South China reveals that such drowning events tend to cluster within three discrete time intervals. The drowning events may or may not end with deposition of either volcanics or volcaniclastics. Two first clusters display drowning events overlain by ELIP volcanic rocks or volcaniclastics of ELIP origin and are of Capitanian age. Only the

  6. Al-in-olivine thermometry evidence for the mantle plume origin of the Emeishan large igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Rong; Liu, Yongsheng

    2016-12-01

    The Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) is renowned for its world-class Ni-Cu-(PGE) deposits and its link with the Capitanian mass extinction. The ELIP is generally thought to be associated with a deep mantle plume; however, evidence for such a model has been challenged through geology, geophysics and geochemistry. In many large igneous province settings, olivine-melt equilibrium thermometry has been used to argue for or against the existence of plumes. However, this method involves large uncertainties such as assumptions regarding melt compositions and crystallisation pressures. The Al-in-olivine thermometer avoids these uncertainties and is used here to estimate the temperatures of picrites in the ELIP. The calculated maximum temperature (1440 °C) is significantly ( 250 °C) higher than the Al-in-olivine temperature estimated for the average MORB, thus providing compelling evidence for the existence of thermal mantle plumes in the ELIP.

  7. Elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic geochemistry of Permian Emeishan flood basalts in Zhaotong, Yunnan Province, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Juan; Zhong, Hong; Zhu, Wei-Guang; Bai, Zhong-Jie; Hu, Wen-Jun

    2016-05-01

    This study presents new whole-rock elemental and isotopic data for the basalts from the Zhaotong area, located in the intermediate zone of the ~260 Ma Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP). The Zhaotong basalts belong to high-Ti series with TiO2 from 2.93 to 5.26 % and Ti/Y from 519 to 974. The parental magma was subjected to minor crustal contamination as indicated by slight Nb-Ta depletion (Nb/La: 0.72-1.10). Meanwhile, the relatively invariable Sr-Nd isotopes (ɛNd(t): -0.74 to +2.86, mostly +1.10 to +2.86; (87Sr/86Sr)i: 0.7050-0.7072) and the light rare earth elements (LREE) enrichment (La/Yb: 10.3-19.1) of the basalts prefer a mantle plume origin. A garnet-dominated peridotite mantle source was further suggested on the basis of the REE distribution patterns and high Sm/Yb and high La/Yb ratios. This study further confirms the geochemical zoning of the high-Ti basalts in the ELIP, which is in accordance with both the spatial distribution and the thickness of the basalts. The high-Ti basalts in the intermediate and outer zones of ELIP (e.g., Zhaotong and Guizhou) share similar Sr-Nd isotopic and elemental compositions, suggesting that they originated directly from the Emeishan mantle plume. By contrast, the high-Ti basalts in the inner zone (e.g., Longzhoushan and Binchuan) have variable compositions, indicating a rather heterogeneous mantle source possibly involved with subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) components.

  8. Elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic geochemistry of Permian Emeishan flood basalts in Zhaotong, Yunnan Province, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Juan; Zhong, Hong; Zhu, Wei-Guang; Bai, Zhong-Jie; Hu, Wen-Jun

    2017-03-01

    This study presents new whole-rock elemental and isotopic data for the basalts from the Zhaotong area, located in the intermediate zone of the 260 Ma Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP). The Zhaotong basalts belong to high-Ti series with TiO2 from 2.93 to 5.26 % and Ti/Y from 519 to 974. The parental magma was subjected to minor crustal contamination as indicated by slight Nb-Ta depletion (Nb/La: 0.72-1.10). Meanwhile, the relatively invariable Sr-Nd isotopes (ɛNd( t): -0.74 to +2.86, mostly +1.10 to +2.86; (87Sr/86Sr)i: 0.7050-0.7072) and the light rare earth elements (LREE) enrichment (La/Yb: 10.3-19.1) of the basalts prefer a mantle plume origin. A garnet-dominated peridotite mantle source was further suggested on the basis of the REE distribution patterns and high Sm/Yb and high La/Yb ratios. This study further confirms the geochemical zoning of the high-Ti basalts in the ELIP, which is in accordance with both the spatial distribution and the thickness of the basalts. The high-Ti basalts in the intermediate and outer zones of ELIP (e.g., Zhaotong and Guizhou) share similar Sr-Nd isotopic and elemental compositions, suggesting that they originated directly from the Emeishan mantle plume. By contrast, the high-Ti basalts in the inner zone (e.g., Longzhoushan and Binchuan) have variable compositions, indicating a rather heterogeneous mantle source possibly involved with subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) components.

  9. Crustally derived granites in Dali, SW China: new constraints on silicic magmatism of the Central Emeishan Large Igneous Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bei; Peate, David W.; Guo, Zhaojie; Liu, Runchao; Du, Wei

    2017-03-01

    We have identified a new crustally derived granite pluton that is related to the Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP). This pluton (the Wase pluton, near Dali) shows two distinct SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age groups ( 768 and 253 Ma). As it has an intrusive relationship with Devonian limestone, the younger age is interpreted as its formation, which is related to the ELIP event, whereas the 768 Ma Neoproterozoic-aged zircons were inherited from Precambrian crustal component of the Yangtze Block, implying the pluton has a crustally derived origin. This is consistent with its peraluminous nature, negative Nb-Ta anomaly, enrichment in light rare earth elements, high 87Sr/86Sr(i) ratio (0.7159-0.7183) and extremely negative ɛ(Nd)(i) values (-12.15 to -13.70), indicative of melts derived from upper crust materials. The Wase pluton-intruded Devonian strata lie stratigraphically below the Shangcang ELIP sequence, which is the thickest volcanic sequence ( 5400 m) in the whole ELIP. The uppermost level of the Shangcang sequence contains laterally restricted rhyolite. Although the rhyolite has the same age as the Wase pluton, its geochemical features demonstrate a different magma origin. The rhyolite displays moderate 87Sr/86Sr(i) (0.7053), slightly negative ɛ(Nd)(i) (-0.18) and depletions in Ba, Cs, Eu and Sr, implying derivation from differentiation of a mantle-derived mafic magma source. The coexistence of crustally and mantle-derived felsic systems, along with the robust development of dike swarms, vent proximal volcanics and thickest flood basalts piles in Dali, shows that the Dali area was probably where the most active Emeishan magmatism had once existed.

  10. Geothermobarometry for ultramafic assemblages from the Emeishan Large Igneous Province, Southwest China and the Nikos and Zulu Kimberlites, Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.

    2009-05-01

    To understand and contrast the origins of ultramafic assemblages from basaltic and kimberlitic rocks and their associated deposits, such as V-Ti magnetite and Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide deposits and diamond, applicable thermobarometers were evaluated and applied to the ultramafic assemblages from the Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP), Southwest China and from the Nikos and Zulu Kimberlites of Nunavut, Canada. The ELIP is located in the Yangtze Block, Southwest China and composed of Permian Emeishan Flood basalt (EFB) and associated layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions. Some of these intrusions host V-Ti magnetite deposits; while others contain Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide deposits. It is not clear why some intrusions host magnetite deposits and others contain sulfide deposits. The P-T conditions for the ultramafic assemblages from the mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the ELIP were calculated in order to understand the origins and the associated mineral deposits. The ultramafic assemblages are peridotite, olivine pyroxenite, pyroxenite in the layered intrusions and the common minerals include spinel, olivine, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and minor magnetite and ilmenite. Using a two pyroxene thermometer and a Ca-Mg exchange barometer between olivine and clinopyroxene, a spinel-olivine-clinopyroxene-orthopyroxene assemblage from the Xinjie intrusion yields a T-P of 905°C and 17 kbar; and a similar assemblage from the Jinbaoshan intrusion yields a T-P of 1124°C and 31 kbar. The Nikos kimberlite, near Elwin Bay on Somerset Island, is located at the northeast end of the northeast-southwest kimberlite zone; and the Zulu kimberlite is located on the neighboring Brodeur Peninsula of Baffin Island, Nunavut. The ultramafic assemblages from the Canadian Kimberlites include garnet lherzolite, garnet-spinel lherzolite, spinel lherzolite, dunite, garnet websterite, spinel websterite and garnet clinopyroxenite. The calculated P-T conditions are in the range of 760 to 1180°C and 25 to 60

  11. Dating the onset and nature of the Middle Permian Emeishan large igneous province eruptions in SW China using conodont biostratigraphy and its bearing on mantle plume uplift models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yadong; Lai, Xulong; Wignall, Paul B.; Widdowson, Mike; Ali, Jason R.; Jiang, Haishui; Wang, Wei; Yan, Chunbo; Bond, David P. G.; Védrine, Stéphanie

    2010-09-01

    The Middle Permian Emeishan large igneous province of SW China has provided the quintessential example of the phenomenon of kilometre-scale pre-eruption domal uplift associated with mantle plume impingement on the base of the lithosphere. One key line of evidence is an interpreted zone of truncation of the platform carbonates belonging to the Maokou Formation that underlies the volcanic pile. Here we test this interpretation by conodont age dating the uppermost beds of the Maokou Formation in sections from Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou and Guangxi provinces, which span locations from the inner part of the igneous province to several hundred kilometres beyond its margins. The results show that eruptions began in the Jinogondolella altudaensis Zone (˜ 263 Ma) of the Middle Capitanian Stage and greatly increased in extent and volume in the J. xuanhanensis Zone (˜ 262 Ma). Pre-eruption uplift was muted, and most locations within the terrain and at many locations beyond its margins witnessed platform collapse (not uplift) with deep-water facies (radiolarian cherts and submarine fans) developing in the J. altudaensis Zone. The clearest evidence for an emergence surface occurs around the margins of the province in the J. xuanhanensis Zone. This is after the initial onset of eruptions and marks either a eustatic sequence boundary or a brief pulse of tectonic uplift contemporaneous with volcanism. As with recent studies on the basal volcanic successions of the Emeishan LIP, kilometre-scale plume-related domal uplift prior to Emeishan eruptions is not supported by these data; rather a more complex interaction between plume and lithosphere with minor localized uplift and subsidence is inferred.

  12. Origin of Permian basalts and clastic rocks in Napo, Southwest China: Implications for the erosion and eruption of the Emeishan large igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hu; Du, Yuan-Sheng; Yang, Jiang-Hai; Zhou, Lian; Hu, Li-Sha; Huang, Hong-Wei; Huang, Zhi-Qiang

    2014-11-01

    The Linghao Formation is composed of interbedded clastic and basaltic rocks in the Napo region of Youjiang Basin, Southwest China. The basalts are geochemically divided into low-Ti and high-Ti groups. Relative to the high-Ti group, the low-Ti group exhibits lower Ti/Y ratios, higher ratios of Th/Nb and Th/La, more significant negative Nb-Ta anomalies and lower εNd(t) values (- 7.26 to + 0.29). The high-Ti group is characterized by primitive mantle normalized OIB-like incompatible element patterns. These geochemical signatures are also comparable to those of the Emeishan high-Ti and low-Ti basalts in Southwest China, respectively, and support a view that both of the low-Ti and high-Ti basalts at Napo are part of the Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP). The geochemical features imply that the high-Ti basalts could have been generated by low degree of melting of the garnet peridotite, whereas the low-Ti basalts may be derived from an EMII-like source. All clastic rocks exhibit no Nb-Ta anomalies on primitive mantle normalized elemental diagrams. Detrital zircons from clastic rocks yield U-Pb ages of ~ 260 Ma and have a geochemical affinity to within-plate-type magmas, implying a sedimentary source dominated by the ELIP. Most clastic rocks from the upper part of the Linghao Formation show higher TiO2 contents and lower ratios of Al2O3/TiO2, Th/Sc, and Zr/Sc than those from the lower part. The former were related to the Emeishan high-Ti basaltic rocks, whereas the latter may have mixed felsic source compositions. In terms of chemostatigraphic correlation, we propose that the eruption of the ELIP may be more complex than previously thought and a prolonged and punctuated history of ELIP formation may exist in the Youjiang Basin.

  13. New insights into the lowest Xuanwei Formation in eastern Yunnan Province, SW China: Implications for Emeishan large igneous province felsic tuff deposition and the cause of the end-Guadalupian mass extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lixin; Dai, Shifeng; Graham, Ian T.; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Beibei

    2016-11-01

    A previous study suggested that the lowest Xuanwei Formation is derived from weathered clastic materials of silicic composition from the Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) based on chemostratigraphic correlations (Al2O3/TiO2 ratios) between the two. In this study, we have adopted the model that the Emeishan mantle plume commenced and terminated within a short duration and have investigated the detailed mineralogy and geochemistry of carefully sampled rocks from the lower sections of the Xuanwei Formation, eastern Yunnan Province, Southwest China. These samples are intensely argillized and characterized by high proportions of clay minerals and quartz. The samples with Al2O3/TiO2 > 7 from the lowest Xuanwei Formation have an anomalous natural gamma response and high concentrations of Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, Th, U, Ga and REY (rare earth elements and yttrium). Our results suggest that the samples with Al2O3/TiO2 > 7 from the lowest Xuanwei Formation represent felsic volcanic tuff instead of acidic clasts as originally proposed. The lowest Xuanwei Formation and the Wangpo Bed are the felsic tuffaceous layers interbedded with clastic rocks derived from the Emeishan high-Ti basalts. Such volcanic layers most likely represent ELIP felsic tuff originated from the extrusive equivalent of Nb-Zr-enriched alkaline syenitic magmatism at the waning stage of Emeishan mantle plume activity. This study has verified the existence of extensive alkaline felsic volcanism of early Late Permian age. Such alkaline volcanism may have been catastrophic and have contributed to the end-Guadalupian mass extinction.

  14. Re-examining the doming uplift model of Emeishan Large Igneous Province (SW China): evidence from high-resolution conodont biostratigraphy and sedimentology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadong, S.; Wignall, P. B.; Ali, J. R.; Widdowson, M.; Bond, D. P.; Lai, X.

    2010-12-01

    The Middle Permian Emeishan large igneous province of SW China is regard by many as providing the quintessential example of kilometre-scale pre-eruption domal uplift associated with mantle plume impingement on the base of the lithosphere. The key line of evidence for this has been the purported deep erosion profile of the Maokou Formation platform carbonates that lie directly beneath the central and inner parts of the volcanic pile. We have tested this interpretation by carrying out conodont age dating and facies analysis on the uppermost beds of the Maokou Formation across these central regions, together with the limestones that are intercalated within the basal lava flows. The investigated sections (from Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou and Guangxi provinces) span locations from directly below the centre of the igneous province, to several hundred kilometres beyond its margins. The results show that eruptions began in the Jinogondolella altudaensis Zone (~263 Ma) of the Middle Capitanian Stage, and subsequently greatly increased in extent and volume in the J. xuanhanensis Zone (~262 Ma) (Sun et al., 2010). Most importantly, at most locations within the terrain, and many locations beyond its margins, there appears to have been platform subsidence (not uplift) with deep-water facies (radiolarian cherts, submarine fans) developing immediately prior to the initial volcanism (J. altudaensis Zone). Accordingly, pre-eruption uplift must have been muted because over large areas of the terrain the basal flows rest conformably on a variety of Maokou sedimentary facies. By contrast, the clearest evidence for an emergence surface occurs around the flanks of the province in the J. xuanhanensis Zone. This is after the initial onset of eruptions, and coincides with the regional eustatic fall (Sun et al., 2010). Furthermore, pillow lavas, hydromagmatic deposits and interflow limestone/reef packages are commonly seen around the terrain indicating a strong marine influence at the early

  15. Petrogenesis of the Pt-Pd mineralized Jinbaoshan ultramafic intrusion in the Permian Emeishan Large Igneous Province, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yan; Li, Chusi; Hu, Ruizhong; Ripley, Edward M.; Du, Andao; Zhong, Hong

    2007-03-01

    The Jinbaoshan ultramafic intrusion is a sheet-like body with a thick wehrlite unit in the center and thin pyroxenite units at the margins. PGE are enriched in several disseminated sulfide zones in the intrusion. Olivine from the intrusion has low Fo and depleted Ni contents compared to olivine from coeval Emeishan picrites. Whole rock major and trace element concentrations suggest that the Jinbaoshan wehrlites originally contained <30% trapped liquid. The total amount of sulfide in the rocks exceeds that which could have been dissolved in the trapped liquid. The Jinbaoshan wehrlites are interpreted to represent residual assemblages formed by dissolution of plagioclase by passing magma. No clear evidence of crustal contamination is indicated by S, Nd and Os isotopes. We envision that sulfide saturation occurred at depth due to olivine and chromite crystallization. Immiscible sulfide droplets were transported to the Jinbaoshan conduit where they accumulated and reacted with magma successively passing through the conduit to achieve high PGE concentrations.

  16. The significance of PGE variations with Sr-Nd isotopes and lithophile elements in the Emeishan flood basalt province from SW China to northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chusi; Ripley, Edward M.; Tao, Yan; Hu, Ruizhong

    2016-04-01

    New analyses of siderophile-lithophile elements and Sr-Nd isotopes in the Permian basalts and picrites from northern Vietnam, the southernmost occurrence of the Emeishan flood basalt province, together with previously published data, are used to address the question of whether any meaningful correlation between these elements and isotopes exists at a province scale. The available data show that negative correlations between εNd, (87Sr/86Sr)i and mantle-normalized (Nb/Th)n are present in the basalts but not in the associated picrites. This indicates that crustal contamination is negligible in the picrites but significant in some of the basalts. The picrites and basalts from the entire province show negative correlations between (Rh/Ru)n, (Pt/Ru)n, (Pd/Ru)n and Mg-number. This indicates that Ru behaves compatibly whereas Rh, Pt and Pd behave incompatibly during magma differentiation. The incompatible behavior of Rh in natural basaltic systems is also supported by the fact that (Pt/Rh)n remains constant with decreasing Mg-number in the lavas. Depletions of Pd and Pt, and to a lesser degree Cu, in some basaltic samples characterized by relatively low εNd and (Nb/Th)n support the notion that sulfide saturation in the magmas was triggered by a combination of siliceous crustal contamination and addition of external sulfur. Within the entire flood basalt province only the picrites from Song Da, northern Vietnam show clear depletion in Ir relative to Ru. These picrites are also characterized higher Al2O3/TiO2 and lower mantle-normalized La/Yb (0.2-2.4) than those from elsewhere in the province, possibly due to the involvement of an Ir-depleted, fertile mantle component in magma generation at this location.

  17. Origin of extremely PGE-rich mafic magma system: An example from the Jinbaoshan ultramafic sill, Emeishan large igneous province, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Christina Yan; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Qi, Liang

    2010-09-01

    The ~ 260 Ma Jinbaoshan sill is part of the Permian Emeishan large igneous province in SW China and is mainly composed of wehrlite and hosts a PGE deposit containing ~ 45 tonnes of Pt and Pd with ore grades ranging from 1 to 5 ppm Pt + Pd. The sill is composed of several PGE-rich horizons at different stratigraphic heights. A ~ 5 m-thick PGE-rich horizon at the base of the sill, which is underlain by a chromite-rich, PGE-poor layer, accounts for 44% of the total ore reserve. The Jinbaoshan sill is rich in PGEs with Ir ranging from 1.7 to 138 ppb, Ru from 0.9 to 39 ppb, Rh from 3.1 to 133 ppb, and a total Pt and Pd from 76 to 5371 ppb. All the rocks from the sill display primitive mantle-normalized chacophile element patterns enriched in PGEs relative to Ni and Cu. The low Cu/Pd ratios (20 to 1938) of the rocks relative to the primitive mantle (Cu/Pd = 7000) imply that there was no sulfide fractionation of the magmas. The PGE enrichment of the sill indicates that it formed from extremely PGE-rich magmas. Modeling results show that such PGE-rich magmas likely resulted from a multistage-dissolution upgrading process in an open magma conduit system. Large amounts of chromite crystallization triggered sulfide saturation when PGE-rich magmas emplaced into the upper magma chamber of the system. Settling and sorting of chromite and most sulfide liquids along with olivine resulted in the formation of the largest PGE-rich horizon at the base of the sill. The rest minor sulfide liquid accumulated to form PGE-rich horizons in the middle part of the sill aided by turbulence and convection within the magma chamber.

  18. Late Permian basalts in the northwestern margin of the Emeishan Large Igneous Province: Implications for the origin of the Songpan-Ganzi terrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Zhaochong; Santosh, M.; LÜ, Linsu; Han, Liu; Liu, Wei; Cheng, Zhiguo

    2016-07-01

    SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages, geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data are reported for two types of basalts (Type I and Type II) from a Permian volcanic-pyroclastic succession in the Tubagou section, Baoxing area along the southeastern margin of the Songpan-Ganzi terrane (SGT) in the Sichuan province of SW China. Zircons from the uppermost basaltic flows yield crystallization age of 257.3 ± 2.0 Ma, which may represent the time of culmination the basaltic eruption. Type I shows alkaline affinity with εNd(t) values of + 2.4 to + 2.9, and is characterized by oceanic island basalt (OIB)-type light rare earth element (LREE) and trace-element patterns. In contrast, Type II rocks are tholeiitic, and close to initial rift tholeiite (IRT)-like REE and trace element patterns, and are relatively depleted in highly incompatible elements with slightly negative Nb-Ta anomaly. The εNd(t) values of Type II are between + 1.8 to + 2.2. The geochemical characteristics suggest the Type I has not been significantly crustally contaminated, whereas Type II maybe have experienced minor crustal contamination. Clinopyroxene crystallization temperature is 80-120°C higher than that of the normal asthenospheric mantle, implying anomalous thermal input from mantle source and a possible plume-head origin for the Tubagou lava. The geochemical and isotopic fes, reflecting progressive lithosphere thinning probably through plume-lithosphere interaction. The spatial and temporal coincidence between the Dashibao basalt eruptions, reflecting progressive lithosphere thinning probably through plume-lithosphere interaction. The spatial and temporal coincidence between the Dashibao basalt eruption and continental rifting suggest that continental break-up and the opening of an extensional basin was probably related to the Late Permian Emeishan plume, which triggered the breakup between the SGT and the Yangtze craton. a Nomenclature used in this paper is as defined by Spera and Bohrson (2001).

  19. No pre-eruptive uplift in the Emeishan large igneous province: New evidences from its 'inner zone', Dali area, Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bei; Guo, Zhaojie; Liu, Runchao; Liu, Dongdong; Du, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The Permian Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) in Southwest China has been considered a typical example of crustal domal uplift caused by mantle plume upwelling prior to the onset of volcanism. However, this model has been questioned by the discovery of hydromagmatic volcaniclastic deposits formed in a marine environment, located near the central ELIP area (the 'inner zone') which is inferred to be the zone of maximum uplift. The volcanology of the inner zone has thus far been poorly documented, fueling the debate about whether or not pre-eruptive uplift occurred prior to plume upwelling. Understanding the volcanology of this inner zone is therefore critical in constraining the eruption environment of the central ELIP. Our work has revealed new volcanological observations in the inner zone (Dali area), which can systematically constrain volcanism and paleoenvironment. The Basal Succession of the sequence is a thick pillow lavas pile with hyaloclastites, implying an initial deeper submarine stage of eruptions. Limestones and submarine fallout tuffs are interbedded with these pillow lavas. Above that, abundant mafic volcaniclastic products developed, which contain palagonite-rimmed lapilli-tuffs, base surge deposits and peperites, suggesting hydroclastic volcanism in a shallower submarine environment. The Upper Succession of the sequence preserves columnar-jointed lava flows and subaerial fallout tuffs, reflecting subaerial volcanism after the volcanic center emerged above the sea level. These abundant and systematic natures of this evidence suggest that the initial volcanism of the central ELIP occurred in a deep submarine environment. The submarine-to-subaerial transition is caused by progressive emplacement of voluminous magmatic products infilling the inner zone during the continuous emplacement of ELIP, rather than by crustal doming prior to the onset of volcanisms.

  20. Melt inclusions in the olivine from the Nantianwan intrusion: Implications for the parental magma of Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide-bearing mafic-ultramafic intrusions of the ∼260 Ma Emeishan large igneous province (SW China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Le; Ren, Zhong-Yuan; Wang, Christina Yan

    2017-02-01

    Olivine-hosted melt inclusions provide an archive of the parental magma and early magma history that is unavailable from bulk-rock analyses of cumulates. For those olivine-bearing mafic-ultramafic intrusions, a combined in situ analysis of major elements and Pb isotopic compositions for the melt inclusions and host olivine crystals may provide an effective way to understand the nature of the parental magma of the intrusions. In this study, we take the Nantianwan intrusion in the Emeishan large igneous province (SW China) as an example to analyze the melt inclusions and the host olivine. The Nantianwan intrusion is mainly composed of gabbronorite, with minor olivine gabbro. The olivine crystals in the olivine gabbro have Fo contents varying from 81.1 to 89.2 and Ni from 0.05 to 0.30 wt.%. The melt inclusion hosted in the most Mg-rich olivine has 50.9 wt.% SiO2, 1.0 wt.% TiO2, 15.1 wt.% MgO and 2.9 wt.% Na2O + K2O, indicating that the parental magma of the intrusion was of high-Mg basaltic composition. The melt inclusions overall have 208Pb/206Pb ratios of 2.0567-2.1032 and 207Pb/206Pb of 0.8287-0.8481, similar to the Pb isotopic compositions of the Emeishan flood basalts and consistent with insignificant crustal contamination. Given that the Nantianwan intrusion contains the most Mg-rich olivine among the Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide-bearing mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the Emeishan LIP, we infer that the composition of the melt inclusion in the most Mg-rich olivine from the Nantianwan intrusion may represent the least evolved parental magma of the Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide-bearing mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the Emeishan LIP. This can be further used to constrain the magma process related to Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide mineralization.

  1. Chalcophile element geochemistry and petrogenesis of high-Ti and low-Ti magmas in the Permian Emeishan large igneous province, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Christina Yan; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Qi, Liang

    2011-02-01

    Sulfide-poor mafic layered intrusions, sills/dykes and lava flows in the Funing region, SW China, are part of the ~260 Ma Emeishan large igneous province. They belong to either a high-Ti group (TiO2 = 1.6-4.4 wt%) with elevated Ti/Y ratios (351-1,018), or a low-Ti group (TiO2 < 1.2 wt%) with low Ti/Y ratios (133-223). This study investigates the role of fractionation of olivine, chromite and sulfide on the distributions of chalcophile elements, Ni, Cu and PGE, of the high-Ti and low-Ti group rocks at Funing. The high-Ti group rocks contain 1.6-5.3 ppb Pt + Pd, 0.06-0.43 ppb Ir and 0.01-0.13 ppb Ru, and show relative constant (Cu/Pd)PM ratios (4.0-9.7) and a negative correlation between Ni/Pd and Cu/Ir ratios. Fractionated IPGE/PPGE patterns and very negative Ru anomalies of the high-Ti group rocks, together with low Fo values (59-62 mol%) of olivine, indicate that the high-Ti magmas may have experienced fractionation of olivine and chromite under S-undersaturated condition. Based on the PGE concentrations, the low-Ti group rocks can be further divided into two subgroups; a high-PGE low-Ti subgroup and a low-PGE low-Ti subgroup. The high-PGE low-Ti group rocks are rich in MgO (10-20 wt%), but Fo values of olivine from the rocks are low (74-76 mol%). The rocks contain highly variable PGE (Pt + Pd = 1.7-88 ppb, Ir = 0.05-1.3 ppb), Ni (179 -1,380 ppm) and Cu (59-568 ppm). They have Cu/Zr ratios >1, low (Y/Pd)PM ratios (0.2-7.1) and nearly constant (Cu/Pd)PM ratios (1.5-3.8). The even and parallel chalcophile element patterns of the high-PGE low-Ti subgroup rocks are likely a result of olivine-dominated fractionation under S-undersaturated condition. The low-PGE low-Ti group rocks have low MgO (4.5-8.9 wt%) and very poor PGE (Pt + Pd 0.5-1.6 ppb, Ir 0.004-0.02 ppb) with low Cu/Zr ratios (0.1-0.5), high (Y/Pd)PM (26-70) and variable (Cu/Pd)PM ratios (2.8-14). The trough-like chalcophile element patterns of the low-PGE low-Ti subgroup rocks indicate that the magmas were

  2. Compact CFB: The next generation CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Utt, J.

    1996-12-31

    The next generation of compact circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers is described in outline form. The following topics are discussed: compact CFB = pyroflow + compact separator; compact CFB; compact separator is a breakthrough design; advantages of CFB; new design with substantial development history; KUHMO: successful demo unit; KUHMO: good performance over load range with low emissions; KOKKOLA: first commercial unit and emissions; KOKKOLA: first commercial unit and emissions; compact CFB installations; next generation CFB boiler; grid nozzle upgrades; cast segmented vortex finders; vortex finder installation; ceramic anchors; pre-cast vertical bullnose; refractory upgrades; and wet gunning.

  3. Chalcophile element geochemistry of the Baima layered intrusion, Emeishan Large Igneous Province, SW China: implications for sulfur saturation history and genetic relationship with high-Ti basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Song, Xie-Yan; Chen, Lie-Meng; Yu, Song-Yue; Xie, Wei; Deng, Yufeng; Zhang, Jia-Fei; Gui, Shu-Guang

    2013-07-01

    The Permian Baima mafic layered intrusion, believed to be related to the S-undersaturated Emeishan high-Ti basalts, hosts a giant Fe-Ti-V oxide deposit in the lower part of the intrusion. Uniformly high Cu/Pd (1.9 × 106-6.1 × 104) and low Pd/Zr (<0.1) indicate that the Baima parental magma experienced prior sulfide segregation. Mantle-liked δ34S values and low S/Se values indicate negligible external sulfur addition. Primitive mantle-normalized PGE patterns and MELTS calculations indicate that extensive fractional crystallization (~59 %) of chromite, olivine and pyroxene at depth drove the primitive picritic magma to S saturation. Strong positive correlation between IPGE and PPGE and between PGE and V, Cr and S suggest that magmatic sulfide is the dominant mineral controlling the distribution of PGE in the Baima intrusion. A positive correlation between S and Cr, FeOT + TiO2 and V content, together with MELTS calculations, indicate that the parental magma of the Baima intrusion reached a second stage of S saturation in the shallower Baima magma chamber, which was likely triggered by decreasing Fe2+ accompanying magnetite precipitation. Primitive mantle-normalized PGE patterns for Baima intrusion rocks display similar trends to high-Ti basalts inside the Panxi area, suggesting that they are comagmatic, and following a similar differentiation trend. However, the lavas erupted before they reached sulfide saturation. The more evolved nature of high-Ti basalts outside the Panxi area indicate that they experienced more extensive pre-eruption fractional crystallization. Further fractional crystallization process led these lavas show more PGE fractionated feature.

  4. A brief analysis on contribution of Emeishan basalt to the formation of deposits in Guizhou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Tao

    2017-05-01

    All Based on previous data and field research, we consider that Emeishan basalt is important for genesis of numerous mineral resources in the southwest and northwest of Guizhou Province, and distribution of different types of mineral resources may be used as reference for geological surveys. With the advancement of technologies, aluminium and rare earth elements will have great potential for development.

  5. CFB repowering options

    SciTech Connect

    Gittinger, J.

    1996-12-31

    Circulating fluidized bed CFB repowering options are summarized. The following topics are discussed: why repower with CFB technology; advantages of repowering; two forms of of repowering; B and N`s internal recirculation CFB; space-saving design features; cost-saving design features; Ukrainian repowering project; and candidates for repowering.

  6. The role of recycled oceanic crust in magmatism and metallogeny: Os-Sr-Nd isotopes, U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry of picritic dykes in the Panzhihua giant Fe-Ti oxide deposit, central Emeishan large igneous province, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Tong; Zhang, Zhaochong; Encarnacion, John; Santosh, M.; Sun, Yali

    2013-04-01

    The picritic dykes occurring within fine-grained gabbro in the marginal zone and in the surrounding Proterozoic wall-rock marbles of the Panzhihua Fe-Ti oxide deposit closely correspond in bulk composition with the nearby Panzhihua intrusion. These dykes offer important constraints on the nature of the mantle source of the Panzhihua ore-bearing intrusion and its possible link to the Emeishan plume. U-Pb zircon dating of the picritic dyke yields a crystallization age of 261.4 ± 4.6 Ma, coeval with the timing of the main Panzhihua gabbroic intrusion and Late Permian Emeishan flood basalts. The Panzhihua picritic dykes contain 37.63-43.41 wt% SiO2, 1.15-1.56 wt% TiO2, 11.43-13.25 wt% TFe2O3, and 20.96-28.87 wt% MgO. Primitive-mantle-normalized patterns of the rocks are comparable to those of ocean island basalt. The rocks define a relatively small range of Os isotopic compositions and a low Os signature of -0.13 to +2.76 for γOs (261 Ma). In combination with their Sr-Nd-Os isotopic compositions, we interpret that these rocks were derived from the Emeishan plume sources as well as the interactions of plume melts with the overlying lithosphere which had been extensively affected by eclogite-derived melts from the deep-subducted oceanic slab. Partial melting induced by an upwelling mantle plume that involved an eclogite or pyroxenite component in the lithospheric mantle could have produced the parental Fe-rich magma. Our study suggests that plume-lithosphere interaction might have played a key role in generating many world-class Fe-Ti oxide deposits clustered in the Panxi area.

  7. Design and Operation of CFB Boilers with Low Bed Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jun; Zhao, Xiaoxing; Zhang, Jianchun; Liu, Aicheng; Yang, Hairui; Yue, Guangxi; Fu, Zhiping

    In this paper, the challenges and problems of the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology are summarized and analyzed. In order to resolve the problems in CFB boiler application, design principals and method of CFB boiler with the low bed inventory is proposed by Taiyuan Boiler Group Co. Ltd., cooperated with Tsinghua University. And a full set of design code of new CFB boiler with low bed inventory has been developed, to design the product structure of new generation CFB boilers. The first CFB boiler product with the low inventory was placed and has been operated for two years in Datuhe Thermal Power Plant at Lishi, Shanxi province. The operation practice and measurement data show that the CFB boiler with the low bed inventory stands for the newest trend of the development of CFB boiler in the future. It is expected that more technical advantages will be shown when this technology is applied to the CFB boiler with larger capacity in the near future.

  8. Experience from the 300 MWe CFB Demontration Plant in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauvillé, P.; Semedard, J.-C.; Darling, S.

    This paper will describe the background and current status of the 300MWe CFB Demonstration Project located at the Baima Power Plant in Sichuan Province. This project was the first 300MWe class CFB in China and the first project built under the Transfer of Technology from Alstom. The plant entered commercial operation in early 2006. The fuel is a high-ash anthracite which has presented significant challenges in terms of higher-than-expected ash content and top size. While this fuel has been problematic for the adjacent suspension-fired boilers, performance in the CFB boiler has been excellent, with low carbon content in the ash, low turndown and low emissions. Key boiler performance parameters will be described along with a comparison of design and actual performance and the operational experience will be addressed. Finally, the paper will describe Alstom's process for scaling the CFB technology from 300MWe to 600MWe, and our supercritical CFB design.

  9. MISR CFbA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-31

    ... daily (D), monthly (M), quarterly (Q), and yearly (Y) time scales and regional maps associated with field campaigns at daily and monthly time scales. The CFbA product provides the frequency of cloud occurrence ...

  10. CFB: technology of the future?

    SciTech Connect

    Blankship, S.

    2008-02-15

    Fuel flexibility and a smaller carbon footprint are behind renewed interest in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology. The article explains the technology of CFB and discusses development of CFB units since the late 1990s. China is seeing an explosion in the number of utility-size CFBs. Alstom, Foster Wheeler, Babcock and Wilson and Alex Kvaener are today's major CFB boiler manufacturers. Alstom is testing and developing oxy-firing and post-combustion carbon capture strategies on CFB boilers. One CFB asset is its ability to burn a variety of fuels including waste coal, high sulfur coal and even discarded tires. The article mentions successful CFB projects at the Seward Station using waste coal and at the Gilbert 3 plant in the USA. Lamar is converting its Light and Power Plant from natural gas to burn coal in a 38.5 MW CFB boiler. 1 tab., 3 photos.

  11. An integrated chemical and oxygen isotopic study of primitive olivine grains in picrites from the Emeishan Large Igneous Province, SW China: Evidence for oxygen isotope heterogeneity in mantle sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Song-Yue; Shen, Neng-Ping; Song, Xie-Yan; Ripley, Edward M.; Li, Chusi; Chen, Lie-Meng

    2017-10-01

    Recognition of the nature of potential mantle sources of continental flood basalts is complicated by possible overprinting related to crustal contamination as magmas migrate to the surface (Arndt and Christensen, 1992). However, in picritic lava flows primitive olivine phenocrysts that formed early in the crystallization sequence can potentially provide unperturbed information of their mantle source. We have carried out an integrated chemical and oxygen isotopic (in situ SIMS) study of primitive olivine grains (Fo ranging from 88 to 92.6 mol%) in the Emeishan picrites at different locations (Wulongba, Wuguijing, Tanglanghe and Maoniuping). We use these data to evaluate the geochemical nature of mantle sources for magmas from which the primitive olivine crystallized. The primitive olivine grains in the samples from Maoniuping, Wuguijing and Tanglanghe are characterized by mantle-like δ18O values (mean values are 5.1 ± 0.3‰ (2σ, n = 53), 5.2 ± 0.3‰ (2σ, n = 122) and 5.3 ± 0.3‰ (n = 25), respectively) coupled with generally low Fo contents (mean values are 88.7 ± 1.4 mol% (2σ, n = 53), 89.8 ± 1.8 mol% (2σ, n = 122) and 89.4 ± 1.8 mol% (2σ, n = 25), respectively). In contrast, the olivine grains in the samples from Wulongba are characterized by elevated δ18O values (mean = 5.6 ± 0.3‰ (2σ, n = 58)) coupled with generally higher Fo contents (mean = 91 ± 2.8 mol% (2σ, n = 58)) than primitive olivine in the samples from the other locations. Based on olivine compositions, primitive olivine in picrites from Maoniuping, Tanglanghe and Wuguijing are consistent with derivation from hybrid mantle sources containing similar proportions of peridotite and pyroxenite/eclogite components. The δ18O values of these primitive olivine grains are consistent with melting of plume source materials. The chemical composition of the primitive olivine from Wulongba are also consistent with derivation from a hybrid peridotite/pyroxenite source, but the high δ18O values

  12. CFB refractory maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    The CFB maintenance manager has to make rapid-fire decisions regarding refractory maintenance during short or unscheduled turnarounds. This presentation offers a hands-on approach to expedient refractory failure analyses with specific repair recommendations. Photographs of most typical CFB refractory failures and their structural repairs are discussed. The most reliable repairs can be expected by using the latest state-of-the-art refractory materials and installation techniques. Refractory materials are consumable; therefore minor repairs should always be conducted at the first opportunity; this will preclude future major repairs. During a short or unscheduled outage, major repairs should be confined to the specific structural repair site; the removal of good, serviceable refractory is unnecessary under these conditions.

  13. Primary magmas and mantle sources of Emeishan basalts constrained from major element, trace element and Pb isotope compositions of olivine-hosted melt inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhong-Yuan; Wu, Ya-Dong; Zhang, Le; Nichols, Alexander R. L.; Hong, Lu-Bing; Zhang, Yin-Hui; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Jian-Qiang; Xu, Yi-Gang

    2017-07-01

    Olivine-hosted melt inclusions within lava retain important information regarding the lava's primary magma compositions and mantle sources. Thus, they can be used to infer the nature of the mantle sources of large igneous provinces, which is still not well known and of the subject of debate. We have analysed the chemical compositions and Pb isotopic ratios of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in the Dali picrites, Emeishan Large Igneous Province (LIP), SW China. These are the first in-situ Pb isotope data measured for melt inclusions found in the Emeishan picrites and allow new constraints to be placed on the source lithology of the Emeishan LIP. The melt inclusions show chemical compositional variations, spanning low-, intermediate- and high-Ti compositions, while their host whole rocks are restricted to the intermediate-Ti compositions. Together with the relatively constant Pb isotope ratios of the melt inclusions, the compositional variations suggest that the low-, intermediate- and high-Ti melts were derived from compositionally similar sources. The geochemical characteristics of melt inclusions, their host olivines, and whole-rocks from the Emeishan LIP indicate that Ca, Al, Mn, Yb, and Lu behave compatibly, and Ti, Rb, Sr, Zr, and Nb behave incompatibly during partial melting, requiring a pyroxenite source for the Emeishin LIP. The wide range of Ti contents in the melt inclusions and whole-rocks of the Emeishan basalts reflects different degrees of partial melting in the pyroxenite source at different depths in the melting column. The Pb isotope compositions of the melt inclusions and the OIB-like trace element compositions of the Emeishan basalts imply that mixing of a recycled ancient oceanic crust (EM1-like) component with a peridotite component from the lower mantle (FOZO-like component) could have underwent solid-state reaction, producing a secondary pyroxenite source that was subsequently partially melted to form the basalts. This new model of pyroxenite

  14. Geothermal constraints on Emeishan mantle plume magmatism: paleotemperature reconstruction of the Sichuan Basin, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chuanqing; Hu, Shengbiao; Qiu, Nansheng; Jiang, Qiang; Rao, Song; Liu, Shuai

    2016-10-01

    The Middle-Late Permian Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP) in southwestern China represents a classic example of a mantle plume origin. To constrain the thermal regime of the ELIP and contemporaneous magmatic activity in the northeastern Sichuan Basin, maximum paleotemperature profiles of deep boreholes were reconstructed using vitrinite reflectance (Ro) and apatite fission track data. Two heating patterns were identified: (1) heating of the overlying lithosphere by magma storage regions and/or magmatic activity related to the mantle plume, which resulted in a relatively strong geothermal field and (2) direct heating of country rock by stock or basalt. Borehole Ro data and reconstructed maximum paleotemperature profiles near the ELIP exhibit abrupt tectonothermal unconformities between the Middle and Late Permian. The profiles in the lower subsections (i.e., pre-Middle Permian) exhibited significantly higher gradients than those in the upper subsections. Distal to the basalt province, high paleo-geotemperatures (hereafter, paleotemperatures) were inferred, despite deformation of the paleogeothermal curve due to deep faults and igneous rocks within the boreholes. In contrast, Ro profiles from boreholes without igneous rocks (i.e., Late Permian) contained no break at the unconformity. Paleotemperature gradients of the upper and the lower subsections and erosion at the Middle/Late Permian unconformity revealed variations in the thermal regime. The inferred spatial distribution of the paleothermal regime and the erosion magnitudes record the magmatic and tectonic-thermal response to the Emeishan mantle plume.

  15. Beneficial uses of CFB ash

    SciTech Connect

    Young, L.J.; Cotton, J.L. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    Coal-fired generation accounts for almost 55 percent of the electricity produced in the United States. It has been estimated that over 90 million tons of coal combustion waste by-products were generated in 1990. Currently, only 30% of coal combustion waste is recycled for various beneficial applications. The remaining waste is primarily managed in landfills and surface impoundments. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology will play an important role in supplying power for future load growth and Title 4 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments compliance. CFB ash by-products have many beneficial uses. This paper describes potential applications of CFB ashes based on the ash characteristics. The beneficial uses of CFB ash discussed in this study include agricultural applications, acidic waste stabilizer, ash rock, sludge stabilizer, strip mine reclamation, and structural fill.

  16. CFB sorbent selection enhances performance

    SciTech Connect

    Buecker, B.; Wofford, J.; DuBose, R.; Ray, D.

    1997-07-01

    The quality and particle size of the sorbent has a direct influence on the efficiency of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. This report outlines tests and subsequent operation of a CFB unit at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Cogeneration Facility (UNC-CH) that proved how dramatically a change in sorbent can change the efficiency of performance.

  17. Abnormal high surface heat flow caused by the Emeishan mantle plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qiang; Qiu, Nansheng; Zhu, Chuanqing

    2016-04-01

    It is commonly believed that increase of heat flow caused by a mantle plume is small and transient. Seafloor heat flow data near the Hawaiian hotspot and the Iceland are comparable to that for oceanic lithosphere elsewhere. Numerical modeling of the thermal effect of the Parana large igneous province shows that the added heat flow at the surface caused by the magmatic underplating is less than 5mW/m2. However, the thermal effect of Emeishan mantle plume (EMP) may cause the surface hear-flow abnormally high. The Middle-Late Emeishan mantle plume is located in the western Yangtze Craton. The Sichuan basin, to the northeast of the EMP, is a superimposed basin composed of Paleozoic marine carbonate rocks and Mesozoic-Cenozoic terrestrial clastic rocks. The vitrinite reflectance (Ro) data as a paleogeothermal indicator records an apparent change of thermal regime of the Sichuan basin. The Ro profiles from boreholes and outcrops which are close to the center of the basalt province exhibit a 'dog-leg' style at the unconformity between the Middle and Upper Permian, and they show significantly higher gradients in the lower subsection (pre-Middle Permian) than the Upper subsection (Upper Permian to Mesozoic). Thermal history inversion based on these Ro data shows that the lower subsection experienced a heat flow peak much higher than that of the upper subsection. The abnormal heat flow in the Sichuan basin is consistent with the EMP in temporal and spatial distribution. The high-temperature magmas from deep mantle brought heat to the base of the lithosphere, and then large amount of heat was conducted upwards, resulting in the abnormal high surface heat flow.

  18. Design of a 350 MWe CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, S.L.; Li, X.

    1997-12-31

    Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers have been in operation for many years in industrial steam and power generation applications, primarily in the 50--100 MWe size range. Recently, several utility-scale CFB boilers have entered service and several others are under construction, in the 150--250 MWe size range. The next step for CFB technology is the 350 MWe size range. This paper will describe Foster Wheeler`s utility CFB experience, scale-up philosophy and the major design features of the 350 MWe CFB design.

  19. Emeishan volcanism and the end-Guadalupian extinction: New U-Pb TIMS ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundil, Roland; Denyszyn, Steve; He, Bin; Metcalfe, Ian; Yigang, Xu

    2010-05-01

    High-resolution geochronology with an age resolution at the permil level is instrumental in testing proposed causal links between continental-scale, short-term volcanic events and environmental crises that affect life globally. Synchroneity with large-scale volcanic events has been shown for three of the five most severe extinctions, namely the end-Permian extinction coinciding with Siberian Trapp volcanism, the end-Triassic extinction with Central Atlantic Magmatic Province) volcanism and the end-Cretaceous with Deccan Trapp volcanism. Recent studies also show that the magnitude of the extinction is not solely a function of the size (volume) of the volcanic event but more importantly of the eruption rate and also the nature of the host rock that is intruded, and the resulting reactions and release of gases that can affect climate. The end-Guadalupian (end Middle Permian, ca 260 Ma) biotic crisis has traditionally not been included in the 'big five' mass extinctions, possibly because of its close proximity in time to the end-Permian event, although its magnitude (in terms of total extinction rate) is comparable to the three most severe extinctions (end-Ordovician, end-Permian, end-Cretaceous). As a result, research of the end-Guadalupian event has so far been neglected and its timing as well as the temporal relation to the Emeishan volcanic province in western China is as yet not fully studied. Geochronological data are so far mostly based on ambiguous 40Ar/39Ar analyses of commonly altered basaltic products and U-Pb zircon analyses on felsic products using micro-beam techniques that typically result in radio-isotopic ages with percent-level uncertainty, and thus insufficient for high-resolution correlations of events. In addition, no precise and accurate radio-isotopic data exist from this time period so that evolutionary events (extinction and recovery) on land and in the ocean are notoriously difficult to correlate though biostratigraphic records are available

  20. CFB boiler at Gardanne (France)

    SciTech Connect

    Jaud, P.; Jacquet, L.; Delot, P.; Bayle, F.

    1995-06-01

    Among the new Clean Coal Technologies, {open_quotes}Circulating Fluidized Bed{close_quotes} is one of the most promising. Today, the largest project in commissioning`s the 250 MWe Provence CFB boiler, located near MARSEILLE in the south of France. At such a size, the CFB technique has now reached a capacity corresponding to thermal power plants operated by utilities. This new unit is a very important step towards larger size i.e. 400 MWe and greater. The SO{sub 2} emissions of this CFB boiler are guaranteed to be less than 400 mg / Nm{sup 3} at 6% O{sub 2} with the ratio of Ca/S lower than 3 while total sulfur in local coal used can reach 3.68 %. The purpose of the Provence project was to replace the existing pulverized coal boiler unit 4, commissioned in 1967, of the Provence power plant, with a new CFB boiler while reusing most of the existing equipment. The new boiler has been ordered from GEC ALSTHOM STEIN INDUSTREE (GASI) by Electricite de France (EDF) on behalf of the SOPROLIF consortium. Architect Engineering and construction management was performed by EDF jointly with Charbonnages de France (CdF: the French Coal Board). The 250 MWe CFB boiler is of the superheat-reheat type. The first firing of the boiler is due in April 1995. The poster session will describe the progress in the construction of the plant and provides technical details of the new boiler and auxiliaries.

  1. Timing of Emeishan magmatic activity and implications for the end-Middle Permian biotic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundil, R.; Denyszyn, S. W.; Shellnutt, J. G.; Jost, A. B.; Payne, J. L.; Renne, P. R.; He, B.; Zhong, Y.; Xu, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Evidence from high-resolution geochronology combined with fossil records and proxies for changes in the paleoenvironment suggest that there is a link between large-scale (but short-term) volcanic events and mass extinctions. Synchroneity has been shown between large-scale volcanic events and three of the five most severe mass extinctions: the end-Permian extinction (P-T) coincides with Siberian Traps LIP; the end-Triassic extinction (Tr-J) with Central Atlantic Magmatic Province; and the end-Cretaceous (K-P) with the Deccan Traps LIP. Recent studies also show that the magnitude of the extinction is not a simple function of the size (volume) of the igneous event; rather, the eruption rate and nature of the host rock that is intruded exert important controls on the rate and magnitude of the release of gases that affect climate and ocean chemistry. Consequently, high-resolution geochronological constraints on LIP volcanism, biotic extinctions, and climatic change are essential to understanding the role of magmatism in these evolutionary catastrophes. The end-Guadalupian (latest Middle Permian) extinction event shows a selectivity pattern similar to the better-studied end-Permian extinction. Single zircon U-Pb ages from intrusions related to the late Middle Permian ca 260 Ma Emeishan LIP (central and southwest China) have recently been shown to have intruded within a very narrow time interval between 260 and 257 Ma, broadly overlapping the timing of end-Guadalupian biotic change. New zircon U-Pb ages from felsic volcanic rocks overlying the youngest Emeishan related basalts show that effusive volcanism was terminated between 258 and 259 Ma, suggesting that the main stage of volcanism was very short. Unfortunately, 40Ar/39Ar analyses applied to minerals extracted from basalts have proven notoriously difficult because of thermal overprint in the studied area. Whereas the timing of Emeishan related magmatic activity is now better constrained by our new U-Pb zircon

  2. Latest Development of CFB Boilers in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, G. X.; Yang, H. R.; Lu, J. F.; Zhang, H.

    The circulating fluidized bed (CFB) coal-fired boiler has being rapidly developed in China since 1980s and becomes a key clean coal technology used in thermal and power generation. In this paper, the development history and development status of the CFB boiler in China are introduced. The development history of the CFB boiler in China is divided into four periods and the important features of each period are given. Some latest research activities and important results on CFB boilers, and the typical achievements and newest development of the CFB boiler in China are also introduced. In addition, a few challenges and development directions including the capacity scaling up, SO2 removal and energy saving are discussed.

  3. Research and Development of Large Capacity CFB Boilers in TPRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xianbin, Sun; Minhua, Jiang

    This paper presents an overview of advancements of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology in Thermal Power Research Institute (TPRI),including technologies and configuration and progress of scaling up. For devoloping large CFB boiler, the CFB combustion test facilities have been established, the key technologies of large capacity CFB boiler have been research systematically, the 100MW ˜330MW CFB boiler have been developed and manufactured. The first domestically designed 100MW and 210MW CFB boiler have been put into commericial operation and have good operating performance. Domestic 330MW CFB boiler demonstration project also has been put into commericial operation,which is H type CFB boiler with Compact heat exchanger. This boiler is China's largest CFB boiler. The technical plan of domestic 600MW supercritical CFB boiler are also briefly introduced.

  4. Environmental assessment and utilization CFB ash

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, R.

    1997-12-31

    Landfill disposal has generally been accepted as the most common option for ash management in CFB power plants. However, the cost of ash disposal continues to increase due to a reduction in landfill capacity and more stringent environmental regulations. As a result, beneficial uses of CFB ashes (versus landfilling) are being investigated in order to provide a more cost effective ash management program. The chemical and physical characteristics of CFB by-products will influence both their environmental impact and potential utilization options. Compared to conventional pulverized coal boiler ashes, CFB ashes generally have different chemical properties which may limit their utilization for production of Portland cement. Other diverse utilization options have been identified for CFB residues which include: agricultural applications, structural fill, and waste stabilization. Most of these applications have to meet specifications by following certain test methods. The exact utilization options for CFB by-products will depend primarily on the type of fuel being fired, and to a lesser extent, the type of sorbent utilized for sulfur capture. Based on laboratory investigation of ash characteristics, utilization options were concluded for different Foster Wheeler commercial boilers throughout the US and abroad. Based on the results of this study, it was demonstrated that most CFB ashes could be utilized for one or more of the purposes noted above.

  5. Foster Wheeler compact CFB boiler with INTREX

    SciTech Connect

    Hyppaenen, T.; Rainio, A.; Kauppinen, K.V.O.; Stone, J.E.

    1997-12-31

    Foster Wheeler has introduced a new COMPACT Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler design based on the rectangular hot solids separator. The Compact design also enables easy implementation of new designs for INTREX fluid bed heat exchangers. These new products result in many benefits which affect the boiler economy and operation. After initial development of the Compact CFB design it has been applied in demonstration and industrial scale units. The performance of Compact CFB has been proved to be equivalent to conventional Foster Wheeler CFB has been proved to be equivalent to conventional Foster Wheeler CFB boilers with high availability. Several new Foster Wheeler Compact boilers are being built or already in operation. Operational experiences from different units will be discussed in this paper. There are currently Compact units with 100--150 MW{sub e} capacity under construction. With the scale-up experience with conventional CFB boilers and proven design approach and scale-up steps, Foster Wheeler will have the ability to provide large Compact CFB boilers up to 400--600 MW{sub e} capacity.

  6. A Fossil Mantle Plume under the Emeishan Flood Basalts: Integration of Geology, Geophysics and Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; He, B.; Chung, S.

    2004-12-01

    The plume hypothesis is now challenged because some fundamental aspects predicted by the modeling of plumes are found to be lacking in classic regions like Iceland and Yellowstone. Instead of invoking a ¡°bottom-up¡± process, some researchers favor a ¡°top-down¡± hypothesis for the formation of large igneous provinces (LIPs), in which shallow lithospheric processes may fuel melt production. Seismic investigations and tomographic models help trace mantle plumes in modern, active hotspots, but are of limited benefit in identifying ancient plumes, mainly because geophysics provides us with a snapshot of the present-day Earth¡_s structure. Consequently the geological ¡°footprint¡± associated with thermal anomalies are the clues to tracing ancient plumes. According to some theoretical models, pre-volcanic lithospheric uplift is the most important criteria used to identify the presence of plumes. The lack of such evidence, on the other hand, is an argument against the involvement of plumes in the formation of LIPs. Recent examination of the middle-late Permian sedimentology in southwest China reveals kilometer-scale lithospheric doming prior to the Emeishan flood volcanism (He et al., 2003). This, and correlations between diverse, independent parameters involving crustal doming, paleo-geography, sea level change, mantle melting mechanism and crust-mantle structure, provide evidence for a fossil mantle plume under the Emeishan LIP. Specifically, the consequences of plume-lithosphere interaction include: (a) pre-volcanic uplift including thinning of marine carbonates, a marine to sub-aerial transition, local provenance of clastic sediments, and a marked erosional unconformity, evident as palaeokarstic surfaces on the marine carbonates; (b) a domal structure (700 km radius); (c) variations in the thickness of volcanic rocks across the domal structure; (d) variations in flood basalt geochemistry from the center to the edge of the domal structure that are

  7. Numerical Simulation in a Supercirtical CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Gaol, Xiang; Luo, Zhongyang; Jiang, Xiaoguo

    The dimension of the hot circulation loop of the supercritical CFB boiler is large, and there are many unknowns and challenges that should be identified and resolved during the development. In order to realize a reasonable and reliable design of the hot circulation loop, numerical simulation of gas-solid flow in a supercritical CFB boiler was conducted by using FLUENT software. The working condition of hot circulation loop flow field, gas-solid flow affected by three unsymmetrical cyclones, air distribution and pressure drop in furnace were analyzed. The simulation results showed that the general arrangement of the 600MWe supercritical CFB boiler is reasonable.

  8. Improving performance of CFB boiler by adopting end effect of bed exit of CFB combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Q.Y.; Jin, Y.

    1997-12-31

    Experiments indicate that the end effect of the bed exit of a CFB strongly influences the bulk density profile and internal circulation of bed materials in a CFB combustor. A well designed geometry of the bed exit of CFBC can create abundant internal circulation of bed materials in furnace and reduce external circulation in circulating loop of CFBC, then consequently improves the comprehensive performance of CFB boiler. This paper is devoted to analyzing the mechanism of the end effect of the bed exit on the hydrodynamics in a CFB by presenting test results. Design criteria and a suggestion for getting the end effect will also be presented.

  9. Operational Status of 135MWe CFB Boilers in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lit, J. F.; Yang, S.; Haot, J. H.; Mit, J. H.; Lu, J. F.; Jit, H. M.; Huang, H. T.; Yan, H. R.; Yu, G. X.

    CFB boiler technology has been rapidly developed in China and China has the largest installed number and capacity of CFB boiler in the world. The number of 135MWe CFB boilers is over 150. The operational performance of 135MWe CFB boilers was summarized in the article. And the reliability, economy, environmental protection index are also discussed in the article. It not only provides information of the development status of CFB industry, but also provides some experience and guidance to improve the operation and to further develop CFB combustion technology.

  10. Design of a large-scale CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, S.; Li, S.

    1997-12-31

    Many CFB boilers sized 100--150 MWe are in operation, and several others sized 150--250 MWe are in operation or under construction. The next step for CFB technology is the 300--400 MWe size range. This paper will describe Foster Wheeler`s large-scale CFB boiler experience and the design for a 300 MWe CFB boiler. The authors will show how the design incorporates Foster Wheeler`s unique combination of extensive utility experience and CFB boiler experience. All the benefits of CFB technology which include low emissions, fuel flexibility, low maintenance and competitive cost are now available in the 300--400 MWe size range.

  11. CFB roasting for gold ore processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, G.; D'Acierno, J.P.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes how KTI/Dorr-Oliver applied the results from CFB boiler technology to the design for a CFB mineral processing plant built in Africa in 1992. The whole ore gold roaster plant located in Syama, Mali is presently owned and operated by Randgold of South Africa and it processes over 216 tons per hour of whole gold ore. The plant has operated continuously for over four years. The CFB reactor operates in the turbulent CFB mode of fluidization with over 40 minutes of solids residence time in the dense phase for optimum conversion of the feed material. The success of the plant after four years of operation is in large part due to the choice of the turbulent CFB mode of fluidization. This mode is very flexible in face of significant variations in feed composition and size distribution. Sulfur capture takes place in situ and the sorbent is present naturally in the feed. An electrostatic precipitator is used for particulate removal from the flue gas. The energy balance for the system requires auxiliary fuel oil burned in the CFB reactor. Energy from the 1,200--1,350 F roasted product stream is recovered and recycled back into the CFB using two fluidized bed coolers; one to directly heat the secondary air and the other to indirectly heat the primary fluidizing air. Pilot plant testing and the scale up of pilot plant results to the full scale plant is described. The plant start up including resolution of some unique start up difficulties is covered. A comparison of results for the pilot plant and commercial plant is presented.

  12. Pyroflow Compact: The next generation CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, S.L.

    1995-12-31

    CFB technology is the modern way to burn coal and other solid fuels. This technology was specifically developed to address today`s needs for fuel flexibility and low emissions. The low furnace temperatures characteristic of CFB technology provide for (a) low NO{sub x} emissions, (b) low SO{sub 2} emissions via simple furnace limestone injection and (c) the ability to fire a wide range of fuels because slagging is avoided. Lack of pulverizers and stack gas scrubbers results in a simple design with low maintenance costs and high availability. Ahlstrom, responsible for many innovations in CFB technology, has recently developed an improved CFB boiler design called the Pyroflow Compact. This new design retains all the benefits of the proven AHLSTROM PYROFLOW{reg_sign}CFB boiler while providing many advantages. This paper will describe the design features of the new Pyroflow Compact design, the advantages of this new design, operating experience, an up-to-date list of projects and Ahlstrom`s future plans for the new design.

  13. Utilization of silt as CFB boiler fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Herb, B.; Tsao, T.R.; Bickley, D.

    1994-12-31

    Bituminous silt represents an enormous source of discarded energy that is polluting the environment. Although bituminous silt is a potential opportunity fuel for circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers, handling problems and uncertainties about the impact of this fuel on CFB boiler performance and operating economics have prevented its use. Under sponsorship of the Pennsylvania Energy Development Authority, five different technologies having the potential to process silt into CFB boiler fuel were evaluated. The technologies evaluated include: washing, pelletizing, thermal drying, mulling and flaking. The desired goal was to process the silt into a form that can be fed to CFB boilers using conventional coal handling equipment and combusted in an environmentally acceptable manner. Criteria were developed for the product characteristics that are desired and tests were run to evaluate the technical feasibility of each silt processing technology. Based on these test results, the design and cost bases for a commercial silt processing facility were developed for each technology capable of achieving the desired product characteristics. As a result of considering both engineering and economic factors, the technology that best meets the objectives for use of processed silt as CFB boiler fuel was selected for further demonstration testing. This paper will present the results of this project up through the selection of the best silt processing technology.

  14. Design and experience with large-size CFB boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, S.L.

    1994-12-31

    CFB boilers have been in operation for many years in industrial steam and power generation applications demonstrating the low SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} emissions and fuel flexibility of the technology. In the past few years, several large-size CFB boilers (over 100 MWe) have entered service and are operating successfully. On the basis of this experience, CFB boilers up to 400 MWe in size are now being offered with full commercial guarantees. Such large CFB boilers will be of interest to countries with strict emission regulations or the need to reduce emissions, and to countries with both a large need for additional power and low grade indigenous solid fuel. This paper will describe Ahlstrom Pyropower`s scale-up of the AHLSTROM PYROFLOW CFB boiler, experience with large-size CFB boilers and the design features of CFB boilers in the 400 MWe size range.

  15. Mercury Emission Measurement at a CFB Plant

    SciTech Connect

    John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Lucinda Hamre

    2009-02-28

    In response to pending regulation to control mercury emissions in the United States and Canada, several projects have been conducted to perform accurate mass balances at pulverized coal (pc)-fired utilities. Part of the mercury mass balance always includes total gaseous mercury as well as a determination of the speciation of the mercury emissions and a concentration bound to the particulate matter. This information then becomes useful in applying mercury control strategies, since the elemental mercury has traditionally been difficult to control by most technologies. In this instance, oxidation technologies have proven most beneficial for increased capture. Despite many years of mercury measurement and control projects at pc-fired units, far less work has been done on circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) units, which are able to combust a variety of feedstocks, including cofiring coal with biomass. Indeed, these units have proven to be more problematic because it is very difficult to obtain a reliable mercury mass balance. These units tend to have very different temperature profiles than pc-fired utility boilers. The flexibility of CFB units also tends to be an issue when a mercury balance is determined, since the mercury inputs to the system come from the bed material and a variety of fuels, which can have quite variable chemistry, especially for mercury. In addition, as an integral part of the CFB operation, the system employs a feedback loop to circulate the bed material through the combustor and the solids collection system (the primary cyclone), thereby subjecting particulate-bound metals to higher temperatures again. Despite these issues, CFB boilers generally emit very little mercury and show good native capture. The Energy & Environmental Research Center is carrying out this project for Metso Power in order to characterize the fate of mercury across the unit at Rosebud Plant, an industrial user of CFB technology from Metso. Appropriate solids were collected, and

  16. {open_quotes}The next generations of Tampella Power`s CFB boilers{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Alliston, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    The next generation of Tampella Power Corporation`s CFB boilers is discussed in outline form. The following topics are outlined: CFB boiler advantages, CFB boiler fuel flexibility and CYMIC boiler construction.

  17. Can Chemical Looping Combustion Use CFB Technology?

    SciTech Connect

    Gamwo, I.K.

    2006-11-01

    Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) technology has demonstrated an unparalleled ability to achieve low SO2 and NOx emissions for coal-fired power plants without CO2 capture. Chemical Looping combustion (CLC) is a novel fuel combustion technology which appears as a leading candidate in terms of competitiveness for CO2 removal from flue gas. This presentaion deals with the adaptation of circulating fluidized bed technology to Chemical looping combustion

  18. Design and experience with utility-scale CFB boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, S.L.; Hennenfent, M.

    1995-12-31

    Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers have been in operation for many years in industrial steam and power generation applications, primarily in the 50-100 MWe range. In the past few years, however, several utility-scale CFB boilers have entered service. The scale-up of the Foster Wheeler Pyropower, Inc. CFB boilers has proceeded smoothly, and today FWPI CFB boilers up to 180 MWe are in operation, two 235 MWe boilers are now under construction, and other large units are in the design stage.

  19. Operational Status of 300MWe CFB Boiler in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. F.; Mi, J. H.; Hao, J. H.; Yang, S.; Huang, H. T.; Ji, H. M.; Lu, J. F.; Yue, G. X.

    China has the largest number of 300MW circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers in the word within, built in a short period of several years. Now, there are 13 CFB units in operating and other about 50 CFB boilers under construction or will be under construction soon. Summarization and analysis of the operational performance of the 300MWe CFB units are conducted. The reliability, economy and emission of these unite are introduced. The problems in these units are summarized. Some advices for improvement and future research are given.

  20. CFB boiler for Southern Illinois University: Planning and design

    SciTech Connect

    Silvey, M.; Roth, N.; Haake, A.

    1995-12-31

    Southern Illinois University (SIU) is in the process of installing a Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) coal fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler at its Carbondale, Illinois campus. The CFB boiler will be used for cogeneration. Funding for this project was made possible by the State of Illinois Capital Development Board. Illinois coal will be fired in this CFB boiler. This paper provides a description of the planning process and design of the CFB boiler and related equipment with specific emphasis on particulate removal and recirculation. The startup of this new installation is scheduled for the summer of 1996, with commercial operation by fall of 1996.

  1. Design for a 350 MWe class CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, S.L.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes Foster Wheeler's design for a 350 MWe Class boiler. Foster Wheeler's experience with large CFB boilers and with large suspension fired boilers is summarized. A reference 350 MWe CFB boiler design is presented and major design features are described along with expected performance. Areas in the CFB boiler design which benefit from suspension from boiler experience are highlighted. CFB boilers are now proven in the 150--250 MWe size range, with several in operation and many others scheduled to begin operation this year. The next step for CFB boiler technology is the 300 - 400 MWe size range. This paper will describe Foster Wheeler's design for a 350 MWe class CFB boiler, including the major design features and anticipated performance. The authors will demonstrate how Foster Wheeler's experience in designing large suspension-fired boilers in sizes over 900 MWe has been applied to the 350 MWe class CFB, in order to minimize scale-up risk and ensure high reliability. This design will bring the benefits of CFB technology, which include flexibility and low emissions, to the 350 MWe size range.

  2. Utilization of CFB fly ash for construction applications

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, R.E.; Sellakumar, K.; Bland, A.E.

    1999-07-01

    Disposal in landfills has been the most common means of handling ash in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler power plants. Recently, larger CFB boilers with generating capacities up to 300 MWe are currently being planned, resulting in increased volumes and disposal cost of ash by-product. Studies have shown that CFB ashes do not pose environmental concerns that should significantly limit their potential utilization. Many uses of CFB ash are being investigated by Foster Wheeler, which can provide more cost-effective ash management. Construction applications have been identified as one of the major uses for CFB ashes. Typically, CFB ash cannot be used as a cement replacement in concrete due to its unacceptably high sulfur content. However, CFB ashes can be used for other construction applications that require less stringent specifications including soil stabilization, road base, structural fill, and synthetic aggregate. In this study, potential construction applications were identified for fly ashes from several CFB boilers firing diverse fuels such as petroleum coke, refuse derived fuel (RDF) and coal. The compressive strength of hydrated fly ashes was measured in order to screen their potential for use in various construction applications. Based on the results of this work, the effects of both ash chemistry and carbon content on utilization potential were ascertained. Actual beneficial uses of ashes evaluated in this study are also discussed.

  3. Startup, Commissioning and Operation of Fenyi 100MW CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Yu, Wugao; Bo, Shi

    The first 100MW CFB boiler, designed by the Thermal Power Research Institute and manufactured by Harbin Boiler Company Limited, has been successfully running in Jiangxi Fenyi Power Plant since 2003. Local high ash content anthracite and lean coal that are very difficult to burn out are used in the 100 MW CFB boiler. The results of the 100MW CFB boiler shows that the CFB boiler can run in 30% MCR and startup with two under bed burners, and the boiler efficiency higher than 88% can be got after the combustion modification test. The CFB boiler can be operated with full load and reaches design parameters. The emissions of NO, N2O and CO are less than 7Omg/m3, 30mg/m3, and 125mg/m3, respectively, and SO2 less than 400mg/m3 after limestone injection. The bottom ash temperature from bed ash coolers is less than 120°C after its modification. Coal blockage at the coal storage silo is the main problem influencing the CFB boiler continuous operation. The running experiences for 5 years proved that the CFB boiler performance is successful, and the results were applied in 210 MW and 330 MW CFB Boiler design of Fenyi Power Plant.

  4. Age of the Emeishan flood magmatism and relations to Permian-Triassic boundary events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Ching-Hua; Chung, Sun-Lin; Lee, Tung-Yi; Wu, Genyao

    2002-05-01

    The Permian-Triassic (P-T) mass extinction, the greatest biological mortality event in the Earth's history, was probably caused by dramatic and global forcing mechanisms such as the Siberian flood volcanism. Here we present the first set of high-precision 40Ar/ 39Ar dating results of volcanic and intrusive rocks from the Emeishan Traps, South China, which define a main stage of the flood magmatism at ˜251-253 Ma and a subordinate precursory activity at ˜255 Ma. This time span is generally coeval with, or slightly older than, the age of the P-T boundary estimated by the ash beds in the Meishan stratotype section and the main eruption of the Siberian Traps. Our data reinforces the notion that the eruption of the Emeishan Traps, rather than eruption of the Siberian Traps, accounted for the formation of the P-T boundary ash beds in South China. The Emeishan flood magmatism, which occurred in the continental margin comprising thick marine limestone formations, moreover, may have triggered rapid release of large volumes of methane and carbon dioxide that could have been responsible for the global δ 13C excursion and associated environmental crisis leading to the mass extinction at the P-T boundary.

  5. Novel CFB Boiler Technology with Reconstruction of its Fluidization State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H. R.; Zhang, H.; Lu, J. F.; Lfu, Q.; Wu, Y. X.; Yuet, G. X.; Su, J.; Fu, Z. P.

    Compared with a conventional pulverized coal fired boiler, the combustion efficiency of a CFB boiler is lower while the self-consumed service power is 1-2% higher. The solution of these problems is the key research topic for researchers and manufacturers of CFB boilers. Based on the State Specification Design Theory of CFB boilers, Tsinghua University proposed a novel CFB technology by reconstruction of the fluidization state in the furnace by adjusting the bed inventory and bed quality. Theoretical analyses show that there is an optimal bed pressure drop, around which the boiler operation can achieve the maximal combustion efficiency and with significant reduction of the wear of the heating surface and fan power consumption. The proposed novel process was implemented in a 75t/h CFB boiler. The results of field tests on this boiler validated the theoretical analyses.

  6. Design considerations of B&W internal circulation CFB boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Kavidass, S.; Belin, F.; James, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Worldwide, the use of Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) boiler technology is rapidly increasing due to the ability to burn low grade fuels while meeting the required NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, CO, VOC, and particulate emissions requirements. The CFB boiler can produce steam economically for process and electric power generation. This paper discusses various aspects of Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) internal recirculation circulating fluidized-bed (IR-CFB) boiler design including fuel, boiler process parameters, and emissions. The B&W CFB boiler is unique in design. It utilizes proven impact-type particle separators (U-beams) with in-furnace solids recirculation recirculation. The paper describes the methodology for setting up process parameters, heat duty, boiler design, including auxiliary equipment selection and advantages. The paper also updates the ongoing IR-CFB boiler contracts.

  7. Recent developments on CFB-FGD technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, H.; Baege, R.

    1998-07-01

    Since 1978, when the first commercial sized unit for gas cleaning has been designed applying the expanded circulating fluidized bed principle some process developments have improved the technical and commercial advantages of this simple but highly efficient and reliable dry gas cleaning concept. The multiple nozzle design led to an unlimited size of the absorber gas flow capacity. The partial clean gas recirculation back to the raw gas inlet duct increased the flexibility of the process related on the partial load behavior. The use of a low pressure pulse-jet fabric filter allows unlimited size of the total CFB-FGD system for one unit. The recirculation of the reaction products and the feed of make up hydrated lime upstream of the venturi nozzle improves the flowability of the reaction products even on chemically critical compounds. The limestone injection into the boiler reduces the sorbent costs in relation to using hydrated lime.

  8. Design considerations of B&W internal circulation CFB boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Kavidass, S.; Alexander, K.C.

    1995-12-31

    Worldwide, the use of Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) boiler technology is rapidly increasing due to the ability to burn low grade fuels while meeting the required NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, CO, VOC, and particulate emissions requirements. The CFB boiler can produce steam economically for process and electric power generation. This paper discusses various aspects of Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) internal recirculation circulating fluidized-bed (IR-CFB) boiler design including fuel, boiler process parameters, and emissions. The B&W CFB boiler is unique in design. It utilizes proven impact-type particle separators (U-beams) with in-furnace solids recirculation. The paper describes the methodology for setting up process parameters, heat duty, boiler design, including auxiliary equipment selection and advantages.

  9. Development and Validation of a 3-Dimensional CFB Furnace Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vepsäläinen, Arl; Myöhänen, Karl; Hyppäneni, Timo; Leino, Timo; Tourunen, Antti

    At Foster Wheeler, a three-dimensional CFB furnace model is essential part of knowledge development of CFB furnace process regarding solid mixing, combustion, emission formation and heat transfer. Results of laboratory and pilot scale phenomenon research are utilized in development of sub-models. Analyses of field-test results in industrial-scale CFB boilers including furnace profile measurements are simultaneously carried out with development of 3-dimensional process modeling, which provides a chain of knowledge that is utilized as feedback for phenomenon research. Knowledge gathered by model validation studies and up-to-date parameter databases are utilized in performance prediction and design development of CFB boiler furnaces. This paper reports recent development steps related to modeling of combustion and formation of char and volatiles of various fuel types in CFB conditions. Also a new model for predicting the formation of nitrogen oxides is presented. Validation of mixing and combustion parameters for solids and gases are based on test balances at several large-scale CFB boilers combusting coal, peat and bio-fuels. Field-tests including lateral and vertical furnace profile measurements and characterization of solid materials provides a window for characterization of fuel specific mixing and combustion behavior in CFB furnace at different loads and operation conditions. Measured horizontal gas profiles are projection of balance between fuel mixing and reactions at lower part of furnace and are used together with both lateral temperature profiles at bed and upper parts of furnace for determination of solid mixing and combustion model parameters. Modeling of char and volatile based formation of NO profiles is followed by analysis of oxidizing and reducing regions formed due lower furnace design and mixing characteristics of fuel and combustion airs effecting to formation ofNO furnace profile by reduction and volatile-nitrogen reactions. This paper presents

  10. Monitoring the particle size in CFB using fuzzy neural network

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, L.; Chen, H.; Tian, Z.; He, W.

    1999-07-01

    The particle size and particle size distributions (PSDs) affect the performance of a circulating fluidized (CFB) boiler. For improving the efficiency of analysis of particle size to monitor the particle size and particle size distribution, a fuzzy neural network (FNN) model is presented. Because the pressure fluctuant frequency and particle size have some non-linear relationship, the FNN models the relationship between the pressure fluctuant frequencies along CFB boiler height and particle size sampled from CFB boiler by neural network training. A hybrid fuzzy neural network parameter training method is presented to identify the model parameters, which combine the gradient back propagation (BP) algorithm and least square estimation (LSE) algorithm to estimate unknown non-linear parameter and linear parameter respectively. When the FNN training procedure converges, the parameters, which reflect the non-linear relationship between frequency and particle, are determined for a given operational condition of CFB boiler. In operating CFB boilers, the coal particle size at high temperature changes with combustion and its values are unknown, however, pressure fluctuation frequency can be obtained easily. In this case, FNN can predict the particle size and PSDs along the CFB boiler height according to the pressure fluctuation frequency. To validate the FNN model effect of analyzing the particle size, data from experiment are used with fluidized gas velocity equal to 41.82 cm/s. The predictive error of FNN model is 3.839%. It is proved that the model not only identifies the non-linear relationship between particle size and pressure fluctuation frequency with high precision but also can adaptively learn the data information without expert knowledge by adjusting its own parameters. It operates quickly and can satisfy the real-time request of monitoring the particle size and its distribution in CFB boilers.

  11. Pyroflow CFB boiler meets the dynamic challenges of utility operation

    SciTech Connect

    Chelian, P.K.; Hickey, M.; Utt, J.

    1995-12-31

    Large size CFB units supplied to utilities are required to respond rapidly and accurately to the system load demand signals. These units are designed to receive demand signals from load demand computers (economic dispatch systems), and by various types of feed forward controls to achieve the desired level of generation in a minimum amount of time, with minimum upset to the steam conditions. Pyropower Corporation supplied a 165 MWe net capacity CFB boiler to the Nova Scotia Power Inc., Point Aconi Station. This boiler was subjected to a number of tests to demonstrate the dynamic response of the boiler. The tests included minor and major load rejections as well as rapid increase and decrease of load. One of the tests was to demonstrate the ability to reject from full load to the house load and operate for eight hours. This report summarizes the experience of these tests, which leads to the conclusion that CFB boilers, when properly designed and tuned, are capable of meeting the present day challenges of dynamic response in dispatch mode of operation. This paper also draws references from other large size Pyroflow CFB units that are operating in cycling modes to address the capabilities of the CFB boilers related to rapid load variation.

  12. Design and research of retrofitting PC boiler into CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.P.; Lu, J.D.; Huang, L.; Liu, H.; Lin, Z.; Liu, D.C.

    1997-12-31

    In China, there are a large number of aged pulverized coal (PC) boilers at aging utility power plants. Many of them are beyond their reasonable working life or in a condition of unreliable operation, low combustion efficiency, and serious air pollution. It is very important and urgent to retrofit the aged PC boilers, and repower the aging utility power plants in China. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers have been developed rapidly, and paid great attention to in China. There are many striking advantages to retrofit an aged boiler with a CFB boiler. The retrofitting is suitable to meet the needs of effective utilization of low-grade coal, reducing SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions and repowering an aging power plant. The cost is much lower than that of building a new CFB unit. The National Laboratory of Coal Combustion (NLCC) has always paid great attention to studying and developing CFB combustion technology in connection with Chinese national conditions, and has evolved distinguishing technology features of its own. This paper introduces a new design concept of retrofitting PC boiler into Pi ({Pi}-shaped) CFB boiler with downward exhaust cyclone, and relevant research work and results of design and calculation.

  13. Origin of Permian extremely high Ti/Y mafic lavas and dykes from Western Guangxi, SW China: Implications for the Emeishan mantle plume magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xijun; Liang, Qiongdan; Li, Zhenglin; Castillo, Paterno R.; Shi, Yu; Xu, Jifeng; Huang, Xianglin; Liao, Shuai; Huang, Wenlong; Wu, Weinan

    2017-06-01

    Late Permian mafic flows and dikes are prominent features in and around the Western Guangxi region in southern China. Based on petrographic, geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data, the western Guangxi mafic rocks are geochemically akin to the Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) high-Ti basalts, except that they possess extremely elevated Ti/Y ratios (750-2000). The Dy/Yb and Ti/Y vs. Dy/Dy∗ covariations of the mafic rocks indicate a garnet-controlled magmatic differentiation of a mafic melt at relatively great depth. The limited εNd(t) range from +0.41 to +1.81 also suggests minimal crustal contamination of such a melt. Geochemical modeling using TiO2/Yb vs. Nb/Yb and Zr/Y vs. Nb/Y projections indicate that the parental melts of the western Guangxi mafic rocks formed at a low degree (<5%) of partial melting at or over 3.5 GPa, consistent with a deep mantle plume source under a thick continental lithosphere. Thus, the Guangxi extremely high Ti/Y mafic rocks most likely represent a part of outer zone of the ELIP plume magmatism. Results of this study reinforce the previously proposed temporal and spatial distribution of the ELIP.

  14. Ultra-Supercritical Pressure CFB Boiler Conceptual Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhen Fan; Steve Goidich; Archie Robertson; Song Wu

    2006-06-30

    Electric utility interest in supercritical pressure steam cycles has revived in the United States after waning in the 1980s. Since supercritical cycles yield higher plant efficiencies than subcritical plants along with a proportional reduction in traditional stack gas pollutants and CO{sub 2} release rates, the interest is to pursue even more advanced steam conditions. The advantages of supercritical (SC) and ultra supercritical (USC) pressure steam conditions have been demonstrated in the high gas temperature, high heat flux environment of large pulverized coal-fired (PC) boilers. Interest in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion, as an alternative to PC combustion, has been steadily increasing. Although CFB boilers as large as 300 MWe are now in operation, they are drum type, subcritical pressure units. With their sizes being much smaller than and their combustion temperatures much lower than those of PC boilers (300 MWe versus 1,000 MWe and 1600 F versus 3500 F), a conceptual design study was conducted herein to investigate the technical feasibility and economics of USC CFB boilers. The conceptual study was conducted at 400 MWe and 800 MWe nominal plant sizes with high sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal used as the fuel. The USC CFB plants had higher heating value efficiencies of 40.6 and 41.3 percent respectively and their CFB boilers, which reflect conventional design practices, can be built without the need for an R&D effort. Assuming construction at a generic Ohio River Valley site with union labor, total plant costs in January 2006 dollars were estimated to be $1,551/kW and $1,244/kW with costs of electricity of $52.21/MWhr and $44.08/MWhr, respectively. Based on the above, this study has shown that large USC CFB boilers are feasible and that they can operate with performance and costs that are competitive with comparable USC PC boilers.

  15. The first pilot compact CFB boiler with water cooled separator in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yue Guangxi; Li Yan; Lu Xiaoma; Zhang Yanguo; Liu Qing; Lu Junfu; Zhao Xiaoxing

    1997-12-31

    The square cyclone was experimentally investigated in Tsinghua University. The flow field in the cyclone was measured and numerically simulated. The investigation prove that the corner of square cyclone created turbulence to decrease the collection efficiency. The acceleration of solid particles at the inlet of the square cyclone was also a factor for good efficiency. The collection efficiency has been improved by a carefully designed curved inlet of the cyclone which received the patent in China. The patented water cooled cyclone was used in a design of improved 75 T/h CFB boiler. The demonstration of the boiler started test operation in April 1996 at Jianjiang Cement Co. in Sichuan Province. The first operation will be used for adjusting the boiler. Further tests will be done to confirm the performance of the boiler.

  16. O and M experience underscores maturity of CFB technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.

    1995-05-01

    Several dozen unit-years of experience, summarized here, indicate that CFB boilers pose no greater level of difficulty in the field than p-c or stoker-fired units. The push for lower emissions and greater fuel flexibility certainly put the development of circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) boiler technology on the fast track. After a decade of sustained commercial development, the technology now challenges pulverized-coal-fired (p-c) units in individual sizes up to 500 MW. In smaller sizes, it has eroded the dominance of stoker-fired boilers for solid-fuel applications. Successive projects, most notably in the independent-power arena, have pushed technology in terms of fuels fired, emissions levels reached, and operability flexibility. But while the CFB design train chugs ahead, it pays to look back at the landscape of operating projects to determine just what the experience has been. Overall user satisfaction with the technology has been excellent, based on the projects surveyed (table) which represent several dozen unit-years of experience with a variety of fuels, unit sizes, etc. Availability and capacity factors meet or exceed predicted values. Most generic problem areas have been managed, though some remain. And, to the extent that CFB boilers--which generally fire a wider range of fuels than p-c units do, can be compared to p-c and stoker units, operating performance appears to be as good or better.

  17. BFGoodrich boiler project tests CFB potential in Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-11-01

    By converting from natural gas to high-sulfur coal, a process industry or utility can cut fuel costs from 50 to 80%. The BFGoodrich plant in Henry, IL will make such a conversion using a new CFB (circulating fluidized bed) boiler to burn local coal. The project is being partially funded - and closely watched - by the Illinois Department of Energy.

  18. CFB evaluation of high-ash Ukrainian anthracite coal

    SciTech Connect

    Perna, M.A.; Fuller, T.A.; Reuther, J.; Belin, F.; Maryamchik, M.; Maystrenko, A.

    1996-12-31

    High-ash Ukrainian anthracite coal (called schtib) was evaluated to determine its impact on design for commercial-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. The project was performed to support the US/Ukraine Clean Coal Task Force efforts to upgrade Ukraine`s coal-fired power plants. The project was sponsored by the US Agency for International Development (USAID) through the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE-PETC). The test work was performed at the Institute of Energy Savings Problems (IESP) in Kiev, Ukraine and at the Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) Research Center in Alliance, Ohio. Parametric tests were performed on small-scale and pilot-scale CFB facilities to examine the effects of operating parameters and fuel particle size distribution on combustion and emissions performance. Test results indicate that with fuel crushed to minus 1/8 inches and an average operating temperature of 1,650 F, stable combustion without support fuel and low unburned carbon loss (<3%) can be achieved within a 50--100% load range. Gaseous emissions of sulfur dioxide were successfully controlled to about 90% sulfur removal by adding sorbent at a Ca/S ratio of about 1.9. Nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide emissions were maintained below 0.24 lbs/MBtu and 0.18 lbs/MBtu, respectively during the tests. The test results indicated that B and W`s CFB boilers can be used to fire schtib in an efficient and environmentally acceptable manner and provided input for the refinement of the CFB design for this fuel CFB boilers of 60 Mwe and 200 Mwe capacity for repowering of Ukrainian power plants are being jointly developed by B and W and Ukrainian organizations.

  19. Foster Wheeler's Solutions for Large Scale CFB Boiler Technology: Features and Operational Performance of Łagisza 460 MWe CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotta, Arto

    During recent years, once-through supercritical (OTSC) CFB technology has been developed, enabling the CFB technology to proceed to medium-scale (500 MWe) utility projects such as Łagisza Power Plant in Poland owned by Poludniowy Koncern Energetyczny SA. (PKE), with net efficiency nearly 44%. Łagisza power plant is currently under commissioning and has reached full load operation in March 2009. The initial operation shows very good performance and confirms, that the CFB process has no problems with the scaling up to this size. Also the once-through steam cycle utilizing Siemens' vertical tube Benson technology has performed as predicted in the CFB process. Foster Wheeler has developed the CFB design further up to 800 MWe with net efficiency of ≥45%.

  20. Thermal Effects by Firing Oil Shale Fuel in CFB Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neshumayev, D.; Ots, A.; Parve, T.; Pihu, T.; Plamus, K.; Prikk, A.

    It is well known that during firing of oil shale fuel the amount of heat released during its combustion per kg of fuel is significantly affected by the endothermic and exothermic processes taking place in mineral matter. These thermal effects are calcite and dolomite decomposing, marcasite FeS2 oxidising, CaO sulphation and formation of the new minerals. The given paper deals with the experimental study of the influence of these thermal effects of oil shale fuel having different heating value on total amount of heat released during combustion in calorimetric bomb, circulating fluidized bed (CFB) and pulverized-firing boiler (PFB). The large-scale (250 MWth) experiments were performed in the K11-1 CFB boiler of the Balti Power Plant. During experiments low heating value of a fuel varied within the range 8.5-11 MJ/kg. At the end some conclusions were drawn.

  1. Integral cylindrical cyclone and loopseal assembly for CFB combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Alliston, M.G.; Wu, S.; Sinn, B.T.; Lato, K.

    1995-12-31

    The cyclone solids separator has been one of the main features characteristically associated with many Circulating Fluidized Bed combustor designs. Most designs incorporating the cyclone coflector also include a pressure sealing device through which the solids collected by the cyclone are returned to the combustor. The cyclone and the loopseal have typically been two separate components, and various designs have arisen for each component comprising refractory, water-cooled, or steam cooled equipment. The two obvious advantages of the use of water-cooled or steam-, cooled equipment are the reduction of refractory requirements and the conversion of these components into boiler-useful devices. The creation of these devices from tube and header assemblies has followed more-or-less artful paths, the directions of which have generally been based upon the goal of maintaining the specific geometric forms that had previously been used for CFB cyclones and loopseals. The assembly described in this paper was instead developed based upon the goals of (a) ease of manufacturing, (b) elimination of problematic components, (c) maximizing the boiler-usefulness of the surfaces created, and (d) adding potential process benefits. The resulting embodiment of these goals was a cylindrical vessel in which the upper portion forms the solids separator and the lower section is divided into chambers to form the loopseal. This report describes the details of the Integral Cylindrical Cyclone and Loopseal (ICCL), and also describes its performance as demonstrated in a CFB cold flow model incorporating the new apparatus. The commercial application of the ICCL in a 1.2 MM lb steam/hr CFB boiler as well as its potential application in reheat CFB units are also discussed.

  2. Postcombustion and its influences in 135 MWe CFB boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Shaohua Li; Hairui Yang; Hai Zhang; Qing Liu; Junfu Lu; Guangxi Yue

    2009-09-15

    In the cyclone of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler, a noticeable increment of flue gas temperature, caused by combustion of combustible gas and unburnt carbon content, is often found. Such phenomenon is defined as post combustion, and it could introduce overheating of reheated and superheated steam and extra heat loss of exhaust flue gas. In this paper, mathematical modeling and field measurements on post combustion in 135MWe commercial CFB boilers were conducted. A novel one-dimensional combustion model taking post combustion into account was developed. With this model, the overall combustion performance, including size distribution of various ashes, temperature profile, and carbon content profiles along the furnace height, heat release fraction in the cyclone and furnace were predicted. Field measurements were conducted by sampling gas and solid at different positions in the boiler under different loads. The measured data and corresponding model-calculated results were compared. Both prediction and field measurements showed post combustion introduced a temperature increment of flue gas in the cyclone of the 135MWe CFB boiler in the range of 20-50{sup o}C when a low-volatile bituminous coal was fired. Although it had little influence on ash size distribution, post combustion had a remarkable influence on the carbon content profile and temperature profile in the furnace. Moreover, it introduced about 4-7% heat release in the cyclone over the total heat release in the boiler. This fraction slightly increased with total air flow rate and boiler load. Model calculations were also conducted on other two 135MWe CFB boilers burning lignite and anthracite coal, respectively. The results confirmed that post combustion was sensitive to coal type and became more severe as the volatile content of the coal decreased. 15 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Environmental Impact of Estonian Oil Shale CFB Firing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loosaar, J.; Parve, T.; Konist, A.

    Oil shale based power production has been the basement of Estonia's energetical independency and economy for over 60 years. At the same time oil shale power plants emissions still give the biggest share of Estonian stationary source pollution, having significant impact to the environment. Thanks to the introduction of oil shale large scale CFB firing, reduction of the total environmental impact was achieved in last years.

  4. Regional uplift associated with continental large igneous provinces: The roles of mantle plumes and the lithosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saunders, A.D.; Jones, S.M.; Morgan, L.A.; Pierce, K.L.; Widdowson, M.; Xu, Y.G.

    2007-01-01

    The timing and duration of surface uplift associated with large igneous provinces provide important constraints on mantle convection processes. Here we review geological indicators of surface uplift associated with five continent-based magmatic provinces: Emeishan Traps (260??million years ago: Ma), Siberian Traps (251??Ma), Deccan Traps (65??Ma), North Atlantic (Phase 1, 61??Ma and Phase 2, 55??Ma), and Yellowstone (16??Ma to recent). All five magmatic provinces were associated with surface uplift. Surface uplift can be measured directly from sedimentary indicators of sea-level in the North Atlantic and from geomorpholocial indicators of relative uplift and tilting in Yellowstone. In the other provinces, surface uplift is inferred from the record of erosion. In the Deccan, North Atlantic and Emeishan provinces, transient uplift that results from variations in thermal structure of the lithosphere and underlying mantle can be distinguished from permanent uplift that results from the extraction and emplacement of magma. Transient surface uplift is more useful in constraining mantle convection since models of melt generation and emplacement are not required for its interpretation. Observations of the spatial and temporal relationships between surface uplift, rifting and magmatism are also important in constraining models of LIP formation. Onset of surface uplift preceded magmatism in all five of the provinces. Biostratigraphic constraints on timing of uplift and erosion are best for the North Atlantic and Emeishan Provinces, where the time interval between significant uplift and first magmatism is less than 1??million years and 2.5??million years respectively. Rifting post-dates the earliest magmatism in the case of the North Atlantic Phase 1 and possibly in the case of Siberia. The relative age of onset of offshore rifting is not well constrained for the Deccan and the importance of rifting in controlling magmatism is disputed in the Emeishan and Yellowstone

  5. Operating costs for the 110 MWe Nucla CFB

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, S.A.; Buck, J.W. ); Friedman, M.A. ); Rekos, N.F. )

    1993-01-01

    In January 1991, all testing as part of the Demonstration Test Program on the 110 MWe Nucla circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler was completed and all data analysis and reporting were finalized in April 1992. This effort was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the US Department of Energy under its Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program . As part of the requirement for CCT funding, an economic evaluation of the plant's operating costs was completed over the 29 month testing period between September 1988 and January 1991. The objective of this effort was to provide a database of costs associated with the engineering, construction, start-up and operation of a utility-sized CFB boiler. Cost data associated with plant operations are presented based on the Rural Electrification Administration's (REA) uniform system of amounts. This system is consistent with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) methods of accounting for public utilities. This database serves as a reference for others considering and comparing this technology with other coal-fired options. This paper summarizes the method of repowering the original Nucla Station and provides a brief description of the current 420,000 kg/h (925,000 lb/hr) CFB boiler design. A breakdown of fuel nonfuel maintenance, and fixed expenses are presented for the period covered by the economic evaluation. Costs associated with limestone usage for SO[sub 2] control, start-up fuel consumption, and ash disposal costs are also presented.

  6. Operating costs for the 110 MWe Nucla CFB

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, S.A.; Buck, J.W.; Friedman, M.A.; Rekos, N.F.

    1993-03-01

    In January 1991, all testing as part of the Demonstration Test Program on the 110 MWe Nucla circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler was completed and all data analysis and reporting were finalized in April 1992. This effort was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the US Department of Energy under its Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program . As part of the requirement for CCT funding, an economic evaluation of the plant`s operating costs was completed over the 29 month testing period between September 1988 and January 1991. The objective of this effort was to provide a database of costs associated with the engineering, construction, start-up and operation of a utility-sized CFB boiler. Cost data associated with plant operations are presented based on the Rural Electrification Administration`s (REA) uniform system of amounts. This system is consistent with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERC) methods of accounting for public utilities. This database serves as a reference for others considering and comparing this technology with other coal-fired options. This paper summarizes the method of repowering the original Nucla Station and provides a brief description of the current 420,000 kg/h (925,000 lb/hr) CFB boiler design. A breakdown of fuel nonfuel maintenance, and fixed expenses are presented for the period covered by the economic evaluation. Costs associated with limestone usage for SO{sub 2} control, start-up fuel consumption, and ash disposal costs are also presented.

  7. Study on Combustion Characteristics of Lignite in a CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, J.; Zou, T. S.; Wu, J. X.; Jiang, C.; Gao, J. L.; Wu, J.; Su, D.; Song, D. Y.

    The shortage of coal promotes the lignite utility in power plant because of the rapid economy development recently. However, lignite is high in moisture content as well as volatile content and low in calorific value. It is very difficult to burn in traditional pulverized coal fired boiler. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler is an alternative with low pollutant emission. Some CFB boilers are built and put into commercial operation in Northeast China and East Inner Mongolia where lignite is abundant. The operation experiences of these boilers are introduced in this paper. The effect of coal particle size on bottom ash ratio, combustion efficiency, thermal efficiency, pollution emission, and ash deposits in convective heating surface were investigated. It was found that for the lignite fired CFB boiler, the largest coal particle size should be 20 to 40mm to maintain bed material balance. But the bottom ash only shares less than 10% of the total ash. Due to high volatile content in the lignite, the combustion efficiency could achieve more than 99%. Meanwhile, NOx emission was relative low and satisfied national environment protection requirement. It is suggested that flue gas velocity in convective heating surface should be ranged in a certain scope to prevent ash deposit and erosion.

  8. Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2007-03-31

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic (i.e., man-made) CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2001, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) began a two-phase program to investigate the feasibility of various carbon capture technologies. This program was sponsored under a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE). The first phase entailed a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen cases, representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated. Seven cases represented coal combustion in CFB type equipment. Four cases represented Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Two cases represented advanced Chemical Looping Combined Cycle systems. Marion, et al. reported the details of this work in 2003. One of the thirteen cases studied utilized an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. In this concept, the fuel is fired with a mixture of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (mainly CO{sub 2}). This combustion process yields a flue gas containing over 80 percent (by volume) CO{sub 2}. This flue gas can be processed relatively easily to enrich the CO{sub 2} content to over 96 percent for use in enhanced oil or gas recovery (EOR or EGR) or simply dried for sequestration. The Phase I study identified the O{sub 2}-fired CFB as having a near term development potential, because it uses conventional commercial CFB technology and commercially available CO{sub 2} capture enabling technologies such as cryogenic air separation and simple rectification or distillation gas processing systems. In the long term, air separation technology

  9. Basic design studies for a 600 MWe CFB boiler (270b, 2 x 600 C)

    SciTech Connect

    Bursi, J.M.; Lafanechere, L.; Jestin, L.

    1999-07-01

    Commercial CFB boilers are currently available in the 300 MWe equivalent range for use with international coal. Retrofitting of Provence 4 with a 250 MWe CFB boiler was an important step in CFB development. In light of the results obtained from two large French units--Emile Huchet 4 (125 MWe) and Provence 4 (250 MWe)--this paper focuses on the main technical points which are currently being studied in relation to the basic design of a 600 MWe CFB boiler, a project that has been undertaken by EDF. The general aim of this project is to demonstrate the competitiveness of a CFB boiler compared with a PF boiler. The main areas of focus in the design of this large CFB boiler with advanced steam conditions are described. These points are subjected to particular analysis from a design standpoint. The objective is to prepare the precise specifications needed to ensure a product which is optimized in terms of quality/cost or service/cost. Due to the present lack of theoretical understanding of the refined and complex two-phase flow, design is a challenge which has to be based on reliable and comprehensive data obtained from large plants in commercial operation. This will ensure that the advantages of CFB which arise from the hydrodynamics within the circulation loop are maintained. The major goals of maintaining good particle residence time and concentration in the furnace are described. Misunderstanding of CFB furnace bottom conditions is also pointed out, with cost reduction and better NO{sub x} capture certainly among the major new targets in relation to bottom furnace design. General problems associated with the heat exchanger arrangement, principally those linked to high steam conditions and, especially, the vaporization system, are discussed. Once again, comparison with PF in this area showed that CFB boilers appear more competitive. Finally, the main area in which there is a need for sharing of CFB experience among CFB users is pointed out.

  10. Project BRACER: Technical Report of the Remediation of the Biological Waste Pits Located Behind Building H-55, CFB Kingston, Ontario

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    Project BRACER Technical Report of the Remediation of the Biological Waste Pits Located Behind Building H-55, CFB Kingston...Ontario K. Pirie DRDC Suffield T. Cousins DRDC Ottawa Andrew Wollin Base Env O, CFB Kingston Brian Armstrong VP Hytec Hydrocarbon Reclamation...Public Consultation Process ............................................................................. 6 2.5.1 CFB Kingston

  11. CFB combustor with internal solids recirculation -- Pilot testing and design applications

    SciTech Connect

    Belin, F.; Maryamchik, M.; Fuller, T.A.; Perna, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    The new generation of B and W`s CFB boilers with entirely internal recirculation of solids collected by the primary impact separator is uniquely compact and features a simple, low-maintenance solids collection system. Thorough testing of the new concept at the Cold CFB Model and the 2.5 MWth Pilot CFB combustor confirmed its effective performance equal to that of a CFB unit with external solids recirculation from the primary separator. While providing overall advantages of compactness and simplicity, the new design is especially valuable for repowering of the existing power plants where B and W`s CFB boiler fits into the plan area of PC-fired boilers.

  12. The implication of CFB technology for repowering of old pulverized coal boiler in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Ryabov, G.A.; Nadirov, I.I.

    1999-07-01

    One of the main priorities of the energy strategy of Russia is to develop new economically efficient and environmentally friendly technologies. At the moment more than 100 old pulverized coal boilers with steam capacity of 170--240 t/h need to be reconstructed. Modern requirements on pollution and the possibility of low-grade coal firing make the use of CFB technology attractive. This paper presents some results of an economic comparison and estimations of the power range vs typical Russian fuel quality. The authors compared different CFB technology modifications. As a result it was demonstrated that it would be feasible to use CFB boilers with simple impact ash collectors. Some technical data of boiler design for the Nesvetay thermal power plant (TPP) and Cherepetskay TPP are given. The prediction of CFB boiler operation parameters is based on CFB pilot data and results of the mathematical analysis.

  13. Experimental research on rice husk combustion in CFB boiler and the design of a 35 t/h rice husk-fired CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Guanyi; Fang Mengxiang; Luo Zhongyang; Li Xuantian; Shi Zhenglun; Cen Kefa; Ni Mingjiang

    1997-12-31

    The fluidization and transportation properties of rice husk have been studied on a cold model bed of inner diameter 120 mm. The ignition and combustion characteristics of rice husk mixed with coal have also been studied in a 1 MW experimental circulating fluidized bed (CFB) system. The conclusions, drawn on the basis of these experiments, are found to be very useful for the design of a 35 tons per hour CFB boiler firing this biomass fuel.

  14. Collisional viscosity of FCC particles in a CFB

    SciTech Connect

    Gidaspow, D.; Lu Huilin

    1996-09-01

    Particle velocity distributions were measured for a flow of 75-{micro}m FCC (fluidized catalytic cracking) particles in a CFB (circulating fluidized bed) using a new video-digital camera technique. From the spread of particle histograms, a random oscillating particle velocity was determined. This random velocity was used to compute the powder viscosity with the help of dense-phase kinetic theory of granular flow. There was excellent agreement between this kinetic-theory measurement and previous macroscopic viscosity measurements. The dimensionless group kinematic viscosity divided by the oscillating velocity and particle diameter correlated all available data as a function of particle volume fraction.

  15. Large CFB power plant design and operating experience: Texas-New Mexico Power Company 150 MWe (net) CFB power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, K.; Cleve, K.; Tanca, M.

    1995-12-31

    The first unit of the TNP One CFB power plant was successfully put on line by Texas-New Mexico Power Company (TNP) in Robertson County, Texas, US in 1990. Unit 2 came on line one year later. This grassroots plant fires Texas lignite. The two identical CFB units were each designed for 150 MWe net electrical generation. The units have operated at 155 MWe net for extended periods of time without modifications. The boilers have additional capacity but are limited by the balance of plant. The TNP One plant was awarded the Power Plant of the Year Award by Power magazine in 1991 advancing CFB technology in large generating facilities. The plant was designed for maximum fuel flexibility with guaranteed full load operation on either Texas lignite, western coal or natural gas. The plant has fired the following fuels, to date: lignite (base fuel), natural gas (0--100% with lignite), delayed petroleum coke (0--100% with lignite), plant generated waste oils (small amounts), oil filter fluff (small amounts) and a waste product of pelletized reflective tape. Future testing is planned to test burn shredded tires. While firing all fuels, the plant could attain full load and meet all environmentally permitted emissions without any boiler modifications or compromises in boiler efficiency. This high flexibility of the plant can be attributed to the two large fluidized bed heat exchangers (FBHEs) for steam temperature and combustor temperature control. The facility is a mine mouth operation burning the local Texas lignite. The delayed petroleum cokes fired originated from various supply sources from the Texas/Louisiana area.

  16. SILVA: EDF two-phase 1D annular model of a CFB boiler furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Montat, D.; Fauquet, P.; Lafanechere, L.; Bursi, J.M.

    1997-12-31

    Aiming to improve its knowledge of CFB boilers, EDF has initiated a R and D program including: laboratory work on mock-ups, numerical modelling and on-site tests in CFB power plants. One of the objectives of this program is the development of a comprehensive steady-state 1D model of the solid circulation loop, named SILVA, for plant operation and design evaluation purposes. This paper describes its mathematical and physical modelling. Promising validation of the model on cold mock-up and industrial CFB is presented.

  17. Latest development and status of long term experience in CFB-technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cleve, K.

    1999-07-01

    CFB-fired steam generators have successfully been in operation for over 15 years. After this period of time enough practical knowledge is available to report on the Long Term Experience of selected plants. The success of CFB-fired steam generators--because of their outstanding environmental performance as well as their fuel flexibility--has led world-wide to more and larger units. In addition to well-proven components, the CFB-process is continuously being improved and New Developments are incorporated.

  18. Evaluation and modification of CFB units at Slough Trading Estate

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, R.Q.; Ballantyne, J.G.

    1997-12-31

    Slough Heat and Power (SHP), located just west of London, operates two circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion boilers (identified as FB1 and FB2) which assist in providing both power and steam to some 450 tenants located on the Slough Trading Estate. CFB technology was selected principally for (1) its fuel flexibility, (2) its ability to comply with government requirements on emissions and (3) its ability to fit the desired capacity units (with their relatively small footprint) into the limited space at the existing plant site. Construction of these units, each sized at 207,000 lb/hr at 1,260 psia and 948 F, began in 1989 with operation beginning in the latter part of 1991. Contract boiler acceptance tests were successfully passed in 1992. The units were originally intended to be operated on coal with gas and oil as back up fuels, depending on the economics. Government initiatives, designed to stimulate the development of non-fossil fueled power generation in the UK, catalyzed the owner`s interest in alternate fuels after the plant was built. Subsequently, the units have been co-fired with a blend of coal and densified refuse derived fuel (RDF) at up to a 50/50 heat input ratio. Early operation of these units was plagued by mechanical problems which affected the reliability and performance of the units. An independent assessment was made of the CFB units by FBT engineering Services to identify causes of operating, performance, and design shortcomings and to identify modifications that could be made to improve these areas. These problems have been associated with such areas of refractory, erosion, tubes and supports, clinkering and fouling, air distribution, and generally unstable unit performance. Because of the problems, the units have been operating only intermittently since commissioning. Based on the assessment of these problems, recommendations were made and design/operating changes implemented to correct these concerns and improve unit performance

  19. Abrasion-Resistant Technology and its Prospect for CFB Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, H.; Li, Y. J.; Wang, L. J.; Liu, S. H.; Dou, Q. R.

    In recent years, CFB boilers (CFBB) have been widely used in the commercial power plants due to its environmental benefits, high combustion efficiency, wide coal flexibility, and some other advantages. At the same time, the abrasion problem, the greatest weakness of this kind of boiler, has been gradually exposed in its application process. The abrasion, particularly on key parts such as the heating surface of water-cooled wall, furnace corners, separator entrance, seriously restricts the long-period operation ability of the CFBB. This article discusses current development status for various abrasion resistant refractory materials used in a CFBB. Some comments are provided for developing new high-performance abrasion resistant refractory materials and rapid-repaired materials according to the abrasion principle and the abrasion on different parts, as well as the economical and environmental requirements for the material. The abrasion solution and operation period of CFBB can be better improved given realization.

  20. Energy from waste in Kvaerner BFB and CFB boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, A.

    1998-07-01

    Since the early 70's, Kvaerner Pulping has delivered more than 150 fluidized bed boilers of the bubbling (BFB) and circulating (CFB) types, the largest units with a thermal capacity of more than 400 MW. Kvaerner Pulping has extensive experience from waste combustion (MSW, industrial waste, RDF, sludges etc.) and has delivered more than 20 fluidized boilers for this application. One of Kvaerner's recent orders is a waste burning plant in Dundee, Scotland. This plant will be completed in 1999 and is designed to handle 120,000 tons of mixed waste a year, including household waste, civic amenity waste, industrial waste, clinical waste and liquid waste. The thermal efficiency of the plant will be 90% with a production of 10.5 MW of electricity. It will be the first boiler of its kind in the U.K.

  1. Petrological and geochemical comparition between the upper and lower rhyolite of the Binchuan basaltic profile,Emeishan LIP succession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huixin, H.; Yu, W.

    2013-12-01

    Emeishan basalt is well known worldwide,and it has been well tested from the geochemistry and petrology.However,the eruptional rock sequences is rare reported. Some former work reported that on the top of Emeishan basalt,there is always sit with rhyolite(or felsic-composition,mainly are rhyolite and trachyte ).This work is focusing on newly found rhyolite and trachyte succession at the bottom of Binchuan basalt pofile,and the comparition between the bottom and top felsic-composition of the Binchuan pofile basaltic related succession from petrological and geochemistry points. The bottom rhyolite is lack of phenocryst,and the filling of blowhole is observed quartz only. Otherwise,the phenocryst of the top rhyolite is mainly alkaline-feldspar. The upper layered rhyolite is less sillical rich than the lower part with the content of SiO2 65-70,68-74 respectively. Additionally,the content of TiO2 (0.82-0.87,0.57-0.70),Total Fe2O3(5.15-5.87,2.89-4.88),MgO(2.13-2.64,0.19-0.48),CaO(1.18-1.49,0.13-0.42), P2O5(0.18-0.25,0.02-0.25) of the upper layered rhyolite is more abundant than the lower layer. However,the amount of the Na2O,K2O of both upper and lower rhyolite can not be distinguished clearly as weathering effect suspectively. This may note that the two kinds of rhyolite are formed from different geological process. The upper may due to the crystallization differentiation of the mafic magmas ,while the lower is formed in the result of crust remelting.

  2. Structure and Performance of a 600MWe Supercritical CFB Boiler with Water Cooled Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Nie, L.; Hu, X. K.; Yue, G. X.; Li, W. K.; We, Y. X.; Lu, J. F.; Che, D. F.

    The circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology is one of the approved clean combustion technologies, and the power supply efficiency can be improved combining with the supercritical technology. A 600MWe supercritical CFB boiler is introduced in this paper. This boiler is designed based on the success of 300 MWe CFB boilers, which has a single furnace with three cyclones without external heat exchangers. There are twin furnaces and twin air distributors in the boiler. The water walls of the twin furnace above dense bed combines to a common fence wall with some channels to balance the pressure of the two furnaces. The smooth tubes are adopted in membrane water wall with mixing header. Six cyclones are located beside the furnace as well as six loopseals and six external heat exchangers. The hydrodynamic characteristic of water wall is available with the modeling prediction. And the performance of the 600MWe supercritical CFB boiler is also investigated.

  3. PROVENCE SOPROLIF 250 MWe CFB: Performances during two years of operation

    SciTech Connect

    Roulet, V.; Levy, D.; Lucat, P.

    1998-07-01

    The largest CFB boiler in the world, the SOPROLIF 250 MWe CFB boiler, has been operated commercially since the end of April 1996. The overall boiler performances and availability recorded since the beginning of this commercial operation are far better than the contractual requirements. This paper gives the performance figures measured during the performance tests of the boiler. Moreover, different performance parameters recorded by an on-line control tool are detailed for the second year of commercial operation. Then, the good flexibility of this CFB unit and its ability to follow the grid requirements are shown. Moreover this paper describes the different ways of operation and maintenance optimizations that are going to be engaged by SOPROLIF in the following years. Finally, the different results enable developments for further scaling up to 400--600 MWe. EDF has already carried out a basic study on a 600 MWe supercritical CFB unit for one year.

  4. Application of CFB technology for large power generating units and CO{sub 2} capture

    SciTech Connect

    Ryabov, G. A. Folomeev, O. M.; Sankin, D. A.; Khaneev, K. V.; Bondarenko, I. G.; Mel'nikov, D. A.

    2010-07-15

    Data on the development of the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology for combustion of fuels in large power generating units are examined. The problems with raising the steam parameters and unit power of boilers with a circulating fluidized bed are examined. With the boiler system at the 460 MW unit at Lagisza (Poland) as an example, the feasibility of raising the efficiency of units with CFB boilers through deep recovery of the heat of the effluent gases and reducing expenditure for in-house needs is demonstrated. Comparative estimates of the capital and operating costs of 225 and 330 MW units are used to determine the conditions for optimum use of CFB boilers in the engineering renovation of thermal power plants in Russia. New areas for the application of CFB technology in CO{sub 2} capture are analyzed in connection with the problem of reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  5. Integration of concentrated solar power (CSP) and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) power plants - final results of the COMBO-CFB project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suojanen, Suvi; Hakkarainen, Elina; Kettunen, Ari; Kapela, Jukka; Paldanius, Juha; Tuononen, Minttu; Selek, Istvan; Kovács, Jenö; Tähtinen, Matti

    2017-06-01

    Hybridization of solar energy together with another energy source is an option to provide heat and power reliably on demand. Hybridization allows decreasing combustion related fuel consumption and emissions, assuring stable grid connection and cutting costs of concentrated solar power technology due to shared power production equipment. The research project "Integration of Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) and Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Power Plants" (COMBO-CFB) has been carried out to investigate the technical possibilities and limitations of the concept. The main focus was on the effect of CSP integration on combustion dynamics and on the joint power cycle, and on the interactions of subsystems. The research provides new valuable experimental data and knowhow about dynamic behaviour of CFB combustion under boundary conditions of the hybrid system. Limiting factors for maximum solar share in different hybridization schemes and suggestions for enhancing the performance of the hybrid system are derived.

  6. Comparison of Ash from PF and CFB Boilers and Behaviour of Ash in Ash Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arro, H.; Pihu, T.; Prikk, A.; Rootamm, R.; Konist, A.

    Over 90% of electricity produced in Estonia is made by power plants firing local oil shale and 25% of the boilers are of the circulating fluidised bed (CFB) variety. In 2007 approximately 6.5 million tons of ash was acquired as a byproduct of using oil shale for energy production. Approximately 1.5 million tons of that was ash from CFB boilers. Such ash is deposited in ash fields by means ofhydro ash removal.

  7. Update of operating experience of B and W IR-CFB coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Belin, F.; Kavidass, S.; Maryamchik, M.; Walker, D.J.; Mandal, A.K.; Price, C.E.

    1999-07-01

    This paper updates the operating experience of two Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) coal-fired, internal recirculation circulating fluidized-bed (IR-CFB) boilers. The first boiler is located at Southern Illinois University (SIU) in Carbondale, Illinois, USA, and is designed for 35 MW{sub th} output for cogeneration application, utilizing high sulfur, low ash Illinois coal. The second boiler is located at Kanoria Chemicals and Industries in Renukoot, India, and is designed for 81 MW{sub th} output for captive power requirement, firing high ash, low sulfur coal. This boiler was supplied by Thermax B and W Ltd., a joint venture company of B and W and Thermax of India. The choice of CFB technology was based on its fuel flexibility, cost effectiveness and environmental benefits for solid fuels. Based on the broad experience in designing utility and industrial boilers for operation worldwide, B and W has developed a cost effective and compact atmospheric pressure IR-CFB boiler. The B and W IR-CFB boiler design is distinctive in its use of U-beam particle separators. Worldwide, B and W offers IF-CFB boilers up to 175 MW{sub th}, both reheat and non-reheat, and is pursuing units up to 350 MW{sub th}. This paper reviews the general description of each IR-CFB boiler, design and performance aspects, as well as overall operating experiences. The boiler availabilities including maintenance aspects and emissions data will be presented.

  8. 1300°F 800 MWe USC CFB Boiler Design Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Archie; Goidich, Steve; Fan, Zhen

    Concern about air emissions and the effect on global warming is one of the key factors for developing and implementing new advanced energy production solutions today. One state-of-the-art solution is circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology combined with a high efficiency once-through steam cycle. Due to this extremely high efficiency, the proven CFB technology offers a good solution for CO2 reduction. Its excellent fuel flexibility further reduces CO2 emissions by co-firing coal with biomass. Development work is under way to offer CFB technology up to 800MWe capacities with ultra-supercritical (USC) steam parameters. In 2009 a 460MWe once-through supercritical (OTSC) CFB boiler designed and constructed by Foster Wheeler will start up. However, scaling up the technology further to 600-800MWe with net efficiency of 45-50% is needed to meet the future requirements of utility operators. To support the move to these larger sizes, an 800MWe CFB boiler conceptual design study was conducted and is reported on herein. The use of USC conditions (˜11 00°F steam) was studied and then the changes, that would enable the unit to generate 1300°F steam, were identified. The study has shown that by using INTREX™ heat exchangers in a unique internal-external solids circulation arrangement, Foster Wheeler's CFB boiler configuration can easily accommodate 1300°F steam and will not require a major increase in heat transfer surface areas.

  9. Development of Flexi-Burn™ CFB Power Plant to Meet the Challenge of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackt, Horst; Fant, Zhen; Seltzert, Andrew; Hotta, Arto; Erikssoni, Timo; Sippu, Ossi

    Carbon-dioxide capture and storage (CCS) offers the potential for major reductions in carbon- dioxide emissions of fossil fuel-based power generation in the fairly short term, and oxyfuel combustion is one of the identified CCS technology options. Foster Wheeler (FW) is working on reduction of carbon-dioxide with its integrated Flexi-Burn™ CFB technology. The proven high efficiency circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) technology, when coupled with air separation units and carbon purification units, offers a solution for carbon dioxide reduction both in re-powering and in greenfield power plants. CFB technology has the advantages over pulverized coal technology of a more uniform furnace heat flux, increased fuel flexibility and offers the opportunity to further reduce carbon dioxide emissions by co-firing coal with bio-fuels. Development and design of an integrated Flexi-Bum™ CFB steam generator and balance of plant system was conducted for both air mode and oxyfuel mode. Through proper configuration and design, the same steam generator can be switched from air mode to oxyfuel mode without the need for unit shutdown for modifications. The Flexi-Burn™ CFB system incorporates features to maximize plant efficiency and power output when operating in the oxy-firing mode through firing more fuel in the same boiler.

  10. Overview and status of first 25 MW(e) IR-CFB boiler in India

    SciTech Connect

    Kavidass, S.; Bakshi, V.K.; Diwakar, K.K.

    1997-12-31

    The Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) internal recirculation CFB (IR-CFB) boiler is unique in design. Worldwide, B and W offers IR-CFB boilers up to 150 MW(e) both reheat and non-reheat, and is pursuing units up to 300 MW(e). This paper discusses an overview and status of the construction, commissioning, initial start-up operation and milestones of the ongoing 25 MW(e) IR-CFB boiler project at Kanoria Chemicals and Industries Ltd., Renukoot, India. This IR-CFB boiler is designed, supplied and installed by Thermax Babcock and Wilcox Ltd. (TBW), a joint venture company of the B and W and Thermax in India. The boiler parameters are, steam flow of 29.2 kg/s (23,420 lbs/hr), 6.4 MPa (925 psig), and 485 C (905 F) with feedwater temperature of 180 C (356 F). The boiler will utilize high-ash content (> 45%), subbituminous coal with a heating value of 3,500 KCal/kg (6,300 Btu/lb). This paper also discusses the various aspects of the boiler design, performance, auxiliary equipment, advantages and initial start-up operating performance.

  11. Design and shakedown of {Pi} shaped CFB boiler of 35 t/h

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, D.C.; Chen, H.P.; He, Q.

    1997-12-31

    The CFB boiler has been extensively developed for years in China. There are 5 kinds of CFB boilers developed by universities and institutes. The {Pi} shaped CFB boiler with downward exhaust gas cyclones designed by Huazhong University of Science and Technology and fabricated by Wuchang Boiler and the Container Works is one of these boilers which has operated since 1994. This paper describes the design considerations: {Pi} shaped configuration that makes the boiler more compact and reduces boiler space requirements; Coal size ranges 0--10 mm which means that a small particle fluidized bed is superimposed on a large particle fluidized bed; Some immersed heating surface placed in the dense phase bed of the CFB boiler that makes the boiler cost cheaper; and A patented solid cyclone separator with downward exhaust gas is employed in the design and the separating efficiency is higher and the pressure drop is lower. Due to some uncertainty, the design of the heating surface area and gas velocity are considered. This paper also describes some problems overcome in the shakedown and operation process. Operation of the CFB boiler reveals that the boiler has reached the designed steam capacity and runs steady at the rated steam capacity. The ash return device works quite well.

  12. Engineering of a 110 MW atmospheric CFB for the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Rode, J.R.; Brzezeina, P.; Strach, F.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the engineering considerations related to the design of a new 110 MWe atmospheric fluidized bed boiler (CFB) and boiler island auxiliaries for installation at the CEZ, a.s. (Czech Republic Utility) Ledvice Power Station. The plant is located in the northwest Bohemia area of the Czech Republic in the foothills of the Krusne Hory Mountains, between the towns of Bilina and Teplice. The type of fuel to be burned in the CFB is brown coal which requires unique design considerations in as well as the particular boiler operational parameters. The impetus behind the addition of this new CFB at the plant is that the existing pulverized coal fired steam generator which was put in service in 1969 is unable to meet new regulations and laws regarding compliance with the protection of the environment and will be replaced once the new CFB unit is brought into service. A technical-economic study conducted by CEZ, a.s. evaluated CFB technology as the most advantageous from a long-term standpoint. The following variations were considered in the study: boiler retrofit and construction of new ash handling equipment; implementation of the combined cycle based upon natural gas; and reconstruction of the boiler equipment with transition to atmospheric fluid-bed combustion. The selection of the supplier of fluid-bed boiler was performed with an emphasis of the bidders` references as for the construction and operation of fluid-bed boilers with the outputs of min. 300 t/hr.

  13. Effect of the Additives on the Desulphurization Rate of Flash Hydrated and Agglomerated CFB Fly Ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D. X.; Li, H. L.; Xu, M.; Lu, J. F.; Liu, Q.; Zhang, J. S.; Yue, G. X.

    CFB fly ash from separators was mixed with water or the mixture of water and additives under the temperature of 363K by use of a blender. Then, this compound of fly ash and water or additives was pumped into a CFB combustion chamber by a sludge pump. Because the temperature of flue gas was high in CFB, the fly ash was hydrated fast and agglomerated in the same time. Through this process, the size of agglomerating fly ash is larger than the original particle and the relative residence time of agglomerated fly ash in CFB becomes longer. Therefore, the rate of utility of calcium in fly ash improves and the content of carbon in fly ash decreases. This results in a low Ca/S and low operational cost for CFB boiler. The additive is one key factor, which affects the rate of desulfurization of agglomerated fly ash. Effect of different additives on rate of desulfurization is not same. Cement and limestone are beneficiated to sulfur removal of agglomerated fly ash, but sodium silicate does not devote to the rate of sulfur removal of agglomerated fly ash.

  14. Feasible experimental study on the utilization of a 300 MW CFB boiler desulfurizating bottom ash for construction applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, X.F.; Amano, R.S.

    2006-12-15

    CFB boiler ash cannot be used as a cement replacement in concrete due to its unacceptably high sulfur content. The disposal in landfills has been the most common means of handling ash in circulating fluidized bed boiler power plants. However for a 300 MW CFB boiler power plant, there will be 600,000 tons of ash discharged per year and will result in great volumes and disposal cost of ash byproduct. It was very necessary to solve the utilization of CFB ash and to decrease the disposal cost of CFB ash. The feasible experimental study results on the utilization of the bottom ashes of a 300 MW CFB boiler in Baima power plant in China were reported in this paper. The bottom ashes used for test came from the discharged bottom ashes in a 100 MW CFB boiler in which the anthracite and limestone designed for the 300 MW CFB project was burned. The results of this study showed that the bottom ash could be used for cementitious material, road concrete, and road base material. The masonry cements, road concrete with 30 MPa compressive strength and 4.0 MPa flexural strength, and the road base material used for base courses of the expressway, the main road and the minor lane were all prepared with milled CFB bottom ashes in the lab. The better methods of utilization of the bottom ashes were discussed in this paper.

  15. Study of Gas Solid Flow Characteristics in Cyclone Inlet Ducts of A300Mwe CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J. Y.; Lu, X. F.; Lai, J.; Liu, H. Z.

    Gas solid flow characteristics in cyclone's inlet duct of a 300MW CFB boiler were studied in a cold circulating fluidized bed (CFB) experimental setup according to a 410t/h CFB boiler with a scale of 10∶1. Tracer particles were adopted in the experiment and their motion trajectories in the two kinds of cyclone's inlet ducts were photographed by a high-speed camera. By analyzing the motion trajectories of tracer particles, acceleration performance of particle phases in the two inlet ducts was obtained. Results indicate that the acceleration performance of particles in the long inlet duct is better than that in the short inlet duct, but the pressure drop of the long inlet duct is higher. Meanwhile, under the same operating conditions, both the separation efficiency and the pressure drop of the cyclone are higher when the cyclone is connected with the long inlet duct. Figs 11, Tabs 4 and refs 10.

  16. Static and transient performance prediction for CFB boilers using a Bayesian-Gaussian Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Haiwen; Ni, Weidou

    1997-06-01

    A Bayesian-Gaussian Neural Network (BGNN) is put forward in this paper to predict the static and transient performance of Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boilers. The advantages of this network over Back-Propagation Neural Networks (BPNNs), easier determination of topology, simpler and time saving in training process as well as self-organizing ability, make this network more practical in on-line performance prediction for complicated processes. Simulation shows that this network is comparable to the BPNNs in predicting the performance of CFB boilers. Good and practical on-line performance predictions are essential for operation guide and model predictive control of CFB boilers, which are under research by the authors.

  17. USA B and W`s IR-CFB coal-fired boiler operating experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Kavidass, S.; Maryamchik, M.; Kanoria, M.; Price, C.S.

    1998-12-31

    This paper updates operating experience of two Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) coal-fired, internal recirculation circulating fluidized-bed (IR-CFB) boilers. The first boiler is located at Southern Illinois University (SIU) in Carbondale, Illinois and is designed for 35 MWt output for cogeneration application, utilizing high sulfur, low ash Illinois coal. The second boiler is located at Kanoria Chemicals and Industries Ltd. (KCIL) in Renukoot, India and is designed for 81 MWt output for captive power requirements, firing high ash, low sulfur coal. This boiler was supplied by Thermax B and W (TBW) Ltd., a joint venture company of B and W and Thermax in India. The CFB technology is selected for these two units based on the fuel and environmental considerations. This paper discusses the various aspects of the two IR-CFB boilers` design features, performance, and operating experience including emissions.

  18. Colorado-Ute Nucla Station circulating-fluidized-bed (CFB) demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has completed a demonstration project at Nucla Station, owned and operated by Colorado-Ute Electric Association. This station was recently retrofitted with a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and its capacity was raised from 36 to 110 MWe. The new boiler supplies all the steam needed to operate the retrofitted station. At the time of its commissioning in 1987, the boiler was the largest of its kind in the world and represented the first full-scale utility CFB installation. The EPRI demonstration project is documented in two reports. The first of these, titled Test Program Preparation,'' covers the preparatory work leading up to actual testing. The second, titled Test Program Results,'' is contained in this volume and includes a description of the test work and its results as well as the conclusions with respect to the merits of CFB boilers in utility service. 124 figs., 28 tabs.

  19. Hydrodynamic Model with Binary Particle Diameters to Predict Axial Voidage Profile in a CFB Combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. J.; Zhang, H.; Yang, H. R.; Wu, Y. X.; Lu, J. F.; Yue, G. X.

    A hydrodynamic model with binary particle diameters was developed to better predict axial voidage profile in a CFB combustor. In the model, the CFB is regarded as a superposition of two sub-beds, a fast fluidized bed in the upper riser with a characteristic particle diameter of O.2mm and a bubbling fluidized bed or turbulent bed in the bottom riser with a characteristic particle diameter of 2mm. Furthermore, a variable critical particle diameter whose terminal velocity equals to the superficial gas velocity was employed to determine which flow regime the particle belongs to. The results show that binary particle diameter model has the advantages in describing wide particle diameter distribution while reducing the complexity of computation. The model was verified by the field data of voidage profile in a 300MW CFB boiler.

  20. Test research of bed ash coolers for a 50 MWe CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.P.; Lu, J.D.; Lin, Z.J.; Liu, D.C.; Hu, L.L.; Xie, P.J.; Yan, H.X.; Liu, M.C.

    1995-12-31

    CFB boilers have been developed and commercialized in China. As one of the main auxiliaries of FBC boilers, the bed ash cooler plays an important role in regular operation of the boilers. A 50 MWe 2-shaped CFB boiler will be put into operation in North China. Many kinds of bed ash cooling systems for this boiler had been designed and compared. Then the optimum bed ash coolers were determined and made. Experimental research and pilot-scale test for the bed ash coolers were also carried out. The result indicates that the bed ash cooler can be operated reliably and can meet the demand for cooling bed ash of the 50 MWe CFB boiler. The test data are very useful for further improving the performance of ash coolers.

  1. Recent circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler projects in the U. S. and Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, T.; Anders, R.; Capuano, L.; Fox, S.; Plass, L.

    1983-11-01

    Lurgi Chemie and Huettentechnik has developed the circulating fluid bed process for solid fuel combustion and steam generation. This process has been commercially proven at Luenen, West Germany. Lurgi Chemie is also currently building two additional CFB boilers in Germany which will produce 595,000 pph and 331,000 pph of steam, respectively. In the U.S., Lurgi Corporation and Combustion Engineering have signed an agreement to jointly design, manufacture and sell CFB plants in the U.S. and Canada. The circular fluid bed process itself is a system which can burn a wide variety of inexpensive, low grade solid fules efficiently, economically and in an environmentally acceptable manner. The details of these CFB boilers are examined in this article.

  2. More than one year of operation of Provence SOPROLIF 250 Mwe CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Claret, P.; Ratti, G.; Jacob, T.; Levy, M.D.

    1998-07-01

    The SOPROLIF 250 Mwe CFB boiler, installed in the Provence Power Plant located near Gardanne in the south of France, has been the largest CFB boiler in operation since April 1996. The purpose of the project was to repower with a CFB boiler 250 Mwe the existing unit 4 of pulverized coal in order to keep on burning the local high sulfur coal while ensuring an environmentally friendly operation. The erection was carried out according to the schedule. The full load was reached in November 1995 and commercial operation started in April 1996 with 5 months delay due to social and technical problems mainly relative to some boiler and steam turbine auxiliaries rather than to the CFB process itself. The training to prepare the transfer from pulverized coal to CFB boiler was carefully prepared and the new process was well accepted by the operators. The SOPROLIF CFB boiler performances which were carried out in May 97 are in accordance with the expected figures. During the first year of operation, the availability reached the contractual figure, which was determined according to such a prototype. The main operation difficulties were due to the coal moisture, which was higher than expected in winter season (problem never met with the existing PC unit due to the drier process in mills). In addition, to reduce NO{sub x} emission, cyclone modification has been performed during the first year of operation through a main overhaul, which impacted the availability of the first year. Since April 97, the availability has been very high. This paper presents the project, describes the technical experience that EDF got from the first year of operation and states the performance test results.

  3. CFB combustion of high-ash Ukrainian anthracite -- Pilot testing and design implications

    SciTech Connect

    Belin, F.; Fuller, T.A.; Maryamchik, M.; Perna, M.A.; Maystrenko, A.Yu.

    1997-12-31

    High-ash anthracite is the most important indigenous fuel used for power generation in Ukraine. The power plant upgrade program, developed jointly by US Department of Energy (DOE) and Ukrainian Ministry of Energy, anticipates applying the CFB technology for efficient and environmentally clean utilization of this hard-to-burn fuel. Testing of high-ash anthracite sponsored by DOE was conducted at CFB test facilities at the Division of High Temperature Energy Conversion (DHTEC) of Ukrainian Academy of Science in Kiev and at the Babcock and Wilcox Research Center in Alliance, Ohio, USA (ARC). Testing at DHTEC included kinetic studies and combustion tests on a small-scale (100 mm diameter) CFB combustor. The rest results were used to select the fuel sizing and limestone type for pilot testing at ARC and to evaluate the effects of operating parameters on fuel combustion. Testing at the ARC 2.5 MW{sub t} CFB pilot facility (700 x 700 mm cross section, 23 m high) provided combustion and emission performance data applicable for designing of commercial-scale CFB boilers. Stable combustion without supplemental fuel and with the unburned carbon loss of less than 3% was achieved over a 55 to 100% load range. About 90% of sulfur was removed by adding limestone at a Ca/S ratio of 1.85; nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide emissions were below 340 mg/Nm{sup 3} and 260 mg/Nm{sup 3}, respectively. The CFB boiler design recommendations for high-ash anthracite, developed based on the test results, are described in the paper.

  4. Proven clean coal technology at work: The Provence 250 MW CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Lucat, P.; Jacquet, L.; Roulet, V.

    1997-12-31

    The successful start-up, in the last months of 1995, of the 250 MW Provence/Gardanne unit represents a significant milestone in the development of atmospheric Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boilers for power stations. This high performance unit (over 700 tonnes/hour of steam at 169 bar, 567 C, with reheat at 566 C) has been in operation since April 1996. It is the first CFB boiler in the world to reach such a capacity. CFB boilers, with their excellent SO{sub 2} and NOx emission control capability, are today recognized as a very attractive Clean Coal Technology, particularly because of their simplicity. The Provence/Gardanne project is part of a French development program for large CFB boilers which has been elaborated in the perspective of domestic applications (mainly future semi-base load units) and of the overseas market. It responds to the converging interests of Electricite de France (EDF), Charbonnages de France (CdF)and GEC ALSTHOM Stein Industrie. Besides comprehensive R and D-type investigations aiming at an in-depth understanding of the CFB process and preparing for future scale-up and development, this program has already been marked by two outstanding commercial repowering projects: a 125 MW unit, in operation since 1990 at the Emile Huchet Power Station, and the 250 MW Provence unit. These boilers have been designed and supplied by GEC ALSTHOM Stein Industrie in the framework of their long standing cooperation with Lurgi, a pioneer of the CFB process. The main components are: (1) Furnace; (2) Cyclone; (3) Back-pass; (4) Ash cooler; (5) External Heat Exchanger. However, a brief discussion of some key design options affecting bed performance is necessary to better understand this technology. The paper describes the design of the system, the retrofitting project at Emile Huchet/Carling, and then gives background information on the Provence/Gardanne retrofit, describing SO{sub 2} emissions, the 250 MW boiler, and results from the performance tests. The

  5. Operations of solids feed and waste disposal systems at the Nucla CFB

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, M.A. ); Melvin, R.H. ); Solomon, N.G. )

    1990-01-01

    Achieving a high unit availability with a variety of coal types is a key factor influencing the attractiveness of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers in the utility market. To accomplish this, attention must be given to the design of solids feed and waste disposal systems. These auxiliary systems typically use off-the-shelf hardware with in-service applications different than conventional units. The design of this equipment typically dictates the flexibility of the boiler for burning different fuel types. This paper discusses the design and operating experience of these auxiliary systems at the Nucla CFB since initial unit start-up in May 1987.

  6. Cold-side desulfurization by humidification of fly ash in CFB boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, R.A.; Tang, J.T.; Capan, S.F.; Fioriti, G.A.; Taylor, T.E.

    1995-12-31

    It is expected that sulfur emission regulations for fluidized bed boilers will continue to become more stringent. By capturing sulfur in-situ with furnace limestone injection, circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers have been quite successful in achieving capture efficiencies of up to 93%. However, CFB operating experience has shown that extending sulfur capture beyond this level results in a diminishing return relationship and requires a substantial increase in limestone consumption, especially for fuels with a relatively low (< 1.0%) sulfur content. Such an increase in limestone consumption can have numerous effects upon boiler design and performance, including: increased ash handling system requirements; higher operating cost of increased limestone consumption; increased NO{sub x} emissions; a detrimental effect upon SNCR performance, higher pH of ash leachate; and lower boiler efficiency. For future power generation projects, which are predicted to require increasingly higher sulfur capture efficiencies, the combination of the above listed conditions could result in a CFB boiler being cost-prohibitive in comparison to a pulverized coal boiler for a given coal. Clearly, CFB boilers will require a refined operating strategy, together with a consideration of auxiliary desulfurization technology, in order to remain competitive in the future energy equipment market.

  7. Research on the Hydraulic Characteristics of a 600MW Supercritical Pressure CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, D.; Pan, J.; Bi, Q. C.; Zhang, Y. J.; Jian, X. G.; Yu, L.

    Water wall design is a key technology of supercritical pressure CFB boiler. On account of the low heat flux and its homogeneous distribution in furnace, internally ribbed tubes with low mass flux and smooth tubes with moderate mass flux can be applied in the water wall of supercritical CFB boilers. An experimental research on the flow and heat transfer characteristics of internally ribbed tubes and smooth tubes with different inner diameters was conducted in the range of sub-critical and supercritical pressure. The departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) and dry-out boundary and the empirical correlations of heat transfer are obtained from the experiments. The mathematical model for predicting the circuit mass flux and grid pressure of a flow network system is based on the mass and momentum conservation equations and an iterative method is used to solve the nonlinear equations. Harbin Boiler Works has developed a 600MW supercritical CFB boiler with external heat exchangers and 6 separators. The mass flux and metal temperature distribution of water wall in the CFB boiler are calculated and the results show that the water wall can operate safely at BMCR and 75%BMCR load.

  8. Combustion Model for a CFB Boiler with Consideration of Post-Combustion in the Cyclone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S. H.; Yang, H. R.; Zhang, H.; Wu, Y. X.; Lu, J. F.; Yue, G. X.

    Severe post combustion in the cyclone of CFB boilers could destroy heat absorbing balance among the heating surfaces and cause overheating problem for reheaters and superheaters. However, post combustion in the cyclone is rarely considered in the design phase of a CFB boiler. Based on our previous experiment results, group combustion model is used in this study to estimate the combustion of particles in the cyclone. It is found that the combustion of particles in the cyclone did not contribute as much as we anticipated to the temperature augment in the cyclone because of great oxygen diffusion resistance in near-wall particle layer. Post combustion model in the cyclone is then added into a one-dimensional combustion model of CFB boiler, in which the gas-solid flow, reaction, and heat absorption at different vertical locations in a CFB boiler can be well predicted with the knowledge of operation parameters. The new model was used to estimate the influence of some operation parameters on the post combustion in the cyclone and heat releasing fraction in the cyclone. The prediction results are very good.

  9. The Provence 250 MWe unit: The largest CFB boiler ready for operation

    SciTech Connect

    Jaud, P.; Jacquet, L.; Piedfer, O.; Jestin, L.

    1995-12-31

    Today, the largest Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) project approaching operation is the 250 MWe Provence CFB boiler, located in the south of France. At such a size, the CFB technique has now reached a capacity corresponding to thermal power plants operated by utilities. This new unit, with a pant leg design, is also a very important step towards larger size i.e. 400 MWe and greater. The purpose of the Provence project was to replace the existing pulverized coal boiler unit 4, commissioned in 1967, of the Provence/Gardanne power plant, with a new CFB boiler while reusing most of the existing equipment. The 250 MWe boiler is of the superheat-reheat type, 1,050 F--1,050 F, firing local high-sulfur subbituminous coal with the possibility of co-firing high viscosity fuel oil (with a high sulfur content) up to a 50%--50% energy ratio. The first firing of the boiler is due in May 1995. This paper describes the progress in the construction of the plant and provides technical details of the new boiler and auxiliaries. Also presented is the associated R and D program designed to give a thorough evaluation of this boiler with a view to the design of larger CFBs in the future.

  10. Three dimensional numerical prediction of two phase flow in industrial CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Balzer, G.; Simonin, O.

    1997-12-31

    Gas-solid two phase flows are encountered in number of industrial applications such as pneumatic transport, catalytic cracking, coal combustors. The paper aims at presenting the numerical model of gas-solid flows which have been developed for several years at the Laboratoire National d`Hydraulique of Electricite de France and its application to the prediction of an industrial CFB Boiler.

  11. Research on Flow Non-Uniformity in Main Circulation Loop of a CFB Boiler with Multiple Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.; Yang, H. R.; Liu, Q.; Zhang, H.; Wu, Y. X.; Yue, G. X.; Wang, Y. Z.

    Maldistribution of gas-solid tow-phase flow field in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) can cause a series of problems, such as thermal deviation, wear of water walls, etc. In this study, a cold model CFB facility, which was scaled down from a commercial 300MWe CFB boiler with three cyclones placed in an array, was built up and a series of experiments were conducted the flow non-uniformity. The results showed that in CFB boiler with multiple cyclones, the distribution of bed material in the circulation loops is different and uncertain. The gas-solid two-phase flow in the furnace is unbiased, even the circulating rates in the circulation loops are different. The circulating rate in the middle loop is larger than that in the side loops. The difference is less than 10%.

  12. OMFP: An Approach for Online Mass Flow Prediction in CFB Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žliobaitė, Indrė; Bakker, Jorn; Pechenizkiy, Mykola

    Fuel feeding and inhomogeneity of fuel typically cause process fluctuations in the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. If control systems fail to compensate the fluctuations, the whole plant will suffer from fluctuations that are reinforced by the closed-loop controls. Accurate estimates of fuel consumption among other factors are needed for control systems operation. In this paper we address a problem of online mass flow prediction. Particularly, we consider the problems of (1) constructing the ground truth, (2) handling noise and abrupt concept drift, and (3) learning an accurate predictor. Last but not least we emphasize the importance of having the domain knowledge concerning the considered case. We demonstrate the performance of OMPF using real data sets collected from the experimental CFB boiler.

  13. B&W IR-CFB: Operating Experience and New Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryamchik, M.; Wietzke, D. L.

    The paper provides an update on B&W Internal Recirculation (IR) CFB boiler operating experience, new commercial projects, and developments in boiler design and process. Availability data for two projects in the U.S. will be presented, as well as data collected from two additional projects by a B&W licensee in India. Two new commercial projects are currently going through commissioning. Yet another unit, Great River Energy (being erected), is described in detail. To achieve the required amount of in-furnace heat absorption in higher capacity CFB boilers, a new B&W development is its patented in-bed heat exchanger (IBHX). The IBHX allows control of the bed temperature in the furnace as well as steam temperature in the superheater and reheater surfaces, thus accommodating higher capacities.

  14. Impact of heat and mass transfer on combustion of a fuel particle in CFB boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Palchonok, G.I.; Breitholtz, C.; Thunman, H.; Leckner, B.

    1997-12-31

    High excess temperatures of burning coal particles, up to 600 K, have been measured with a two-color pyrometer in the transport zone of a CFB boiler at a rather low average oxygen concentration of about 6%. To understand this phenomenon, a model of heat and mass transfer between a burning char particle and its surrounding has been developed, based on measured heat transfer coefficients and the estimated slip velocity of a char particle. The gas-convective and radiative mechanisms of heat transfer were found to dominate in the core of the transport zone of a CFB furnace. The gas-convective transfer rate was 1.5 times as high as in a single-phase flow. Model calculations show that particles between 0.3 and 3 mm could have as high a temperature as the measured ones, provided that there is a highly non-uniform oxygen distribution over the furnace cross-section.

  15. Optimization of limestone sizing for CFB combustors: Results of pilot plant and bench-scale testing

    SciTech Connect

    Alliston, M.; Edvardsson, C.; Wu, S.; Probst, S.

    1994-12-31

    A grant to study the performance of limestones in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor was obtained in 1991 from the Pennsylvania Energy Development Authority (PEDA) by Tampella Power Corporation (TPC). The overall objective of this PEDA project was to carry out a systematic pilot plant tests at TPC`s pilot plant in Williamsport, Pennsylvania, in systematic order to identify ways of improving sulfur capture and limestone utilization through better control of the size distribution and residence time of the limestone particles in the furnace. It was also an objective to determine if bench scale testing could be of value in predicting CFB sorbent behavior. The pilot plant and bench test results were incorporated into an empirical Correlation which accounts for the size distribution and residence time of solids in CFB boiler.

  16. Experimental Study on Coal Feeding Property of 600MW CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. P.; Tian, L. N.; Du, Q.; Yang, H. P.; Wang, X. H.; Zhou, K.; Zhang, S. H.

    In the CFB boiler technology, improving the steam parameters can lead to the improvement of power plant efficiency. However, during the process of large scale, there exist some key problems, such as uniformity of coal feeding, it is a major factor which showed great influence on the boiler efficiency, temperature distribution, etc. In the paper, based on the structure of commercial 600MW CFB boiler unit and similarity principle, the experiment-rig was set-up; using hot trace particle injection and thermocouple temperature collection system, the three-dimensional diffusing property of hot trace particle was analyzed by measuring the temperature distribution at different positions under different operating conditions of variant bed material height and fluidized air velocity.

  17. MP-Pic simulation of CFB riser with EMMS-based drag model

    SciTech Connect

    Li, F.; Song, F.; Benyahia, S.; Wang, W.; Li, J.

    2012-01-01

    MP-PIC (multi-phase particle in cell) method combined with the EMMS (energy minimization multi- scale) drag force model was implemented with the open source program MFIX to simulate the gas–solid flows in CFB (circulatingfluidizedbed) risers. Calculated solid flux by the EMMS drag agrees well with the experimental value; while the traditional homogeneous drag over-predicts this value. EMMS drag force model can also predict the macro-and meso-scale structures. Quantitative comparison of the results by the EMMS drag force model and the experimental measurements show high accuracy of the model. The effects of the number of particles per parcel and wall conditions on the simulation results have also been investigated in the paper. This work proved that MP-PIC combined with the EMMS drag model can successfully simulate the fluidized flows in CFB risers and it serves as a candidate to realize real-time simulation of industrial processes in the future.

  18. Experimental Study on Heat Transfer in a Rolling Ash Cooler used in the CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Li, J. J.; Yang, S.; Si, X. D.; Yang, H. R.; Lu, J. F.; Yue, G. X.

    From the view of the reliability and the techno-economy, the rolling ash cooler is feasible for the large-scale CFB boilers. However, existing studies on heat transfer in rolling ash cooler mainly focused on heat balance calculation and cold, hot test on the ash cooler outputs. In the heat balance calculation, the value of the overall heat transfer coefficient (a) is usually estimated by the experience, lacking of the support of experimental data.

  19. Operating experience and multi-fuel capability of large-scale CFB boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Cleve, K.; Smith, T.V.

    1997-12-31

    Large scale (250 MW{sub e}) circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers capable of effectively utilising a wide range of low grade fuels in an environmentally acceptable manner are now a well proven and reliable technology. Development of this technology and innovative design features continues and three plants - each in their own way representing a significant advance - are discussed. Key technical features and operating experience including availability are reviewed. Fuel variability and test data are also presented. 9 figs.

  20. Six years of experience with Sweden`s largest CFB-boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Skoglund, B.

    1997-12-31

    The CFB boiler at Oerebro has been in commercial operation since 1990. In this paper the operation experience of NOX reduction, fouling, and ash handling are discussed. NOX reduction has been studied, and methods for automatic control of ammonia injection have been introduced the last few years. The results are presented. Ash handling problems have been studied since 1993 and different areas for possible utilization are proposed. The work on the different topics are still under way at the Oerebro plant.

  1. Predictive models of circulating fluidized bed combustors: SO[sub 2] sorption in the CFB loop

    SciTech Connect

    Gidaspow, D.; Therdthianwong, A. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-02-01

    The overall objective of this investigation is to develop experimentally verified models for circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustors. Sorption of S0[sub 2] with calcined limestone was studied in a PYROFLOW type CFB loop at conditions approximating those found in a CFB combustor. Initially the CFB loop contained 150 micron CaO particles of a density of 3.3 g/cm[sup 3] and air at 1143[degrees]K and 3.25 atm. Atzero time, air containing 600 ppm SO[sub 2], was introduced into the riser bottom at 1143[degrees]K. The effect of gas velocity, sorbent inventory and inlet pressure on the sorption of SO[sub 2], were studied isothermally by running our hydrodynamic code with the S0[sub 2] sorption conservation of species equation. At a velocity of 5m/sec., reported to be a typical velocity by PYROPOWER, there is reasonably good S0[sub 2] removal. At 10 m/sec the S0[sub 2] removal is poor. The best SO[sub 2], removal is for a velocity of 5 m/s and a high bed inventory, initial bed height, H = 9m. Most of the S0[sub 2] is removed in the first two meters of the reactor. However, the S0[sub 2] removal is not complete at the bed outlet. This is due to mixing. At the left wall of the reactor (wall opposite the solids inlet) the S0[sub 2] removal was poor due to gas bypassing caused by the asymmetrical solids inlet. Simulation of the PYROPOWER loop with a symmetrical inlet gave us an order of magnitude improvement over the conventional PYROPOWER system. These results demonstrate the practical utility of the predictive model that we have developed over the last three years.

  2. Reburning Characteristics of Residual Carbon in Fly Ash from CFB Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. H.; Luo, H. H.; Chen, H. P.; Yang, H. P.; Wang, X. H.

    The content of residual carbon in fly ash of CFB boilers is a litter high especially when low-grade coal, such as lean coal, anthracite coal, gangue, etc. is in service, which greatly influences the efficiency of boilers and fly ash further disposal. Reburn of fly ash through collection, recirculation in CFB furnace or external combustor is a possibly effective strategy to decrease the carbon content, mainly depending on the residual carbon reactivity. In this work, the combustion properties of residual carbon in fly ash and corresponding original coal from large commercial CFB boilers (Kaifeng (440t/h), and Fenyi (410t/h), all in china) are comparably investigated through experiments. The residual carbon involved was firstly extracted and enriched from fly ash by means of floating elutriation to mitigate the influence of ash and minerals on the combustion behavior of residual carbon. Then, the combustion characteristic of two residual carbons and the original coal particles was analyzed with thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA, STA409C from Nestch, Germany). It was observed that the ignition temperature of the residual carbon is much higher than that of original coal sample, and the combustion reactivity of residual carbon is not only dependent on the original coal property, but also the operating conditions. The influence of oxygen content and heating rate was also studied in TGA. The O2 concentration is set as 20%, 30%, 40% and 70% respectively in O2/N2 gas mixture with the flow rate of 100ml/min. It was found that higher oxygen content is favor for decreasing ignition temperature, accelerating the combustion rate of residual carbon. And about 40% of oxygen concentration is experimentally suggested as an optimal value when oxygen-enriched combustion is put into practice for decreasing residual carbon content of fly ash in CFB boilers.

  3. The progress of the water cooled separator CFB boiler in China

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Junfu; Zhang Jiansheng; Yue Guangxi

    1999-07-01

    Since the first pilot 75 t/h water cooled separator CFB boiler was in operation in 1996, a hot test program has been conducted by Tsinghua University and several boiler works, so as to promote scaling of the CFB boiler. The present paper introduces the test program and the primary results, such as the separator efficiency, material balance, solid bulk density, heat transfer along the height of the furnace, etc. Besides the traditional test technology, some newly developed apparatus was used in the hot test. According to the experience obtained from the boiler, the improvement measure was taken for the second and third boiler, which were in commercial operation in 1998. The first operation experience of the second and third boiler proves the effect of the improvement. Considering the experience and the test program, the scaling up design of water cooled separator was done. The present paper also introduces the design consideration of the 130 t/h and 220 t/h CFB boiler.

  4. Development of the first demonstration CFB boiler for gas and steam cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, M; Luo, Z.; Li, X.; Wang, Q.; Shi, Z.; Ni, M.; Cen, K.

    1997-12-31

    To solve the shortage of gas and steam supply in the small towns of the country, a new gas steam cogeneration system has been developed. On the basis of the fundamental research on the system, a demonstration gas steam cogeneration system has been designed. As the phase 1 of the project, a 75t/h demonstration CFB boiler for gas steam cogeneration has been erected and operated at Yangzhong Thermal Power Plant of China. This paper introduces the first 75t/h demonstration CFB boiler for gas steam cogeneration. Due to the need of gas steam cogeneration process, the boiler has the features of high temperature cyclone separation, high solid recycle ratio, staged combustion and an external heat exchanger adjusting bed temperature and heat load. The operation results show that the boiler has wide fuel adaptability and the heating value of the coal changes from 14MJ/Kg to 25MJ/Kg. The heat load changes from 85t/h to 28t/h while steam parameter is maintained at the normal conditions. The combustion efficiency of the boiler attain 98%. The boiler design and operation experiences may be a guide to the design and operation of larger CFB units in the future.

  5. Heat Transfer Coefficient Distribution in the Furnace of a 300MWe CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P.; Lu, J. F.; Yang, H. R.; Zhang, J. S.; Zhang, H.; Yue, G. X.

    Properly understanding and calculating the distributions of heat flux and heat transfer coefficient (α) in the furnace is important in designing a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler, especially with supercritical parameters. Experimental study on the heat transfer in a commercial 300MWe CFB boiler was conducted. The α from the bed to the water wall was measured by the finite element method (FEM), at five different heights. The influence of suspension density and bed temperature on α was analyzed. It was found that the pressure difference between the inlet and exit of the three cyclones, and the chamber pressure of the corresponding loop seal were not equal. The results indicated the suspension solid density was non-uniform in the cross section at a certain height. Consequently, the distributions of heat flux and α in the horizontal plane in the furnace was non-uniform. The furnace can divided into three sections according to the arrangement of the platen superheaters hanging in the upper CFB furnace. In each section, the heat flux near the center showed increasing trend.

  6. Mercury Emission and Removal of a 135MW CFB Utility Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Y. F.; Zhuo, Y. Q.; Wang, Y. J.; Zhang, L.; Yang, L. G.; Zhao, C. S.

    To evaluate characteristic of the mercury emission and removal from a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler, a representative 135 MW CFB utility boiler was selected to take the onsite measurement of mercury concentrations in feeding coal, bottom ash, fly ash and flue gas using the US EPA recommended Ontario Hydro Method (OHM). The results show that particulate mercury is of majority in flue gas of the CFB boiler. Mercury removal rate of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) reaches 98%. Mercury emission concentration in stack is only 0.062μg/Nm3, and the mass proportion of mercury in bottom ash is less than 1%. It was found that the fly ashes were highly adsorptive to flue gas mercury because of its higher unburned carbon content. Adsorption effect is related to carbon pore structural properties of fly ash and temperature of flue gas. However mercury adsorption capacity by fly ash can not be improved any more when unburned carbon content in fly ash increases further.

  7. Neijiang Power Plant -- Experiences with the largest CFB boiler in China

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Shenshou; Hotta, A.

    1997-12-31

    The 100 MWe Neijiang Thermal Power Plant owned by Sichuan Electric Power Administration (SEPA) started operation in June 1996. The power plant is equipped with Foster Wheeler CFB Boiler, which is designed to produce 114 kg/s of superheated steam at 98 bar pressure and 540 C temperature. The local Sichuan anthracite coal, which is burned in the boiler, features high ash and high sulphur content and has been difficult to burn in some PC or stoker fired boilers. The new CFB boiler has proven to be very suitable for this coal and large turn-down ratio and good load following capability have been achieved. The Neijiang CFB boiler has demonstrated that the stringent emission levels could be easily achieved with good overall economy. The construction of the project, which was done in a tight schedule jointly with Foster Wheeler and SEPA in close and excellent cooperation, is described in this paper in addition to some technical details of the power plant. Also the observations made during the commissioning as well as the performance data are presented.

  8. Effect of particle size distribution on the hydrodynamics of dense CFB risers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakshi, Akhilesh; Khanna, Samir; Venuturumilli, Raj; Altantzis, Christos; Ghoniem, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Circulating Fluidized Beds (CFB) are favorable in the energy and chemical industries, due to their high efficiency. While accurate hydrodynamic modeling is essential for optimizing performance, most CFB riser simulations are performed assuming equally-sized solid particles, owing to limited computational resources. Even though this approach yields reasonable predictions, it neglects commonly observed experimental findings suggesting the strong effect of particle size distribution (psd) on the hydrodynamics and chemical conversion. Thus, this study is focused on the inclusion of discrete particle sizes to represent the psd and its effect on fluidization via 2D numerical simulations. The particle sizes and corresponding mass fluxes are obtained using experimental data in dense CFB riser while the modeling framework is described in Bakshi et al 2015. Simulations are conducted at two scales: (a) fine grid to resolve heterogeneous structures and (b) coarse grid using EMMS sub-grid modifications. Using suitable metrics which capture bed dynamics, this study provides insights into segregation and mixing of particles as well as highlights need for improved sub-grid models.

  9. Economical Comporison PC and CFB Boilers for Retrofit and New Power Plants in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, G. A.

    According to the investment programmes of Russian electricity generating companies increased attention is paid to reconstruction and building new coal TPP. The typical projects are 225, 330 and 600 MW blocks for combustion of different domestic coals. VTI had made technical and economical comparison of CFB and PC boilers for existing and perspective (European) standards of particles, NOx and SOx emissions, according to the data of the prehminary designs and investments in new power plants of 225 and 330 MW. As the basis for technical and economical evaluations was used comparison data of metal-capacity of PC and boilers, emissions-control systems and material-handling systems, with paying attention to the exact suggestions of the boiler producers. The results of the comparisons (capital costs and O&M costs) are discussed in the paper. The most perspective fuels for combustion in CFB boilers are: anthracite culm, coals of the Pechora area, lean coals of Kuznetsk, brown coals of near Moscow, brown coals of Urals and Far East, and also the wastes of coal preparations, peat, shells and biomass. A good composition could be made from Kuznetsk coals and coals of Pechora area. Brown coals are combusted very good in suitable conditions for firing biomass and peat. Also allowed co-combustion with the wastes of coal preparations for the low reactivity fuels such as anthracite culm and lean coals. The diversification of the fuel supply is an essential advantage of CFB boilers. The CFB boiler installations are rather new for the conditions of Russian Federation. For decreasing the technical risks, first installations should be supplied by engineering or license of leading foreign companies with rather big part of their participation. One of important tasks is development of the typical projects, which would allow decreasing not only capital costs, but also decrease time of project realization. The project of the new Block #9 330MW with OTU boiler of Novocherkassk TPP is the

  10. The Impact on Environment of Large Igneous Provinces is Controlled by the Types of Sediment They Intrude.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganino, C.; Arndt, N. T.

    2008-12-01

    Some but not all large igneous provinces (LIP) coincide with global warming episodes and major mass extinctions. The Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction coincides with flood volcanism in the Deccan province of India; the Permian-Triassic extinction with the emplacement of the Siberian Traps; and the End-Guadalupian mass extinction with the Emeishan LIP. In contrast, the enormous oceanic plateaus and the Karoo flood basalts had lesser effect on the biosphere. It has been suggested that the cooling effect of volcanic ash and sulphate aerosols injected into the stratosphere during Plinian eruptions may be the main cause of mass extinctions but the volume of erupted basalt of each large igneous province does not correlate well with the extent of mass extinction. An alternative explanation is that the global climatic changes associated with large igneous provinces are related to the volatiles released during the low-temperature contact metamorphism of the intruded rocks. Svensen et al. (2004, Nature 429, 542; 2007, EPSL 257, 554) have suggested that low- temperature destabilization of organic matter releases large amounts of CH4 and CO2. Here we propose that high-temperature contact metamorphism of carbonates and evaporites release immense quantities of greenhouse and toxic gases (CO2, SO2). The Panzhihua mafic-ultramafic sill, part of the Emeishan LIP, intruding the dolostones of the Sichuan Basin 261 Ma ago. The formation of periclase during high-temperature contact metamorphism of carbonates released at least ~62500 Gt CO2 and additional CO2 was released by lower temperature reactions such as the formation of calc-silicates or the degradation of organic matter. In contrast, the amount of magmatic CO2 released from the Emeishan lavas and intrusions, estimated using the approach of Self et al. (2006, EPSL 248, 518), was less than a third of sediment-derived CO2. The gases probably vented to the atmosphere on a short timescale, utilizing the permeability structure

  11. Effect of bed pressure drop on performance of a CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Hairui Yang; Hai Zhang; Shi Yang; Guangxi Yue; Jun Su; Zhiping Fu

    2009-05-15

    The effect of bed pressure drop and bed inventory on the performances of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler was studied. By using the state specification design theory, the fluidization state of the gas-solids flow in the furnace of conventional CFB boilers was reconstructed to operate at a much lower bed pressure drop by reducing bed inventory and control bed quality. Through theoretical analysis, it was suggested that there would exist a theoretical optimal value of bed pressure drop, around which the boiler operation can achieve the maximal combustion efficiency and with significant reduction of the wear of the heating surface and fan energy consumption. The analysis was validated by field tests carried out in a 75 t/h CFB boiler. At full boiler load, when bed pressure drop was reduced from 7.3 to 3.2 kPa, the height of the dense zone in the lower furnace decreased, but the solid suspension density profile in the upper furnace and solid flow rate were barely influenced. Consequently, the average heat transfer coefficient in the furnace was kept nearly the same and the furnace temperature increment was less than 17{sup o}C. It was also found that the carbon content in the fly ash decreased first with decreasing bed pressure drop and then increased with further increasing bed pressure drop. The turning point with minimal carbon content was referred to as the point with optimal bed pressure drop. For this boiler, at the optimum point the bed pressure was around 5.7 kPa with the overall excess air ratio of 1.06. When the boiler was operated around this optimal point, not only the combustion efficiency was improved, but also fan energy consumption and wear of heating surface were reduced. 23 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Combustion of fuel with high fines in Ahlstrom Pyroflow{reg_sign} CFB boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Chelian, P.K.; Gamble, R.

    1995-12-31

    Ahlstrom Pyroflow{reg_sign} boilers have demonstrated the ability of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers to successfully burn unconventional fuels. These boilers have played a major role in the utilization of waste fuels, like bituminous gob and anthracite culm. Many of the waste fuels are processed prior to combustion to increase their heating value. As the technology for combustion of these fuels advanced, so has the desire of the owners to utilize more of the waste fuel and minimize the rejects. In the past, a majority of the fines content (less than 150 microns) was rejected and returned to the piles along with other rejects. In some cases, pond settlings were found to have a reasonably useful heat content, and were a preferred supplement to the anthracite culm. The use of these rejects had one result in common, i.e., to increase the fines content in the fuel feed to the CFB boilers. Pyropower was involved in tests conducted at two boilers, one burning bituminous gob and the other burning processed anthracite culm and silt. These tests were aimed at studying the effect of the high fuel fines content on the CFB boiler performance to determine the maximum practical fines limit. There were concerns of high unburned carbon loss, high CO and high cyclone temperatures. The actual test data confirmed that these boilers could fire a high percent of fines without major concerns. This paper discusses in detail the results of the testing with anthracite culm and silt, and references similar observations made during the testing with high fines bituminous gob.

  13. Association of the C2-CFB locus with non-infectious uveitis, specifically predisposed to Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingming; Fan, Jiao-jie; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Yan; Teng, Yan; Liu, Ping

    2016-04-01

    Complement component 2 (C2) and factor B (CFB) are regulators of complement system and involved in the alternative pathway, which have been identified to be associated with multiple immune-related diseases. This study aimed to investigate the association of these genes with non-infectious intermediate and posterior uveitis. A total of 260 Chinese non-infectious uveitis patients were recruited, including 97 patients with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease (VKH), 70 patients with intermediate uveitis (IU) and 93 patients with Behçet's disease (BD). Two hundred and ninety-three normal control subjects were also recruited. Five SNPs across the C2/CFB region were selected and genotyped using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. Association analysis was adjusted for gender and stratified by different subtypes. The CFB SNP rs1048709 was significantly associated with non-infectious uveitis [P corr = 0.01, OR 1.49 (allele model) and P corr = 0.04, OR 1.58 (dominant model), respectively], and similar association was also detected between rs1048709 and female uveitis patients (P corr = 0.01, OR 1.70 and P corr = 0.049, OR 184, respectively). Moreover, subgroup analyses showed that CFB-rs1048709 was specifically associated with VKH, where significantly higher frequencies of A allele and AA homozygosity were observed in VKH patients compared with controls (P corr = 0.025 and P corr = 0.035, respectively), whereas none of these five SNPs was associated with IU or BD. In addition, a haplotype block across CFB (GTG) was significantly predisposed to uveitis with protective effect (OR 0.66, P corr = 0.048). Our results revealed a significant association of CFB with non-infectious uveitis, particularly predisposed to VKH disease. Genetic differences for uveitis could be gender-specific.

  14. Florida CFB demo plant yields low emissions on variety of coals

    SciTech Connect

    2005-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has reported results of tests conducted at Jacksonville Electric Authority (JEA)'s Northside power plant using mid-to-low-sulfur coal, which indicate the facility is one of the cleanest burning coal-fired power plants in the world. A part of DOE's Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program, the JEA project is a repowering demonstration of the operating and environmental performance of Foster Wheeler's utility-scale circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFB) technology on a range of high-sulfur coals and blends of coal and high-sulfur petroleum coke. The 300 MW demonstration unit has a non-demonstration 300 MW twin unit.

  15. 250 MW single train CFB cogeneration facility. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This Technical Progress Report (Draft) is submitted pursuant to the Terms and Conditions of Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-90MC27403 between the Department of Energy (Morgantown Energy Technology Center) and York County Energy Partners, L.P. a wholly owned project company of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. covering the period from January 1994 to the present for the York County Energy Partners CFB Cogeneration Project. The Technical Progress Report summarizes the work performed during the most recent year of the Cooperative Agreement including technical and scientific results.

  16. CFB`s make waste-to-energy, recycling `perfect together`

    SciTech Connect

    Makansi, J.

    1997-05-01

    Proponents of circulating fluidized-bed boilers have long thought that the technology could align the objectives of recycling and waste-to-energy (WTC) enthusiasts. More than seven years in the making, the Robbins (III) Resource Recovery facility is the proof. Its success could invigorate a moribund market for WTE in North America, but the design is already being applied overseas. Robbins, located just south of Chicago, is not only the first large-scale application of CFB technology for waste combustion in North America, it is the largest facility of its type worldwide, though the concept has been applied commercially in other countries, such as Japan.

  17. Design of a 110 MWth CFB boiler firing RDF, rejects, sewage sludge, wood waste and coal

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenauer, G.; Hoelblinger, W.; Cleve, K.

    1997-12-31

    The consortium Austrian Energy and LLB Lurgi Lentjes Babcock Energietechnik GmbH was awarded the contract to build a 110 MWth CFB Plant in Lenzing, Austria. The plant will be started up in the fall of 1998 and is in the design state right now. The objective of the plant is to burn various fuels to overcome the challenges of waste fuel utilization. The main fuel to be burnt will be RDF. Additional fuels will be rejects, sewage sludge, wood waste and coal. The design of the plant is based on the Lurgi circulating fluidized bed technology. The boiler system and the fuel feeding systems will be supplied by Austrian Energy.

  18. Intracanyon basalt lavas of the Debed River (northern Armenia), part of a Pliocene-Pleistocene continental flood basalt province in the South Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Hetu; Meliksetian, Khachatur; Gevorgyan, Hripsime; Israyelyan, Arsen; Navasardyan, Gevorg

    2015-03-01

    Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene (~ 3.25-2.05 Ma), 200-400 m thick basalt lavas outcrop in the South Caucasus region, including the Kars-Erzurum Plateau (northeastern Turkey), the Javakheti Plateau (Georgia-Armenia), and the Lori Plateau (northern Armenia). These fissure-fed, rapidly erupted fluid lavas filled pre-existing river valleys over many tens of kilometres. The basalts exposed in the Debed River canyon, northern Armenia, are ~ 200 m thick and of three morphological types: (1) basal pillow basalts and hyaloclastites, overlain by (2) columnar-jointed pahoehoe sheet flows, in turn overlain by (3) slabby pahoehoe and rubbly pahoehoe flows. The lower and middle lavas show evidence for damming of river drainage, like many lavas of the Columbia River flood basalt province, Scotland, Ireland, and Iceland. There is also evidence for syn-volcanic faulting of the early lavas. Related basalts also outcrop in the Gegham Uplands and the Hrazdan River basin in Armenia. This 3.25-2.05 Ma South Caucasus basalt province, covering parts of Turkey, Georgia and Armenia, has an estimated areal extent of ~ 15,000 km2 and volume of ~ 2250 km3. Because its main geological features are remarkably like those of many continental flood basalt (CFB) provinces, we consider it a true, albeit small, CFB province. It is the smallest and youngest CFB in the world. An analogue closely similar in major features is the Late Miocene Altos de Jalisco CFB province in the western Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Both provinces formed during lithospheric pull-apart and transtensional faulting. Their broader significance is in showing flood basalt size distribution to be a continuum without natural breaks, with implications for geodynamic models.

  19. The CFB boiler in Gardanne -- An experimental investigation of its bottom zone

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesendorf, V.; Hartge, E.U.; Werther, J.; Johnsson, F.; Sterneus, J.; Leckner, B.; Montat, D.; Briand, P.

    1999-07-01

    Different measurement techniques have been used to analyze the fluid dynamics in the bottom zone of the 250 MW{sub e} Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler in Gardanne, France. In particular, horizontal profiles of the local solids volume concentration have been measured with a capacitance probe and the vertical pressure profile has been measured by a probe with densely spaced pressure taps. Local velocities were measured by cross-correlating the signals of a two-channel capacitance probe. In order to get some information on the influence of the flow structure on local combustion conditions a probe has been used which combines both capacitance and zirconia-cell sensors. This probe measured simultaneously local solids volume concentrations, local velocities and the local presence of oxygen. The results show the existence of a dense bed with a bed height of about 2% of the total riser height. This bottom bed has a flow structure which is different from the core-annulus structure observed in the upper dilute zone of the CFB combustor by several researchers. The lateral solids mixing does not seem to be enough to provide an even distribution of char over the whole cross-section of the bottom bed. Nevertheless, an even temperature distribution has been found indicating that mixing is sufficient to equalize the uneven heat generation.

  20. Colver Power Project: CFB operates at 2400 psig, with reheat, firing waste coal

    SciTech Connect

    Ansell, J.; Hall, J.; Streblow, B.

    1996-12-31

    The Colver Power Project (CPP) is located approximately 100 miles east of Pittsburgh, PA, near Colver, a former mining town. The town was the location of the Ebensburg Coal Co`s Colver Mine and the Blacklick and Yellow Creek Railroad. The mine and railroad produced and transported over 40-million tons of coking and steam coal until they closed in 1978. The 103.5-MW facility has a 25-yr power sales agreement with Pennsylvania Electric Co. (Penelec). Typical of many coal mining regions, the Colver area has stockpiles of bituminous coal waste or gob, a low-Btu, high-ash byproduct of mining activities. These gob stockpiles became an eyesore and a regional environmental hazard. Use of gob as a fuel for circulating-fluidized-bed (CFB) boilers is a proven method for managing this material is an environmentally acceptable manner. Alkaline ash from the combustion process can in turn be used to condition the soil in the gob-pile areas. Using CFB technology creates a win-win situation for all parties involved. The project owners can use the gob as fuel to make and sell power, the local residents get a better environment, and the state avoids having to use tax revenue to clean up the gob piles.

  1. Prediction of Agglomeration, Fouling, and Corrosion Tendency of Fuels in CFB Co-Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barišć, Vesna; Zabetta, Edgardo Coda; Sarkki, Juha

    Prediction of agglomeration, fouling, and corrosion tendency of fuels is essential to the design of any CFB boiler. During the years, tools have been successfully developed at Foster Wheeler to help with such predictions for the most commercial fuels. However, changes in fuel market and the ever-growing demand for co-combustion capabilities pose a continuous need for development. This paper presents results from recently upgraded models used at Foster Wheeler to predict agglomeration, fouling, and corrosion tendency of a variety of fuels and mixtures. The models, subject of this paper, are semi-empirical computer tools that combine the theoretical basics of agglomeration/fouling/corrosion phenomena with empirical correlations. Correlations are derived from Foster Wheeler's experience in fluidized beds, including nearly 10,000 fuel samples and over 1,000 tests in about 150 CFB units. In these models, fuels are evaluated based on their classification, their chemical and physical properties by standard analyses (proximate, ultimate, fuel ash composition, etc.;.) alongside with Foster Wheeler own characterization methods. Mixtures are then evaluated taking into account the component fuels. This paper presents the predictive capabilities of the agglomeration/fouling/corrosion probability models for selected fuels and mixtures fired in full-scale. The selected fuels include coals and different types of biomass. The models are capable to predict the behavior of most fuels and mixtures, but also offer possibilities for further improvements.

  2. Heat Balance Analysis of Baima's 300 MWe CFB Boiler in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J. Y.; Lu, X. F.; Yin, G.; Liu, H. Z.

    By analyzing the 336-hour performance testing period operation parameters and the actual measurement data at the scene, this paper took a study of the heat balance on Baima's 300MWe CFB boiler. Through calculating and by the use of DL/T964-2005 standard in China, the efficiency of this boiler under the Ml load was 91.9089%. The result was very close to the manufacture's assurance efficiency. In all the heat loss, the value of dissipated heat loss calculated in this paper was about 0.63%, which was higher than the manufacture's provided value 0.25%. Besides analyzed the reason, it was discussed about the influence factors of CFB boiler's dissipated heat loss in this paper, including the radiation areas and the out-surface temperature. Additionally, when calculated the heat loss due to the physical heat of bottom ash, the selection of output ash temperature was important. It was discussed in paper about how to choose different output temperatures for different types of ash coolers.

  3. Characteristics of a Modified Bell Jar Nozzle Designed for CFB Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z. M.; Yang, H. R.; Liu, Q.; Wang, Y.; Lu, J. F.; Yue, G. X.

    One of the most important factors for trouble free operation of CFB boilers is the pressure drop of the gas distributor. The pressure drop characteristic of the gas distributor depends on the nozzles used. A modified bell jar nozzle was designed and developed for use with large-scale industrial circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. The nozzle consists of a vertically tapered tube with a larger end at the top, a float which is free to move within the tube and a cover with holes. The pressure drop characteristics of the nozzle were measured experimentally by using different floats and moving out the float respectively. The gas distributor equipped with the modified bell jar nozzle has a unique pressure drop characteristic. It has a higher resistance than other nozzles which results in the formation of an effective barrier against backflow at low boiler loads, which results from the pressure fluctuation caused by bubble burst and solids coming from the recycle system. In addition, it has a relatively low pressure drop at high or full boiler loads, which can greatly reduce the energy cost of the primary air fan.

  4. The heat transfer coefficients of the heating surface of 300 MWe CFB boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Haibo; Zhang, Man; Lu, Qinggang; Sun, Yunkai

    2012-08-01

    A study of the heat transfer about the heating surface of three commercial 300 MWe CFB boilers was conducted in this work. The heat transfer coefficients of the platen heating surface, the external heat exchanger (EHE) and cyclone separator were calculated according to the relative operation data at different boiler loads. Moreover, the heat transfer coefficient of the waterwall was calculated by heat balance of the hot circuit of the CFB boiler. With the boiler capacity increasing, the heat transfer coefficients of these heating surface increases, and the heat transfer coefficient of the water wall is higher than that of the platen heating surface. The heat transfer coefficient of the EHE is the highest in high boiler load, the heat transfer coefficient of the cyclone separator is the lowest. Because the fired coal is different from the design coal in No.1 boiler, the ash content of the fired coal is much lower than that of the design coal. The heat transfer coefficients which calculated with the operation data are lower than the previous design value and that is the reason why the bed temperature is rather high during the boiler operation in No.1 boiler.

  5. Experimental Study on Ash-Returned Reactor of CFB Atmospheric Air Gasifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shihong, Zhang; Luning, Tian; Xianrong, Zhou; Hanping, Chen; Haiping, Yang; Xianhua, Wang

    In an attempt to improve the gasification efficiency and decrease the carbon content in fly ash of atmospheric air CFB gasifiers, an innovatory equipment by name ash-returned reactor is put forward by SKLCC. Ash-returned reactor is an ash-returned apparatus on line of ash circulation, typically like "U" type valve in CFB boilers, with additional function of some extent combustion of residual carbon and increase the furnace inlet temperature of returning ash, and hence the coal conversion of gasifiers is enhanced. As to its configuration compared to conventional "U" type valve, ash-returned rector has two distinguished features of several times of height scale of fluidizing transportation region to meet the combustion reaction time need and appropriate heat transfer tube bundles arranged in the region to moderate the local temperature so as to avoid slagging. And hence, corresponding to the structure renovation, the material transportation and regulation performance of ash-returned reactor is primarily investigated through a series of experiments in a cold lab-scale facility in this paper. The heat transfer characteristic of the tube bundles is then researched and its influential factors are further discussed. These works lay a foundation on the following study of hot state experiments and industrial applications.

  6. Advanced Refractory and Anti-Wearing Technology of Cyclone Separator in CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. P.; Shen, Y. Q.; Wang, X. H.; Dai, X. M.; Xue, H. Y.; Liu, D. C.

    The circulating fluidized bed is playing more and more vital role in the electric power field. Cyclone separator as the heart of the circulating fluidized bed combustion boiler, the technology of fire-resistant anti-wear layer in cyclone separator is the guarantee for the long-life and working safety of CFB unit. Based on the comparison of insulation-cyclone and water-cooled cyclone, a novel technology of Anchor bricks use in the cyclone separator was put forward. The temperature of Anchor brick surface is just 80˜90°C, much lower than conventional technology. The problems caused by conventional Y-shaped hook welding were overcome, such as fire-resistant anti-wear layer burned, fire-resistant anti-wear layer rupture, the high temperature of separator's surface, a large number of heat dissipation and etc. Simultaneously, three types of Anchor brick were designed for the different parts of cyclone. It was applied successfully in Thermal Power Plant in Shaoguan Iron and Steel Company. The life time and the operation cycle of the fire-resistant anti-wear layer of the cyclone were prolonged, and the number of boiler off was reduced greatly. Hence, the continuous operation time of boiler was extended. It played a key role in improving the overall economic efficiency of power plant. It is great for the utilization and development of CFB technology.

  7. Co-Combustion of Refuse Derived Fuel with Anthracites in a CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Won; Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Jae-Sung

    Combustion of Refuse derived fuel (RDF) is considered as a priority solution to energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW). The co-combustion characteristics of anthracite coals with RDF were determined in the commercial scale Tonghae CFB Power Plant. As the feeding ratio of the RDF to the anthracites increased to 5%, temperature and pressure were not changed in comparison with firing only anthracites. The amount of the required air was reduced due to high O2 content in RDF relative to the anthracites. The emissions of NOx, SOx, HCl and Dioxin were also measured. According to higher mixing ratio of the RDF to the anthracites, SOx, NOx emissions slightly decreased and HCl emissions increased, because RDF has relatively smaller S, N and higher CI than the anthracites. Heavy metals of the fly ash and bottom ash and the dioxin emissions were far below Korean maximum permissible concentration level at incinerator. The results showed that it is of great use and technically possible to co-combustion of RDF with the anthracites by 5% in the form of fuel recovery and energy production in commercial scale CFB boiler.

  8. Application of Multivariable Model Predictive Advanced Control for a 2×310T/H CFB Boiler Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijie, Zhao; Zongllao, Dai; Rong, Gou; Wengan, Gong

    When a CFB boiler is in automatic control, there are strong interactions between various process variables and inverse response characteristics of bed temperature control target. Conventional Pill control strategy cannot deliver satisfactory control demand. Kalman wave filter technology is used to establish a non-linear combustion model, based on the CFB combustion characteristics of bed fuel inventory, heating values, bed lime inventory and consumption. CFB advanced combustion control utilizes multivariable model predictive control technology to optimize primary and secondary air flow, bed temperature, air flow, fuel flow and heat flux. In addition to providing advanced combustion control to 2×310t/h CFB+1×100MW extraction condensing turbine generator unit, the control also provides load allocation optimization and advanced control for main steam pressure, combustion and temperature. After the successful implementation, under 10% load change, main steam pressure varied less than ±0.07MPa, temperature less than ±1°C, bed temperature less than ±4°C, and air flow (O2) less than ±0.4%.

  9. The present situation and tentative ideas on the improvement of 75 t/h CFB boiler in P.R. China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Ning

    1997-12-31

    In order to use the low grade and cheap coal, reduce the air pollution and meet the demand for process steam and district heating, quite a number of CFB boiler cogeneration power plants with a capacity of less than 50 MW have been and will be installed in China. This article makes a detailed analysis on the existing problems of China-manufactured 75 t/h CFB boilers in regard to design, manufacturing, erection, operation, auxiliary components and systems, and engineering design. Suggestions are made on the measures to solve the problems and the immediate object for the improvement of 75 t/h CFB boilers.

  10. A cold model experimental study on the flow characteristics of bed material in a fluidized bed bottom ash cooler in a CFB boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Li, Yourong

    2000-12-01

    A cold model experimental study on the flowing characteristics of bed material between a fluidized bed ash cooler and a furnace of CFB boiler were discussed in this paper. The research results showed that flowing status of the bed material in a bubbling bed, which was run with a circulating fluidized bed together in parallel operation, was influenced by the pressure difference between the CFB and the bubbling bed, the switch status of unlocking air, and the structure of the exit of the bubbling bed. There was a circulating flow of bed material between CFB and bubbling bed.

  11. Operation Experience and Performance of the First 300MWe CFB Boiler Developed by DBC in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Q.; Zheng, X. S.; Zhou, Q.; Nie, L.; Liu, T. S.; Hu, X. K.; Lu, J. F.

    In this paper, general layout, design, operational experience and performance of the first 300MWe circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler that developed by Dongfang Boiler Group Co., Ltd China, are introduced. The furnace was with large width-depth ratio. The problems occurred during in commissioning were analyzed and the corresponding modifications were presented. Cold-state experiment and operation experience showed that both fluidization quality and circulating flow rate meet the designated value in the frunace. The imbalance of circulating material flow caused by asymmetric layout of three cyclones was very limited. Heating surfaces were safe except wing wall superheater located in upper part of the furnace was overheated at low load. After commissioning, the boiler was correspondingly modified and its performance was excellent.

  12. Nova-Scotia Power's Point Aconi plant overcomes CFB design problems to become rock of reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.

    2006-09-15

    Point Aconi's circulating fluidized-bed boiler experienced erosion, corrosion, and fouling problems from the day it went on-line in 1993. After several frustrating years of unreliable operation, in late 1999, Nova Scotia Power discovered the right combination of engineering and fuel modifications. Today, after a switch to 80% petroleum coke and major boiler modifications, Point Aconi's output exceeds its original nameplate rating. For having the vision and fortitude to plan and execute a multi year, $20 million project to revitalize North America's first in-service utility CFB boiler, Nova Scotia Power's Point Aconi plant is the well-deserved winner of POWER magazine's 2006 Marmaduke Award for excellence in O & M. The award is named for Marmaduke Surfaceblow, the fictional marine engineer/plant troubleshooter par excellence. 10 figs. 1 tab.

  13. Experimental study and design considerations for co-firing paper mill sludge in CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xiaodong; Jiang Xuguang; Yan Jianhua

    1997-12-31

    Experimental studies had been done on co-firing paper mill sludge and coal in a circulating fluidized bed pilot facility. Detail results on the effects of water content, bed temperature, sludge size, fluidizing velocity, on combustion and emission are investigated. Bed temperature and sludge feed size have very important effects on incineration and emission. Too small size of sludge will reduce the agglomeration capacity of sludge and be difficult to keep high combustion efficiency although it can reduce incineration time. The experimental and pilot results have provided a reasonable design basis for the first paper mill sludge co-fired 220t/h CFB boiler of China, which will be put into operation at the end of 1996.

  14. Rift-zone magmatism: Petrology of basaltic rocks transitional from CFB to MORB, southeastern Brazil margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fodor, R. V.; Vetter, S. K.

    1984-12-01

    Compositions of basaltic samples from the southeastern Brazil passive margin (18° 24° S) depict the change from continental to oceanic lithosphere during the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. Samples studied range from 138 to 105 m.y. old and are from 12 Petrobrás drill cores recovered from the coastline to about 150 km offshore in the Espirito Santo, Campos, and Santos basins. Compositions vary, ranging, for example, from 49 54 wt.% SiO2, 0.5 3.0 wt.% TiO2, 0.6 5.0 FeO*/MgO, and <1->6 La/ Yb(n), but can be grouped: (i) basalts enriched in incompatible elements, such as K (some K2O>2.0 wt.%), Rb (>18 ppm), Zr (>120 ppm), and LREE (some FeO* 16 wt.%; most with SiO2 51 54 wt.%), and resembling Serra Geral continental flood basalts (SG-CFB) of southern Brazil; (ii) basalts less enriched, or transitional, in incompatible elements, having K2O <0.40 wt.% and flat REE patterns, and resemble N. Atlantic diabases and FAMOUS basalts; and (iii) one depleted sample, Ce/Yb(n)=0.7, where Ce(n)=4. Expressed in oceanic-basalt terminology and Zr-Nb-Y abundances, ‘enriched’ samples are P- and T-type MORB (e.g., Zr/Nb ˜4 25), ‘transitional’ samples are T-type (Zr/ Nb ˜8 27), and the ‘depleted’ sample is N-type MORB (Zr/Nb>30). Trace-element ratios (e.g., Zr/Nb, Zr/Y) link the Brazil margin basalts to a heterogeneous mantle (attributed to metasomatic veining) of variably proportioned mixtures of depleted-mantle (N-MORB) and plume (P-MORB, e.g., Tristan hotspot) materials. The various compositions therefore reflect, in part, different zones of melting during the separation of Gondwanaland, where gradual decompression during rifting enabled concurrent melting of upper, more depleted (non- or sparsely-veined) mantle and enriched (densely-veined) mantle. Within the time represented, melting produced enriched, transitional, and depleted magmas that were emplaced subaerially, hypabyssally, and subaqueously; they mark the transition from CFB before rifting and separation

  15. Solids flow pattern in the exit region of a CFB -- Furnace influence of exit geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsson, F.; Leckner, B.; Vrager, A.

    1999-07-01

    The effect of the exit geometry on the flow pattern in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) riser was studied in a cold 1/9 scale model of the Chalmers 12 MW CFB boiler. The model, which is made of transparent perspex, was operated according to the simplified scaling laws proposed by Glicksman et al. (1993). 12 different exit configurations were compared at different fluidization velocities. Two bed materials were used: iron and steel. In order to verify the scaling laws, vertical pressure and density profiles, net solids flux and pressure fluctuations measured in the model were compared with corresponding results from the 12 MW boiler. The exit configurations were evaluated by comparing the net solids fluxes and the vertical pressure and density profiles of the riser. The overall flow behavior of the scale-model was found to be similar to that of the boiler: A dense bottom bed, a splash zone and a transport zone could be identified. The dynamics (in-bed pressure fluctuations) of the bottom bed were in agreement with those of the boiler. Differences between net solids fluxes during operation with different exits were in some cases of an order of magnitude. However, there were almost no difference in solids flux between an abrupt exit, an extended exit (such as that of the boiler) and an enhanced extension. A decrease in the net solids flux (increase in the internal back-mixing) could be obtained by inserting obstacles in the upper part of the riser, and an increase in the net solids flux was achieved by narrowing the duct from the riser to the cyclone inlet (increasing the average velocity in the duct). The original configuration of the duct with an inclined bottom results in back-mixing from the duct to the furnace, thereby reducing the net (external) solids flux.

  16. The partitioning of calcium and sulfur between bottom ash and flyash in a commercial CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Rozelle, P.L.; Pisupati, S.V.; Morrison, J.L.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1999-07-01

    As part of a program to examine the effect of sorbent properties on sulfation performance in the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion process, a series of sorbents varying in chemical composition was tested under similar operating conditions in a 30 MW(e) CFB boiler. These sorbents ranged from 27.8 to 55.2 wt% CaO, and from 0.54 to 18.8 wt% MgO. The fuel used was a high ash content (68 wt%) coal refuse. Parameters of boiler operation were established from distributed control system data, used to screen test results, and data were eliminated from consideration where changes in boiler load or bed inventory levels were seen prior to sampling of bottom ash and flyash streams. This, and the development of a set of simultaneous equations for measuring individual ash stream flow rates, allowed the computation of calcium and sulfur material balances around the boiler for each sorbent test. The partitioning of calcium and sulfur to the bottom ash and flyash streams was examined. It was found that the majority of both calcium and sulfur fed to the boiler was removed with the flyash, regardless of the sorbent. It was further found that across the range of sorbent properties, the flow of sulfur as a solid with the flyash was relatively uniform (71 to 86 wt% of that fed to the boiler). Calcium to sulfur ratios in the bottom ash were uniformly higher than those found for the corresponding flyash streams, indicating that attrition may play a key role in overall sorbent performance. The calcium balance data also indicated that thermally induced fractures (TIFs) may affect attrition.

  17. Experimental Research of the Oxygen-Enriched Combustion of Sewage Sludge and Coal in CFB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, S. W.; Lu, X. F.; Liu, H. Z.

    Sewage sludge is the by-products of sewage treatment, and it is a fuel of high moisture, high ash and low caloric. Oxygen-enriched combustion technology is one of the new and clean coal combustion technologies that can control pollutant emission, which makes CO2 separation, SO2 treatment become easier, and NOx emission reduced. In this paper, we carried out the experimental research on the advantages of oxygen-enriched combustion and the characteristics of sewage sludge in a CFB incinerator that the diameter of the furnace is 100 mm, It is an important foundation for the industrialized application of the oxygen-enriched combustion of sewage sludge and coal in CFB. Experimental analyzed on the combustion characteristics of three conditions in the oxygen concentration of 21%˜35%, which were the weight ratio of coal and sludge were 1∶1, 1∶2 and also the coal was given. Furthermore, the change of gas composition along with the change of oxygen content and the temperature of dense phase region was analyzed. The results showed that the combustion characteristics differ from the different mixing rate between coal and sludge in different oxygen atmosphere, when the fluidized air velocity was 1.56 m/s˜1.88 m/s, the combustion stability; When the amount of the fuel was constant, as the increase of the oxygen contents in the experimental atmosphere, the total air volume decreased, the furnace temperature increased gradually, the concentration of SO2 and NOx showed increasing trend, which is beneficial to the removal of SO2; The concentration of NOx was increased gradually as temperature of the fluidized bed increased.

  18. The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province extends into Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Hervé; Fornari, Michel; Marzoli, Andrea; García-Duarte, Raúl; Sempere, Thierry

    2014-02-01

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is the largest continental flood basalt (CFB) province on Earth and was associated with the onset of fragmentation of the supercontinent Pangea at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. In order to clarify the extent of the CAMP in South America, we investigate basaltic remnants in southern Bolivia (Tarabuco, Entre Ríos and Camiri areas) by combining stratigraphic, geochronological (40Ar/39Ar data) and geochemical (major and trace element, Nd-Sr isotopes) approaches. Lava-flows reaching a total thickness up to 150 m and associated sills overlie syn-rift red beds assigned to the Triassic. The magmatic rocks consist of low-Ti tholeiites that are remarkably homogeneous in composition. Notably, their trace element and Nd-Sr isotopic compositions closely match those of CAMP basalts particularly those of southwest Brazil. 40Ar/39Ar dating failed to yield robust plateau ages but the best estimates of the crystallization age at 198.1 ± 1.5 and 199.2 ± 2.2 Ma are similar to those of CAMP basalts throughout the province. These Bolivian basalts, which may have covered an initial surface of ~ 30,000 km2, represent the known southernmost occurrence of the CAMP. They were erupted as a single pulse, more than 8000 km away from the northern edge of the province. We discuss the implications of such a huge elongated CFB for the current plume models and we suggest, as an alternative, that large-scale melting beneath the Pangea supercontinent due to mantle global warming could have triggered the emplacement of the CAMP.

  19. Predictive models of circulating fluidized bed combustors: SO{sub 2} sorption in the CFB loop. Fourteenth technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gidaspow, D.; Therdthianwong, A.

    1993-02-01

    The overall objective of this investigation is to develop experimentally verified models for circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustors. Sorption of S0{sub 2} with calcined limestone was studied in a PYROFLOW type CFB loop at conditions approximating those found in a CFB combustor. Initially the CFB loop contained 150 micron CaO particles of a density of 3.3 g/cm{sup 3} and air at 1143{degrees}K and 3.25 atm. Atzero time, air containing 600 ppm SO{sub 2}, was introduced into the riser bottom at 1143{degrees}K. The effect of gas velocity, sorbent inventory and inlet pressure on the sorption of SO{sub 2}, were studied isothermally by running our hydrodynamic code with the S0{sub 2} sorption conservation of species equation. At a velocity of 5m/sec., reported to be a typical velocity by PYROPOWER, there is reasonably good S0{sub 2} removal. At 10 m/sec the S0{sub 2} removal is poor. The best SO{sub 2}, removal is for a velocity of 5 m/s and a high bed inventory, initial bed height, H = 9m. Most of the S0{sub 2} is removed in the first two meters of the reactor. However, the S0{sub 2} removal is not complete at the bed outlet. This is due to mixing. At the left wall of the reactor (wall opposite the solids inlet) the S0{sub 2} removal was poor due to gas bypassing caused by the asymmetrical solids inlet. Simulation of the PYROPOWER loop with a symmetrical inlet gave us an order of magnitude improvement over the conventional PYROPOWER system. These results demonstrate the practical utility of the predictive model that we have developed over the last three years.

  20. Experimental Study on Gas-Solid Flow Charcteristics in a CFB Riser Of 54M in Height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, N.; Yang, H. R.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, R. Q.; Cao, J. N.; Liu, Q.; Lu, J. F.; Yue, G. X.

    Understanding the height effect on the gas-solid flow characteristics in a CFB riser is important as more and more large capacity CFB boilers are used and to be developed. In this study, a cold CFB test rig with a riser of 240mm in LD. and 38m and 54m in height was built. The influences of operating conditions, such as solid inventory and fluidizing gas velocity, on the axial voidage profile along the riser were assessed. When the gas velocity exceeds the transport velocity, the S-shaped profile of voidage in the riser was established. At the same time, the voidage in top-dilute section reached the saturation carrying capacity, and the solids circulation rate did not vary with the height of the riser nor the solids inventory. It was also found the critical solids inventory for the saturation carrying capacity increases as the riser height increases. When the height was changed from 38m to 54m, the critical solids inventory increased about 25% from about 40kg to about 50kg, and pressure drop in the furnace also increased about 25%.

  1. Experimental investigation on heat transfer and frictional characteristics of vertical upward rifled tube in supercritical CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Dong; Pan, Jie; Zhu, Xiaojing; Bi, Qincheng; Chen, Tingkuan; Zhou, Chenn Q.

    2011-02-15

    Water wall design is a key issue for supercritical Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler. On account of the good heat transfer performance, rifled tube is applied in the water wall design of a 600 MW supercritical CFB boiler in China. In order to investigate the heat transfer and frictional characteristics of the rifled tube with vertical upward flow, an in-depth experiment was conducted in the range of pressure from 12 to 30 MPa, mass flux from 230 to 1200 kg/(m{sup 2} s), and inner wall heat flux from 130 to 720 kW/m{sup 2}. The wall temperature distribution and pressure drop in the rifled tube were obtained in the experiment. The normal, enhanced and deteriorated heat transfer characteristics were also captured. In this paper, the effects of pressure, inner wall heat flux and mass flux on heat transfer characteristics are analyzed, the heat transfer mechanism and the frictional resistance performance are discussed, and the corresponding empirical correlations are presented. The experimental results show that the rifled tube can effectively prevent the occurrence of departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) and keep the tube wall temperature in a permissible range under the operating condition of supercritical CFB boiler. (author)

  2. Performance of two identical 110 MWe high pressure PYROFLOW CFB boilers firing two different categories of waste fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuo, Y.; Chelian, P.K.; Reed, K.

    1997-12-31

    Two identical 110 MWe high pressure FOSTER WHEELER PYROFLOW{reg_sign} circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers went into commercial operation in 1995. Both boilers generate 98.91 kg/s (785,000 lb/hr) of main steam t 174 bar (2,525 psig) and 540 C (1,005 F) with reheat steam at 540 C (1,005 F). Both were built to burn waste fuels. One unit, located in Colver, Pennsylvania, burns bituminous gob and the other unit located in Northampton, Pennsylvania, burns anthracite culm with a 20% mix of silt. A different type of ammonia injection system for reducing NOx emissions was installed in each boiler. An anhydrous ammonia injection system is used in the Colver plant and an aqueous ammonia direct-injection system is used in the Northampton plant. A performance optimization test was performed on both boilers prior to the commercial operation at the direction of and in accordance with the requirements of the Pennsylvania Regulatory Authority. In addition, boiler performance tests were run on both units to confirm operation in accordance with performance guarantees. The results of these tests are provided in detail in this paper. The resultant data provides a comparison in boiler operation between the two different categories of waste fuels fired in identical CFB boilers. The data also provides insight into the low emissions levels and limestone utilization capabilities of the CFB boiler.

  3. Numerical analysis of flow instability in the water wall of a supercritical CFB boiler with annular furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Beibei; Yang, Dong; Xie, Haiyan; Nie, Xin; Liu, Wanyu

    2016-08-01

    In order to expand the study on flow instability of supercritical circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler, a new numerical computational model considering the heat storage of the tube wall metal was presented in this paper. The lumped parameter method was proposed for wall temperature calculation and the single channel model was adopted for the analysis of flow instability. Based on the time-domain method, a new numerical computational program suitable for the analysis of flow instability in the water wall of supercritical CFB boiler with annular furnace was established. To verify the code, calculation results were respectively compared with data of commercial software. According to the comparisons, the new code was proved to be reasonable and accurate for practical engineering application in analysis of flow instability. Based on the new program, the flow instability of supercritical CFB boiler with annular furnace was simulated by time-domain method. When 1.2 times heat load disturbance was applied on the loop, results showed that the inlet flow rate, outlet flow rate and wall temperature fluctuated with time eventually remained at constant values, suggesting that the hydrodynamic flow was stable. The results also showed that in the case of considering the heat storage, the flow in the water wall is easier to return to stable state than without considering heat storage.

  4. Study of the bed fouling problems in a biomass fired commercial CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Tranvik, A.E.; Sanati, M.; Zethraeus, B.; Lyberg, M.

    1999-07-01

    The use of biomass fuels in circulated fluidized bed (CFB) combustion is becoming more important because of increasing energy demand and the polluting nature of existing fossil fuel energy sources. The commercial circulating fluidized bed boiler at VEAB (Baxjo Energy Limited) has a large fuel flexibility, and can be fired with low moisture, high grade fuels, as well as high moisture, low grade fuels like biomass. The major ash-related problem encountered at VEAB is bed agglomeration which, in the worst case, may result in total defluidization and unscheduled shutdown. Non-agglomerated and agglomerated ash samples resulting from the firing of 50% sawdust and 50% forestry residues were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), x-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF), scaling electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). An increase of the concentration of the trace elements in the agglomerated samples was observed by ICP-AES and XRF. On the basis of the AFM experimental results and evidence of the non-height difference in the topography of the agglomerated samples, formation of binary or ternary eutectic melts was proposed.

  5. Practical experience with the input/loss method as applied to a CFB power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Deihl, B.; Lang, F.D.

    1999-07-01

    In late 1995 the Input/Loss Method was installed for on-line monitoring of an independent power producer located in Colver, PA. Colver is a 115 MWe Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) steam generator burning poor quality coal, having typically {+-}20% variation in As-Fired heating value, providing considerable difficulties to operating staff. The Input/Loss Method provides a complete thermal understanding of a power plant through explicit determinations of fuel flow, emission flows, fuel chemistry, fuel heating value and thermal efficiency. Direct measurements of fuel or emission flows are not made. In addition, the Method employs a Fuel Consumption Index (FCI) technology to alert the operator as to which components/processes within the system have higher irreversible losses--in terms of higher fuel consumptions for a given power level--thus where improved heat rate can be found. The Method also uses a Sulfur Function Optimizer (SFO) parameter, which assist the operator in minimizing the use of limestone, while meeting regulatory SO{sub 2} effluents. This paper discusses a number of actual operational situations, taken over the past four years, which were resolved with the help of the Input/Loss Method. For example: the usefulness of the SFO parameter, tracking FCI for key processes, plant-evaluated economics, etc. Problems with required effluent (CEMS) instrumentation, experience with a CEMS error analysis procedure, stoichiometric assumptions, air leakage assumptions, etc. are discussed.

  6. Removal of heavy metals from wastewater using CFB-coal fly ash zeolitic materials.

    PubMed

    Koukouzas, Nikolaos; Vasilatos, Charalampos; Itskos, Grigorios; Mitsis, Ioannis; Moutsatsou, Angeliki

    2010-01-15

    Polish bituminous (PB) and South African (SA) coal fly ash (FA) samples, derived from pilot-scale circulated fluidized bed (CFB) combustion facilities, were utilized as raw materials for the synthesis of zeolitic products. The two FAs underwent a hydrothermal activation with 1M NaOH solution. Two different FA/NaOH solution/ratios (50, 100g/L) were applied for each sample and several zeolitic materials were formed. The experimental products were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray coupled-scanning electron microscope (EDX/SEM), while X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was applied for the determination of their chemical composition. The zeolitic products were also evaluated in terms of their cation exchange capacity (CEC), specific surface area (SSA), specific gravity (SG), particle size distribution (PSD), pH and the range of their micro- and macroporosity. Afterwards the hybrid materials were tested for their ability of adsorbing Cr, Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd and Zn from contaminated liquids. Main parameters for the precipitation of the heavy metals, as it was concluded from the experimental results, are the mineralogical composition of the initial fly ashes, as well as the type and the amount of the produced zeolite and specifically the mechanism by which the metals ions are hold on the substrate.

  7. EERC pilot-scale CFBC evaluation facility Project CFB test results

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D.; Hajicek, D.R.; Henderson, A.K.; Moe, T.A.

    1992-09-01

    Project CFB was initiated at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) in May 1988. Specific goals of the project were to (1) construct a circulating fluidized-bed combustor (CFBC) facility representative of the major boiler vendors' designs with the capability of producing scalable data, (2) develop a database for use in making future evaluations of CFBC technology, and (3) provide a facility for evaluating fuels, free of vendor bias for use in the - energy industry. Five coals were test-burned in the 1-MWth unit: North Dakota and Asian lignites, a Wyoming subbituminous, and Colorado and Pennsylvania bituminous coats. A total of 54 steady-state test periods were conducted, with the key test parameters being the average combustor temperature, excess air, superficial gas velocity, calcium-to-sulfur molar ratio, and the primary air-to-secondary air split. The capture for a coal fired in a CFBC is primarily dependent upon the total alkali-to-sulfur ratio. The required alkali-to ratio for 90% sulfur retention ranged from 1.4 to 4.9, depending upon coal type. While an alkali-to-ratio of 4.9 was required to meet 90% sulfur retention for the Salt Creek coal versus 1.4 for the Asian lignite, the total amount of sorbent addition required is much less for the Salt Creek coal, 4.2 pound sorbent per million Btu coal input, versus 62 pound/million Btu for the Asian lignite. The bituminous coals tested show optimal capture at combustor temperatures of approximately 1550[degree]F, with low-rank coals having optimal sulfur capture approximately 100[degree]F lower.

  8. York County Energy Partners CFB Cogeneration Project. Annual report, [September 30, 1992--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Department of Energy, under the Clean Coal Technology program, proposes to provide cost-shared financial assistance for the construction of a utility-scale circulating fluidized bed technology cogeneration facility by York County Energy Partners, L.P (YCEP). YCEP, a project company of ir Products and Chemicals, Inc., would design, construct and operate a 250 megawatt (gross) coal-fired cogeneration facility on a 38-acre parcel in North Codorus Township, York County, Pennsylvania. The facility would be located adjacent to the P. H. Glatfelter Company paper mill, the proposed steam host. Electricity would be delivered to Metropolitan Edison Company. The facility would demonstrate new technology designed to greatly increase energy efficiency and reduce air pollutant emissions over current generally available commercial technology which utilizes coal fuel. The facility would include a single train circulating fluidized bed boiler, a pollution control train consisting of limestone injection for reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide by greater than 92 percent, selective non-catalytic reduction for reducing emissions of nitrogen oxides, and a fabric filter (baghouse) for reducing emissions of particulates. Section II of this report provides a general description of the facility. Section III describes the site specifics associated with the facility when it was proposed to be located in West Manchester Township. After the Cooperative Agreement was signed, YCEP decided to move the proposed site to North Codorus Township. The reasons for the move and the site specifics of that site are detailed in Section IV. This section of the report also provides detailed descriptions of several key pieces of equipment. The circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFB), its design scale-up and testing is given particular emphasis.

  9. Deep mixing of mantle melts beneath continental flood basalt provinces: Constraints from olivine-hosted melt inclusions in primitive magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Eleanor S.; Gibson, Sally A.; Maclennan, John; Heinonen, Jussi S.

    2017-01-01

    We present major and trace element compositions of 154 re-homogenised olivine-hosted melt inclusions found in primitive rocks (picrites and ferropicrites) from the Mesozoic Paraná-Etendeka and Karoo Continental Flood Basalt (CFB) provinces. The major element compositions of the melt inclusions, especially their Fe/Mg ratios, are variable and erratic, and attributed to the re-homogenisation process during sample preparation. In contrast, the trace element compositions of both the picrite and ferropicrite olivine-hosted melt inclusions are remarkably uniform and closely reflect those of the host whole-rocks, except in a small subset affected by hydrothermal alteration. The Paraná-Etendeka picrites and ferropicrites are petrogenetically related to the more evolved and voluminous flood basalts, and so we propose that compositional homogeneity at the melt inclusion scale implies that the CFB parental mantle melts were well mixed prior to extensive crystallisation. The incompatible trace element homogeneity of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in Paraná-Etendeka and Karoo primitive magmatic rocks has also been identified in other CFB provinces and contrasts with findings from studies of basalts from mid-ocean ridges (e.g. Iceland and FAMOUS on the Mid Atlantic Ridge), where heterogeneity of incompatible trace elements in olivine-hosted melt inclusions is more pronounced. We suggest that the low variability in incompatible trace element contents of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in near-primitive CFB rocks, and also ocean island basalts associated with moderately thick lithosphere (e.g. Hawaii, Galápagos, Samoa), may reflect mixing along their longer transport pathways during ascent and/or a temperature contrast between the liquidus and the liquid when it arrives in the crust. These thermal paths promote mixing of mantle melts prior to their entrapment by growing olivine crystals in crustal magma chambers. Olivine-hosted melt inclusions of ferropicrites from the Paran

  10. Influence of coal nature and structure on ash size formation characteristic and related pollutant emissions during CFB combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Min; Boelle, Arnaud; Jaud, Philippe; Na, Yongjie; Lu, Qinggang; Bao, Shaolin; Cui, Ping; Jiao, Weihong; Zhao, Huanming

    2000-09-01

    The size distribution of coal particles in a Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler plays a crucial role in the complicated combustion, heat exchange and pollutant emissions in such a plant. Therefore, it is fundamental to study the different factors having influence on the size distribution of coal particles. Above all, the coal itself and in particular, the coal comminution phenomenon is a very influent factor. In the frame of this work, the coal nature (elementary composition) and coal internal structure (mineral components) are studied in detail. At this intermediary stage, experiments on three typical Chinese coals on a 1.5 MWt CFBC pilot plant have been made. Some primary fragmentation tests have also been made in a small lab scale fluidized bed reactor. The results from the hot pilot test show i) the variation of coal ash distributions and other CFB performance data due to the cyclone and the coal characteristics and ii) the variation of desulfurization efficiency with limestone. Whereas the bench scale primary fragmentation test, likely linked to the caking propriety of a coal, does not seem to change considerably the char size distribution.

  11. Prediction of hydrodynamic properties of mixed-particle systems and theoretical analysis of loop pressure profile in a CFB unit

    SciTech Connect

    Das, M.; Meikap, B.C.; Saha, R.K.

    2008-07-15

    The hydrodynamic behaviors of mixed system of particles were investigated in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) unit consisting of fast column (riser) with an inner diameter of 0.1016 m and a height of 5.62 m. Particle mixtures containing a Geldart group-A-like fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst with group-B-like sand and iron ore with coal were used to study the hydrodynamic features including static pressure, voidage, and loop pressure profile. The mixed system consisting of FCC catalyst and sand contained 20, 50, and 80 mass % sand, and the coal-iron ore mixture contained 80 mass % coal. The superficial air velocity ranged between 2.01 and 4.681 m/s, and the corresponding mass fluxes were 12.5-50 kg/(m{sup 2} s). A comparison of the available experimental values for static pressure profiles at different operating conditions for mixed-particle systems shows good agreement with those predicted from the single-particle systems. Using experimental data on the loop pressure balance, a simplified theoretical analysis was performed to predict the pressure profile in the CFB loop. The deviations between the two sets of values are within reasonable limits of accuracy.

  12. Discriminating between pyroxenite and peridotite sources for continental flood basalts (CFB) in southern Africa using olivine chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, Geoffrey H.; Harris, Chris

    2017-10-01

    Continental Flood Basalts (CFB) result from voluminous outpourings of magma that often precede continental break-up. Notwithstanding the petrogenetic importance of CFBs, the nature of the mantle source for such magmas is contentious, particularly with regard to picrites with Ni-rich olivine phenocrysts. Previous studies have suggested that Ni-rich olivines associated with plume volcanism in regions of thickened (>90 km) lithosphere are related to either source mineralogy differences (peridotite versus pyroxenite) or change in olivine-melt partitioning due to pressure increase. In order to evaluate these two hypotheses, we present trace element data for olivines from the Karoo CFB Tuli and Mwenezi picrites and the Etendeka CFB Horingbaai/LTZ-L type picrites, all of which erupted in regions of thickened (>90 km) lithosphere in southern Africa. Karoo picrite olivines are Ni-rich, Ca- and Mn-poor, and have low (<1.4) 100*Mn/Fe. These compositions are consistent with a pyroxenitic source. Etendeka Horingbaai/LTZ-L picrite olivines do not show Ni-enrichment, but are characterized by high Al and Cr, and high (>1.4) 100*Mn/Fe, which is more consistent with high temperature melting of a dominantly peridotitic source. We also show that the Karoo and Etendeka olivines are characterized by distinct Mn/Zn ratios of <13 and >15, respectively. In addition, bulk rock geochemical data compilations and previously reported olivine δ18O for Karoo and Etendeka CFBs are discussed in order to further constrain source components based on previously described pyroxenite melt geochemical indices such as MgO-CaO systematics, FeO/MnO, Zn/Fe, and FC3MS (FeO/CaO-3*MgO/SiO2). These geochemical indices suggest a pyroxenite-dominated source for Karoo CFBs as well as for Etendeka ferropicrites whereas a peridotite-dominated source is indicated for Etendeka Horingbaai/LTZ-L type picrites analyzed in this study. Based on our data, Ni-enrichment of olivine in plume-related magmas in regions of

  13. NOx Emission Reduction by the Optimization of the Primary Air Distribution in the 235Mwe CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirek, P.; Czakiert, T.; Nowak, W.

    The article presents the results of experimental studies conducted on a large-scale 235 MWe CFB (Circulating Fluidized Bed) boiler, in which the primary air distribution system was modified. The modification was connected with the change of internal geometry of primary air channels as well as internal space of plenum chamber. The obtained results have shown, that the optimization of primary air flow has a great influence on the intensity of the combustion process and the temperature distribution along the height of combustion chamber. As a result, the NOx emission has been reduced by up to ten percent and the temperature profile in the combustion chamber has been revealed to be more uniform.

  14. PCDDs/PCDFs, dl-PCBs and HCB in the flue gas from coal fired CFB boilers.

    PubMed

    Grochowalski, Adam; Konieczyński, Jan

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the project was to measure the actual emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from four selected power plants in Poland in order to update the national inventory of PCDDs/PCDFs emission. Relatively low PCDDs/PCDFs as well as dl-PCBs concentrations in flue gas obtained in measurements in this study for four different circulated fluidized bed (CFB) boilers indicate practical absence of any hazards caused by PCDDs/PCDFs emission from these units. The results of PCDDs/PCDFs determination obtained in this study indicate that hard coal combustion in large CFB in the four central heating plants (CHP) is not a significant source of PCDDs/PCDFs emission to the environment even if operated by co-firing of waste coal. PCDDs/PCDFs concentration in flue gases as well as emission factors were recorded in the range of 0.012-0.060 ng I-TEQ/m(n)(3) and 7.51-46.4 microg I-TEQ/TJ, respectively. Dl-PCBs concentration was practically below the LOQ=0.006 ng WHO-PCB TEQ/m(n)(3) in all experiments. HCB concentration as well as emission factors were recorded in the range of 11.5-42.0 ng/m(n)(3) and 6.19-26.7 mg/TJ, respectively, where the highest value was obtained for co-firing of waste coal, however. Obtained in this work emission factors will be used for national emission inventory purposes instead of the factors proposed by Toolkit or taken from previous measurements. However, consideration should be given to the fact that the measurements in most cases are related to single installations. Therefore, the need for further development of national factors for the power generation industry in Poland is desired.

  15. A comparison of fuzzy logic and cluster renewal approaches for heat transfer modeling in a 1296 t/h CFB boiler with low level of flue gas recirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błaszczuk, Artur; Krzywański, Jarosław

    2017-03-01

    The interrelation between fuzzy logic and cluster renewal approaches for heat transfer modeling in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) has been established based on a local furnace data. The furnace data have been measured in a 1296 t/h CFB boiler with low level of flue gas recirculation. In the present study, the bed temperature and suspension density were treated as experimental variables along the furnace height. The measured bed temperature and suspension density were varied in the range of 1131-1156 K and 1.93-6.32 kg/m3, respectively. Using the heat transfer coefficient for commercial CFB combustor, two empirical heat transfer correlation were developed in terms of important operating parameters including bed temperature and also suspension density. The fuzzy logic results were found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental heat transfer data obtained based on cluster renewal approach. The predicted bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient covered a range of 109-241 W/(m2K) and 111-240 W/(m2K), for fuzzy logic and cluster renewal approach respectively. The divergence in calculated heat flux recovery along the furnace height between fuzzy logic and cluster renewal approach did not exceeded ±2%.

  16. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUID BED BOILERS (Phase II--Evaluation of the Oxyfuel CFB Concept)

    SciTech Connect

    John L. Marion; Nsakala ya Nsakala

    2003-11-09

    The overall project goal is to determine if carbon dioxide can be captured and sequestered at a cost of about $10/ton of carbon avoided, using a newly constructed Circulating Fluidized Bed combustor while burning coal with a mixture of oxygen and recycled flue gas, instead of air. This project is structured in two Phases. Phase I was performed between September 28, 2001 and May 15, 2002. Results from Phase I were documented in a Topical Report issued on May 15, 2003 (Nsakala, et al., 2003), with the recommendation to evaluate, during Phase II, the Oxyfuel-fired CFB concept. DOE NETL accepted this recommendation, and, hence approved the project continuation into Phase II. Phase 2. The second phase of the project--which includes pilot-scale tests of an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed test facility with performance and economic analyses--is currently underway at ALSTOM's Power Plant Laboratories, located in Windsor, CT (US). The objective of the pilot-scale testing is to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and delayed petroleum coke in oxygen/carbon dioxide mixtures. Results will be used in the design of oxygen-fired CFB boilers--both retrofit and new Greenfield--as well as to provide a generic performance database for other researchers. At the conclusion of Phase 2, revised costs and performance will be estimated for both retrofit and new Greenfield design concepts with CO2 capture, purification, compression, and liquefaction.

  17. Mechanism study on the influence of in situ SOx removal on N2O emission in CFB boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lingnan; Qin, Wu; Hu, Xiaoying; Dong, Changqing; Yang, Yongping

    2015-04-01

    The influence of in situ deSOx process on N2O emission in CFB boiler was studied using density functional theory calculations. The competitive adsorption of SO2 and N2O on pure CaO (1 0 0) surface was first studied and the reaction priority was determined. Results showed that SO2 was more likely to adsorb on CaO (1 0 0) surface O anion site, which hindered the catalytic decomposition of N2O on CaO (1 0 0) surface and sulfurized the CaO (1 0 0) surface under reducing atmosphere. Then a partially sulfurized CaO (1 0 0) surface was established to study the catalytic activity of deSOx reaction intermediate on N2O decomposition. The O atom transfer process and the surface recovery process were two key steps for N2O decomposition and the rate-determining step was the latter one. The sulfurization of the surface could deactivate its catalytic activity on N2O decomposition compared with pure CaO (1 0 0) surface but it was still better than that of pure CaS (1 0 0) surface. The free Gibbs energy was calculated to incorporate the temperature dependence of respective reactions. When temperature was higher than 373 K, the surface recovery was more likely to proceed via the LH route.

  18. Chemical reaction conditions in a Danish 80 MW{sub th} CFB-boiler co-firing straw and coal

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, P.F.B.

    1997-12-31

    Future boilers to be constructed in Denmark including boilers intended for energy conversion of biomass (straw and wood chips) will be designed for Ultra Super Critical steam data. The high steam temperatures and subsequently metal temperatures in the superheaters will increase the corrosion hazard significantly. Severe superheater corrosion observed in the convective path and on test tubes inserted into the loop seal of a Danish 80 MW{sub th} Ahlstroem Pyroflow CFB boiler co-firing coal and straw initiated this study on the conditions under which the chemical reactions occur and deposits form. Load changes--caused by variations in public demand for district heating shifts the reaction conditions in the loop seal between predominantly reducing and predominantly oxidizing conditions. Furthermore the external particle circulation rate and the local temperatures are strongly affected. Deposits collected in the loop seal on temperature controlled probes reveals Cl concentrations more than Twenty Thousand times higher than found in the surrounding bed material. The results are discussed and suggestions on how to reduce high temperature corrosion and superheater fouling are presented.

  19. Desulfurization characteristics of rapidly hydrated sorbents with various adhesive carrier particles for a semidry CFB-FGD system.

    PubMed

    You, Changfu; Li, Yuan

    2013-03-19

    Semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) experiments were conducted using rapidly hydrated sorbents with four different adhesive carrier particles: circulation ash from a circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFBB circulation ash), fly ash from the first electrical field of the electrostatic precipitator of a circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFBB ESP ash), fly ash from a chain boiler (chain boiler ash), and river sand smaller than 1 mm. The influences of various adhesive carrier particles and operating conditions on the desulfurization characteristics of the sorbents were investigated, including sprayed water, reaction temperature, and the ratio of calcium to sulfur (Ca/S). The experimental results indicated that the rapidly hydrated sorbents had better desulfurization characteristics by using adhesive carrier particles which possessed better pore, adhesion, and fluidization characteristics. The desulfurization efficiency of the system increased as the reaction temperature decreased, it improved from 35% to 90% as the mass flow rate of the sprayed water increased from 0 to 10 kg/h, and it increased from 65.6% to 82.7% as Ca/S increased from 1.0 to 2.0. Based on these findings, a new semidry circulating fluidized bed (CFB)-FGD system using rapidly hydrated sorbent was developed. Using the rapidly hydrated sorbent, this system uses a cyclone separator instead of an ESP or a bag filter to recycle the sorbent particles, thereby decreasing the system flow resistance, saving investment and operating costs of the solids collection equipment.

  20. The Emissions of PAHs and Heavy Metals from Co-Combustion of Petrochemical Sludge with Coal in CFB Incinerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ge; Zhao, Changsui; Chen, Huichao; Chen, Xiaoping; Liang, Cai

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn) emission characteristics in flue gas from co-combustion of petrochemical sludge and coal were investigated in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) incinerator with a thermal input of 0.2 MW. Experimental results show that when mass ratio of petrochemical sludge/coal increases from 10% to 40%, PAHs, Hg and Zn emissions increase, while Pb and Ni emissions decrease. Mass mixing ratio has no obvious effect on the emissions of Cr and Cu. As combustion temperature increases, PAHs emission decreases at first and then increases, there is an optimum combustion temperature inhibiting PAHs formation, while emissions of Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn increase relatively rapidly. With Ca/S molar ratio increasing, PAHs, Hg, Pb, Ni, and Cu emissions decrease due to adsorption by calcium sorbents. Limestone is effective in adsorbing Pb and Ni, while lime is suitable to adsorb Hg and Cu. However, Ca/S molar ratio doesn't have much influence on the emissions of Cr and Zn. Some combustion parameters are recommended based on stable combustion and low pollutant emission.

  1. Trace element partitioning behavior of coal gangue-fired CFB plant: experimental and equilibrium calculation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingyi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-10-01

    Energy recovery is a promising method for coal gangue utilization, during which the prevention of secondary pollution, especially toxic metal emission, is a significant issue in the development of coal gangue utilization. In the present study, investigation into trace element partitioning behavior from a coal gangue-fired power plant in Shanxi province, China, has been conducted. Besides the experimental analysis, thermodynamic equilibrium calculation was also conducted to help the further understanding on the effect of different parameters. Results showed that Hg, As, Be, and Cd were highly volatile elements in the combustion of coal gangue, which were notably enriched in fly ash and may be emitted into the environment via the gas phase. Cr and Mn were mostly non-volatile and were enriched in the bottom ash. Pb, Co, Zn, Cu, and Ni were semi-volatile elements and were enriched in the fly ash to varying degrees. Equilibrium calculations show that the air/fuel ratio and the presence of Cl highly affect the element volatility. The presence of mineral phases, such as aluminosilicates, depresses the volatility of elements by chemical immobilization and competition in Cl. The coal gangue, fly ash, and bottom ash all passed the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), and their alkalinity buffers the acidity of the solution and contributes to the low solubility of the trace elements.

  2. Low-frequency coding variants in CETP and CFB are associated with susceptibility of exudative age-related macular degeneration in the Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Momozawa, Yukihide; Akiyama, Masato; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Arakawa, Satoshi; Yasuda, Miho; Yoshida, Shigeo; Oshima, Yuji; Mori, Ryusaburo; Tanaka, Koji; Mori, Keisuke; Inoue, Satoshi; Terasaki, Hiroko; Yasuma, Tetsuhiro; Honda, Shigeru; Miki, Akiko; Inoue, Maiko; Fujisawa, Kimihiko; Takahashi, Kanji; Yasukawa, Tsutomu; Yanagi, Yasuo; Kadonosono, Kazuaki; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki

    2016-10-03

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness in the elderly. Previous sequencing studies of AMD susceptibility genes have revealed the association of rare coding variants in CFH, CFI, C3 and C9 in European population; however, the impact of rare or low-frequency coding variants on AMD susceptibility in other populations is largely unknown. To identify the role of low-frequency coding variants on exudative AMD susceptibility in a Japanese population, we analysed the association of coding variants of 34 AMD candidate genes in the two-stage design by a multiplex PCR-based target sequencing method. We used a total of 2,886 (1st: 827, 2nd: 2,059) exudative AMD cases including typical AMD, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, and retinal angiomatous proliferation and 9,337 (1st: 3,247 2nd: 6,090) controls. Gene-based analysis found a significant association of low-frequency variants (minor allele frequency (MAF) < 0.05) in CETP, C2 and CFB The association of CETP remained after conditioned with all known genome-wide association study (GWAS) associated variants. In addition, when we included only disruptive variants, enrichment of rare variants (MAF < 0.01) was also observed after conditioned with all GWAS associated variants (P = 1.03 × 10(-6), odds ratio (OR) = 2.48). Haplotype and conditional analysis of the C2-CFB-SKIV2L locus showed a low-frequency variant (R74H) in CFB would be individually associated with AMD susceptibility independent of the GWAS associated SNP. These findings highlight the importance of target sequencing to reveal the impact of rare or low-frequency coding variants on disease susceptibility in different ethnic populations.

  3. Identification of Group B Streptococci Using 16S rRNA, cfb, scpB, and atr Genes in Pregnant Women by PCR.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Seyed Masoud; Hosseini, Seyed Mostafa; Mashouf, Rasoul Yousefi; Arabestani, Mohammad Reza

    2016-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is acommensalorganism, but it may cause infection in susceptible hosts. The aim of this study was to evaluate PCR assay compared with conventional culture method for direct detection of Streptococcus agalactiae. Total of 203 paired low vaginal swabs were collected from women at 35-37 weeks of pregnancy from June 2013 through February 2014 for detection of Streptococcus agalactiae using PCR assay targeting 16S rRNA, cfb, scpB, and atr genes and culture method following broth enrichment. The results were recorded and evaluated for determining of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of PCR assaycompared with culture method. Prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae was determined as 7.39% (n=15) using culture method; 19.70% (n=40) by PCR targeting 16S rRNA gene; 18.23% (n=37) by targeting atr gene; 17.24% (n=35) by cfb gene; and 8.87% (n=18) by scpB gene. Generally, a total of 49 specimens were considered true positive (27 samples by PCR assay using the four genes in sum, 4 samples only by atr gene PCR, 3 samples only by cfb gene PCR, 2 samples only by culture method, and 13 samples by PCR assay and culture method in common) and prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae determined 24.14% in Hamadan. The current data demonstrated that performing only culture method for detecting GBS from pregnant women leads to missed false negative carrier individuals. Thus, it is recommended that both the PCR assay and conventional culture method to be performed in order to detect Streptococcus agalactiae.

  4. EERC pilot-scale CFBC evaluation facility Project CFB test results. Topical report, Task 7.30

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D.; Hajicek, D.R.; Henderson, A.K.; Moe, T.A.

    1992-09-01

    Project CFB was initiated at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) in May 1988. Specific goals of the project were to (1) construct a circulating fluidized-bed combustor (CFBC) facility representative of the major boiler vendors` designs with the capability of producing scalable data, (2) develop a database for use in making future evaluations of CFBC technology, and (3) provide a facility for evaluating fuels, free of vendor bias for use in the - energy industry. Five coals were test-burned in the 1-MWth unit: North Dakota and Asian lignites, a Wyoming subbituminous, and Colorado and Pennsylvania bituminous coats. A total of 54 steady-state test periods were conducted, with the key test parameters being the average combustor temperature, excess air, superficial gas velocity, calcium-to-sulfur molar ratio, and the primary air-to-secondary air split. The capture for a coal fired in a CFBC is primarily dependent upon the total alkali-to-sulfur ratio. The required alkali-to ratio for 90% sulfur retention ranged from 1.4 to 4.9, depending upon coal type. While an alkali-to-ratio of 4.9 was required to meet 90% sulfur retention for the Salt Creek coal versus 1.4 for the Asian lignite, the total amount of sorbent addition required is much less for the Salt Creek coal, 4.2 pound sorbent per million Btu coal input, versus 62 pound/million Btu for the Asian lignite. The bituminous coals tested show optimal capture at combustor temperatures of approximately 1550{degree}F, with low-rank coals having optimal sulfur capture approximately 100{degree}F lower.

  5. Comparison of the Decomposition VOC Profile during Winter and Summer in a Moist, Mid-Latitude (Cfb) Climate

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Shari L.; Perrault, Katelynn A.; Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues; Nizio, Katie D.; Focant, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with decomposition is an emerging field in forensic taphonomy due to their importance in locating human remains using biological detectors such as insects and canines. A consistent decomposition VOC profile has not yet been elucidated due to the intrinsic impact of the environment on the decomposition process in different climatic zones. The study of decomposition VOCs has typically occurred during the warmer months to enable chemical profiling of all decomposition stages. The present study investigated the decomposition VOC profile in air during both warmer and cooler months in a moist, mid-latitude (Cfb) climate as decomposition occurs year-round in this environment. Pig carcasses (Sus scrofa domesticus L.) were placed on a soil surface to decompose naturally and their VOC profile was monitored during the winter and summer months. Corresponding control sites were also monitored to determine the natural VOC profile of the surrounding soil and vegetation. VOC samples were collected onto sorbent tubes and analyzed using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography – time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). The summer months were characterized by higher temperatures and solar radiation, greater rainfall accumulation, and comparable humidity when compared to the winter months. The rate of decomposition was faster and the number and abundance of VOCs was proportionally higher in summer. However, a similar trend was observed in winter and summer demonstrating a rapid increase in VOC abundance during active decay with a second increase in abundance occurring later in the decomposition process. Sulfur-containing compounds, alcohols and ketones represented the most abundant classes of compounds in both seasons, although almost all 10 compound classes identified contributed to discriminating the stages of decomposition throughout both seasons. The advantages of GC×GC-TOFMS were demonstrated for

  6. Comparison of the decomposition VOC profile during winter and summer in a moist, mid-latitude (Cfb) climate.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Shari L; Perrault, Katelynn A; Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues; Nizio, Katie D; Focant, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with decomposition is an emerging field in forensic taphonomy due to their importance in locating human remains using biological detectors such as insects and canines. A consistent decomposition VOC profile has not yet been elucidated due to the intrinsic impact of the environment on the decomposition process in different climatic zones. The study of decomposition VOCs has typically occurred during the warmer months to enable chemical profiling of all decomposition stages. The present study investigated the decomposition VOC profile in air during both warmer and cooler months in a moist, mid-latitude (Cfb) climate as decomposition occurs year-round in this environment. Pig carcasses (Sus scrofa domesticus L.) were placed on a soil surface to decompose naturally and their VOC profile was monitored during the winter and summer months. Corresponding control sites were also monitored to determine the natural VOC profile of the surrounding soil and vegetation. VOC samples were collected onto sorbent tubes and analyzed using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography--time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS). The summer months were characterized by higher temperatures and solar radiation, greater rainfall accumulation, and comparable humidity when compared to the winter months. The rate of decomposition was faster and the number and abundance of VOCs was proportionally higher in summer. However, a similar trend was observed in winter and summer demonstrating a rapid increase in VOC abundance during active decay with a second increase in abundance occurring later in the decomposition process. Sulfur-containing compounds, alcohols and ketones represented the most abundant classes of compounds in both seasons, although almost all 10 compound classes identified contributed to discriminating the stages of decomposition throughout both seasons. The advantages of GC × GC-TOFMS were demonstrated

  7. CFH haplotypes and ARMS2, C2, C3, and CFB alleles show association with susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration in Mexicans

    PubMed Central

    Zenteno, Juan Carlos; Fernández-López, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez-Corona, Ulises; Falfán-Valencia, Ramcés; Sebastian, Leticia; Morales, Fabiola; Ochoa-Contreras, Daniel; Carnevale, Alessandra; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the contribution of genetic variants of complement factor H (CFH), complement component 2 and 3 (C2 and C3), complement factor B (CFB), and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk in the Mexican Mestizo population. Methods Analysis included 282 unrelated Mexican patients with advanced AMD, 205 healthy controls, and 280 population controls. Stereoscopic fundus images were graded on the Clinical Age-Related Maculopathy System (CARMS). We designed a resequencing strategy using primers with M13 adaptor for the 23 exons of the CFH gene in a subgroup of 96 individuals clinically evaluated: 48 AMD cases and 48 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in C3 (Arg80Gly and Pro292Leu), C2 (rs547154), CFB (Leu9His), and ARMS2 (Ala69Ser) were genotyped in all patients, healthy and population controls using TaqMan assay. Results All evaluated individuals were Mexican Mestizos, and their genetic ancestry was validated using 224 ancestry informative markers and calculating Fst values. The CFH resequencing revealed 19 SNPs and a common variant in the intron 2 splice acceptor site; three CFH haplotypes inferred from individual genotypes, showed significant differences between cases and controls. The risk alleles in C3 (rs1047286, odds ratio [OR]=2.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.64–3.75, p=1.59E-05; rs2230199, OR=2.15, 95% CI=1.48–3.13, p=6.28E-05) and in ARMS2 (rs10490924, OR=3.09, 95% CI=2.48–3.86, p=5.42E-23) were strongly associated with risk of AMD. The protective effect of alleles in C2 (rs547154) and CFB (rs4151667) showed a trend but was not significantly associated after correction for multiple testing. Conclusions Our results show that ARMS2 and C3 are major contributors to advanced AMD in Mexican patients, while the contributions of CFH, C2, and CFB are minor to those of other populations, reveling significant ethnic differences in minor allele

  8. CFH haplotypes and ARMS2, C2, C3, and CFB alleles show association with susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration in Mexicans.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Alejandra V; Zenteno, Juan Carlos; Fernández-López, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez-Corona, Ulises; Falfán-Valencia, Ramcés; Sebastian, Leticia; Morales, Fabiola; Ochoa-Contreras, Daniel; Carnevale, Alessandra; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the contribution of genetic variants of complement factor H (CFH), complement component 2 and 3 (C2 and C3), complement factor B (CFB), and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk in the Mexican Mestizo population. Analysis included 282 unrelated Mexican patients with advanced AMD, 205 healthy controls, and 280 population controls. Stereoscopic fundus images were graded on the Clinical Age-Related Maculopathy System (CARMS). We designed a resequencing strategy using primers with M13 adaptor for the 23 exons of the CFH gene in a subgroup of 96 individuals clinically evaluated: 48 AMD cases and 48 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in C3 (Arg80Gly and Pro292Leu), C2 (rs547154), CFB (Leu9His), and ARMS2 (Ala69Ser) were genotyped in all patients, healthy and population controls using TaqMan assay. All evaluated individuals were Mexican Mestizos, and their genetic ancestry was validated using 224 ancestry informative markers and calculating F(st) values. The CFH resequencing revealed 19 SNPs and a common variant in the intron 2 splice acceptor site; three CFH haplotypes inferred from individual genotypes, showed significant differences between cases and controls. The risk alleles in C3 (rs1047286, odds ratio [OR]=2.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.64-3.75, p=1.59E-05; rs2230199, OR=2.15, 95% CI=1.48-3.13, p=6.28E-05) and in ARMS2 (rs10490924, OR=3.09, 95% CI=2.48-3.86, p=5.42E-23) were strongly associated with risk of AMD. The protective effect of alleles in C2 (rs547154) and CFB (rs4151667) showed a trend but was not significantly associated after correction for multiple testing. Our results show that ARMS2 and C3 are major contributors to advanced AMD in Mexican patients, while the contributions of CFH, C2, and CFB are minor to those of other populations, reveling significant ethnic differences in minor allele frequencies. We provide evidence that two

  9. Basalt geochemistry and tectonic discrimination within continental flood basalt provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Julian S.

    1987-06-01

    .e. asthenospheric) geochemical characteristics. The flood basalt/silicic magmatism/late-stage dyke swarm association is characteristic of several rift or thinned lithosphere environments (e.g., Ethiopia, Skye, eastern Greenland) but in many of these the flood basalts have ocean-island basalt (OIT) geochemical characteristics. The Lesotho-type CFB geochemistry is exhibited by the Grande Ronde Basalt of the Columbia River Group (a possible subduction-related flood basalt province) and the basic rocks associated with Mesozoic rifting in the North and South Atlantic. Basalt geochemistry alone is unhelpful in determining the tectonic setting of CFBs although the rift-related environments may be identified by the petrology and geochemistry of the whole igneous suite. A two-source model is proposed for the mantle-derived basic rocks in rift-related CFB provinces. Early enriched basalts are derived from the lithosphere and, following pronounced lithospheric attenuation or rifting, later MORB-like melts are emplaced from the rising asthenosphere. The presence of both Lesotho- and OIT-type geochemical patterns in rift-related CFBs suggests that the lithosphere exhibits different styles of enrichment.

  10. CFD Modelling Applied to the Co-Combustion of Paper Sludge and Coal in a 130 t/h CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Z. S.; Ma, X. Q.; Lai, Z. Y.; Xiao, H. M.

    Three-dimensional mathematical model has been developed as a tool for co-combustion of paper sludge and coal in a 130 tJh Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler. Mathematical methods had been used based on a commercial software FLUENT for combustion. The predicted results of CFB furnace show that the co-combustion of paper sludge/coal is initially intensively at the bottom of bed; the temperature reaches its maximum in the dense-phase zone, around l400K. It indicates that paper sludge spout into furnace from the recycle inlet can increase the furnace maximum temperature (l396.3K), area-weighted average temperature (l109.6K) and the furnace gas outlet area-weighted average temperature(996.8K).The mathematical modeling also predicts that 15 mass% paper sludge co-combustion is the highest temperature at the flue gas outlet, it is 1000.8K. Moreover, it is proved that mathematical models can serve as a tool for detailed analysis of co-combustion of paper sludge and coal processes in a circulating fluidized bed furnace when in view of its convenience. The results gained from numerical simulation show that paper sludge enter into furnace from the recycle inlet excelled than mixing with coal and at the underside of phase interface.

  11. Nucla CFB Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    This report documents Colorado-Ute Electric Association's Nucla Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion (AFBC) demonstration project. It describes the plant equipment and system design for the first US utility-size circulating AFBC boiler and its support systems. Included are equipment and system descriptions, design/background information and appendices with an equipment list and selected information plus process flow and instrumentation drawings. The purpose of this report is to share the information gathered during the Nucla circulating AFBC demonstration project and present it so that the general public can evaluate the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of replacing pulverized or stoker-fired boiler units with circulating fluidized-bed boiler units. (VC)

  12. Updated experience of the first CFB boilers in Spain: HUNOSA`S {open_quotes}La PEREDA{close_quotes} power station

    SciTech Connect

    Rivero, R.N.; Garcia, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    HUNOSA`s {open_quotes}La Pereda{close_quotes} cogeneration facility is equipped with a Foster Wheeler circulating fluidized bed boiler designed to produce 185000 Kg/h (407850 lb/hr) of superheated steam to generate 50 MW of electricity, HUNOSA, a Spanish public mining company, uses a fuel mixture of 65% culm waste and 35% run off mine coal with a High Heating Value as low as 8700 Kj/Kg (3740 BTU/lb), and an ash content as high as 65%. The efficient and clean use of such a waste fuel, which is a subproduct of the company`s mining activity, is attempted by the first time in Spain, and was possible by using a circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler which takes advantage of Foster Wheeler previous experience firing waste fuels of this type. This paper summarizes La Pereda`s CFB boiler main design characteristics and describes the results attained during its first year and a half of operation. This project was partially financed by the European Community, as well as by another Spanish official entities. It is the first industrial installation in operation with a circulating fluidized bed boiler in Spain and will serve as a basis to develop an important program of waste fuel valorization and environmental regeneration by using low grade energy resources which were not susceptible of being used up to now. The authors believe that the case described might be of interest to other mining companies and in general, to all those considering the potential use of waste fuels of this type for steam and electricity generation.

  13. Influence of air-staging on the concentration profiles of NH{sub 3} and HCN in the combustion chamber of a CFB boiler burning coal

    SciTech Connect

    Kassman, H.; Karlsson, M.; Aamand, L.E.

    1999-07-01

    The characterization of the concentration profiles of NH{sub 3} and HCN are of great importance for increasing the knowledge of the formation and destruction pathways of NO and N{sub 2}O in a fluidized bed boiler. Further improvements of the sampling methods for the determination of both NH{sub 3} and HCN in the combustion chamber in full-scale CFB boilers are also needed. A gas-sampling probe connected to a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) instrument and a gas-quenching (GQ) probe in which the sample is quenched directly in the probe tip by a circulating trapper solution were used. The FTIR technique is based on analysis of hot combustion gases, whereas the trapper solutions from the GQ probe were analyzed by means of wet chemistry. The tests were performed during coal combustion in a 12 MW CFB boiler, which was operated at three air-staging cases with the addition of limestone for sulfur capture. The concentration profiles of NH{sub 3} and HCN in the combustion chamber showed a different pattern concerning the influence of air-staging. The highest levels of NH{sub 3} were observed during reducing condition (severe air-staging), and the lowest were found under oxidizing conditions (no air-staging). The levels of HCN were much lower than those measured for NH{sub 3}. The highest levels of HCN were observed for reversed air-staging and severe air-staging showed almost no HCN. The potential reactors involving NH{sub 3} and HCN in the combustion chamber as well as the potential measurement errors in each sampling technique are discussed for the three air-staging cases.

  14. Association between CFH, CFB, ARMS2, SERPINF1, VEGFR1 and VEGF polymorphisms and anatomical and functional response to ranibizumab treatment in neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Cobos, Estefania; Recalde, Sergio; Anter, Jaouad; Hernandez-Sanchez, Maria; Barreales, Carla; Olavarrieta, Leticia; Valverde, Alicia; Suarez-Figueroa, Marta; Cruz, Fernando; Abraldes, Maximino; Pérez-Pérez, Julian; Fernández-Robredo, Patricia; Arias, Luis; García-Layana, Alfredo

    2017-09-19

    We sought to determine if specific genetic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influence vascular endothelial growth factor inhibition response to ranibizumab in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A total of 403 Caucasian patients diagnosed with exudative AMD were included. After a three-injection loading phase, a pro re nata regimen was followed. Nine SNPs from six different genes (CFH, CFB, ARMS2, SERPINF1, VEGFR1, VEGF) were genotyped. Non-genetic risk factors (gender, smoking habit and hypertension) were also assessed. Patients were classified as good or poor responders (GR or PR) according to functional (visual acuity), anatomical (foveal thickness measured by OCT) and fluid criteria (fluid/no fluid measured by OCT). Hypertension was the environmental factor with the strongest poor response association with ranibizumab in the anatomical measure after the loading phase (p = 0.0004; OR 3.7; 95% CI, 2.4-5.8) and after 12 months of treatment (p = 10(-5) ; OR 2.3; 95% CI, 1.5-3.4). The genetic variants rs12614 (CFB), rs699947 (VEGFA) and rs7993418 (VEGFR1) predisposed patients to a good response, while rs12603486 and rs1136287 (SERPINF1) were associated with a poor response. The protective genotype of rs800292 variant (CFH) was also associated with a poor anatomical response (p 0.0048). All these data suggest that genetics play an important role in treatment response in AMD patients. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Jizzax Province, Uzbekistan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-10

    This image captured by NASA Terra spacecraft is of the Jizzax Province in eastern Uzbekistan, one of the main agricultural regions of the country. Uzbekistan is the world sixth largest producer and second-largest exporter of cotton.

  16. Heilongjiang Province, China

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-07

    Acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft, this image shows Heilongjiang, a province of China located in the northeastern part of the country. Farms are small and long skinny rectangles in shape, surrounding regularly spaced villages.

  17. Tectonics and metallogenic provinces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guild, P.W.

    1983-01-01

    Various theories have been advanced to explain the well-known uneven distribution of metals and ore-deposit types in space and time. Primordial differences in the mantle, preferential concentration of elements in the crust, the prevalence of ore-forming processes at certain times and (or) places, and combinations of one or several of these factors have all been called upon to account for the "metallogenic provinces," which can be defined loosely as regions containing similar deposits of one or a group of metals or minerals. Because many, perhaps most, provinces have complex, multistage origins, the relative importance of inheritance vs. process is still controversial. In recent years the geographic relationship of many geologically young provinces to present-day plate-tectonic positions (accreting or consuming margins, intraplate structures, etc.) has been widely recognized, and the presumption is strong that older provinces had similar relationships to former plates. As most ore deposits resulted from a favorable conjunction of geological processes that are no longer operative, elucidation of their genesis requires reconstruction of the geologic history of the province, with particular emphasis on events coeval with mineralization. Tectonic analysis is an important aspect of this reconstruction; data from orbiting satellites have contributed greatly to this analysis, as the voluminous literature of the past decade testifies. Both the synoptic view of large areas and the ability to emphasize faint contrasts have revealed linear, curvilinear, and circular features not previously recognized from field studies. Some of these undoubtedly reflect basement structures that have contributed to the development, or limit the extent, of metallogenic provinces. Their recognition and delineation will be increasingly valuable to the assessment of resources available and as guides to exploration for the ores needed by future generations. ?? 1983.

  18. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2004-10-27

    Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}, along with some moisture, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB plants results in significant Boiler Island cost savings resulting from reduced component The overall objective of the Phase II workscope, which is the subject of this report, is to generate a refined technical and economic evaluation of the Oxygen fired CFB case (Case-2 from Phase I) utilizing the information learned from pilot-scale testing of this concept. The objective of the pilot-scale testing was to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and

  19. Geologic provinces of Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Northcutt, R.A.; Campbell, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    The geologic provinces of Oklahoma are mainly the product of tectonics and attendant sedimentation of Pennsylvanian age. Most boundaries are structural; thus, the provinces map is a generalized tectonic map. Permian and post-Paleozoic strata tend to mask those structures, but most of those strata have been removed by erosion, except in the Anadarko Basin and the Wichita Uplift provinces. The location of most of Oklahoma`s oil and gas resources are either influenced by, or are the direct result of Pennsylvanian tectonics and sedimentation patterns. Therefore, the present study also defines provinces in the subsurface on the basis of geological criteria. The authors have attempted to use the originally published names for the recognized provinces. However, we have also used the most geologically correct names, i.e., Nemaha Uplift, Nemaha Fault Zone, and Central Oklahoma Fault, in lieu of Nemaha {open_quotes}Ridge.{close_quotes} Oklahoma is separated into five major uplifts and five major basins. The Gulf Coastal Plain is not included in this study because it is a veneer of Cretaceous cover that masks significant structures. Faults are the most common boundary element. Although their precise age commonly is known only approximately, their geographic location is less controversial, except in detail. Stratigraphic/structural boundaries are based on less precise geological information. The major example of a surface stratigraphic/structural boundary is the southwestern limit of the Ozark Uplift in eastern Oklahoma. Stratigraphic/structural boundaries in the subsurface are commonly based on structural or isopachous contours from well or geophysical data, or on a structural trend, as well as the experience of the authors. Basement structure is preferred. An example is the boundary that separates the Marietta Basin from adjacent geologic elements.

  20. The importance of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} for sulphation of gaseous KCl - An experimental investigation in a biomass fired CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Kassman, Haakan; Baefver, Linda; Aamand, Lars-Erik

    2010-09-15

    This paper is based on results obtained during co-combustion of wood pellets and straw in a 12 MW circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler. Elemental sulphur (S) and ammonium sulphate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}) were used as additives to convert the alkali chlorides (mainly KCl) to less corrosive alkali sulphates. Their performance was then evaluated using several measurement tools including, IACM (on-line measurements of gaseous alkali chlorides), a low-pressure impactor (particle size distribution and chemical composition of extracted fly ash particles), and deposit probes (chemical composition in deposits collected). The importance of the presence of either SO{sub 2} or SO{sub 3} for gas phase sulphation of KCl is also discussed. Ammonium sulphate performed significantly better than elemental sulphur. A more efficient sulphation of gaseous KCl was achieved with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} even when the S/Cl molar ratio was less than half compared to sulphur. Thus the presence of gaseous SO{sub 3} is of greater importance than that of SO{sub 2} for the sulphation of gaseous KCl. (author)

  1. Early experience with Nova Scotia Power`s Point Aconi Station, 165 MW{sub e} Ahlstrom Pyroflow{reg_sign} CFB

    SciTech Connect

    Johnk, C.; Friedman, M.A.; Andrews, N.W.

    1995-12-31

    The Point Aconi Station, which is fired with a 146.5 kg per second Ahlstrom Pyroflow{reg_sign} CFB Boiler, began consistent coal-fired operation in October, 1993. The boiler reached full load quickly and proved easy to operate and control. Boiler load has remained high averaging greater than 90% MCR, and availability has been better than 80% through August 8, 1994. As part of unit acceptance, a 120 hour reliability run was completed with the boiler operating at 100% MCR in March, 1994. Load demand dispatch testing was also completed at 1 MW/min and 3 MW/min. Despite the successful operation however, several operating difficulties arose shortly after initial coal firing. Fouling of the backpass heat transfer surfaces, higher than predicted furnace temperatures and inadequate limestone utilization showed up shortly after reaching full load. This paper discusses the experiences with the Pyroflow boiler at the Point Aconi Station, with emphasis on the solutions to some of the operating difficulties that were initially encountered.

  2. Experience with NO{sub x} control at T.B. Simon CFB Boiler at Michigan State University-case history

    SciTech Connect

    Ellerhorst, R.; Edvardsson, C.

    1995-08-01

    The T.B. Simon Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Boiler located at Michigan State University in East Lansing Michigan, was designed manufactured and erected by Tampella Power Corporation. The boiler was permitted to use SNCR (Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction ) for NO{sub x} control. Since the plant is located on campus, it was decided to choose a SNCR system based on urea instead of ammonia, from a safety stand point. The selected system, which is called NO{sub x}OUT, was delivered by Nalco/Fuel Tech. The start-up and optimization of the NO{sub x}OUT system was completed in the beginning of September, 1994. The SNCR system was modified during the annual outage in October, 1994, and has since then been operating satisfactorily between 40 and 100% load. This modification was necessary to meet low load guarantees. The NO{sub x}OUT system consists of two levels of injectors, at the cyclone inlet and at the upper part of the combustor. The injectors at the upper part of the combustor had to be moved down to a lower level in the combustor for low load operation. This change was anticipated so provisions were made during water wall panel fabrication by adding openings at a lower level. All the emission guarantees, including NO{sub x}, NH{sub 3}, CO, and SO{sub 2}, have been met between 40 and 100% load when firing bituminous coal with various sulfur contents.

  3. PGE geochemistry and Re Os dating of massive sulfide ores from the Baimazhai Cu Ni deposit, Yunnan province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoming; Wang, Shengwei; Sun, Weidong; Shi, Guiyong; Sun, Yali; Xiong, Dexin; Qu, Wenjun; Du, Andao

    2008-09-01

    The Baimazhai deposit in Yunnan Province is one of the largest Cu-Ni sulfide deposits hosted in mafic-ultramafic intrusions in China. Concentrations of platinum-group elements (PGE) in massive sulfide ores and host rocks from Baimazhai were determined by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) following nickel sulfide fire assay pre-concentration. The results show that the total PGE (ΣPGE) are quite low, decreasing gradually from central massive ores (78.2-556 ppb) to olivine pyroxenite (0.472-67.0 ppb), gabbro (0.847 ppb) and, websterite (0.76-0.809). The intruded lamprophyre dykes also show low ΣPGE (2.98-4.07 ppb). The ΣPGE exhibit obvious positive correlations with Au, Ni and Cu contents. Primitive mantle normalized PGE patterns of the massive Cu-Ni ores are of the Pt-Pd type with relatively steep and trough-like patterns, which are similar to those of the host rocks. In addition, the Pt/Pd and Cu/Pd ratios of the massive sulfide ores are similar to those of olivine pyroxenite, gabbro and websterite. These characteristics suggest that sulfides in the massive ores are of magmatic origin, co-genetic with their host rocks. The relatively high Pt/Pd ratios of the Baimazhai massive sulfide ores (averaging 0.83) and their host rocks imply that the Baimazhai sulfides formed in a single sulfide saturation event, but not through multiple sulfide injections. High Ir contents (0.77-5.52 ppb, averaging 2.35 ppb) and dramatically variable Pd/Ir ratios (4.76-296, averaging 138) of the massive sulfide ores suggest that the Baimazhai sulfide ores might have suffered significant late stage hydrothermal alteration. The Baimazhai massive sulfide ores yield a Re-Os isochron age of 259 ± 20 Ma (MSWD = 0.025), which is the same as the major eruption stage of the Emeishan large igneous province and the Baimazhai intrusion, further supporting their magmatic origin. The initial 187Os/ 188Os value of 0.456 ± 0.026 indicates that crustal contamination has played

  4. Decreased PCDD/F formation when co-firing a waste fuel and biomass in a CFB boiler by addition of sulphates or municipal sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Åmand, Lars-Erik; Kassman, Håkan

    2013-08-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are formed during waste incineration and in waste-to-energy boilers. Incomplete combustion, too short residence times at low combustion temperatures (<700 °C), incineration of electronic waste and plastic waste containing chlorine are all factors influencing the formation of PCDD/Fs in boilers. The impact of chlorine and catalysing metals (such as copper and iron) in the fuel on PCDD/F formation was studied in a 12 MW(th) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler. The PCDD/F concentrations in the raw gas after the convection pass of the boiler and in the fly ashes were compared. The fuel types were a so-called clean biomass with low content of chlorine, biomass with enhanced content of chlorine from supply of PVC, and solid recovered fuel (SRF) which is a waste fuel containing higher concentrations of both chlorine, and catalysing metals. The PCDD/F formation increased for the biomass with enhanced chlorine content and it was significantly reduced in the raw gas as well as in the fly ashes by injection of ammonium sulphate. A link, the alkali chloride track, is demonstrated between the level of alkali chlorides in the gas phase, the chlorine content in the deposits in the convection pass and finally the PCDD/F formation. The formation of PCDD/Fs was also significantly reduced during co-combustion of SRF with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) compared to when SRF was fired without MSS as additional fuel.

  5. Decreased PCDD/F formation when co-firing a waste fuel and biomass in a CFB boiler by addition of sulphates or municipal sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Åmand, Lars-Erik; Kassman, Håkan

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • Two strategies to reduce PCDD/F formation when co-firing solid recovered fuel (SRF) and biomass. • They were co-combustion with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and addition of ammonium sulphate. • PCDD/Fs were significantly reduced for a biomass rich in chlorine when adding ammonium sulphate. • MSS had a suppressing effect on PCDD/F formation during co-combustion with SRF. • A link is presented between gaseous alkali chlorides, chlorine in deposits and PCDD/F formation. - Abstract: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are formed during waste incineration and in waste-to-energy boilers. Incomplete combustion, too short residence times at low combustion temperatures (<700 °C), incineration of electronic waste and plastic waste containing chlorine are all factors influencing the formation of PCDD/Fs in boilers. The impact of chlorine and catalysing metals (such as copper and iron) in the fuel on PCDD/F formation was studied in a 12 MW{sub th} circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler. The PCDD/F concentrations in the raw gas after the convection pass of the boiler and in the fly ashes were compared. The fuel types were a so-called clean biomass with low content of chlorine, biomass with enhanced content of chlorine from supply of PVC, and solid recovered fuel (SRF) which is a waste fuel containing higher concentrations of both chlorine, and catalysing metals. The PCDD/F formation increased for the biomass with enhanced chlorine content and it was significantly reduced in the raw gas as well as in the fly ashes by injection of ammonium sulphate. A link, the alkali chloride track, is demonstrated between the level of alkali chlorides in the gas phase, the chlorine content in the deposits in the convection pass and finally the PCDD/F formation. The formation of PCDD/Fs was also significantly reduced during co-combustion of SRF with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) compared to when SRF was fired without MSS

  6. Silicic magmatism in the Paraná-Etendeka Province in Brazil: a progress report on stratigraphy, petrogenesis and eruptive styles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janasi, V. A.; Polo, L. A.; Guimarães, L. F.; De Campos, C. P.; Lima, E. F. D.

    2015-12-01

    Although a subordinate component of the Paraná-Etendeka (PE) CFB Province (~3% of the volcanic package), silicic volcanics make up an appreciable preserved volume of 15,000 km3, among the largest of such rocks in a CFB. Moreover, they have wide compositional variation, and are positioned at different stratigraphic levels in the lava pile, constituting important markers of timing and magma generation processes in mantle and crust, and bringing information on the composition of the crust hidden beneath the Paraná Basin. Two main types are recognized. The Palmas-type (134.6-134.2 Ma; Ar-Ar dating) occurs at the upper portion of the first PE volcanic cycle dominated by low-Ti basalts, evolving from dacite to rhyolite. High 87Sr/86Sr(i) (0.713-0.726) and moderately negative ɛNd(i) (-8) can be modeled by AFC involving contamination of low-Ti basalt with relatively young, non-depleted, high-Rb/Sr crust; a predominant role for a cratonic crust of >2.0 Ga age can be discarded. The younger Chapecó-type (134.3 Ma, baddeleyite U-Pb dating) corresponds to the lower portion of the second PE volcanic cycle, dominated by high-Ti basalts which became progressively more primitive (implying higher melting temperatures in the mantle) over a ~3 Ma time span. Chapecó-type volcanics are exclusively trachydacites, thought to be produced by remelting of high-Ti basalt underplates with minor crustal contamination, as indicated by 87Sr/86Sr(i) (0.705) and ɛNd(i) (-5) just slightly more evolved than associated basalts. Detailed structural investigations supported by ASM allow identify that both types of PE silicic rocks, characterized by high-temperature (liquidus T~1000oC) and low H2O (1-2 wt%), erupted predominantly as lavas and lava-domes, and more restrictly as rheoignimbrites, from local linear feeder systems as conduits and dikes. Shallow-level evolutive processes seem restricted to contamination with host crystalline rocks in dikes and mixing/mingling in conduits. Evidence for

  7. Income and health inequality across Canadian provinces.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Jalil

    2007-09-01

    This paper uses the aggregate data from the Public Use Microdata Files (PUMF) of Canadian National Population Health Survey to estimate income related health inequalities across the ten Canadian provinces. The unique features of the PUMF allow for a meaningful cross-provincial comparison of health indices and their measured inequalities. It concludes that health inequalities favouring the higher income people do exist in all provinces when health status is either self assessed or measured by the health utility index. Moreover, it finds considerable variations in measured health inequalities across the provinces with consistent rankings for certain provinces.

  8. Paleozoic crudes of Tomsk province

    SciTech Connect

    Smol'yaninova, N.M.; Mashukova, Z.I.; Nemirovskaya, G.V.

    1983-01-01

    The Paleozoic crudes typically have low densities at 20/sup 0/C, low contents of resins, high viscosities at 20/sup 0/C, rather high solid points, and high contents of solid paraffins. The Paleozoic crudes are in no way inferior in quality to the Mesozoic crudes of Tomsk province, and are even better in some respects (yields of high-V.I. and medium-V.I. oils). They can be processed with either a fuel/lube or petrochemical refining scheme. Finds that the crudes from the Ostaninsk and SeveroOstaninsk fields, in terms of their paraffin and sulfur contents and other indexes, are similar to the Jurassic crudes of the Zhetybai field on the Mangyshlak peninsula. These 2 crudes and the Chkalovsk crude, even though the high wax contents offer problems in production and transportation, can serve as good raw materials for fuel and oil production, and also for the manufacture of liquid and solid paraffins.

  9. Strategic thinking regarding the immigration issue in Guangdong province.

    PubMed

    Zheng, X

    1997-01-01

    "Many people have been moving to Guangdong Province from other parts of China since 1978. This paper analyzes the immigration issue in the province and suggests that the provincial government should handle this matter carefully and should give consideration to both national (Chinese) and regional (Guangdong Province) interests. The government of Guangdong Province should place priority on admitting a work force with higher education or higher work skills, which will promote the economic progress of the province."

  10. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Safa, Omid; Soltanipoor, Mohammad Amin; Rastegar, Soheil; Kazemi, Mahnaz; Nourbakhsh Dehkordi, Khadijeh; Ghannadi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study is based on an ethnobotanical research project conducted in Hormozgan province that is located in south of Iran, bordering waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. This survey was carried out in order to recover the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal knowledge of the residents of this province. They are using medicinal and functional plants for treating or preventing several diseases. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical data sheets were run with the native inhabitants and people of the province by arranging frequent field trips to different parts of the province and direct interviews with them especially those who were more familiar with the plants and their usage. Results: A total of 150 plant species belonging to 53 families were recorded for their ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses among the people of province. The records were developed by scientific names, family names, local names, medicinal parts used, different ways of their application, and traditional uses of the plants. There was high compliance in the use of plants in painful disorders, gastrointestinal, and dermatological diseases. Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life. Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies. PMID:25050260

  11. Customary Homicides in Diyarbakir Province.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Eyyup; Canturk, Nergis; Erkol, Zerrin; Kumral, Bahadir; Okumus, Ali M

    2015-09-01

    This study presents an analysis of the causes of so-called honor killings in the context of "customary homicide" and a discussion of preventive measures. Finalized case files of customary homicide between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were retrospectively examined in Diyarbakir Province, Turkey. Of a total of 28 case victims, 17 (60.7%) were females and 11 (39.3%) were males. All perpetrators were male. There was a significant difference between male and female victims in terms of economic independence (p=0.000). A direct blood relationship or relationship by marriage (such as brother-in-law) was found to have a significant association with the gender of the victim (p<0.001). Multilevel educational activities targeting a transformation of the perception of women by society, replacement of patriarchal models with more modern attitudes, and encouragement of individuality may represent effective strategies that may help reduce the number of customary homicide, which represents a multifaceted problem. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Martian Provinces From Neutron and Gamma Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasnault, O.

    2003-12-01

    This study intends to identify and characterize the major provinces at the surface of Mars. We used the data from the Neutron Spectrometer (NS) and the Gamma-ray Sensor Head (GSH) aboard Mars Odyssey. NS data help to define broad provinces that should present uniform composition. GSH data can be then summed over these provinces to derive their chemical compositions with good statistics. At the present stage, we manage to conduct the first step that identifies the provinces, while the second step is still under progress to characterize them. Variations in NS epithermal and fast neutron data are largely dominated by the distribution of hydrogen and carbon at the surface or at shallow depths. Neutrons are also affected by the presence of an atmosphere. To limit these effects, we chose frost free data (i.e. measured during the summer at high-latitudes), between -60 and +60 degrees latitude, and corrected for atmospheric thickness (normalization to 16 g/cm2). On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that neutron fluxes can be used as a proxy for composition: thermal neutrons are strongly attenuated by absorbing elements such as iron, titanium, chlorine, gadolinium, and samarium; on the contrary, the fast neutron flux increases in presence of high-atomic mass elements such as iron or titanium. For a dry and airless body it is known that the ratio of epithermal over fast neutron counts is correlated to the ratio of thermal over fast neutron counts. This correlation leads to a unique parameter, which characterizes the various soil compositions. A similar behaviour has been observed within our subset of NS data. Effects of hydrogen and carbon are quite obvious, allowing us to focus on secondary components, which are driven by soil composition. From there, we derived four provinces besides the poles. The first province is made of H-rich equatorial regions (Arabia Terra and south of Lucus Planum). The second and third provinces are found north and south of the crustal

  13. Sichuan province scores in antipollution efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-07

    According to State Council regulations, Sichuan Province has begun charging entrepreneurial units fees for discharging waste water, waste gas and waste residue in excess of state standards, and using the money to treat environmental pollution. Results have been notable. Charging fees for discharging wastes is a major economic measure which the state has adopted to promote environmental protection. So far over 120 cities and counties in the province have adopted this measure. From April 1980 to the end of 1982, the province collected a total of 68 million yuan to fund 1,200 waste treatment projects. As a spinoff of the measure, the enterprises began raising funds on their own to treat pollution. Before 1979, the province spent an average of 3 million yuan annually on treatment of pollution. Last year the figure reached 28 million yuan. Since effluent fees came into effect, Leshan City has invested more money on more pollution-treatment projects every year. Chengdu City invested 14 million yuan in 1982 on 514 projects, completing 292 projects the very same year. The completed projects treat 25,000 tons of effluent a day. Waste water containing disease germs discharged from the army-system hospitals in the province is by and large treated. Effluent fees have spurred the enterprises to strengthen management, conserve and comprehensively utilize resources and energy, thus improving the economic results of the enterprises.

  14. Volcanoes and volcanic provinces - Martian western hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    The recognition of some Martian landforms as volcanoes is based on their morphology and geologic setting. Other structures, however, may exhibit classic identifying features to a varying or a less degree; these may be only considered provisionally as having a volcanic origin. Regional geologic mapping of the western hemisphere of Mars from Viking images has revealed many more probable volcanoes and volcanotectonic features than were recognized on Mariner 9 pictures. These abundant volcanoes have been assigned to several distinct provinces on the basis of their areal distribution. Although the Olympus-Tharsis region remains as the principle center of volcanism on Mars, four other important provinces are now also recognized: the lowland plains, Tempe Terra plateau, southern highlands (in the Phaethontis and Thaumasia quadrangles), and a probable ignimbrite province, situated along the highland-lowland boundary in Amazonis Planitia. Volcanoes in any one province vary in morphlogy, size, and age, but volcanoes in each province tend to have common characteristics that distinguish that particular group.

  15. Geology and mineralization of the Wyoming Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hausel, W.D.; Edwards, B.R.; Graff, P.J.; ,

    1991-01-01

    The Wyoming Province is an Archean craton which underlies portions of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Utah, and much of Wyoming. The cratonic block consists of Archean age granite-gneiss with interspersed greenstone belts and related supracrustal terranes exposed in the cores of several Laramide uplifts. Resources found in the Province and in the adjacent accreted Proterozoic terrane include banded iron formation, Au, Pt, Pd, W, Sn, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, and diamonds. The Province shows many similarities to the mineral-rich cratons of the Canadian shield, the Rhodesian and Transvaal cratons of southern Africa, and the Pilbara and Yilgarn blocks of Western Australia, where much of the world's precious and strategic metal and gemstone resources are located.

  16. [Terrestrial gastropods from Misiones Province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Gregoric, Diego Eduardo Gutiérrez; Núñez, Verónica; Vogler, Roberto Eugenio; Beltramino, Ariel Aníbal; Rumi, Alejandra

    2013-12-01

    The Atlantic Forest represents one of the global priority eco-regions for biodiversity conservation. In Argentina, this is represented by the Paranense Forest, which occupies much of the Misiones Province. In this paper, an updated list of land mollusks from Misiones Province is presented, and its species richness was evaluated comparing protected and unprotected areas. For this, we reviewed La Plata Museum Mollusk Collection, updated the literature review, and developed some field work between 2009 and 2010. For the areographic work, a grid (50 x 50 km) was applied to a Misiones province map. In this region, large areas of native vegetation constituting the Paranaense Forest still persist, and include protected areas such as the Iguazú National Park and Puerto Peninsula Provincial Park. These areas have been the most explored at the malacological level (both terrestrial and aquatic environments), a fact that is consistent with the greater number of records found, which may also be the explanation for the highest number of species recorded in the region. A database containing 497 records was compiled. The number of species occurring in this Province was increased from 28 to 56; 11 of which were exotic species. A total of 38 of the species occurred in protected areas and 53 in unprotected areas; and 25 species were micro-mollusks. Orthalicidae was the family with the highest species number (10) and the widest distribution, occupying 16/20 sampling units. Megalobulimus was the genus found in a greater number of sampling units (14/20). The highest values of specific richness of land gastropods were found in Northern Misiones (R=32). This richness was similar to that previously reported for the Tucumán Province, although species occurring in both provinces were mostly different. The richness in Misiones Province border areas, as the Republic of Paraguay and the state of Santa Catarina (Brazil), was about twice that found in the province. The present study showed the

  17. Response to Intervention (RTI) in the Province of Saskatchewan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp-Koo, Debra; Claypool, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Response to Intervention (RTI) is at a beginning stage in the Saskatchewan province as well as in other parts of Canada. One needs only to enter RTI and the names of any of the Canadian provinces into any widely used search engine to see the marked difference in the availability of information about RTI when the Canadian provinces and individual…

  18. JEA successfully completes world's largest CFB demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-30

    JEA (formerly the Jacksonville Electric Authority) has successfully completed an eighth year landmark demonstration project that continues in baseload commercial operation. It scales up atmospheric fluidized-bed technology demonstration to the near-300-MW size, providing important data on a technology that can achieve > 90% SO{sub 2} removal and 60% NOx reduction at relatively high efficiencies and at costs comparable to those of conventional pulverized coal plants. The article recounts the history of the project. Performance tests showed a blend of coal and petcoke were most efficient as a feedstock. 3 figs.

  19. Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infection, Guangdong Province, China, 2012.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xi; Huang, Qiong; Dun, Zhongjun; Huang, Wei; Wu, Shuyu; Liang, Junhua; Deng, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yonghui

    2016-04-01

    We used active and passive surveillance to estimate nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection during 2012 in Guangdong Province, China. Under passive surveillance, for every reported NTS infection, an estimated 414.8 cases occurred annually. Under active surveillance, an estimated 35.8 cases occurred. Active surveillance provides remarkable advantages in incidence estimate.

  20. Livestock rabies outbreaks in Shanxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ye; Shi, Yanyan; Yu, Mingyang; Xu, Weidi; Gong, Wenjie; Tu, Zhongzhong; Ding, Laixi; He, Biao; Guo, Huancheng; Tu, Changchun

    2016-10-01

    Dogs play an important role in rabies transmission throughout the world. In addition to the severe human rabies situation in China, spillover of rabies virus from dogs in recent years has caused rabies outbreaks in sheep, cattle and pigs, showing that there is an increasing threat to other domestic animals. Two livestock rabies outbreaks were caused by dogs in Shanxi province, China from April to October in 2015, resulting in the deaths of 60 sheep, 10 cattle and one donkey. Brain samples from one infected bovine and the donkey were determined to be rabies virus (RABV) positive by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The complete RABV N genes of the two field strains, together with those of two previously confirmed Shanxi dog strains, were amplified, sequenced and compared phylogenetically with published sequences of the N gene of RABV strains from Shanxi and surrounding provinces. All of the strains from Shanxi province grouped closely, sharing 99.6 %-100 % sequence identity, indicating the wide distribution and transmission of dog-mediated rabies in these areas. This is the first description of donkey rabies symptoms with phylogenetic analysis of RABVs in Shanxi province and surrounding regions. The result emphasizes the need for mandatory dog rabies vaccination and improved public education to eradicate dog rabies transmission.

  1. Analysis on the inbound tourist source market in Fujian Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YU, Tong

    2017-06-01

    The paper analyzes the development and structure of inbound tourism in Fujian Province by Excel software and conducts the cluster analysis on the inbound tourism market by SPSS 23.0 software based on the inbound tourism data of Fujian Province from 2006 to 2015. The results show: the rapid development of inbound tourism in Fujian Province and the diversified inbound tourist source countries indicate the stability of inbound tourism market; the inbound tourist source market in Fujian Province can be divided into four categories according to the cluster analysis, and tourists from the United States, Japan, Malaysia, and Singapore are the key of inbound tourism in Fujian Province.

  2. USMC Rethinking Coin in Helmand Province Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    to continue to fight a successful insurgency in Helmand province well into 2010. Their capacity to deny the Government of the Islamic Republic of...Sunni Islamic caliphate in Afghanistan. As the Mujahedeens continued to demonstrate a capability to resist the Soviet expansion in Afghanistan, the...population in vicinity of Marine bases. Small unit leaders within the Marine 17 Corps would engage with locals, and in a fashion developed an impression

  3. Quantitative geochemical mapping of martian elemental provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasnault, Olivier; Jeffrey Taylor, G.; Karunatillake, Suniti; Dohm, James; Newsom, Horton; Forni, Olivier; Pinet, Patrick; Boynton, William V.

    2010-05-01

    We present an exploratory approach to the interpretation of the elemental maps produced by the Odyssey Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS). These maps benefit from a direct detection of elemental mass fractions and are used to delineate and characterize elementally homogeneous provinces in the mid-latitudinal martian surface on the basis of chemistry alone. This approach is different from assessing the elemental composition of regions previously defined by their geologic context. Multivariate statistical approaches are discussed and a combination of principal component and clustering analyses is applied on the GRS-based hydrogen, chlorine, potassium, silicon, iron, and calcium maps. At least three principal components must be considered to properly describe the compositional variability seen in the maps. The main component is likely driven by the degree of mantling through a GRS perspective, i.e. by materials enriched in mobile elements (Cl, H) and finer than 10-20 cm, at horizontal and depth scales of hundreds of kilometers and tens of centimeters, respectively. Elemental diversity is found in both mantled and less-mantled provinces, suggesting both local and regional sources for the surficial materials. The less-mantled regions appear to have compositions which include basaltic igneous rocks. Although there is an absence of obvious natural clusters in the data, a solution between five and eight elemental provinces seems optimal and is discussed (Amazonis-Tharsis and Sabaea-Arabia, Tempe and the southern highlands, Chryse and Utopia, Elysium-Tartarus, Acidalia-Arabia). Future investigation of the defined elemental provinces will involve integrating other types of data and geological information.

  4. Ground-water provinces of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schneider, Robert

    1962-01-01

    As part of a study of the status of investigations and development of ground water in Brazil, made under the auspices of the United States International Cooperation Administration and with the cooperation of the Government of Brazil, the country was divided into seven ground-water provinces. The identification and delineation of the provinces were based on the regional distribution of the dominant geologic units which are known or inferred to have distinctive water-bearing characteristics. Three of the provinces, covering most of the country, are underlain by Precambrian crystalline rocks. Three others coincide in part with four extensive sedimentary basins--the Parnaiba or Maranhfio basin and the contiguous Sao Francisco basin in the northeast and east, the Amazon basin in the north and northwest, and the Paranfi basin in the south and southwest. In addition, the narrow, discontinuous coastal plain is considered as a province. the occurrence of ground water is discussed briefly, and pertinent data are given on the more important aquifers, together with information on some existing wells. Because of the widespread distribution of crystalline rocks of low permeability, it is difficult in many areas to develop large or even adequate ground-water supplies. In general, satisfactory supplies of water are available in most of the rest of the country. Some problems include the relative deficiency of rainfall in the northeast together with the occurrence, in parts of this region, of mineralized water in the crystalline rocks. Also, there is a potential problem of excessive lowering of water levels and interference among wells in the intensively developed area of the city of Sao Paulo.

  5. Immiscible Fe- and Si-rich silicate melts in plagioclase from the Baima mafic intrusion (SW China): Implications for the origin of bi-modal igneous suites in large igneous provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ping-Ping; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Ren, Zhongyuan; Wang, Christina Yan; Wang, Kun

    2016-09-01

    The Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP) in SW China is characterized by voluminous high-Ti and low-Ti basalts and spatially associated Fe-Ti oxide-bearing mafic-ultramafic and syenitic/granitic intrusions. The Baima layered mafic intrusion in the central part of the ELIP is surrounded by syenitic and granitic rocks and contains a Lower Zone of interlayered Fe-Ti oxide ores, troctolites and clinopyroxenites and an Upper Zone of isotropic olivine gabbros and gabbros (UZa) and apatite gabbros and Fe-Ti-P oxide ores (UZb). Polycrystalline mineral inclusions, for the first time, were observed in primocryst plagioclase from the basal part of the UZa through to the top of the UZb and consist mostly of clinopyroxene, plagioclase, magnetite, ilmenite and apatite with minor orthopyroxene, sulfide and hornblende. These minerals are commonly anhedral and form irregular shapes. Daughter plagioclase usually crystallizes on the walls of host primocryst plagioclase and has An contents typically 3-6 An% lower than the host plagioclase. Daughter clinopyroxene has similar Mg# but lower TiO2 and Al2O3 contents than primocryst clinopyroxene. These polycrystalline mineral inclusions are considered to crystallize from melts contemporaneous with host plagioclase. The compositional differences between daughter and primocryst minerals can be attributed to equilibrium crystallization in a closed system of the trapped melt inclusions in contrast to fractional crystallization and possible magma replenishment in an open system typical for primo-cumulates of large layered intrusions. Heated and homogenized melt inclusions have variable SiO2 (33-52 wt%), CaO (7-20 wt%), TiO2 (0.1-12 wt%), FeOt (5-20 wt%), P2O5 (0.2-10 wt%) and K2O (0-2.2 wt%). The large ranges of melt compositions are interpreted to result from heterogeneous trapping of different proportions of immiscible Si-rich and Fe-Ti-rich silicate liquids, together with entrapment of various microphenocrysts. The separation of micrometer

  6. Simulated water productivity in Gansu Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Jinyan; Sun, Zhongxiao; Wang, Zhan; Chen, Jiancheng; Li, Zhaohua

    Economic value of water and economic analysis of water use management in Gansu Province of China have attracted widespread public attention. With the socioeconomic development, research on water resources has become more important than before. In this study, we define "water productivity" as the changes of economic production outputs of sectoral activities in every cubic meter of water input, which is also the technical coefficient of water resource use in each sector. According to Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) framework, based on the Input-Output Table 2007 and water resources bulletin of Gansu Province, we introduced the water into the ORANI-G (A Generic Single-Country Computable General Equilibrium model) model through the nested constant elasticity of substitution (CES) production function to analyze the changes of economic productions caused by water supply changes. We then examined water productivity in different sectors. Empirical results showed that current water productivity is underestimated. Agricultural water productivity is lower than that of the secondary and tertiary industries, even although agricultural water use is the largest part of water use in Gansu Province, and therefore improving agricultural water productivity can greatly mitigate the water shortage. Simulation results indicate that industrial transformation and development of water-saving industries will also mitigate water scarcity. Moreover, sensitivity analysis shows that the empirical results are robust under different scenarios. The results also show that higher constant elasticity of substitution rate (CES) between water and other production factors will contribute to sustainable development.

  7. Cockroach surveys in 14 provinces of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tawatsin, A; Thavara, U; Chompoosri, J; Kong-ngamsuk, W; Chansang, C; Paosriwong, S

    2001-12-01

    Cockroach surveys using sticky traps were conducted in urban areas of 14 Thailand provinces. At least 30 houses in each province were randomly sampled for cockroaches. Each house was trapped in three areas: kitchen, bedroom and outside. A total of 2,648 cockroaches was caught by 550 out of 1,542 traps (35.7%), from 337 of the 514 houses (65.6%). Overall, relative density ranged from 2.6 to 9.1 with an average of 5.2 cockroaches/house. On the average, 47.7% of the cockroaches were caught in the kitchen, 24.4% and 27.9% were caught in the bedroom and outside of dwellings, respectively. There were 10 species of cockroaches caught from the 14 provinces: Periplaneta americana (60.9%), Periplaneta brunnea (15.4%), Neostylopyga rhombiofolia (9.6%), Periplaneta australasiae (9.2%), Pycnoscelis surinamensis (3.3%), Blatella germanica (0.6%), Periplaneta fuliginosa (0.5%), Supella longipalpa (0.3%), Blatella lituricollis (0.15%) and Nauphoeta cinerea (0.05%), belonging to six genera. According to the surveys in this study, Periplaneta americana and Periplaneta brunnea were the most abundant cockroach species in urban Thailand, whereas the kitchen was the major habitat.

  8. Rodent consumption in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Chapman, Robert S

    2014-09-01

    Rodents are important reservoirs of rodent-borne infections worldwide, including Southeast Asia and Northeast Thailand (Isaan), where rodent consumption may be a source of rodent-borne diseases. The behavior of consuming rodents is related to a population's traditions, knowledge, cultural, and household contexts, among other factors. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand during November-December 2011. It aimed to elicit information about rodent consumption among residents of this province, and to identify factors associated with rodent consumption there. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that male gender, large family size, and use of rainwater as the main source of drinking water were positively associated with reported rodent consumption in this province, while having proper knowledge/attitudes towards animal-borne disease was negatively associated. These results provide evidence-base information for further studies, such as participatory ac- tion research, to further explore how people interact with rodents in different contexts. Further research is also needed to characterize risk of zoonotic diseases in relation to rodent consumption.

  9. Colorectal cancer trends in Kerman province, the largest province in Iran, with forecasting until 2016.

    PubMed

    Roya, Nikbakht; Abbas, Bahrampour

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers. The aim of this study is determination its trends in Kerman province and individual cities separately until year 2016. This analytical and modeling study was based of cancer registry data of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, collected during 2001-2010. Among 20,351 cancer case, 792 were colorectal cancer cases in age group 18-93 years with a mean of 59.4 and standard deviation of 15.1. By applying time series and data trends, incidences were predicted until 2016 for the province and each city, with adjustment for population size. In colorectal cases, 413 (52%) were male, and 379 (48%) were female. The annual increasing rate in Kerman province overall was and can be expected to be 6%, and in the cities of the province Rafsanjan, Bardsir, Bam, Kerman, Baft, Sirjan, Jiroft, Kahnuj and Manujan had an increasing range from 5 to 14% by the year 2016. But in Ravar, Zarand and Shahrbabak reduction in rates of at least 2% could be predicted. The time series showed that the trend of colorectal cancer in female will increase 15% and in male 7% by year 2016. Given the trend of this cancer is increasing so that resources will be consumed in the treatment of the patients, efforts shoudlbe focused on prevention and early diagnosis of the disease. Screening could have an important role leading to improved survival.

  10. Maternal mortality audit in a Zimbabwean province.

    PubMed

    De Muylder, X

    1990-01-01

    A maternal mortality audit was introduced in the Midlands Province (Zimbabwe) in order to identify which avoidable factors were involved most frequently. During the two-year study period, the maternal mortality rate was 137 per 100,000 total births. The main causes of death were uterine rupture, eclampsia, haemorrhage and caesarean section related accidents. An avoidable factor was identified among 87% of these deaths involving the health system in 57% of the cases and the patient in 33%. Access to the health facilities and transport problems only played a minor role.

  11. Accretion of the Archean Slave Province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusky, Timothy

    1988-01-01

    Detailed field studies of selected areas in the greenstone belts of the Slave Province of Canada were presented. This area was long cited as a type area by supporters of the (now generally abandoned) rift model of greenstone belts. It was shown that a plate tectonic interpretation accounted more successfully for the regional geology and identified four terranes that had experienced complex divergent and convergent histories between 2.7 and 3.4 Ga. A dismembered ophiolite was identified and a late episode of widespread granitic intrusion was recognized.

  12. Ottawa, Quebec Province, Canada and Glaciated Landscape

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-05-380 (22 June 1973) --- Ottawa, in the province of Ontario, (46.5N, 75.5W) is the capital of Canada and can be seen near the bottom of this scene on the Ottawa River. The region shown lies within the Canadian Shield. The glaciated surface of the land is underlain by lower Precambrian granite and sedimentary rock. Long fractures within these crystalline rocks have, in places, been carved out by glacial action. The resultant depressions are often water filled bogs and lakes. Photo credit: NASA

  13. STATISTICAL SUMMARY: EMAP-ESTUARIES LOUISIANIAN PROVINCE - 1993

    EPA Science Inventory

    This statistical summmary of the ecological condition of the estuarine resources is based on the results of the 1993 Louisianian Province Demonstration Project. The population of estuarine resources with the Louisianian Province consists of all estuarine areas located along the c...

  14. Income and Well-Being across European Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The majority of studies investigate the effect of income on life satisfaction at either individual or country level. This study contributes with analysis at the (sub-national) province level across West European countries. I use a unique dataset Eurobarometer 44.2 Bis that is representative of province populations in a multilevel model. Provinces…

  15. STATISTICAL SUMMARY: EMAP-ESTUARIES LOUISIANIAN PROVINCE - 1993

    EPA Science Inventory

    This statistical summmary of the ecological condition of the estuarine resources is based on the results of the 1993 Louisianian Province Demonstration Project. The population of estuarine resources with the Louisianian Province consists of all estuarine areas located along the c...

  16. Income and Well-Being across European Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The majority of studies investigate the effect of income on life satisfaction at either individual or country level. This study contributes with analysis at the (sub-national) province level across West European countries. I use a unique dataset Eurobarometer 44.2 Bis that is representative of province populations in a multilevel model. Provinces…

  17. Molecular Epidemiology of Reemergent Rabies in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Lin; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Yang, Wei-Hong; Tao, Xiao-Yan; Li, Hao; Ding, Ji-Chao; Feng, Yun; Yang, Du-Juan; Zhang, Juan; He, Jiang; Shen, Xin-Xin; Wang, Li-Hua; Zhang, Yun-Zhi; Song, Miao

    2014-01-01

    Yunnan Province in China borders 3 countries (Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar) in Southeast Asia. In the 1980s, a large-scale rabies epidemic occurred in this province, which subsided by the late 1990s. However, 3 human cases of rabies in 2000 indicated reemergence of the disease in 1 county. In 2012, rabies was detected in 77 counties; 663 persons died of rabies during this new epidemic. Fifty two rabies virus strains obtained during 2008–2012 were identified and analyzed phylogenetically by sequencing the nucleoprotein gene. Of the 4 clades identified, clades YN-A and YN-C were closely related to strains from neighboring provinces, and clade YN-B was closely related to strains from Southeast Asia, but formed a distinct branch. Rabies virus diversity might be attributed to dog movements among counties, provinces, and neighboring countries. These findings suggest that Yunnan Province is a focal point for spread of rabies between Southeast Asia and China. PMID:25144604

  18. Mantle Provinces under Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigloch, K.

    2010-12-01

    I present a survey of mantle provinces (large-scale seismic anomalies) under North America, from the surface down to approximately 1500 km depth, and with a focus on the eastern half of the continent. It is based on multi-frequency tomography, which uses systematically frequency-dependent traveltime and amplitude measurements of teleseismic P-waves, together with finite-frequency modeling. A novel kind of rendering technique (``color-banded 3-D maps'') is used to make the mantle model's considerable structural complexity accessible. In the transition zone and below, the North American mantle is dominated by seismically fast provinces, which appear to be distinct subduction episodes of the Farallon plate. I attempt to date and interpret the various slab fragments by reconciling their present positions with paleo-trench locations from plate tectonic reconstructions, and with major geological surface episodes. The first-order surface division between stable East and tectonic West is found to have its equivalent in the mantle: slabs that were laid down before or after (east or west of) a big slab break that happened between 50 and 60 Myr. Some of the mantle provinces have not been discussed much previously, including (1) a seismically slow blanket overlying the oldest Farallon subduction beneath the East Coast; (2) a transition zone slab co-eval with the Laramide orogeny (ca. 80-60 Myr), which I discuss in analogy to the ``stagnant slab'' subduction style commonly found in the Western Pacific today; (3) the surprisingly deep, lower-mantle root of present-day Cascadia subduction; and (4) the very sharp boundaries (plate tears and breaks) that delineate slab fragments. Because it can be dated, the stagnating ``Laramide'' fragment turns out to be an anchor piece, about halfway through the Farallon's subduction history, relative to which the other fragments may be evaluated. Large vertical offsets across co-eval slabs indicate that vertical sinking velocity was highly

  19. Chemical provinces reveal Elysium Volcano's compositional evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susko, D. A.; Karunatillake, S.; Wray, J. J.; Skok, J. R.; Hurowitz, J.; Ojha, L.; Judice, T.; Bently, R. O. J.

    2014-12-01

    Chemical provinces of Mars became definable[1-3] with the maps of elemental mass fractions generated with Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) data[4,5]. Previous work highlighted the Elysium lava flow province as anomalous, with a depletion in K and Th relative to the average crust in the rest of Mars (ROM).[3] We characterize the elemental composition, geology, and geomorphology of the region to constrain the processes that have contributed to its evolution. We compare SE Elysium with its North West lava fields, advancing prior work on thermal evolution of the martian mantle.[6] Lava fields at both sites probably source from Elysium eruptions. Both show similar Si content, as well as a Ca-enrichment compared to ROM, consistent with prior models.[6,7] Nevertheless, the two fields are compositionally distinct from each other, with NW Elysium decisively depleted in Ca and Fe, but enriched in K and Th. Such distinctness, in elements that reflect magmatic fractionation, reveals the possibility that a single volcanic complex on Mars may evolve rapidly during the Amazonian era, causing variable flow compositions. Interestingly, a chemical province containing volcanics that is contemporaneous with Elysium, overlaps the Tharsis region.[3] Unlike Elysium, the K and Th distributions within Tharsis are indistinguishable from ROM. Meanwhile, the mass fraction signature in Tharsis is enriched in Cl and depleted in Si. Such contrast, in chemical anomalies between volcanic constructs of similar age, may indicate that the depletion of K and Th in SE Elysium did not arise from temporal evolution of the mantle. [1] Taylor, G. et al. Geology 38, 183-186, 2010 [2] Gasnault, O. et al. 207, 226-247, 2010 [3] Karunatillake, S. et al. J. Geophys. Res. 114, E12001, 2009 [4] Boynton, W. V. et al. J. Geophys. Res. 112, E12S99, 2007 [5] Feldman, W. C. et al. J. Geophys. Res. 109, E09006, 2004 [6] Baratoux, D. et al. Nature 472, 338-41, 2011 [7] Balta, J. et al. Geology 41, 1115

  20. Large igneous provinces linked to supercontinent assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Santosh, M.; Luo, Zhaohua; Hao, Jinhua

    2015-04-01

    Models for the disruption of supercontinents have considered mantle plumes as potential triggers for continental extension and the formation of large igneous provinces (LIPs). An alternative hypothesis of top-down tectonics links large volcanic eruptions to lithospheric delamination. Here we argue that the formation of several LIPs in Tarim, Yangtze, Lhasa and other terranes on the Eurasian continent was coeval with the assembly of the Pangean supercontinent, in the absence of plumes rising up from the mantle transition zone or super-plumes from the core-mantle boundary. The formation of these LIPs was accompanied by subduction and convergence of continents and micro-continents, with no obvious relation to major continental rifting or mantle plume activity. Our model correlates LIPs with lithospheric extension caused by asthenospheric flow triggered by multiple convergent systems associated with supercontinent formation.

  1. Exploring the Sandy Province of Herschel Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-04

    This view from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows the downwind stretches of a sand sheet in central part of the much larger Herschel Crater. This sandy province began kilometers upwind in a string of barchan sand dunes. As the north-to-south blowing wind weakened downwind, it could no longer fashion the sand into dunes but rather into amorphously-shaped sand sheets. While perhaps not awe-inspiringly beautiful, sand sheets can tell us about Mars' current and past environmental conditions as a piece of the puzzle for understanding habitability. Having dunes upwind of sheets is the opposite situation Earth has, where upwind sand sheets evolve downwind into sand dunes. This mystery is receiving ongoing research to to understand these sandy differences between Earth and Mars. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21933

  2. Human fasciolosis in Van province, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Hasan; Gödekmerdan, Ahmet

    2004-10-01

    This investigation was carried out to determine the frequency of the fasciolosis in Erciş, a town in the Van province located in the Eastern Turkey. The study includes 500 asymptomatic subjects (322 males and 178 females) whose ages ranged from 5 to 75 years. In all subjects, stool samples were examined at initiation of the study and one week later to rule out pseudoparasitosis. The methods of flotation (in saturated saline solution) and sedimentation (in formalin-ether solution) were used in examination of the stool samples. Fasciola hepatica eggs were detected in nine (1.8%) out of 500 subjects. In conclusion, our data showed that the prevalence of human fasciolosis was high in our region because watercress consumption was common. We also think that human fasciolosis is more frequent than expected in Turkey. To determine the exact prevalence of the disease, extensive serological investigations should be performed in different regions of Turkey.

  3. PRB - a province that never quits

    SciTech Connect

    Rountree, R.

    1983-08-01

    Wyoming's Powder River Basin is one of those oil provinces that never quits. It currently is one of the more active areas in the Rocky Mountain region, and there are indications that suggest the latter half of this year could be more lively than the first half. The Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission listed 251 applications for drilling permits in June; 150 of them were for Powder River Basin counties. Operators indicate interest is building in the area for several reasons. Economic considerations are more favorable, money is more available, and there are ready markets for oil and associated natural gas. Drilling costs have decreased considerably, from $17/ft two years ago to $6.90-$7.70/ft.

  4. Medicinal plants used in Kirklareli Province (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Kültür, Sükran

    2007-05-04

    In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from Kirklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica, Hypericum perforatum, Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis, Juglans regia, Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, Plantago lanceolata, Rosa canina, Ecballium elaterium, Artemisia absinthium, Viscum album subsp. album, Papaver rhoeas, Helleborus orientalis, Cydonia oblonga, Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla, Rubus discolor, Sorbus domestica. A total of 143 medicinal uses were obtained. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of wounds (25.3%), cold and influenza (24.6%), stomach (20%), cough (19%), kidney ailments (18.2%), diabetes (13.4%).

  5. South Korea: An overlooked hydrocarbon province

    SciTech Connect

    Sturt, D.C.; Quinton, N.A. )

    1993-11-01

    A forthcoming well about to spud off South Korea is planned to test the potential of an essentially unexplored rift basin. Should the well prove successful, it could open up a major new hydrocarbon producing province with substantial reserves. The well is being drilled in Block V which covers 7,000 sq km. is divided into two parts, and lies about 150 km south of the Korean peninsula close to Cheju Island. The larger Northern Block overlies the Fukue basin, which is a linear graben system oriented northeast-southwest. The Fukue basin is equivalent in size to the South Viking graben of the North Sea and the existence of a restricted marine source rock and play types at several stratigraphic levels helps to reinforce such a comparison Seismic mapping has revealed five prospects with combined most likely reserves of more than 1 billion bbl. The paper describes the basin evolution, source and migration of petroleum, reservoir and seals, and well location.

  6. Pediatric burns in Khuzestan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Houshyarikhah, Hojjat; Shayestehfard, Marzieh; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Cheraghian, Bahman; Latifzadeh, Shila; Madari, Zahra

    2012-04-01

    Burn injuries are the most frequently occurring injuries among pediatric populations worldwide, and they are significant pediatric injuries in Iran. This study was conducted to analyze the pattern of pediatric burns in Khuzestan province in the south-west of Iran from April 2006 to March 2007. The location of the study was Taleghani Hospital, a sole center for burn patients in Khuzestan province. The number of patients with burns admitted to the center in 1 year (from April 2006 to March 2007) was 211. Data were obtained by reviewing the medical records of patients hospitalized at the center. Of the patients, 85 (40.3%) were female and 126 (59.7%) were male. Of the 85 female patients, 50 were from urban areas and 35 were from rural areas. Of the 126 male patients, 68 (54%) were from urban areas and 58 (46%) were from rural areas. The mean ± SE age of the children ranging between 0 and 11 years was 3.20 ± 0.188. Scalding was the predominant cause of burns and caused 86.7% of the burns. The age of the patients with scald injuries (2.95 ± 2.56 years) was significantly lower than that of patients with flame injuries (4.28 ± 3.3 years) (P=0.007). Correlation analysis showed that younger children and urban residents are more vulnerable to scald injuries. The mean body surface area of burns was 20.5 ± 10.26 cm in all patients. Scalding was the most common cause of burns. Age <4 years and residency in urban areas were the major factors increasing the risk of burn accidents in children in Khuzestan. An appropriate burn prevention program, with focus on education, is needed to prevent this injury.

  7. Mutational spectrum of phenylketonuria in Jiangsu province.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-fen; Jia, Hai-tao; Chen, Zhong-hai; Song, Jia-ping; Liang, Yu; Pei, Jing-jing; Wu, Zhi-jun; Wang, Jing; Qiu, Ya-li; Liu, Gang; Sun, Dong-mei; Jiang, Xin-ye

    2015-10-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by variants in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. We systematically investigated all 13 exons of the PAH gene and their flanking introns in 31 unrelated patients and their parents using next-generation sequencing (NGS). A total of 33 different variants were identified in 58 of 62 mutant PAH alleles. The prevalent variants with a relative frequency of 5 % or more were c.721C > T, c.1068C > A, c.611A > G, c.1197A > T, c.728G > A, c.331C > T, and c.442-1G > A. One novel variant was identified in this study-c.699C > G. We studied genotype-phenotype correlations using the Guldberg arbitrary value (AV) system, which revealed a consistency rate of 38 % (8/21) among the 21 predicted phenotypes. The genotype-based prediction of BH4 responsiveness was also evaluated, and 14 patients (45.2 %) were predicted to be BH4 responsive. This study presents the spectrum of PAH variants in Jiangsu province. The information obtained from the genotype-based prediction of BH4 responsiveness might be used for the rational selection of candidates for BH4 testing. • Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by variants in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. • The spectrum of PAH variants in different Chinese populations has been reported. What is new: • This is the first report on the spectrum of PAH variants in Jiangsu province. • This study identified one novel PAH variant-c.699C>G-and and tries to show a genotype-phenotype relationship also regarding BH4-responsiveness.

  8. Ghaba salt basin province and Fahud salt basin province, Oman; geological overview and total petroleum systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, Richard M.

    1999-01-01

    Three Total Petroleum Systems each consisting of one assessment unit have been identified in the Ghaba and Fahud Salt Basin Provinces of north-central Oman. One Total Petroleum System and corresponding assessment unit, the North Oman Huqf/?Q??Haushi(!) Total Petroleum System (201401) and Ghaba- Makarem Combined Structural Assessment Unit (20140101), were identified for the Ghaba Salt Basin Province (2014). In the Fahud Salt Basin Province, however, two overlapping Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were recognized: (1) the North Oman Huqf?Shu?aiba(!) TPS (201601); Fahud-Huqf Combined Structural Assessment Unit (20160101), and (2) the middle Cretaceous Natih(!) TPS (201602); Natih-Fiqa Structural/Stratigraphic Assessment Unit (20160201). The boundary for each Total Petroleum System also defines the boundary of the corresponding assessment unit and includes all trap styles and hydrocarbon-producing reservoirs within the petroleum system. In both the Ghaba and Fahud Salt Basin Provinces, hydrocarbons were generated from several deeply buried source rocks within the Infracambrian Huqf Supergroup. One general ?North Oman Huqf? type oil is dominant in the Fahud Salt Basin. Oils in the Ghaba Salt Basin are linked to at least two distinct Huqf source-rock units based on oil geochemistry: a general North Oman Huqf-type oil source and a more dominant ?questionable unidentified source? or ?Q?-type Huqf oil source. These two Huqf-sourced oils are commonly found as admixtures in reservoirs throughout northcentral Oman. Hydrocarbons generated from Huqf sources are produced from a variety of reservoir types and ages ranging from Precambrian to Cretaceous in both the Ghaba and Fahud Salt Basin Provinces. Clastic reservoirs of the Gharif and Al Khlata Formations, Haushi Group (middle Carboniferous to Lower Permian), dominate oil production in the Ghaba Salt Basin Province and form the basis for the Huqf/?Q??Haushi(!) TPS. In contrast, the Lower Cretaceous Shu?aiba and middle Cretaceous

  9. Ghaba salt basin province and Fahud salt basin province, Oman; geological overview and total petroleum systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollastro, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Three Total Petroleum Systems each consisting of one assessment unit have been identified in the Ghaba and Fahud Salt Basin Provinces of north-central Oman. One Total Petroleum System and corresponding assessment unit, the North Oman Huqf/`Q'? Haushi(!) Total Petroleum System (201401) and Ghaba-Makarem Combined Structural Assessment Unit (20140101), were identified for the Ghaba Salt Basin Province (2014). In the Fahud Salt Basin Province, however, two overlapping Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were recognized: 1) the North Oman Huqf ? Shu'aiba(!) TPS (201601); Fahud-Huqf Combined Structural Assessment Unit (20160101), and 2) the Middle Cretaceous Natih(!) TPS (201602); Natih-Fiqa Structural/Stratigraphic Assessment Unit (20160201). The boundary for each Total Petroleum System also defines the boundary of the corresponding assessment unit and includes all trap styles and hydrocarbon producing reservoirs within the petroleum system. In both the Ghaba and Fahud Salt Basin Provinces, hydrocarbons were generated from several deeply-buried source rocks within the Infracambrian Huqf Supergroup. One general `North Oman Huqf' type oil is dominant in the Fahud Salt Basin. Oils in the Ghaba Salt Basin are linked to at least two distinct Huqf source-rock units based on oil geochemistry: a general North Oman Huqf-type oil source and a more dominant `questionable unidentified-source' or `Q'-type Huqf oil source. These two Huqf-sourced oils are commonly found as admixtures in reservoirs throughout north-central Oman. Hydrocarbons generated from Huqf sources are produced from a variety of reservoir types and ages ranging from Precambrian to Cretaceous in both the Ghaba and Fahud Salt Basin Provinces. Clastic reservoirs of the Gharif and Al Khlata Formations, Haushi Group (M. Carboniferous to L. Permian), dominate oil production in the Ghaba Salt Basin Province and form the basis for the Huqf/`Q' ? Haushi(!) TPS. In contrast, the Lower Cretaceous Shu'aiba and Middle Cretaceous

  10. An isostatic model for the Tharsis province, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleep, N. H.; Phillips, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A crust-upper mantle configuration is proposed for the Tharsis province of Mars which is isostatic and satisfies the observed gravity data. The model is that of a low density upper mantle compensating loads at both the surface and crust-mantle boundary. Solutions are found for lithospheric thickness greater than about 300 km, for which the stress differences are less than 750 bars. This model for Tharsis is similar to the compensation mechanism under the Basin and Range province of the western United States. These provinces also compare favorably in the sense that they are both elevated regions of extensional tectonics and extensive volcanism.

  11. Bayesian adjustment for over-estimation and under-estimation of gastric cancer incidence across Iranian provinces

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Nastaran; Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza; Abadi, Alireza; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    AIM To correct the misclassification in registered gastric cancer incidence across Iranian provinces in cancer registry data. METHODS Gastric cancer data is extracted from Iranian annual of national cancer registration report 2008. A Bayesian method with beta prior is implemented to estimate the rate of misclassification in registering patient’s permanent residence in neighboring province. Each time two neighboring provinces with lower and higher than 100% expected coverage of cancer cases are selected to be entered in the model. The expected coverage of cancerous patient is reported by medical university of each province. It is assumed that some cancer cases from a province with a lower than 100% expected coverage are registered in their neighboring province with more than 100% expected coverage. RESULTS The condition was true for 21 provinces from a total of 30 provinces of Iran. It was estimated that 43% of gastric cancer cases of North and South Khorasan provinces in north-east of Iran was registered in Razavi Khorasan as the neighboring facilitate province; also 72% misclassification was estimated between Sistan and balochestan province and Razavi Khorasan. The misclassification rate was estimated to be 36% between West Azerbaijan province and East Azerbaijan province, 21% between Ardebil province and East Azerbaijan, 63% between Hormozgan province and Fars province, 8% between Chaharmahal and bakhtyari province and Isfahan province, 8% between Kogiloye and boyerahmad province and Isfahan, 43% Golestan province and Mazandaran province, 54% between Bushehr province and Khozestan province, 26% between Ilam province and Khuzestan province, 32% between Qazvin province and Tehran province (capital of Iran), 43% between Markazi province and Tehran, and 37% between Qom province and Tehran. CONCLUSION Policy makers should consider the regional misclassification in the time of programming for cancer control, prevention and resource allocation. PMID:28255430

  12. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although the extraction of mineral wealth has been the major influence in the history of Johannesburg and the surrounding Witwatersrand regions (with about 45% of all gold ever mined coming from there), the discovery of now-famous hominid fossils at the Sterkfontein Caves, and the convening of the world's largest-ever conference on environment and development, are setting a new stage for the future. The United Nations began the second Development and Environment Conference in Johannesburg on August 26, 2002. This meeting addresses the implementation of international goals to fight poverty and protect the global environment that were established at the first such conference held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The Johannesburg summit involves about forty thousand participants, and perhaps 100 world leaders. One of several official opening ceremonies for the conference was held at the Sterkfontein Caves to recognize the outstanding universal value of the paleo-anthropological fossils found there.

    These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) highlight a number of the land use, vegetation, and geological features found within Gauteng Province (including the urban center of Johannesburg and the capital city Pretoria) and parts of the North West and Free State Provinces. The image on the right displays vegetation in red hues and is a false-color view utilizing data from MISR's near-infrared, red and blue bands. Both the natural-color view (left) and the false-color version were acquired by MISR's nadir camera on June 16, 2002. The urban areas appear as gray-colored pixels in the natural-color view, and exhibit colors corresponding with the relative abundance of vegetation found in the urban parts of this arid region.

    The mountains trending east-west near the center of the images extend from Pretoria in the east to Rustenberg in the west. These ranges, the Magaliesberg and Witwatersberg, separate the low-lying, hotter bushveld to the north from

  13. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although the extraction of mineral wealth has been the major influence in the history of Johannesburg and the surrounding Witwatersrand regions (with about 45% of all gold ever mined coming from there), the discovery of now-famous hominid fossils at the Sterkfontein Caves, and the convening of the world's largest-ever conference on environment and development, are setting a new stage for the future. The United Nations began the second Development and Environment Conference in Johannesburg on August 26, 2002. This meeting addresses the implementation of international goals to fight poverty and protect the global environment that were established at the first such conference held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The Johannesburg summit involves about forty thousand participants, and perhaps 100 world leaders. One of several official opening ceremonies for the conference was held at the Sterkfontein Caves to recognize the outstanding universal value of the paleo-anthropological fossils found there.

    These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) highlight a number of the land use, vegetation, and geological features found within Gauteng Province (including the urban center of Johannesburg and the capital city Pretoria) and parts of the North West and Free State Provinces. The image on the right displays vegetation in red hues and is a false-color view utilizing data from MISR's near-infrared, red and blue bands. Both the natural-color view (left) and the false-color version were acquired by MISR's nadir camera on June 16, 2002. The urban areas appear as gray-colored pixels in the natural-color view, and exhibit colors corresponding with the relative abundance of vegetation found in the urban parts of this arid region.

    The mountains trending east-west near the center of the images extend from Pretoria in the east to Rustenberg in the west. These ranges, the Magaliesberg and Witwatersberg, separate the low-lying, hotter bushveld to the north from

  14. Healthcare system responsiveness in Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Chao, Jianqian; Lu, Boyang; Zhang, Hua; Zhu, Liguo; Jin, Hui; Liu, Pei

    2017-01-13

    The perceived responsiveness of a healthcare system reflects its ability to satisfy reasonable expectations of the public with respect to non-medical services. Recently, there has been increasing attention paid to responsiveness in evaluating the performance of a healthcare system in a variety of service settings. However, the factors that affect the responsiveness have been inconclusive so far and measures of improved responsiveness have not always thoroughly considered the factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate both the responsiveness of the healthcare system in Jiangsu Province, China, the factors that influence responsiveness and the measures of improved responsiveness considering it, as determined by a responsiveness survey. A multistage, stratified random sampling method was used to select 1938 adult residents of Jiangsu Province in 2011. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a self-designed questionnaire modeled on the World Health Organization proposal. The final analysis was based on 1783 (92%) valid questionnaires. Canonical correlation analysis was used to assess the factors that affect responsiveness. The average score of all responsiveness-related domains in the surveyed healthcare system was satisfactory (7.50 out of a maximum 10.0). The two highest scoring domains were dignity and confidentiality, and the two lowest scoring domains choice and prompt attention. The factors affecting responsiveness were age, regional economic development level, and geographic area (urban vs. rural). The responsiveness regarding basic amenities was rated worse by the elderly than by younger respondents. Responsiveness ranked better by those with a poorer economic status. Choice in cities was better than in rural regions. The responsiveness of the Jiangsu healthcare system was considered to be satisfactory but could be improved by offering greater choice and providing more prompt attention. Perceptions of healthcare system responsiveness differ with age

  15. [The casuistics of nematodiases in man in Tula Province].

    PubMed

    Maksimova, T Iu; Bogachkina, S I; Oshevskaia, Z A

    1991-01-01

    Cases of human gongylonemiasis (G. pulchrum) and dirofilariasis (D. repens) in Tula Province are reported. It is assumed that the source of infection is local as the patients haven't migrated anywhere outside the region during several years.

  16. Mars Geological Province Designations for the Interpretation of GRS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Kerry, K.; Keller, J.; Baker, V. R.; Boynton, W. V.; Maruyama, S.; Anderson, R. C.

    2005-03-01

    Based on a synthesis of published geologic, paleohydrologic, topographic, and geophysical information, we have defined geologic provinces that represent significant windows into the geologic evolution of Mars, consistent with the GEOMARS theory and supported by GRS data.

  17. Estuarine Macroinvertebrate Pollution Indicator Species in the Virginian Biogeographic Province

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macroinvertebrates are commonly used as biomonitors to detect pollution impacts in estuaries. In this study we identified estuarine benthic invertebrates that could be used to detect presence or absence of pollution in the Virginian Biogeographic Province using available monitor...

  18. The gulf and peninsular province of the Californias

    SciTech Connect

    Dauphin, J.P.; Simoneit, B.R.T.

    1991-01-01

    This book is about the Gulf and Peninsular Province of the Californias: Geological and geophysical maps; Regional geophysics and geology; Physical oceanography, primary productivity, and sedimentology, and Hydrothermal processes.

  19. Characterization of Arctic Highly Magnetic Domains - the Geophysical Expression of Inferred Large Igneous Province(s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltus, R. W.; Oakey, G.; Miller, E. L.; Jackson, R.

    2012-12-01

    The magnetic anomalies of the high arctic are dominated by a large domain (1000 x 1700 km; the High Arctic Magnetic High, HAMH) consisting of numerous high-amplitude magnetic high ridges with a complex set of orientations and by other smaller, but still fundamentally highly magnetic, domains. The magnetic potential anomaly field (also known as pseudogravity) of the HAMH shows a single large intensity high and underscores the crustal-scale thickness of this geophysical feature (which also forms a prominent anomaly on satellite magnetic maps). The seafloor morphology of this region includes the complex linear trends of the Alpha and Mendeleev ridges, but the magnetic expression of this domain extends beyond the complex bathymetry to include areas where Canada Basin sediments have covered the complex basement topography. The calculated magnetic effect of the bathymetric ridges matches some of the observed magnetic anomalies, but not others. We have analyzed and modeled the distinctive HAMH and other smaller magnetic high domains to generate estimates of their volume and to characterize the directionality of their component features. Complimentary processing and modeling of high arctic gravity anomalies allows characterization of the density component of these geophysical features. Spatially, the HAMH encompasses the Alpha and Mendeleev "ridges," that are considered to represent a major mafic igneous province. The term "Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province" is given to a domain mapped by tracing magnetic anomalies in a recent map published by AAPG (Grantz and others, 2009). On this map the province is described as "alkali basalt with ages between 120 and 90 Ma". New seismic and bathymetric data, collected as part of on-going research efforts for definition of extended continental shelf, are revealing new details about the Alpha ridge. One interesting development is the possible identification of a supervolcano that may represent a major locus of igneous activity. In

  20. [Investigation and identification of varieties of wulingzhi in Qinghai Province].

    PubMed

    Wan, S

    1998-06-01

    This paper reports the investigation and identification of varieties of Wulingzhi used as drugs in Qinghai province. The results show Wulingzhi varieties from the province and the parts of northwest districts are different with the Wulinzhi recorded in China Pharmacopoeia, which has itself special varieties and identified standard, their originals are the excrements from Petaurista xanthotis, Ochotona erythrotis, O. curzoniae. O. daurica and O. causus.

  1. The suicide rates in the Yunnan Province, a multi-ethnic province in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jin; Xiao, Yize; Xu, Xiufeng; Shi, Qingping; Yang, Yunjuan

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown a high rate and a unique pattern of suicide in China. We aim to present the current suicide rates and patterns in the Yunnan province, a multi-ethnic region in Southwestern China. This is a descriptive study based on the 3rd Chinese national mortality survey. We reported the suicide rates by sex, 5-year age group, region (urban or rural), and minority group from 2004 to 2005 in the Yunnan province. We estimated a mean annual suicide rate of 19.82 per 100,000 and a total of 8751 suicide deaths per year. Sex-specific rate estimates were 21.09 per 100,000 and 18.46 per 100,000 for males and females, respectively. The male/female ratio was 1.14. Region-specific rate estimates were 20.60 per 100,000 and 19.18 per 100,000 for rural and urban regions, respectively. The rural-to-urban ratio was 1.07. Suicide accounted for 4.83% of all deaths in the Yunnan province and represented the fifth leading cause of death. In minority groups, the highest suicide rates were found in the Li su minority (50.75 per 100,000), the Jing po minority (36.38 per 100,000), the Meng gu minority (32.65 per 100,000) and the Miao minority (30.75 per 100,000). The lowest rates were found in the Hui minority (0.96 per 100,000) and the Ha ni minority (1.64 per 100,000). The suicide characteristics of this multi-ethnic region of China are different from those of the rest of China and the world, which indicates that the development of a special intervention strategy in multi-ethnic areas for suicide prevention is needed.

  2. [Evaluation of forest ecosystem services value in Liaoning Province].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Lu, Shao-wei; You, Wen-zhong; Ren, Xiao-xu; Xing, Zhao-kai; Wang, Shi-ming

    2010-07-01

    Based on the long-term located observation of forest ecosystem, and by using the 2006 forest resources inventory data of Liaoning Province and the forest industry standard of the People's Republic of China( LY/T 1721-2008, specification for assessment of forest ecosystem services in China), an evaluation was made on the material quantity and services value of main forest ecosystems in fourteen cities of Liaoning Province. In this province, the forest ecosystem services value supplied by water storage, soil conservation, C fixation, O2 release, nutrients accumulation, environment purification, biodiversity conservation, and forest recreation in 2006 was 2591.72 x 10(8) yuan, which was 8.54 times of the forestry production value and 28.02% in the GDP of the province. The services value of water storage, biodiversity conservation, C fixation, and O2 release occupied 79.09% of the total, being the main forest ecosystem services in the province. Economic forest and shrub had smaller per unit services value but larger area, and hence, their ecosystem services value should not be ignored. Abies fargesii forest, Phellodendron amurense forest, Juglans mandshurica forest, and Fraxinus mandshurica forest were the representative zonal vegetations in Liaoning Province, which had high value in biodiversity conservation. Under the effects of climate and other factors, the forest area and forest quality in west Liaoning were lower than those in east Liaoning.

  3. The Caucasian oil and gas province

    SciTech Connect

    Adamia, S.H.; Akhvlediani, K.; Chabukiant, A. ); Kilasonia, V. )

    1991-08-01

    The Caucasus lies between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east. The main morphological elements of the Caucasus are the mountain ranges of Greater and Lesser Caucasus, which are divided by the Rioni (Colchis) and Kura intermontane troughs and the pre-Caucasian plain and Araks Depression. The tectonic features of the region result from its position between the Eurasian and Africa-Arabian plates. Two tectonic units of the highest order are distinguished within its limits, the young Scythian platform in the north and the Alpine fold belt in the south. Oil and gas deposits have been found only in the lowlands of the Caucasus, in the pre-Caucasian foreland, and within the Transcaucasian intermontane depressions. The North Caucasian province is made up of the Scythian platform and the marginal troughs of the Alpine Greater Caucasus. Oil and gas accumulations occur at all levels within the sedimentary cover from Triassic the Neogene. In the South Caspian oil and gas subprovince, oil and gas occurs within reservoirs range in age from Late Cretaceous to the Apsheronian stage of the Neogene. The Black Sea subprovince comprises the northwestern part of the sea and the western part of Georgia. The bulk of the explored oil reserves lies within the Neogene and Upper Cretaceous units. The potential in this region is associated with Jurassic terrigenous, Upper Cretaceous carbonate, and Paleogene terrigenous sediments.

  4. Tsunami damage in Aceh Province, Sumatra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The island of Sumatra suffered from both the rumblings of the submarine earthquake and the tsunamis that were generated on December 26, 2004. Within minutes of the quake, the sea surged ashore, bringing destruction to the coasts of northern Sumatra. This pair of natural-color images from Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument shows a small area along the Sumatran coast in Aceh province where the tsunami smashed its way ashore. In this region, the wave cut a swath of near-total destruction 1.5 kilometers (roughly one mile) in most places, but penetrating farther in many others. Some of these deeper paths of destruction can be seen especially dramatically in the larger-area ETM+ images linked to above. (North is up in these larger images.) ETM+ collects data at roughly 30 meter resolution, complimenting sensors like NASA's MODIS (onboard both Terra and Aqua satellites) which observed this area at 250-meter resolution to give a wide view and ultra-high-resolution sensors like Space Imaging's IKONOS, which observed the same region at 4-meter resolution to give a detailed, smaller-area view. NASA images created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data provided courtesy of the Landsat 7 Science Project Office

  5. Leaf-rolling sawflies (Hymenoptera, Pamphiliidae, Pamphiliinae) of Tianmushan Mountains, Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Akihiko; Wei, Mei-Cai

    2016-02-02

    Two species of Neurotoma, six species of Onycholyda, and five species of Pamphilius are recorded from Tianmushan, Zhejiang Province, China, and a key is given to these three genera and 13 species. Three new species, Onycholyda atra Shinohara & Wei, sp. nov. from Zhejiang Province, O. fulvicornis Shinohara, sp. nov. from Shaanxi Province and Zhejiang Province, and Pamphilius padus Shinohara, sp. nov. from Zhejiang Province, are described. New distribution records are: Onycholyda shaanxiana Shinohara, 1999, from Hubei Province, Zhejiang Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, O. subquadrata (Maa, 1944) from Zhejiang Province, O. tianmushana Shinohara & Xiao, 2006, from Hunan Province and Jiangxi Province, Pamphilius palliceps Shinohara & Xiao, 2006, from Anhui Province, P. lizejiani Shinohara in Shinohara & Wei, 2012, from Zhejiang Province, P. shengi Wei in Wei & Xiao, 1999, from Hubei Province and Zhejiang Province, and P. qinlingicus Wei in Wu & Wei, 2010, from Zhejiang Province. The larva of P. padus feeds on Padus obtusata (Rosaceae) and that of P. palliceps feeds on Rosa multiflora (Rosaceae), both singly making a leaf-roll. Rubus peltatus (Rosaceae) is recorded as a host plant of O. atra based on the observation of oviposition.

  6. Crust structure beneath Jilin Province and Liaoning Province in China based on seismic ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Guanghua; Feng, Jikun; Lin, Jun

    2016-11-01

    We imaged the crust structure beneath Jilin Province and Liaoning Province in China with fundamental mode Rayleigh waves recorded by 60 broadband stations deployed in the region. Surface-wave empirical Green's functions were retrieved from cross-correlations of inter-station data and phase velocity dispersions were measured using a frequency-time analysis method. Dispersion measurements were then utilized to construct 2D phase velocity maps for periods between 5 and 35 s. Subsequently, the phase-dispersion curves extracted from each cell of the 2D phase velocity maps were inverted to determine the 3D shear wave velocity structures of the crust. The phase velocity maps at different periods reflected the average velocity structures corresponding to different depth ranges. The maps in short periods, in particular, were in excellent agreement with known geological features of the surface. In addition to imaging shear wave velocity structures of the volcanoes, we show that obvious low-velocity anomalies imaged in the Changbaishan-Tianchi Volcano, the Longgang-Jinlongdingzi Volcano, and the system of the Dunmi Fault crossing the Jingbohu Volcano, all of which may be due to geothermal anomalies.

  7. Laboratory quality improvement in Thailand's northernmost provinces.

    PubMed

    Kanitvittaya, S; Suksai, U; Suksripanich, O; Pobkeeree, V

    2010-01-01

    In Thailand nearly 1000 public health laboratories serve 65 million people. A qualified indicator of a good quality laboratory is Thailand Medical Technology Council certification. Consequently, Chiang Rai Regional Medical Sciences Center established a development program for laboratory certification for 29 laboratories in the province. This paper seeks to examine this issue. The goal was to improve laboratory service quality by voluntary participation, peer review, training and compliance with standards. The program consisted of specific activities. Training and workshops to update laboratory staffs' quality management knowledge were organized. Staff in each laboratory performed a self-assessment using a standard check-list to evaluate ten laboratory management areas. Chiang Rai Regional Medical Sciences Center staff supported the distribution of quality materials and documents. They provided calibration services for laboratory equipment. Peer groups performed an internal audit and successful laboratories received Thailand Medical Technology Council certification. By December 2007, eight of the 29 laboratories had improved quality sufficiently to be certified. Factors that influenced laboratories' readiness for quality improvement included the number of staff, their knowledge, budget and staff commitment to the process. Moreover, the support of each hospital's laboratory working group or network was essential for success. There was no clear policy for supporting the program. Laboratories voluntarily conducted quality management using existing resources. A bottom-up approach to this kind of project can be difficult to accomplish. Laboratory professionals can work together to illustrate and highlight outcomes for top-level health officials. A top-down, practical approach would be much less difficult to implement. Quality certification is a critical step for laboratory staff, which also encourages them to aspire to international quality standards like ISO. The

  8. Municipal solid waste management in Kurdistan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Abduli, Mohammad Ali; Nasrabadi, Touraj

    2007-03-01

    Kurdistan Province, with an area of 28,203 square kilometers, is located in a mountainous area in the western part of Iran. From 1967 to 1997, the urban population in the major eight cities of the Kurdistan Province-namely, Baneh, Bijar, Divan Darreh, Saghez, Sanandaj, Ghorveh, Kamyaran, and Marivan-increased from 102,250 to 705,715. The proportion of the population residing in urban areas increased 90 percent during this period. In most of the cities, solid waste handling remains primitive, and well-organized procedures for it have not been established. Traditional methods of disposal, with marginal inclusion of modern conveniences, appear to be the common practice. In general, the shortcomings of the prevailing practices can be summarized as follows: The municipal solid waste management systems (MSWMSs) in this province include unsegregated collection and open dumping of municipal solid wastes. Separation of municipal solid waste in this province is in the hands of scavengers. The MSWMSs in this province lack essential infrastructure. Thus, design and implementation of modern MSWMSs in this province are essential. Principal criteria for and methods of implementing these systems are as follows: (1) rationally evaluating all functional elements so that they operate in a steady-state or equilibrium manner; (2) creating all support elements for the MSWMS in each city; (3) introducing gradual privatization of MSWMS activities; (4) creating guidelines, regulations, and instructions for all elements of MSWMSs; and (5) giving priorities to source separation and recycling programs. This paper reviews the present status of MSWMSs in eight major cities of Kurdistan Province and outlines the principle guidelines and alternatives for MSWMSs.

  9. Paleomagnetism of large igneous provinces: case-study from West Greenland, North Atlantic igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riisager, Janna; Riisager, Peter; Pedersen, Asger Ken

    2003-09-01

    We present new paleomagnetic and multi-model stereo photogrammetry data from lava sequences in the West Greenland part of the North Atlantic igneous province (NAIP). The joint analyses of paleomagnetic and photogrammetric data yield a well-defined paleomagnetic pole located at Lat=73.6°N, Long=160.5°E ( N=44, α95=6.2°, K=13.1; age ˜61-55 Ma), which is statistically indistinguishable from a pole recently obtained for the Eurasian part of the NAIP on Faroe Islands [Riisager et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 201 (2002) 261-276]. Combining the two datasets we obtain a joint NAIP paleomagnetic pole in Greenland coordinates: Lat=71.1°N, Long=161.1°E ( N=87, α95=4.3°, K=13.6; age ˜61-54 Ma). The results presented here represent the first study in which photogrammetry profiles were photographed at the exact same locations where paleomagnetic fieldwork was carried out, and a direct flow-to-flow comparison of the two datasets is possible. Photogrammetry is shown to be particularly useful because of (i) highly precise dip/strike measurements and (ii) detailed 'field observations' that can be made in the laboratory. Highly precise determination of the structural attitude of well-exposed Kanisut Mb lava sequences demonstrates that their apparently reliable in-field dip/strike measurements typically are up to ˜6° wrong. Erroneous dip/strike readings are particularly problematic as they offset paleomagnetic poles without affecting their confidence limits. Perhaps more important for large igneous provinces is the recognition of a variable temporal relationship between consecutive lava flows. We demonstrate how correct interpretation of paleosecular variation, facilitated by the detailed photogrammetry analysis, is crucial for the rapidly emplaced Vaigat Formation lavas. Inaccurate tectonic correction, non-averaged paleosecular variation and unrecognized excursional directions may, perhaps, explain why coeval paleomagnetic poles from large igneous provinces are often

  10. Petroleum possibilities of the Yukon-Koyukuk Province, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, William Wallace

    1970-01-01

    The recent discovery of major oil resources on Alaska's North Slope has rekindled interest in the petroleum possibilities of the Yukon-Koyukuk province, a vast tract of Cretaceous rocks stretching along the west coast of Alaska from the Brooks Range to the Yukon delta. Attention was first focused on this region in the early 1950's, after oil and gas were discovered in the Cretaceous of the North Slope by the U.S. Navy. The presence of similar Cretaceous strata in the Yukon-Koyukuk province and the possibility that some of the broad alluviated lowlands within the province might be underlain by Tertiary basins were pointed out by Gryc and others (1951) and Payne (1955). Between 1954 and 1961 large parts of the province were reconnoitered by oil company surface parties and a small amount of geophysical work was carried out in the Nulato-Kateel and Bethel areas. The explorational activity culminated in 1960-61 with the drilling of two deep tests, a 12,000-foot hole near Nulato on the Yukon River and a 15,000-foot hole at Napatuk Creek in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Coastal Lowland. Apparently neither test revealed oil shows or favorable reservoir rocks, as exploration and leasing activity in the province declined sharply thereafter.

  11. Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

    2014-09-01

    Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

  12. [Emergy analysis of ecological-economic system in Liaoning Province].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Wang, Qing; Li, Xiu-Juan; Song, Yang; Li, Guang-Jun

    2008-03-01

    By the methods of emergy analysis, this paper studied the emergy flow in the ecological-economic system in Liaoning Province in 1990-2005, and the relationships between the environmental stress caused by resources' input, output and consumption and the sustainable development of the Province. The results showed that in Liaoning Province, the non-renewable resources occupied over 74% of the total consumed emergy, and the realistic population in 2005 was 3.26 times higher than the supportable population. In 1990-2005, the emergy yield ratio decreased from 65.40 to 10.13, emergy loading ratio increased from 2.72 to 7.18, and emergy sustainable index decreased from 24.03 to 1.41. The rapid economic growth in Liaoning Province was chiefly supported by the consumption of vast non-renewable resources, which caused the pressure of economic development on ecosystem getting more and more intense, the economic development increasingly depending on exogenous resources, and the sustainable development of Liaoning ecological-economic system having a continuing decrease. To realize the sustainable development in Liaoning Province, the principles of reduction, reutilization and recycling should be taken as the guidelines for promoting the reuse of wastes and the closed fine circulation of resources to minimize the discharge of wastes.

  13. Hydrocarbon provinces and productive trends in Libya and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Missallati, A.A. Ltd., Tripoli )

    1988-08-01

    According to the age of major reservoirs, hydrocarbon occurrences in Libya and adjacent areas can be grouped into six major systems which, according to their geographic locations, can be classified into two major hydrocarbon provinces: (1) Sirte-Pelagian basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from middle-late Mesozoic to early Tertiary, and (2) Murzog-Ghadames basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic. In the Sirte-Pelagian basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped in structural highs or in stratigraphic wedge-out against structural highs and in carbonate buildups. Here, hydrocarbon generation is characterized by the combined effect of abundant structural relief and reservoir development in the same hydrocarbon systems of the same age, providing an excellent example of hydrocarbon traps in sedimentary basins that have undergone extensive tensional fracturing in a shallow marine environment. In the Murzog-Ghadames basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped mainly in structural highs controlled by paleostructural trends as basement arches which acted as focal points for oil migration and accumulation.

  14. A new family programme in Zhejiang province.

    PubMed

    Xu, B

    1994-04-01

    Zhejiang Province in China has promoted a new family planning program since April 1993. The program stresses delayed marriage and childbearing, fewer and healthier births, modernization of family life, and prosperity through hard work. The people are receptive to the new program out of a desire for an improved standard of living. The objective is to build small, modern families who 1) practice deferred marriage and childbearing; 2) voluntarily practice family planning and have no unplanned births; 3) practice avoidance of consanguineous marriage, become sterilized if a carrier of a hereditary disease of chromosomal abnormality, and use premarital education and counseling and proper prenatal care; 4) uphold the laws and maintain discipline in action to avoid criminal behavior; 5) establish families that respect the old, care for children, and help their neighbors; 6) complete 9 years of compulsory education; and 7) create well being through hard work. The program is compatible with the strategy of the "three stresses" and an integrated approach. IEC and service provision are important components in program implementation. The target population are the masses and grassroots cadres, particularly those in the childbearing ages. IEC will be directed in different ways to different groups. Those aged 18-35 years will receive education. Face to face interaction with family planning workers and lectures will be directed to grassroots cadres. The mass media will be employed to reach the masses. The messages will include information and persuasion to adopt new families, accept family planning regulations, and learn about contraceptive use, healthy births and childrearing, education, health care, sex education, and income generation skills. Classes will be conducted for groups, such as teenagers, unmarried youth, pregnant women, and lactating women. Priority will be given to couples that accept the certificates for one child; favoritism will be granted for allocation of

  15. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in goats in Hunan province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fen; Wang, Shi-Ping; Wang, Chang-Jian; He, Shi-Cheng; Wu, Xiang; Liu, Guo-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections are prevalent in animals and humans worldwide. In the present investigation, the seroprevalence of T. gondii in goats was investigated in Hunan province, subtropical China between March 2014 and December 2015. A total of 1,028 serum samples collected from 14 administrative regions of Hunan province were evaluated by the indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT) for the detection of specific antibodies. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 124 serum samples (12%). The T. gondii seroprevalence ranged from 1.7% to 19% among different regions in subtropical China, and the differences were statistically significant (p < 0.01). The results of the present survey indicated that T. gondii infection is prevalent in goats in Hunan, which poses a potential risk for human infection with T. gondii in this province. PMID:27762212

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of the province of Ravenna (Italy).

    PubMed

    Bastianoni, Simone; Marchettini, Nadia; Panzieri, Margherita; Ridolfi, Roberto

    2002-09-01

    This is a thermodynamic analysis of the Province of Ravenna (Italy) and its districts (Ravenna, Faenza and Lugo) and an evaluation of entropy waste production based on a balance sheet of greenhouse gases. The method used is energy analysis. The results show that the Province and Ravenna are characterized by a heavy exploitation of local non renewable resources, Faenza strikes a good balance between economic development and environment conservation and Lugo is less sustainable than the others. The greenhouse gas balance shows that the Province emits 10.5 times the quantity of greenhouse gases that it adsorbs and that the emissions reduction is required in the energy sector, which is responsible for 92% of the total.

  17. [Malignant pustule in province of Milan, Italy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Gelosa, L

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary the statistical data are reported about human malignant pustule denounced in Italy in different Districts, in Lombardia and in Province of Milan. Correlatively the outbreaks and cases of haematic anthrax in animals declared in Italy, in different Districts, in Lombardia and in Province of Milan. Then the outbreaks of malignant pustule in Province of Milan are related in 1975-1977 period in the resident population where is considerable concentration of the leather manufactures. The epidemiological and microbiological researches have determined the relation among the outbreak of malignant pustule and the working of the hides imported from African Countries (Nigeria, Tanzania, Ethiopia, South Africa, Burundi-Kenya, Uganda) containing the spores of b. anthrax. The spores besides to cause infections of the workmen employed in the hide manufacture (industrial anthrax) through the effluents and solid refuses from the tanneries, are dispended upon the tiled ground and determine outbreak the haematic anthrax in the animals and agricultural coutaneus anthrax in the men.

  18. The Mycetophagidae (Coleoptera) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Majka, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The Mycetophagidae (hairy fungus beetles) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada are surveyed. Seven species in the genera Mycetophagus, Litargus, and Typhaea are found in the region. Six new provincial records are reported including Mycetophagus punctatus and Mycetophagus flexuosus, whichare newly recorded in the Maritime Provinces. The distribution of all species is mapped, colour habitus photographs of all species are figured, and an identification key to species is provided. The discussion notes that four of the species found in the region are apparently rare, possibly due to the history of forest management practices in the region; a situation similar to that of a significant proportion of other saproxylic beetles found in the Maritime Provinces. PMID:21594022

  19. [Seroepidemiology of Chagas disease in the Province of Jujuy].

    PubMed

    Tortora, C C; Quincoces, V; Dipierri, J E

    1996-01-01

    Chagas disease is the principal zoonosis of the Province of Jujuy where it represents a major public health problem. In this paper the results of a serological screening of T. cruzi infection carried out in the Province of Jujuy are analyzed to determine the general prevalence, age and geographic distribution, sex ratio, prevalence in foreign population and their relation with migratory process. In every individual (N = 16482) indirect hemagglutination (IHA) and immunofluorescence (TIF) tests have been carried out. In 5879 of them the birth place in the territory of the Province and the number of foreign individuals (313, all Bolivians) were confirmed. Based on these data the individuals were grouped according to: a) the four geographical regions of the Province located at different altitude levels, Puna, Quebrada, Valle and Ramal; b) towns placed on or away from the main routes of communication of the Province. For the statistical analysis the X2 and Z tests were employed. The results show that: 1) the general prevalence was of 11.50%; 2) no differences existed between the sexes: 3) the region with the highest prevalence was the Valley (12.84%) followed by Ramal (10.43%), Quebrada (8.53%) and Puna (2.98%); 4) differences of the serum prevalence can be observed between the residents on and away from the main routes of communication denoting the existence of a migratory effect in the distribution of chagasic infection; 5) prevalence differences exist between naturalized foreigns (39.30%) and Argentines (10.25%), data which strengthen the previous remark. Except for the general prevalence, there are no similar serological surveys which might allow us to establish relationships with our results of which the outstanding one is the influence of the migratory aspect upon the prevalence and distribution of T. cruzi in the Province of Jujuy.

  20. Geological provinces of the near side of the moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCauley, J.F.; Wilhelms, D.E.

    1971-01-01

    Systematic geologic mapping of the near side of the Moon has provided the basis for defining and delineating the major geological provinces of the near side. From the nature of the provinces and their distribution patterns a general historical sequence evolves. Five main surface-shaping periods are recognized: (1) one of intense early impact cratering; (2) another, probably overlapping the first, during which the impact basins were formed; (3) a prolonged period of varied terra volcanism; (4) a short period of mare volcanism that resulted in filling of the multiring basins; and (5) a period of diminishing volcanic activity continuing up to the time of formation of the last ray craters. ?? 1972.

  1. RTG resource book for western states and provinces: Final proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The Western Interstate Energy Board held a workshop and liaison activities among western states, provinces, and utilities on the formation of Regional Transmission Groups (RTGs). Purpose of the activities was to examine the policy implications for western states and provinces in the formation of RTGs in the West, the implications for western ratepayers and utilities of the RTG formation and potential impacts of RTGs on the western electricity system. The workshop contributed to fulfilling the transmission access and competition objectives of Title VII of the Energy Policy Act of 1992.

  2. Analysis of the impact of population growth in Henan Province on its environment and ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J

    1997-01-01

    "This paper analyzes the effects of population growth on the...environment and ecosystem [of China's Henan Province]. This paper also proposes a key countermeasure to deal with the population growth and environmental improvement of Henan Province." excerpt

  3. Magmatic systems of large continental igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, Evgenii

    2014-05-01

    Large igneous provinces (LIPs) of the modern type are known from the middle Paleoproterozoic and have a great abundance in the Phanerozoic. The most researches considered their appearance with ascending of the mantle thermochemical superplumes which provided simultaneously eruption of the same type of lavas on the huge territories. Judging on presence among them different subprovinces, formation of concrete magmatic systems were linked with protuberances (secondary plumes) on the superplumes surfaces. We suggest that origin of such plumes was linked with local enrichment of upper part of the superplumes head beneath roofing by fluid components; it led to lowering of the plume material density and initiated ascending of the secondary plumes. As a result, their heads, where partial melting occurred, can reach the level of the upper crust as it follows from absence of lower-crustal rocks among xenoliths in basalts, although mantle xenoliths existed in them. Important feature of LIPs is presence of two major types of mafic lavas: (1) geochemical-enriched alkali Fe-Ti basalts and picrites, and (2) basalts of normal alkalinity (tholeiites) with different contents of TiO2. At that the first type of mafites are usually typical for lower parts of LIPs which initially developed as continental rifts, whereas the second type composed the upper part of the traps' cover. Magmatic systems of the LIPs are subdivided on three levels of different deep: (1) zones of magma generation, (2) areas of transitional magma chambers where large often layered intrusive bodies are formed, and (3) areas on surface where lava eruptions and subvolcanic intrusions occurred. All these levels are linked by feeder dykes. The least known element of the system is area of magma generation, and, especially, composition of melting substratum. Important information about it is contained in aforementioned mantle xenoliths in alkali basalts and basanites. They practically everywhere are represented by two

  4. Northeast Atlantic Igneous Province volcanic margin development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mjelde, R.; Breivik, A. J.; Faleide, J. I.

    2009-04-01

    Early Eocene continental breakup in the NE Atlantic Volcanic Province (NAIP) was associated with voluminous extrusive and intrusive magmatism, and initial seafloor spreading produced anomalously thick oceanic crust. Recent publications based on crustal-scale wide-angle seismic data show that there is a positive correlation between igneous crustal thickness (H) and average P-wave velocity (Vp) on all investigated margins in the NAIP. Vp can be used as a proxy for crustal composition, which can be related to the mode of mantle melting. A positive H-Vp correlation indicates that excessive mantle melting the first few million years after breakup was driven by an initial increased temperature that cools off as seafloor spreading develops, consistent with a mantle plume model. Variations in mantle composition can explain excess magmatism, but will generate a negative H-Vp correlation. Active mantle convection may increase the flux of mantle rocks through the melting zone above the rate of passive corner flow, which can also produce excessive magmatism. This would produce little H-Vp correlation, and place the curve lower than the passive flow melting curve in the diagram. We have compiled earlier published results with our own analyses of published and unpublished data from different groups to look for systematic variations in the mantle melting mode along the NAIP margins. Earlier studies (Holbrook et al., 2002, White et al, 2008) on the southeast Greenland conjugate system, indicate that the thick igneous crust of the southern NAIP (SE Greenland ? Hatton Bank) was dominated by increased mantle temperature only, while magmatism closer to the southern side of and including the Greenland-Iceland-Færøy Ridge (GIFR) was created by combined temperature increase and active mantle convection. Recent publications (Breivik et al., 2008, White et al, 2008) north of the GIFR for the Norway Basin segment, indicate temperature dominated magmatism between the Jan Mayen Fracture

  5. Some Environmental Consequences of Large Igneous Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, M. F.

    2009-12-01

    The formation of large igneous provinces (LIPs)—continental flood basalts, ‘volcanic’ margins, and oceanic plateaus—may impact the atmosphere, oceans, and biosphere by rapidly releasing huge amounts of particulates, magmatic volatiles (CO2, SO2, Cl, F, etc.), and potentially volatiles (CO2, CH4, SO2, etc.) from intruded sediments (e.g., carbonates, organic-rich shales, evaporites). A key factor affecting the magnitude of volatile release is whether eruptions are subaerial or marine; hydrostatic pressure inhibits vesiculation and degassing of relatively soluble volatile components (H2O, S, Cl, F) in deep water submarine eruptions, although low solubility components (CO2, noble gases) are mostly degassed even at abyssal depths. Directly or indirectly, such injections may cause changes in the atmosphere/ocean system that can lead to perturbations of atmosphere/ocean chemistry, circulation, ecology, and biological productivity. These changes can be global in extent, particularly if environmental conditions were at or near a threshold state or tipping point. LIPs may have been responsible for some of the most dramatic and rapid changes in the global environment. For example, between ~145 and ~50 Ma, the global ocean was characterized by chemical and isotopic variations (especially in C and Sr isotope ratios, trace metal concentrations, and biocalcification), relatively high temperatures, high relative sea level, episodic deposition of black shales (oceanic anoxic events), high production of hydrocarbons, mass extinctions of marine organisms, and radiations of marine flora and fauna. Temporal correlations between the intense pulses of igneous activity associated with LIP formation and environmental changes suggest more than pure coincidence. The 1783-84 eruption of Laki on Iceland provides the only historical record of the type of volcanism that constructs transient LIPs. Although Laki produced a basaltic lava flow representing only ~1% of the volume of a typical

  6. Status of beech bark disease in the Province of Quebec

    Treesearch

    Denis. Lachance

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of beech bark disease has not changed significantly in recent years in Quebec. It has remained as scattered infected stands located within relatively old beech-scale-infested areas. This scale covers the southeastern half of the beech natural range in the province and it is spreading slowly westward.

  7. EMAP-VIRGINIAN PROVINCE FOUR YEAR ASSESSMENT (1990-1993)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessments with the four years (1990-93) of ecological condition data collected by the USEPA Environmntal Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) in estuaries of the Virginian Biogeographic Province (Cape Henry to Cape Cod) were presented. EMAP data were used to quantify, with ...

  8. [Epidemiology of caprine and ovine brucellosis in Formosa province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Russo, Ana M; Mancebo, Orlando A; Monzón, Carlos M; Gait, Juan J; Casco, Rubén D; Torioni de Echaide, Susana M

    2016-01-01

    An epidemiological study of brucellosis was carried out in 516 goats and mixed flocks (goat/sheep) from the three agro-ecological regions of Formosa province, Argentina. Serum samples from a total of 25401 goats and 2453 sheeps were analyzed using buffered plate agglutination test (BPAT) and complement fixation test (CFT). Bacteriological and PCR analyses on milk samples from goats in three flocks with a history of brucellosis and recent abortions were also performed. Brucellosis was detected in four of the nine departments of the province with an overall prevalence of 2% and an intra-flock prevalence ranging between 1% and 40%. The proportion of infected flocks was 3.6%, 12% and 36% for the eastern, central and western regions, respectively. Brucella melitensis bv. 1 was isolated efrom goats for the first time in the province. The expected fragments of 827bp from the omp2ab gene (Brucella spp.) and 731bp from the insert IS711 (B. melitensis) were amplified by PCR. Detection of antibodies by BPAT and FCT in sheep cohabiting with goats suggests that infections could have been caused by B. melitensis, posing an additional risk to public health. Control and eradication programs for brucellosis should consider mixed flocks as a single epidemiological unit. The results indicate that brucellosis by B. melitensis bv1 is highly endemic in the central and western regions of Formosa province.

  9. Farmers' Learning Strategies in the Province of Esfahan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karbasioun, Mostafa; Biemans, Harm; Mulder, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate changes in farming and to look at how farmers adapt to diverse changes in and around their farms in the province of Esfahan, Iran. It is part of a larger project aimed at developing a job competency profile for agricultural extension instructors (AEIs). One hundred and two farmers who had previously followed…

  10. Child Maltreatment among School Children in the Kurdistan Province, Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Rob; Sheikhattari, Payam; Assasi, Nazilla; Eftekhar, Hassan; Zamani, Qasem; Maleki, Bahram; Kiabayan, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the determinants of three types of child maltreatment: physical maltreatment, mental maltreatment, and child neglect among school children in the Kurdistan Province of Iran. The analysis examines the impact of socioeconomic, familial, demographic, and household dynamic factors on the three child maltreatment…

  11. Indians of Quebec and the Maritime Provinces (An Historical Review).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Giving the history of the Indians of Quebec and the maritime provinces (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, the Prince Edward Island), this document covers the period from the arrival of European explorers in the New World to 1967. Reviewing the history of these Indians, sections are devoted to (1) colonization of Acadia, (2) colonization of Quebec, (3)…

  12. [Preliminary investigation on Paragonimus in Lvchun county of Yunnan province].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin-Bin; Zhou, Ben-Jiang; Li, Ru-Qing; Bai, Zhong-Wen; Wu, Ou-Bao; Gao, Xiu-Fang

    2007-12-01

    69 crabs were collected from Daxing, Gekui and Niukong townships of Lvchun county, Yunnan Province in 2006 and excysted metacercariae were only obtained from crabs of Niukong. The infection rate was 27.6% (8/29) with an average metacercaria number of 2.25 each crab. No encysted metacercariae were found. The excysted metacercariae were morphologically identified as Paragonimus proliferus.

  13. Critically Pressured Free Gas Reservoirs Below Gas Hydrate Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornbach, M. J.; Saffer, D. M.; Holbrook, W. S.

    2002-12-01

    Paleoceanographic evidence suggests that methane hydrates play a significant role in global climate change; however, mechanisms for sustained methane release into the biosphere during periods of global warming are poorly understood (Katz et al. 1999, Kennett et al., 2000). Here, we evaluate the possibility that gas flux into the hydrate stability zone, and perhaps into the oceans and atmosphere is mechanically regulated by hydrofracture or fault reactivation in overlying hydrate-bearing sediments. Our results reveal that a critical gas column thickness exists below most hydrate provinces in basin settings, implying that these hydrate provinces are poised for mechanical failure. Our results suggest that a free gas "wedge" of increasing thickness with BSR depth occurs in hydrate basins, and that a mechanically regulated maximum thickness of free gas exists. Furthermore, our results are consistent with observations of thicker free gas zones in deep hydrate basins and thin free gas zones on active, possibly water-phase overpressured, continental margins. Incorporating our result with Dickens' 2001 model for estimating BSR depths along ocean margins, and assuming 50% sediment porosity with gas filling 1% of the pore space, we calculate a value for the total free methane gas reservoir below all hydrate provinces to be 1/8 the total methane trapped in hydrate, or ~1300 Gt if 10,000 Gt of methane exists in hydrate (Kvenvolden, 1993). One key implication is that a significant reservoir of methane may exist as free gas beneath hydrate provinces that is highly sensitive to changes in pressure and temperature.

  14. Aedes aegypti in Córdoba Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Avilés, G; Cecchini, R; Harrington, M E; Cichero, J; Asis, R; Rios, C

    1997-09-01

    In 1955, the area infested by Aedes aegypti in Argentina was estimated as 1,500,000 km2; and in 1963, the species was considered to be eradicated from Argentina. In 1995, the Argentine Ministry of Health reported reinfestation by Ae. aegypti. During 1994-95, the Ministry of Health of Córdoba Province, Zoonosis Department, established a surveillance system for Ae. aegypti in Córdoba Province, Argentina. This report is a summary of results obtained thus far. In total, 74 localities in Córdoba Province were sampled during August 1994-April 1996, resulting in 5 positives (6.7%): Villa María city, Villa Nueva, and Córdoba city in 1995, and Juarez Celman and Jesús María in 1996. In Villa María and Villa Nueva, Ae. aegypti was present until June 1995 (autumn) and reappeared in December 1995. In Córdoba city, Ae. aegypti was eliminated from the only positive house in May 1995, but it reappeared in March 1996. Reappearance of Ae. aegypti in this temperate area in early summer may have been due to the survival of individuals during winter and not to reintroduction during summertime. The last previous active surveillance for Ae. aegypti in Córdoba Province was carried out more than 30 years ago.

  15. Ozone monitoring in the Krakow Province, southern Poland

    Treesearch

    Barbara Godzik

    1998-01-01

    From June to mid-October in 1995, the concentration of tropospheric ozone in 18 localities in the Krakow Province of southern Poland was measured by using ultraviolet monitors and Ogawa passive samplers. At three active monitoring stations, tropospheric ozone was recorded in the downtown and western part of Krakow and in Szarow, 30 km to the east. The passive method...

  16. A bibliography for the northern Madrean Biogeographic Province

    Treesearch

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Leonard F. DeBano; Gerald J. Gottfried; Daniel P. Huebner; Carl B. Edminster

    1999-01-01

    An online bibliography was compiled to furnish a literature basis for implementing of land management activities and planning research endeavors in the Madrean Biogeographic Province, which includes the Madrean Archipelago region in the southwestern United States. Citations are listed alphabetically by author in categories appropriate to the subject-matter presented....

  17. The deforestation of rural areas in the Lower Congo Province.

    PubMed

    Iloweka, Ernest Manganda

    2004-12-01

    The Lower Congo is one of eleven provinces in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and is located southwest of Kinshasa Town Province. It has an area of approximately 53.947 km2 with a population of 1,504,361 at an estimated 237 persons per km2. The Province comprises five districts, including Lukaya and Cataracts where rural poverty is severe and the population struggle to make a living through agriculture and woodcutting. These activities result in excessive resource exploitation. The high demand for foodstuffs and the high consumption of wood (for energy, construction and export) in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the expanding towns of Matadi and Boma in the Lower Congo Province, are speeding the deforestation rate and unbalancing forest ecosystems. In addition there is the stress resulting from reduced josher (the rest period for agriculture ground), plus climate change and erosion. The phenomena that that we need to address in these two districts include deforestation, reduced josher, excessive agriculture, erosion, burning and climate change which taken together largely explain the current soil degradation. These areas are marked by excessive post deforestation savannah formation and extended areas of sandy soil, distributed throughout grass and shrub savannahs. This desertification, which is rampant in Lukaya and Cataracts, risks imprisoning the rural population in a vicious cycle of poverty if adequate solutions are not found.

  18. Service Needs and Provision in the Northern Province.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, B. M., Ed.; Govind, V., Ed.; Schwabe, C. A., Ed.; Taylor, J. M., Ed.

    This book, one of a series that uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to outline the need for and provision of services (education, health, housing, electricity, roads, telecommunications, postal services, and police services) in each of the nine South African provinces, presents a global view or indicator of the simultaneous influence of the…

  19. Service Needs and Provision in the North West Province.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, B. M., Ed.; Govind, V., Ed.; Schwabe, C. A., Ed.; Taylor, J. M., Ed.

    This book, one of a series that uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to outline the need for and provision of services (education, health, housing, electricity, roads, telecommunications, postal services, and police services) in each of the nine South African provinces, presents a global view or indicator of the simultaneous influence of the…

  20. Special Education in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Peter R.; Matthews, Barbara S.

    The report is based on a study of special education in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The educational structure of the province is discussed in the first section, with information on administration and policy formation. Information on general education at the preschool, primary, and adult levels is presented along with an overview of special education…

  1. Cancer epidemiology and trends in Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Mehtarpoor, Mojtaba; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Salehiniya, Hamid; Enayatrad, Mostafa; Khazaei, Salman

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in developing countries. In Iran, cancer is the third cause of death. The present study aimed at providing the incidence rates (crude and agestandardized) of different types of cancers in Sistan and Baluchestan province (Southeastern of Iran). Data were collected retrospectively reviewing all new cancer patients registered in Cancer Registry Center of Health Heputy for Sistan and Baluchestan province. Common cancers were defined based on the number of cases and standardized incidence rates. To compute the annual percentage change (APC), joinpoint 4.1.1.1 software was applied. A total of 3535 cases of cancers registered during 2004-2009 were identified. Of these, 46.82% occurred in females and 53.18% in males. The most frequent cancer in women was breast cancer followed by esophagus, skin, colorectal and leukemia. The 5 most frequent cancers in men were stomach, skin, leukemia, esophagus and bladder. Joinpoint analyze showed a significant increasing trend for adjusted standard incidence rate (ASIR) for both sexes (p<0.05). According to The results of the present study and comparison to previous studies for other provinces in Iran, cancer incidence in Sistan and Baluchistan is less common but trends of cancers are increasing in Sistan and Baluchestan Province. It is necessary to have a comprehensive health policy for prevention and control of this problem.

  2. Large-Scale Survey for Tickborne Bacteria, Khammouan Province, Laos

    PubMed Central

    Vongphayloth, Khamsing; Vongsouvath, Malavanh; Grandadam, Marc; Brey, Paul T.; Newton, Paul N.; Sutherland, Ian W.; Dittrich, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    We screened 768 tick pools containing 6,962 ticks from Khammouan Province, Laos, by using quantitative real-time PCR and identified Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia spp., and Borrelia spp. Sequencing of Rickettsia spp.–positive and Borrelia spp.–positive pools provided evidence for distinct genotypes. Our results identified bacteria with human disease potential in ticks in Laos. PMID:27532491

  3. Evaluation of health care system reform in Hubei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Sang, Shuping; Wang, Zhenkun; Yu, Chuanhua

    2014-02-21

    This study established a set of indicators for and evaluated the effects of health care system reform in Hubei Province (China) from 2009 to 2011 with the purpose of providing guidance to policy-makers regarding health care system reform. The resulting indicators are based on the "Result Chain" logic model and include the following four domains: Inputs and Processes, Outputs, Outcomes and Impact. Health care system reform was evaluated using the weighted TOPSIS and weighted Rank Sum Ratio methods. Ultimately, the study established a set of indicators including four grade-1 indicators, 16 grade-2 indicators and 76 grade-3 indicators. The effects of the reforms increased year by year from 2009 to 2011 in Hubei Province. The health status of urban and rural populations and the accessibility, equity and quality of health services in Hubei Province were improved after the reforms. This sub-national case can be considered an example of a useful approach to the evaluation of the effects of health care system reform, one that could potentially be applied in other provinces or nationally.

  4. Evaluation of Health Care System Reform in Hubei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Shuping; Wang, Zhenkun; Yu, Chuanhua

    2014-01-01

    This study established a set of indicators for and evaluated the effects of health care system reform in Hubei Province (China) from 2009 to 2011 with the purpose of providing guidance to policy-makers regarding health care system reform. The resulting indicators are based on the “Result Chain” logic model and include the following four domains: Inputs and Processes, Outputs, Outcomes and Impact. Health care system reform was evaluated using the weighted TOPSIS and weighted Rank Sum Ratio methods. Ultimately, the study established a set of indicators including four grade-1 indicators, 16 grade-2 indicators and 76 grade-3 indicators. The effects of the reforms increased year by year from 2009 to 2011 in Hubei Province. The health status of urban and rural populations and the accessibility, equity and quality of health services in Hubei Province were improved after the reforms. This sub-national case can be considered an example of a useful approach to the evaluation of the effects of health care system reform, one that could potentially be applied in other provinces or nationally. PMID:24566052

  5. [Genetic subtyping of HIV-1 in Liaoning province of China].

    PubMed

    Han, X; Jiang, Y; Shang, H

    2001-12-01

    To study the prevalence of HIV-1 in Liaoning province of China. Nuclear acids were extracted from blood samples of 16 HIV-1 infected individuals collected locally in Liaoning province of China from Jun. 1997 to Dec. 2000. The 0.7 kb or 1.2 kb segments of HIV-1 env gene were amplified using nested-PCR and the HIV-1 genetic subtypes were then assayed by heteroduplex mobility assay. Fifteen of 16 samples were positive by PCR amplification of HIV-1 env region and samples were found to be genetic subtype A,B',C,E. The proportion due to sexual transmission in all HIV infection was 31.25% (5/15), among which subtype B' (3/5) was the majority. A man who returned from Africa together with his spouse both had type A (2/5) infection. Intravenous drug users (IDUs) took up 31.25% (5/15) of all the HIV infections. Subtype C (2/4) and E were predominant among intravenous drug users. However, there was one IDU with subtype B or E. Nearly all blood recipients and blood donors were B' (4/5) except one with C. There have been several subtypes of HIV-1 existed in Liaoning province, demonstrating the complexity of HIV epidemology in Liaoning province and the difficulty conducting prevention and treatment.

  6. Peste des petits ruminants virus in Heilongjiang province, China, 2014.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingfei; Wang, Miao; Wang, Shida; Liu, Zaisi; Shen, Nan; Si, Wei; Sun, Gang; Drewe, Julian A; Cai, Xuehui

    2015-04-01

    During March 25-May 5, 2014, we investigated 11 outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in Heilongjiang Province, China. We found that the most likely source of the outbreaks was animals from livestock markets in Shandong. Peste des petits ruminants viruses belonging to lineages II and IV were detected in sick animals.

  7. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus in Heilongjiang Province, China, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Miao; Wang, Shida; Liu, Zaisi; Shen, Nan; Si, Wei; Sun, Gang; Drewe, Julian A.; Cai, Xuehui

    2015-01-01

    During March 25–May 5, 2014, we investigated 11 outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in Heilongjiang Province, China. We found that the most likely source of the outbreaks was animals from livestock markets in Shandong. Peste des petits ruminants viruses belonging to lineages II and IV were detected in sick animals. PMID:25811935

  8. [Calculation of regional carbon emission: a case of Guangdong Province].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Shi-Yan; Wang, Zheng; Ma, Xiao-Zhe; Huang, Rui; Liu, Chang-Xin; Zhu, Yong-Bin

    2011-06-01

    By using IPCC carbon emission calculation formula (2006 edition), economy-carbon emission dynamic model, and cement carbon emission model, a regional carbon emission calculation framework was established, and, taking Guangdong Province as a case, its energy consumption carbon emission, cement production CO2 emission, and forest carbon sink values in 2008-2050 were predicted, based on the socio-economic statistical data, energy consumption data, cement production data, and forest carbon sink data of the Province. In 2008-2050, the cement production CO2 emission in the Province would be basically stable, with an annual carbon emission being 10-15 Mt C, the energy consumption carbon emission and the total carbon emission would be in inverse U-shape, with the peaks occurred in 2035 and 2036, respectively, and the carbon emission intensity would be decreased constantly while the forest carbon sink would have a fluctuated decline. It was feasible and reasonable to use the regional carbon emission calculation framework established in this paper to calculate the carbon emission in Guangdong Province.

  9. Canadian Provinces and Public Policies for University Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sa, Creso M.

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing attention to sub-national regions in science and technology (S&T) policy. This paper examines the recent evolution of provincial S&T policies in the Canadian provinces, focusing on how they link university research to regional technological development. Drawing on multiple sources of data and evidence, this study…

  10. Canadian Provinces and Public Policies for University Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sa, Creso M.

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing attention to sub-national regions in science and technology (S&T) policy. This paper examines the recent evolution of provincial S&T policies in the Canadian provinces, focusing on how they link university research to regional technological development. Drawing on multiple sources of data and evidence, this study…

  11. Assessment of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis in Two Provinces of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    TATAR, Dursun; SENOL, Gunes; ALPTEKIN, Serpil; GUNES, Ebru; AYDIN, Mert; GUNES, Ozdal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the main health issues in Turkey. Extrapulmonary TB cases have significant proportion comparing pulmonary TB cases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) cases in two regions of Turkey, which have different demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, EPTB cases between 2000 and 2005 in Van and Izmir Provinces of Turkey were analyzed and compared for symptoms, age groups, vaccination status, diagnostic procedures and social-economical conditions within two provinces. Descriptive analytic methods were used. Results: Total of 397 EPTB cases were reviewed retrospectively in Izmir and Van provinces. Pleural TB was most often seen EPTB form (47.6% vs. 32.6%) and female/male ratio was similar in both groups. Patients were in older ages in Izmir Province. Chest pain (20% vs. 32%), cough (33% vs. 26%) and night sweatiness (29% vs. 36%) were leading complaints. Low BCG vaccination rate and higher childhood EPTB were found in Van group, in contrary elderly EPTB was more often in of Izmir group. Conclusion: Frequency of severe forms of EPTB is more often in younger ages in lower social economical condition areas. PMID:27141492

  12. Historical occupational isocyanate exposure levels in two Canadian provinces.

    PubMed

    Hon, Chun-Yip; Peters, Cheryl E; Jardine, Katherine J; Arrandale, Victoria H

    2017-01-01

    Isocyanates such as toluene 2, 4-diisocyanate (TDI), methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI), and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) are known sensitizers and exposure to these chemicals can result in isocyanate-induced asthma-the leading cause of occupational asthma. A newly created exposure database was available containing occupational isocyanate measurements spanning 1981-1996 from Ontario and British Columbia (BC)-two of the largest provinces in Canada. The aim was to describe the historical measurements relative to exposure thresholds, ascertain differences in the data between provinces, and identify time trends. Descriptive statistics of the observations were summarized and stratified by isocyanate species and province. Chi-square tests and Student's t-test were performed to determine differences between provinces. To investigate time trends in the odds of a measurement exceeding the limit of detection (LOD) and time-weighted average (TWA), mixed effects logistic regression models were constructed. In total, 6,984 isocyanate measurements were analyzed, the majority of which were below the LOD (79%). Overall, 8.3% of samples were in excess of the 2014 TLV-TWA of 0.005 ppm. Comparing the two provinces, the proportion of samples exceeding the LOD and TLV-TWA was greater in BC for all isocyanate species. Differences in time trends were also observed between provinces-the odds of a sample exceeding the TLV-TWA decreased over time in the case of MDI (Ontario only), TDI (both Ontario and BC), and other isocyanates (BC only). Our finding that a majority of the exposure measurements was below the LOD is similar to that reported by others. Differences between provinces may be due the fact that isocyanates are classified as a designated substance in Ontario and must adhere to specific exposure control regulations. Limitations of the database, such as finite number of variables and measurements available until 1996 only, presents challenges for more in-depth analysis and

  13. Uranium provinces of North America; their definition, distribution, and models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1996-01-01

    Uranium resources in North America are principally in unconformity-related, quartz-pebble conglomerate, sandstone, volcanic, and phosphorite types of uranium deposits. Most are concentrated in separate, well-defined metallogenic provinces. Proterozoic quartz-pebble conglomerate and unconformity-related deposits are, respectively, in the Blind River?Elliot Lake (BRELUP) and the Athabasca Basin (ABUP) Uranium Provinces in Canada. Sandstone uranium deposits are of two principal subtypes, tabular and roll-front. Tabular sandstone uranium deposits are mainly in upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks in the Colorado Plateau Uranium Province (CPUP). Roll-front sandstone uranium deposits are in Tertiary rocks of the Rocky Mountain and Intermontane Basins Uranium Province (RMIBUP), and in a narrow belt of Tertiary rocks that form the Gulf Coastal Uranium Province (GCUP) in south Texas and adjacent Mexico. Volcanic uranium deposits are concentrated in the Basin and Range Uranium Province (BRUP) stretching from the McDermitt caldera at the Oregon-Nevada border through the Marysvale district of Utah and Date Creek Basin in Arizona and south into the Sierra de Pe?a Blanca District, Chihuahua, Mexico. Uraniferous phosphorite occurs in Tertiary sediments in Florida, Georgia, and North and South Carolina and in the Lower Permian Phosphoria Formation in Idaho and adjacent States, but only in Florida has economic recovery been successful. The Florida Phosphorite Uranium Province (FPUP) has yielded large quantities of uranium as a byproduct of the production of phosphoric acid fertilizer. Economically recoverable quantities of copper, gold, molybdenum, nickel, silver, thorium, and vanadium occur with the uranium deposits in some provinces. Many major epochs of uranium mineralization occurred in North America. In the BRELUP, uranium minerals were concentrated in placers during the Early Proterozoic (2,500?2,250 Ma). In the ABUP, the unconformity-related deposits were most likely formed

  14. Uranium provinces of North America; their definition, distribution, and models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1996-01-01

    Uranium resources in North America are principally in unconformity-related, quartz-pebble conglomerate, sandstone, volcanic, and phosphorite types of uranium deposits. Most are concentrated in separate, well-defined metallogenic provinces. Proterozoic quartz-pebble conglomerate and unconformity-related deposits are, respectively, in the Blind River–Elliot Lake (BRELUP) and the Athabasca Basin (ABUP) Uranium Provinces in Canada. Sandstone uranium deposits are of two principal subtypes, tabular and roll-front. Tabular sandstone uranium deposits are mainly in upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks in the Colorado Plateau Uranium Province (CPUP). Roll-front sandstone uranium deposits are in Tertiary rocks of the Rocky Mountain and Intermontane Basins Uranium Province (RMIBUP), and in a narrow belt of Tertiary rocks that form the Gulf Coastal Uranium Province (GCUP) in south Texas and adjacent Mexico. Volcanic uranium deposits are concentrated in the Basin and Range Uranium Province (BRUP) stretching from the McDermitt caldera at the Oregon-Nevada border through the Marysvale district of Utah and Date Creek Basin in Arizona and south into the Sierra de Peña Blanca District, Chihuahua, Mexico. Uraniferous phosphorite occurs in Tertiary sediments in Florida, Georgia, and North and South Carolina and in the Lower Permian Phosphoria Formation in Idaho and adjacent States, but only in Florida has economic recovery been successful. The Florida Phosphorite Uranium Province (FPUP) has yielded large quantities of uranium as a byproduct of the production of phosphoric acid fertilizer. Economically recoverable quantities of copper, gold, molybdenum, nickel, silver, thorium, and vanadium occur with the uranium deposits in some provinces.Many major epochs of uranium mineralization occurred in North America. In the BRELUP, uranium minerals were concentrated in placers during the Early Proterozoic (2,500–2,250 Ma). In the ABUP, the unconformity-related deposits were most likely

  15. Eruption frequency record of the Syrtis Major Volcanic Province, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platz, Thomas; Jodlowski, Piotr; Michael, Gregory

    2013-04-01

    Syrtis Major is one of the most prominent Hesperian-aged volcanic provinces on Mars, located near the dichotomy boundary, west of Isidis Planitia. It extends over approximately 740,000 km² and has a N-S elongated central depression containing the calderas of Meroe Patera and Nili Patera. Lava thicknesses range from approximately 0.5-1.0 km and total volume of erupted material has been estimated at about 320,000 km³. This province is another target area of our ongoing study to quantify the global volatile release during volcanic eruptions on Mars. Estimates of eruption frequency, associated volume of erupted material, and gas release to the atmosphere are the key parameters of this research. Reconstruction of the eruption history of volcanic provinces is one of the steps to be taken in order to constrain these parameters. In total, 58 lava flows were mapped of which 39 were suitable for age determination using crater size-frequency distributions. In addition, the caldera of Meroe Patera was also dated using crater statistics. Model ages range between 0.87 Ga and 3.63 Ga. There is no apparent time-space correlation observed. The broad spectrum of model ages, ranging from Early Hesperian to Middle Amazonian, points to long-lasting volcanic activity of the studied province. This fact together with post-emplacement deformation of lava flows indicates a much longer eruption and volcano-tectonic history of the Syrtis Major Volcanic Province than previously thought, extending it to the Middle Amazonian period

  16. [Mortality in the municipalities of Brindisi Province, 1981-2001].

    PubMed

    Gianicolo, Emilio Antonio Luca; Serinelli, Maria; Vigotti, Maria Angela; Portaluri, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    Brindisi is a town on the South coast of the Adriatic sea, where many sources of airpollutants are located nearby the urban area. A part from the airport and the harbour, mainly for passenger traffic to Greece, a wide industrial area is present (petrochemical, power plants, chemical pharmaceutical, metallurgical, manufacturing). In seven municipalities, illegal dumps have been found. South west of Brindisi is the province of Taranto, whose industrial area includes steels factory a refinery and a cement factory. In both provinces, an area at "high risk of environmental crisis, has been identified by the Italian Ministry of Environment. In the Brindisi area, mortality from all causes, cancers and respiratory diseases. in 1990-1994 was found to be in excess. to estimate mortality among residents in the twenty municipalities of the province aggregated in four geographic areas: the one at "high risk" including the main town, and the areas located North. West and South of the Brindisi "high risk" area. descriptive geographical study. mortality analysis by gender, specific causes of death and two ten-year periods between 1981 and 2001. Standardised mortality ratios (Puglia region as referent population) and directly as well as age-standardized rates (ref. European population) have been computed. mortality from all causes and from forty selected causes. about 3,200 annual deaths have occurred in the province. Results for the high risk area confirm previous analyses while excesses in the other areas have appeared. A few municipalities, requiring a deeper investigation have been identified. Such excesses refer to mortality due to all causes, all cancers, stomach and lung cancers, respiratory and ischemic diseases. this study confirms excesses in the high risk areas and found mortality excesses in other municipality both among males and females. The results suggest to further investigate mortality both in the main town and in the small municipalities where illegal dump have

  17. Geographic Mapping of Crohn's Disease and Its Relation to Affluence in Jiangsu Province, an Eastern Coastal Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dong; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Gu, Guosheng; Liu, Song; Wu, Xiuwen; Chen, Jun; Ren, Huajian; Hong, Zhiwu; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Background. Geographical variation in the incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) has been reported in Europe and North American. However, there are no comparable data in mainland China. Methods. We retrospectively identified incident cases of CD patients registered in Jinling hospital during 2003 to 2012. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for each area of Jiangsu province and a thematic map of CD was made according to the local SIR. The association between incidence and local economic status was revealed by correlation between SIR of CD and different local economic indicators. Results. A total of 653 CD patients (male-to-female ratio, 1.8 : 1) from Jiangsu province were included. A steady increase was observed in the number of CD patients over the period of observation. Disease map of SIR showed a pronounced geographic concentration of CD in the south part of Jiangsu province. Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between local SIR of CD and local economic indicators. Conclusions. There is a marked geographic variability in CD incidence across Jiangsu province. CD incidence in affluent areas seems to be higher than that in less affluent areas. Further multicenter population-based studies are needed to assess the real disease map of CD. PMID:24839438

  18. Province/Ministry-Coordinated Industry-University-Institute Cooperation and University Development: Based on the Experiences of Guangdong Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Liu

    2016-01-01

    The industry S&T missioners, industry-university-institute innovation alliances, industry-university-institute regional model bases, and other provincial-level industry-university-institute cooperation mechanisms that Guangdong Province has formed through its practical efforts play an important role in training a large batch of practical…

  19. Province/Ministry-Coordinated Industry-University-Institute Cooperation and University Development: Based on the Experiences of Guangdong Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Liu

    2016-01-01

    The industry S&T missioners, industry-university-institute innovation alliances, industry-university-institute regional model bases, and other provincial-level industry-university-institute cooperation mechanisms that Guangdong Province has formed through its practical efforts play an important role in training a large batch of practical…

  20. Geographic mapping of Crohn's disease and its relation to affluence in jiangsu province, an eastern coastal province of china.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dong; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Gu, Guosheng; Liu, Song; Wu, Xiuwen; Chen, Jun; Ren, Huajian; Hong, Zhiwu; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Background. Geographical variation in the incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) has been reported in Europe and North American. However, there are no comparable data in mainland China. Methods. We retrospectively identified incident cases of CD patients registered in Jinling hospital during 2003 to 2012. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for each area of Jiangsu province and a thematic map of CD was made according to the local SIR. The association between incidence and local economic status was revealed by correlation between SIR of CD and different local economic indicators. Results. A total of 653 CD patients (male-to-female ratio, 1.8 : 1) from Jiangsu province were included. A steady increase was observed in the number of CD patients over the period of observation. Disease map of SIR showed a pronounced geographic concentration of CD in the south part of Jiangsu province. Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between local SIR of CD and local economic indicators. Conclusions. There is a marked geographic variability in CD incidence across Jiangsu province. CD incidence in affluent areas seems to be higher than that in less affluent areas. Further multicenter population-based studies are needed to assess the real disease map of CD.

  1. Research and implementation of good agricultural practice for traditional Chinese medicinal materials in Jilin Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changtian; Yan, Zhengfei; Zhang, Lianxue; Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Jilin Province is one of the principal production bases of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in China with its typical preponderance in TCM resources, research and development power, and industrialization capacity. The province has 2,790 species of TCM materials in total. Over 20% of the TCM materials in common use are from Jilin Province. The province has established 36 good agricultural practice bases for 22 typical TCMs. The overall situation, in terms of collection, processing, and preparation, and the implementation of good agricultural practice of TCM materials in Jilin Province are summarized. PMID:25379000

  2. First description of Trypanosoma cruzi human infection in Esmeraldas province, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Ángel; Moreira, Juan; Criollo, Hipatia; Vivero, Sandra; Racines, Marcia; Cevallos, Varsovia; Prandi, Rosanna; Caicedo, Cynthia; Robinzon, Francisco; Anselmi, Mariella

    2014-08-06

    Chagas disease was described in Ecuador in 1930 in the province of Guayas and thereafter in various provinces. Triatomine were reported in the province of Esmeraldas but no human infection has been described. Here we report the first evidence that the disease does exist in the province of Esmeraldas. In indigenous Awá communities located in the northwest jungle of the Esmeraldas province, 144 individuals were tested using ELISA and PCR for T.cruzi of which 5 (3.47%) were positive. Twenty eight triatomine were collected, 27 were Triatoma dispar and 1 Pastrongylus rufotuberculatus, T.cruzi was detected in 11 (42.3%) of 26 insects.

  3. Interaction Between the Supercontinent Cycle and the Evolution of Intrinsically Dense Provinces in the Deep Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowman, J. P.; Trim, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    Shear-wave travel times in the Earth's deep mantle reveal broad steep-sided seismologically distinct provinces lying on the Core-Mantle Boundary (CMB). The longevity and permanence of the two large principal provinces, located below the sites of present-day Africa and the Pacific Ocean, have become a matter of great interest. Examination of the flood basalt record and kimberlite eruption dating suggests the presence of these provinces may disclose a deep mantle component with a compositionally distinct origin playing a role in the generation of mantle plumes at preferred locations. By extension, the presence of these provinces may affect the supercontinent cycle. Implementing a mantle convection model featuring distinct continental lithosphere and a Compositionally Anomalous and Intrinsically Dense (CAID) component, we study the distribution and mobility of naturally forming compositionally distinct provinces and their impact on model supercontinent assembly. In calculations featuring Earth-like convective vigor and global scale we find that an intrinsically dense mantle component generally aggregates into one or two broad provinces. The positions of the provinces are time-dependent but in many of our calculations the province locations are characterized by periods of fixity that reach several hundred million years. Eras of province and associated plume fixity are punctuated by periods of relatively rapid migration. A correlation between supercontinent position and the locations of CAID provinces is not supported by our findings. However, we find the frequency of supercontinent assemblies increases when CAID provinces are present.

  4. [Applying analytical hierarchy process to assess eco-environment quality of Heilongjiang province].

    PubMed

    Li, Song; Qiu, Wei; Zhao, Qing-liang; Liu, Zheng-mao

    2006-05-01

    The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was adopted to study the index system of eco-province and the index system was set up for eco-province construction. The comparison matrix was constructed on the basis of experts' investigation questionnaires. MATLAB 6.5 was used to confirm the weights of the indices. The general environment quality index model was used to grade the environment quality and assessed the progress of constructing eco-province in Heilongjiang province. The results indicate that it is feasible to apply the AHP to assess quantitatively the ecological environmental quality province-wide. The ecological environment quality of Heilongjiang province has been improved obviously from the beginning of eco-province construction.

  5. Improving immunisation: coverage in a province in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    van Zwanenberg, T D; Hull, Cathy

    1988-01-01

    The effect on immunisation coverage of applying guiding principles to the management of primary health care services in a province in Papua New Guinea is described. These principles were: (a) Each health centre should have a defined geographical area of responsibility. (b) Each health centre should be responsible for a defined population. (c) Each health centre should have defined target groups for immunisation and child health clinic enrolment. (d) An accurate and meaningful reporting system is essential. (e) Each health centre should receive regular feedback on its achievements. Immunisation coverage in the province, as judged by the proportion of children under 1 year of age receiving their second dose of triple antigen, improved from 57-67% in 1980-2 to 89-94% in 1983-4. Immunisation is the most cost effective preventive activity undertaken in child health care. The application of these guiding principles would be relevant in the United Kingdom. PMID:3135060

  6. Louisianian province demonstration report. EMAP-estuaries: 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, J.K.; Macauley, J.M.; Engle, V.D.; Brooks, G.T.; Heitmuller, P.T.

    1993-10-01

    The report summarizes the Louisianian Demonstration Project conducted by the Estuaries Resource Group of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), a national program initiated by EPA to integrate efforts of governmental agencies in evaluations of status and trends of ecological resources of the U.S. The Louisianian Province represents a single biogeographic area corresponding to the Gulf of Mexico. The demonstration project was conducted during July and August 1991, using a probability-based sampling design to evaluate the condition of Gulf of Mexico estuarine resources. The assessment is preliminary and its findings should be confirmed by subsequent years of sampling in the Louisianian Province, which extends from Rio Grande, Texas, to Anclote Anchorage, Florida.

  7. The Basin and Range Province in Utah, Nevada, and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, Thomas B.

    1943-01-01

    In this report an attempt has been made to summarize and in places to interpret the published information that was available through 1938 on the geology of those parts of Nevada, California, and Utah that are included in the geologic province known as the Basin and Range province. This region includes most of the Great Basin, from which no water flows to the sea, as well as part of the drainage basin of the lower Colorado River. It is characterized by numerous parallel, linear mountain ranges that are separated from one another by wide valleys or topographic basins. All the major divisions of geologic time are represented by the rocks exposed in this region. The oldest are of pre-Cambrian age and crop out chiefly along the eastern and southern borders. They have been carefully studied at only a few localities, and the correlation and extent of the subdivision so far recognized is uncertain. There appear to be at least three series of pre-Cambrian rocks which are probably separated from one another by profound unconformities. Large masses of intrusive igneous rocks have been recognized only in the oldest series. During the Paleozoic era the region was a part of the Cordilleran geosyncline, and sediments were deposited during all of the major and most of the minor subdivisions of the era. There are thick and widespread accumulations of Cambrian and Ordovician strata, the maximum aggregate thickness possibly exceeding 23,000 feet. The eastern and western boundaries of the province were approximately those of the area of rapid subsidence within the geosyncline, though the axes of maximum subsidence oscillated back and forth during the two periods. The Silurian and Devonian seas, on the other hand, extended beyond the province and, possibly as a consequence, are represented by much thinner sections - of the order of 6,000 feet. At the end of the Devonian period the geosyncline was split by the emergence of a geanticline in western Nevada, and Mississippian and

  8. The east coast petroleum province: Science and society

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, R.R.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Atlantic offshore, especially the mid-Atlantic, was an exciting exploration area from the 1970s into the 1980s. Much pioneering 'frontier' activity in both scientific and policy matters occurred in this area. Although production was not achieved, objective geological evidence indicates that the province does have potential. Major population centers of the mid-Atlantic area demand large amounts of energy and enormous amounts of crude and product are shipped through East Coast waters. Nevertheless, exploration has been shut down by moratoria, environmental concerns, and international pricing. It is suggested that the province will be revisited in the future and that the geologic and environmental information that has been generated at great cost should be preserved for use by the next generation of explorationists and policy-makers.

  9. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E

    2013-10-03

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  10. Checklists of Parasites of Farm Fishes of Babylon Province, Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubaie, Abdul-Razzak L.

    2016-01-01

    Literature reviews of all references concerning the parasitic fauna of fishes in fish farms of Babylon province, middle of Iraq, showed that a total of 92 valid parasite species are so far known from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), and the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) as well as from three freshwater fish species (Carassius auratus, Liza abu, and Heteropneustes fossilis) which were found in some fish farms of the same province. The parasitic fauna included one mastigophoran, three apicomplexans, 13 ciliophorans, five myxozoans, five trematodes, 45 monogeneans, five cestodes, three nematodes, two acanthocephalans, nine arthropods, and one mollusc. The common carp was found to harbour 81 species of parasites, the grass carp 30 species, the silver carp 28 species, L. abu 13 species, C. auratus one species, and H. fossilis one species. A host-parasite list for each fish species was also provided. PMID:27559480

  11. Supervolcanoes Within an Ancient Volcanic Province in Arabia Terra, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalski, Joseph. R.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2014-01-01

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae display a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism, and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulfur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas likely fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. Discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  12. Ground-water geology of Kordofan Province, Sudan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodis, Harry G.; Hassan, Abdulla; Wahadan, Lutfi

    1968-01-01

    For much of Kordofan Province, surface-water supplies collected and stored in hafirs, fulas, and tebeldi trees are almost completely appropriated for present needs, and water from wells must serve as the base for future economic and cultural development. This report describes the results of a reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Province and the nature and distribution of the ground-water resources with respect to their availability for development. Kordofan Province, in central Sudan, lies within the White Nile-Nile River drainage basin. The land surface is largely a plain of low relief; jebels (hills) occur sporadically, and sandy soils are common in most areas except in the south where clayey soils predominate. Seasonal rainfall, ranging from less than 100 millimeters in the north to about 800 millimeters in the south, occurs almost entirely during the summer months, but little runoff ever reaches the Nile or White Nile Rivers. The rocks beneath the surficial depsits (Pleistocene to Recent) in the Province comprise the basement complex (Precambrian), Nawa Series (upper Paleozoic), Nubian Series (Mesozoic), laterite (lower to middle Tertiary), and the Umm Ruwaba Series (Pliocene to Pleistocene). Perennial ground-water supplies in the Province are found chiefly in five hydrologic units, each having distinct geologic or hydrologic characteristics. These units occur in Nubian or Umm Ruwaba strata or both, and the sandstone and conglomerate beds form the :principal aquifers. The water is generally under slight artesian head, and the upper surface of the zone of saturation ranges from about 50 meters to 160 meters below land surface. The surficial deposits and basement rocks are generally poor sources of ground water in most of the Province. Supplies from such sources are commonly temporary and may dissipate entirely during the dry season. Locally, however, perennial supplies are obtained from the surficial deposits and from the basement rocks. Generally

  13. Demand Response in the West: Lessons for States and Provinces

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas C. Larson; Matt Lowry; Sharon Irwin

    2004-06-29

    OAK-B135 This paper is submitted in fulfillment of DOE Grant No. DE-FG03-015F22369 on the experience of western states/provinces with demand response (DR) in the electricity sector. Demand-side resources are often overlooked as a viable option for meeting load growth and addressing the challenges posed by the region's aging transmission system. Western states should work together with utilities and grid operators to facilitate the further deployment of DR programs which can provide benefits in the form of decreased grid congestion, improved system reliability, market efficiency, price stabilization, hedging against volatile fuel prices and reduced environmental impacts of energy production. This report describes the various types of DR programs; provides a survey of DR programs currently in place in the West; considers the benefits, drawbacks and barriers to DR; and presents lessons learned and recommendations for states/provinces.

  14. Freshwater mollusks of medical importance in Kalasin Province, northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sri-Aroon, Pusadee; Butraporn, Piyarat; Limsomboon, Jaremate; Kerdpuech, Yupa; Kaewpoolsri, Manus; Kiatsiri, Songtham

    2005-05-01

    A snail survey was performed in six districts around irrigation areas of Lampao Dam, in Kalasin Province. The survey caught a total of 5,479 live snails and classed them into five families, 12 genera and 15 species, of which 7 species are suspected of transmitting human parasitic diseases. The seven species were Pila polita, Pomacea canaliculata, Filopaludina (S.) m. martensi, Bithynia (Digoniostoma) siamensis goniomphalos, Melanoides tuberculata, Radix rubiginosa, and Indoplanorbis exustus. Of these, B. (D.) s. goniomphalos and I. exustus were found to harbor emergent cercariae. Only B. (D.) s. goniomphalos hosted several types of cercariae--Opisthorchis viverrini, unidentified species of intestinal flukes, echinostomes, xyphidio and furcocercous cercariae. Indoplanorbis exustus shed only echinostome cercariae. B. (D.) s. goniomphalos showed a rather high natural infection rate with O. viverrini, 1.3% in Yang Talat district, and 0.61% in Kamalasai district, in Kalasin Province.

  15. The southeastern Dronning Maud Land province in East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieth, Matthias; Jokat, Wilfried; Jacobs, Joachim; Ruppel, Antonia; Damaske, Detlef; Läufer, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Systematic airborne geophysical surveys conducted by the Alfred-Wegener-Institute over the last decades have investigated a significant part of Dronning Maud Land in East Antarctica and have revealed, amongst other findings, an aerogeophysical prominent province in southeastern Dronning Maud Land. Both its magnetic and gravity signature differs from those of the western and southwestern Dronning Maud Land, and we assume that it represents a distinct tectonic terrane. This province is characterized by a subdued magnetic anomaly field with elongated parallel positive anomalies, which are truncated by the Forster magnetic anomaly in the northwest, are flanked by the complex magnetic anomaly pattern of the Sør Rondane Mountains in the northeast, and continue presumably farther eastwards. Pronounced negative values of Bouguer gravity indicate thick continental crust of up to 50 km for this region in contrast to significantly higher values of Bouguer gravity in western and southwestern Dronning Maud Land. A few nunataks crop out within the northern portion of this province between the Wohlthat-Massiv and the Sør Rondane Mountains. In 2011 and 2012 collected rock samples from these nunataks and nearby moraines show a predominance of metasedimentary rocks of yet unknown age. Furthermore, undeformed late- to post-tectonic granitoids have been discovered within the southeastern DML province. The conclusions of these findings revise the speculation of a continuous suture zone connecting the Shackleton Range south of Coats Land in the west and the Lützow Holm Bay region in the east and supplement the hypotheses that East-Antarctica is rather a mosaic of different crustal fragments composed of Archaean nucleoids and of Proterozoic to Palaeozoic mobile belts, than to be primarily one stable craton.

  16. Geologic hazards in Navarin Basin Province, Northern Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, Paul R.; Karl, Herman A.; Fischer, Jeffrey M.; Edwards, Brian D.

    Navarin Basin, scheduled for leasing in 1984 (OCS sale 83), may contain vast accumulations of oil and gas. Several geologic and oceanographic processes that may be active in and around Navarin Basin province could be hazardous to commercial development. These potential hazards include submarine slides; sea-floor instability resulting from disturbance of gas-charged sediment; sediment transport and erosion caused by storm waves, tsunamis, internal waves, or bottom currents; pack ice; and active faults and ground motion.

  17. Northeast Basin and Range province active tectonics: An alternative view

    SciTech Connect

    Westaway, R. )

    1989-09-01

    Slip rates and slip vector azimuths on major active oblique normal faults are used to investigate whether circulation associated with the Yellowstone upwelling plume is driving tectonic deformation in the northeast Basin and Range province. Observed deformation is consistent with this suggestion; the plume is sheared to the southwest by motion of the North American plate. Testable predictions are made for structure and evolution of the region.

  18. JPRS Report, China, Shandong Province 1988 Economic Reports.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    visits. All 982 motions, criti- cisms, and suggestions submitted by People’s Congress deputies and CPPCC members last year have been handled. The... suggestions . The province and various localities conducted many investi- gations and studies on reform, opening up, development of the commodity economy, and... suggestions submitted by people’s deputies to make sure that every one of them is concluded and answered. Second, we should maintain close ties between

  19. ‘Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs)’: Definition, recommended terminology, and a hierarchical classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Hetu C.

    2007-12-01

    This article is an appeal for the adoption of a correct and appropriate terminology with respect to the so-called Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs). The term LIP has been widely applied to large basaltic provinces such as the Deccan Traps, and the term Silicic Large Igneous Province (SLIP) to volcanic provinces of dominantly felsic composition, such as the Whitsunday Province. However, neither term (LIP, SLIP) has been applied to the large granitic batholiths of the world (e.g., Andes) to which both terms are perfectly applicable. LIP has also not been applied to broad areas of contemporaneous basalt magmatism (e.g., Indochina, Mongolia) and sizeable layered mafic intrusions (e.g., Bushveld) which in many significant respects may also be considered to represent 'Large Igneous Provinces'. Here, I suggest that the term LIP is used in its broadest sense and that it should designate igneous provinces with outcrop areas ≥ 50,000 km 2. I propose a simple hierarchical classification of LIPs that is independent of composition, tectonic setting, or emplacement mechanism. I suggest that provinces such as the Deccan and Whitsunday provinces should be called Large Volcanic Provinces (LVPs), whereas large intrusive provinces (mafic-ultramafic intrusions, dyke/sill swarms, granitic batholiths) should be called Large Plutonic Provinces (LPPs). LVPs and LPPs thus together cover all LIPs, which can be felsic, mafic, or ultramafic, of sub-alkalic or alkalic affinity, and emplaced in continental or oceanic settings. LVPs are subdivided here into four groups: (i) the dominantly/wholly mafic Large Basaltic Provinces (LBPs) (e.g., Deccan, Ontong Java); (ii) the dominantly felsic Large Rhyolitic Provinces (LRPs) (e.g., Whitsunday, Sierra Madre Occidental); (iii) the dominantly andesitic Large Andesitic Provinces (LAPs) (e.g., Andes, Indonesia, Cascades), and (iv) the bimodal Large Basaltic-Rhyolitic Provinces (LBRPs) (e.g., Snake River-High Lava Plains). The intrusive equivalents of LRPs

  20. The greenhouse gas balance of the Province of Siena.

    PubMed

    Ridolfi, R; Kneller, M; Donati, A; Pulselli, R M

    2008-01-01

    There is a profound debate over how to assign greenhouse gas (GHG) responsibilities; therefore, we have decided to follow IPCC guidelines, as they offer the only standardized method. We have identified each type of greenhouse emission and its level of absorption. We have studied the province and its districts and municipalities. We have determined that the energy sector is that with the highest level of emissions, even if the per capita emissions of the Province of Siena are very low. This is caused by a very low level of industrialization and the presence of a local geothermal production of energy. In order to highlight this aspect, we have considered scenarios both with and without geothermal production. Our research was then focused on single districts (groups of homogenous municipalities) and municipalities, where we found great differences among the greenhouse emissions of the areas. We have constructed a map of the greenhouse emissions of the whole province. It has been interesting to note that there are 14 municipalities with net negative emissions, seven with low positive emissions, 12 with medium positive emissions and three with elevated positive emissions. These latter correspond to the main city and to two of the most industrialized municipalities.

  1. Incidence and severity of keratoconus in Asir province, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Assiri, A A; Yousuf, B I; Quantock, A J; Murphy, P J

    2005-11-01

    To assess the incidence and associated signs and symptoms of patients with keratoconus in Asir Province, Saudi Arabia. 125 new keratoconus patients (51 male, 74 female; mean age 18.5 (SD 3.8) years; range 8--28 years) were recruited from referrals to the department of ophthalmology, Asir Central Hospital, over a 1 year period. Age, visual acuity, and keratometry were recorded along with clinical signs and symptoms. The incidence of keratoconus in Asir Province is 20 cases per 100,000 population. Also, the disease severity is high, as indicated by an early mean age (17.7 (3.6) years) with advanced stage keratoconus. Visual acuity, with either spectacles or rigid contact lenses, was 6/12 or better in 98% of eyes measured. Just over half (56%) of patients had atopic ocular disease. 16% of patients had a positive family history of the disease and 16% had atopic dermatitis (eczema and/or vitiligo). The incidence and severity of keratoconus in Asir Province, Saudi Arabia, is high with an early onset and more rapid progress to the severe disease stage at a young age. This might reflect the influence of genetic and/or environmental factor(s) in the aetiology of keratoconus.

  2. Traffic Perception in Eskişehir Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karacasu, Murat; Altin, Arzu Yavuz; Ergül, Bariş; Berkhan Akalin, Kadir

    2016-10-01

    With the rapid growth of the world population that is becoming increasingly the use of motor vehicles. Also, due to technological advances that have become more accessible to a case having a motor vehicle. However, these developments have led to the emergence of some problems. Especially, highways of serious accidents occurred in transportation, to investigate measures that can be taken and identification of the problem is an important issue in Turkey. First, you need to identify the individual's perception of traffic. This process is important to identify gaps in the application. This study was planned and carried out in order to measure the traffic perceptions of living in Eskisehir Province. For this purpose, a questionnaire aimed at determining demographic and socio-economic characteristics and attitudes of the individual's perception of traffic was prepared. Data sets were analysed by factor analysis known as one of the most known multivariate statistical analysis techniques. The result of analysis obtained over the dimensions, traffic perceptions of individual's in Eşkisehir Province modelled. Looking for solutions for the traffic problem in institutions of the Eşkisehir Province has obtained a series of results that could benefit in creating attitudes and behaviours about traffic.

  3. Petroleum systems of the Malay Basin Province, Malaysia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Michele G.

    2002-01-01

    The offshore Malay Basin province is a Tertiary oil and gas province composed of a complex of half grabens that were filled by lacustrine shales and continental clastics.These deposits were overlain by clastics of a large delta system that covered the basin.Delta progradation was interupted by transgressions of the South China Sea to the southeast, which finally flooded the basin to form the Gulf of Thailand.Oil and gas from the Oligocene to Miocene lacustrine shales and Miocene deltaic coals is trapped primarily in anticlines formed by inversion of the half grabens during the late Miocene.Hydrocarbon reserves that have been discovered amount to 12 billion barrels of oil equivalent.The U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the estimated quantities of conventional oil, gas and condensate that have the potential to be added to reserves by the year 2025 for this province is 6.3 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BBOE) (U. S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team, 2000).

  4. Brackish-water mollusks of Surat Thani Province, southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sri-aroon, Pusadee; Lohachit, Chantima; Harada, Masakazu

    2005-01-01

    Brackish-water mollusks inhabiting the mangrove areas along the Gulf of Thailand of Surat Thani Province were investigated for distribution, abundance and natural infections. Nine families and 32 species of brackish-water snails were recovered from 14 sampling stations. Species belonging to the genus Ceritidea of the family Potamididae were mainly examined and Cerithidea (Cerithideopsilla) Cingulata, C. (C.) djadjariensis, and C. (Cerithidea) charbonnieri were naturally infected with 2 types of trematode cercariae, and one which was undetermined. C. (C.) cingulata had the highest infection rate (38.5%). Viewing two snail communities, the first community on the mainland and the second on Samui Island in Surat Thani Province, 28 brackish-water mollusk species were present on the mainland, 15 species were evident on Samui Island, and 11 snail species were common to both the mainland and Samui Island. Measurement of community similarity based on species presence revealed an index of similarity of 0.51. Concerning land use by the local people in the station areas investigated, brackish-water snails in Surat Thani Province are facing habitat degradation by human use.

  5. Electrification ratio and renewable energy in Papua Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Innah, Herbert; Kariongan, Jackobus; Liga, Marthen

    2017-03-01

    Indonesia government through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, in the beginning of year 2016, introduced a program named "Indonesia Terang" or Bright Indonesia. The aimed of this program is to speed up Electrification Rate (ER) with priority to the six provinces at Eastern area of Indonesia including Papua Province. The target of Indonesian's ER by 2019 is 97%. While the Indonesian's national ER already high (88.30%) in 2015, Papua still the lowest ER (45.93%) among the provinces. The scenario to boost up ER in the Eastern area by connected the consumers at villages which not electrified yet to the new Renewable Energy sources. This paper presents an overview of current situation of Electricity Infrastructure and Operation particularly on the mountain area which has high populated compare to coastal area but the average RE below 10%. Case studies of electricity infrastructure profile from mountain area were conducted to identify and reveal the challenge to achieve the Bright Indonesia objectives. Also, the assessment of the visibility according to the high target from this program will be presented.

  6. [Investigation of medical journal website construction in Guangdong province].

    PubMed

    Duan, Yong-hui; Wang, Zheng-ai

    2005-11-01

    To investigate the current status of internet-based publication of biomedical journals and website construction in Guangdong province. On the platform of the currently available databases for academic science journals (Wanfang Datebase, China Acdemic Journal Network, PubMed and SCI) with the assistance general searching engines, the websites of the medical journals in Guangdong province were evaluated and the editorial offices of the core medical journals in Guangdong province were interviewed. At present, the internet-based publication of the journals was executed predominantly by 3 means, namely utilization of the access to the websites of the direct sponsor, authoritative websites of science and technology, or independent websites. Relying on the database system of Wanfang and China Academic Journal Network, for instance, most of the journals can provide access to their full-text resources, but this internet-based publication is somehow delayed in comparison with the print publication. At present, only a few medical journals in Guangdong have built their independent websites, and among those which already have, Journal of First Military Medical University and Cancer are indexed by IM and PubMed, therefore they provide online abstracts of the papers ahead of the print copy publication.

  7. [Prevalence of mental subnormality recorded in the province of Jaen].

    PubMed

    Delgado Rodríguez, M; Moreno de la Casa, A; Rodríguez-Contreras Pelayo, R; Sillero Arenas, M; López Gigosos, R; Gálvez Vargas, R

    1989-01-01

    It is done a cross-sectional study of the prevalence of mental retardation in the province of Jaén (Spain), based on the cumulated cases reported to the Institute of Social Services of the Social Security (INSERSO) until January 1, 1984. The main objective of this research is to know the prevalence of mental retardation in our province, and to analize its relationship with some sociodemographic variables. The prevalence obtained has been 4.09%, being a 59.27% of the prevalence due to endogenous/unexplained etiology. Mild subnormality constitutes a 8.4% of cases, being closely related with the size of the locality (municipio). Prevalence of mental subnormality showed a significative linear association with the size of the locality (r = -0.904, p less than 0.05), and with the population growth (r = -0.929, p less than 0.01). This relationship was not observed neither with the level of per capita income nor the altitude of the locality. A multiple regression analysis is made for every etiology of mental retardation and several social and geographic variables. We conclude that the figures for mental retardation in our province show a direct relationship with local development parameters.

  8. Incidence of gestational trophoblastic disease in Tokat province, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Çakmak, Bülent; Toprak, Muhammet; Nacar, Mehmet Can; Köseoğlu, Reşid Doğan; Güneri, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the incidence of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) in Tokat province, Turkey. Material and Methods The medical records of patients who had been diagnosed and treated at one university hospital, six government hospitals, and one specialist hospital in Tokat province between January 2005 and December 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. Results During the study period, there were 59,754 births and GTD was diagnosed in 73 cases. The calculated GTD incidence was 1.22/1000. The mean age of the patients diagnosed with GTD was 28.6±7.3 (range 17–51) years. In GTD, complete moles occurred in 26%, partial moles in 74%, and no invasive moles, choriocarcinomas, or placental site trophoblastic tumours were found. Only two patients received chemotherapy (methotrexate). There was no mortality associated with the disease during follow-up. Conclusion The incidence of GTD in Tokat province was 1.2 per 1000 births. Early diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up play a critical role in preventing the morbidity and mortality associated with disease. The incidence of GTD, which has a high recovery rate with adequate treatment and follow-up, can be determined from regional and community-based research. PMID:24790512

  9. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Isfahan Province

    PubMed Central

    Nokhodian, Zary; Adibi, Peyman; Ataei, Behrooz

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a serious global health problem. It is estimated that 1.5–2.5 million people are suffering from this infection in Iran. A review on HBV infection prevalence in Isfahan, Iran is conducted in this article. It will help researchers for further studies and also will be helpful for control the infection. Medline, Embase, Ovid, Google Scholar, Scientific Information Database, Iranmedex, Magiran and Scientific Journal of Iran Blood Transfusion Organization and also students’ thesis and projects of Isfahan and Kashan universities of medical sciences were searched for key words “HBV,” “HBsAg,” “prevalence,” “Isfahan,” “Esfahan,” and “Kashan in titles and/or abstracts. Overall, 24 articles, including 4, 14, 5 and 1 were assessed in Isfahan province, and Isfahan, Kashan, and Foulad-shahr cities, respectively. The highest and lowest participants were 542705 and 73, respectively. The highest prevalence of HBsAg was reported in HIV-infected patients and the lowest one was seen in the thalassemic patients. We collected the articles about the prevalence of HBV in Isfahan to help researchers and determine prevalence HBV in Isfahan province. The similar studies in other province of Iran are necessary for marking decision. PMID:26622989

  10. Spatial and Statistical Analysis of Leptospirosis in Guilan Province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nia, A. Mohammadi; Alimohammadi, A.; Habibi, R.; Shirzadi, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The most underdiagnosed water-borne bacterial zoonosis in the world is Leptospirosis which especially impacts tropical and humid regions. According to World Health Organization (WHO), the number of human cases is not known precisely. Available reports showed that worldwide incidences vary from 0.1-1 per 100 000 per year in temperate climates to 10-100 per 100 000 in the humid tropics. Pathogenic bacteria that is spread by the urines of rats is the main reason of water and soil infections. Rice field farmers who are in contact with infected water or soil, contain the most burden of leptospirosis prevalence. In recent years, this zoonotic disease have been occurred in north of Iran endemically. Guilan as the second rice production province (average=750 000 000 Kg, 40% of country production) after Mazandaran, has one of the most rural population (Male=487 679, Female=496 022) and rice workers (47 621 insured workers) among Iran provinces. The main objectives of this study were to analyse yearly spatial distribution and the possible spatial clusters of leptospirosis to better understand epidemiological aspects of them in the province. Survey was performed during the period of 2009-2013 at rural district level throughout the study area. Global clustering methods including the average nearest neighbour distance, Moran's I and General G indices were utilized to investigate the annual spatial distribution of diseases. At the end, significant spatial clusters have been detected with the objective of informing priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation.

  11. Occupation and lung cancer risk in Leningrad Province, Russia.

    PubMed

    Baccarelli, A; Tretiakova, Maria; Gorbanev, S; Lomtev, A; Klimkina, Irina; Tchibissov, V; Averkina, Olga; Dosemeci, M

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the association between occupation and lung cancer risk in Leningrad Province, Russia, we identified 540 pathologically diagnosed lung cancer cases (474 males and 66 females) and 582 controls (453 males and 129 females) from the 1993-1998 autopsy records of the 88 state hospitals of the Province. Lifetime occupational histories were obtained from personal records coded according to the standard Russian occupational classification system. Lung cancer risk was increased in workers in the manufacturing industry, particularly in the food industry and wholesale/retail trade and in the miscellaneous manufacturing industry. An increased risk was also found in subjects employed in chemical and metal production for 10 years or more. When we considered the association between specific occupations and lung cancer, waste incineration operators and loaders exhibited an excess risk that increased with employment duration. The present study, which is the first to evaluate the risk of lung cancer by occupation in Russia, suggests the presence in Leningrad Province of exposure in the workplace to lung carcinogens that require further characterization to develop targeted and effective preventive measures.

  12. Design and Application of Novel Horizontal Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lit, Q. H.; Zhang, Y. G.; Meng, A. H.

    The vertical circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler has been found wide application in power generation and tends to be enlarged in capacity. Because CFB is one of environment friendly and high efficiency combustion technologies, the CFB boiler has also been expected to be used in the industrial area, such as textile mill, region heating, brewery, seed drying and so on. However, the necessary height of furnace is hard to be implemented for CFB with especially small capacity. Thereby, a novel horizontal circulating fluidized bed boiler has been proposed and developed. The horizontal CFB is composed of primary combustion chamber, secondary combustion chamber, burnout chamber, cyclone, loop seal, heat recovery area. The primary combustion chamber is a riser like as that in vertical CFB, and the secondary combustion chamber is a downward passage that is a natural extension of the primary riser, which can reduce the overall height of the boiler. In some extent, the burnout chamber is also the extension of primary riser. The capacity of horizontal CFB is about 4.2-24.5MWth (6-35t/h) steam output or equivalent hot water supply. The hot water boiler of 7MWth and steam boilers of 4.2MWth (6t/h) and 10.5MWth (15t/h) are all designed and working well now. The three units of hot water horizontal CFB boiler were erected in the Neimenggu Autonomous Region, Huhehaote city for region heating. The three units of steam horizontal CFB has been installed in Yunnan, Jiang Xi and Guangdong provinces, respectively. The basic principle for horizontal CFB and experiences for designing and operating are presented in this paper. Some discussions are also given to demonstrate the promising future of horizontal CFB.

  13. Modeling inorganic nitrogen deposition in Guangdong province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhijiong; Wang, Shuisheng; Zheng, Junyu; Yuan, Zibing; Ye, Siqi; Kang, Daiwen

    2015-05-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition is an essential component of acid deposition and serves as one of main sources of nitrogen of the ecosystem. Along with rapidly developed economy, it is expected that the nitrogen deposition in Guangdong province is considerably large, due to substantial anthropogenic reactive nitrogen lost to the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, one of the most developed region in China. However, characterization of chemical compositions of inorganic nitrogen (IN) deposition and quantification of nitrogen deposition fluxes in time and space in Guangdong province were seldom conducted, especially using a numerical modeling approach. In this study, we established a WRF/SMOKE-PRD/CMAQ model system and expanded 2006-based PRD regional emission inventories to Guangdong provincial ones, including SO2, NOx, VOC, PM10, PM2.5, and NH3 emissions for modeling nitrogen deposition in Guangdong province. Observations, including meteorological observed data, rainfall data, ground-level criteria pollutant measurements, satellite-derived data, and nitrogen deposition fluxes from field measurements were employed in the evaluation of model performance. Results showed that annual nitrogen deposition fluxes in the PRD region and Guangdong province were 31.01 kg N hm-1 a-1 and 26.03 kg N hm-1 a-1, dominated by NHx (including NH3 and NH,SUB>4,/SUB>+), with a percentage of 63% and 71% of the total deposition flux of IN, respectively. The ratio of dry deposition to wet deposition was approximately 2:1 in the PRD region and about 3:2 in the whole Guangdong province. IN deposition was mainly distributed in the PRD region, Chaozhou, and Maoming, which was similar to the spatial distributions of NOx and NH3 emissions. The spatial distributions of chemical compositions of IN deposition implied that NH3-N and NOx-N tended to deposit in places close to emission sources, while spatial distributions of aerosol NH4+ -N and NO3- -N usually exhibited broader deposition areas, along with

  14. Synoptic analysis of frost days in Zanjan Province of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alijani, B.; Tagiloo, M.

    2010-09-01

    As a general rule it is accepted that every change in the environment is controlled by the changes in the pressure patterns or varying synoptic systems. We are witnessing intensive floods, damaging cold waves, or highly polluted air every year, all of which are related to some extent to the pressure patterns such as intensive cyclones or subsiding anticyclones. The frost days are one of these environmental conditions that are caused by these pressure patterns especially in the case of synoptic frosts. The Zanjan province of Iran with mountainous nature and higher elevations is one of the frost prone regions in the country. Most of the years this region suffers from intensive and damaging frosts such as the one occurred in December 2006 and January 2007. In order to advise planners and users, and lower the damages of such frosts, this study tried to analyze the synoptic origin of the December 2006 frost. To achieve the objective of the study the frost days of the province during months December 2006 and January 2007 were selected. During these months all of the four stations of the Province ( Zanjan, Khorramdarreh, Khodabandeh, and Mahneshan) had experienced sub-zero temperatures. The daily zero GMT surface and 500 hPa. maps of the region were extracted from the National Center of Environmental Protection (NCEP) site for the selected days. The pressure patterns of both levels were analyzed and assigned into different groups. The results showed that the main synoptic patterns responsible for the frosts of the region are the Caspian trough, Siberian high pressure, moving western anticyclones, upper level blockings, and cut off lows. When the Caspian Sea trough deepens it brings the westerly anticyclones to the area. Under its eastward displacement, the Siberian High develops and sends its ridges towards the study region. Some times the upper level blocking of the Siberian area brings the cold air masses to the study region. In general, the development and displacement

  15. New Aerogeophysical exploration of the Gamburtsev Province (East Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraccioli, F.; Bell, R. E.; Studinger, M.; Damaske, D.; Jordan, T. A.; Corr, H.; Braaten, D. A.; Gogineni, P. S.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Finn, C.; Rose, K.

    2009-12-01

    The enigmatic Gamburstev Subglacial Mountains (GSM) in the interior of East Antarctica, have remained the least understood mountain range on earth, since their discovery some 50 years ago. An improved knowledge of the GSM region is however essential to underpin reconstructions of the Antarctic cryosphere and climate evolution. The GSM are a key nucleation site for the inception of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet approximately 34 Ma ago, and the adjacent Lambert Glacier played a pivotal role for ice sheet dynamics throughout the Neogene (23-0 Ma). The GSM province may also provide tectonic controls for major subglacial lakes flanking the range. In addition, the ice encasing the GSM province has been inferred to contain the oldest detailed climate record of the planet, a prime target for future deep ice core drilling. With the overarching aim of accomplishing the first systematic study of the cryosphere and lithosphere of the GSM province we launched a new geophysical exploration effort- AGAP (Antarctica’s Gamburtsev Province)-, a flagship programme of the International Polar Year. The aerogeophysical and seismology components of AGAP were accomplished by pooling resources from 7 nations. We deployed 2 Twin Otters, equipped with state-of-the art geophysical instrumentation and operating from two remote field camps on either side of Dome A. Over 120,000 line-km of new airborne radar, laser, aerogravity and aeromagnetic data survey were collected during the 2008/09 field campaign. Our grids of ice surface, ice thickness, subglacial topography, and gravity and magnetic anomalies provide a new geophysical foundation to analyse the GSM province, from the surface of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet down to mantle depths beneath the Precambrian shield. The anomalously high-elevation, alpine-type landscape of the GSM is now mapped with unprecedented detail. Two distinct branches of a subglacial rift system are imaged along the north-western and north-eastern margins of the

  16. Modeling of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions from CFB Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallio, S.; Keinonen, M.

    In this work, a simplified description of combustion and nitrogen oxides chemistry was implemented in a 1.5D model framework with the aim to compare the results with ones earlier obtained with a detailed reaction scheme. The simplified chemistry was written using 12 chemical components. Heterogeneous chemistry is given by the same models as in the earlier work but the homogeneous and catalytic reactions have been altered. The models have been taken from the literature. The paper describes the numerical model with emphasis on the chemistry submodels. A simulation of combustion of bituminous coal in the Chalmers 12 MW boiler is conducted and the results are compared with the results obtained earlier with the detailed chemistry description. The results are also compared with measured O2, CO, NO and N2O profiles. The simplified reaction scheme produces equally good results as earlier obtained with the more elaborate chemistry description.

  17. Clean coal reference plants: Atmospheric CFB. Topical report, Task 1

    SciTech Connect

    Rubow, L.N.; Harvey, L.E.; Buchanan, T.L.; Carpenter, R.G.; Hyre, M.R.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1992-06-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of full-scale facilities. The goal of the program is to provide the US energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient and environmentally responsive coal-using technologies. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has the responsibility for monitoring the CCT Projects within certain technology categories, which correspond to the center`s areas of technology development, including atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, mild gasification, and industrial applications. A measure of success in the CCT program will be the commercial acceptance of the new technologies being demonstrated. The dissemination of project information to potential users is being accomplished by producing a series of reference plant designs which will provide the users a basis for the selection of technologies applicable to their future energy requirements. As a part of DOE`s monitoring and evaluation of the CCT Projects, Gilbert/Commonwealth (G/C) has been contracted to assist in this effort by producing the design of a commercial size Reference Plant, utilizing technologies developed in the CCT Program. This report, the first in a series, describes the design of a 400 MW electric power plant, utilizing an atmospheric pressure, circulating fluidized bed combustor (ACFB) similar to the one which was demonstrated at Colorado-Ute`s Nucla station, funded in Round 1 of the CCT Program. The intent of the reference plant design effort was to portray a commercial power plant with attributes considered important to the utility industry. The logical choice for the ACFB combustor was Pyropower since they supplied the ACFB for the Nucla Project.

  18. 100 MW anthracite culm CFB small power producer

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, R. ); Wilhelm, B. . Power Systems Group)

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and design aspects of the St. Nicholas Cogeneration Project. The project is an anthracite culm-fired 80 MWe qualifying cogeneration facility. The project is privately financed, owned, and to be operated to produce process steam for commercial use along with cogenerating electricity for sale to the local utility. This paper highlights the details of the power sales agreement with Pennsylvania Power and Light Company, the development of the project for third-party financing, and the design considerations for fueling the facility with anthracite culm.

  19. Fish faunal provinces of the conterminous United States of America reflect historical geography and familial composition.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Hoagstrom, Christopher W; Schaefer, Jacob F; Kreiser, Brian R

    2016-08-01

    Although the conterminous USA has a long history of ichthyological exploration, the description of biogeographical provinces has been ad hoc. In this study we quantitatively determined fish faunal provinces and interpreted them in the context of the geological history of North America. We also evaluated influences of major river basin occupancy and contemporary environmental factors on provincial patterns. Our data set comprised 794 native fishes, which we used to generate a presence and absence matrix for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) four-digit hydrologic units. Three nested data sets were analysed separately: primary freshwater families, continental freshwater families (including primary and secondary families) and all freshwater families (including primary, secondary and peripheral families). We used clustering analysis to delimit faunal breaks and one-way analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) to determine significance among clusters (i.e. provinces). We used an indicator-species analysis to identify species that contributed most to province delineations and a similarity-percentage (SIMPER) analysis to describe the relative influence of representatives from each category (i.e. primary, secondary, peripheral) on provincial boundaries. Lastly, we used a parsimony redundancy analysis to determine the roles of historical (i.e. major river basin) and contemporary environmental factors in shaping provinces. Analysis of the nested data sets revealed lessening provincial structure with inclusion of more families. There were 10 primary freshwater provinces, 9 continental freshwater provinces and 7 all freshwater provinces. Major basin occupancy, but not contemporary environmental factors, explained substantial variance in faunal similarities among provinces. However, provincial boundaries did not conform strictly to modern river basins, but reflected river-drainage connections of the Quaternary. Provinces represent broad-scale patterns of endemism and provide a starting point

  20. Special Data Collection System (SDCS) Event Report, Southern Sinkiang Province, 27 October 1975

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-13

    34■ r»" ’www AD~A021 395 SPECIAL DATA COLLECTION SYSTEM (SDCS) EVENT REPORT, SOUTHERN SINKIANG PROVINCE, 27 OCTOBER 1975 K... Sinkiang Province, 27 October 1975 K.J. Hill, M.S. DsMkins, R.R. Baumstark, and M. D. Gillispie Alexandria Laboratories Teledyne Geotech, 314 Montgomery...ACCESSION NO 4 TITLE \\*nrl Suhllllr) SPECIAL DATA COLLECTION SYSTEM (SDCS) £##*? ApMCr Southern Sinkiang Province, 27 October 1975

  1. Need for an improved submission process for listing drugs for reimbursement in Canadian provinces.

    PubMed

    West, Roy; Borden, E Keith; Collet, Jean-Paul; Rawson, Nigel S B; Tonks, Robert S

    2003-01-01

    To have a drug listed in a province's formulary, manufacturers must submit an application providing data required by the provincial rules and guidelines. The procedures for the scientific evaluation of drugs considered for listing for reimbursement in five provinces have been examined previously. The present study investigates the clarity of the same five provinces' rules and guidelines about effectiveness and cost data that should be included in listing submissions from the perspective of the pharmaceutical company. The manufacturers of five recently introduced drugs selected by the investigators received questionnaires asking about the departments within their companies that are responsible for the submission, the data required by each of the five provinces and the clarity of each province's requirements for submission. Each company was also asked similar questions about its own submission experience with its drug. Investigators visited each manufacturer to review the questionnaires and answer questions. The manufacturers perceived the rules and guidelines on effectiveness and economic data of several provinces as being neither clear nor consistent. Consequently, information that companies submit in their attempts at compliance with the rules and guidelines varies substantially. The manufacturers' perceptions of the information required by the provinces on effectiveness and cost information were inconsistent. Previous work indicated that the provinces make significant decisions about listings based on inadequate information resulting in a scientifically flawed system that contributes to considerable inequality in access to new drugs between provinces. The findings of the present work reinforce this conclusion.

  2. Early to Middle Proterozoic Construction of the Mojave Province, Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, D.S.; Barth, A.P.; Wooden, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Zircon and monazite U-Pb geochronology of rocks in the western Mojave province of the southwest US reveals that the Proterozoic arc exposed there shares an intrusive and deformational history with rocks exposed further east in the Yavapai and Mazatzal belts after approximately 1780 Ma. Consequently, it seems likely that the Mojave province was contiguous with these other Laurentian provinces by that time. Isotopic and geochronologic data also suggest that Mojave province plutonic rocks inherit their distinctive isotopic compositions, at least in part, from an enriched lithospheric mantle source and interaction with sedimentary rocks containing Archean detritus.

  3. Assessment of HCV genotypes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiongfen; Yao, Yufeng; Shen, Yunsong; Cao, Danfeng; Li, Yalin; Zhang, Shuqiong; Cun, Wei; Sun, Mingbo; Yu, Jiankun; Shi, Li; Dong, Shaozhong

    2016-12-23

    Recently, we reported that the frequency of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and subtypes has rapidly changed among intravenous drug users (IDUs) in Yunnan Province over the last 5 years; this is especially true for subtype 6a which has increased in frequency from 5 to 15%. Here, we assessed 120 HCV-positive plasma samples from the general population (GP). HCV NS5B fragments were amplified and sequenced by PCR. We identified four HCV genotypes (1, 2, 3 and 6) and seven HCV subtypes (1b, 2a, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6n, and 6k) in this population. Genotype 3 was predominant, with a distribution frequency of 0.484, followed by genotype 1 (0.283), genotype 6 (0.133) and genotype 2 (0.100). HCV subtypes 3b (frequency 0.292) and 1b (frequency 0.283) were the most common subtypes. A comparison of the current data with previous results reported for IDUs showed that the distribution frequencies of genotypes 1, 2 and 6 were significantly different between patients in the GP and IDUs (P < 0.05). Among the HCV subtypes, the distribution frequencies of 1b, 2a, 6a, and 6n were significantly different between patients in the GP and IDU groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, Phylogenetic analyses showed that HCV subtype 6a strains isolated from IDUs and the GP were intermixed and not separately clustered. HCV subtype 6a was predominant not only among IDUs but also among those in the GP in the Guangdong Province and Vietnam. However, HCV subtype 6a was predominant only among IDUs and not among those in the GP in the Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces. Our results indicate that the HCV subtype 6a could rapidly spread across China.

  4. Tectonic history of the Syria Planum province of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.; Davis, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    We attribute most of the development of extensive fractures in the Tharsis region to discrete tectonic provinces within the region, rather than to Tharsis as a single entity. One of these provinces is in Syria Planum. Faults and collapse structures in the Syria Planum tectonic province on Mars are grouped into 13 sets based on relative age, areal distribution, and morphology. According to superposition and fault crosscutting relations and crater counts we designate six distinct episodes of tectonic activity. Photoclinometric topographic profiles across 132 grabens and fault scarps show that Syria Planum grabens have widths (average of 2.5 km, and most range from 1 to 6 km) similar to lunar grabens, but the Martian grabens have slightly higher side walls (average abour 132 m) and gentler wall slopes (average of 9?? and range of 2??-25??) than lunar grabens (93 m high and 18?? slopes). Estimates of the amount of extension for individual grabens range from 20 to 350 m; most estimates of the thickness of the faulted layer range from 0.5 to 4.5 km (average is 1.5 km). This thickness range corresponds closely to the 0.8- to 3.6-km range in depth for pits, troughs, and canyons in Noctis Labyrinthus and along the walls of Valles Marineris. We propose that the predominant 1- to 1.5-km values obtained for both the thickness of the faulted layer and the depths of the pits, troughs, and theater heads of the canyons reflect the initial depth to the water table in this region, as governed by the depth to the base of ground ice. Maximum depths for these features may indicate lowered groundwater table depths and the base of ejecta material. -from Authors

  5. Epidemiology of Accidents and Traumas in Qom Province in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Karami Joushin, Moharram; Saghafipour, Abedin; Noroozi, Mehdi; Soori, Hamid; Khedmati Morasae, Esmaeil

    2013-01-01

    Background Accidents are the most important public health challenges in our society. To prevent the accidents, the identification of their epidemiological features seems necessary. Objectives This study was conducted to reveal the epidemiological features of accidents and their casualties in Qom province in 2010. Patients and Methods A cross–sectional study was conducted on 29426 injured people referred to Qom province hospitals in 2010. Information about place, time, type of accidents and traumas and demographic variables had been collected in a veteran hospital. Data were analyzed by SPSS (version 16) software, using chi-square test and logistic regression. Results The incidence of accidents was about 27/1000 per year. The incidences of traffic accidents, motorcycle accidents, violence, burns, poisoning and suicides were 3, 1.6, 1.2, 0.3, 0.8, 0.37 cases per 1000 people respectively. Strikes (65%) and falls (12%) were the main causes of traumas. Forty-six percent of all injuries had occurred in 16 - 30 years groups. Most frequent accidents were as follows: fall (97%) and strike (50%) in < 12, violence (46%) in 20 - 29, suicide (71%) in 15 - 29, poisoning (34%) and burns (20%) among < 5 years old. Pedestrian and motorcycle accidents among +60 years old people were significantly higher than other (P = 0.000). Odds ratio for suicide among female was about 3.36 and in 16 - 30 age-group was 15.7 more than +60 years old group (P = 0.000). Conclusions Most traumas in Qom province occurred among younger age-groups and strikes and falls are the main causes of such traumas. Therefore, safeties to prevent falls and traffic regulations to reduce strikes can be effective strategies. PMID:24693520

  6. Air pollution characteristics and health risks in Henan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fuzhen; Ge, Xinlei; Hu, Jianlin; Nie, Dongyang; Tian, Li; Chen, Mindong

    2017-07-01

    Events of severe air pollution occurred frequently in China recently, thus understanding of the air pollution characteristics and its health risks is very important. In this work, we analyzed a two-year dataset (March 2014 - February 2016) including daily concentrations of six criteria pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, CO, SO2, NO2, and O3) from 18 cities in Henan province. Results reveal the serious air pollution status in Henan province, especially the northern part, and Zhengzhou is the city with the worst air quality. Annual average PM2.5 concentrations exceed the second grade of Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standard (75μg/m(3)) at both 2014 and 2015. PM2.5 is typically the major pollutant, but ozone pollution can be significant during summer. Furthermore, as the commonly used air quality index (AQI) neglects the mutual health effects from multiple pollutants, we introduced the aggregate air quality index (AAQI) and health-risk based air quality index (HAQI) to evaluate the health risks. Results show that based on HAQI, the current AQI system likely significantly underestimate the health risks of air pollution, highlighting that the general public may need stricter health protection measures. The population-weighted two-year average HAQI data further demonstrates that all population in the studied cities in Henan province live with polluted air - 72% of the population is exposed to air that is unhealthy for sensitive people, while 28% of people is exposed to air that can be harmful to healthy people; and the health risks are much greater during winter than during other seasons. Future works should further improve the HAQI algorithm, and validate the links between the clinical/epidemiologic data and the HAQI values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of tuberculosis drug resistance in 10 provinces of China.

    PubMed

    He, Guang Xue; Zhao, Yan Lin; Jiang, Guang Lu; Liu, Yu Hong; Xia, Hui; Wang, Sheng Fen; Wang, Li Xia; Borgdorff, Martien W; van der Werf, Marieke J; van den Hof, Susan

    2008-12-11

    The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) hampers TB control. Ten provinces in China performed drug resistance surveys among tuberculosis (TB) patients in 1996-2004 to assess levels of drug resistance. Provincial drug resistance surveys included all isolates from newly diagnosed, smear-positive TB patients. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) against isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin and ethambutol was carried out in the provincial laboratories. For purposes of quality assurance, a random sample (11.6%) was re-tested by the national reference laboratory (NRL). Of 14,059 patients tested 11,052 (79%) were new TB cases. The weighted mean prevalence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among all cases was 9.3% (range 2.2%-10.4%); 5.4% (range 2.1% - 10.4%) among new cases and 25.6% (range 11.7%-36.9%) among previously treated cases. Adjusting the drug resistance proportions using the re-testing results did not change the estimated national mean prevalence significantly. However, in some individual provinces the estimated resistance proportions were greatly influenced, especially among re-treatment patients. MDR-TB levels varied greatly between provinces in China, but on average were high compared to the global estimated average of 4.8%. This study shows the importance of quality-assured laboratory performance. Programmatic management of drug-resistant TB, including high quality DST for patients at high risk of resistance and treatment with second-line drugs, should become the standard, especially in high MDR-TB settings.

  8. Blood donation in Guangdong Province, China, from 2006-2014.

    PubMed

    Ou-Yang, J; Bei, C-H

    2016-06-01

    To explore the trends in blood collection from 2006 to 2014 in Guangdong, China. Although the Blood Donation Law of the People's Republic of China was implemented in 1998, voluntary non-remunerated blood donation (VNRBD) has been promoted fully for only a decade. The provincial and local governments of Guangdong, one of the most well-developed provinces in China, have promoted blood donation by various means. Official data on blood donation from 2006 to 2014, including the number of blood donations and the family replacement/mutual blood donation (FRMBD) rate, were collected from all blood collection and supply institutions in Guangdong. These data were analysed to explore trends in blood donation in Guangdong Province, and to detect differences among the province's four regions. The number of blood donations in Guangdong increased by 38·23% from 2006 to 2014; overall, the rate increased annually, although it fluctuated in the eastern region. Family replacement/mutual whole blood and platelet donation rates decreased dramatically from 2006 to 2014 (from 39·99% to 20·16% and from 64·15% to 26·51%, respectively), but remained high. Marked disparities in blood donation development were detected among the four regions. With nearly a decade of efforts, blood donation in Guangdong has developed rapidly and sustainably. All blood collection and supply institutions must strengthen efforts to improve awareness of blood donation among the population, retain repeat and regular donors and reduce the rate of FRMBD in favor of the development of VNRBD. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  9. Trachoma rapid assessment in Shandong province of China.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yi; Bi, Hongsheng; Wen, Ying; Li, Chaofeng; Wu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This research aims at identifying relative interventions on trachoma and testing the effectiveness of control measures adopted by assessing its prevalence and related risk factors in Shandong province of China. Trachoma rapid assessment (TRA) was conducted in 6 sub-districts selected from Shandong province based on primary high risk assessment. Active trachoma in children aged 1-9 years and environmental risk factors of trachoma (unclean faces, absence of running water, and absence of flush toilets) were assessed (TRA 1). Control measures were taken in endemic areas. A second TRA (TRA 2) was conducted after 12 months in the same 6 districts and findings of the two TRAs were compared. In TRA 1, we found trachoma in 3 sub-districts and the detection rate was 4% (95% CI: 0.39%-11.12%), 6% (95% CI: 1.18%-14.17%), and 6% (95% CI: 1.18%-14.17%) respectively. We could not find trachoma cases in TRA 2. Research data supports that children living with environmental risk factors face an increased risk to active trachoma. However, we could not find statistical evidence for this association, which may be caused by the limited data on prevalence. This research indicates that the TRA methodology is easy to assess trachoma and its related risk factors. Based on the results of this study, we have already achieved the goal of "elimination of trachoma" in Shandong province, as the detection rate of trachomatous inflamation follicular/trachomatous inflammation intense in 1-9-year-old children was less than 5%.

  10. Resurgence of vivax malaria in Henan Province, China.

    PubMed Central

    Sleigh, A. C.; Liu, X. L.; Jackson, S.; Li, P.; Shang, L. Y.

    1998-01-01

    Henan Province (population, 90 million) in China has nonstable endemic malaria. After 1970 when 10.2 million cases of malaria were reported in the province, a huge control programme was undertaken, and in the mid-1980s indoor spraying and bednet impregnation with pyrethroids began. By 1992 only 318 cases were reported. In 1992 Henan declared "basic elimination of malaria" and in consequence spraying and bednet impregnation ceased after 1994. Subsequently, malaria broke out again in southern Henan. In 1995 we conducted a household survey for malaria transmission in southern Henan. Blood smears and serum samples for immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) testing were collected from 2329 people and 3.1% (73/2329) were positive for infection with Plasmodium vivax and 13% (301/2329) positive for malaria (titre > or = 1:20). All age groups were affected. Exophilic Anopheles sinensis occurs throughout the province; endo-anthropophilic A. anthropophagus, whose vectorial capacity is 20 times greater than that of A. sinensis, occurs mainly in southern Henan (S of latitude 33 degrees N) and was greatly reduced in numbers during 1985-92. Comparison of 1995 entomological data with historical data showed that A. anthropophagus increased in proportion to other anophelines after spraying activities and impregnation of bednets ceased. Over 10% of 9377 residents reported having malaria. The true number affected among the at-risk population of 700,000 must be larger. We conclude that impregnated bednets and malaria surveillance should continue even after an area is declared to have "basically eliminated" malaria. PMID:9744246

  11. The Burden of Road Traffic Injuries in Yazd Province - Iran

    PubMed Central

    Vakili, Mahmood; Mirzaei, Mohsen; Pirdehghan, Azar; Sadeghian, Mohamadreza; Jafarizadeh, Majid; Alimi, Mojtaba; Naderian, Shadi; Aghakoochak, Arezoo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the Disabled-adjusted Life Years (DALYs) of Road Traffic Accidents in patients referred to hospitals in Yazd Province, central Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Yazd province during 2010. To calculate the Years of Life Lost (YLL) due to premature death and to calculate the incidence of non-fatal injuries and Years Lost due to Disability (YLD), the data were collected from Yazd death registration system and hospital records. The causes of death and nature of non-fatal injuries were classified using International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). We estimated Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) on the guidelines of the Global Burden of Disease Study (discount rate: 0.03, age weight: 0.04, constant age weight correction factor: 0.165). Age and sex composition was taken from the National Statistical Center for the year 2010. Results: During 2009, 483 deaths were caused by traffic accidents in Yazd Province, 382 (79.09%) of which were males, and 101 (20.91%) were females. The mortality rates for males and females were 70.98 and 20.15 in 100,000, respectively. The years of life lost due to premature deaths were 15.84/1000 in men and 4.75/1,000 in women. Total YLLs caused by traffic accidents were 10,908 years. The injuries caused by traffic accidents were calculated as 15.21 and 3.73/1,000 in males and females, respectively. The total YLDs was calculated 1.51/1,000. The total burden of Road Traffic Injuries in Yazd province was 12478 years (DALYs), 87.41% of which was due to premature death, and 12.59% was related to disability. Also, 78.32% was lost in males. The age specific peak of burden was in 15-29 year. Conclusion: This study showed that traffic accidents in Yazd impose a high burden. It seems that it is one of the health sector priorities. It is recommended to revise laws on use of motorcycles, especially on helmet use for motorcyclists, enforce strict laws in residential areas, and review social determinant

  12. Mercury content in agricultural soils (Vojvodina Province, Serbia).

    PubMed

    Ninkov, Jordana; Marković, Slobodan; Banjac, Dušana; Vasin, Jovica; Milić, Stanko; Banjac, Borislav; Mihailović, Aleksandra

    2017-04-01

    The Vojvodina Province in northern Serbia is well known for its intensive field crops production. Over 90 % of total arable land, which represents more than 1500.000 ha, is used for field or vegetable crop production. A grid superimposed on Vojvodina land by means of a GIS tool (GIS ArcView 10) has divided land into 4 × 4 km units, each representing an area of 1600 ha. Total number of 1370 bulked soil samples were taken (0-30 cm depth) from agricultural land and analysed for total mercury content THg. The samples were analysed using Direct Mercury Analyzer DMA 80 Milestone. Quality control was carried out with IRMM BCR reference materials 143R. The aim of this study was to determine the total content of Hg in agricultural soils and its spatial distributions in different parts of Vojvodina Province. The obtained results were within interval 0.008-0.974 mg kg(-1). The average concentration of Hg was 0.068, with median 0.048 mg kg(-1). The correlation was determined between Hg concentration and organic matter content in the soil. Content of Hg coincides with main geomorphological units of Vojvodina Province. Average values of Hg concentrations for soils formatted on different geomorphological units were 0.031 for sandy area with dune fields, 0.048 for alluvial terraces, 0.055 for upper Pleistocene terraces, 0.058 for loess plateaus, 0.083 for mountains and 0.092 mg kg(-1) for alluvial plains. Hg spatial distribution confirmed that most of Vojvodina Province area has geochemical origin of Hg. Higher concentration of Hg on alluvial plains indicated that the origin of Hg near rivers could be from anthropogenic source. The main rivers in Vojvodina have been dammed more than a century ago. Thus, higher concentrations of Hg in their alluvial plains out of narrow dammed zone around the rivers must be related to natural and anthropogenic sources located in their huge catchments. Higher content of Hg in mountain region can be explained by high clay content in

  13. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, Shandong Province, China, 2011.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hong-Ling; Zhao, Li; Zhai, Shenyong; Chi, Yuanyuan; Cui, Feng; Wang, Dongxu; Wang, Ling; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Shoufeng; Liu, Yan; Yu, Hao; Yu, Xue-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease in China. The incidence and clinical and laboratory characteristics of SFTS are not clearly defined. During May 22-October 2, 2011, a total of 24 patients with fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia were clinically diagnosed as having SFTS in Yiyuan County, Shandong Province, China. We conducted laboratory tests for these SFTS patients. SFTS virus (SFTSV) infection was confirmed in 22 patients by using reverse transcription PCR and ELISA by acute-phase and convalescent-phase serum samples. Clinical and laboratory manifestations included fever (100%), gastrointestinal symptoms (91%), myalgia (55%), chills (41%), thrombocytopenia (100%), and leukopenia (95%).

  14. [Experience with the development of vaccinal prophylaxis in Perm Province].

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, T M; Fel'dblium, I V; Komkov, B D; Skovorodin, A N; Deviatkov, M Iu; Sarmometov, E V; Perminova, O A; Vorozhtsova, T N

    1999-01-01

    The results of the introduction of the system of epidemiological surveillance on vaccinal prophylaxis on the territory of Perm Province are presented. This system has permitted the realization of the principles of the regional tactics of immunization, while following the unified strategy acting on the territory of the Russian Federation. The optimization of the organizational foundations of vaccinal prophylaxis has made it possible to maintain the morbidity rates if infections, controlled by means of specific prophylaxis, on the levels below the average figures for the Federation and to preserve more stable tendencies to their decrease.

  15. Isolation of keratinophilic fungi from soil in Isfahan province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Kachuei, R; Emami, M; Naeimi, B; Diba, K

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the epidemiology of keratophilic fungi in Isfahan province, Iran. The present research has been conducted on soil samples collected from 16 townships of Isfahan province. For isolate geophilic dermatophytes and keratinophilic fungi, the keratin baiting technique has been applied. Of 800 soil samples examined, 588 (73.5%) keratinophilic fungi were isolated. The present studied recognized 727 isolates including 16 species of 11 genus, as follows: Chrysosporium keratinophilum (31.4%), C. pannicola (16.9%), C. tropicum (15.4%), Microsporum gypseum (12.4%), Chrysosporium spp. (9.9%), C. indicum (7%), Sepedonium spp. (3.3%), Malbranchia spp. (1%), Trichophyton terrestre (0.8%), T. ajelloi and Paecilomyces lilacinus (0.4%), Engyodontium album and Acremonium spp. (0.3%), Curvularia spp., Fusarium spp. and Ulocladium spp. (0.1%). In this study, E. album was isolated for the first time in this country (Iran). The frequency these keratinophilic fungi are discussed in relation to different agents such as soil pH. This study contributes to the knowledge of keratophilic fungi in Iran. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Flexurally-resisted uplift of the Tharsis Province, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. J.; Sleep, N. H.

    1987-01-01

    The tectonic style of Mars is dominated by vertical motion, perhaps more than any of the terrestrial planets. The imprint of this tectonic activity has left a surface widely faulted even though younger volcanism has masked the expression of tectonism in many places. Geological activity associated with the Tharsis and, to a lesser extent, Elysium provinces is responsible for a significant portion of this faulting, while the origins of the remaining features are enigmatic in many cases. The origin and evolution of the Tharsis and Elysium provinces, in terms of their great elevation, volcanic activity, and tectonic style, has sparked intense debate over the last fifteen years. Central to these discussions are the relative roles of structural uplift and volcanic construction in the creation of immense topographic relief. For example, it is argued that the presence of very old and cratered terrain high on the Tharsis rise, in the vicinity of Claritas Fossae, points to structural uplift of an ancient crust. Others have pointed out, however, that there is no reason that this terrain could not be of volcanic origin and thus part of the constructional mechanism.

  17. Consanguineous marriages in the province of Antalya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Alper, O M; Erengin, H; Manguoğlu, A E; Bilgen, T; Cetin, Z; Dedeoğlu, N; Lüleci, G

    2004-01-01

    To assess the trends in the frequency and the medical effects of consanguinity in the south coast of Turkish population using local and national data in the last 11 years. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Manavgat province, which is a major tourism center on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. The authors studied consanguineous marriages in rural and urban population in the Mediterranean coast, Manavgat province, Turkey, via a 1500 random survey sample of married couples. There has been a significant increase in the incidence of consanguineous marriages in rural areas (40.7%) since 1989 in the southern population of Turkey. The results showed that the most frequent type of marriage was between the first cousins. It is found that there is no statistically significant difference between the consanguineous and non-consanguineous marriages in the different age groups. The results were discussed on the basis of educational status, reasons for having consanguineous marriages and the general medical effects as well as with the relation of congenital malformations. The custom of consanguineous unions in the Mediterranean population of Turkey is still extremely high, and preventive measures should be done to decrease its frequency and associated complications.

  18. Genetic characterization of Shigella flexneri isolates in Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Shijun; Sun, Qiangzheng; Wei, Xiaoyu; Klena, John D; Wang, Jianping; Liu, Ying; Tian, Kecheng; Luo, Xia; Ye, Changyun; Xu, Jianguo; Wang, Dingming; Tang, Guangpeng

    2015-01-01

    Shigella flexneri is one of the major etiologic causes of shigellosis in Guizhou Province, China. However, the genetic characteristics of circulating isolates are unknown. Phenotypic and molecular profiles of 60 S. flexneri isolates recovered in Guizhou between 1972 to 1982 and 2008 to 2010 were determined. Nine serotypes (1a, 2a, 3a, 1b, 2b, X, Y, 4av and Yv) were identified. Multi-locus sequence typing differentiated the isolates into 20 sequence types (STs); 18 were novel. Four STs, ST 129, ST 100, ST 126 and ST 18, were most abundant, accounting for 65% of the isolates. Thirty-nine NotI-pulsed field gel electrophoresis patterns (pulsotypes, PTs) were observed; eight PTs were represented by more than one isolate with six isolates sharing the PT 13 profile. Multi-locus variable-nucleotide tandem-repeat analysis recognized 44 different types (MTs); seven MTs were represented by more than one isolate and MT 1 was most commonly encountered. Correlation between genetic relationships and serotypes was observed among the isolates studied; the majority of isolates belonging to the same serotype from different years clustered together based on the molecular data. These clustered isolates were also from similar geographical origins. These results enhance our understanding of genetic relationships between S. flexneri in Guizhou Province and can be used to help understand the changing etiology of shigellosis in China.

  19. Spatial Analysis of China Province-level Perinatal Mortality.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Kun; Song, Deyong

    2016-05-01

    Using spatial analysis tools to determine the spatial patterns of China province-level perinatal mortality and using spatial econometric model to examine the impacts of health care resources and different socio-economic factors on perinatal mortality. The Global Moran's I index is used to examine whether the spatial autocorrelation exists in selected regions and Moran's I scatter plot to examine the spatial clustering among regions. Spatial econometric models are used to investigate the spatial relationships between perinatal mortality and contributing factors. The overall Moran's I index indicates that perinatal mortality displays positive spatial autocorrelation. Moran's I scatter plot analysis implies that there is a significant clustering of mortality in both high-rate regions and low-rate regions. The spatial econometric models analyses confirm the existence of a direct link between perinatal mortality and health care resources, socio-economic factors. Since a positive spatial autocorrelation has been detected in China province-level perinatal mortality, the upgrading of regional economic development and medical service level will affect the mortality not only in region itself but also its adjacent regions.

  20. Self-Burns in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Zardosht, Mitra; Seyed Jafari, Seyed Morteza

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The alarming incidence of self- burning provoked to set up a multidisciplinary preventive program to decrease the incidence and complications of this harmful issue. This study investigated the incidence and the preventive measures in self-burn in Fars Province, southern Iran. METHODS This study was a longitudinal prospective design on trend of self-inflicted burn injuries in Fars province after setting up a regional multidisciplinary preventive plan (2009-2012). RESULTS From 18862 admitted patients, 388 (2%) committed self-burning. While the incidence showed a constant decrease in proportion of suicidal cases among all admitted patients (2.5% to 1.6%). The mean age of self-burning victims ranged from 28.3±10.8 to 30.3±11.7 years. The female victims comprised 67.4% of all suicidal burn patients (Female to male ratio: 2.18). The leading causes of suicide commitment were familial conflicts (75.6%) and psychological problems (16.7%) CONCLUSION It is crucial to continue the regional preventive programs and pave the way to set up national, and even international collaborations to alleviate relevant financial, social, cultural and infrastructural difficulties in order to have lower incidence for this dramatic issue. PMID:27308238

  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lineage Distribution in Xinjiang and Gansu Provinces, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haixia; He, Li; Huang, Hairong; Shi, Chengmin; Ni, Xumin; Dai, Guangming; Ma, Liang; Li, Weimin

    2017-04-21

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) genotyping has dramatically improved the understanding of the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB). In this study, 187 M. tuberculosis isolates from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang) and Gansu province in China were genotyped using large sequence polymorphisms (LSPs) and variable number tandem repeats (VNTR). Ten isolates, which represent major nodes of VNTR-based minimum spanning tree, were selected and subsequently subjected to multi-locus sequence analyses (MLSA) that include 82 genes. Based on a robust lineage assignment, we tested the association between lineages and clinical characteristics by logistic regression. There are three major lineages of M. tuberculosis prevalent in Xinjiang, viz. the East Asian Lineage 2 (42.1%; 56/133), the Euro-American Lineage 4 (33.1%; 44/133), and the Indian and East African Lineage 3 (24.8%; 33/133); two lineages prevalent in Gansu province, which are the Lineage 2 (87%; 47/54) and the Lineage 4 (13%; 7/54). The topological structures of the MLSA-based phylogeny support the LSP-based identification of M. tuberculosis lineages. The statistical results suggest an association between the Lineage 2 and the hemoptysis/bloody sputum symptom, fever in Uygur patients. The pathogenicity of the Lineage 2 remains to be further investigated.

  2. Adsorption of mercury on laterite from Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Lijun; Guo, Baiwei; He, Shouyang

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption behaviors of Hg(II) on laterite from Guizhou Province, China, were studied and the adsorption mechanism was discussed. The results showed that different mineral compositons in the laterite will cause differences in the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). Illite and non-crystalloids are the main contributors to enhancing the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). The pH of the solution is an important factor affecting the adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite. The alkalescent environment (pH 7-9) is favorable to the adsorption of Hg(II). The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) increases with increasing pH. When the pH reaches a certain value, the amount of the adsorbed Hg(II) will reach the maximum level. The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) decreases with increasing pH. The optimal pHs of laterite and kaolinite are 9 and 8, respectively. The optimal initial concentrations of Hg(II) on laterite and kaolinite are 250 and 200 microg/ml, respectively. The adsorption isotherms were described by the Langmuir model. The adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite is a quick process while that of Hg(II) on kaolinite is a slow reaction. Laterite from Guizhou Province is a promising environmental material which can be used in the removal of Hg(II) from wastewater.

  3. The Rungwe Volcanic Province, Tanzania - A volcanological review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontijn, Karen; Williamson, David; Mbede, Evelyne; Ernst, Gerald G. J.

    2012-02-01

    The Rungwe Volcanic Province in SW Tanzania is a densely populated area that is considered volcanically active. As part of the East African Rift System, a significant control of tectonic activity seems to exist on the location and also potential destabilization of volcanic edifices. Three large volcanoes, Ngozi, Rungwe, and Kyejo, dominate the landscape and all show contrasting eruptive behaviour in the recent geological past. Kyejo volcano is a flow-dominated volcano that had a historic lava flow eruption. Lake sediment cores, drilled in Lakes Malawi, Masoko, Rukwa, and Tanganyika, provide a record of frequent explosive eruptions in the last few tens of thousands of years. In combination with on-land stratigraphic observations, they constrain the minimum eruptive frequency of especially Rungwe and Ngozi volcanoes. Both volcanoes had Plinian-style eruptions in the Holocene. The most striking documented Rungwe eruption, the ca. 4 ka Rungwe Pumice, is a rare case of a Plinian eruption in near-wind-free conditions. Furthermore, the Rungwe Pumice, just like any other Rungwe tephra deposit, does not show any evidence of pyroclastic density current deposits. Apart from explosive eruptions at a range of scales happening every few hundred years at Rungwe, the volcano also experienced at least two sector collapse events generating debris avalanches. All existing evidence shows that the Rungwe Volcanic Province is prone to future significant explosive eruptions. To further assess, quantify and mitigate volcanic hazard risks, extensive and systematic multidisciplinary geological research, and both volcanic and tectonic monitoring are needed.

  4. Infertility in Mazandaran province - north of Iran: an etiological study

    PubMed Central

    Karimpour Malekshah, Abbasali; Esmailnejad Moghaddam, Amir; Moslemizadeh, Narges; Peivandi, Sepideh; Barzegarnejad, Ayyub; Musanejad, Nadali; Jursarayee, Gholamali

    2011-01-01

    Background: The prevalence and etiology of infertility are not similar in different parts of the world. There are only few reports of this topic in Iran. Objective: This study was conducted to determine the clinical patterns and major causes of infertility in Mazandaran province in north of Iran. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 3734 consecutive couples attending two infertility clinics in Mazandaran province, from 2003 to 2008, were reviewed. The couples had not had a viable birth after at least 1 year of unprotected intercourse and were fully investigated. Results: Of the entire samples, 78.7% had primary infertility and 21.3% had secondary infertility. The mean duration of infertility in couples was 5.7±4 years. The etiology of infertility in couples revealed; male factor in 38.9%, female factor in 34.7%, combined factors in 14.6% and undetermined cause in 11.8%. Conclusion: In this study, delayed attendance of infertile couples to the infertility clinic was found. Therefore, there is a need to revise public health program on infertility to focus on the education and prevention of infertility and its risk factors. PMID:25356077

  5. [Establishement for regional pelvic trauma database in Hunan Province].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Zhu, Yong; Long, Haitao; Yang, Junxiao; Sun, Buhua; Li, Kanghua

    2017-04-28

    To establish a database for pelvic trauma in Hunan Province, and to start the work of multicenter pelvic trauma registry.
 Methods: To establish the database, literatures relevant to pelvic trauma were screened, the experiences from the established trauma database in China and abroad were learned, and the actual situations for pelvic trauma rescue in Hunan Province were considered. The database for pelvic trauma was established based on the PostgreSQL and the advanced programming language Java 1.6.
 Results: The complex procedure for pelvic trauma rescue was described structurally. The contents for the database included general patient information, injurious condition, prehospital rescue, conditions in admission, treatment in hospital, status on discharge, diagnosis, classification, complication, trauma scoring and therapeutic effect. The database can be accessed through the internet by browser/servicer. The functions for the database include patient information management, data export, history query, progress report, video-image management and personal information management.
 Conclusion: The database with whole life cycle pelvic trauma is successfully established for the first time in China. It is scientific, functional, practical, and user-friendly.

  6. Malaria in Zhejiang Province, China, from 2005 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hualiang; Yao, Linong; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Xuan; Lu, Qiaoyi; Yu, Kegen; Ruan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    To summarize the changing epidemiological characteristics of malaria in Zhejiang Province, China, we collected data on malaria from the Chinese Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NDRS) and analyzed them. A total of 2,738 malaria cases were identified in Zhejiang Province from 2005 to 2014, of which 2,018 were male and 720 were female. Notably, only 7% of malaria cases were indigenous and the other cases were all imported. The number of malaria cases increased from 2005 to 2007, peaked in 2007, and then decreased from 2007 to 2011. There were no indigenous cases from 2012 to 2014. Of all cases, 68% of cases contracted Plasmodium vivax, 27% of cases contracted P. falciparum, and two cases contracted P. malariae. About 88% of malaria cases during 2005–2011 occurred yearly between May and October, but the number of malaria cases in different months during 2012–2014 was similar. The median age was 33 years, and 1,892 cases occurred in persons aged 20–50 years. The proportion of businessmen increased and the proportion of migrant laborers decreased in recent years. The median time from illness onset to confirmation of malaria cases was 5 days and it decreased from 2005 to 2014. Some epidemiological characteristics of malaria have changed, and businessmen are the emphases to surveillance in every month. PMID:26078321

  7. Spatial Modeling in The Coastal Area of East Java Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadlilah Kurniawati, Ummi

    2017-07-01

    The existence of gaps that occur between regions, shows that it is a reasonable process considering that each region has different initial endowment factors. The first step that can be done to controll disparity is know what is the benchmark of the gap. The revenue growth indicator is one of benchmark for measuring regional disparities. The regional output is represented by the gross domestic regional income per capita. Concerning the phenomenon of regional disparity, East Java Province is concentrated in the north-south part, especially in coastal areas is an early indication of the gap. This is what prompted the analysis of predictor factors affecting the disparity in East Java Coastal Areas through a spatial modeling approach. Spatial modeling is done on the consideration that there are different local characteristics or potentials in each regency / city. Factors Economic growth, social factors, and physical development factors are the main factors in this study will be described in derived variables to obtain a clear picture of the influence of each factor to the disparity that occurred in the Coastal Region of East Java Province.

  8. Prevalence of OV infection in Yasothon Province, Northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saengsawang, Phubet; Promthet, Supannee; Bradshaw, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrrini (OV), is the major cause of the high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in Thailand. The prevalence of OV infection remains high in various parts of the country, especially in Northeast Thailand and particularly in wetland rural areas where a large proportion of the community work in agriculture and continue the traditional practice of eating raw or undercooked cyprinoid fish products. The national control program seems to have had little impact in many of these areas, and it has been difficult to make precise assessments of the overall effectiveness of the program. This paper is the first report of prospective research project designed to monitor the impact of the national control program in rural communities located in a northeastern province and at high risk of OV infection. The participants in this initial survey were 1,569 villagers, aged 20-65 years, living in two subdistricts of Yasothon Province. Stool examinations showed that 38.68% were infected with OV. Males were slightly more likely to be infected than females, but the difference was not statistically significant. Infection was found to be positively associated with age in both males and females. The preliminary data indicate that the population selected for study is suitable for the purpose of the monitoring project.

  9. A probe into reasons for international migration in Fujian Province.

    PubMed

    Zhu, G

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses the extent of international migration from China's Fujian Province and considers the reasons behind the migration. The most recent estimates place China's overseas population at 22.1 million, 19 million (88%) of which are concentrated in Southeast Asia. According to the author's calculations, at least 7 million of the Chinese overseas population are of Fujian descent. Indonesia alone holds some 3.3 million Fujianese. Malaysia, Singapore, and the Philippines account for most of the remaining Fujianese overseas population. Having established the extent of international migration from the Fujian Province, the author attempts to establish the reasons behind it. The author first considers the historical origins of Fujianese international migration, from its early states (end century B.C.-17th century) to modern times *18-early 20th century) to the current period (1949-present). The author then examines the reasons behind the migration, primarily the social environment and individual behavior. Finally, the author provides categories of international migration, stressing that these categories often overlap or coincide. Most of the early migration was "spontaneous" -- essentially, an unplanned occurrence. During the modern period, most migration was "forced" by the contract labor system instituted by colonialists. Political and social upheaval also prompted "provoked" international migration. And following the Chinese Revolution, "free" migration allowed many to return home or to join relative abroad.

  10. [Climate suitability for tea growing in Zhejiang Province].

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhi-Feng; Ye, Jian-Gang; Yang, Zai-Qiang; Sun, Rui; Hu, Bo; Li, Ren-Zhong

    2014-04-01

    It is important to quantitatively assess the climate suitability of tea and its response to climate change. Based on meteorological indices of tea growth and daily meteorological data from 1971 to 2010 in Zhejiang Province, three climate suitability models for single climate factors, including temperature, precipitation and sunshine, were established at a 10-day scale by using the fuzzy mathematics method, and a comprehensive climate suitability model was established with the geometric average method. The results indicated that the climate suitability was high in the tea growth season in Zhejiang Province, and the three kinds of climate suitability were all higher than 0.6. As for the single factor climate suitability, temperature suitability was the highest and sunshine suitability was the lowest. There were obvious inter-annual variations of tea climate suitability, with a decline trend in the 1970s, less variation in the 1980s, and an obvious incline trend after the 1990s. The change tendency of climate suitability for spring tea was similar with that of annual climate suitability, lower in the 1980s, higher in the 1970s and after the 1990s. However, the variation amplitude of the climate suitability for spring tea was larger. The climate suitability for summer tea and autumn tea showed a decline trend from 1971 to 2010.

  11. [Plantation stocks and their affecting factors in western Liaoning Province].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Liu, Zuoxin; Cai, Congguang

    2005-05-01

    Employing real-site investigation and data analysis methods, this paper analyzed the distribution of plantation stocks and its affecting factors in western Liaoning Province. The results showed that the average plantation stock of western Liaoning was 49.08 m3.hm(-2), which has been improved obviously since 1949. At the time of the third forest resource investigation, the plantation stock increased 20.19 m3.hm(-2), 5.16 times higher than that of the first forest resource investigation. But, the general plantation stock of western Liaoning was still at a rather lower level, with only a 63.5% increase of the whole province and 51.1% of the national average plantation stock at the same period. The difference of plantation stock among cities in western Liaoning was observable, that even reached 68.47 m3.hm(-2). In general, the proportion of young forest was too high, reached to 49 % of the total plantation, while the stock of mature forest was much lower, only 38% of the national average level. The plantation stock of national property was only 55.1% and 32.3% of the personal and collective property, respectively. Moreover, the plantation stock of timber forest was 36.4% lower than that of windbreak. Besides climatic factors, simple plantation structure, few forest tree species, and poor plantation management were the main causes of the low plantation stock.

  12. Immigrating to Quebec: The Demographic Challenges of a Province Experiencing Low Fertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panitch, Arnold; Cragin, Jeanne Marie

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the shifting population of Quebec Province; the cultural, social, and political issues regarding the province's low fertility rate; and how these affect immigration policy. Along with policies encouraging immigration, Quebec encourages enrollment of immigrant children in French-speaking schools. (SLD)

  13. Knowledge about HIV and AIDS among Young South Africans in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melwa, Irene T.; Oduntan, Olalekan A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the basic knowledge about HIV and AIDS among young South Africans in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Design: A questionnaire-based cohort study, involving data collection from senior high school students. Setting: Randomly selected high schools in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South…

  14. Assessment of Integrated Environmental Management in Public and Private Schools in the Copperbelt Province of Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makisa, Kaponda

    2016-01-01

    Copperbelt Province is one of the ten provinces of Zambia. It has public and private schools which have been faced with escalating levels of environmental problems due to growth in human population and economic growth. The environmental problems which are matters of concern in the schools include, unsound waste management, loss of vegetation…

  15. The Measurements of the Equity of Compulsory Education Finance in Zhejiang Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gang, Cheng; Tao, Lin; Qiaozhen, Lin; Qinghuan, Zhu

    2009-01-01

    Education equity is an important means for achieving social equity, but there are few empirical studies on education equity in Chinese academia owing to method limitations. This paper applies a new measurement method to the 2005/6 data of the elementary schools in Zhejiang province and argues that education finance reform in the province has…

  16. Educational Investment in Conflict Areas of Indonesia: The Case of West Papua Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollet, Julius Ary

    2007-01-01

    Education has become a central issue in West Papua. During the Suharto regime, the Indonesian government paid little attention to educational investment in the province which led to poor educational infrastructure and a shortage of teachers. As a result, the quality of human resources in the province is poor. Since 2001, the adoption of the…

  17. Genetic attributes of 15 autosomal STRs in the population of two patagonian provinces of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Marino, Miguel; Sala, Andrea; Corach, Daniel

    2006-06-27

    Allele frequencies of 15 short tandem repeats (STRs) loci included in the PowerPlex 16 kit (Promega Corp., Madison, WI, USA) were obtained from a sample set of unrelated individuals inhabiting Rio Negro (N=593) and Chubut (N=320) provinces of the Argentinean Patagonia. Comparative analyses between our population data and other Patagonian Province (Neuquen) are presented.

  18. The Measurements of the Equity of Compulsory Education Finance in Zhejiang Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gang, Cheng; Tao, Lin; Qiaozhen, Lin; Qinghuan, Zhu

    2009-01-01

    Education equity is an important means for achieving social equity, but there are few empirical studies on education equity in Chinese academia owing to method limitations. This paper applies a new measurement method to the 2005/6 data of the elementary schools in Zhejiang province and argues that education finance reform in the province has…

  19. Potential effects of forest policies on terrestrial biodiversity in a multiownership province.

    Treesearch

    T.A. Spies; B.C. McComb; R. Kennedy; M.T. McGrath; K. Olsen; R.J. Pabst

    2007-01-01

    We used spatial simulation models to evaluate how current and two alternative policies might affect potential biodiversity over 100 years in the Coast Ranges Physiographic Province of Oregon. This 2.3-million-ha province is characterized by a diversity of public and private forest owners, and a wide range of forest policy and management objectives. We evaluated habitat...

  20. Knowledge about HIV and AIDS among Young South Africans in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melwa, Irene T.; Oduntan, Olalekan A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the basic knowledge about HIV and AIDS among young South Africans in the Capricorn District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Design: A questionnaire-based cohort study, involving data collection from senior high school students. Setting: Randomly selected high schools in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South…

  1. Operations Research Support for Critical Infrastructure Resilience in the Province of British Columbia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    OPERATIONS RESEARCH SUPPORT FOR CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE RESILIENCE IN THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Lynne Genik...October 2012 - 1 - OPERATIONS RESEARCH SUPPORT FOR CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE RESILIENCE IN THE PROVINCE...OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Lynne Genik, MSc Operations Research Scientist DRDC Centre for Security Science 222 Nepean St, Ottawa, ON K1A0A2 1-613-943

  2. Malnutrition in China's Rural Boarding Schools: The Case of Primary Schools in Shaanxi Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to document the nature of boarding schools and empirically analyse the difference in nutrition intake and malnutrition status between boarding and non-boarding students in western rural China. By using two data sets on boarding schools and boarding students in Shaanxi Province, a representative province in western…

  3. Language Planning from below: The Case of the Xhariep District of the Free State Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Plessis, Theodorus

    2010-01-01

    The Xhariep District is the largest district municipality of the Free State Province of South Africa, covering 26% of the total land surface of this province. It comprises three local municipalities, namely Letsemeng, Kopanong and Mohokare and contains a total of 17 towns. The District is a multilingual area, with Afrikaans (37.1%) and Sotho…

  4. Malnutrition in China's Rural Boarding Schools: The Case of Primary Schools in Shaanxi Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to document the nature of boarding schools and empirically analyse the difference in nutrition intake and malnutrition status between boarding and non-boarding students in western rural China. By using two data sets on boarding schools and boarding students in Shaanxi Province, a representative province in western…

  5. 2011 Canadian Teacher Salary Rankings: Provinces and Territories. BCTF Research Report. Section I. 2012-TS-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an update of research report 2011-TS-02. It presents tables that show the minimum and maximum salaries for BC's Category 5 and Category 6, or equivalent, for provinces and territories. A sample of school districts is included for those provinces/territories with multiple collective agreements.

  6. Earthquakes clustering based on the magnitude and the depths in Molluca Province

    SciTech Connect

    Wattimanela, H. J.; Pasaribu, U. S.; Indratno, S. W.; Puspito, A. N. T.

    2015-12-22

    In this paper, we present a model to classify the earthquakes occurred in Molluca Province. We use K-Means clustering method to classify the earthquake based on the magnitude and the depth of the earthquake. The result can be used for disaster mitigation and for designing evacuation route in Molluca Province.

  7. IT Implementation in ITE in the Limpopo Province (South Africa): A Dream or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monobe, Ratau John

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a survey about the most critical issues facing the implementation of IT (information technology) ITE (initial teacher education) in all the HBUs (historically black universities) in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. Over 250 responses were received and both universities in the Limpopo Province were…

  8. The arsenic contamination of rice in Guangdong Province, the most economically dynamic provinces of China: arsenic speciation and its potential health risk.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai; Lu, Shaoyou; Wang, Jun; Yang, Yuyi

    2015-04-01

    Rice is a staple food in China, but it may contain toxic heavy metals. Hence, the concentrations of arsenic (As) species (As(III), As(V), MMA and DMA) were evaluated in 260 rice samples from 13 cities of Guangdong Province, the most economically dynamic provinces of China. The levels of sum concentrations of As species in rice samples varied from non-detect to 225.58 ng g(-1), with an average value of 57.27 ng g(-1). The mean concentrations of the major As species detected in rice samples were in the order As(III) (34.77 ng g(-1)) > As(V) (9.34 ng g(-1)) > DMA (8.33 ng g(-1)) > MMA (4.82 ng g(-1)). The rice samples of Guangdong Province were categorized as inorganic As type. Significant geographical variation of As speciation existed in rice samples of 13 cities of Guangdong Province by chi-square test (p < 0.05). The average human weekly intakes of inorganic As via rice consumption in Guangdong Province, southern China, were 1.91 µg kg(-1) body weight. Hazard quotients of total As via rice consumption of adults in 13 cities ranged from 0.06 to 0.30, indicating the As contents in rice from Guangdong Province had no potential adverse impact on human health.

  9. China Forest Aboveground Biomass Estimation by Fusion of Inventory and Remote Sensing Data: 1st results from Heilongjiang Province and Yunnan Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Y.; Li, Z.; Huang, G.; Sun, G.; Cheng, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, G.

    2013-12-01

    Forests play an irreplaceable role in maintaining regional ecological environment, global carbon balance and mitigating global climate change. Forest aboveground biomass (AGB) is an important indicator of forest carbon stocks. Estimating forest aboveground biomass accurately could significantly reduce the uncertainties in terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle. LIDAR provides accurate information on the vertical structure of forests (Lefsky et al., 2007; Naesset et al., 2004; Pang et al., 2008). Combining airborne LiDAR and spaceborne LiDAR for regional forest biomass retrieval could provide a more reliable and accurate quantitative information in regional forest biomass estimate (Boudreau et al., 2008; Nelson et al., 2009; Pang et al., 2011; Saatchi et al., 2011). The Heilongjiang Province and Yunnan Province are rich in forest resources and suffers intensive forest management activities for timber products. The Heilongjiang Province is typical in temperate forest and the Yunnan Province contains multiple forest types including tropical forest. These two provinces also have good ground inventory system with thousands of permanent field plots. Two campaign consists of in-situ measurement, airborne Lidar data and spaceborne data fusion were designed and implemented. First results show that i). Both spaceborne lidar and forest inventory data are useful for AGB mapping at province level. ii). The combination of spaceborne lidar and forest inventory data gave better biomass estimation with less bias. iii). A pixel level bias mapping was also proposed and gave spatial explicit map of estimation uncertainties. This method will be investigated further with more reference data and tested in other area.

  10. Crustal extension and transform faulting in the southern Basin Range Province. [California, Arizona, and Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liggett, M. A. (Principal Investigator); Childs, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Field reconnaissance and study of geologic literature guided by analysis of ERTS-1 MSS imagery have led to a hypothesis of tectonic control of Miocene volcanism, plutonism, and related mineralization in part of the Basin Range Province of southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. The easterly trending right-lateral Las Vegas Shear Zone separates two volcanic provinces believed to represent areas of major east-west crustal extension. One volcanic province is aligned along the Colorado River south of the eastern termination of the Las Vegas Shear Zone; the second province is located north of the western termination of the shear zone in southern Nye County, Nevada. Geochronologic, geophysical, and structural evidence suggests that the Las Vegas Shear Zone may have formed in response to crustal extension in the two volcanic provinces in a manner similar to the formation of a ridge-ridge transform fault, as recognized in ocean floor tectonics.

  11. Large igneous provinces generated from the margins of the large low-velocity provinces in the deep mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torsvik, Trond H.; Smethurst, Mark A.; Burke, Kevin; Steinberger, Bernhard

    2006-12-01

    There is a clear correlation between downward projected large igneous province (LIP) eruption sites of the past 200 Myr and the margins of the large low-velocity provinces (LLVPs) at the base of the mantle. We established this correlation by using palaeomagnetic as well as fixed and moving hotspot reference frames. Our finding indicates that the majority of the LIPs have been generated by plumes that rose from the D'' zone at the edges of the LLVPs. Most LIP eruption sites project radially downwards to the core-mantle boundary (CMB) within +/-10° of the 1 per cent slow shear wave velocity contour in the SMEAN tomographic model. Steep shear wave velocity gradients have been mapped near the CMB along much of the lengths of the LLVP margins close to that contour which marks a faster/slower boundary (FSB) within the D'' zone. The observation that eruption sites of LIPs as old as 200 Myr can be linked to this prominent present day seismic structure shows that the FSBs of the two LLVPs have occupied their current positions for at least as long and that the process that leads to the generation of deep-seated plumes has been localized on the FSBs at the margins of the African and Pacific LLVPs for the same interval. The persistence of the LLVPs over 200 Myr is consistent with independent evidence that they are compositionally distinct and are not just simply hotter than the material making up the rest of the D'' zone.

  12. Time series analysis of influenza incidence in Chinese provinces from 2004 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xin; Xiao, Jun; Deng, Jiang; Kang, Qiong; Zhang, Yanyu; Xu, Jinbo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Influenza as a severe infectious disease has caused catastrophes throughout human history, and every pandemic of influenza has produced a great social burden. We compiled monthly data of influenza incidence from all provinces and autonomous regions in mainland China from January 2004 to December 2011, comprehensively evaluated and classified these data, and then randomly selected 4 provinces with higher incidence (Hebei, Gansu, Guizhou, and Hunan), 2 provinces with median incidence (Tianjin and Henan), 1 province with lower incidence (Shandong), using time series analysis to construct an ARIMA model, which is based on the monthly incidence from 2004 to 2011 as the training set. We exerted the X-12-ARIMA procedure for modeling due to the seasonality these data implied. Autocorrelation function (ACF), partial autocorrelation function (PACF), and automatic model selection were to determine the order of the model parameters. The optimal model was decided by a nonseasonal and seasonal moving average test. Finally, we applied this model to predict the monthly incidence of influenza in 2012 as the test set, and the simulated incidence was compared with the observed incidence to evaluate the model's validity by the criterion of both percentage variability in regression analyses (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE). It is conceivable that SARIMA (0,1,1)(0,1,1)12 could simultaneously forecast the influenza incidence of the Hebei Province, Guizhou Province, Henan Province, and Shandong Province; SARIMA (1,0,0)(0,1,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Gansu Province; SARIMA (3,1,1)(0,1,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Tianjin City; and SARIMA (0,1,1)(0,0,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Hunan Province. Time series analysis is a good tool for prediction of disease incidence. PMID:27367989

  13. Time series analysis of influenza incidence in Chinese provinces from 2004 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Song, Xin; Xiao, Jun; Deng, Jiang; Kang, Qiong; Zhang, Yanyu; Xu, Jinbo

    2016-06-01

    Influenza as a severe infectious disease has caused catastrophes throughout human history, and every pandemic of influenza has produced a great social burden. We compiled monthly data of influenza incidence from all provinces and autonomous regions in mainland China from January 2004 to December 2011, comprehensively evaluated and classified these data, and then randomly selected 4 provinces with higher incidence (Hebei, Gansu, Guizhou, and Hunan), 2 provinces with median incidence (Tianjin and Henan), 1 province with lower incidence (Shandong), using time series analysis to construct an ARIMA model, which is based on the monthly incidence from 2004 to 2011 as the training set. We exerted the X-12-ARIMA procedure for modeling due to the seasonality these data implied. Autocorrelation function (ACF), partial autocorrelation function (PACF), and automatic model selection were to determine the order of the model parameters. The optimal model was decided by a nonseasonal and seasonal moving average test. Finally, we applied this model to predict the monthly incidence of influenza in 2012 as the test set, and the simulated incidence was compared with the observed incidence to evaluate the model's validity by the criterion of both percentage variability in regression analyses (R) and root mean square error (RMSE). It is conceivable that SARIMA (0,1,1)(0,1,1)12 could simultaneously forecast the influenza incidence of the Hebei Province, Guizhou Province, Henan Province, and Shandong Province; SARIMA (1,0,0)(0,1,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Gansu Province; SARIMA (3,1,1)(0,1,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Tianjin City; and SARIMA (0,1,1)(0,0,1)12 could forecast the influenza incidence in Hunan Province. Time series analysis is a good tool for prediction of disease incidence.

  14. [Dietary sodium intakes and resources among residents in Shandong province].

    PubMed

    Lu, Zilong; Zhang, Xiaofei; Li, Jianhong; Zhang, Jiyu; Zhao, Wenhua; Ma, Jixiang; Guo, Xiaolei; Yan, Liuxia; Chu, Jie; Xu, Aiqiang

    2014-01-01

    To describe dietary sodium intakes and resources among residents in Shandong province. A total of 2184 subjects were selected by multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method from 18-69 years old people in Shandong province in June, 2011. A total of 2140 subjects completed the study, the completion rate was 98.0%. Three-day (24-hour per day) dietary recalls and weighting methods were conducted to collect information about all the foods and condiments consumed by the subjects. Individual dietary sodium intake was calculated, the differences of dietary sodium intake among subjects with different characteristics were analyzed, and the proportions of different dietary sodium resources were also analyzed. The amount of individual dietary sodium intake was 5745.0 (95%CI:5427.6-6062.5) mg/d in Shandong; 6147.4 (95%CI: 5823.8-6471.0) mg/d for male residents, 5339.3 (95%CI:5005.8-5672.8) mg/d for female residents. There was a significant difference between males and females (F = 75.22, P < 0.01). The amount of individual dietary sodium intake was 5910.1 (95%CI:5449.3-6370.8) mg/d, 5341.6 (95%CI:5007.0-5676.1) mg/d for rural residents and urban residents respectively, and there was also a significant difference (F = 5.53, P < 0.05). The amount of condiment sodium intake was 4640.3 (95%CI:4360.2-4920.4) mg/d, which was the largest contributor to sodium intake, accounting for 80.8% (95%CI:79.9%-81.6%) of total intake. Sodium intake from cereals was 650.7 (95%CI: 590.5-711.0) mg/d, accounting for 11.3% (95%CI:10.3%-12.3%) of total intake. Sodium intake from eggs was 118.9 (95%CI:95.2-142.6) mg/d, accounting for 2.1% (95%CI:1.6%-2.6%) of total intake. The amount of manufactured food sodium intake was 582.1(95%CI: 497.8-666.4) mg/d, accounting for 10.1% (95%CI:8.9%-11.4%) of total intake. Sodium intakes remain high among residents of Shandong province, and sodium from condiments was the largest source of dietary sodium intake, sodium of manufactured food only accounting

  15. An Apollo 15 Mare Basalt Fragment and Lunar Mare Provinces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham; Burling, Trina Cox

    1996-01-01

    Lunar sample 15474,4 is a tiny fragment of olivine-augite vitrophyre that is a mare basalt. Although petroraphically distinct from all other Apollo 15 samples, it has been ignored since its first brief description. Our new petrographic and mineral chemical data show that the olivines and pyroxenes are distinct from those in other basalts. The basalt cooled and solidified extremely rapidly; some of the olivine might be cumulate or crystallized prior to extrusion. Bulk-chemical data show that the sample is probably similar to an evolved Apollo 15 olivine-normative basalt in major elements but is distinct in its rare earth element pattern. Its chemical composition and petrography both show that 15474,4 cannot be derived from other Apollo 15 mare basalts by shallow-level crystal fractionation. It represents a distinct extrusion of magma. Nonetheless, the chemical features that 15474,4 has in common with other Apollo 15 mare basalts, including the high FeO/Sc, the general similarity of the rare earth element pattern, and the common (and chondritic) TiO2/Sm ratio, emphasize the concept of a geochemical province at the Apollo 15 site that is distinct from basalts and provinces elsewhere. In making a consistent picture for the derivation of all of the Apollo 15 basalts, both the commonalities and the differences among the basalts must be explained. The Apollo 15 commonalities and differences suggest that the sources must have consisted of major silicate phases with the same composition but with varied amounts of a magma trapped from a contemporary magma ocean. They probably had a high olivine/pyroxene ratio and underwent small and reasonably consistent degrees of partial melting to produce the basalts. These inferences may be inconsistent with models that suggest greatly different depths of melting among basalts, primitive sources for the green glasses, or extensive olivine fractionation during ascent. An integrated approach to lunar mare provinces, of which the Apollo 15

  16. Spatial distribution of pollutant emissions from crop residue burning in the Punjab and Sindh provinces of Pakistan: uncertainties and challenges.

    PubMed

    Irfan, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Shahzad, Sher Muhammad; Hussain, Sabir; Akhtar, Muhammad Javed; van den Berg, Leon; Abbas, Farhat

    2015-11-01

    Emissions of gaseous and particulate pollutants from burning of wheat straw, rice straw, cotton straw, and bagasse were studied for the two agricultural-activity-dominated provinces of Pakistan: the Punjab and Sindh. Emission estimates, inventory, and allocation maps indicated distinct patterns of pollutant emissions in the two provinces. Comparative pollutant emission analysis revealed that the Punjab province produced higher pollutants from agricultural biomass burning than Sindh province. Total emissions from these two provinces were estimated to be 16,084.04 Gg (16.08 Tg) for the year 2006/2007. Wheat straw was found to be the dominant source of CO, CO2, SO2, NOx, and EC emissions in the both provinces. However, for the emissions of CH4, NH3, EC, and OC, the Punjab and Sindh provinces differed markedly for the crop residue share in these pollutant emissions. Rice straw was found to be the largest contributor of CH4 (51%) and NH3 (65%) in Sindh province. When total emissions from biomass burning were considered at provincial level, wheat straw and bagasse were the major crop residues which accounted for 72 and 14% of pollutant emissions, respectively, in the Punjab province, whereas, in Sindh province, the order of crop residue contribution in total emission was as follows: wheat (59%) > bagasse (19%) > rice (14%) > cotton (7%). Emission inventory data of total pollutants per unit area under cultivation (Mg ha(-1)) revealed that Sindh province produced higher emissions per hectare for wheat straw, rice straw, and bagasse than the Punjab province.

  17. Geology and tectonics of the Archean Superior Province, Canadian Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, K. D.

    1986-01-01

    Superior Province consists mainly of Late Archean rocks with Middle Archean gneisses in the south, and possibly in the north. The Late Archean supracrustal sequences are of island arc and interarc affinity and are cut by abundant plutonic rocks, including early arc-related intrusions, late synorogenic intrusions, and post-orogenic plutons that are possibly the product of crustal melting caused by thermal blanketing of newly-thickened continental crust combined with high mantle heat flux. The contemporaneity of magmatic and deformational events along the lengths of the belts is consistent with a subduction-dominated tectonic regime for assembly of the Kenoran Orogen. Successive addition of volcanic arcs accompanied and followed by voluminous plutonism resulted in crustal thickening and stabilization of the Superior craton prior to uplift of Kapuskasing granulites, emplacement of the Matachewan diabase dykes, and Early Proterozoic marginal rifting.

  18. Occurrence of ectoparasites on rodents in Sukhothai Province, northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Changbunjong, Tanasak; Weluwanarak, Thekhawet; Chamsai, Tatiyanuch; Sedwisai, Poonyapat; Ngamloephochit, Seni; Suwanpakdee, Sarin; Yongyuttawichai, Plern; Wiratsudakul, Anuwat; Chaichoun, Kridsada; Ratanakorn, Parntep

    2010-11-01

    A survey of ectoparasites on rodents was carried out bimonthly from April 2008 to March 2009 in 3 districts of Sukhothai Province, northern Thailand. A total of 130 rodents comprising 8 species of hosts were captured and examined for ectoparasites. The hosts examined were Bandicota indica, Bandicota savilei, Rattus losea, Rattus rattus, Rattus exulans, Rattus norvegicus, Menetes berdmorei and Tamiops mcclellandii. Ninety-seven ectoparasites were collected: 1 species of tick (Hemaphysalis bandicota), 2 species of mites (Laelaps nuttali and Laelaps echidninus), and 1 species of flea (Xenopsylla cheopis) were identified. The infestation rates by ticks, mites and fleas on the rodents were 0.77, 5.38 and 6.15%, respectively. Monitoring the rodent population and their ectoparasites is important for future planning of prevention and control of zoonotic diseases in the area.

  19. Consumer preferences for pork chops in five Canadian provinces.

    PubMed

    Ngapo, T M

    2017-02-27

    The aim of this study is to identify the most important characteristics of fresh pork that determine consumer choice in five Canadian provinces. Within-consumer preference replication and systematic image manipulation in surveying showed differences in strategies for pork choice in lean colour (P<0.001) and marbling (P=0.006). High proportions of Nova Scotians (29%) chose light red pork, Albertans (42%) dark red and Quebecers (29%) non-marbled pork. Overall, the most important choice criteria were fat cover (57% preferred lean, 8% fatty) and lean colour (35% dark red, 18% light red). Marbling and drip were less used, but are important noting that 26% of consumers used three or four characteristics to make their choice. The preferences are readily met by the industry, but unfortunately, preferences for minimal or no marbling and fat cover likely result in a compromised gustative experience for many Canadian consumers.

  20. Helminth parasites of small mammals in Kerman province, southeastern Iran.

    PubMed

    Fasihi Harandi, Majid; Madjdzadeh, Seyed Massoud; Ahmadinejad, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Fifty-one specimens of small mammals were collected from different locations of Kerman province, southeastern Iran during 2007 and 2009. They constitute six species of rodents (Meriones persicus, Meriones libycus, Tatera indica, Dryomys nitedula and Mus musculus), one species of Erinaceomorpha (Paraechinus hypomelas) and one species of hare (Lepus europeus). The rate of helminthic infection was 45.1 % among all trapped specimens. In 28 out of 51 hunted specimens no intestinal helminth parasite was found. Of all mammals examined, 15 (29.4 %) had nematodes, 5 (9.8 %) had cestodes, and 3 (5.9 %) were infected with Acanthocephala. Five different species of parasites were isolated: Trichuris muris, Moniliformis moniliformis, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, and Mastophorus muris. Results of the present study indicate the potential of small mammals in the transmission of zoonotic helminthic infection.

  1. Hydrology of area 25, Eastern Region, Interior Coal Province, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zuehls, E.E.; Ryan, G.L.; Peart, D.B.; Fitzgerald, K.K.

    1981-01-01

    The eastern region of the Interior Coal Province has been divided into 11 hydrologic study areas. Area 25, located in west-central Illinois, includes the Spoon River and small tributaries to the Illinois River. Pennsylvanian age rocks underlie most of the study area. Illinois, with the largest reserves of bituminous coal, is second only to Montana in total coal reserves. Loess soils cover most of the study area. Agriculture is the dominant land use. Surface water provides 97% of all the water used. Precipitation averages 34 to 35 inches. Water-quality data has been collected at over 31 sites. Analysis for specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, iron, manganese, sulfate and many trace elements and other water-quality constituents have been completed. These data are available from computer storage through the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE). (USGS)

  2. Migration and Remittances: Evidence from a Poor Province in China*

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zai; Li, Jiejin; Ma, Zhongdong

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines patterns of remittances among migrants from Guizhou province of China. Our research is motivated by three lines of theoretical arguments, namely the new economics of migration, a translocal perspective linking remittances and development, and the culture of remittances. Taking individual, household, and village-level characteristics into account, we estimated multilevel logistic models of the decision to remit and multilevel models of the amount of remittances. Our results show that migrant remittance behaviour is responsive to family needs as well as household economic position in the village.. Migrants who come from entrepreneurial households are more likely to remit a large amount than other types of households. We find some evidence of “culture of remittances” in these villages. Consistent with our expectations, migrants who are from villages with higher amount of average remittances are likely to remit a larger amount than otherwise. PMID:26146509

  3. Goechemical and Hydrogeochemical Properties of Cappadocia Geothermal Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furkan Sener, Mehmet; Sener, Mehmet; Uysal, Tonguc

    2016-04-01

    In order to determine the geothermal resource potential of Niǧde, Nevşehir and Aksaray provinces in Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (CAVP), geothermal fluids, surface water, and alteration rock samples from the Cappadocia volcanic zone in Turkey were investigated for their geochemical and stable isotopic characteristics in light of published geological and tectonic studies. Accordingly, the Cappadocia Geothermal Province (CGP) has two different geothermal systems located along tectonic zones including five active and two potential geothermal fields, which are located between Tuzgölü Fault Zone and Keçiboyduran-Melendiz Fault and north of Keçiboyduran-Melendiz Fault. Based on water chemistry and isotope compositions, samples from the first area are characterized by Ca-Mg-HCO3 ve Ca-HCO3 type mineral poor waters and Ca-Na-SO4 and Ca-Mg-SO4 type for the cold waters and the hot waters, respectively, whereas hot waters from the second area are Na-Cl-HCO3 and Ca-Na-HCO3 type mineral poor waters. According to δ18O and δ2H isotope studies, the geothermal waters are fed from meteoric waters. Results of silica geothermometer indicate that the reservoir temperature of Dertalan, Melendiz Mount, Keçiboyduran Mount, Hasan Mount (Keçikalesi), Ziga, Acıgöl, and Derinkuyu geothermal waters are 150-173 oC, 88-117 oC, 91-120 oC, 94-122 oC, 131-156 oC, 157-179 oC; 152-174 oC and 102-130 oC, respectively. The REE composition of geothermal fluids, surface water, and mineral precipitates indicate that temperature has a strong effect on REE fractionation of the sampled fluids. Eu- and Ce- anomalies (Eu/Eu*, Ce/Ce*) are visible in several samples, which are related to the inheritance from the host reservoir rocks and redox-controlled fractionation of these elements during water-rock interactions. REE and Yttrium geochemistry results of altered rock samples and water samples, which were taken from same locations exhibited quite similar features in each system. Hence, it was

  4. International immigration, internal migration, and homicide in Canadian provinces.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Martin A

    2013-05-01

    The relationship between immigration and crime is politically charged and often fueled by the presence (or lack) of xenophobia. Many theoretical and empirical assessments of this relationship indicate that immigration does indeed lead to increased crime, but more recent (and very early) research investigating homicide calls this finding into question. The current analysis investigates the relationship between immigration and homicide using multiple measures of migration and Canadian provinces as the unit of analysis. It is found that the link between immigration and homicide is complex and dependent on the measure of migration used. Generally speaking, the results presented here are consistent with the more recent and very early research. Immigration, in and of itself, does not increase homicide. Rather it is the increase in the most criminogenic subpopulation that matters, that is young males.

  5. Natural radioactivity in soil in the Baluchistan province of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, S A; Hussain, S

    2010-08-01

    The measurements of natural radioactivity and the assessment of radiological hazards in the soil samples of Baluchistan province of Pakistan have been carried out using HPGe detector. The soil gas radon activities in these areas have also been measured using lucas cell technique. The measured activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were found in the range of 15-27, 20-37 and 328-648 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The calculated absorbed dose rate in air and the annual effective dose were in the range of 35-59 nGy h(-1) and 0.17-0.29 mSv, respectively. Radon activity in the soil gas was found in the range of 357-2476 Bq m(-3).

  6. Profiling elements in Puerh tea from Yunnan province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianyang; Ma, Guicen; Chen, Liyan; Liu, Ting; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin

    2017-09-01

    Puerh tea, as the most representative Chinese dark tea, has attracted global interest in recent years. Profiling the levels of metal elements in Puerh tea is very important since its presence is related to human health. In this study, 41 elements in 98 Puerh tea samples from Yunnan province, China including Puerh raw tea and Puerh ripe tea were evaluated by microwave digestion combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry . The content of toxic elements, essential elements and rare earth elements of Puerh tea from different regions was discussed in detail. The concentrations of Ba, Cr, As, Pb, Bi, Fe, Zn, V, Mn, Be, Ag and Tl showed significant differences (p < 0.05) by ANOVA analysis. Principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were used to describe the relationship of Puerh tea from different regions. This study provided a comprehensive database for Puerh tea quality control and intake risk assessment.

  7. Quality assurance report. EMAP, Virginian province, 1990-1993

    SciTech Connect

    Strobel, C.J.; Valente, R.M.; Keith, D.; Summers, K.; LiVolsi, J.

    1995-09-01

    The report documents the results of Quality Assurance activities conducted in conjunction with sampling performed by EPA`s Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program`s Estuaries study (EMAP-Estuaries) in the Virginian Province from 1990 through 1993. This report discusses the results of Quality Assurance activities by indicator, data qualifier flags, data quality, and, where appropriate, discuss lessons learned, and proposes changes or solutions to improve data quality. A total of 446 Base Sampling Sites were scheduled for sampling over this period. Twenty one stations were eliminated due to inadequate water depth or logistical concerns. Some significant problems were encountered in the chemical analysis of sediment samples resulting in the deletion of some data from the database. The specific problems and a discussion of the data deleted or qualified are included in this report.

  8. Cultural meanings of tuberculosis in Aceh Province, Sumatra.

    PubMed

    Caprara, A; Abdulkadir, N; Idawani, C; Asmara, H; Lever, P; De Virgilio, G

    2000-07-01

    This paper shows how disease transmission and particularly what biomedicine calls tuberculosis are interpreted in the non-Western context of Aceh Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. It tries also to focus on factors influencing perceptions and health-seeking behaviors. Results show that what biomedicine calls TB is represented by a semantic network of illnesses. Parts of this network are clearly identified as transmissible while others are related to specific phenomena affecting the individual, such as terbuk (poisoning) or trouk (fatigue produced by hard work), and are not considered contagious. Forms of transmission are interpreted mostly through empirical and analogic categories. TB is attributed to four different aspects: (a) biomedical categories such as germ theory; (b) socio-economic conditions; (c) transgression of social rules; and (d) poisoning and the influences of supernatural powers. Health-seeking behaviors are related to the perceived causes of the disease, economic factors, and the accessibility of health services.

  9. Rural sewage treatment processing in Yongjia County, Zhejiang Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. H.; Kuan, T. H.

    2016-08-01

    Issues regarding water pollution in rural areas of China have garnered increased attention over the years. Further discussion on the circumstances and results of existing domestic sewage treatment methods may serve as an appropriate reference in solving these important issues. This article explored the current conditions of water contamination in rural areas of China, introduced the characteristics and effects of applicable sewage treatment technology, and summarized the results of the planning, installation, and operation of rural sewage treatment facilities in Yongjia County in Zhejiang Province. However, relying on a single technical design rule is not adequate for solving the practical problems that these villages face. Instead, methods of planning rural sewage treatment should be adapted to better suit local conditions and different residential forms. It is crucial, ultimately, for any domestic sewage treatment system in a rural area to be commissioned, engineered, and maintained by a market-oriented professional company.

  10. Hydrology of area 18, Eastern Coal Province, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, V.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Eastern Coal Province is divided into 24 hydrologic reporting areas. This report describes the hydrology of area 18 which is located in the Cumberland River basin in central Tennessee near the southern end of the Province. Hydrologic information and sources are presented as text, tables, maps, and other illustrations designed to be useful to mine owners, operators, and consulting engineers in implementing permit applications that comply with the environmental requirements of the ' Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. ' Area 18 encompasses parts of three physiographic regions; from east to west the Cumberland Plateau, Highland Rim, and Central Basin. The Plateau is underlain by sandstones and shales, with thin interbedded coal beds, of Pennsylvanian age. The Highland Rim and Central Basin are underlain by limestone and dolomite of Mississippian age. Field and laboratory analyses of chemical and physical water-quality parameters of streamflow samples show no widespread water quality problems. Some streams, however, in the heavily mined areas have concentrations of sulfate, iron, manganese, and sediment above natural levels, and pH values below natural levels. Mine seepage and direct mine drainage were not sampled. Ground water occurs in and moves through fractures in the sandstones and shales and solution openings in the limestones and dolomites. Depth to water is variable, ranging from about 5 to 70 feet below land-surface in the limestones and dolomites, and 15 to 40 feet in the coal-bearing rocks. The quality of ground water is generally good. Locally, in coal-bearing rocks, acidic water and high concentrations of manganese, chloride, and iron have been detected. (USGS)

  11. Imaging Deep Crustal Flow in the Basin and Range Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnorr, E.; Ford, H. A.

    2016-12-01

    The presence of significant extension in the Basin and Range Province of the Western United States during the Cenozoic has been well-characterized geologically, but there is still uncertainty in our understanding of how this extension is accommodated within the crust and mantle lithosphere. One model suggests that deformation is accommodated through viscous flow in the lower crust; another that strain is distributed along a mega-detachment at the base of the crust. In this study, we test the models outlined above by imaging anisotropic and dipping structure beneath six long-running seismic stations (BMN, ELK, NEE, MNV, TPNV, WVOR) located within the physiographically-defined Basin and Range Province using Ps receiver function analysis. Events used in our analysis were limited to distances between 30° and 100° and magnitudes greater than 5.8. Seismograms were preprocessed, rotated to transverse and radial components, and filtered at 0.02-2 Hz. Data was inspected for quality, and direct wave arrivals were picked using SAC. Ps receiver functions were calculated using a multi-taper spectral cross-correlation technique, and binned as functions of both back azimuth and distance. Preliminary results indicate a coherent positive phase, interpreted to be the Moho, at 3.7-4.2 seconds for stations NEE, BMN, ELK, MNV, and WVOR. At TPNV, the Moho exhibits laterally complex behavior with a phase arrival at 4.3 to 5.4 seconds. Our results indicate the presence of significant energy on the transverse component at delay times of 2.8-5.2 seconds at stations WVOR, TPNV, and MNV. Within this time window, a polarity flip, indicative of dipping structure and/or anisotropy, occurs at 90° back azimuth at each of the three stations. Further work is needed to better constrain the origin of this structure and determine how the structure might be related to extension within the Basin and Range.

  12. Assessing the Impacts of Wind Integration in the Western Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sopinka, Amy

    Increasing carbon dioxide levels and the fear of irreversible climate change has prompted policy makers to implement renewable portfolio standards. These renewable portfolio standards are meant to encourage the adoption of renewable energy technologies thereby reducing carbon emissions associated with fossil fuel-fired electricity generation. The ability to efficiently adopt and utilize high levels of renewable energy technology, such as wind power, depends upon the composition of the extant generation within the grid. Western Canadian electric grids are poised to integrate high levels of wind and although Alberta has sufficient and, at times, an excess supply of electricity, it does not have the inherent generator flexibility required to mirror the variability of its wind generation. British Columbia, with its large reservoir storage capacities and rapid ramping hydroelectric generation could easily provide the firming services required by Alberta; however, the two grids are connected only by a small, constrained intertie. We use a simulation model to assess the economic impacts of high wind penetrations in the Alberta grid under various balancing protocols. We find that adding wind capacity to the system impacts grid reliability, increasing the frequency of system imbalances and unscheduled intertie flow. In order for British Columbia to be viable firming resource, it must have sufficient generation capability to meet and exceed the province's electricity self-sufficiency requirements. We use a linear programming model to evaluate the province's ability to meet domestic load under various water and trade conditions. We then examine the effects of drought and wind penetration on the interconnected Alberta -- British Columbia system given differing interconnection sizes.

  13. The province and heritage of mankind reconsidered: A new beginning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabrynowicz, J. I.

    1992-01-01

    The central problem of our time -- one that is shared by all races and nationalities -- is to discover the things, the qualities, and interest that people have in common so that durable institutions can be designed for mankind's survival. The 'common heritage of mankind' and the 'province of all mankind' are different legal concepts developed in international space law during the last quarter of a century. Since the initial appearance of these provisions, controversy has arisen regarding their intent and meaning as applied to a nation's right to explore and use a common environment such as space or the high seas and a nation's obligation to share benefits derived from those environments with the rest of the world. As can be expected, different interpretations are currently competing for acceptance. This is so, in part, because, in the case of the Outer Space Treaty, although a general principle was articulated, rules for acceptance and application of the principles were not. In the case of the Moon and Sea Treaties, although an effort has been made to clarify both meaning and application, the articulations are still too vague for legal certainty. This paper focuses on the fact that these concepts are already currently available tools for the advancement of both global and U.S. interests but, because of the labyrinthine legal arguments that have been generated and some assumptions being held, they are in danger of being lost as such tools. The tendency of many observers in the U.S. to confuse the concept of 'province of all mankind' and 'common heritage of mankind' and to assume that both are incompatible with U. S. commercial space interests is also addressed. It is suggested that reconsidering these provisions can yield positions compatible with U.S. interests and that it can and should actively seek the use of these provisions as a basis for global cooperation and commercial benefit.

  14. HPV genotype analysis for women in Shaanxi Province of China.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Wang, Y Y; Tian, X F; Nan, X; Yan, T; Wang, P; Fu, Y L; Wang, G Q

    2016-11-03

    The aim of this study was to examine the subtype distribution of human papilloma virus (HPV) in women in the Shaanxi Province of China. A DNA chip, along with polymerase chain reaction amplification and reverse dot blot technology, was adopted to analyze the HPV genotypes of 22,937 cases of cervical cell specimens. The HPV infection rate was 18.70%, wherein high-risk, low-risk, and high- and low-risk multiple infection rates were 15.75, 2.96 and 1.91%, respectively. High-risk infections accounted for 84.20% of total infections. The rate of HPV infection in women with rural residence, high school education or less, a low income, or age over 40 years was significantly higher than that in the control group (negative HPV infection women). Of the 18 detected high-risk HPV subtypes, the most common in single infections were, in the order of prevalence, HPV16, 58, 18, 52, 33, and 56. For multiple high-risk infections, the most common subtypes in the order of prevalence were HPV16, 52, 58, 18, 56, and 33. Age was a factor in the rate of infection, as the 41-50-year age group had a significantly higher risk of infection than the other groups (P < 0.05). In multiple infections, double infections were common, accounting for 77.10% of multiple infections, and triple or more infections were more common in women aged 51-60 years. In Shaanxi Province, high-risk HPV infection in women was mainly attributed to rural residence, age over 40 years, low income, and low education level.

  15. Death Portrait of Isfahan Province in Years 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Ferdosi, Masuod; Mohammadi Sefiddashti, Farzaneh; Aghdak, Pejman; Moradi, Reza; Mofid, Maryam; Rejalian, Farzaneh; Nemati, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: The rapid rise in noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is one of the main health challenges affecting the global development in the present era. This raising challenge is a major threat to countries’ socioeconomic development as well as millions of people health. Methods: It was a retrospective study with analysis of reported death in Isfahan Province during a 5-year period from 2007 to 2011. Required data were collected from statistics provided by Deputy of Health in Kashan and Isfahan Universities of Medical Sciences in 2012. Excel software was used for data analysis. Results: During this period, the cardiovascular events, cancers and tumors, unintentional injuries, respiratory diseases, and prenatal mortality were the main reasons of mortality in Isfahan Province. The overall rate of cardiovascular events rose 5.10% in the 5-years of the study observation, and Khor – Biabanak was on the top of the list; while in cancer rating Khor – Biabanak, Golpayegan, and Khansar both stood at the outset (per 1,000 people). For injuries, the highest rate belonged to Golpayegan, Tiran-Kervan, and Chadegan. Meanwhile, for mental illnesses, the highest rate was observed in Khomeini Shahr. Moreover, the highest maternal and fetal mortality was reported in Fereydunshahr, Khor – Biabanak and Mobarakeh. Conclusions: Given the sharp rise of NCD, programs by health care system should be directed toward lifestyle modification while a proper framework should be determined to deal with these kinds of disease. Furthermore, optimal allocation of resources based on needs can provide better facilities for different cities. PMID:27563432

  16. Characterizing wetland change at landscape scale in Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chi; Sheng, Sheng; Zhou, Wen; Cui, Lijuan; Liu, Maosong

    2011-08-01

    Human activities produced great impacts on wetlands worldwide. Taking Jiangsu Province, China, as a representative wetland region subject to extensive human activities, the aim of this study is to understand the conversion trajectory and spatial differentiation in wetland change from a multi-scale perspective. Based on multi-temporal Landsat images, it was found that the natural wetlands decreased by 11.2% from 1990 to 2006 in Jiangsu Province. Transition matrices showed that the conversion of natural wetlands to human-made wetlands (mostly aquaculture ponds) was the major form of natural wetland reduction, accounting for over 60% of the reduction. Percentage reduction and area reduc tion of natural wetlands were respectively quantified within different wetland cover zones using a moving window analysis. Average percentage reduction showed a decreasing tendency with increasing wetland cover. The high-cover and mid-cover zone presented the largest area reduction at the scales of 1-2 km and 4-8 km, respectively. Local hotspots of natural wetland reduction were mapped using the equal-interval and quantile classification schemes. The hotspots were mostly concentrated in the Lixiahe marshes and the coastal wetland areas. For the area reduction hotspots, the quantile classification presented larger area and more patches than the equal-interval classification; while an opposite result was shown for the percentage reduction hotspots. With respect to the discontinuous distribution of the natural wetlands, area reduction could be more appropriate to represent reduction hotspots than percentage reduction in the study area. These findings could have useful implications to wetland conservation.

  17. Oil and Gas Resources of the Arctic Alaska Petroleum Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, David W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2006-01-01

    The Arctic Alaska Petroleum Province, encompassing all the lands and adjacent Continental Shelf areas north of the Brooks Range-Herald arch, is one of the most petroleum-productive areas in the United States, having produced about 15 billion bbl of oil. Seven unitized oil fields currently contribute to production, and three additional oil fields have been unitized but are not yet producing. Most known petroleum accumulations involve structural or combination structural-stratigraphic traps related to closure along the Barrow arch, a regional basement high, which has focused regional hydrocarbon migration since Early Cretaceous time. Several oil accumulations in stratigraphic traps have been developed in recent years. In addition to three small gas fields producing for local consumption, more than 20 additional oil and gas discoveries remain undeveloped. This geologically complex region includes prospective strata within passive-margin, rift, and foreland-basin sequences. Oil and gas were generated from multiple source rocks throughout the region. Although some reservoired oils appear to be derived from a single source rock, evidence for significant mixing of hydrocarbons from multiple source rocks indicates a composite petroleum system. Both extensional and contractional tectonic structures provide ample exploration targets, and recent emphasis on stratigraphic traps has demonstrated a significant resource potential in shelf and turbidite sequences of Jurassic through Tertiary age. Recent estimates of the total mean volume of undiscovered resources in the Arctic Alaska Petroleum Province by the U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Minerals Management Service are more than 50 billion bbl of oil and natural-gas liquids and 227 trillion ft3 of gas, distributed approximately equally between Federal offshore and combined onshore and State offshore areas.

  18. Cancer registries in four provinces in Turkey: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The burden of cancer affects all countries; while high-income countries have the capacity and resources to establish comprehensive cancer control programs, low and middle-income countries have limited resources to develop such programs. This paper examines factors associated with the development of cancer registries in four provinces in Turkey. It looks at the progress made by these registries, the challenges they faced, and the lessons learned. Other countries with similar resources can benefit from the lessons identified in this case study. Methods A mix of qualitative case study methods including key informant interviews, document review and questionnaires was used. Results This case study showed that surveillance systems that accurately report current cancer-related data are essential components of a country’s comprehensive cancer control program. At the initial stages, Turkey established one cancer registry with international support, which was used as a model for other registries. The Ministry of Health recognized the value of the registry data and its contribution to the country’s cancer control program and is supporting sustainability of these registries as a result. Conclusions This study demonstrates how Turkey was able to use resources from multiple sources to enhance its population based cancer registry system in four provinces. With renewed international interest in non-communicable diseases and cancer following the 2011 UN high-level meeting on NCDs, low- and middle- income countries can benefit from Turkey’s experience. Other countries can utilize lessons learned from Turkey as they address cancer burden and establish their own registries. PMID:23110989

  19. Molecular surveillance of Dengue in Sukabumi, West Java province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Nusa, Roy; Prasetyowati, Heni; Meutiawati, Febrina; Yohan, Benediktus; Trimarsanto, Hidayat; Setianingsih, Tri Yuli; Sasmono, R Tedjo

    2014-06-11

    Dengue is endemic and affects people in all Indonesian provinces. Increasing dengue cases have been observed every year in Sukabumi in West Java province. Despite the endemicity, limited data is available on the genetic of dengue viruses (DENV) circulating in the country. To understand the dynamics of dengue disease, we performed molecular and serological surveillance of dengue in Sukabumi. A total of 113 patients were recruited for this study. Serological data were obtained using anti-dengue IgM and IgG tests plus dengue NS1 antigen detection. Dengue detection and serotyping were performed using real-time RT-PCR. Viruses were isolated and the envelope genes were sequenced. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses were performed to determine the genotype of the viruses and their evolutionary rates. Real-time RT-PCR detected DENV in 25 (22%) of 113 samples. Serotyping revealed the predominance of DENV-2 (16 isolates, 64%), followed by DENV-1 (5 isolates, 20%), and DENV-4 (4 isolates, 16%). No DENV-3 was detected in the samples. Co-circulation of genotype I and IV of DENV-1 was observed. The DENV-2 isolates all belonged to the Cosmopolitan genotype, while DENV-4 isolates were grouped into genotype II. Overall, their evolutionary rates were similar to DENV from other countries. We revealed the distribution of DENV serotypes and genotypes in Sukabumi. Compared to data obtained from other cities in Indonesia, we observed the differing predominance of DENV serotypes but similar genotype distribution, where the infecting viruses were closely related with Indonesian endemic viruses isolated previously.

  20. Factors associated with preterm labor in Hormozgan province in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Roozbeh, Nasibeh; Moradi, Soheila; Soltani, Shirin; Zolfizadeh, Fatemeh; Hasani, Mehdi Tadris; Yabandeh, Asiyeh Pormehr

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preterm labor is the main cause of infants’ death, and the main reason for undesirable consequences of pregnancy which still occur in some births, despite all of the interventions in this regard. The aim of this study was to evaluate every preterm birth and determine its maternal risk factors in Hormozgan province in 2013. Methods This case-control study was conducted in 2013 on the health and hospital records of 735 pregnant mothers with preterm labor (20–37 weeks) which were located in Bandar Abbas in southeast Iran. The sampling method would be multi-stage cluster sampling. The data collecting tool was a valid questionnaire by the Iran Ministry of Health and Medical Education, which included 5 components (demographic information, checking the current pregnancy of the mother, the maternal factors related to preterm labor in the previous pregnancy, evaluating the fetal factors associated with preterm labor in the current pregnancy and other additional information related to the factors associated with prematurity). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, regression and Chi-square tests Results The prevalence of preterm labor in Hormozgan province in 2013 was 5.5%. In our study and among the effective factors on preterm labor, revealed genital-urinary tract infections during pregnancy were (35.8%), PROM (30.3%), history of abortion (19.9%) and unplanned pregnancy (18.1%) in between pregnant women with preterm labor. Our study showed that most mothers had delivered in 33 to 37 weeks among the mothers who had preterm labor in 2013 (75%) and the statistic of very preterm labor (less than 32 weeks) in Hormozgan was 5%. Conclusion Identification of the prevalence and associated factors with preterm labor can reduce the mortality rate and infants’ complications of it in addition to help find a way to prevent this problem. PMID:27790344

  1. [Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the province of Albacete (Spain)].

    PubMed

    Calbo Mayo, J M; Terrancle de Juan, I; Fernández Jiménez, P; Rodríguez Martín, M J; Martínez Díaz, V; Santisteban López, Y; Navarro Martínez, A; Sáez Méndez, L; Gómez Garrido, J; Moreno Salcedo, J; Vera Hernández, J; Fuster Lluch, O; Beato, J L; Bleda, J M; Solera Santos, J

    2007-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) in people between 40-70 years of age in the province of Albacete (Spain). A population-based, cross-sectional study was made of people between 40-70 years of age in three representative municipalities of the province of Albacete. A total of 425 subjects were included, with a mean age of 53.1 years (95% CI: 52.3-54). Women represented 50.4% of the series and males 49.6%. All participants were subjected to general laboratory testing, physical examination and the measurement of anthropometric parameters. MS was defined according to the ATP-III criteria. Prevalence of MS and its distribution according to the different epidemiological characteristics were calculated. Total prevalence of MS was 20.9% (88/421), with a mean age of 57 years (95% CI: 55.1-59). Prevalence was seen to increase with age, reaching up to one-third of all subjects over 60 years. Significant differences were observed in relationship to a background of ischemic heart disease, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein elevation and the detection of microalbuninuria in MS subjects. Arterial hypertension and abdominal obesity were the most prevalent criteria in MS subjects. Taking into consideration the important co-morbidity of MS, knowledge of the prevalence and characteristics of the syndrome in our setting and its early identification and intervention targeted to the different factors underlying MS will contribute to reduce the number of cardiovascular events associated with the syndrome.

  2. The Whitsunday Volcanic Province, Central Queensland, Australia: lithological and stratigraphic investigations of a silicic-dominated large igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, S. E.; Ewart, A.; Stephens, C. J.; Parianos, J.; Downes, P. J.

    2000-06-01

    Contrary to general belief, not all large igneous provinces (LIPs) are characterised by rocks of basaltic composition. Silicic-dominated LIPs, such as the Whitsunday Volcanic Province of NE Australia, are being increasingly recognised in the rock record. These silicic LIPs are consistent in being: (1) volumetrically dominated by ignimbrite; (2) active over prolonged periods (40-50 m.y.), based on available age data; and (3) spatially and temporally associated with plate break-up. This silicic-dominated LIP, related to the break-up of eastern continental Gondwana, is also significant for being the source of >1.4×10 6 km3 of coeval volcanogenic sediment preserved in adjacent sedimentary basins of eastern Australia. The Whitsunday Volcanic Province is volumetrically dominated by medium- to high-grade, dacitic to rhyolitic lithic ignimbrites. Individual ignimbrite units are commonly between 10 and 100 m thick, and the ignimbrite-dominated sequences exceed 1 km in thickness. Coarse lithic lag breccias containing clasts up to 6 m diameter are associated with the ignimbrites in proximal sections. Pyroclastic surge and fallout deposits, subordinate basaltic to rhyolitic lavas, phreatomagmatic deposits, and locally significant thicknesses of coarse-grained volcanogenic conglomerate and sandstone are interbedded with the ignimbrites. The volcanic sequences are intruded by gabbro/dolerite to rhyolite dykes (up to 50 m in width), sills and comagmatic granite. Dyke orientations are primarily from NW to NNE. The volcanic sequences are characterised by the interstratification of proximal/near-vent lithofacies such as rhyolite domes and lavas, and basaltic agglomerate, with medial to distal facies of ignimbrite. The burial of these near-vent lithofacies by ignimbrites, coupled with the paucity of mass wastage products such as debris-flow deposits indicates a low-relief depositional environment. Furthermore, the volcanic succession records a temporal change in: (1) eruptive styles

  3. Cancer incidence and mortality in Shandong province, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhentao; Lu, Zilong; Li, Yingmei; Zhang, Jiyu; Zhang, Gaohui; Chen, Xianxian; Chu, Jie; Ren, Jie; Liu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Population-based cancer registration data in 2012 from all available cancer registries in Shandong province were collected by Shandong Center for Disease Control and Prevention (SDCDC). SDCDC estimated the numbers of new cancer cases and cancer deaths in Shandong province with compiled cancer incidence and mortality rates. Methods In 2015, there were 21 cancer registries submitted data of cancer incidence and deaths occurred in 2012. All the data were checked and evaluated based on the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) criteria of data quality. Qualified data from 15 registries were used for cancer statistics analysis as provincial estimation. The pooled data were stratified by area (urban/rural), gender, age group (0, 1.4, 5.9, 10.14, …, 85+ years) and cancer type. New cancer cases and deaths were estimated using age-specific rates and corresponding provincial population in 2012. The Chinese census data in 2000 and Segi’s population were applied for age-standardized rates. All the rates were expressed per 100,000 person-year. Results Qualified 15 cancer registries (4 urban and 11 rural registries) covered 17,189,988 populations (7,486,039 in urban and 9,703,949 in rural areas). The percentage of cases morphologically verified (MV%) and death certificate-only cases (DCO%) were 66.12% and 2.93%, respectively, and the mortality to incidence rate ratio (M/I) was 0.60. A total of 253,060 new cancer cases and 157,750 cancer deaths were estimated in Shandong province in 2012. The incidence rate was 263.86/100,000 (303.29/100,000 in males, 223.23/100,000 in females), the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 192.42/100,000 and 189.50/100,000 with the cumulative incidence rate (0.74 years old) of 22.07%. The cancer incidence, ASIRC and ASIRW in urban areas were 267.64/100,000, 195.27/100,000 and 192.02/100,000 compared to 262.32/100,000, 191.26/100,000 and 188.48/100,000 in

  4. Evaluation of radiation methods to study potential evapotranspiration of 31 provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valipour, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    The present study aims to calibrate radiation-based methods to determine the best method under different weather conditions. For this purpose, weather data was collected from different synoptic stations in all of provinces of Iran. The potential evapotranspiration was estimated using common radiation-based methods and a sensitive analysis was done for investigating variations of the methods. The results show that the Stephens method estimates the potential evapotranspiration better than other methods in the most provinces of Iran (10 provinces). However, the values of R 2 were less than 0.98 for 15 provinces of Iran. The calibrated methods estimated the potential evapotranspiration in the south east of Iran better than other provinces. Precision of the methods calibrated has been increased in all provinces. The R 2 values are less than 0.98 for only six provinces (WA, EA, GO, NK, AL, and QO). In the methods calibrated, the Abtew (for YA) estimated the potential evapotranspiration better than the other methods.

  5. [GIS-based analysis of the land suitability for manure application in the northeastern provinces].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-xia; Li, Wei; Han, Wei; Yang, Ming; Dong, Yun-she; Lin, Chun-ye; Zhang, Feng-song; Xiong, Xiong

    2010-04-01

    As an important industrial and grain production base of China, livestock and poultry industry have been rapidly developed in the northeastern provinces. With the rapid increasing amount of animal production, how to handle the huge amount of animal manure has become a critical issue for local government. A quantitative analysis based on geographic information system (GIS) combining the biophysical, environmental, social and economic factors was applied to determine the land suitability for manure application in the northeastern provinces. The results show that a farmland area of 211942.7 km2, accounting for 78.9% of the cultivated land in three northeastern provinces, is estimated to be suitable for manure application. The suitable farmlands are mostly distributed in Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces. Proximity to residential area, water body and roads are identified as the primary factors influencing the manure application, while rainfall is the main factor to generate discrepancies in different areas. Furthermore, the future potential capacity for animal production in three provinces was forecasted based on the areas of suitable land and the population of existing livestock production. Among 36 cities of three provinces, the big variation is observed, Siping City is overproducing 1.813 million heads of pig unit at present, but Qiqihaer City still has the potential to rear 11.203 million heads of pig unit. Overall, eastern region of the study area holds the high potential for animal production with a surplus capacity of 2.842 million heads of pig unit, the potential of the typical mountain and forest areas is only 10% of eastern region, however. In contrast, in half of western region (central Liaoning province and central Jilin Province), their animal populations have exceeded the land carrying capacity. Therefore, we strongly suggest a site-specific animal production and manure application guide to achieve a sustainable development of livestock production in the

  6. Record of the Pacific Large Low Shear Velocity Province Upwellings Preserved in the Cretaceous Large Igneous Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrigal, P.; Gazel, E.; Flores, K. E.; Bizimis, M.; Jicha, B. R.

    2015-12-01

    As the surface expression of deep mantle dynamics, Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) are associated with the edges of large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVP) rooted at the core-mantle boundary. Instabilities in the LLSVP can cause periodic upwellings of material in the form of mantle plumes, which impact the lithosphere forming LIPs. However, the time frames of these massive lava outpourings are still uncertain. While continental LIPs are more readily accessible, oceanic LIPs have only been studied through drilling and sampling of fragments accreted to continental margins or island arcs, hence, they are relatively less understood. The impact of oceanic LIPs on oceanic biota is conspicuously recorded in global occurrences of black shale deposits that evidence episodes of anoxia and mass extinctions shortly after the formation of LIPs that ultimately can affect life on the entire planet. Our new geochemical and geochronological data of accreted Pacific LIPs found in the coasts of Nicoya Peninsula in Costa Rica record three LIP pulses possibly reflecting upwelling periods of the LLSVP at 140, 120 and 90 Ma. In order to test different models of origin of these LIPS, we created a complete reconstruction of the Pacific Plate configuration from the Mid-Jurassic to Upper-Cretaceous to show the existing correlation between upwelling pulses at edges of the Pacific LLSVP, oceanic anoxic events and the age from Pacific LIPs. We propose that since the formation of the Pacific plate at circa 175-180 Ma, a series of upwellings that interacted with mid-ocean ridge systems separated by 10-20 Ma have affected the planet periodically forming oceanic LIPs that still can be found today on the Pacific seafloor and accreted along the plate margins.

  7. [A SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis of the current immunization program in Zhejiang Province].

    PubMed

    He, Han-Qing; Ling, Luo-Ya; Xu, Xu-Qing

    2009-02-01

    To know the status of Immunization program in Zhejiang Province. The investigation on immunization program in zhejiang province was conducted, and the SWOT analysis was corducted to make a comprehensive evaluation. 11 cities, 22 counties and 44 towns were investigated in this study, and the current immunization program in Zhejiang province were explored by SWOT analysis. The SWOT Matrix, includes SO (strength-opportunity), ST (strength-threat), WO (weakness-opportunity) and WT (weakness-threat) can apply to make optimal strategy for the development of expanded program on immunization.

  8. [The species and ecological distribution of medical mollusca in Weifang, Shandong Province].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yun-Hai; Li, Na; Hu, Ling; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the species and distribution of mollusca with medical importance in Weifang, Shandong Province. Species identification and quantitative statistics analysis was studied based on field-collected snails from the districts of Weifang, Shouguang, Anqiu and Changyi, Shandong Province. A total of 1,791 medical mollusca specimens were collected, belonging to two Classes, 9 families and 14 species. Some important species were discovered including Parafossarulus striatulus (383), Alocinma longicornis (34), Galba pervia (63), Radix swinhoei (137), R. auricularia (95), Physa acuta (677) and Hippeutis cantori (22). The dominant species were P. acuta and P. striatulus. There remains a higher diversity of medical mollusca in Weifang, Shandong Province.

  9. Special Data Collection System Event Report. Southern Sinkiang Province, China 16 February 1977

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-20

    SPECIAL DATA COLLECTION SYSTEM EVENT REPORT Southern Sinkiang Province, China 16 February 1977 Michael S. Dawkins Alexandria Laboratories Teledyne...fi,PECIAL ,PATA 5 OLLECTION SYSTEM ~ ~~~~ ( ~ Technical rep*~’. J~ ~i~Southern Sinkiang Province , China ~~~~~~~~ -- -——9 ______________ 5...Southern Sinkiang Province, China, (l6 F~~~~ar~~~977 2 This event report contains seismic data~ from the Special Data Collection System (SDCS

  10. Economic evaluation of a 100% smoke-free law on the hospitality industry in an Argentinean province.

    PubMed

    Candioti, Carlos; Rossini, Gustavo; Depetris de Guiguet, Edith; Costa, Oscar; Schoj, Verónica

    2012-06-01

    To assess the economic impact of a 100% smoke-free law on bars and restaurants in an Argentinean province. We conducted a time series analysis of restaurant and bar revenues in the province of Santa Fe 31 months before and 29 months after the implementation of the 100% smoke-free environment law. The neighboring province of Entre Rios without smoking restrictions at the time of this study, was used as the control province. Average taxable revenues post-legislation in the province of Santa Fe as a whole and in the two most important cities were higher when compared to the total provincial revenue pre-legislation. No significant differences were observed with the total revenue from the province of Entre Rios. We found no statistically significant evidence that the 100% smoke-free environment legislation in the province of Santa Fe, Argentina, had a negative impact on the revenues of local bars and restaurants.

  11. Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP): The Palisade Sill Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghatak, A.; Basu, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    The extensively studied 200Ma Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is considered to be the world's largest continental Large Igneous Province (LIP) covering up to 7 X 106 km2. This igneous province has been linked to the ~200Ma Mesozoic opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean. This opening fragmented the CAMP into several segments that occur on four different tectonic plates today. The CAMP related LIP is different from others in that it constitutes almost entirely of dikes and sills with sparse volcanic outflows. The 200 Ma Palisade Sill, exposed along the Hudson River in northeastern North America is an expression of the CAMP magmatism. On the basis of similar ages of eruption, Palisade Sill tholeiites have been correlated to other CAMP exposures in four continents. We provide an isotopic tracer study of the Palisade Sill basalts and relate them to low-Ti (<2 wt %) CAMP related tholeiites from North and South America, western Europe, and West Africa. We report Nd-Sr-Pb isotopic and multiple trace element data of 19 basalts and gabbros, 3 chilled margin basalts, and 4 sandstones spanning the entire length and thickness of the Palisade Sill in New York and New Jersey. These geochemical data are essential to understand the relationship between mantle geodynamic processes involved in the generation of the CAMP tholeiites prior to the formation of the of the Atlantic Ocean crust. The Palisade Sill basalts of this study yield the typical composition of low-Ti CAMP tholeiites with small LREE enrichments (LaN/SmN = 1.7 to 2.3), radiogenic Sr and negative ɛNd(I) values (87Sr/87Sr(I) = 0.70668 to 0.71037; ɛNd(I) = -0.64 to -3.8), and Pb-isotopic ratios (e.g. 206Pb/204Pb = 18.11 to 18.69) above the NHRL and subparallel to it. These geochemical data indicate the Palisade Sill basalts were derived from a slightly enriched OIB-like mantle source. Further, these rocks were derived by ~15% melting of a slightly depleted spinel peridotite with up to 20% contamination by the

  12. Evidence of Coxiella burnetii in Punjab province, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Akram, Sidra; Hassan, Zia Ul; Hanif, Kashif; Rabbani, Masood; Muhammad, Javed; Chaudhary, Muhammad Hamid; Abbas, Tariq; Ghori, Muhammad Taslim; Rashid, Haroon; Jamil, Tariq; Islam, Zia-Ul-; Rasool, Haisem; Bano, Asghari; Ahmad, Arfan; Ali, Muhammad Asad; Yaqub, Tahir; McVey, Walt; Jayarao, Bhushan M

    2016-11-01

    Coxiella burnetii causes query (Q) fever, an important zoonotic disease with worldwide significance. The role of environment in the ecology of C. burnetti, and its influence on seroconversion in animals has not been elucidated in Pakistan. We carried out a cross-sectional study in Punjab province to (1) determine the prevalence and distribution of C. burnetii in soil using an ISIIII gene-based real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, (2) analyze association between the occurrence of C. burnetii in soil and its predictors i.e. soil characteristics (macro- and micro-nutrients) and several likely risk factors including the seroconversion in small ruminants at places where its genome had or had not been detected, and (3) predict homology and genetic diversity of the identified strains using sequences originated from different hosts worldwide. A total of 2425 soil samples from nine districts of Punjab province were processed. C. burnetii DNA was detected in 47 samples (1.94%, 95% CI: ±0.55) originating from 35 villages of studied districts (7.22%, 95% CI: ±2.30). The highest prevalence was found in Attock (7.11%, 95% CI: ±3.36), followed by Lahore (4.83%, 95% CI: ±3.49), Sahiwal (4.70%, 95% CI: ±2.6), Dera Ghazi Khan (2.33%, 95% CI: ±2.02), Faisalabad (1.35%, 95% CI: ±1.18) and Sheikhupura (0.68%, 95% CI: ±0.94). The odds of detecting bacterial DNA in soil was increased with a unit increase in organic matter [2.511 (95% CI: 1.453-4.340), p=0.001] and sodium [1.013 (95% CI: 1.005-1.022), p=0.001], whereas, calcium [0.984 (95% CI: 0.975-0.994), p=0.002] and potassium [0.994 (95% CI: 0.990-0.999), p=0.011] had protective effect where a unit increase in each analyte decreased odds for its occurrence by 1.0% approximately. Likewise, for categorical variables (risk factors), the odds of detecting C. burnetii were higher at locations >500m away from a main road [1.95 (95% CI: 1.06-3.78), p=0.04]. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA

  13. The Anatahan Felsic Province in the Mariana Arc System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, R. J.; Hargrove, U. S.

    2003-12-01

    The May 2003 plinian eruption of Anatahan was a surprise for the residents of the Northern Mariana Mariana Comonwealth (USA). From a petrologic perspective, this eruption of siliceous andesite was also atypical for the Mariana arc, which elsewhere mostly erupts fractionated basalts and basaltic andesites. However, felsic eruptions are not unusual for Anatahan which has previously erupted a wide range of lavas, from basalts through dacites. The reasons and significance of the intermittently felsic nature of Anatahan lavas may reflect either development of a mature magma chamber localized beneath Anatahan or perhaps the presence of an areally-extensive pool of felsic magma in the middle crust, similar to that inferred for the Izu arc to the north. Anatahan lies at the southern end of the Mariana Central Island Province and just north of the Southern Seamount Province, but it has never been clear whether these morphological subdivisions reflect different magma fluxes along the arc or are due to the island volcanoes being older than the seamounts. Synthesis of existing data for Anatahan and data for surrounding seamounts collected during the 2001 Cook 7 expedition and earlier cruises indicates that Anatahan is situated near the middle of an arc segment with an unusually high proportion of felsic lavas compared to typical Mariana Arc magmatic products. The 115 km-long arc segment from E. Diamante seamount East Diamante seamount (15° 55'N) to a seamount NW of Zealandia Bank (17° N) define the Anatahan Felsic Province (AFP). Seven edifices within this region, including Anatahan, have erupted felsic lavas, often interspersed with more mafic lavas. Volcano size does not seem important in controlling the abundance of felsic lavas within the AFP; the volcanic island of Sarigan does not contain felsic lavas, whereas small parasitic cones NE of Anatahan and SW of E. Diamante erupt lavas with 65% and 72% SiO2, respectively. This region also contains two suspected hydrothermal

  14. Women's income generation activities in Merowe Province, Northern State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Pitamber, S; Osama, S

    1994-06-01

    Merowe province in rural northern Sudan has been divided into three local government council areas: Merowe, Karima, and Ed Debba. A government program was instituted to increase the welfare of residents and food production. A baseline survey of 490 respondents was conducted in order to ascertain how illiterate women viewed development in the area and to provide useful information for program design and implementation. Women from 24 villages were administered questionnaires, observed in their daily activities, and engaged in discussion in a local meeting place. Discussions were also held with members of the local Popular Committee. Demographic information was very sketchy about age, and 48% had no formal education in writing and reading. General reading and writing skills of the remainder were very poor. There were 500 female children and 502 male children, and the sex ratio varied among the 3 council areas. 52% were married and 14% were divorced or widowed and living with relatives. The average monthly income was from Ls. 700 to Ls. 3000 based on reports from only 59.3% of respondents. Most of the women had skills in food processing and 25.7% were skilled in handicrafts. Water was obtained primarily from local wells and not decontaminated before use. Pit latrines were the standard. One bathing facility was available in the compound for the entire council area. Health units were either in each village or within 20-30 minutes walk. Child mortality was 4.3% in Merowe province. 77 children 0-5 years old died out of a total of 1002 live births. Life expectancy was 41-50 years for women and 61-70 years for men. Cleanliness and healthful eating were observed. 58% owned no land; plots were under 5 feddans and usually half a feddan. 92.1% had no bank account and 90% had no experience with loans. 70.2% were indifferent about involvement in an income generation program. 26% were interested in part-time participation. Only 3.9% desired full-time participation. 8.6% said they

  15. Seismic hazards in the Basin and Range province, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancha, Aasha

    Deformation rates determined for the Basin and Range province using geodetic data agree within uncertainties with scalar moment rate estimates from a 146-year earthquake catalog. This agreement suggests that the rate of historic earthquakes within the province provides a reasonable estimate for the long-term rate of seismicity. Geological estimates of deformation rates are lower than that of geodesy or seismicity due to limited data. We focus on a particular, small region for more detailed analysis of ground motion prediction and amplification. The Reno-Sparks urban region (population ˜400,000) is located in a fault-controlled basin that is about 13 km wide and 21 km long. Despite the small basin size and depth, local basin effects are significant. Both data and synthetic modeling show that the 3D basin structure strongly influences ground motion within the basin. Site characteristics are assessed at twenty-one seismic stations in the region. Shallow shear wave velocities are measured using the refraction microtremor (ReMi) technique (Louie, 2001). Average velocities to depths of 30 m and 100 m are compared with local geological and soil classifications. Generalized geological classifications show some variations in unit averages of the measured velocities, variations between units are much smaller than the standard deviations of velocities within units having multiple measurements. Predictions of site velocities based on soil weight percent of gravel, sand, silt, and clay fall within +/-20% of measured values for all but two of the 21 sites. Ground motions from local earthquakes are used to ascertain empirical site amplification effects within the basin relative to a nearby rock site using the soil to rock spectral ratio technique. Most site response functions within the basin are mainly flat, but do show relative amplification. Some sites do show resonant peaks. These empirical site effects are compared with site conditions evaluated using average shallow shear

  16. Malaria prevalence in Nias District, North Sumatra Province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Syafruddin, Din; Asih, Puji B S; Wahid, Isra; Dewi, Rita M; Tuti, Sekar; Laowo, Idaman; Hulu, Waozidohu; Zendrato, Pardamean; Laihad, Ferdinand; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2007-08-30

    The Nias district of the North Sumatra Province of Indonesia has long been known to be endemic for malaria. Following the economic crisis at the end of 1998 and the subsequent tsunami and earthquake, in December 2004 and March 2005, respectively, the malaria control programme in the area deteriorated. The present study aims to provide baseline data for the establishment of a suitable malaria control programme in the area and to analyse the frequency distribution of drug resistance alleles associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. Malariometric and entomology surveys were performed in three subdistricts. Thin and thick blood smears were stained with Giemsa and examined under binocular light microscopy. Blood blots on filter paper were also prepared for isolation of parasite and host DNA to be used for molecular analysis of band 3 (SAO), pfcrt, pfmdr1, dhfr, and dhps. In addition, haemoglobin measurement was performed in the second and third surveys for the subjects less than 10 years old. Results of the three surveys revealed an average slide positivity rate of 8.13%, with a relatively higher rate in certain foci. Host genetic analysis, to identify the Band 3 deletion associated with Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis (SAO), revealed an overall frequency of 1.0% among the 1,484 samples examined. One hundred six Plasmodium falciparum isolates from three sub-districts were successfully analysed. Alleles of the dhfr and dhps genes associated with resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, dhfr C59R and S108N, and dhps A437G and K540E, were present at frequencies of 52.2%, 82.5%, 1.18% and 1.18%, respectively. The pfmdr1 alleles N86Y and N1042D, putatively associated with mefloquine resistance, were present at 31.4% and 2%, respectively. All but one sample carried the pfcrt 76T allele associated with chloroquine resistance. Entomologic surveys identified three potential anopheline vectors in the area, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles kochi and

  17. Malaria prevalence in Nias District, North Sumatra Province, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Syafruddin, Din; Asih, Puji BS; Wahid, Isra; Dewi, Rita M; Tuti, Sekar; Laowo, Idaman; Hulu, Waozidohu; Zendrato, Pardamean; Laihad, Ferdinand; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2007-01-01

    Background The Nias district of the North Sumatra Province of Indonesia has long been known to be endemic for malaria. Following the economic crisis at the end of 1998 and the subsequent tsunami and earthquake, in December 2004 and March 2005, respectively, the malaria control programme in the area deteriorated. The present study aims to provide baseline data for the establishment of a suitable malaria control programme in the area and to analyse the frequency distribution of drug resistance alleles associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. Methods Malariometric and entomology surveys were performed in three subdistricts. Thin and thick blood smears were stained with Giemsa and examined under binocular light microscopy. Blood blots on filter paper were also prepared for isolation of parasite and host DNA to be used for molecular analysis of band 3 (SAO), pfcrt, pfmdr1, dhfr, and dhps. In addition, haemoglobin measurement was performed in the second and third surveys for the subjects less than 10 years old. Results Results of the three surveys revealed an average slide positivity rate of 8.13%, with a relatively higher rate in certain foci. Host genetic analysis, to identify the Band 3 deletion associated with Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis (SAO), revealed an overall frequency of 1.0% among the 1,484 samples examined. One hundred six Plasmodium falciparum isolates from three sub-districts were successfully analysed. Alleles of the dhfr and dhps genes associated with resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, dhfr C59R and S108N, and dhps A437G and K540E, were present at frequencies of 52.2%, 82.5%, 1.18% and 1.18%, respectively. The pfmdr1 alleles N86Y and N1042D, putatively associated with mefloquine resistance, were present at 31.4% and 2%, respectively. All but one sample carried the pfcrt 76T allele associated with chloroquine resistance. Entomologic surveys identified three potential anopheline vectors in the area, Anopheles

  18. Molecular biogeochemical provinces in the Atlantic Surface Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, B. P.; Flerus, R.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Lechtenfeld, O. J.; Bracher, A.; Cooper, W.; Frka, S.; Gašparović, B.; Gonsior, M.; Hertkorn, N.; Jaffe, R.; Jenkins, A.; Kuss, J.; Lara, R. J.; Lucio, M.; McCallister, S. L.; Neogi, S. B.; Pohl, C.; Roettgers, R.; Rohardt, G.; Schmitt, B. B.; Stuart, A.; Theis, A.; Ying, W.; Witt, M.; Xie, Z.; Yamashita, Y.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, Z. Y.; Kattner, G.

    2010-12-01

    One of the most important aspects to understand marine organic carbon fluxes is to resolve the molecular mechanisms which convert fresh, labile biomolecules into semi-labile and refractory dissolved and particulate organic compounds in the ocean. In this interdisciplinary project, which was performed on a cruise with RV Polarstern, we carried out a detailed molecular characterisation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on a North-South transect in the Atlantic surface ocean in order to relate the data to different biological, climatic, oceanographic, and meteorological regimes as well as to terrestrial input from riverine and atmospheric sources. Our goal was to achieve a high resolution data set for the biogeochemical characterisation of the sources and reactivity of DOM. We applied ultrahigh resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS), nutrient, trace element, amino acid, and lipid analyses and other biogeochemical measurements for 220 samples from the upper water column (0-200m) and eight deep profiles. Various spectroscopic techniques were applied continuously in a constant sample water flow supplied by a fish system and the moon pool. Radiocarbon dating enabled assessing DOC residence time. Bacterial abundance and production provided a metabolic context for the DOM characterization work and pCO2 concentrations. Combining molecular organic techniques and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) established an important link between organic and inorganic biogeochemical studies. Multivariate statistics, primarily based on FT-ICR-MS data for 220 samples, allowed identifying geographical clusters which matched ecological provinces proposed previously by Longhurst (2007). Our study demonstrated that marine DOM carries molecular information reflecting the “history” of ocean water masses. This information can be used to define molecular biogeochemical provinces and to improve our understanding of element fluxes in

  19. Mantle stratigraphy and evolution of the Slave province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostock, M. G.

    1998-09-01

    A data set of 1033 three-component, P wave seismograms from five broadband stations at the Yellowknife Array is assembled to investigate mantle structure below the southern Slave province in Canada's Northwest Territories. Following wave field decomposition, seismograms are source-normalized through simultaneous deconvolution to estimate the near-receiver impulse response as a function of epicentral distance and back azimuth. Images of impulse response reveal a well-developed mantle stratigraphy, anisotropic in part, extending from the Mohorovicic discontinuity to the transition zone, A layer of depth-localized anisotropy (±5%), termed H, is situated between ˜70 and 80 km depth with an average shear velocity comparable to that of the ambient mantle and a sharp upper boundary less than 100 m in transition width. The absence of free surface crustal reverberations on the transverse component affords a window into the upper mantle between 100 and 200 km depth. A sequence of at least two layers between 120-150 km depth, collectively termed X, is most clearly evident to the north and is underlain by a second structure L which dips from 170 km in the west to 230 km into the center of the Slave province. The deepest interface above the transition zone W marks a shear velocity inversion near 350 km depth whose signature is restricted to the SV component signalling a dominantly isotropic response. Consideration of these observations in light of data acquired in a recent LITHOPROBE seismic reflection traverse and in petrological studies of kimberlite xenoliths prompts speculation into the role of subduction in craton stabilization. It is suggested that the proto-Slave craton was assembled through processes of shallow subduction resulting in a near-horizontal mantle stratigraphy (i.e., H, X) both compositional and rheological in nature. Interpretation of L as the continuation of dipping reflectors on the seismic reflection profile argues for a final phase of craton assembly

  20. Near-infrared spectroscopy and pattern-recognition processing for classifying wines of two Italian provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Gordillo, B.; Mencaglia, Andrea A.; González-Miret, M. L.; Heredia, F. J.; Cichelli, A.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents an experiment making use of the near-infrared spectrum for distinguishing the wines produced in two close provinces of Abruzzo region of Italy. A collection of 32 wines was considered, 18 of which were produced in the province of Chieti, while the other 14 were from the province of Teramo. A conventional dual-beam spectrophotometer was used for absorption measurements in the 1300-1900 nm spectroscopic range. Principal Component Analysis was used for explorative analysis. Score maps in the PC1-PC2 or PC2-PC3 spaces were obtained, which successfully grouped the wine samples in two distinct clusters, corresponding to Chieti and Teramo provinces, respectively. A modelling of dual-band spectroscopy was also proposed, making use of two LEDs for illumination and a PIN detector instead of the spectrometer. These data were processed using Linear Discriminant Analysis which demonstrated satisfactory classification results.

  1. Assessment of coalbed gas resources of the Central and South Sumatra Basin Provinces, Indonesia, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-12-09

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 20 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered, technically recoverable coalbed gas resource in the Central and South Sumatra Basin Provinces of Indonesia.

  2. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lusitanian Basin Province, Portugal, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Paxton, Stanley T.

    2016-11-04

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 121 million barrels of oil and 212 billion cubic feet of gas in the Lusitanian Basin Province, Portugal.

  3. Assessment of Permian coalbed gas resources of the Karoo Basin Province, South Africa and Lesotho, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-02-21

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 5.27 trillion cubic feet of coalbed gas in the Karoo Basin Province.

  4. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Red Sea Basin Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 5 billion barrels of undiscovered technically recoverable oil and 112 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas in the Red Sea Basin Province using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  5. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Levant Basin Province, Eastern Mediterranean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 1.7 billion barrels of recoverable oil and a mean of 122 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas in the Levant Basin Province using a geology based assessment methodology.

  6. MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN TRADITIONAL HERBAL MEDICINE IN THE PROVINCE OF CHIMBORAZO, ECUADOR.

    PubMed

    Morales, Fátima; Padilla, Susana; Falconí, Félix

    2017-01-01

    Phyto-therapy studies on Chimborazo province in Ecuador are really limited. This area, located within the Andes, is considered a millenarian and intercultural province, where multiples cultures and ethnic groups coexist. The study was conducted through direct interviews with 84 ancestral healers from the Province of Chimborazo, Ecuador. We presented ten most used species by ancestral healers of Chimborazo province to cure different illnesses and their medicinal uses. We also provided the application mode and some features of healing that should be emphasized. The nettle was the medicinal plant employed for more different illness and the chamomile was the one with higher prevalence. We could confirm that the Native Ecuadorians have a vast variety of traditions and popular medicinal practices that have great value and are needed to be researched and studied extensively.

  7. Application of multiple index development approaches to benthic invertebrate data from the Virginian Biogeographic Province

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benthic invertebrate indices have commonly been utilized to assess benthic invertebrate communities. These indices have been constructed using different techniques, but have shown different levels of application success. For example, the EMAP Virginian Province Index did not pe...

  8. COASTAL ECOLOGICAL DATA FROM THE VIRGINIAN BIOGEOGRAPHIC PROVINCE 1990-1993

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) assessed the ecological condition of estuaries, bays, and tidal rivers in the Virginian Biogeographic Province (Cape Cod, Massachusetts, to Cape Henry, Virginia) during July?Septembe...

  9. Assessment of shale-gas resources of the Karoo Province, South Africa and Lesotho, Africa, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-07-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resource of 44.5 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Karoo Province of South Africa and Lesotho, Africa.

  10. Assessment of unconventional tight-gas resources of the Magallanes Basin Province, Chile, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.

    2016-01-20

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed a technically recoverable mean resource of 8.3 trillion cubic feet of unconventional tight gas in the Zona Glauconitica of the Magallanes Basin Province, Chile.

  11. MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN TRADITIONAL HERBAL MEDICINE IN THE PROVINCE OF CHIMBORAZO, ECUADOR

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Fátima; Padilla, Susana; Falconí, Félix

    2017-01-01

    Background: Phyto-therapy studies on Chimborazo province in Ecuador are really limited. This area, located within the Andes, is considered a millenarian and intercultural province, where multiples cultures and ethnic groups coexist. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted through direct interviews with 84 ancestral healers from the Province of Chimborazo, Ecuador. Results: We presented ten most used species by ancestral healers of Chimborazo province to cure different illnesses and their medicinal uses. We also provided the application mode and some features of healing that should be emphasized. Conclusion: The nettle was the medicinal plant employed for more different illness and the chamomile was the one with higher prevalence. We could confirm that the Native Ecuadorians have a vast variety of traditions and popular medicinal practices that have great value and are needed to be researched and studied extensively. PMID:28331911

  12. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Cuyo Basin Province, Argentina, 2017

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Le, Phuong A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-18

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 236 million barrels of oil and 112 billion cubic feet of associated gas in the Cuyo Basin Province, Argentina.

  13. Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini-Like Fluke Infection in Ducks in Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Tran, Ha Thi Lam; Gabriël, Sarah; Smit, Suzanne; Le, Phap Ngoc; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Following the first report of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in a domestic duck in Phu My District of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam, many other cases were observed in the province. We determined the infection rate and intensity of O. viverrini infection in ducks in 4 districts of the province. A total of 178 ducks were randomly selected from 34 farms for examination of flukes in the liver and gall bladder. An infection rate of 34.3% (range 20.7-40.4% among districts) was found; the intensity of infection was 13.8 worms per infected duck (range 1-100). These findings show the role of ducks as a host for O. viverrini, duck genotype, which is sympatric with the human O. viverrini genotype in this province. It also stresses the need for investigations on the zoonotic potential and the life cycle of this parasite.

  14. Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini-Like Fluke Infection in Ducks in Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Thanh Thi Ha; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji; Nguyen, Thanh Thi Giang; Tran, Ha Thi Lam; Gabriël, Sarah; Smit, Suzanne; Le, Phap Ngoc; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Following the first report of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in a domestic duck in Phu My District of Binh Dinh Province, Central Vietnam, many other cases were observed in the province. We determined the infection rate and intensity of O. viverrini infection in ducks in 4 districts of the province. A total of 178 ducks were randomly selected from 34 farms for examination of flukes in the liver and gall bladder. An infection rate of 34.3% (range 20.7-40.4% among districts) was found; the intensity of infection was 13.8 worms per infected duck (range 1-100). These findings show the role of ducks as a host for O. viverrini, duck genotype, which is sympatric with the human O. viverrini genotype in this province. It also stresses the need for investigations on the zoonotic potential and the life cycle of this parasite. PMID:27417094

  15. Where on Earth...? MISR Mystery Image Quiz #24: Shandong Province, China

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-03

    This image of the Shandong Province, China was acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer instrument aboard NASA Terra spacecraft. This image is from the MISR Where on Earth...? Mystery Quiz #24.

  16. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province, Russia, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, C.J.; Bird, K.J.; Charpentier, R.R.; Gautier, D.L.; Houseknecht, D.W.; Klett, T.R.; Moore, T.; Pawlewicz, M.J.; Pittman, J.; Tennyson, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province in Russia as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal program. Geologically, the Timan-Pechora Basin Province is a triangular-shaped cratonic block bounded by the northeast-southwest trending Ural Mountains and the northwest-southeast trending Timan Ridge. The northern boundary is shared with the South Barents Sea Province (fig.1). The Timan-Pechora Basin Province has a long history of oil and gas exploration and production. The first field was discovered in 1930 and, after 75 years of exploration, more than 230 fields have been discovered and more than 5,400 wells have been drilled. This has resulted in the discovery of more than 16 billion barrels of oil and 40 trillion cubic feet of gas.

  17. Two new species of Indonemoura (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) from Yunnan Province of southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Weihai; Wu, Limin; Yang, Ding

    2017-02-09

    Two new species of the nemourid genus Indonemoura are described, Indonemoura curvispina sp. nov. and I. spirocornua sp. nov., from the Gaoligong Mountains of Yunnan Province of southwestern China. The taxonomic relationships with related species are discussed.

  18. [Study of infestation of dogs with Echinococcus granulosus in the province of La Rioja, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Amaya, Juan C; Moreno, Nancy; Salmaso, Nancy; Bazan, Eduardo; Ricoy, Gerardo; Córdoba, Patricia; Santillan, Graciela I

    2016-01-01

    This work was conducted in the province of La Rioja, located in northwestern Argentina. The aim of this study was to estimate the percentage of dog feces showing the presence of antigens of Echinococcus sp. in different regions of the province. A total of 269 samples of dried canine stool were taken, which were analyzed by the copro-ELISA technique. The most affected area was zone IV, which had 30.5% of positive samples. Zone I corresponding to the Capital Department of the province had 12% of positivity. In other areas, the percentages ranged between 11.4% and 14.8%. This is the first study in the province of La Rioja on the existence of this disease in dogs. The lack of control strategies has allowed the spread of echinococcosis. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of continuous gas resources in the Khorat Plateau Province, Thailand and Laos, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Drake, Ronald M.

    2017-05-25

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 2.3 trillion cubic feet of continuous gas in the Khorat Plateau Province of Thailand and Laos.

  20. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the Perth Basin Province, Australia, 2017

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-17

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 223 million barrels of oil and 14.5 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Perth Basin Province, Australia.