Science.gov

Sample records for emergence seedling growth

  1. Competitive suppression of Quercus douglasii (Fagaceae) seedling emergence and growth.

    PubMed

    Gordon, D R; Rice, K J

    2000-07-01

    Reduced recruitment of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) seedlings in California grasslands and woodlands may result from shifts in seasonal soil water availability coincident with replacement of the native perennial herbaceous community by Mediterranean annuals. We used a combination of container and field experiments to examine the interrelationships between soil water potential, herbaceous neighborhood composition, and blue oak seedling shoot emergence and growth. Neighborhoods of exotic annuals depleted soil moisture more rapidly than neighborhoods of a perennial grass or "no-neighbor" controls. Although effects of neighborhood composition on oak seedling root elongation were not statistically significant, seedling shoot emergence was significantly inhibited in the annual neighborhoods where soil water was rapidly depleted. Seedling water status directly reflected soil water potential, which also determined the extent and duration of oak seedling growth during the first year. End-of-season seedling height significantly influenced survival and growth in subsequent years. While growth and survival of blue oak seedlings may be initially constrained by competition with herbaceous species, subsequent competition with adult blue oak trees may further contribute to reduced sapling recruitment.

  2. Species-Specific Effects of Woody Litter on Seedling Emergence and Growth of Herbaceous Plants

    PubMed Central

    Koorem, Kadri; Price, Jodi N.; Moora, Mari

    2011-01-01

    The effect of litter on seedling establishment can influence species richness in plant communities. The effect of litter depends on amount, and also on litter type, but relatively little is known about the species-specific effects of litter. We conducted a factorial greenhouse experiment to examine the effect of litter type, using two woody species that commonly co-occur in boreonemoral forest—evergreen spruce (Picea abies), deciduous hazel (Corylus avellana), and a mixture of the two species—and litter amount—shallow (4 mm), deep (12 mm) and leachate—on seedling emergence and biomass of three understorey species. The effect of litter amount on seedling emergence was highly dependent on litter type; while spruce needle litter had a significant negative effect that increased with depth, seedling emergence in the presence of hazel broadleaf litter did not differ from control pots containing no litter. Mixed litter of both species also had a negative effect on seedling emergence that was intermediate compared to the single-species treatments. Spruce litter had a marginally positive (shallow) or neutral effect (deep) on seedling biomass, while hazel and mixed litter treatments had significant positive effects on biomass that increased with depth. We found non-additive effects of litter mixtures on seedling biomass indicating that high quality hazel litter can reduce the negative effects of spruce. Hazel litter does not inhibit seedling emergence; it increases seedling growth, and creates better conditions for seedling growth in mixtures by reducing the suppressive effect of spruce litter, having a positive effect on understorey species richness. PMID:22028890

  3. Seed Priming with Selenium: Consequences for Emergence, Seedling Growth, and Biochemical Attributes of Rice.

    PubMed

    Khaliq, Abdul; Aslam, Farhena; Matloob, Amar; Hussain, Saddam; Geng, Mingjian; Wahid, Abdul; ur Rehman, Hafeez

    2015-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to appraise the role of selenium priming for improving emergence and seedling growth of basmati rice. Seeds of two fine rice cultivars (Super and Shaheen Basmati) were primed with concentrations of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, and 105 μmol L(-1) selenium. Untreated dry- and hydro-primed seeds were maintained as the control and positive control, respectively. Selenium priming resulted in early commencement of emergence, triggered seedling growth irrespective of rice cultivar over untreated control, and was more effective than hydro-priming except at higher concentrations. Lower electrical conductivity of seed leachates, reduced lipid peroxidation, greater α-amylase activity, higher soluble sugars, and enhanced activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX)) were observed in seeds primed with selenium. Rice seedlings derived from selenium-primed seeds exhibited more chlorophyll contents, while total phenolics were comparable with those of the control seedlings. The improved starch metabolism, greater membrane stability, and increased activity of antioxidants were considered as possible mechanisms responsible for such improvements in emergence and seedling vigor of rice mediated by selenium priming. Priming with selenium (15-60 μmol L(-1)) favored rice emergence and seedling growth. Nevertheless, soaking seeds in relatively concentrated (90 and 105 μmol L(-1)) selenium solution had overall detrimental effects.

  4. Seedling emergence, growth and trace elements tolerance and accumulation by Lamiaceae species in a mine soil.

    PubMed

    Parra, A; Zornoza, R; Conesa, E; Gómez-López, M D; Faz, A

    2014-10-01

    The potential use of three Laminaceae species (Lavandula dentata, Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris) for the phytostabilisation of a trace elements contaminated (acid) soil has been evaluated. These species were grown in mine tailing soil unamended (TS) and amended with calcium carbonate and pig manure (ATS), and unpolluted substrate for control (CT); plant growth, root characterisation, soil trace elements contents and their accumulation in plants were measured. Results indicated that seed emergence was independent from substrate characteristics, but seedlings died in TS with 40% survival in ATS. The biomass of L. dentata and T. vulgaris and root development in R. officinalis were negatively affected when grown in TS but without differences between ATS and CT. Applicating amendments reduced soil exchangeable and extractable fractions concentrations of trace elements in ATS compared with TS. The establishment of L. dentata and R. officinalis were related to trace elements immobilisation. Trace element concentrations in plants grown in tailing soils were similar to those reported for control, although applicating amendments reduced Zn accumulation in all species, and favoured increased absorption and aerial translocation of As and Pb by L. dentata and T. vulgaris; nonetheless, levels were below toxicity thresholds. Thus, these species fulfill the criteria for phytostabilisation purposes, aided by employing amendments.

  5. Negative and positive interactions among plants: effects of competitors and litter on seedling emergence and growth of forest and grassland species.

    PubMed

    Loydi, A; Donath, T W; Otte, A; Eckstein, R L

    2015-05-01

    Living plant neighbours, but also their dead aboveground remains (i.e. litter), may individually exert negative or positive effects on plant recruitment. Although living plants and litter co-occur in most ecosystems, few studies have addressed their combined effects, and conclusions are ambivalent. Therefore, we examined the response in terms of seedling emergence and growth of herbaceous grassland and forest species to different litter types and amounts and the presence of competitors. We conducted a pot experiment testing the effects of litter type (grass, oak), litter amount (low, medium, high) and interspecific competition (presence or absence of four Festuca arundinacea individuals) on seedling emergence and biomass of four congeneric pairs of hemicryptophytes from two habitat types (woodland, grassland). Interactions between litter and competition were weak. Litter presence increased competitor biomass. It also had positive effects on seedling emergence at low litter amounts and negative effects at high litter amounts, while competition had no effect on seedling emergence. Seedling biomass was negatively affected by the presence of competitors, and this effect was stronger in combination with high amounts of litter. Litter affected seedling emergence while competition determined the biomass of the emerged individuals, both affecting early stages of seedling recruitment. High litter accumulation also reduced seedling biomass, but this effect seemed to be additive to competitor effects. This suggests that live and dead plant mass can affect species recruitment in natural systems, but the mechanisms by which they operate and their timing differ.

  6. Facilitative and Inhibitory Effect of Litter on Seedling Emergence and Early Growth of Six Herbaceous Species in an Early Successional Old Field Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Yu, Pujia; Chen, Xiaoying; Li, Guangdi; Zhou, Daowei; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, a field experiment was conducted to examine effects of litter on seedling emergence and early growth of four dominant weed species from the early successional stages of old field ecosystem and two perennial grassland species in late successional stages. Our results showed that increased litter cover decreased soil temperature and temperature variability over time and improved soil moisture status. Surface soil electrical conductivity increased as litter increased. The increased litter delayed seedling emergence time and rate. The emergence percentage of seedlings and establishment success rate firstly increased then decreased as litter cover increased. When litter biomass was below 600 g m−2, litter increased seedlings emergence and establishment success in all species. With litter increasing, the basal diameter of seedling decreased, but seedling height increased. Increasing amounts of litter tended to increase seedling dry weight and stem leaf ratio. Different species responded differently to the increase of litter. Puccinellia tenuiflora and Chloris virgata will acquire more emergence benefits under high litter amount. It is predicted that Chloris virgata will dominate further in this natural succession old field ecosystem with litter accumulation. Artificial P. tenuiflora seeds addition may be required to accelerate old field succession toward matured grassland. PMID:25110722

  7. Facilitative and inhibitory effect of litter on seedling emergence and early growth of six herbaceous species in an early successional old field ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Yu, Pujia; Chen, Xiaoying; Li, Guangdi; Zhou, Daowei; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, a field experiment was conducted to examine effects of litter on seedling emergence and early growth of four dominant weed species from the early successional stages of old field ecosystem and two perennial grassland species in late successional stages. Our results showed that increased litter cover decreased soil temperature and temperature variability over time and improved soil moisture status. Surface soil electrical conductivity increased as litter increased. The increased litter delayed seedling emergence time and rate. The emergence percentage of seedlings and establishment success rate firstly increased then decreased as litter cover increased. When litter biomass was below 600 g m(-2), litter increased seedlings emergence and establishment success in all species. With litter increasing, the basal diameter of seedling decreased, but seedling height increased. Increasing amounts of litter tended to increase seedling dry weight and stem leaf ratio. Different species responded differently to the increase of litter. Puccinellia tenuiflora and Chloris virgata will acquire more emergence benefits under high litter amount. It is predicted that Chloris virgata will dominate further in this natural succession old field ecosystem with litter accumulation. Artificial P. tenuiflora seeds addition may be required to accelerate old field succession toward matured grassland.

  8. Isolation, screening, characterization, and selection of superior rhizobacterial strains as bioinoculants for seedling emergence and growth promotion of Mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco).

    PubMed

    Thokchom, Elizabeth; Kalita, Mohan Chandra; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra

    2014-02-01

    Mandarin orange (MO) is an important fruit crop of tropical and subtropical regions of the world. A total of 217 morphologically distinct rhizobacteria from MO orchards in 3 states of northeastern India were isolated and analyzed for 4 plant-growth-promoting (PGP) attributes: nitrogen fixation, production of indole acetic acid like substances, solubilization of phosphate, and ability to antagonize pathogenic fungi. Isolates were ranked based on in-vitro-assayed PGP attributes, and 10 superior isolates were selected to test their effect on seedling emergence and seedling growth in a completely randomized pot experiment. These 10 isolates increased seedling emergence over a noninoculated control within 45 days after sowing. Five isolates, namely RCE1, RCE2, RCE3, RCE5, and RCE7, significantly increased shoot length, shoot dry biomass, and root dry biomass of 120-day-old seedlings over the noninoculated control. The beneficial effects of 4 selected strains, namely Enterobacter hormaechei RCE-1, Enterobacter asburiae RCE-2, Enterobacter ludwigii RCE-5, and Klebsiella pneumoniae RCE-7, on growth of the seedlings were visible up to 1 year after their transfer to 8 kg capacity pots. These strains were superior both in terms of in-vitro-assayed PGP attributes and of their beneficial effect in low phosphorus soil and, thus, may be promising bioinoculants for promoting early emergence and growth of MO seedlings.

  9. Effects of soil conditioners on emergence and growth of tomato-cotton, and lettuce seedlings. [Lycopersicon esculentum; Gossypium hirsutum; Lactuea sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.; Wallace, G.A.

    1986-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the extent to which seedling emergence and plant growth can be improved with use of new soil conditioners. The early findings regarding polymeric soil conditioners are still valid today, with the exception that much lower application rates are needed today, and different application methodology is available.

  10. Incorporation of plant growth regulators into the priming solution improves sugar beet germination, emergence and seedling growth at low-temperature.

    PubMed

    Govahi, Mostafa; Arvin, Mohammad Javad; Saffari, Ghazaleh

    2007-10-01

    In a series of experiments, impact of inclusion of plant growth regulators into the KNO3 priming solution on low temperature seed germination, emergence percentage and seedling growth of sugar beet was investigated. Seeds were primed in 3% KNO3 solution for 6 days at 25 degrees C in darkness containing one of the following: 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, or 1 mM acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) or 1, 3, 5 or 10 microM methyl jasmonated (MeJA). A non-primed treatment was also included in the experiment. Priming seeds in the presence or absence of plant growth regulators in general improved final germination percentage (FGP), germination rate (G50) and germination synchrony (G10-90) at 15 degrees C compared with non-primed seeds which had an FGP of 42%, G50 of 11.3 days and G10-90 of 11.7 days. Priming seeds in KNO3 solution containing 0.05 mM of ASA resulted in the highest germination percentage (89%), fastest germination rate (G50 = 5.3 days) and the most synchronous germination (G10-90 = 10.7 days). Emergence percentages were the highest for the seeds primed in the presence of 0.05 mM ASA (83%) and 3 microM MeJA (81%) while non-primed seeds had an emergence percentage of 40%. Fastest emergence rate (E50) were also obtained from seeds primed in KNO3 supplemented with 3 microM MeJA (E50 = 14.4 days) and 0.05 mM ASA (E50 = 14.4 days). Shoot fresh and dry weight of seedlings were significantly affected by treatments and priming in the presence of 0.05 mM ASA resulted in highest seedling shoot fresh and dry weight. These results indicate that priming seeds in 0.05 mM of ASA or 3 microM MeJA incorporated into the KNO3 solution can be more effective than KNO3 alone to improve low temperature germination performance of seeds and subsequent seedling growth.

  11. Pre-sowing Seed Treatments in Direct-seeded Early Rice: Consequences for Emergence, Seedling Growth and Associated Metabolic Events under Chilling Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiqin; Chen, Qian; Hussain, Saddam; Mei, Junhao; Dong, Huanglin; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2016-01-01

    Double direct-seeding for double rice cropping is a simplified, labor saving, and efficient cropping system to improve multiple-crop index and total rice production in central China. However, poor crop establishment of direct-seeded early rice due to chilling stress is the main obstacle to wide spread of this system. A series of experiments were conducted to unravel the effects of pre-sowing seed treatments on emergence, seedling growth and associated metabolic events of direct-seeded early rice under chilling stress. Two seed priming treatments and two seed coating treatments were used in all the experiments. A non-treated control treatment was also maintained for comparison. In both the field and growth chamber studies, seed priming with selenium or salicylic acid significantly enhanced the emergence and seedling growth of rice compared with non-treated control. Nevertheless, such positive effects were not apparent for seed coating treatments. Better emergence and vigorous seedling growth of rice after seed priming was associated with enhanced α-amylase activity, higher soluble sugars contents, and greater respiration rate in primed rice seedlings under chilling stress. Taking together, these findings may provide new avenues for understanding and advancing priming-induced chilling tolerance in direct-seeded early rice in double rice cropping system.

  12. Pre-sowing Seed Treatments in Direct-seeded Early Rice: Consequences for Emergence, Seedling Growth and Associated Metabolic Events under Chilling Stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiqin; Chen, Qian; Hussain, Saddam; Mei, Junhao; Dong, Huanglin; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2016-01-19

    Double direct-seeding for double rice cropping is a simplified, labor saving, and efficient cropping system to improve multiple-crop index and total rice production in central China. However, poor crop establishment of direct-seeded early rice due to chilling stress is the main obstacle to wide spread of this system. A series of experiments were conducted to unravel the effects of pre-sowing seed treatments on emergence, seedling growth and associated metabolic events of direct-seeded early rice under chilling stress. Two seed priming treatments and two seed coating treatments were used in all the experiments. A non-treated control treatment was also maintained for comparison. In both the field and growth chamber studies, seed priming with selenium or salicylic acid significantly enhanced the emergence and seedling growth of rice compared with non-treated control. Nevertheless, such positive effects were not apparent for seed coating treatments. Better emergence and vigorous seedling growth of rice after seed priming was associated with enhanced α-amylase activity, higher soluble sugars contents, and greater respiration rate in primed rice seedlings under chilling stress. Taking together, these findings may provide new avenues for understanding and advancing priming-induced chilling tolerance in direct-seeded early rice in double rice cropping system.

  13. Pre-sowing Seed Treatments in Direct-seeded Early Rice: Consequences for Emergence, Seedling Growth and Associated Metabolic Events under Chilling Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiqin; Chen, Qian; Hussain, Saddam; Mei, Junhao; Dong, Huanglin; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2016-01-01

    Double direct-seeding for double rice cropping is a simplified, labor saving, and efficient cropping system to improve multiple-crop index and total rice production in central China. However, poor crop establishment of direct-seeded early rice due to chilling stress is the main obstacle to wide spread of this system. A series of experiments were conducted to unravel the effects of pre-sowing seed treatments on emergence, seedling growth and associated metabolic events of direct-seeded early rice under chilling stress. Two seed priming treatments and two seed coating treatments were used in all the experiments. A non-treated control treatment was also maintained for comparison. In both the field and growth chamber studies, seed priming with selenium or salicylic acid significantly enhanced the emergence and seedling growth of rice compared with non-treated control. Nevertheless, such positive effects were not apparent for seed coating treatments. Better emergence and vigorous seedling growth of rice after seed priming was associated with enhanced α-amylase activity, higher soluble sugars contents, and greater respiration rate in primed rice seedlings under chilling stress. Taking together, these findings may provide new avenues for understanding and advancing priming-induced chilling tolerance in direct-seeded early rice in double rice cropping system. PMID:26782108

  14. Space Station Live: Seedling Growth

    NASA Video Gallery

    Public Affairs Officer Lori Meggs talks with Carol Jacobs, payload operations director at the Marshall Space Flight Center's POIC, about the Seedling Growth experiment talking place aboard the Inte...

  15. Temperature Requirements for Seed Germination and Seedling Development Determine Timing of Seedling Emergence of Three Monocotyledonous Temperate Forest Spring Geophytes

    PubMed Central

    Vandelook, Filip; Van Assche, Jozef A.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The optimal period for seedling emergence depends on factors such as habitat preference, life cycle and geographical distribution. This research was performed to clarify the role of temperature in regulating processes leading to seedling emergence of the European continental Scilla bifolia and the Atlantic Narcissus pseudonarcissus and Hyacinthoides non-scripta. Methods Experiments in natural conditions were performed to examine the phenology of embryo growth, seed germination in the soil and seedling emergence. Effects of temperature conditions on embryo growth, seed germination, seedling growth and leaf formation were studied in temperature-controlled incubators. Key Results In nature, embryo growth of all three species was initiated from the moment the seeds were dispersed in spring and continued during summer. A sequence of high temperature followed by a lower temperature was required to complete embryo growth and initiate germination. Seeds of H. non-scripta and N. pseudonarcissus germinated in autumn once they attained the critical E:S ratio, while seeds of S. bifolia started germinating when temperatures were low in winter. Seedlings developed normally, but slowly, only when placed in low temperature conditions (5 or 10 °C), resulting in a time lag between the moment of radicle protrusion and seedling emergence in the field. Conclusions A continuous development of the embryo and seedlings of the three species was observed from the moment the seeds were dispersed until seedlings emerged. A sequence of high summer temperatures followed by decreasing autumn and winter temperatures was required for all developmental processes to be completed. Although a time lag occurs between radicle protrusion and seedling emergence, the term ‘epicotyl dormancy’ does not apply here, due to the absence of a period of developmental arrest. Timing of first seedling emergence differed between the three species and could be related to differences in

  16. Seedling emergence on Sonoran desert dunes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowers, Janice E.

    1996-01-01

    Seedling emergence of psammophiles (plants restricted to active dunes) was examined with germination experiments and with field observations at the Algodones Dunes, California, U.S.A., and the Sierra del Rosario Dunes, Sonora, Mexico. In the field, perennial psammophiles germinated in response to smaller rainfall triggers (??? 10mm) than other woody desert plants (??? 16mm). In germination experiments, seedlings of three perennial psammophiles, Astragalus magdalenae var. peirsonii, Helianthus niveus subsp. tephrodes, and Palafoxia arida var. gigantea, emerged in larger numbers from greater soil depths than those of three nonpsammophiles, Cercidium microphyllum, Fouquieria splendens, and Palafoxia arida var. arida. Seed size for these six species did not correlate in any consistent fashion with emergence depth, suggesting that food reserves are not the only variable that ensures emergence of deeply buried psammophile seeds.

  17. Solar Ultraviolet-B Radiation Affects Seedling Emergence, DNA Integrity, Plant Morphology, Growth Rate, and Attractiveness to Herbivore Insects in Datura ferox.

    PubMed Central

    Ballare, C. L.; Scopel, A. L.; Stapleton, A. E.; Yanovsky, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    To study functional relationships between the effects of solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) on different aspects of the physiology of a wild plant, we carried out exclusion experiments in the field with the summer annual Datura ferox L. Solar UV-B incident over Buenos Aires reduced daytime seedling emergence, inhibited stem elongation and leaf expansion, and tended to reduce biomass accumulation during early growth. However, UV-B had no effect on calculated net assimilation rate. Using a monoclonal antibody specific to the cyclobutane-pyrimidine dimer (CPD), we found that plants receiving full sunlight had more CPDs per unit of DNA than plants shielded from solar UV-B, but the positive correlation between UV-B and CPD burden tended to level off at high (near solar) UV-B levels. At our field site, Datura plants were consumed by leaf beetles (Coleoptera), and the proportion of plants attacked by insects declined with the amount of UV-B received during growth. Field experiments showed that plant exposure to solar UV-B reduced the likelihood of leaf beetle attack by one-half. Our results highlight the complexities associated with scaling plant responses to solar UV-B, because they show: (a) a lack of correspondence between UV-B effects on net assimilation rate and whole-plant growth rate, (b) nonlinear UV-B dose-response curves, and (c) UV-B effects of plant attractiveness to natural herbivores. PMID:12226382

  18. Solar ultraviolet-B radiation affects seedling emergence, DNA integrity, plant morphology, growth rate, and attractiveness to herbivore insects in Datura ferox

    SciTech Connect

    Ballare, C.L.; Scopel, A.L.; Stapleton, A.E.

    1996-09-01

    To study functional relationships between the effects of solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV0B) on different aspects of the physiology of a wild plant, we carried out exclusion experiments in the field with the summer annual Datura ferrox L. Solar UV-B incident over Buenos Aires reduced daytime seedling emergence, inhibited stem elongation and leaf expansion, and tended to reduce biomass accumulation during early growth. However, UV-B had no effect on calculated net assimilation rate. Using a monoclonal antibody specific to the cyclobutane-pyrimidine dimer (CPD), we found that plants receiving full sunlight had more CPDs per unit of DNA than plants shielded from solar UV-B, but the positive correlation between UV-B and CPD burden tended to level off at high (near solar) UV-B levels. At our field site, Datura plants were consumed by leaf beetles (Coleoptera), and the proportion of plants attacked by insects declined with the amount of UV-B received during growth. Field experiments showed that plant exposure to solar UV-B reduced the likelihood of leaf beetle attack by one-half. Our results highlight the complexities associated with scaling plant responses to solar UV-B, because they show: (a) a lack of correspondence between UV-B effects on net assimilation rate and whole-plant growth rate, (b) nonlinear UV-B dose-response curves, and (c) UV-B effects of plant attractiveness to natural herbivores. 56 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Seed Mucilage Improves Seedling Emergence of a Sand Desert Shrub

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuejun; Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Liu, Guangzheng; Huang, Zhenying

    2012-01-01

    The success of seedling establishment of desert plants is determined by seedling emergence response to an unpredictable precipitation regime. Sand burial is a crucial and frequent environmental stress that impacts seedling establishment on sand dunes. However, little is known about the ecological role of seed mucilage in seedling emergence in arid sandy environments. We hypothesized that seed mucilage enhances seedling emergence in a low precipitation regime and under conditions of sand burial. In a greenhouse experiment, two types of Artemisia sphaerocephala achenes (intact and demucilaged) were exposed to different combinations of burial depth (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 mm) and irrigation regimes (low, medium and high, which simulated the precipitation amount and frequency in May, June and July in the natural habitat, respectively). Seedling emergence increased with increasing irrigation. It was highest at 5 mm sand burial depth and ceased at burial depths greater than 20 mm in all irrigation regimes. Mucilage significantly enhanced seedling emergence at 0, 5 and 10 mm burial depths in low irrigation, at 0 and 5 mm burial depths in medium irrigation and at 0 and 10 mm burial depths in high irrigation. Seed mucilage also reduced seedling mortality at the shallow sand burial depths. Moreover, mucilage significantly affected seedling emergence time and quiescence and dormancy percentages. Our findings suggest that seed mucilage plays an ecologically important role in successful seedling establishment of A. sphaerocephala by improving seedling emergence and reducing seedling mortality in stressful habitats of the sandy desert environment. PMID:22511952

  20. [Characterization of growth-promoting rhizobacteria in Eucalyptus nitens seedlings].

    PubMed

    Angulo, Violeta C; Sanfuentes, Eugenio A; Rodríguez, Francisco; Sossa, Katherine E

    2014-01-01

    Rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria were isolated from the rizosphere and root tissue of Eucalyptus nitens. The objective of this work was to evaluate their capacity to promote growth in seedlings of the same species under greenhouse conditions. The isolates that improved seedling growth were identified and characterized by their capacity to produce indoleacetic acid (IAA), solubilize phosphates and increase 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. One hundred and five morphologically different strains were isolated, 15 of which promoted E. nitens seedling growth, significantly increasing the height (50%), root length (45%) as well as the aerial and root dry weight (142% and 135% respectively) of the plants. Bacteria belonged to the genus Arthrobacter, Lysinibacillus, Rahnella and Bacillus. Isolates A. phenanthrenivorans 21 and B. cereus 113 improved 3.15 times the emergence of E. nitens after 12 days, compared to control samples. Among isolated R. aquatilis, 78 showed the highest production of IAA (97.5±2.87 μg/ml) in the presence of tryptophan and the highest solubilizer index (2.4) for phosphorus, while B. amyloliquefaciens 60 isolate was positive for ACC deaminase activity. Our results reveal the potential of the studied rhizobacteria as promoters of emergence and seedling growth of E. nitens, and their possible use as PGPR inoculants, since they have more than one mechanism associated with plant growth promotion.

  1. Adaptation to flooding during emergence and seedling growth in rice and weeds, and implications for crop establishment

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Abdelbagi M.; Johnson, David E.; Ella, Evangelina S.; Vergara, Georgina V.; Baltazar, Aurora M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Direct seeding of rice is being adopted in rainfed and irrigated lowland ecosystems because it reduces labour costs in addition to other benefits. However, early flooding due to uneven fields or rainfall slows down seed germination and hinders crop establishment. Conversely, early flooding helps suppress weeds and reduces the costs of manual weeding and/or dependence on herbicides; however, numerous weed species are adapted to lowlands and present challenges for the use of flooding to control weeds. Advancing knowledge on the mechanisms of tolerance of flooding during germination and early growth in rice and weeds could facilitate the development of improved rice varieties and effective weed management practices for direct-seeded rice. Principal results Rice genotypes with a greater ability to germinate and establish in flooded soils were identified, providing opportunities to develop varieties suitable for direct seeding in flooded soils. Tolerance of flooding in these genotypes was mostly attributed to traits associated with better ability to mobilize stored carbohydrates and anaerobic metabolism. Limited studies were undertaken in weeds associated with lowland rice systems. Remaining studies compared rice and weeds and related weed species such as Echinochloa crus-galli and E. colona or compared ecotypes of the same species of Cyperus rotundus adapted to either aerobic or flooded soils. Conclusions Tolerant weeds and rice genotypes mostly developed similar adaptive traits that allow them to establish in flooded fields, including the ability to germinate and elongate faster under hypoxia, mobilize stored starch reserves and generate energy through fermentation pathways. Remarkably, some weeds developed additional traits such as larger storage tubers that enlarge further in deeper flooded soils (C. rotundus). Unravelling the mechanisms involved in adaptation to flooding will help design management options that will allow tolerant rice genotypes

  2. Seedling growth and development on space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowles, J.; Lemay, R.; Jahns, G.

    1994-01-01

    Young pine seedlings, and mung bean and oat seeds were flown on shuttle flights, STS-3 and STS-51F, in March, 1982 and July/August, 1985, respectively. The plant growth units built to support the two experiments functioned mechanically as anticipated and provided the necessary support data. Pine seedlings exposed to the microgravity environment of the space shuttle for 8 days continued to grow at a rate similar to ground controls. Pine stems in flight seedlings, however, averaged 10 to 12% less lignin than controls. Flight mung beans grew slower than control beans and their stems contained about 25% less lignin than control seedlings. Reduced mung bean growth in microgravity was partly due to slower germination rate. Lignin also was reduced in flight oats as compared to controls. Oats and mung beans exhibited upward growing roots which were not observed in control seedlings. Chlorophyll A/B ratios were lower in flight tissues than controls. The sealed PGCs exhibited large variations in atmospheric gas composition but the changes were similar between flight and ground controls. Ethylene was present in low concentrations in all chambers.

  3. Measurement of seedling growth rate by machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, M. Scott; Stanwood, Phillip C.

    1993-05-01

    Seed vigor and germination tests have traditionally been used to determine deterioration of seed samples. Vigor tests describe the seed potential to emerge and produce a mature crop under certain field conditions and one measure is seedling growth rate. A machine vision system was developed to measure root growth rate over the entire germination period. The machine vision measurement technique was compared to the manual growth rate technique. The vision system provided similar growth rate measurements as compared to the manual growth rate technique. The average error between the system and a manual measurement was -0.13 for the lettuce test and -0.07 for the sorghum test. This technique also provided an accurate representation of the growth rate as well as percent germination.

  4. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria affect the growth and nutrient uptake of Fraxinus americana container seedlings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangchun; Xing, Shangjun; Ma, Hailin; Du, Zhenyu; Ma, Bingyao

    2013-05-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are important catalysts that regulate the functional properties of agricultural systems. However, there is little information on the effect of PGPR inoculation on the growth and nutrient accumulation of forest container seedlings. This study determined the effects of a growth medium inoculated with PGPR on the nutrient uptake, nutrient accumulation, and growth of Fraxinus americana container seedlings. PGPR inoculation with fertilizer increased the dry matter accumulation of the F. americana aerial parts with delayed seedling emergence time. Under fertilized conditions, the accumulation time of phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) in the F. americana aerial parts was 13 days longer due to PGPR inoculation. PGPR increased the maximum daily P and K accumulations in fertilized seedlings by 9.31 and 10.44 %, respectively, but had little impact on unfertilized ones. Regardless of fertilizer application, the root exudates, namely sugars, amino acids, and organic acids significantly increased because of PGPR inoculation. PGPR inoculation with fertilizer increased the root, shoot, and leaf yields by 19.65, 22.94, and 19.44 %, respectively, as well as the P and K contents by 8.33 and 10.60 %, respectively. Consequently, the N, P, and K uptakes increased by 19.85, 31.97, and 33.95 %, respectively. Hence, PGPR inoculation with fertilizer can be used as a bioenhancer for plant growth and nutrient uptake in forest container seedling nurseries.

  5. Storage oil hydrolysis during early seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Quettier, Anne-Laure; Eastmond, Peter J

    2009-06-01

    Storage oil breakdown plays an important role in the life cycle of many plants by providing the carbon skeletons that support seedling growth immediately following germination. This metabolic process is initiated by lipases (EC: 3.1.1.3), which catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs) to release free fatty acids and glycerol. A number of lipases have been purified to near homogeneity from seed tissues and analysed for their in vitro activities. Furthermore, several genes encoding lipases have been cloned and characterised from plants. However, only recently has data been presented to establish the molecular identity of a lipase that has been shown to be required for TAG breakdown in seeds. In this review we briefly outline the processes of TAG synthesis and breakdown. We then discuss some of the biochemical literature on seed lipases and describe the cloning and characterisation of a lipase called SUGAR-DEPENDENT1, which is required for TAG breakdown in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.

  6. Effects of graphene on seed germination and seedling growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming; Gao, Bin; Chen, Jianjun; Li, Yuncong

    2015-02-01

    The environmental impact of graphene has recently attracted great attention. In this work, we show that graphene at a low concentration affected tomato seed germination and seedling growth. Graphene-treated seeds germinated much faster than control seeds. Analytical results indicated that graphene penetrated seed husks. The penetration might break the husks to facilitate water uptake, resulting in faster germination and higher germination rates. At the stage of seedling growth, graphene was also able to penetrate root tip cells. Seedlings germinated from graphene-treated seeds had slightly lower biomass accumulation than the control, but exhibited significantly longer stems and roots than the control, which suggests that graphene, in contrast with other nanoparticles, had different effects on seedling growth. Taken together, our results imply that graphene played complicated roles in affecting the initial stage of seed germination and subsequent seedling growth.

  7. Phosphorus limits Eucalyptus grandis seedling growth in an unburnt rain forest soil

    PubMed Central

    Tng, David Y. P.; Janos, David P.; Jordan, Gregory J.; Weber, Ellen; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Although rain forest is characterized as pyrophobic, pyrophilic giant eucalypts grow as rain forest emergents in both temperate and tropical Australia. In temperate Australia, such eucalypts depend on extensive, infrequent fires to produce conditions suitable for seedling growth. Little is known, however, about constraints on seedlings of tropical giant eucalypts. We tested whether seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis experience edaphic constraints similar to their temperate counterparts. We hypothesized that phosphorous addition would alleviate edaphic constraints. We grew seedlings in a factorial experiment combining fumigation (to simulate nutrient release and soil pasteurization by fire), soil type (E. grandis forest versus rain forest soil) and phosphorus addition as factors. We found that phosphorus was the principal factor limiting E. grandis seedling survival and growth in rain forest soil, and that fumigation enhanced survival of seedlings in both E. grandis forest and rain forest soil. We conclude that similar to edaphic constraints on temperate giant eucalypts, mineral nutrient and biotic attributes of a tropical rain forest soil may hamper E. grandis seedling establishment. In rain forest soil, E. grandis seedlings benefited from conditions akin to a fire-generated ashbed (i.e., an “ashbed effect”). PMID:25339968

  8. Evaluation of Promalin to promote growth of young mangosteen seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major impediment to the development of a mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) industry is the long pre-bearing stage that seedlings take to produce fruits. A field study was conducted to determine the effect of Promalin on the growth of mangosteen seedlings. Promalin was applied as a foliar spray...

  9. Effects of gravel mulch on emergency of galleta grass seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Winkel, V.K.; Medrano, J.C.; Stanley, C.; Walo, M.D.

    1993-02-01

    Gravel mulches show promise as effective material on the US Dept. of Energy Nevada Test Site for stabilizing erosive soils and aiding plant establishment by conserving soil water. A greenhouse study was implemented to determine the effects of gravel mulch on seedling emergence and soil water, and optimal depths of gravel for various native plant species. Greenhouse flats were sown with seeds of nine species of native grasses, forbs, and shrubs. The flats were then treated with a variety of mulch treatments including, no mulch, a 1-cm layer of soil over seeds, and 2 to 3-cm and 4 to 5-cm layers of 3 to 25-mm mixed gravel. Superimposed over these treatments were 3 irrigation treatments. Seedling density data was collected daily, and soil water was monitored daily with the gravimetric method. This study showed that under a variety of soil water conditions, a 2--3 cm gravel layer may aid emergence of galleta grass. Results from this study also demonstrated that a deeper layer of gravel (4--5 cm) prohibits emergence, probably because it acts as a physical barrier to the seedlings. Galleta grass emergence can be used as a model for how other species might respond to these seedbed and irrigation treatments, provided they have adequate germination and are exposed to similar environmental conditions.

  10. ARC EMCS Experiments (Seedling Growth-2) Experiment Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heathcote, David; Steele, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Presentation of the status of the ARC ISS (International Space Station) Experiment, Seedling Growth-2 to the Payload Operations Investigator Working Group meeting at MSFC, Huntsville AL. The experiment employs the European Modular Cultivation System (ECMS).

  11. Process-based modeling of temperature and water profiles in the seedling recruitment zone: Part II. Seedling emergence timing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predictions of seedling emergence timing for spring wheat are facilitated by process-based modeling of the microsite environment in the shallow seedling recruitment zone. Hourly temperature and water profiles within the recruitment zone for 60 days after planting were simulated from the process-base...

  12. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons.

    PubMed

    Barry, Karen M; Janos, David P; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M J S

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT) followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations.

  13. Effects of topsoil removal on seedling emergence and species diversity

    SciTech Connect

    Winkel, V.K.; Ostler, W.K.

    1994-02-01

    Approximately 800 hectares on the US Department of Energy Nevada Test Site and vicinity are contaminated with Plutonium. As part of a cleanup effort, both the vegetation and the top 5--10 cm of soil may be removed. A study was developed to determine the effects of topsoil removal on seedling emergence and plant species diversity. Trial plots were prepared by removing 5, 10, or 20 cm of topsoil, seeding a mix of nine native species, mulching with straw, and then anchoring the straw with erosion netting. Additional plots (0 topsoil removal treatment) were lightly bladed to remove existing vegetation and then treated as above. Approximately 85 mm of supplemental irrigation was applied to help initiate germination during early spring. Seedling density data of seeded and nonseeded species was collected following emergence, and species diversity was calculated with the Shannon diversity index for the nonseeded species. Densities of seeded species either were unaffected by or increased with increased depth of topsoil removal. In general, densities of nonseeded species decreased with increased depth of topsoil removal. The number of species, species diversity and evenness also decreased with increased depth of topsoil removal. Initial emergence of seeded species is apparently unaffected by topsoil removal at this site.

  14. Ethylene-orchestrated circuitry coordinates a seedling's response to soil cover and etiolated growth.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shangwei; Shi, Hui; Xue, Chang; Wei, Ning; Guo, Hongwei; Deng, Xing Wang

    2014-03-18

    The early life of terrestrial seed plants often starts under the soil in subterranean darkness. Over time and through adaptation, plants have evolved an elaborate etiolation process that enables seedlings to emerge from soil and acquire autotrophic ability. This process, however, requires seedlings to be able to sense the soil condition and relay this information accordingly to modulate both the seedlings' growth and the formation of photosynthetic apparatus. The mechanism by which soil overlay drives morphogenetic changes in plants, however, remains poorly understood, particularly with regard to the means by which the cellular processes of different organs are coordinated in response to disparate soil conditions. Here, we illustrate that the soil overlay quantitatively activates seedlings' ethylene production, and an EIN3/EIN3-like 1-dependent ethylene-response cascade is required for seedlings to successfully emerge from the soil. Under soil, an ERF1 pathway is activated in the hypocotyl to slow down cell elongation, whereas a PIF3 pathway is activated in the cotyledon to control the preassembly of photosynthetic machinery. Moreover, this latter PIF3 pathway appears to be coupled to the ERF1-regulated upward-growth rate. The coupling of these two pathways facilitates the synchronized progression of etioplast maturation and hypocotyl growth, which, in turn, ultimately enables seedlings to maintain the amount of protochlorophyllide required for rapid acquisition of photoautotrophic capacity without suffering from photooxidative damage during the dark-to-light transition. Our findings illustrate the existence of a genetic signaling pathway driving soil-induced plant morphogenesis and define the specific role of ethylene in orchestrating organ-specific soil responses in Arabidopsis seedlings.

  15. Physio-anatomic aspects on the initial growth of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Scalon, Silvana P Q; Pereira, Heloisa H G; Glaeser, Daniele F; Silva, Jocemar J; Betoni, Roseli; Mussury, Rosilda M

    2011-06-01

    This paper aimed to evaluate the initial growth of "mutambo" seedlings in different conditions of light intensity and treatments with gibberellic acid (GA). The seedlings were kept under full sun and 50% of shading. Sixty days after the emergence, seedlings were sprayed with: 1) 100 mg L(-1) GA(3); 2) 200 mg L(-1) GA(3); 3) control. At the end of the appraisals, seedlings height under 50% of shading was compared to the height that were growing under full sun with 200 mg L(-1) GA. Stem diameter was lower under shading. Leaf area did not vary among the treatments, but the root system growth was higher under full sun and did not vary among GA levels. The number of stomata, trichomes and epidermal cells on adaxial and abaxial sides was higher under full sun. Total dry masses of leaf and root were highe runder full sun and with 200 mg L(-1) GA application. "Mutambo" seedlings presented a higher initial growth under full sun, although with a lower height, diameter, and lenght of the largest root and total dry masses of leaf and root were higher. A concentration with 200 mg L(-1) promoted a higher growth.

  16. Comparison of plasma generated nitrogen fertilizer to conventional fertilizers ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate for pre-emergent and seedling growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andhavarapu, A.; King, W.; Lindsay, A.; Byrns, B.; Knappe, D.; Fonteno, W.; Shannon, S.

    2014-10-01

    Plasma source generated nitrogen fertilizer is compared to conventional nitrogen fertilizers in water for plant growth. Root, shoot sizes, and weights are used to examine differences between plant treatment groups. With a simple coaxial structure creating a large-volume atmospheric glow discharge, a 162 MHz generator drives the air plasma. The VHF plasma source emits a steady state glow; the high drive frequency is believed to inhibit the glow-to-arc transition for non-thermal discharge generation. To create the plasma activated water (PAW) solutions used for plant treatment, the discharge is held over distilled water until a 100 ppm nitrate aqueous concentration is achieved. The discharge is used to incorporate nitrogen species into aqueous solution, which is used to fertilize radishes, marigolds, and tomatoes. In a four week experiment, these plants are watered with four different solutions: tap water, dissolved ammonium nitrate DI water, dissolved sodium nitrate DI water, and PAW. Ammonium nitrate solution has the same amount of total nitrogen as PAW; sodium nitrate solution has the same amount of nitrate as PAW. T-tests are used to determine statistical significance in plant group growth differences. PAW fertilization chemical mechanisms are presented.

  17. Growth of ponderosa pine seedlings as affected by air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momen, B.; Anderson, P. D.; Houpis, J. L. J.; Helms, J. A.

    The effect of air pollution on seedling survival and competitive ability is important to natural and artificial regeneration of forest trees. Although biochemical and physiological processes are sensitive indicators of pollution stress, the cumulative effects of air pollutants on seedling vigor and competitive ability may be assessed directly from whole-plant growth characteristics such as diameter, height, and photosynthetic area. A few studies that have examined intraspecific variation in seedling response to air pollution indicate that genotypic differences are important in assessing potential effects of air pollution on forest regeneration. Here, we studied the effects of acid rain (no-rain, pH 5.1 rain, pH 3.0 rain) and ozone (filtered, ambient, twice-ambient) in the field on height, diameter, volume, the height:diameter ratio, maximum needle length, and time to reach maximum needle length in seedlings of three families of ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws). Seedling diameter, height, volume, and height:diameter ratio related significantly to their pre-treatment values. Twice-ambient ozone decreased seedling diameter compared with ozone-filtered air. A significant family-by-ozone interaction was detected for seedling height, as the height of only one of the three families was decreased by twice-ambient ozone compared with the ambient level. Seedling diameter was larger and the height:diameter ratio was smaller under pH 3.0 rain compared to either the no-rain or the pH 5.1-rain treatment. This suggests greater seedling vigor, perhaps due to a foliar fertilization effect of the pH 3.0 rain.

  18. Magnetic treatment of irrigation water and snow pea and chickpea seeds enhances early growth and nutrient contents of seedlings.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Harsharn S; Maheshwari, Basant L

    2011-01-01

    The effects of magnetic treatment of irrigation water and snow pea (Pisum sativum L var. macrocarpon) and Kabuli chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) seeds on the emergence, early growth and nutrient contents of seedlings were investigated under glasshouse conditions. The treatments included (i) magnetic treatment of irrigation water (MTW), (ii) magnetic treatment of seeds (MTS), (iii) magnetic treatment of irrigation water and seeds (MTWS) and (iv) no magnetic treatment of irrigation water or seeds as control treatment. A magnetic treatment device with two permanent magnets (magnetic induction: 3.5-136 mT) was used for the above treatments. Seeds were sown in washed sand and seedlings were harvested at 20 days. The results showed that MTW led to a significant (P < 0.05) increase in emergence rate index (ERI; 42% for snow pea and 51% for chickpea), shoot dry weight (25% for snow pea and 20% for chickpea) and contents of N, K, Ca, Mg, S, Na, Zn, Fe and Mn in both seedling varieties compared to control seedlings. Likewise, there were significant increases in ERI (33% for snow peas and 37% for chickpea), shoot dry weight (11% for snow pea and 4% for chickpea) and some nutrients of snow pea and chickpea seedlings with MTS in comparison with the controls. The results of this study suggest that both MTW and MTS have the potential to improve the early seedling growth and nutrient contents of seedlings.

  19. Effects of gravel mulch on emergence of galleta grass seedlings. Oral summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Winkel, V.K.; Medrano, J.C.; Stanley, C.; Walo, M.D.

    1993-03-01

    The Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office, Technology Development and Program Management Division, has identified the need to clean up several sites on the Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range contaminated with surface plutonium. An important objective of the project identified as the Plutonium In Soils Integrated Demonstration is to develop technologies to stabilize and restore the disturbed sites after decontamination. Revegetation of these contaminated sites will be difficult due to their location in the arid Mojave and Great Basin Deserts. The major factors which will affect successful plant establishment and growth at these sites are limited and sporadic precipitation, limited soil water, extreme air and soil temperatures, limited topsoil, and herbivory . Research has shown that providing microsites for seed via mulching can aid in plant emergence and establishment. Since many of the soils at the sites slated for plutonium decontamination have a large percentage of gravel in the upper 10 cm of soil, the use of gravel as mulch could provide microsites for seed and stabilize soils during subsequent revegetation of the sites. In July 1992, EG&G/EM Environmental Sciences Department initiated a greenhouse study to examine the possible benefits of gravel mulch. The specific objectives of this greenhouse study were to: (1) determine the effects seedling emergence and soil water, and (2) determine effects of irrigation rates on seedling emergence for gravel mulches and other conventional seedbed preparation techniques. A secondary objective was to determine the depth of gravel mulch that was optimal for seedling emergence. Results from this greenhouse study will assist in formulating specific reclamation plans for sites chosen for cleanup.

  20. Altering the axial light gradient affects photomorphogenesis in emerging seedlings of Zea mays L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, B. M.; Poff, K. L.

    1986-01-01

    The axial (longitudinal) red light gradient (632 nanometers) of 4 day old dark-grown maize seedlings is increased by staining the peripheral cells of the coleoptile. The magnitude of increase in the light gradient is dependent solely on the light-absorbing qualities of the stain used. Metanil yellow has no effect on the axial red-light gradient, while methylene blue causes a large increase in this light gradient. These stains did not affect growth in darkness or the sensitivity of mesocotyl elongation to red light. However, mesocotyl elongation was altered for the dark-grown seedlings stained with methylene blue when these seedlings were transplanted, covered with soil, and permitted to emerge under natural lighting conditions. These observations are consistent with the idea that there is a single perceptive site below the coleoptilar node, and suggest that this perceptive site gives the actinic light which has traveled downward through the length of the shoot from an entry point in the plant tip region.

  1. Effects of flooding regime and seedling treatment on early survival and growth of nuttall oak

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkett, V.R.; Draugelis-Dale, R.O.; Williams, H.M.; Schoenholtz, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of flooding on survival and growth of three different types of Nuttall oak (Quercus texana Buckl.) seedlings were observed at the end of third and fifth growing seasons at Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge, Mississippi, U.S.A. Three types of seedlings were planted in January 1995 in a split-plot design, with four replications at each of two elevations on floodprone, former cropland in Sharkey clay soil. The lower of the two planting elevations was inundated for 21 days during the first growing season, whereas the higher elevation did not flood during the 5-year period of this study. The three types of 1-0 seedlings were bareroot seedlings, seedlings grown in containers (3.8 ?? 21a??cm plastic seedling cones), and container-grown seedlings inoculated with vegetative mycelia of Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker. Survival of all the three seedling types was greatest at the lower, intermittently flooded elevation, indicating that drought and related effects on plant competition were more limiting to seedling survival than flooding. At the lower elevation, survival of mycorrhizal-inoculated container seedlings was greater than that of noninoculated container seedlings. Survival among bareroot seedlings and inoculated container seedlings was not significantly different at either elevation. At the higher, nonflooded elevation, however, bareroot seedling survival was greater than the survival of container seedlings without inoculation. Differences were significant among the inoculated and the noninoculated container seedlings, with higher survival of inoculated seedlings at both elevations, though differences were only significant in year 3. At the end of the fifth year, height of bareroot seedlings was significantly greater than the heights of both types of container-grown seedlings at both planting elevations. Because seedlings grown in the plastic seedlings cones did not survive better than the bareroot seedlings at either planting elevation, the bareroot stock

  2. Organic matter loading affects lodgepole pine seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaohua; Li, Qinglin; Waterhouse, M J; Armleder, H M

    2012-06-01

    Organic matter plays important roles in returning nutrients to the soil, maintaining forest productivity and creating habitats in forest ecosystems. Forest biomass is in increasing demand for energy production, and organic matter has been considered as a potential supply. Thus, an important management question is how much organic matter should be retained after forest harvesting to maintain forest productivity. To address this question, an experimental trial was established in 1996 to evaluate the responses of lodgepole pine seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments. Four organic matter loading treatments were randomly assigned to each of four homogeneous pine sites: removal of all organic matter on the forest floor, organic matter loading quantity similar to whole-tree-harvesting residuals left on site, organic matter loading quantity similar to stem-only-harvesting residuals, and organic matter loading quantity more similar to what would be found in disease- or insect-killed stands. Our 10-year data showed that height and diameter had 29 and 35 % increase, respectively, comparing the treatment with the most organic matter loading to the treatment with the least organic matter loading. The positive response of seedling growth to organic matter loading may be associated with nutrients and/or microclimate change caused by organic matter, and requires further study. The dynamic response of seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments highlights the importance of long-term studies. Implications of those results on organic matter management are discussed in the context of forest productivity sustainability.

  3. Organic Matter Loading Affects Lodgepole Pine Seedling Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaohua; Li, Qinglin; Waterhouse, M. J.; Armleder, H. M.

    2012-06-01

    Organic matter plays important roles in returning nutrients to the soil, maintaining forest productivity and creating habitats in forest ecosystems. Forest biomass is in increasing demand for energy production, and organic matter has been considered as a potential supply. Thus, an important management question is how much organic matter should be retained after forest harvesting to maintain forest productivity. To address this question, an experimental trial was established in 1996 to evaluate the responses of lodgepole pine seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments. Four organic matter loading treatments were randomly assigned to each of four homogeneous pine sites: removal of all organic matter on the forest floor, organic matter loading quantity similar to whole-tree-harvesting residuals left on site, organic matter loading quantity similar to stem-only-harvesting residuals, and organic matter loading quantity more similar to what would be found in disease- or insect-killed stands. Our 10-year data showed that height and diameter had 29 and 35 % increase, respectively, comparing the treatment with the most organic matter loading to the treatment with the least organic matter loading. The positive response of seedling growth to organic matter loading may be associated with nutrients and/or microclimate change caused by organic matter, and requires further study. The dynamic response of seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments highlights the importance of long-term studies. Implications of those results on organic matter management are discussed in the context of forest productivity sustainability.

  4. Seedling Emergence and Phenotypic Response of Common Bean Germplasm to Different Temperatures under Controlled Conditions and in Open Field

    PubMed Central

    De Ron, Antonio M.; Rodiño, Ana P.; Santalla, Marta; González, Ana M.; Lema, María J.; Martín, Isaura; Kigel, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and uniform seed germination and seedling emergence under diverse environmental conditions is a desirable characteristic for crops. Common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) differ in their low temperature tolerance regarding growth and yield. Cultivars tolerant to low temperature during the germination and emergence stages and carriers of the grain quality standards demanded by consumers are needed for the success of the bean crop. The objectives of this study were (i) to screen the seedling emergence and the phenotypic response of bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled chamber and field conditions to display stress-tolerant genotypes with good agronomic performances and yield potential, and (ii) to compare the emergence of bean seedlings under controlled environment and in open field conditions to assess the efficiency of genebanks standard germination tests for predicting the performance of the seeds in the field. Three trials were conducted with 28 dry bean genotypes in open field and in growth chamber under low, moderate, and warm temperature. Morpho-agronomic data were used to evaluate the phenotypic performance of the different genotypes. Cool temperatures resulted in a reduction of the rate of emergence in the bean genotypes, however, emergence and early growth of bean could be under different genetic control and these processes need further research to be suitably modeled. Nine groups arose from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) representing variation in emergence time and proportion of emergence in the controlled chamber and in the open field indicating a trend to lower emergence in large and extra-large seeded genotypes. Screening of seedling emergence and phenotypic response of the bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled growth chambers and under field conditions showed several genotypes, as landraces 272, 501, 593, and the cultivar Borlotto, with stress-tolerance at emergence, and high yield

  5. Seedling Emergence and Phenotypic Response of Common Bean Germplasm to Different Temperatures under Controlled Conditions and in Open Field.

    PubMed

    De Ron, Antonio M; Rodiño, Ana P; Santalla, Marta; González, Ana M; Lema, María J; Martín, Isaura; Kigel, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and uniform seed germination and seedling emergence under diverse environmental conditions is a desirable characteristic for crops. Common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) differ in their low temperature tolerance regarding growth and yield. Cultivars tolerant to low temperature during the germination and emergence stages and carriers of the grain quality standards demanded by consumers are needed for the success of the bean crop. The objectives of this study were (i) to screen the seedling emergence and the phenotypic response of bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled chamber and field conditions to display stress-tolerant genotypes with good agronomic performances and yield potential, and (ii) to compare the emergence of bean seedlings under controlled environment and in open field conditions to assess the efficiency of genebanks standard germination tests for predicting the performance of the seeds in the field. Three trials were conducted with 28 dry bean genotypes in open field and in growth chamber under low, moderate, and warm temperature. Morpho-agronomic data were used to evaluate the phenotypic performance of the different genotypes. Cool temperatures resulted in a reduction of the rate of emergence in the bean genotypes, however, emergence and early growth of bean could be under different genetic control and these processes need further research to be suitably modeled. Nine groups arose from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) representing variation in emergence time and proportion of emergence in the controlled chamber and in the open field indicating a trend to lower emergence in large and extra-large seeded genotypes. Screening of seedling emergence and phenotypic response of the bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled growth chambers and under field conditions showed several genotypes, as landraces 272, 501, 593, and the cultivar Borlotto, with stress-tolerance at emergence, and high yield

  6. Amino Acid Utilization in Seeds of Loblolly Pine during Germination and Early Seedling Growth (I. Arginine and Arginase Activity).

    PubMed Central

    King, J. E.; Gifford, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    The mobilization and utilization of the major storage proteins in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seeds following imbibition were investigated. Most of the seed protein reserves were contained within the megagametophyte. Breakdown of these proteins occurred primarily following radicle emergence and correlated with a substantial increase in the free amino acid pool in the seedling; the majority of this increase appeared to be the result of export from the megagametophyte. The megagametophyte was able to break down storage proteins and export free amino acids in the absence of the seedling. Arginine (Arg) was the most abundant amino acid among the principal storage proteins of the megagametophyte and was a major component of the free amino acid pools in both the seedling and the megagametophyte. The increase in free Arg coincided with a marked increase in arginase activity, mainly localized within the cotyledons and epicotyl of the seedling. Arginase activity was negligible in isolated seedlings. Experiments with phenylphosphorodiamidate, a urease inhibitor, supported the hypothesis that arginase participates in Arg metabolism in the seedling. The results of this study indicate that Arg could play an important role in the nutrition of loblolly pine during early seedling growth. PMID:12223664

  7. Influence of Merosesquiterpenoids from Marine Sponges on Seedling Root Growth of Agricultural Plants.

    PubMed

    Chaikina, Elena L; Utkina, Natalia K; Anisimov, Mikhail M

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the merosesquiterpenoids avarol (1), avarone (2), 18-methylaminoavarone (3), melemeleone A (4), isospongiaquinone (5), ilimaquinone (6), and smenoquinone (7), isolated from marine sponges of the Dictyoceratida order, was studied on the root growth of seedlings of buckwheat (Fagopyrumesculentum Moench), wheat (Triticumaestivum L.), soy (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), and barley (Hordeumvulgare L.). Compounds 2and 6 were effective for the root growth of wheat seedlings, compound 3 stimulated the root growth of seedlings of buckwheat and soy, compound 4 affected the roots of barley seedlings, and compound 5 stimulated the root growth of seedlings of buckwheat and barley. Compounds 1 and 7 showed no activity on the root growth of the seedlings of any of the studied plants. The stimulatory effect depends on the chemical structure of the compounds and the type of crop plant.

  8. Insecticides and arable weeds: effects on germination and seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Hanley, M E; Whiting, M D

    2005-05-01

    The decline of many arable weed species in Northern Europe has been attributed to the intensification of modern agriculture and in particular, increasing pesticide use. In this study, we examined the effect of two insecticides, dimethoate and deltamethrin, on the germination and seedling growth of six arable weed species. Although germination was unaffected by insecticide application, seedling growth of four species was decreased by exposure to deltamethrin (Capsella bursa-pastoris and Poa annua), dimethoate (Agrostemma githago), or by both insecticides together (Urtica urens). While increased herbicide use, seed cleaning, and changing sowing times may be of primary importance in explaining the reduction of northern Europe's arable weed flora, our results indicate that insecticide use may also be a contributory factor. Moreover, those species that exhibit apparent tolerance of the insecticides tested, particularly the grass Avena fatua, may benefit from continued insecticide use. The ability to tolerate these agrochemicals, in tandem with reduced herbivory and competition from plants, whose growth is reduced by insecticide application, is likely to confer a significant competitive advantage on insecticide-resistant weed species.

  9. Effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi on the seedling growth of three Pistacia species.

    PubMed

    Caglar, S; Akgun, A

    2006-07-01

    The experiment was undertaken to test the efficiency of inoculation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi on the seedling growth of three Pistacia species used as rootstocks. The stratified Pistacia seeds were inoculated with VAM fungi. The highest rate of inoculated roots was 96.7% in P. khinjuck seedlings with G. clarum and G. etunicatum, 83.3% in P. vera seedlings with G. caledonium and 73.3% in P. terebinthus seedlings with G. caledonium. Mycorrhizal inoculations improved seedling height only in P. terebinthus. Certain mycorrhizal inoculations increased the leaf N, but not P and K contents. Seedlings inoculated with G. caledonium had higher reducing sugar contents. It was concluded that pre-inoculated Pistacia seedlings could have a better growth in the harsh field conditions.

  10. Effects of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi on Growth of Seedlings of Pinus densiflora.

    PubMed

    Sim, Mi-Yeong; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2006-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the different effects of ectomycorrhizal fungal (ECMF) species on the growth of seedlings of Pinus densiflora, and the effects of ECMF diversity on plant productivity. A total of five species of ECMF were isolated from root tips of pine seedlings collected from Mt. Songni and used as inocula. Pots containing pine seedlings were inoculated with either a single ECMF species or a mixture of five ECMF species. All of the seedlings formed ECM on their roots except for the control plants. The pine seedlings' growth responses varied by the different ECMF species. Also, pine seedlings inoculated with a mixture of five ECMF species showed the highest growth response. The results of the study suggest that the colonization of diverse species of ECMF will increase plant productivity, and the selection of suitable ECMF species could be an important factor for plant growth.

  11. Mexican propolis flavonoids affect photosynthesis and seedling growth.

    PubMed

    King-Díaz, Beatriz; Granados-Pineda, Jessica; Bah, Mustapha; Rivero-Cruz, J Fausto; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas

    2015-10-01

    As a continuous effort to find new natural products with potential herbicide activity, flavonoids acacetin (1), chrysin (2) and 4',7-dimethylnarangenin (3) were isolated from a propolis sample collected in the rural area of Mexico City and their effects on the photosynthesis light reactions and on the growth of Lolium perenne, Echinochloa crus-galli and Physalis ixocarpa seedlings were investigated. Acacetin (1) acted as an uncoupler by enhancing the electron transport under basal and phosphorylating conditions and the Mg(2+)-ATPase. Chrysin (2) at low concentrations behaved as an uncoupler and at concentrations up to 100 μM its behavior was as a Hill reaction inhibitor. Finally, 4',7-dimethylnarangenin (3) in a concentration-dependent manner behaved as a Hill reaction inhibitor. Flavonoids 2 and 3 inhibited the uncoupled photosystem II reaction measured from water to 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ), and they did not inhibit the uncoupled partial reactions measured from water to sodium silicomolybdate (SiMo) and from diphenylcarbazide (DPC) to diclorophenol indophenol (DCPIP). These results indicated that chrysin and 4',7-dimethylnarangenin inhibited the acceptor side of PS II. The results were corroborated with fluorescence of chlorophyll a measurements. Flavonoids also showed activity on the growth of seedlings of Lolium perenne and Echinochloa crus-galli.

  12. Salinity and temperature significantly influence seed germination, seedling establishment, and seedling growth of eelgrass Zostera marina L.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shaochun; Wang, Pengmei; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Xiaomei; Gu, Ruiting

    2016-01-01

    Globally, seagrass beds have been recognized as critical yet declining coastal habitats. To mitigate seagrass losses, seagrass restorations have been conducted in worldwide over the past two decades. Seed utilization is considered to be an important approach in seagrass restoration efforts. In this study, we investigated the effects of salinity and temperature on seed germination, seedling establishment, and seedling growth of eelgrass Zostera marina L. (Swan Lake, northern China). We initially tested the effects of salinity (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 ppt) and water temperature (5, 10, 15, and 20 °C) on seed germination to identify optimal levels. To identify levels of salinity that could potentially limit survival and growth, and, consequently, the spatial distribution of seedlings in temperate estuaries, we then examined the effect of freshwater and other salinity levels (10, 20, and 30 ppt) on seedling growth and establishment to confirm suitable conditions for seedling development. Finally, we examined the effect of transferring germinated seeds from freshwater or low salinity levels (1, 5, and 15 ppt) to natural seawater (32 ppt) on seedling establishment rate (SER) at 15 °C. In our research, we found that: (1) Mature seeds had a considerably lower moisture content than immature seeds; therefore, moisture content may be a potential indicator of Z. marina seed maturity; (2) Seed germination significantly increased at low salinity (p < 0.001) and high temperature (p < 0.001). Salinity had a much stronger influence on seed germination than temperature. Maximum seed germination (88.67 ± 5.77%) was recorded in freshwater at 15 °C; (3) Freshwater and low salinity levels (< 20 ppt) increased germination but had a strong negative effect on seedling morphology (number of leaves per seedling reduced from 2 to 0, and maximum seedling leaf length reduced from 4.48 to 0 cm) and growth (seedling biomass reduced by 46.15–66.67% and maximum seedling length

  13. Recovery of terrestrial plants in vegetative vigor and seedling emergence tests from exposure to atrazine.

    PubMed

    Brain, Richard A; Hoberg, James

    2016-05-01

    Ten species of terrestrial plants, including 6 dicotyledonous and 4 monocotyledonous species, were exposed to a direct overspray of atrazine according to US Environmental Protection Agency seedling emergence and vegetative vigor study guidelines and subsequently evaluated for potential recovery. For each species, no-observed-effect rate (NOER), 10% effect rate, 25% effect rate, and 50% effect rate values were calculated (where possible) for a variety of guideline-required endpoints (but focusing on growth rate) for both the standard experimental phase and a recovery phase; and the rates subsequently were compared. For the seedling emergence study, the standard experimental (designated test 1) and recovery (designated test 2) phases encompassed days 0 to 14 and days 14 to 28, respectively. Similarly, for the vegetative vigor study, test 1 and test 2 encompassed days 0 to 21 and days 21 to 42, respectively. Plants were exposed to atrazine at nominal application rates ranging from 1.1 g active ingredient (a.i.)/ha (0.0010 lb a.i./A) to 28,000 g a.i./ha (25 lb a.i./A), depending on the species; the 28,000 g a.i./ha rate is greater than 12 times the maximum application rate of 2250 g a.i./ha (2 lb a.i./A) registered on corn. For seedling emergence, only 2 of 10 species tested, cabbage and tomato, provided clear rate responses in the initial 14 d of exposure (test 1). Based on a comparison of x% effect rate (ERx) and NOER values for growth rates of shoot length and shoot dry weight for days 0 to 14 relative to days 14 to 28, recovery was apparent for cabbage shoot length growth rate and tomato shoot length and shoot dry weight growth rates. Test application rates selected for the remaining 8 species showed either a weak response that did not allow a clear assessment of recovery or no response at all. For the vegetative vigor study, 9 of the 10 species tested provided clear rate responses in test 1 (days 0-21); corn did not demonstrate any herbicidal response up

  14. Effect of saline water on seed germination and early seedling growth of the halophyte quinoa

    PubMed Central

    Panuccio, M. R.; Jacobsen, S. E.; Akhtar, S. S.; Muscolo, A.

    2014-01-01

    Salinization is increasing on a global scale, decreasing average yields for most major crop plants. Investigations into salt resistance have, unfortunately, mainly been focused on conventional crops, with few studies screening the potential of available halophytes as new crops. This study has been carried out to investigate the mechanisms used by quinoa, a facultative halophytic species, in order to cope with high salt levels at various stages of its development. Quinoa is regarded as one of the crops that might sustain food security in this century, grown primarily for its edible seeds with their high protein content and unique amino acid composition. Although the species has been described as a facultative halophyte, and its tolerance to salt stress has been investigated, its physiological and molecular responses to seawater (SW) and other salts have not been studied. We evaluated the effects of SW and different salts on seed germination, seedling emergence and the antioxidative pathway of quinoa. Seeds were germinated in Petri dishes and seedlings grown in pots with SW solutions (25, 50, 75 and 100 %) and NaCl, CaCl2, KCl and MgCl2 individually, at the concentrations in which they are present in SW. Our results demonstrated that all salts, at lower concentrations, increased the germination rate but not the germination percentages, compared with control (pure water). Conversely, seedlings were differently affected by treatments in respect to salt type and concentration. Growth parameters affected were root and shoot length, root morphology, fresh and dry weight, and water content. An efficient antioxidant mechanism was present in quinoa, activated by salts during germination and early seedling growth, as shown by the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Total antioxidant capacity was always higher under salt stress than in water. Moreover, osmotic and ionic stress factors had different degrees of influence on germination and development. PMID:25139769

  15. Seedling growth of a native (Ampelodesmos mauritanicus) and an exotic (Pennisetum setaceum) grass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badalamenti, Emilio; Militello, Marcello; La Mantia, Tommaso; Gugliuzza, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    Scarce information is available on the biological reasons why a small subset of introduced species can effectively establish within novel ecosystems. A comparison of early growth traits can help to explain the better performance of alien invasive species versus native co-occurring species. In one year-long experiment, we compared the early life stages of Ampelodesmos mauritanicus (Poir.) Dur. & Schinz (Amp), a native perennial Mediterranean grass, and Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov (Penn), an emerging invader grass in sub-arid and Mediterranean-climate areas. The Penn seedlings grew significantly faster and were approximately 2.5 times taller than the Amp seedlings, reaching a final average height of 90 cm. The shoot and root dry masses of the Penn seedlings were, respectively, more than 14 times and 4 times higher than those of the Amp seedlings. As a consequence, the shoot:root ratio was significantly higher in Penn, which resulted in a greater allocation of resources to the photosynthetic organs. Penn showed a more rapid life cycle compared with Amp. Penn produced seeds 9 months after sowing while no spikelet was produced by Amp until the end of the experiment. As a consequence, Penn may gain a reproductive advantage due to rapid seed dissemination. Ultimately, a suite of peculiar early growth traits makes Penn an aggressive competitor against Amp, which is an important floristic element of native Mediterranean grasslands. Penn seems better suited than Amp in colonizing frequently disturbed sites with fluctuating resource availability or irregular rainfall distribution and Penn is gradually replacing Amp.

  16. The effects of Vexar® seedling protectors on the growth and development of lodgepole pine roots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engeman, Richard M.; Anthony, R. Michael; Krupa, Heather W.; Evans, James

    1997-01-01

    The effects on the growth and development of lodgepole pine roots from the Vexar® tubes used to protect seedlings from pocket gopher damage were studied in the Targhee National Forest, Idaho and the Deschutes National Forest, Oregon. At each site, Vexar-protected and unprotected seedlings, with and without above-ground gopher damage were examined after six growing seasons for root deformities and growth. Undamaged seedlings exhibited greater growth, reflecting the importance of non-lethal gopher damage as a deterrent to tree growth. Protected seedlings with similar damage history as unprotected seedlings had greater root depth than unprotected seedlings, although unprotected seedlings with no above-ground damage generally had the greatest root weight. In general, the percent of seedlings with root deformities was greater for the unprotected seedlings than for the Vexar-protectd seedlings, although this could be largely due to the greater care required to plant protected seedlings. Acute deformities were more common for unprotected seedlings, whereas root deformities with less severe bending were more common for protected seedlings. The incidence of crossed roots was similar for protected and unprotected seedlings on the Deschutes site, where enough occurrences of this deformity permitted analyses. Protected seedlings were similar in root abundance, root distribution, root size and vigor to the unprotected seedlings, with some indication from the Deshutes study site that root distribution was improved with Vexar protection.

  17. Phytotoxic Activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum Extracts on Germination and Seedling Growth of Different Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Phytotoxic activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae) plant extracts was investigated against the germination and seedling growth of cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli), and timothy (Phleum pratense) at four different concentrations. The plant extracts at concentrations greater than 30 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1 reduced significantly the total germination percent (GP), germination index (GI), germination energy (GE), speed of emergence (SE), seedling vigour index (SVI), and coefficient of the rate of germination (CRG) of all test species except barnyard grass and GP of lettuce. In contrast, time required for 50% germination (T50) and mean germination time (MGT) were increased at the same or higher than this concentration. The increasing trend of T50 and MGT and the decreasing trend of other indices indicated a significant inhibition or delay of germination of the test species by O. tenuiflorum plant extracts and vice versa. In addition, the shoot and root growth of all test species were significantly inhibited by the extracts at concentrations greater than 10 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1. The I50 values for shoot and root growth were ranged from 26 to 104 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1. Seedling growth was more sensitive to the extracts compared to seed germination. Results of this study suggest that O. tenuiflorum plant extracts have phytotoxic properties and thus contain phytotoxic substances. Isolation and characterization of those substances from this plant may act as a tool for new natural, biodegradable herbicide development to control weeds. PMID:25032234

  18. Phytotoxic activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum extracts on germination and seedling growth of different plant species.

    PubMed

    Islam, A K M Mominul; Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Phytotoxic activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae) plant extracts was investigated against the germination and seedling growth of cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli), and timothy (Phleum pratense) at four different concentrations. The plant extracts at concentrations greater than 30 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL(-1) reduced significantly the total germination percent (GP), germination index (GI), germination energy (GE), speed of emergence (SE), seedling vigour index (SVI), and coefficient of the rate of germination (CRG) of all test species except barnyard grass and GP of lettuce. In contrast, time required for 50% germination (T 50) and mean germination time (MGT) were increased at the same or higher than this concentration. The increasing trend of T 50 and MGT and the decreasing trend of other indices indicated a significant inhibition or delay of germination of the test species by O. tenuiflorum plant extracts and vice versa. In addition, the shoot and root growth of all test species were significantly inhibited by the extracts at concentrations greater than 10 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL(-1). The I 50 values for shoot and root growth were ranged from 26 to 104 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL(-1). Seedling growth was more sensitive to the extracts compared to seed germination. Results of this study suggest that O. tenuiflorum plant extracts have phytotoxic properties and thus contain phytotoxic substances. Isolation and characterization of those substances from this plant may act as a tool for new natural, biodegradable herbicide development to control weeds.

  19. Mapping salinity tolerance during Arabidopsis thaliana germination and seedling growth.

    PubMed

    DeRose-Wilson, Leah; Gaut, Brandon S

    2011-01-01

    To characterize and dissect genetic variation for salinity tolerance, we assessed variation in salinity tolerance during germination and seedling growth for a worldwide sample of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. By combining QTL mapping, association mapping and expression data, we identified genomic regions involved in salinity response. Among the worldwide sample, we found germination ability within a moderately saline environment (150 mM NaCl) varied considerable, from >90% among the most tolerant lines to complete inability to germinate among the most susceptible. Our results also demonstrated wide variation in salinity tolerance within A. thaliana RIL populations and identified multiple genomic regions that contribute to this variation. These regions contain known candidate genes, but at least four of the regions contain loci not yet associated with salinity tolerance response phenotypes. Our observations suggest A. thaliana natural variation may be an underutilized resource for investigating salinity stress response.

  20. Correlations between polyamine ratios and growth patterns in seedling roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, H. J.; Galston, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    The levels of putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine and spermine were determined in seedling roots of pea, tomato, millet and corn, as well as in corn coleoptiles and pea internodes. In all roots, putrescine content increased as elongation progressed, and the putrescine/spermine ratio closely paralleled the sigmoid growth curve up until the time of lateral root initiation. Spermidine and spermine were most abundant near the apices and declined progressively with increasing age of the cells. In the zone of differentiation of root hairs in pea roots, putrescine rose progressively with increasing age, while cadaverine declined. In both pea internodes and corn coleoptiles, the putrescine/spermidine ratio rises with increasing age and elongation. Thus, a block in the conversion of the diamine putrescine to the triamine spermidine may be an important step in the change from cell division to cell elongation.

  1. Growth response of Pinus densiflora seedlings inoculated with three indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi in combination.

    PubMed

    Dalong, M; Luhe, W; Guoting, Y; Liqiang, M; Chun, L

    2011-07-01

    Pinus densiflora seedlings were inoculated with three indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi (Cenococcum geophilum, Rhizopogon roseolus and Russula densifolia) in single-, two-, and three-species treatments. After 8 months, the colonization rates of each ectomycorrhizal species, seedling growth and the nutrition were assessed in each treatment. P. densiflora seedlings inoculated with different ECM species composition showed an increase in height and basal diameter and improved seedling root and shoot nutrition concentrations compared to control treatment. Generally, combined inoculation had a more positive influence on the seedlings than the single inoculation. The three-species inoculation presented the highest growth and basal diameter and concentration of most nutrients except potassium. In conclusion, the results provided strong evidence for benefits of combined inoculation with the indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi on P. densiflora seedlings under controlled conditions.

  2. Effects of loose smut on Digitaria sanguinalis population depending on seedling emergence period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallart, Montserrat; Mas, M. Teresa; Verdú, Antoni M. C.

    2009-05-01

    Fungal plant pathogens can impact on host fitness. The effects of the systemic smut fungus Ustilago syntherismae on the morphology, growth and fecundity of the Digitaria sanguinalis population at the end of its annual cycle were assessed during two consecutive years considering the emergence time of host individuals (cohorts). U. syntherismae had an important impact on the D. sanguinalis population, because most of the infected plants (97.2%) were totally castrated. Smut fungus significantly reduced aboveground biomass (61.5%), height (23.7%) and the number of basal shoots (15.5%) and increased the number of nodes (12.9%), ramifications (52.4%) and inflorescences (16.7%) of the individuals. In view of the fact that the cohort was a significant source of variation in the percentage of diseased plants in the second year of study, our results do not support the idea that smutted plants appear earlier in the season, because the time of seedling emergence was not a factor that constrained the disease incidence.

  3. Field validation of a metabolically based dynamic cotton seedling emergence model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A model for cotton seedling emergence based upon enzyme kinetics of malate synthase (MaGi) was evaluated in the field. Cotton (Gossyptim hirsuitum) cvars. FM958, DP 444, FM 800, and PM 2145 were planted weekly at a depth of 5 cm in fields at Big Spring and Lubbock TX. Soil temperatures at seed depth...

  4. A comparative study between nonlinear regression and nonparametric approaches for modelling Phalaris paradoxa seedling emergence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parametric non-linear regression (PNR) techniques commonly are used to develop weed seedling emergence models. Such techniques, however, require statistical assumptions that are difficult to meet. To examine and overcome these limitations, we compared PNR with a nonparametric estimation technique. F...

  5. Lipid utilization, gluconeogenesis, and seedling growth in Arabidopsis mutants lacking the glyoxylate cycle enzyme malate synthase.

    PubMed

    Cornah, Johanna E; Germain, Véronique; Ward, Jane L; Beale, Michael H; Smith, Steven M

    2004-10-08

    The aim of this research was to test the role of the glyoxylate cycle enzyme malate synthase (MLS) in lipid utilization, gluconeogenesis, and seedling growth in Arabidopsis. We hypothesized that in the absence of MLS, succinate produced by isocitrate lyase (ICL) could still feed into the tricarboxylic acid cycle, whereas glyoxylate could be converted to sugars using enzymes of the photorespiratory pathway. To test this hypothesis we isolated knock-out mls mutants and studied their growth and metabolism in comparison to wild type and icl mutant seedlings. In contrast to icl seedlings, which grow slowly and are unable to convert lipid into sugars (Eastmond, P. J., Germain, V., Lange, P. R., Bryce, J. H., Smith, S. M. & Graham, I. A. (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 97, 5669-5674), mls seedlings grow faster, use their lipid more rapidly, and are better able to establish as plantlets. Transcriptome and metabolome analyses show that icl seedlings exhibit many features characteristic of carbohydrate starvation, whereas mls seedlings differ relatively little from wild type. In the light mls seedlings generate more sugars than icl seedlings, and when fed with [14C]acetate, 14C-labeling of sugars is three times greater than in icl seedlings and more than half that in wild type seedlings. The mls seedlings also accumulate more glycine and serine than icl or wild type seedlings, consistent with a diversion of glyoxylate into these intermediates of the photorespiratory pathway. We conclude that, in contrast to bacteria and fungi in which MLS is essential for gluconeogenesis from acetate or fatty acids, MLS is partially dispensable for lipid utilization and gluconeogenesis in Arabidopsis seedlings.

  6. Seedling Growth Strategies in Bauhinia Species: Comparing Lianas and Trees

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhi-Quan; Poorter, Lourens; Cao, Kun-Fang; Bongers, Frans

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Lianas are expected to differ from trees in their growth strategies. As a result these two groups of woody species will have different spatial distributions: lianas are more common in high light environments. This study determines the differences in growth patterns, biomass allocation and leaf traits in five closely related liana and tree species of the genus Bauhinia. Methods Seedlings of two light-demanding lianas (Bauhinia tenuiflora and B. claviflora), one shade-tolerant liana (B. aurea), and two light-demanding trees (B. purpurea and B. monandra) were grown in a shadehouse at 25 % of full sunlight. A range of physiological, morphological and biomass parameters at the leaf and whole plant level were compared among these five species. Key Results The two light-demanding liana species had higher relative growth rate (RGR), allocated more biomass to leaf production [higher leaf mass fraction (LMF) and higher leaf area ratio (LAR)] and stem mass fraction (SMF), and less biomass to the roots [root mass fraction (RMF)] than the two tree species. The shade-tolerant liana had the lowest RGR of all five species, and had a higher RMF, lower SMF and similar LMF than the two light-demanding liana species. The two light-demanding lianas had lower photosynthetic rates per unit area (Aarea) and similar photosynthetic rates per unit mass (Amass) than the trees. Across species, RGR was positively related to SLA, but not to LAR and Aarea. Conclusions It is concluded that the faster growth of light-demanding lianas compared with light-demanding trees is based on morphological parameters (SLA, LMF and LAR), and cannot be attributed to higher photosynthetic rates at the leaf level. The shade-tolerant liana exhibited a slow-growth strategy, compared with the light-demanding species. PMID:17720978

  7. Effect of Certain Nematodes on the Growth of Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Riffle, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma seedlings were inoculated separately with each of seven nematode species, and grown for 9 months at 20 C soil temperature. Hoplolaimus galeatus, Rotylenchus pumilis, Tylenchus exiguus, and Xiphinema americanum parasitized P. edulis seedlings, but did not significantly reduce seedling growth. Pinus edulis was not a host for Tylenchorhynchus cylindricus, Aphelenchoides cibolensis, or Criconemoides humilis. Xiphinema americanum and R. pumilis parasitized J. monosperma seedlings, and reduced their root weights and root collar diameters. Juniperus monosperma was not a host for A. cibolensis and T. exiguus, and parasitism of this tree species by T. cylindricus and C. humilis remains uncertain. PMID:19319253

  8. Improving seedling growth in longleaf pine plantations with nematicidal soil fumigants.

    PubMed

    Ruehle, J L

    1969-07-01

    In-row, preplanting fumigation with DD and DBCP in a longleaf pine plantation was evaluated for nematode control, improved seedling survival, and early and uniform release of seedlings from the grass stage. Only DD significantly lowered the nematode population during the first growing season. DBCP not only failed to control nematodes, but was phytotoxic. Fumigation had little effect on seedling survival. Seedlings in rows fumigated with DD started height growth earlier and produced taller trees after 5 years than those in nonfumigated rows.

  9. The Role of Reproductive Phenology, Seedling Emergence and Establishment of Perennial Salix gordejevii in Active Sand Dune Fields

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qiaoling; Liu, Zhimin; Ma, Junling; Jiang, Deming

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The function of sexual reproduction of perennials in restoration of vegetation of active dune fields frequently has been underestimated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of sexual reproduction of the perennial Salix gordejevii in the revegetation of active dunes. Methods Seedling emergence and establishment of S. gordejevii were examined both in controlled experiments (germination at different burial depths with different watering regimes) and in field observations in three dune slacks. The reproductive phenology and soil seed bank of S. gordejevii, the dynamics of soil moisture, the groundwater table and the landform level of three dune slacks were monitored. Key Results Seeds of S. gordejevii began maturation on 1 May, and seed dispersal lasted from 8 May to 20 May. Seeds on the soil surface germinated significantly faster than those buried in soil (P<0·05). Seedling emergence was negatively correlated with landform level. When most seedlings emerged, there was a significantly positive correlation between soil moisture and seedling emergence (P<0·01). Rainfall was negatively correlated with seedling emergence. Seedling establishment was significantly and positively correlated with seedling emergence (P<0·05), and 72·3 % of the emergent seedlings were established at the end of the growing season. These results indicated that (a) seeds matured and dispersed before the rainy season; (b) seeds germinated as soon as they contacted a moist surface and relied more on soil moisture than on rainfall; and (c) more seedlings emerged at lower sampling points in dune slacks. Conclusions In natural conditions, restoration of active sand dune fields generally commences with revegetation of dune slacks where sexual reproduction of perennials contributes greatly to species encroachment and colonization and hence plays an important role in restoration of active dune fields. Furthermore, aeolian erosion in dune slacks, leading to good

  10. Seed vs. microsite limitation for seedling emergence in the perennial grass Stipa tenacissima L. (Poaceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Fayos, Patricio; Gasque, María

    2006-09-01

    This paper examines the relative influence of seed and microsite availability in the seedling emergence of Stipa tenacissima, a perennial grass inhabiting semi-arid Mediterranean steppes. A correlative approximation was used to establish 21 (10 × 10 m) plots along a climatic gradient in the Northern limit of the geographic distribution in East Spain. Seed production, seed removal by ants, ant nest density, and the relative cover of S. tenacissima, other perennial plants and bare ground, as explanatory variables, were measured in each plot. Multiple linear regression with forward stepwise selection procedure was used to analyze the relationships between seedling emergence and the explanatory variables. There was large variation between and within plots of all the studied variables, but cover of perennial plants was the only explanatory variable included in the regression model when all the plots were used for the analysis. We suggest that this result was the consequence that high annual precipitation on the Northernmost plots had on the cover of perennial plants and it is consistent with the experimental evidence that shadowing by perennial plants negatively affects germination and performance of the S. tenacissima seedlings. Once the Northernmost plots were removed from the model of regression then seed production, seed removal by ants and ant nest density significantly affected seedling emergence. We concluded that microsite quality, defined in relation to the shadowing capacity of perennial species, was more influential than seed and microsite availability at the Northern limit of the geographic distribution of S. tenacissima.

  11. Time-Lapse Imaging to Examine the Growth Kinetics of Arabidopsis Seedlings in Response to Ethylene.

    PubMed

    Binder, Brad M

    2017-01-01

    Ethylene is well known to inhibit the growth of dark-grown eudicot seedlings. Most studies examine this inhibition after several days of exposure to ethylene. However, such end-point analysis misses transient responses and the dynamic nature of growth regulation. Here, high-resolution, time-lapse imaging is described as a method to gather data about ethylene growth kinetics and movement responses of the hypocotyls of dark-grown seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana. These methods allow for the characterization of short-term kinetic responses and can be modified for the analysis of roots and seedlings from other species.

  12. Climate Change Alters Seedling Emergence and Establishment in an Old-Field Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Classen, Aimee T; Norby, Richard J; Campany, Courtney E; Sides, Katherine E; Weltzin, Jake

    2010-01-01

    In shaping how ecosystems respond to climatic change, ecosystem structure can dominate over physiological responses of individuals, especially under conditions of multiple, simultaneous changes in environmental factors. Ecological succession drives large-scale changes in ecosystem structure over time, but the mechanisms whereby climatic change alters succession remain unresolved. Here, we investigate effects of atmospheric and climatic change on seedling establishment, recognizing that small shifts in seedling establishment of different species may have long-term repercussions on the transition of fields to forests in the future. Our 4-year experiment in an old-field ecosystem revealed that response of seedling emergence to different combinations of atmospheric CO2 concentration, air temperature, and soil moisture depends on seed phenology, the timing of seed arrival into an ecosystem. We conclude that seed phenology is an important plant trait that can shape, and help predict, the trajectories of ecosystems under climatic change.

  13. Association of growth related seedling traits in Acacia senegal under arid environment of western Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Pancholy, Anjly; Jindal, S K; Singh, S K; Pathak, Rakesh

    2015-07-01

    Climatic models and predictions indicate increase in aridity world over due to global warming. Arid environments occupy about one third land area of the world. A. senegal is the most important dryland resource of western Rajasthan desert ecosystem. The seeds of 13 low and high seed yielding exotic and indigenous provenances were evaluated for diversity and interrelationship among growth related seedling traits targeting establishment and end use of this species. Under the present study most of the growth related seedling traits varied within and amongst provenances. Highly significant correlation of dry biomass per plant of more than 72% with root length (73.3%), collar diameter (72.2%), shoot dryweight (99.7%), root dry weight (95.7%) and seedling length (79.9%) under the present study may be used for early selection. Similarly, highly significant positive correlation of seedling length with seven out of 12 growth related seedling traits validate strong inherent association of these traits under strong genetic control and are amenable for selection. Significant negative correlation in number of nodules per plant with root/shoot length ratio (-57.6%) and no correlation with 10 out of 12 growth related seedling traits tested advocate emphasis on other growth related seedling traits in selection of elite A. senegal genotypes for afforestation. The non significant associations suggest that per cent germination was independent of other characters and could be selected separately.

  14. Watermelon seedling growth and mortality as affected by Anasa tristis (Heteroptera: Coreidae).

    PubMed

    Edelson, J V; Duthie, J; Roberts, W

    2002-06-01

    Adult squash bugs, Anasa tristis (De Geer), were confined on seedling watermelon plants at densities of zero, one, two, and four per plant. Squash bugs were allowed to feed on the plants until plants died or reached 30 cm in height. Number of leaves and length of plant vine were recorded at 2- or 3-d intervals. Seedling foliage, stems, and roots were harvested and dried after plants reached 30 cm in height. Growth of seedlings was regressed on number of squash bugs and results indicated that an increasing density of squash bugs feeding on seedlings resulted in a significant reduction in plant growth. Additionally, increased density of squash bugs resulted in reduced weight of foliage and root dry biomass. Seedling mortality increased as the density of squash bugs increased.

  15. Transcriptomic response of maize primary roots to low temperatures at seedling emergence

    PubMed Central

    Di Fenza, Mauro; Hogg, Bridget; Grant, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Background Maize (Zea mays) is a C4 tropical cereal and its adaptation to temperate climates can be problematic due to low soil temperatures at early stages of establishment. Methods In the current study we have firstly investigated the physiological response of twelve maize varieties, from a chilling condition adapted gene pool, to sub-optimal growth temperature during seedling emergence. To identify transcriptomic markers of cold tolerance in already adapted maize genotypes, temperature conditions were set below the optimal growth range in both control and low temperature groups. The conditions were as follows; control (18 °C for 16 h and 12 °C for 8 h) and low temperature (12 °C for 16 h and 6 °C for 8 h). Four genotypes were identified from the condition adapted gene pool with significant contrasting chilling tolerance. Results Picker and PR39B29 were the more cold-tolerant lines and Fergus and Codisco were the less cold-tolerant lines. These four varieties were subjected to microarray analysis to identify differentially expressed genes under chilling conditions. Exposure to low temperature during establishment in the maize varieties Picker, PR39B29, Fergus and Codisco, was reflected at the transcriptomic level in the varieties Picker and PR39B29. No significant changes in expression were observed in Fergus and Codisco following chilling stress. A total number of 64 genes were differentially expressed in the two chilling tolerant varieties. These two varieties exhibited contrasting transcriptomic profiles, in which only four genes overlapped. Discussion We observed that maize varieties possessing an enhanced root growth ratio under low temperature were more tolerant, which could be an early and inexpensive measure for germplasm screening under controlled conditions. We have identified novel cold inducible genes in an already adapted maize breeding gene pool. This illustrates that further varietal selection for enhanced chilling tolerance is possible in

  16. Use of TREGRO to simulate the effects of ozone on the growth of red spruce seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence, J.A.; Kohut, R.J.; Amundson, R.G. )

    1993-08-01

    TREGRO, a model developed to simulate the growth of sapling red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), was parameterized to grow 2- to 3-yr-old seedlings. Results of the simulation compared favorably to actual growth of seedlings used in a field study of the effects of ozone and acidic precipitation on tree physiology and development. Furthermore, a 10-yr simulation produced a modeled tree that corresponded to saplings used in another field experiment. Additional simulations were conducted to compare predicted effects of ozone on seedling growth to those measured in controlled experiments. Based on the performance of the model, we believe TREGRO can be used effectively to simulate both seedling and sapling red spruce growth, and the potential effects of ozone on the development of the trees. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Photomodulation of strigolactone biosynthesis and accumulation during sunflower seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Niharika; Tripathi, Smita; Bhatla, Satish Chander

    2015-01-01

    Present investigations report the presence of strigolactones (SLs) and photomodulation of their biosynthesis in sunflower seedlings (roots, cotyledons and first pair of leaves) during early phase of seedling development. Qualitative analyses and characterization by HPLC, ESI-MS and FT-IR revealed the presence of more than one type of SLs. Orobanchyl acetate was detected both in roots and leaves. Five-deoxystrigol, sorgolactone and orobanchol were exclusively detected in seedling roots. Sorgomol was detectable only in leaves. HPLC eluted fraction from seedling roots and leaves co-chromatographing with GR24 (a synthetic SL) could also bring about germination in Orobanche cernua (a weed) seeds, which are established to exhibit SL - mediated germination, thereby indicating the SL identity of the eluates using this bioassay. SLs accumulation was always more in the roots of light-grown seedlings, it being maximum at 4 d stage. Although significant activity of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD, the enzyme critical for SL biosynthesis) was detected in 2 d old seedling roots, SLs remained undetectable in cotyledons at all stages of development and also in the roots of 2 d old light and dark-grown seedlings. Roots of light-grown seedlings showed maximum CCD activity during early (2 d) stage of development, thereby confirming photomodulation of enzyme activity. These observations indicate the migration of a probable light-sensitized signaling molecule (yet to be identified) or a SL precursor from light exposed aerial parts to the seedling roots maintained in dark. Thus, a photomodulation and migration of SL precursor/s is evident from the present work.

  18. A review of precipitation and temperature control on seedling emergence and establishment for ponderosa and lodgepole pine forest regeneration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petrie, Matthew; Wildeman, A.M.; Bradford, John B.; Hubbard, R.M.; Lauenroth, W.K.

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of ponderosa pine and lodgepole pine forests in the 21st century depends to a large extent on how seedling emergence and establishment are influenced by driving climate and environmental variables, which largely govern forest regeneration. We surveyed the literature, and identified 96 publications that reported data on dependent variables of seedling emergence and/or establishment and one or more independent variables of air temperature, soil temperature, precipitation and moisture availability. Our review suggests that seedling emergence and establishment for both species is highest at intermediate temperatures (20 to 25 °C), and higher precipitation and higher moisture availability support a higher percentage of seedling emergence and establishment at daily, monthly and annual timescales. We found that ponderosa pine seedlings may be more sensitive to temperature fluctuations whereas lodgepole pine seedlings may be more sensitive to moisture fluctuations. In a changing climate, increasing temperatures and declining moisture availability may hinder forest persistence by limiting seedling processes. Yet, only 23 studies in our review investigated the effects of driving climate and environmental variables directly. Furthermore, 74 studies occurred in a laboratory or greenhouse, which do not often replicate the conditions experienced by tree seedlings in a field setting. It is therefore difficult to provide strong conclusions on how sensitive emergence and establishment in ponderosa and lodgepole pine are to these specific driving variables, or to investigate their potential aggregate effects. Thus, the effects of many driving variables on seedling processes remain largely inconclusive. Our review stresses the need for additional field and laboratory studies to better elucidate the effects of driving climate and environmental variables on seedling emergence and establishment for ponderosa and lodgepole pine.

  19. Emergence of protocellular growth laws.

    PubMed

    Rocheleau, Tristan; Rasmussen, Steen; Nielsen, Peter E; Jacobi, Martin N; Ziock, Hans

    2007-10-29

    Template-directed replication is known to obey a parabolic growth law due to product inhibition (Sievers & Von Kiedrowski 1994 Nature 369, 221; Lee et al. 1996 Nature 382, 525; Varga & Szathmáry 1997 Bull. Math. Biol. 59, 1145). We investigate a template-directed replication with a coupled template catalysed lipid aggregate production as a model of a minimal protocell and show analytically that the autocatalytic template-container feedback ensures balanced exponential replication kinetics; both the genes and the container grow exponentially with the same exponent. The parabolic gene replication does not limit the protocellular growth, and a detailed stoichiometric control of the individual protocell components is not necessary to ensure a balanced gene-container growth as conjectured by various authors (Gánti 2004 Chemoton theory). Our analysis also suggests that the exponential growth of most modern biological systems emerges from the inherent spatial quality of the container replication process as we show analytically how the internal gene and metabolic kinetics determine the cell population's generation time and not the growth law (Burdett & Kirkwood 1983 J. Theor. Biol. 103, 11-20; Novak et al. 1998 Biophys. Chem. 72, 185-200; Tyson et al. 2003 Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 15, 221-231). Previous extensive replication reaction kinetic studies have mainly focused on template replication and have not included a coupling to metabolic container dynamics (Stadler et al. 2000 Bull. Math. Biol. 62, 1061-1086; Stadler & Stadler 2003 Adv. Comp. Syst. 6, 47). The reported results extend these investigations. Finally, the coordinated exponential gene-container growth law stemming from catalysis is an encouraging circumstance for the many experimental groups currently engaged in assembling self-replicating minimal artificial cells (Szostak 2001 et al. Nature 409, 387-390; Pohorille & Deamer 2002 Trends Biotech. 20 123-128; Rasmussen et al. 2004 Science 303, 963-965; Szathma ry

  20. Effect of Spectral Quality of Monochromatic LED Lights on the Growth of Artichoke Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Rabara, Roel C; Behrman, Glenn; Timbol, Thomas; Rushton, Paul J

    2017-01-01

    Indoor farming is becoming a popular alternative approach in food production to meet the demand of a growing world population. Under this production system, artificial light provides the main source of illumination in sustaining plant growth and development. The use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is a popular source of artificial light for indoor farms due to its narrow light spectra, modular design and energy efficiency. This study purposely assessed the effect of monochromatic LED light quality on the growth of three varieties of artichoke seedlings compared to greenhouse condition. Spectral quality assessment showed that photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) was highest under red LED light, but only a third of the total PPFD under natural light. Seedlings grown under red light showed 60-100% more shoot dry weight and were 67-115% taller than seedlings grown in the greenhouse. However, seedlings under blue or white light conditions showed 67-76% less in biomass compared to greenhouse-grown seedlings. Overall, plant response of seedlings under red light condition was much better compared to greenhouse-grown seedlings emphasizing the importance of red light spectral quality in plant growth and development.

  1. Effect of Spectral Quality of Monochromatic LED Lights on the Growth of Artichoke Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Rabara, Roel C.; Behrman, Glenn; Timbol, Thomas; Rushton, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    Indoor farming is becoming a popular alternative approach in food production to meet the demand of a growing world population. Under this production system, artificial light provides the main source of illumination in sustaining plant growth and development. The use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is a popular source of artificial light for indoor farms due to its narrow light spectra, modular design and energy efficiency. This study purposely assessed the effect of monochromatic LED light quality on the growth of three varieties of artichoke seedlings compared to greenhouse condition. Spectral quality assessment showed that photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) was highest under red LED light, but only a third of the total PPFD under natural light. Seedlings grown under red light showed 60–100% more shoot dry weight and were 67–115% taller than seedlings grown in the greenhouse. However, seedlings under blue or white light conditions showed 67–76% less in biomass compared to greenhouse-grown seedlings. Overall, plant response of seedlings under red light condition was much better compared to greenhouse-grown seedlings emphasizing the importance of red light spectral quality in plant growth and development. PMID:28261245

  2. N2-fixation and seedling growth promotion of lodgepole pine by endophytic Paenibacillus polymyxa.

    PubMed

    Anand, Richa; Grayston, Susan; Chanway, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    We inoculated lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia (Dougl.) Engelm.) with Paenibacillus polymyxa P2b-2R, a diazotrophic bacterium previously isolated from internal stem tissue of a naturally regenerating pine seedling to evaluate biological nitrogen fixation and seedling growth promotion by this microorganism. Seedlings generated from pine seed inoculated with strain P2b-2R were grown for up to 13 months in a N-limited soil mix containing 0.7 mM available N labeled as Ca((15)NO3)2 to facilitate detection of N2-fixation. Strain P2b-2R developed a persistent endophytic population comprising 10(2)-10(6) cfu g(-1) plant tissue inside pine roots, stems, and needles during the experiment. At the end of the growth period, P2b-2R had reduced seedling mortality by 14 % and (15)N foliar N abundance 79 % and doubled foliar N concentration and seedling biomass compared to controls. Our results suggest that N2-fixation by P. polymyxa enhanced growth of pine seedlings and support the hypothesis that plant-associated diazotrophs capable of endophytic colonization can satisfy a significant proportion of the N required by tree seedlings growing under N-limited conditions.

  3. Hydroperoxide lyase products, hexanal, hexenal and nonenal, inhibit soybean seedling growth

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, H.W.; Dornbos, D.L. Jr. )

    1989-04-01

    Hexanal, a product of hydroperoxide lyase, inhibited the germination and growth of soybean seeds. Hexanal was continuously delivered to germinating seeds as a vapor dissolved in air with a flow-through system (100 ml/min). Only 0.8 {mu}g hexanal/ml air was required to inhibit seedling growth by 50%; nearly 100% inhibition occurred with a dose of 1.8 {mu}g hexanal/ml air. In the absence of hexanal brown spots were often visible on the seedlings, but at sublethal doses of hexanal, the seedlings were largely devoid of these spots. The relative toxicity of three hydroperoxide lyase products, hexanal, trans-2-hexanal and trans-2-nonenal, were compared with a Petri-dish bioassay. The order of toxicity against seedling growth was hexenal>hexanal>nonenal.

  4. Soil seed bank and the effect of needle litter layer on seedling emergence in a tropical pine plantation.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Andrea; Baruch, Zdravko

    2011-09-01

    The soil seed bank is the basis for community establishment and permanence and plays a primary role in natural restoration of degraded or altered ecosystems. As part of a restoration project, this study aimed to quantify the soil seed bank and to evaluate the effect of the needle litter layer on seedling emergence. Soil samples from a pine plantation were collected at random in the field and set to germinate in a greenhouse. Half of them were covered by a 6cm layer of dead pine needles simulating field conditions. In the field, 20 x 20cm plots were established, half were left intact and half were cleaned from the litter needles. All four treatments had 15 replicates and seedling emergence was recorded during six months. Soil seed bank density was 1 222/m2 from 17 morphotypes. In the field, the number of morphotypes and seedlings was only 9% and 6% respectively, of those emerged in the greenhouse, possibly due to watering and lack of predation in the latter. In both cases, herbs and graminoids were the dominant emerging seedlings, making up to 70-90% of the total. The needle layer didn't prevent seeds from reaching the soil but strongly reduced (> 50%) seedling emergence, although high variability within treatments resulted in no statistically significant differences. These results show that the needle layer hinders germination and/or emergence of seedlings from the seed bank. Its removal may be a recommended technique to accelerate natural restoration in pine plantations.

  5. Soil type affects Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum (Pinaceae) seedling growth in simulated drought experiments1

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Alexander J.; Kilgore, Jason S.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Effects of drought stress and media type interactions on growth of Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum germinants were investigated. • Methods and Results: Soil properties and growth responses under drought were compared across four growth media types: two native soils (dolomitic limestone and granite), a soil-less industry standard conifer medium, and a custom-mixed conifer medium. After 35 d of growth, the seedlings under drought stress (reduced watering) produced less shoot and root biomass than watered control seedlings. Organic media led to decreased root biomass, but increased root length and shoot biomass relative to the mineral soils. • Conclusions: Media type affected root-to-shoot biomass partitioning of P. ponderosa var. scopulorum, which may influence net photosynthetic rates, growth, and long-term seedling survival. Further work should examine how specific soil properties like bulk density and organic matter influence biomass allocation in greenhouse studies. PMID:25202578

  6. The mycorrhizal fungus Tricholoma matsutake stimulates Pinus densiflora seedling growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Guerin-Laguette, Alexis; Shindo, Katsumi; Matsushita, Norihisa; Suzuki, Kazuo; Lapeyrie, Frédéric

    2004-12-01

    While it has been suggested that Matsutake mycorrhizae might not be functional and that Matsutake may behave as a saprobic fungus in soil or even have some pathogenic activity on seedlings, we investigated the consequences of Matsutake inoculation on Pinus densiflora growth. Seventy-five days after inoculation, hyphae were anchored on short roots and well-developed Hartig net palmettis were observed. Compared to both control treatments--seedlings treated with distilled water and seedlings treated with autoclaved mycelium--inoculation significantly stimulated seedling total dry weight by 70.9% and 98.0%, respectively. These findings attest that some type of symbiotic relationship must be functional and favour host growth, ruling out claims of pathogenicity under the sterile conditions used here.

  7. Urban environment of New York City promotes growth in northern red oak seedlings.

    PubMed

    Searle, Stephanie Y; Turnbull, Matthew H; Boelman, Natalie T; Schuster, William S F; Yakir, Dan; Griffin, Kevin L

    2012-04-01

    Urbanization is accelerating across the globe, elevating the importance of studying urban ecology. Urban environments exhibit several factors affecting plant growth and function, including high temperatures (particularly at night), CO(2) concentrations and atmospheric nitrogen deposition. We investigated the effects of urban environments on growth in Quercus rubra L. seedlings. We grew seedlings from acorns for one season at four sites along an urban-rural transect from Central Park in New York City to the Catskill Mountains in upstate New York (difference in average maximum temperatures of 2.4 °C; difference in minimum temperatures of 4.6 °C). In addition, we grew Q. rubra seedlings in growth cabinets (GCs) mimicking the seasonal differential between the city and rural sites (based on a 5-year average). In the field experiment, we found an eightfold increase in biomass in urban-grown seedlings relative to those grown at rural sites. This difference was primarily related to changes in growth allocation. Urban-grown seedlings and seedlings grown at urban temperatures in the GCs exhibited a lower root: shoot ratio (urban ~0.8, rural/remote ~1.5), reducing below-ground carbon costs associated with construction and maintenance. These urban seedlings instead allocated more growth to leaves than did rural-grown seedlings, resulting in 10-fold greater photosynthetic area but no difference in photosynthetic capacity of foliage per unit area. Seedlings grown at urban temperatures in both the field and GC experiments had higher leaf nitrogen concentrations per unit area than those grown at cooler temperatures (increases of 23% in field, 32% in GC). Lastly, we measured threefold greater (13)C enrichment of respired CO(2) (relative to substrate) in urban-grown leaves than at other sites, which may suggest greater allocation of respiratory function to growth over maintenance. It also shows that lack of differences in total R flux in response to environmental conditions may

  8. Effect of a Longitudinally Applied Voltage Upon the Growth of Zea mays Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Desrosiers, Mark F.; Bandurski, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    The electrical parameters that affect young seedling growth were investigated. Voltages ranging from 5 to 40 volts were applied longitudinally along the mesocotyl region of 4-day old Zea mays L. (cv Silver Queen) seedlings for periods of 3 or 4 hours. It was determined that: (a) making the tips of the seedlings electrically positive relative to the base strongly inhibited shoot growth at 5 volts, whereas the reverse polarity had no effect; (b) at higher voltages, making the tip of the seedlings negative caused less growth inhibition than the reverse polarity at each voltage level; (c) the higher the applied voltage the greater the degree of inhibition; and, (d) the more growth inhibition experienced by the plants the poorer, and slower, their recovery. Previous observations of a relationship between the amount of free indole-3-acetic acid in the mesocotyl cortex and the growth rate of the mesocotyl and of gravitropism-induced movement of labeled indole-3-acetic acid from the seed to the shoot lead to the prediction of a voltage-dependent gating of the movement of indole-3-acetic acid from the stele to the cortex. This provided the basis for attempting to alter the growth rate of seedlings by means of an applied voltage. Images Fig. 1 PMID:11537877

  9. Effect of a longitudinally applied voltage upon the growth of Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desrosiers, M. F.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    The electrical parameters that affect young seedling growth were investigated. Voltages ranging from 5 to 40 volts were applied longitudinally along the mesocotyl region of 4-day old Zea mays L. (cv Silver Queen) seedlings for periods of 3 or 4 hours. It was determined that: (a) making the tips of the seedlings electrically positive relative to the base strongly inhibited shoot growth at 5 volts, whereas the reverse polarity had no effect; (b) at higher voltages, making the tip of the seedlings negative caused less growth inhibition than the reverse polarity at each voltage level; (c) the higher the applied voltage the greater the degree of inhibition; and, (d) the more growth inhibition experienced by the plants the poorer, and slower, their recovery. Previous observations of a relationship between the amount of free indole-3-acetic acid in the mesocotyl cortex and the growth rate of the mesocotyl and of gravitropism-induced movement of labeled indole-3-acetic acid from the seed to the shoot lead to the prediction of a voltage-dependent gating of the movement of indole-3-acetic acid from the stele to the cortex. This provided the basis for attempting to alter the growth rate of seedlings by means of an applied voltage.

  10. Maternal influences on seed mass effect and initial seedling growth in four Quercus species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Rodríguez, Victoria; Villar, Rafael; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M.

    2011-01-01

    Seed mass represents the reserves available for growth in the first stages of plant establishment. Variation in seed mass is an important trait which may have consequences for growth and survival of seedlings. Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain how seed mass influences seedling development: the reserve use effect, the metabolic effect and the seedling-size effect. Few studies have evaluated at the same time the three hypotheses within species and none have evaluated the effect of the mother trees. We studied four Quercus species by selecting five mother trees per species. Seeds were sown in a glasshouse and the use of seed reserves, seedling growth and morphology were measured. Considering all mothers of the same species together, we did not find the reserve effect for any species, the metabolic effect was observed in all species except for Quercus suber, and the seedling-size effect was matched for all the species. Within species, maternal origin modified the studied relationships and thus the studied mechanisms as we did not observe seed mass effects on all mothers from each species. Moreover, the metabolic effect was not found in any mother of Quercus ilex and Quercus faginea. We concluded that a maternal effect can change seed mass relationships with traits related to seedling establishment. The conservation of this high intra-specific variability must be considered to guarantee species performance in heterogeneous environments and in particular in the current context of climate change.

  11. Studies on the methods of identification of irradiated food I. Seedling growth test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiongying, Liu; Yanhua, Kuang; Yuemei, Zheng

    1993-07-01

    A seedling growth test for the identification of gamma irradiated edible vegetable seeds was described. The identification of gamma irradiated grape and the other seeds has been investigated. The purpose of this study was to develop an easy, rapid and practical technique for the identification of irradiated edible vegetable seeds. Seven different irradiated edible vegetable seeds as: rice ( Oryza sativa), peanut ( Arachis hypogaea), maize ( Zeamays), soybean ( Glycine max), red bean ( Phaseolus angularis), mung bean ( Phaseolus aureus) and catjang cowpea ( Vigna cylindrica) were tested by using the method of seedling growth. All of the edible vegetable seeds were exposed to gamma radiation on different doses, O(CK), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 5.0 kGy. After treatment with above 1.0 kGy dose to the seeds, the seedling rate was less than 50% compared with the control. Although the seedling rate of rice seeds can reached 58%, the seedling growth was not normal and the seedling leaves appeared deformed. The results by this method were helpful to identify gamma treatment of the edible vegetable seeds with above 1.0 kGy dose.

  12. A comparative field study of growth and survival of Sierran conifer seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    This study is a comparison of seedling growth and survival of seven species of conifers that make up the mid-elevation Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest--Abies concolor, Abies magnifica, Calocedrus decurrens, Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus lambertiana, Pinus ponderosa, and Sequoiadendron giganteum. The field experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that seedling demography is affected by the study species` relatively shade and drought tolerances. Six discrete treatments were created in the first experiment by using three elevations (1,600 m, 1,900, m, and 2,200 m) and two natural light levels (closed canopy shade and open gap sun) at each elevation. One or two-year old seedlings were planted in the ground in replicate plots in each treatment and followed for two growing seasons. Four responses were analyzed--survival, height growth, diameter growth, and mass growth (total mass as well as root mass and shoot mass separately).

  13. Smart Growth Streets and Emergency Response

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page describes how street networks and street design affect emergency response and links to resources for designing streets that work for emergency responders and communities' smart growth goals.

  14. Growth profile of Chamaedorea cataractarum (Cascade Palm)seedlings with different colored plastic mulch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of colored plastic mulch on the growth of Chamaedorea cataractarum Mart. (Cascade Palm). The seedlings placed in soil were compared with those placed in red and blue mulch. The plant growth was monitored for plant height, thickness at the base ...

  15. Growth and nutrition of cacao seedlings influenced by zinc application in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Levels of Zn in tropical soils profoundly influences growth and nutrition of tree crops . Research was undertaken to assess the effect of soil Zn on growth and nutrition of clonal cacao tree seedlings of PH 16. Three acidic Oxisol soils differing in texture were used with nine doses of Zn (0, 1, 2, ...

  16. Growth and lignification in seedlings exposed to eight days of microgravity.

    PubMed

    Cowles, J R; Scheld, H W; Lemay, R; Peterson, C

    1984-01-01

    Four-day-old pine seedlings and mung bean and oat seeds were prepared for flight on the third Space Transport System Mission (STS-3). The seedlings and seeds were planted in six mini-growth chambers (two chambers per species) which were placed in a plant growth unit (PGU). Another set of seedlings and seeds was prepared and placed in another PGU as the 1 g control. The flight PGU was positioned in the orbiter mid-deck locker area about 11 h prior to launch. The pine seedlings and germinating mung bean and oat seeds were exposed to 194 h of microgravity. The PGU was received at a temporary laboratory about 75 min post-landing. Plants were observed, photographed and the atmospheric gases analyzed at the landing site. The plants were then brought to our Houston laboratory where they were measured and analyzed for lignin and protein content and for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and peroxidase activities. Flight seedlings were shorter than the controls in all three species. Twenty-five to 40 per cent of the mung bean and oat roots were growing upward, and the mung beans showed signs of disorientation. Flight mung beans showed a significant reduction in lignin content in comparison to the controls, and PAL and peroxidase activities were reduced in flight pine seedlings. The results generally support the postulate that lignin synthesis is reduced in near-weightlessness and show other interesting findings.

  17. Growth and lignification in seedlings exposed to eight days of microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowles, J. R.; Scheld, H. W.; Lemay, R.; Peterson, C.

    1984-01-01

    Four-day-old pine seedlings and mung bean and oat seeds were prepared for flight on the third Space Transport System Mission (STS-3). The seedlings and seeds were planted in six mini-growth chambers (two chambers per species) which were placed in a plant growth unit (PGU). Another set of seedlings and seeds was prepared and placed in another PGU as the 1 g control. The flight PGU was positioned in the orbiter mid-deck locker area about 11 h prior to launch. The pine seedlings and germinating mung bean and oat seeds were exposed to 194 h of microgravity. The PGU was received at a temporary laboratory about 75 min post-landing. Plants were observed, photographed and the atmospheric gases analyzed at the landing site. The plants were then brought to our Houston laboratory where they were measured and analyzed for lignin and protein content and for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and peroxidase activities. Flight seedlings were shorter than the controls in all three species. Twenty-five to 40 per cent of the mung bean and oat roots were growing upward, and the mung beans showed signs of disorientation. Flight mung beans showed a significant reduction in lignin content in comparison to the controls, and PAL and peroxidase activities were reduced in flight pine seedlings. The results generally support the postulate that lignin synthesis is reduced in near-weightlessness and show other interesting findings.

  18. Effects of Open-field Warming and Precipitation Manipulation on the Growth of Pinus densiflora Seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, M. J.; Yoon, S. J.; Han, S. H.; Yun, H. M.; Chang, H.; Son, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of open-field artificial warming and precipitation manipulation on Pinus densiflora seedling growth. The temperature in warming plots have been set to be 3°C higher than control plots using infrared lamps since April, 2013. Precipitation manipulation consisted of precipitation decrease plots (-30%) with deployment of rain-capturing transparent panels, precipitation increase plots (+30%) with pump installation and drip-irrigation, and control plots. Two-year-old P. densiflora seedlings were planted in April, 2013. Seedling height and root collar diameter were measured in April and November, 2013 and April, 2014, and biomass were measured in April, 2013 and April, 2014. During the period of April to November, 2013, increments of seedling height and root collar diameter were not significantly different between control and warming plots. However, in April, 2014 seedling heights, new shoot lengths and weights were higher in warming plots than in control plots, with all precipitation manipulation treatments (p<0.05). Shoot to root ratio was lower in warming plots than in control plots with the precipitation decrease treatment (p<0.05). The seedling height growth observed in 2013 and 2014 might be explained by the previous year's fixed growth of P. densiflora. Lower shoot to root ratio in warming plots with precipitation decrease treatment might be resulted from water stress. In previous studies about artificial warming and/or precipitation manipulation, the effects were increase, decrease or no difference in growth. As these results suggest, responses of growth are species-specific and/or are dependent on the stage of growth and the treatment types of climate change experiments. Therefore, to examine the effects of climate changes on plant growth, multi-factor and long-term studies on diverse species are needed.

  19. Can NPK fertilizers enhance seedling growth and mycorrhizal status of Tuber melanosporum-inoculated Quercus ilex seedlings?

    PubMed

    Suz, Laura M; Martín, María P; Fischer, Christine R; Bonet, José A; Colinas, Carlos

    2010-06-01

    Although successful cultivation of the black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) has inspired the establishment of widespread truffle orchards in agricultural lands throughout the world, there are many unknowns involved in proper management of orchards during the 6-10 years prior to truffle production, and there are conflicting results reported for fertilizer treatments. Here, we systematically evaluate the combined effects of nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium with different doses of each element, applied to either foliage or roots, on plant growth parameters and the mycorrhizal status of outplanted 3-year-old seedlings in five experimental Quercus ilex-T. melanosporum orchards. Fertilization did not significantly improve seedling aboveground growth, but the plants treated with the fertilizer 12-7-7 applied to the roots (HNr) displayed longer field-developed roots. Only the fertilizer with the highest dose of K (10-6-28) applied to the foliage (HKf) increased the probability of fine root tip colonization by T. melanosporum in field-developed roots. However, the plants treated with the same fertilizer applied to the soil (HKr) presented the highest probability for colonization by other competing mycorrhizal soil fungi. Potassium seems to have an important role in mycorrhizal development in these soils. Apart from T. melanosporum, we found 14 ectomycorrhizal morphotypes, from which seven were identified to species level, three to genus, two to family, and two remained unidentified by their morphological characteristics and DNA analyses.

  20. Basal Transcription Factor 3 Plays an Important Role in Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Rice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenyi; Xu, Mengyun; Wang, Ya

    2014-01-01

    BTF3 has been recognized to be involved in plant growth and development. But its function remains mostly unknown during seed germination and seedling stage. Here, we have analyzed OsBTF3-related sequences in Oryza sativa L. subspecies, japonica, which resembles with the conserved domain of a nascent polypeptide associated complex (NAC) with different homologs of OsBTF3 and human BTF3. Inhibition of Osj10gBTF3 has led to considerable morphological changes during seed germination and seedling growth. Germination percentage was not influenced by the application of GA3, ABA, and NaCl but all concentrations caused wild-type (WT) seeds to germinate more rapidly than the RNAi (Osj10gBTF3Ri) transgenic lines. Seedling inhibition was more severe in the Osj10gBTF3Ri seedlings compared with their WT especially when treated with 100 or 200 μM GA3; 50% reduction in shoots was observed in Osj10gBTF3Ri seedlings. The expression of Osj3g1BTF3, Osj3g2BTF3 and Osj10gBTF3 was primarily constitutive and generally modulated by NaCl, ABA, and GA3 stresses in both Osj10gBTF3Ri lines and WT at the early seedling stage, suggesting that Osj3g1BTF3 and Osj10gBTF3 are much similar but different from Osj3g2BTF3 in biological function. These results show that OsBTF3 plays an important role in seed germination and seedling growth gives a new perception demonstrating that more multifaceted regulatory functions are linked with BTF3 in plants. PMID:24971328

  1. Toxic effect of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lina; Xia, Mengjie; Wang, Li; Mao, Hui

    2016-09-01

    As a persistent organic pollutant in the environment, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has been extensively investigated. It can accumulate in food chains and in the human body. This work investigated the effect of PFOA on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germination and seedling growth by conducting a germination trial and a pot trial. A stimulatory effect of PFOA on seedling growth and root length of wheat was found at <0.2 mg kg(-1), while >800 mg kg(-1) PFOA inhibited germination rate, index, and root and shoot growth. In the pot trial, PFOA concentration in root was double that in the shoot. Soil and plant analyzer development (SPAD) and plant height of wheat seedling were inhibited by adding 200 mg kg(-1) PFOA. Proline content and POD activity in wheat seedlings increased as PFOA increased, while CAT activity decreased. Using logarithmic equations, proline content was selected as the most sensitive index by concentration for 50% of maximal effect (EC50). Hence, the tolerance of wheat seedlings to PFOA levels could be evaluated on the basis of the physiological index.

  2. HYPOTrace: image analysis software for measuring hypocotyl growth and shape demonstrated on Arabidopsis seedlings undergoing photomorphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liya; Uilecan, Ioan Vlad; Assadi, Amir H; Kozmik, Christine A; Spalding, Edgar P

    2009-04-01

    Analysis of time series of images can quantify plant growth and development, including the effects of genetic mutations (phenotypes) that give information about gene function. Here is demonstrated a software application named HYPOTrace that automatically extracts growth and shape information from electronic gray-scale images of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings. Key to the method is the iterative application of adaptive local principal components analysis to extract a set of ordered midline points (medial axis) from images of the seedling hypocotyl. Pixel intensity is weighted to avoid the medial axis being diverted by the cotyledons in areas where the two come in contact. An intensity feature useful for terminating the midline at the hypocotyl apex was isolated in each image by subtracting the baseline with a robust local regression algorithm. Applying the algorithm to time series of images of Arabidopsis seedlings responding to light resulted in automatic quantification of hypocotyl growth rate, apical hook opening, and phototropic bending with high spatiotemporal resolution. These functions are demonstrated here on wild-type, cryptochrome1, and phototropin1 seedlings for the purpose of showing that HYPOTrace generated expected results and to show how much richer the machine-vision description is compared to methods more typical in plant biology. HYPOTrace is expected to benefit seedling development research, particularly in the photomorphogenesis field, by replacing many tedious, error-prone manual measurements with a precise, largely automated computational tool.

  3. [Impacts of digging Phascolosoma esculenta on the growth of mangrove Avicennia marina seedlings: a simulation study].

    PubMed

    He, Qin-Fei; Fan, Hang-Qing; Mo, Zhu-Cheng; Wang, Xin; Shen, Wen-Hui

    2012-04-01

    Digging Phascolosoma esculenta to increase income is one of the main causes leading to the degradation of China mangroves. In order to understand the impact mechanisms of digging P. esculenta on the mangrove growth and to select indicators to evaluate the mangrove health, a simulative study was conducted to clarify the impacts of digging depth, radian, and frequency on the growth of 1-year old Avicennia marina seedlings, with the indices seedling height, basal diameter, single leaf area, specific leaf area, total biomass, and dead root dry mass measured. The results showed that digging activities decreased the increment of seedling height and basal diameter, single leaf area, specific leaf area, and total biomass significantly, and increased the dead root dry mass markedly. Digging depth and radian had obvious effects on the growth of A. marina seedlings, but digging frequency had minor effects. When the digging depth was < 5 cm, digging radian was < 240 degrees, and digging frequency was < 2 times per month, the damage to the seedlings was slighter; but when the digging depth was > 5 cm, the damage was quite serious.

  4. Seedling growth responses to soil resources in the understory of a wet tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Holste, Ellen K; Kobe, Richard K; Vriesendorp, Corine F

    2011-09-01

    Plant growth responses to resources may be an important mechanism that influences species' distributions, coexistence, and community structure. Irradiance is considered the most important resource for seedling growth in the understory of wet tropical forests, but multiple soil nutrients and species have yet to be examined simultaneously with irradiance under field conditions. To identify potentially limiting resources, we modeled tree seedling growth as a function of irradiance and soil nutrients across five sites, spanning a soil fertility gradient in old-growth, wet tropical forests at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. We measured an array of soil nutrients including total nitrogen (total N), inorganic N (nitrate [NO3-] and ammonium [NH4+]), phosphate (PO4-), and sum of base cations (SBC; potassium, magnesium, and calcium). Shade in the forest understory did not preclude seedling growth correlations with soil nutrients. Irradiance was a significant predictor of growth in 52% of the species, inorganic N in 54% (NO3- in 32%; NH4+ in 34%), total N in 47%, SBC in 39%, and PO4- in 29%. Overall, growth was correlated with both irradiance and soil nutrients in 45% of species and with soil nutrients only in an additional 48%; rarely was irradiance alone correlated with growth. Contrary to expectations, the magnitudes of growth effects, assessed as the maximum growth response to significant resources for each species, were similar for irradiance and most soil nutrients. Among species whose growth correlated with soil nutrients, the rank importance of nutrient effects was SBC, followed by N (total N, NO3-, and/or NH4+) and PO4-. Species' growth responsiveness (i.e., magnitudes of effect) to irradiance and soil nutrients was negatively correlated with species' shade tolerance (survival under 1% full sun). In this broad survey of species and resources, the nearly ubiquitous effects of soil nutrients on seedling growth challenge the idea that soil nutrients are less

  5. Influence of extremely low-frequency electric fields on the growth of Vigna radiata seedlings.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Evelina

    2011-10-01

    The biological effects of extremely low-frequency electric fields (ELF) on living organisms have been explored in many studies, but the results are controversial and only a few studies investigated the influence of the intensity of the applied field on seedling growth. Here we assess the effects of a 50 Hz sinusoidal electric field on the early growth of Vigna radiata seedlings while varying the field intensity. Experiments performed in a dark, constant-climate chamber on several thousands of seedlings show that the field produces an inhibitory effect at a low field intensity and an enhancing one at a higher intensity. The maximum negative effect occurs at about 450 V/m, which is an intensity much lower than the exposure limits currently in force in the safety regulations.

  6. Effects of shading and removal of plant parts on growth of Trema micrantha seedlings.

    PubMed

    Valio, I F

    2001-01-01

    Effects of artificial shading and removal of plant parts on growth of Trema micrantha (L.) Blume (Ulmaceae) seedlings were studied. Seedlings were grown in pots in a greenhouse in 45, 30, 10.6, 4.8 and 1.8% of full sunlight. Shading for 60 days had no effect on survival, but it influenced all growth parameters measured. Total biomass decreased with decreasing irradiance, reflecting reductions in dry mass of leaves, stems and roots. In response to shading, allocation of biomass to leaves increased, while allocation of biomass to roots decreased. Specific leaf area, leaf area ratio and leaf mass ratio increased with decreasing irradiance. Decreases in relative growth rate were caused by reductions in net assimilation rate rather than leaf area ratio. Photosynthetic efficiency, as determined by the Fv/Fm ratio (Fv = variable fluorescence, Fm = maximal fluorescence), was unaffected by the shading treatments. Partial removal of leaves, stem or roots did not affect seedling survival. Seedlings responded to removal of plant parts by compensatory growth. Topophysis was observed when the apex was removed: the lateral buds developed only as new plagiotropic lateral shoots; consequently, the decapitated plant ceased height growth and was unable to compete with its neighbors for light.

  7. Phylogenetically diverse AM fungi from Ecuador strongly improve seedling growth of native potential crop trees.

    PubMed

    Schüßler, Arthur; Krüger, Claudia; Urgiles, Narcisa

    2016-04-01

    In many deforested regions of the tropics, afforestation with native tree species could valorize a growing reservoir of degraded, previously overused and abandoned land. The inoculation of tropical tree seedlings with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM fungi) can improve tree growth and viability, but efficiency may depend on plant and AM fungal genotype. To study such effects, seven phylogenetically diverse AM fungi, native to Ecuador, from seven genera and a non-native AM fungus (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM197198) were used to inoculate the tropical potential crop tree (PCT) species Handroanthus chrysanthus (synonym Tabebuia chrysantha), Cedrela montana, and Heliocarpus americanus. Twenty-four plant-fungus combinations were studied in five different fertilization and AMF inoculation treatments. Numerous plant growth parameters and mycorrhizal root colonization were assessed. The inoculation with any of the tested AM fungi improved seedling growth significantly and in most cases reduced plant mortality. Plants produced up to threefold higher biomass, when compared to the standard nursery practice. AM fungal inoculation alone or in combination with low fertilization both outperformed full fertilization in terms of plant growth promotion. Interestingly, root colonization levels for individual fungi strongly depended on the host tree species, but surprisingly the colonization strength did not correlate with plant growth promotion. The combination of AM fungal inoculation with a low dosage of slow release fertilizer improved PCT seedling performance strongest, but also AM fungal treatments without any fertilization were highly efficient. The AM fungi tested are promising candidates to improve management practices in tropical tree seedling production.

  8. The growth and uptake of Ga and In of rice (Oryza sative L.) seedlings as affected by Ga and In concentrations in hydroponic cultures.

    PubMed

    Syu, Chien-Hui; Chien, Po-Hsuan; Huang, Chia-Chen; Jiang, Pei-Yu; Juang, Kai-Wei; Lee, Dar-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Limited information is available on the effects of gallium (Ga) and indium (In) on the growth of paddy rice. The Ga and In are emerging contaminants and widely used in high-tech industries nowadays. Understanding the toxicity and accumulation of Ga and In by rice plants is important for reducing the effect on rice production and exposure risk to human by rice consumption. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of Ga and In on the growth of rice seedlings and examines the accumulation and distribution of those elements in plant tissues. Hydroponic cultures were conducted in phytotron glasshouse with controlled temperature and relative humidity conditions, and the rice seedlings were treated with different levels of Ga and In in the nutrient solutions. The growth index and the concentrations of Ga and In in roots and shoots of rice seedlings were measured after harvesting. A significant increase in growth index with increasing Ga concentrations in culture solutions (<10mgGaL(-1)) was observed. In addition, the uptake of N, K, Mg, Ca, Mn by rice plants was also enhanced by Ga. However, the growth inhibition were observed while the In concentrations higher than 0.08mgL(-1), and the nutrients accumulated in rice plants were also significant decreased after In treatments. Based on the dose-response curve, we observed that the EC10 (effective concentration resulting in 10% growth inhibition) value for In treatment was 0.17mgL(-1). The results of plant analysis indicated that the roots were the dominant sink of Ga and In in rice seedlings, and it was also found that the capability of translocation of Ga from roots to shoots were higher than In. In addition, it was also found that the PT10 (threshold concentration of phytotoxicity resulting in 10% growth retardation) values based on shoot height and total biomass for In were 15.4 and 10.6μgplant(-1), respectively. The beneficial effects on the plant growth of rice seedlings were found by the addition of Ga in

  9. Growth, water relations and photosynthesis of seedlings and resprouts after fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente, Adelaide S.; Rego, Francisco C.; Correia, Otília A.

    2005-05-01

    Seasonal patterns of growth, water relations, photosynthesis and leaf characteristics were compared between obligate seeders ( Cistus monspeliensis and Cistus ladanifer) and resprouters ( Arbutus unedo and Pistacia lentiscus) from the first to the second year after fire. We hypothesized that seedlings would be more water-limited than resprouts due to their shallower root systems. Regarding water use strategies, Cistus species are drought semi-deciduous and A. unedo and P. lentiscus are evergreen sclerophylls, therefore, comparisons were based on the relative deviation from mature conspecific plants. Seedlings and resprouts had higher shoot elongation and leaf production than mature plants, and over an extended period. Differences from mature plants were larger in resprouts, with two-fold transpiration, leaf conductance and photosynthesis in late spring/early summer. Seedlings of C. monspeliensis exhibited higher transpiration and leaf conductance than mature plants, while those of C. ladanifer only exhibited higher water potential. Growth increments and ameliorated water relations and photosynthesis after fire were attributed to an increase in water and nutrient availability. The small differences in water relations and photosynthesis between seedlings and mature conspecifics are in accordance with the prediction of seedlings experiencing higher water limitation than resprouts. We attribute these results to differences in root systems: resprouters benefited from an increase in root/shoot ratios and the presence of deep roots whereas Cistus seedlings relied on very shallow roots, which cannot provide assess to deep water during summer. Nevertheless, seedlings did not show evidence of experiencing a more severe water limitation than mature conspecifics, which we attributed to the presence of efficient mechanisms of avoiding and tolerating water stress. The results are discussed in relation to post-fire demography of seeders and resprouters in Mediterranean

  10. Early growth of Quercus castaneifolia (C.A. Meyer) seedlings as affected by weeding, shading and irrigation.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Javad; Tabari, Masoud; Daroodi, Hadi

    2007-08-01

    The influence of shading, irrigation and weeding on survival, growth and morphology of 1-year Quercus castaneifolia seedlings was studied in north of Iran. The seedlings were grown under eight treatments including full-light versus artificial shading, irrigation versus non-irrigation and weed presence versus weed removing at three replicates. At the end of the first growing season seedling survival in all treatments was 100%. Weed removing had positive effect on height, diameter growth, slenderness coefficient and leaf area of Q. castaneifolia. Irrigation enhanced diameter growth and leaf area and shading increased leaf area. Irrigation had no significant effect on plant growth where the weed was removed. In weed plots seedlings growth and leaf area were greater in shading than in full-light. The results indicated that for 1 year Q. castaneifolia seedlings, weeding, in contrast to irrigation, is an essential factor. Where the weed competition is a difficulty, plantation with higher stem length should be applied.

  11. On the role of a Lipid-Transfer Protein. Arabidopsis ltp3 mutant is compromised in germination and seedling growth.

    PubMed Central

    Pagnussat, Luciana A; Oyarburo, Natalia; Cimmino, Carlos; Pinedo, Marcela L; de la Canal, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Plant Lipid-Transfer Proteins (LTPs) exhibit the ability to reversibly bind/transport lipids in vitro. LTPs have been involved in diverse physiological processes but conclusive evidence on their role has only been presented for a few members, none of them related to seed physiology. Arabidopsis seeds rely on storage oil breakdown to supply carbon skeletons and energy for seedling growth. Here, Arabidopsis ltp3 mutant was analyzed for its ability to germinate and for seedling establishment. Ltp3 showed delayed germination and reduced germination frequency. Seedling growth appeared reduced in the mutant but this growth restriction was rescued by the addition of an exogenous carbon supply, suggesting a defective oil mobilization. Lipid breakdown analysis during seedling growth revealed a differential profile in the mutant compared to the wild type. The involvement of LTP3 in germination and seedling growth and its relationship with the lipid transfer ability of this protein is discussed. PMID:26479260

  12. On the role of a Lipid-Transfer Protein. Arabidopsis ltp3 mutant is compromised in germination and seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Pagnussat, Luciana A; Oyarburo, Natalia; Cimmino, Carlos; Pinedo, Marcela L; de la Canal, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Plant Lipid-Transfer Proteins (LTPs) exhibit the ability to reversibly bind/transport lipids in vitro. LTPs have been involved in diverse physiological processes but conclusive evidence on their role has only been presented for a few members, none of them related to seed physiology. Arabidopsis seeds rely on storage oil breakdown to supply carbon skeletons and energy for seedling growth. Here, Arabidopsis ltp3 mutant was analyzed for its ability to germinate and for seedling establishment. Ltp3 showed delayed germination and reduced germination frequency. Seedling growth appeared reduced in the mutant but this growth restriction was rescued by the addition of an exogenous carbon supply, suggesting a defective oil mobilization. Lipid breakdown analysis during seedling growth revealed a differential profile in the mutant compared to the wild type. The involvement of LTP3 in germination and seedling growth and its relationship with the lipid transfer ability of this protein is discussed.

  13. Seed germination and seedling growth of the Mexican sunflower Tithonia diversifolia (Compositae) in Nigeria, Africa.

    PubMed

    Agboola, D A; Idowu, W F; Kadiri, M

    2006-06-01

    We studied seed germination and seedling growth of the Mexican sunflower Tithonia diversifolia in Nigeria. This involved the usage of some dormancy-releasing methods and the effect of some concentrations of three herbicide formulations on the young seedlings. Initial germination tests on fresh and stored seeds revealed a low percentage germination of less than 30%. The seeds of the weed exhibit dormancy. Subjecting the seeds to wet heat at 80 and 100 degrees C and light treatment terminated dormancy both in the fresh and stored seeds. Light greatly enhanced the germination percentage of seeds by about 70%. There was gradual increase in germination percentage with increase in storage period in dormancy-released seeds. The mean LAR (Leaf Area Ratio), NAR (Net Assimilation Rate) and RGR (Relative Growth Rate) are comparatively high in young seedlings. Concentrations of 0.5-2.0% of Gramoxone, Primextra and Galex are toxic to 1 month old seedlings. For eradication, the seedlings should be attacked at one month stage.

  14. Time interval between cover crop termination and planting influences corn seedling disease, plant growth, and yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were established in controlled and field environment to evaluate the effect of time intervals between cereal rye cover crop termination and corn planting on corn seedling disease, corn growth, and grain yield in 2014 and 2015. Rye termination dates ranged from 25 days before planting (DB...

  15. β-Amino-n-butyric Acid Regulates Seedling Growth and Disease Resistance of Kimchi Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeong Chae; Kim, Yeon Hwa; Lee, Young Hee; Lee, Sang Woo; Chae, Yun-Soek; Kang, Hyun-Kyung; Yun, Byung-Wook; Hong, Jeum Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Non-protein amino acid, β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA), has been involved in diverse physiological processes including seedling growth, stress tolerance and disease resistance of many plant species. In the current study, treatment of kimchi cabbage seedlings with BABA significantly reduced primary root elongation and cotyledon development in a dose-dependent manner, which adverse effects were similar to the plant response to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) application. BABA was synergistically contributing ABA-induced growth arrest during the early seedling development. Kimchi cabbage leaves were highly damaged and seedling growth was delayed by foliar spraying with high concentrations of BABA (10 to 20 mM). BABA played roles differentially in in vitro fungal conidial germination, mycelial growth and conidation of necrotroph Alternaria brassicicola causing black spot disease and hemibiotroph Colletotrichum higginsianum causing anthracnose. Pretreatment with BABA conferred induced resistance of the kimchi cabbage against challenges by the two different classes of fungal pathogens in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that BABA is involved in plant development, fungal development as well as induced fungal disease resistance of kimchi cabbage plant. PMID:25288957

  16. Various effects of fluorescent bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas containing ACC deaminase on wheat seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Magnucka, Elżbieta G; Pietr, Stanisław J

    2015-12-01

    The study evaluates the effect of rhizobacteria having 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCd) on the development of wheat seedlings. This enzyme has been proposed to play a key role in microbe-plant association. Three fluorescent pseudomonads containing this deaminase were selected from 70 strains of pseudomonads isolated from rhizosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rape (Brassica napus L.). These bacteria, varied significantly in the ability to both biosynthesize auxins and hydrolyze ACC. Among them, Pseudomonas brassicacearum subsp. brassicacearum strain RZ310 presented the highest activities of ACC deaminase during 96h of growth in liquid Dworkin and Foster (DF) salt medium. Additionally, this rape rhizosphere strain did not produce indoles. Two other isolates, Pseudomonas sp. PO283 and Pseudomonas sp. PO366, secreted auxins only in the presence of their precursor. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and four other protein-encoding genes indicated that these wheat rhizosphere isolates belonged to the fluorescent Pseudomonas group. Moreover, the effects of these strains on wheat seedling growth under in vitro conditions were markedly dependent on both their cell suspensions used to grain inoculation and nutrient conditions. Strains tested had beneficial influence on wheat seedlings mainly at low cell densities. In addition, access to nutrients markedly changed bacteria action on cereal growth. Their presence generally favored the positive effects of pseudomonads on length and the estimated biomasses of wheat coleoptiles. Despite these general rules, impacts of each isolate on the growth parameters of cereal seedlings were unique.

  17. Interactive effects of substrate, hydroperiod, and nutrients on seedling growth of Salix nigra and Taxodium distichum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day, Richard H.; Doyle, T.W.; Draugelis-Dale, R. O.

    2006-01-01

    The large river swamps of Louisiana have complex topography and hydrology, characterized by black willow (Salix nigra) dominance on accreting alluvial sediments and vast areas of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) deepwater swamps with highly organic substrates. Seedling survival of these two wetland tree species is influenced by their growth rate in relation to the height and duration of annual flooding in riverine environments. This study examines the interactive effects of substrate, hydroperiod, and nutrients on growth rates of black willow and baldcypress seedlings. In a greenhouse experiment with a split-split-plot design, 1-year seedlings of black willow and baldcypress were subjected to two nutrient treatments (unfertilized versus fertilized), two hydroperiods (continuously flooded versus twice daily flooding/draining), and two substrates (sand versus commercial peat mix). Response variables included height, diameter, lateral branch count, biomass, and root:stem ratio. Black willow growth in height and diameter, as well as all biomass components, were significantly greater in peat substrate than in sand. Black willow showed a significant hydroperiod-nutrient interaction wherein fertilizer increased stem and root biomass under drained conditions, but flooded plants did not respond to fertilization. Baldcypress diameter and root biomass were higher in peat than in sand, and the same two variables increased with fertilization in flooded as well as drained treatments. These results can be used in Louisiana wetland forest models as inputs of seedling growth and survival, regeneration potential, and biomass accumulation rates of black willow and baldcypress.

  18. Combined effects of bisphenol A and cadmium on growth and nitrate assimilation of soybean seedling roots.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhaoguo; Wang, Lihong; Wang, Qingqing; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2014-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and cadmium (Cd) pollution exist simultaneously in many regions. However, little information is available regarding the combined effects of BPA and Cd pollution on plants. Plant roots are in direct contact with the soil, which is an important compartment of BPA and Cd. In the present study, the effects of combined BPA and Cd pollution on soybean seedling roots were evaluated in pot experiments. Combined treatment with BPA and Cd at low concentrations (1.5 mg/kg BPA and 0.2 mg/kg Cd) improved soybean seedling root growth. However, other combined BPA and Cd treatments, including combined treatment with BPA (Cd) at the low concentration and Cd (BPA) at the high concentration as well as combined treatment with BPA and Cd at the high concentration, inhibited soybean seedling root growth. The improvement or inhibition of soybean seedling root growth was greater in the combined BPA and Cd treatments than in single treatments. The effects of the combined BPA and Cd treatments on root growth resulted from changes in nitrate assimilation. In addition, the combined effects of BPA and Cd on the nitrate and ammonium contents in roots are discussed. The present research provides a basic understanding of the combined effects of BPA and Cd pollution on plant roots.

  19. In Vivo Effects of Barbituates on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kordan, H. A.

    1984-01-01

    A simple, low-cost experimental system can be used to demonstrate the "in vivo" effects of barbituates on seed germination and seedling growth behavior in different plant species. Lipid solubility and concentration of individual barbituates both affect the response. List of materials needed, procedures used, and typical results obtained are…

  20. Separating multiple, short-term deleterious effects of saline solutions to the growth of cowpea seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reductions in plant growth due to salinity are of global importance in natural and agricultural landscapes. Short-term (48 h) solution culture experiments studied 404 treatments with seedlings of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. cv. Caloona) to examine the multiple deleterious effects of Ca, Mg...

  1. Activation of HLS1 by Mechanical Stress via Ethylene-Stabilized EIN3 Is Crucial for Seedling Soil Emergence.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xing; Li, Yanli; Pan, Ying; Zhong, Shangwei

    2016-01-01

    The seeds of terrestrial flowering plants often start their life cycle in subterranean darkness. To protect the fragile apical meristematic tissues and cotyledons from mechanical injuries during soil penetration, dicotyledonous seedlings form an elegant apical hook at the top of the hypocotyl. The apical hook has been considered as an adaption structure to the subterranean environment. However, the role of the apical hook in seedling emergence and the molecular mechanism of apical hook formation under real-life conditions remain highly speculative. Here, we find that HOOKLESS 1 (HLS1), a critical gene in apical hook formation in Arabidopsis thaliana, is required for seedling emergence from the soil. When grown under soil, hls1 mutant exhibits severe emergence defects. By contrast, HLS1 overexpression in the hls1 background fully restores emergence defects and displays better emergence capacity than that of WT. Our results indicate that HLS1 transcription is stimulated in response to the mechanical stress of soil cover, which is dependent on the function of the transcription factors ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3 (EIN3) and EIN3-LIKE 1 (EIL1). Soil-conferred mechanical stress activates the ethylene signaling pathway to stabilize EIN3 by repressing the activity of the F-box proteins EBF1 and EBF2. These combined results reveal a signaling pathway in which plant seedlings transduce the mechanical pressure of soil cover to correctly modulate apical hook formation during soil emergence.

  2. Activation of HLS1 by Mechanical Stress via Ethylene-Stabilized EIN3 Is Crucial for Seedling Soil Emergence

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xing; Li, Yanli; Pan, Ying; Zhong, Shangwei

    2016-01-01

    The seeds of terrestrial flowering plants often start their life cycle in subterranean darkness. To protect the fragile apical meristematic tissues and cotyledons from mechanical injuries during soil penetration, dicotyledonous seedlings form an elegant apical hook at the top of the hypocotyl. The apical hook has been considered as an adaption structure to the subterranean environment. However, the role of the apical hook in seedling emergence and the molecular mechanism of apical hook formation under real-life conditions remain highly speculative. Here, we find that HOOKLESS 1 (HLS1), a critical gene in apical hook formation in Arabidopsis thaliana, is required for seedling emergence from the soil. When grown under soil, hls1 mutant exhibits severe emergence defects. By contrast, HLS1 overexpression in the hls1 background fully restores emergence defects and displays better emergence capacity than that of WT. Our results indicate that HLS1 transcription is stimulated in response to the mechanical stress of soil cover, which is dependent on the function of the transcription factors ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3 (EIN3) and EIN3-LIKE 1 (EIL1). Soil-conferred mechanical stress activates the ethylene signaling pathway to stabilize EIN3 by repressing the activity of the F-box proteins EBF1 and EBF2. These combined results reveal a signaling pathway in which plant seedlings transduce the mechanical pressure of soil cover to correctly modulate apical hook formation during soil emergence. PMID:27822221

  3. Lianas suppress seedling growth and survival of 14 tree species in a Panamanian tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Izquierdo, Laura; García, María M; Powers, Jennifer S; Schnitzer, Stefan A

    2016-01-01

    Lianas are a common plant growth form in tropical forests, where they compete intensely with trees, decreasing tree recruitment, growth, and survival. If the detrimental effects of lianas vary significantly with tree species identity, as is often assumed, then lianas may influence tree species diversity and community composition. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that liana abundance and biomass are increasing relative to trees in neotropical forests, which will likely magnify the detrimental effects of lianas and may ultimately alter tree species diversity, relative abundances, and community composition. Few studies, however, have tested the responses of multiple tree species to the presence of lianas in robust, well-replicated experiments. We tested the hypotheses that lianas reduce tree seedling growth and survival, and that the effect of lianas varies with tree species identity. We used a large-scale liana removal experiment in Central Panama in which we planted 14 replicate seedlings of 14 different tree species that varied in shade tolerance in each of 16 80 x 80 m plots (eight liana-removal and eight unmanipulated controls; 3136 total seedlings). Over a nearly two-yr period, we found that tree seedlings survived 75% more, grew 300% taller, and had twice the aboveground biomass in liana-removal plots than seedlings in control plots, consistent with strong competition between lianas and tree seedlings. There were no significant differences in the response of tree species to liana competition (i.e., there was no species by treatment interaction), indicating that lianas had a similar negative effect on all 14 tree species. Furthermore, the effect of lianas did not vary with tree species shade tolerance classification, suggesting that the liana effect was not solely based on light. Based on these findings, recently observed increases in liana abundance in neotropical forests will substantially reduce tree regeneration, but will not significantly alter

  4. Growth responses and adaptations of Fraxinus pennsylvanica seedlings to flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Sena Gomes, A.R.; Kozlowski, T.T.

    1980-01-01

    Flooding induced several physiological and morphological changes in Fraxinus pennsylvanica seedlings, with stomatal closure among the earliest responses. Subsequent changes included: reduction in dry weight increment of roots, stems, and leaves; formation of hypertrophied lenticles and production of adventitious roots on submerged portions of the stem above the soil line; leaf necrosis; and leaf abscission. After 15 days of stomatal closure as a results of flooding, stomata began to reopen progressively until stomata aperture was similar in flooded and unflooded plants. Adventitious roots began to form at about the time stomatal reopening began. As more adventitious roots formed, elongated, and branched, the stomata opened further. The formation of adventitious roots was in important adaptation for flooding tolerance as shown by the high efficiency of adventitious roots in absorption of water and in high correlation between the production of adventitious roots and stomatal reopening. 6 figures, 2 tables.

  5. [Seedlings growth and survival of five Acacia (Fabaceae) species that coexists in neotropical semi-arid forests of Argentina, under different light and water availability conditions].

    PubMed

    Venier, Paula; Cabido, Marcelo; Mangeaud, Arnaldo; Funes, Guillermo

    2013-06-01

    Seedlings growth and survival of five Acacia (Fabaceae) species that coexists in neotropical semi-arid forests of Argentina, under different light and water availability conditions. Seedling establishment is one of the most risky stages of plants, especially in arid and semiarid regions, where low water availability and high solar radiation influence its emergence, development and survival. In seasonally dry xerophytic forests occurring in North-Western Córdoba, central Argentina, five neotropical species of Acacia co-exist: A. aroma, A. caven, A. atramentaria, A. gilliesii and A. praecox. With the aim to evaluate growth variables and survival of these five species seedlings, in response to water stress and different light availability conditions, a greenhouse experiment was undertaken from March to June of 2010. Although small differences were found between species (F = 5.66, p = 0.001), all of them showed high percentages of seedling survival in response to different light and water treatments, suggesting that seedlings would be tolerant to water stress and could be established both in light and shade. On the other hand, although all species showed an increase in growth in light conditions and without water stress, we have found some trends towards a greater growth in the seedlings ofA. aroma, A. caven and A. atramentaria when compared to those of A. praecox and A. gilliessi in most of the variables considered (F = 41.9, p < 0.0001; F = 7.06, p < 0.0001; F = 53.59, p < 0.0001). This pattern was confirmed through a cluster analysis that classified the species in two main groups. These results, together with others already reported, would indicate a regenerative niche differentiation that might be favoring the regional coexistence of these five species in semiarid forests in central Argentina.

  6. Effects of seedbed preparation, irrigation, and water harvesting of seedling emergence at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Winkel, V.K.; Ostler, W.K.; Gabbert, W.D.; Lyon, G.E.

    1994-02-01

    Approximately 800 hectares on the US Department of Energy Nevada Test Site and vicinity are contaminated with plutonium. As part of a cleanup effort, both the indigenous vegetation and the top 5--10 cm of soil may be removed, and the soil may or may not be replaced. Technologies must be developed to stabilize and revegetate these lands. A study was developed to determine adaptable plant species, methods to prepare seedbeds for direct seeding and water harvesting, and proper irrigation rates. Plots were cleared of indigenous vegetation, and then prepared with various seedbed/water harvesting treatments including, pitting, land imprinting, and mulching. Other plots were treated with large water harvesting structures. Three irrigation treatments were superimposed over the seedbed/water harvesting treatments. Seedling emergence data was collected, and the treatment combinations compared. Supporting meteorological and soil data were collected with an automatic data-logger. Specific data included precipitation, and air temperature. In a year of above-average precipitation, irrigation did not generally aid germination and emergence of seeded species, and only slightly increased densities of species from the native seedbank. With the exception of increased shrub seedling densities in desert strips, there were no strong seedbed preparation/water harvesting treatment effects. In years of above-average rainfall, mulching and water harvesting treatments, irrigation may not be necessary to insure adequate germination and emergence of adapted perennial grasses, forbs, and shrubs in the Mojave/Great Basin Transition Desert. Future collection of survival data will determine whether a maintenance irrigation program is necessary to ensure establishmnent of native plants.

  7. Effects of seedbed preparation, irrigation, and water harvesting on seedling emergence at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Winkel, V.K.; Ostler, W.K.; Gabbert, W.D.; Lyon, G.E.

    1993-10-01

    Approximately 800 hectares on the US Department of Energy Nevada Test Site and vicinity are contaminated with plutonium. As part of a cleanup effort, both the indigenous vegetation and the top 5--10 cm of soil may be removed, and the soil may or may not be replaced. Technologies must be developed to stabilize and revegetate these lands. A study was developed to determine adaptable plant species, methods to prepare seedbeds for direct seeding and water harvesting, and proper irrigation rates. Plots were cleared of indigenous vegetation, and then prepared with various seedbed/water harvesting treatments including, pitting, land imprinting, and mulching. Other plots were treated with large water harvesting structures. Three irrigation treatments were superimposed over the seedbed/water harvesting treatments. Seedling emergence data was collected, and the treatment combinations compared. Supporting meteorological and soil data were collected with an automatic data-logger. Specific data included soil water data from all treatment combinations, precipitation, and air temperature. Irrigation did extend the period of available water approximately two to three weeks, but in a year of above average precipitation, this extension did not generally aid germination and emergence of seeded species, and only slightly increased densities of species from the native seedbank. With the exception of increased shrub seedling densities in desert strips, there were no strong seedbed preparation/water harvesting treatment effects. In years of above-average rainfall, mulching and water harvesting treatments, and irrigation may not be necessary to insure adequate germination and emergence of adapted perennial grasses, forbs, and shrubs in the Mojave/Great Basin Transition Desert.

  8. Determination of zinc oxide nanoparticles toxicity in root growth in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Meppaloor G; Chung, Ill Min

    2016-09-01

    The effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) was studied in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings under in vitro exposure conditions. To avoid precipitation of nanoparticles, the seedlings were grown in half strength semisolid Murashige and Skoog medium containing 0, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 500 mg L(-1) of ZnONPs. Analysis of zinc (Zn) content showed significant increase in roots. In vivo detection using fluorescent probe Zynpyr-1 indicated accumulation of Zn in primary and lateral root tips. All concentrations of ZnONPs significantly reduced root growth. However, significant decrease in shoot growth was observed only after exposure to 400 and 500 mg L(-1) of ZnONPs. The reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation levels significantly increased in roots. Significant increase in cell-wall bound peroxidase activity was observed after exposure to 500 mg L(-1) of ZnONPs. Histochemical staining with phloroglucinol-HCl showed lignification of root cells upon exposure to 500 mg L(-1) of ZnONPs. Treatment with propidium iodide indicated loss of cell viability in root tips of wheat seedlings. These results suggest that redox imbalances, lignification and cell death has resulted in reduction of root growth in wheat seedlings exposed to ZnONPs nanoparticles.

  9. [Effect of copper pollution on seedling growth and activate oxygen metabolism of Trifolium pratense].

    PubMed

    Chu, Ling; Liu, Dengyi; Wang, Youbao; Li, Ying; Liu, Huijun

    2004-01-01

    The effect of copper (Cu) pollution on the seedling growth and activate oxygen metabolism of Trifolium pratense was studied by water cultivation experiments. The results showed that under low concentration of Cu (< 10 mg.L-1), the growth of Trifolium pratense seedlings could be improved, their fresh/dry weight and the contents of soluble protein and chlorophylls in leaves increased slightly, the MDA content of leaf cells decreased, the activities of SOD, CAT and POD in the activate oxygen metabolism system slightly increased, and the balance of protective enzyme system was hold. However, with the increase of Cu concentration (10-100 mg.L-1), there existed an obvious negative effect on the growth of Trifolium pratense seedlings. The seedlings under high concentrations of Cu were shorter and smaller, their fibrous roots were shorter and fewer, and their fresh/dry weight and the contents of soluble protein and chlorophylls in leaves decreased drastically. With the increase of Cu concentration, the membrane penetration, electric conductivity and MDA content of leaf cells increased. Furthermore, the activate oxygen metabolism system was destroyed, the balance of protective enzyme system was broken, the activities of SOD and CAT decreased by 26.67% and 71.31%, respectively, while the POD activity increased by 10.6 times.

  10. The effect of elevation, light and water availability on the growth of Sierran conifer seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, R.A.; Dale, V.H.; Beauchamp, J.J. Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1994-06-01

    The composition of many plant communities will be altered with global change, and this will depend on individual species' abilities to reproduce and to survive under new climate conditions. Two experiments are underday to test the hypothesis that seedling demography is affected by the relative drought and shade tolerances of seven co-occurring species of Sierran conifers. The first experiment is being conducted at three sites in Sequoia National Park, California, elevations 1600 m, 1900 m and 2200 m. At each site, closed canopy [open quotes]shade[close quotes] plots and open canopy [open quotes]gap[close quotes] plots are being used. Seedling growth of each species is compared between light levels and elevations. The second experiment also measures seedling growth in low and high levels, but with four levels of water availability at one elevation (1900 m). Microenvironmental monitoring (soil and air temperature, relative humidity, radiation, and soil moisture) by surrounding mature trees are also being measured in order to develop a mechanistic model of seedling growth and survival.

  11. [Effects of coat and sowing depth on seed germination and early seedling growth of Quercus wutaishanica].

    PubMed

    Yan, Xing-Fui; Qiu, Zhi-Hu; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Kao-Wen; Zhou, Yun-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Under shade environment in glasshouse, the effects of seed coat and sowing depth (0, 2, 5, 10 or 15 cm) on seed germination and early seedling growth of Quercus wutaishanica were studied. Seed coat had obvious inhibiting effects on the germination of Q. wutaishanica seeds. The germination percentage of uncoated seeds increased significantly, averagely by 19.4% at different sowing depths. The germination index and vigor index were increased significantly and the germination was speeded in the peeling treatment. The germination percentages of uncoated and coated seeds were the highest at the sowing depth of 2 cm with 78.9% and 62.2%, respectively. The germination index and vigor index were the highest at the sowing depth of 2 cm, while the coefficient of rate of germination were the highest at the sowing depth of 5 cm. Leaf area per seedling and dry mass of seedlings increased significantly in the peeling treatment compared with those in the unpeeling treatment, but specific root length decreased significantly. The shoot height in the peeling and unpeeling treatments were the highest at the sowing depth of 5 cm with 13.8 and 14.2 cm, respectively. With the increasing of sowing depth, the basal stem diameter of seedlings increased, but tap-root length, number of lateral root and maximum of lateral root all decreased. Sowing depth had little influence on dry mass of seedlings.

  12. Involvement of nitric oxide in enhanced germination and seedling growth of magnetoprimed maize seeds.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pinke; Kadur Narayanaswamy, Guruprasad; Kataria, Sunita; Baghel, Lokesh

    2017-02-21

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly reactive gaseous free radical, which in plants was found to stimulate seed germination and ending of dormancy. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of NO inhibitors sodium tungstate (ST) and Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on untreated and magnetoprimed maize (Zea mays var: GSF-2) seeds. Treatment of maize seeds with these inhibitors inhibited germination related parameters like seedling length, fresh weight, dry weight and vigour indices and α-amylase activity of maize seeds under laboratory conditions, whereas NO donor (SNP) promoted all these parameters. Among three different inhibitors used ST was most effective and showed an inhibition in seedling length of 67% and 71% at 1 mM concentration for untreated (UT) and magnetically treated (MT) seeds respectively. Data presented here indicate the involvement of nitric oxide in enhanced germination and seedling growth of magnetoprimed maize seeds. ROS are continuosly produced by the cell of germinating seeds and play a positive role in germination of magnetoprimed maize seeds. ROS inhibitor (DPI) inhibited seedling length by 34% and 40% for control and MT seeds respectively. α-amylase activity was also inhibited by all the three inhibitors used. It is concluded that NO inhibitors and ROS inhibitor inhibited magnetic field induced promotion of seedling parameters and α- amylase activity of maize seeds.

  13. [Effects of light intensity on Quercus liaotungensis seed germination and seedling growth].

    PubMed

    Yan, Xing-fu; Wang, Jian-li; Zhou, Li-biao

    2011-07-01

    This paper studied the effects of different shading (55.4%, 18.9%, 5.5%, 2.2%, 0.5% , and 0.3% natural sunlight) on the seed germination and seedling growth of Quercus liaotungensis. The seed germination rate and germination index were the highest (72.5% and 0.22, respectively) at 55.4% natural sunlight, declined with decreasing light intensity, and were the lowest (42.5% and 0.11, respectively) at 0.3% natural sunlight. Strong light had definite delaying effect on the germination. The index of germination vigor increased with decreasing light intensity, being the maximum at 0.5% natural sunlight. The delay of seed germination under strong light could be the selective tradeoff on varied seed fates. Strong light benefited the basal stem diameter and root system growth and dry mass accumulation of Q. liaotunensis seedling, but resulted in the minimum seedlings height (6.06 cm). Greater morphological plasticity was observed for the seedlings under different shading, which lent support to the higher adaptability of the seedlings to light environment. For example, the specific leaf area, specific shoot length, specific root length, and chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll contents were the maximum at 0.5% natural sunlight, being 142.57 cm2 x g(-1), 156.86 cm x g(-1), 271.87 cm x g(-1), 0.07 g x cm(-2), and 0.24 g x cm(-2), respectively, and the minimum at 55.4% natural sunlight, being 44.89 cm2 x g(-1), 52.84 cm x g(-1), 101.98 cm x g(-1), 0.04 g x cm(-2), and 0.15 g x cm(-2), respectively. The variation of the root/shoot ratio of Q. liaotungensis seedlings under different shading could be the effects of the combination of light intensity and water availability.

  14. Non-destructive Phenotypic Analysis of Early Stage Tree Seedling Growth Using an Automated Stereovision Imaging Method

    PubMed Central

    Montagnoli, Antonio; Terzaghi, Mattia; Fulgaro, Nicoletta; Stoew, Borys; Wipenmyr, Jan; Ilver, Dag; Rusu, Cristina; Scippa, Gabriella S.; Chiatante, Donato

    2016-01-01

    A plant phenotyping approach was applied to evaluate growth rate of containerized tree seedlings during the precultivation phase following seed germination. A simple and affordable stereo optical system was used to collect stereoscopic red–green–blue (RGB) images of seedlings at regular intervals of time. Comparative analysis of these images by means of a newly developed software enabled us to calculate (a) the increments of seedlings height and (b) the percentage greenness of seedling leaves. Comparison of these parameters with destructive biomass measurements showed that the height traits can be used to estimate seedling growth for needle-leaved plant species whereas the greenness trait can be used for broad-leaved plant species. Despite the need to adjust for plant type, growth stage and light conditions this new, cheap, rapid, and sustainable phenotyping approach can be used to study large-scale phenome variations due to genome variability and interaction with environmental factors. PMID:27840632

  15. Spatio-temporal changes in endogenous abscisic acid contents during etiolated growth and photomorphogenesis in tomato seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Humplík, Jan F; Turečková, Veronika; Fellner, Martin; Bergougnoux, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    The role of abscisic acid (ABA) during early development was investigated in tomato seedlings. The endogenous content of ABA in particular organs was analyzed in seedlings grown in the dark and under blue light. Our results showed that in dark-grown seedlings, the ABA accumulation was maximal in the cotyledons and elongation zone of hypocotyl, whereas under blue-light, the ABA content was distinctly reduced. Our data are consistent with the conclusion that ABA promotes the growth of etiolated seedlings and the results suggest that ABA plays an inhibitory role in de-etiolation and photomorphogenesis in tomato. PMID:26322576

  16. [Effects of Chinese onion' s root exudates on cucumber seedlings growth and rhizosphere soil microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Liu, Shou-wei; Pan, Kai; Wu, Feng-zhi

    2013-04-01

    Taking the Chinese onion cultivars with different allelopathy potentials as the donor and cucumber as the accepter, this paper studied the effects of Chinese onion' s root exudates on the seedlings growth of cucumber and the culturable microbial number and bacterial community structure in the seedlings rhizosphere soil. The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars could promote the growth of cucumber seedlings, and the stimulatory effect increased with the increasing concentration of the root exudates. However, at the same concentrations of root exudates, the stimulatory effect had no significant differences between the Chinese onion cultivars with strong and weak allelopathy potential. The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars increased the individual numbers of bacteria and actinomyces but decreased those of fungi and Fusarium in rhizosphere soil, being more significant for the Chinese onion cultivar with high allelopathy potential (L-06). The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars also increased the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil. The cloning and sequencing results indicated that the differential bacteria bands were affiliated with Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Anaerolineaceae, and Anaerolineaceae only occurred in the rhizosphere soil in the treatment of high allelopathy potential Chinese onion (L-06). It was suggested that high concentration (10 mL per plant) of root exudates from high allelopathy potential Chinese onion (L-06) could benefit the increase of bacterial community diversity in cucumber seedlings rhizosphere soil.

  17. Effect of nursery nitrogen application of bare-root Larix olgensis seedlings on growth, nitrogen uptake and initial field performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo Lei; Zhu, Yan; Liu, Yong; Jiang, Le; Shi, Wenhui; Liu, Jiajia; Wang, Jiaxi; Cheng, Zhongqian

    2013-01-01

    Nursery nitrogen application has been used to improve seedling quality. The technique has received little attention with bare-root seedlings and their subsequent field performance on weed competition sites. Our research objective was to examine responses of one- and two- year-old bare-root Olga Bay larch (Larix olgensis Henry) seedlings to nursery nitrogen supplements and subsequent one-year field performance on a competitive site. The fertilizer levels (kg N ha(-1)) were 0 (control), 60 (conventional fertilization, 60 C), 120 (additional nitrogen applied two times, 120 L), 180 (additional nitrogen applied three times, 180 L) and N were applied in increments of 30 kg ha(-1 )at 15-day interval to maintain a base nutrient level Although pre-planting morphological attributes and nitrogen status of one-year-old (la) seedlings were more sensitive to 60 C than for two-year-old (2a) seedlings, the conventional application failed to enhance their field survival (15.6% vs 17.8%), relative height growth (89.0% vs 79.6%), and relative diameter growth (17.0% vs 22.9%). The la seedlings' field survival (15.6% for 0, 17.8% for 60 C) and 2a seedlings' relative height growth rate (11.0% for 0, 8.9% for 60 C) were not increased significantly until they were provided the 120 L (survival of 23.3% for la, relative height growth rate of 15.0% for 2a). According to pre-planting attributes and field performance, optimum nursery nitrogen application was 120 L for the 2a seedlings and 180 L for la seedlings. Except for component nitrogen concentration, pre-planting morphological attributes and component N content for the 2a seedlings were as much 3.3 to 37.7 times that of la seedlings. In conclusion, the contrasting survival of poor (15.6%-28.9%) for la seedlings and high (84.4%-91.1%) for 2a seedlings indicated that additional nitrogen fertilizer would not equal the benefits of an another year's growth in the nursery. Successful reforestation could not be fulfilled by la seedlings

  18. Kenaf’s allelopathic impact on seedling growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Allelopathy is the chemical interaction between plants, which may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. Research was conducted to determine the impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plant extracts on the post-germination growth of five plant species. Four concentrations (0, 16...

  19. The effect of sodium hypochlorite solutions on in vitro seedling growth and shoot regeneration of flax (Linum usitatissimum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Mustafa; Er, Celâl

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of concentration (40, 60, and 80%) and temperature (0, 10, 20, and 30°C) of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solutions on seed germination, in vitro viability and growth of flax seedlings and regeneration capacity of hypocotyl explants. Results showed that seed germination, seedling growth and shoot regeneration were negatively affected by increasing concentration and temperature of disinfectant. The best results in seedling growth and shoot regeneration were obtained when 40% disinfectant concentration at 10°C was used.

  20. Culturable bacterial endophytes isolated from Mangrove tree (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) enhance seedling growth in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Deivanai, Subramanian; Bindusara, Amitraghata Santhanam; Prabhakaran, Guruswamy; Bhore, Subhash Janardhan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endophytic bacteria do have several potential applications in medicine and in other various sectors of biotechnology including agriculture. Bacterial endophytes need to be explored for their potential applications in agricultural biotechnology. One of the potential applications of bacterial endophytes in agricultural is to enhance the growth of the agricultural crops. Hence, this study was undertaken to explore the plant growth promoting potential application of bacterial endophytes. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of endophytic bacteria from mangrove tree (Rhizophora apiculata Blume) for their efficacy in promoting seedling growth in rice. Materials and Methods: Eight endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) isolated from twig and petiole tissues of the mangrove were identified based on their 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequence homology. Separately, surface sterilized paddy seeds were treated with cell-free broth and cell suspension of the EBIs. Rice seedlings were analyzed by various bioassays and data was recorded. Results: The gene sequences of the isolates were closely related to two genera namely, Bacillus and Pantoea. Inoculation of EBIs from R. apiculata with rice seeds resulted in accelerated root and shoot growth with significant increase in chlorophyll content. Among the isolates, Pantoea ananatis (1MSE1) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (3MPE1) had shown predominance of activity. Endophytic invasion was recognized by the non-host by rapid accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and was counteracted by the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxide. The results demonstrated that EBIs from mangrove tree can increase the fitness of the rice seedlings under controlled conditions. Conclusion: These research findings could be useful to enhance the seedling growth and could serve as foundation in further research on enhancing the growth of the rice crop using endophytic bacteria. PMID

  1. Seedling Growth, Mitochondrial Characteristics, and Alternative Respiratory Capacity of Corn Genotypes Differing in Cold Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Cecil R.; Martin, Barry A.; Reding, Linda; Cerwick, Sharon

    1990-01-01

    Four maize (Zea mays L.) inbreds representing genetic differences in seedling cold tolerance were used to determine the effect of growth temperatures on dry weight accumulation and mitochondrial properties, especially the alternative oxidase capacity. Seedlings were grown in darkness at 30°C (constant), 14°C (constant), and 15°C for 16 hours and 8°C for 8 hours. Inbreds B73 and B49 were characterized as cold tolerant while G50 and G84 were cold sensitive. Shoot growth rate of cold-sensitive inbreds in the lower temperatures was slower relative to the tolerant inbreds. Mesocotyl tissue was particularly sensitive to low temperatures during growth after germination. There were no significant differences in relative rates of mitochondrial respiration in the cold-tolerant compared to cold-sensitive inbreds measured at 25°C. Mitochondria from all seedlings grown at all temperatures had the ability to phosphorylate as indicated by the observation of respiratory control. This result indicated that differences in low temperature growth were probably not related to mitochondrial function at low temperatures. Alternative oxidase capacity was higher in mitochondria from seedlings of all inbreds grown at 14°C compared to 30°C. Capacities in seedlings of 14°C-grown B73 and G50 were higher than in B49 and G84. Capacities in seedlings grown for 16 hours at 15°C and 8 hours at 8°C were similar to those from 14°C-grown except in G50 which was lower and similar to those grown at 30°C. Mesocotyl tissue was the most responsive tissue to low growth temperature. Coleoptile plus leaf tissue responded similarly but contained lower capacities. Antibody probing of western blots of mitochondrial proteins confirmed that differences in alternative oxidase capacities were due to differences in levels of the alternative oxidase protein. Male sterile lines of B73 were also grown under the three different temperature regimes. These lines grew equally as well as the normal B73 at all

  2. Photosynthesis, photoprotection, and growth of shade-tolerant tropical tree seedlings under full sunlight.

    PubMed

    Krause, G Heinrich; Winter, Klaus; Matsubara, Shizue; Krause, Barbara; Jahns, Peter; Virgo, Aurelio; Aranda, Jorge; García, Milton

    2012-09-01

    High solar radiation in the tropics is known to cause transient reduction in photosystem II (PSII) efficiency and CO(2) assimilation in sun-exposed leaves, but little is known how these responses affect the actual growth performance of tropical plants. The present study addresses this question. Seedlings of five woody neotropical forest species were cultivated under full sunlight and shaded conditions. In full sunlight, strong photoinhibition of PSII at midday was documented for the late-successional tree species Ormosia macrocalyx and Tetragastris panamensis and the understory/forest gap species, Piper reticulatum. In leaves of O. macrocalyx, PSII inhibition was accompanied by substantial midday depression of net CO(2) assimilation. Leaves of all species had increased pools of violaxanthin-cycle pigments. Other features of photoacclimation, such as increased Chl a/b ratio and contents of lutein, β-carotene and tocopherol varied. High light caused strong increase of tocopherol in leaves of T. panamensis and another late-successional species, Virola surinamensis. O. macrocalyx had low contents of tocopherol and UV-absorbing substances. Under full sunlight, biomass accumulation was not reduced in seedlings of T. panamensis, P. reticulatum, and V. surinamensis, but O. macrocalyx exhibited substantial growth inhibition. In the highly shade-tolerant understory species Psychotria marginata, full sunlight caused strongly reduced growth of most individuals. However, some plants showed relatively high growth rates under full sun approaching those of seedlings at 40 % ambient irradiance. It is concluded that shade-tolerant tropical tree seedlings can achieve efficient photoacclimation and high growth rates in full sunlight.

  3. Effects of ozone and simulated acid rain on birch seedling growth and formation of ectomycorrhizae.

    PubMed

    Keane, K D; Manning, W J

    1988-01-01

    Four-week-old paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) seedlings, inoculated or non-inoculated with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker & Couch and grown in steamed or non-steamed soil, were exposed to ozone (O(3)) and/or simulated acid rain (SAR). Plants were exposed to O(3) for 7 h per day on 5 days per week for 12 weeks. O(3) concentrations were maintained between 0.06 and 0.08 ppm. SAR was applied 10 min per day on 2 days per week. O(3), SAR, soil regime and mycorrhizal treatment did not significantly affect any of the measured variables. Interactions between O(3) and SAR, SAR and mycorrhizal treatment, soil regime and mycorrhizal treatment and ozone and soil regime had significant effects. Treatment of seedlings with pH 3.5 SAR caused increases in growth which were more apparent in birch exposed to O(3). Mucorrhizal treatment caused increased growth in non-steamed soil, while growth appeared to decrease in steamed soil. Birch seedlings grew much better in steamed soil. The implications of increased growth in steamed soil may demonstrate the importance of looking at the secondary effects of pollutants on soil-borne organisms.

  4. Effects of EDU and Ozoban on the growth of shortleaf pine seedlings in the field

    SciTech Connect

    Flagler, R.B.; Lock, J.E. )

    1994-06-01

    Two field studies were conducted to determine the response of shortleaf pine seedlings planted in the field to ethylenediurea (EDU) and sodium erythorbate (Ozoban), both of which possess antioxidant properties, and were developed to protect plants from ozone (O[sub 3]). Seedlings originated from two half-sib families of shortleaf pine, S2PE3 and S3PE9, and a third [open quotes]woods-run[close quotes] selection. For the EDU study, the chemical treatment levels were 0 and 300 ppm EDU. For the Ozoban study, the chemical treatment levels were 0, 515, 1030, 1545, and 2060 ppm Ozoban. Seedlings were sprayed monthly with the appropriate concentration of antioxidant chemical for two years. EDU increased leaf area and foliage, stem and root biomass for all three selections; the response of the woods-run selection was the greatest. Height growth was increased by EDU only in the woods-run selection. Diameter growth was not affected by EDU. In the Ozoban study, only family S2PE3 exhibited a biomass response to Ozobon, with increased biomass as Ozoban application rate increased up to the highest rat, at which point there was a small decrease. Height growth was not affected by Ozoban. Diameter growth of the woods-run selection increased as Ozoban applications rate increased, with a slight decrease at the highest application rate. Diameter of the other selections was not affected by Ozoban. Both chemicals appeared to provide some protection to shortleaf pine against ambient O[sub 3].

  5. Effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination and seedling growth of soybean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Li; Jiafeng, Jiang; Jiangang, Li; Minchong, Shen; Xin, He; Hanliang, Shao; Yuanhua, Dong

    2014-07-01

    Effects of cold plasma treatment on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr cv. Zhongdou 40) seed germination and seedling growth were studied. Seeds were pre-treated with 0, 60, 80, 100 and 120 W of cold plasma for 15 s. Results showed that plasma treatments had positive effects on seed germination and seedling growth, and treatment of 80 W had the highest stimulatory effect. Germination and vigor indices significantly increased by 14.66% and 63.33%, respectively. Seed's water uptake improved by 14.03%, and apparent contact angle decreased by 26.19%. Characteristics of seedling growth, including shoot length, shoot dry weight, root length and root dry weight, significantly increased by 13.77%, 21.95%, 21.42% and 27.51%, respectively, compared with control. The seed reserve utilization, including weight of the mobilized seed reserve, seed reserve depletion percentage and seed reserve utilization efficiency significantly improved by cold plasma treatment. In addition, soluble sugar and protein contents were 16.51% and 25.08% higher than those of the control. Compared to a 21.95% increase in shoot weight, the root weight increased by 27.51% after treatment, indicating that plasma treatment had a greater stimulatory effect on plant roots. These results indicated that cold plasma treatment might promote the growth even yield of soybean.

  6. [Effects of Pb2+ stress on seed germination & seedling growth of Rabdosia rubescens].

    PubMed

    Kong, Si-Xin; Su, He; Zhan, Yan-Ting; Li, Hai-Kui; Cui, Xu-Sheng; Guo, Yu-Hai

    2014-11-01

    The seeds of Rabdosia rubescens were as the materials to research the impacts of different lead (Pb2+) concentrations(0, 135, 270, 540, 1 080 mg x L(-1)) on seed germination and seedling growth. The results show that: Low concentration of lead had no obvious effect on early germination of the seed, the germination vigor and germination speed were lightly higher but not significantly differed at the level of Pb concentration 135 mg x L(-1) with control group; Mid-high concentration of Pb solution (270-1 080 mg x L(-1)) significantly inhibited the seed germination and seedling growth, which reduced the seed germination rate, germination vigor, germination index, embryo root length and shoot length, growth index with increasing of Pb concentrations. There was a inhibitory effect on embryo shoot length and root length at mid-high lead concentrations stress, and stronger inhibitory effect on root , which was more sensitive than shoot to Pb stress(P < 0.05). Pb bioaccumulation coefficient (BC) was 0.76-2.59, increased with concentration of Pb; Pb enrichment in seedling mainly caused the growth inhibition. The fitting model predictive analyses show, the critical concentration of Pb, which causes the germination rate and biomass fresh weight reducing 10%, is 195.18, 101.65 mg x L(-1).

  7. Effects of cold plasma treatment on seed germination and seedling growth of soybean.

    PubMed

    Ling, Li; Jiafeng, Jiang; Jiangang, Li; Minchong, Shen; Xin, He; Hanliang, Shao; Yuanhua, Dong

    2014-07-31

    Effects of cold plasma treatment on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr cv. Zhongdou 40) seed germination and seedling growth were studied. Seeds were pre-treated with 0, 60, 80, 100 and 120 W of cold plasma for 15 s. Results showed that plasma treatments had positive effects on seed germination and seedling growth, and treatment of 80 W had the highest stimulatory effect. Germination and vigor indices significantly increased by 14.66% and 63.33%, respectively. Seed's water uptake improved by 14.03%, and apparent contact angle decreased by 26.19%. Characteristics of seedling growth, including shoot length, shoot dry weight, root length and root dry weight, significantly increased by 13.77%, 21.95%, 21.42% and 27.51%, respectively, compared with control. The seed reserve utilization, including weight of the mobilized seed reserve, seed reserve depletion percentage and seed reserve utilization efficiency significantly improved by cold plasma treatment. In addition, soluble sugar and protein contents were 16.51% and 25.08% higher than those of the control. Compared to a 21.95% increase in shoot weight, the root weight increased by 27.51% after treatment, indicating that plasma treatment had a greater stimulatory effect on plant roots. These results indicated that cold plasma treatment might promote the growth even yield of soybean.

  8. Effects of soil temperature on shoot and root growth and nutrient uptake of 5-year-old Norway spruce seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lahti, M; Aphalo, P J; Finér, L; Ryyppö, A; Lehto, T; Mannerkoski, H

    2005-01-01

    Soil temperature is a main factor limiting root growth in the boreal forest. To simulate the possible soil-warming effect of future climate change, 5-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings were subjected to three simulated growing seasons in controlled environment rooms. The seedlings were acclimated to a soil temperature of 16 degrees C during the first (GS I) and third growing seasons (GS III), but were assigned to random soil-temperature treatments of 9, 13, 18 and 21 degrees C during the second growing season (GS II). In GS II, shoot diameter growth was lowest in the 21 degrees C treatment and root growth was lowest in the 9 degrees C treatment. In GS III, shoot height and root length growth improved in seedlings that had been kept at 9 degrees C during GS II, indicating compensatory growth in response to increased soil temperature. The temporary decrease in soil temperature had no long-lasting significant effect on seedling biomass or total nutrient uptake. At the end of GS III, fine roots of seedlings exposed to a soil temperature of 21 degrees C in GS II were distributed more evenly between the organic and mineral soil layers than roots of seedlings in the other treatments. During GS II and GS III, root growth started earlier than shoot growth, decreased during the rapid shoot elongation phase and increased again as shoot growth decreased.

  9. Effect of phytohormones on seed germination and seedling growth of Coriandrum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mahender; Agnihotri, R K; Vamil, R; Sharma, R

    2014-04-01

    Coriander commonly known as Dhania or Chinese parsley is generally grown for its use in soups, salads, dressing vegetables, seasoning and chutney. Effect of two phytohormones viz. GA3 and 2,4-D on seed germination, seedling growth and various physiological and biochemical parameters were studied. The hormones were applied individually in different concentrations (10, 50 and 100 μM concentrations). Both the hormones enhanced the germination percentage, seedling growth (root and shoot length), leaf area, chlorophyll and carotenoid content. The application of these hormones also decreased the germination time. Maximum germination, shoot length, leaf area and carotenoid content was observed in 100 μm concentration of GA3. Root length, chl. a and chl. b was maximum in 50 μM of 2,4-D and 100 μm GA3, respectively. The application of two hormones exhibited a marked increase on all the parameters studied as compared to the control.

  10. Growth of mycorrhizal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and white spruce (Picea glauca) seedlings planted in oil sands reclaimed areas.

    PubMed

    Onwuchekwa, Nnenna E; Zwiazek, Janusz J; Quoreshi, Ali; Khasa, Damase P

    2014-08-01

    The effectiveness of ectomycorrhizal inoculation at the tree nursery seedling production stage on growth and survival was examined in jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and white spruce (Picea glauca) planted in oil sands reclamation sites. The seedlings were inoculated with Hebeloma crustuliniforme strain # UAMH 5247, Suillus tomentosus strain # UAMH 6252, and Laccaria bicolor strain # UAMH 8232, as individual pure cultures and in combinations. These treatments were demonstrated to improve salinity resistance and water uptake in conifer seedlings. The field responses of seedlings to ectomycorrhizal inoculation varied between plant species, inoculation treatments, and measured parameters. Seedling inoculation resulted in higher ectomycorrhizal colonization rates compared with non-inoculated control, which had also a relatively small proportion of roots colonized by the nursery contaminant fungi identified as Amphinema byssoides and Thelephora americana. Seedling inoculation had overall a greater effect on relative height growth rates, dry biomass, and stem volumes in jack pine compared with white spruce. However, when examined after two growing seasons, inoculated white spruce seedlings showed up to 75% higher survival rates than non-inoculated controls. The persistence of inoculated fungi in roots of planted seedlings was examined at the end of the second growing season. Although the inoculation with H. crustuliniforme triggered growth responses, the fungus was not found in the roots of seedlings at the end of the second growing season suggesting a possibility that the observed growth-promoting effect of H. crustuliniforme may be transient. The results suggest that the inoculation of conifer seedlings with ectomycorrhizal fungi could potentially be carried out on a large scale in tree nurseries to benefit postplanting performance in oil sands reclamation sites. However, these practices should take into consideration the differences in responses between the different

  11. [Effects of cold-shock on the growth and flower bud differentiation of tomato seedlings under high temperature stress].

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-li; Xia, Ya-zhen; Sun, Zhi-qiang

    2016-02-01

    In order to explore the effects of cold-shock on the growth and flower bud differentiation of tomato seedlings under high temperature, tomato seedlings were subjected to cold-shock treat- ments every day with 10 °C for 10 minutes in. an artificial climate chamber. Tomato seedlings were treated with cold-shock at the first true leaf stage and the treatment lasted for 15 days. Tomato seed- lings without cold-shock were used as control. At the fourth true leaf period of tomato seedlings, five plants were randomly sampled and the growth characteristics and the ultrastructure changes of meso- phyll cell of tomato seedlings were examined. The flower bud differentiation process of tomato seed- lings was observed at the periods of the second, fourth and sixth true leaves respectively. Flowering and fruiting of tomato seedlings were also investigated after transplanting. The results showed that the stem diameter and health index of tomato seedlings with cold-shock were enhanced by 7.2% and 55.5% compared with seedlings without cold-shock. Mesophyll cells of the seedlings with cold-shock arranged loosely and various organelles such as chloroplasts and mitochondria were morphologically integrated, while chloroplasts and mitochondria of seedlings mesophyll cells without cold-shock swelled up and thylakoids vacuolized apparently. The flower bud differentiation process of seedlings with cold-shock could be advanced significantly at the early seedling stage compared with the control and the advancement was weakened with the seedling growing. Fruit set number and percentage on the first and second inflorescence of tomato plants transplanted by seedlings with cold-shock were enhanced significantly compared with those of the control. These results indicated that the injury of membrane structure of various organelles, especially chloroplast and mitochondria could be allevia- ted by cold-shock treatment under high temperature tress. Cold-shock treatment could not only im- prove the

  12. Root growth, secondary root formation and root gravitropism in carotenoid-deficient seedlings of Zea mays L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Y. K.; Moore, R.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of ABA on root growth, secondary-root formation and root gravitropism in seedlings of Zea mays was investigated by using Fluridone-treated seedlings and a viviparous mutant, both of which lack carotenoids and ABA. Primary roots of seedlings grown in the presence of Fluridone grew significantly slower than those of control (i.e. untreated) roots. Elongation of Fluridone-treated roots was inhibited significantly by the exogenous application of 1 mM ABA. Exogenous application of 1 micromole and 1 nmole ABA had either no effect or only a slight stimulatory effect on root elongation, depending on the method of application. The absence of ABA in Fluridone-treated plants was not an important factor in secondary-root formation in seedlings less than 9-10 d old. However, ABA may suppress secondary-root formation in older seedlings, since 11-d-old control seedlings had significantly fewer secondary roots than Fluridone-treated seedlings. Roots of Fluridone-treated and control seedlings were graviresponsive. Similar data were obtained for vp-9 mutants of Z. mays, which are phenotypically identical to Fluridone-treated seedlings. These results indicate that ABA is necessary for neither secondary-root formation nor for positive gravitropism by primary roots.

  13. Effect of phosphogypsum on growth, physiology, and the antioxidative defense system in sunflower seedlings.

    PubMed

    Elloumi, Nada; Zouari, Mohamed; Chaari, Leila; Abdallah, Ferjani Ben; Woodward, Steve; Kallel, Monem

    2015-10-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is the solid waste product of phosphate fertilizer production and is characterized by high concentrations of salts, heavy metals, and certain natural radionuclides. The work reported in this paper examined the influence of PG amendment on soil physicochemical proprieties, along with its potential impact on several physiological traits of sunflower seedlings grown under controlled conditions. Sunflower seedlings were grown on agricultural soil substrates amended with PG at rates of 0, 2.5, and 5 %. The pH of the soil decreased but electrical conductivity and organic matter, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and heavy metal contents increased in proportion to PG concentration. In contrast, no variations were observed in magnesium content and small increases were recorded in potassium content. The effects of PG on sunflower growth, leaf chlorophyll content, nutritional status, osmotic regulator content, heavy metal accumulation, and antioxidative enzymes were investigated. Concentrations of trace elements in sunflower seedlings grown in PG-amended soil were considerably lower than ranges considered phytotoxic for vascular plants. The 5 % PG dose inhibited shoot extension and accumulation of biomass and caused a decline in total protein content. However, chlorophyll, lipid peroxidation, proline and sugar contents, and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase increased. Collectively, these results strongly support the hypothesis that enzymatic antioxidation capacity is an important mechanism in tolerance of PG salinity in sunflower seedlings.

  14. The APX4 locus regulates seed vigor and seedling growth in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Ying; Hecker, Amanda G; Hauser, Bernard A

    2014-04-01

    The amino acid sequence of APX4 is similar to other ascorbate peroxidases (APXs), a group of proteins that protect plants from oxidative damage by transferring electrons from ascorbate to detoxify peroxides. In this study, we characterized two apx4 mutant alleles. Translational fusions with GFP indicated APX4 localizes to chloroplasts. Both apx4 mutant alleles formed chlorotic cotyledons with significantly reduced chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and lutein. Given the homology of APX to ROS-scavenging proteins, this result is consistent with APX4 protecting seedling photosystems from oxidation. The growth of apx4 seedlings was stunted early in seedling development. In addition, APX4 altered seed quality by affecting seed coat formation. While apx4 seed development appeared normal, the seed coat was darker and more permeable than the wild type. In addition, accelerated aging tests showed that apx4 seeds were more sensitive to environmental stress than the wild-type seeds. If APX4 affects seed pigment biosynthesis or reduction, the seed coat color and permeability phenotypes are explained. apx4 mutants had cotyledon chlorosis, increased H₂O₂ accumulation, and reduced soluble APX activity in seedlings. These results indicate that APX4 is involved in the ROS-scavenging process in chloroplasts.

  15. Antioxidant activity of seedling growth in selected soybean genotypes (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) responses of submergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damanik, R. I.; Marbun, P.; Sihombing, L.

    2016-08-01

    In order to better understand the physiological and biochemical responses relating to direct seeding establishment in soybeans, the plant growth rate and antioxidative defense responses of seedlings in seven Indonesian soybean genotypes (Anjasmoro, Detam-1, Detam-2, Dieng, Grobogan, Tanggamus, and Willis) at different submergence periods (4, and 8 days) were examined. Twelve-day old seedlings were hydroponically grown in limited oxygen conditions. The results showed that the chlorophyll content in soybean seedlings was reduced beginning as early as 4 d under submerged condition, except for Detam-1, Detam-2, and Grobogan genotypes. The dry weight and protein concentration of seedlings were significantly higher at control condition (0 d) than those in submerged condition. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased linearly until 8 d submerged for all genotypes. On the other hand, our results showed that catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities did not work together, meaning that CAT is activated and APX deactivated, or vice versa, in response to submergence conditions, except for Grobogan and Tanggamus genotypes which had an effect on both CAT and APX activities. Submergence stress led to a significant increase in glutathione reductase (GR) together with APX activity for Detam-2 and Dieng genotypes at 8 d submerged.

  16. Water Level Effects on Growth of Melaleuca Seedlings from Lake Okeechobee (Florida, USA) Littoral Zone.

    PubMed

    LOCKHART; AUSTIN; AUMEN

    1999-05-01

    / The invasive exotic wetland tree, Melaleuca quinquenervia, is expanding rapidly throughout seasonally wet areas of southern Florida (USA), including the littoral zone of Lake Okeechobee. Natural resource managers are concerned that a lower lake level regulation schedule under consideration for Lake Okeechobee, while potentially beneficial to overall ecosystem health, might increase the rate of Melaleuca expansion. To investigate this possibility, Melaleuca saplings (harvested from the littoral zone) and 7-week-old seedlings (grown from harvested seeds) were subjected to various hydroperiod treatments in replicated mesocosms. Hydroperiod treatments were selected based on a simulation of historical water level variations. Saplings grew taller under longer hydroperiods with fluctuating water levels, including periods of submersion. Time since germination affected the response of seedlings to inundation. Submersed 7-week-old seedlings grew slower and had less biomass than submersed 12-week-old seedlings, yet mortality was low at both ages. Melaleuca's plasticity allows it to adapt to hypoxic, aquatic conditions by means of aquatic heterophylly and adventitious roots. Algae and drought also increased mortality. Based on faster growth of Melaleuca under longer hydroperiods and its adaptability to seasonal flooding, a lower lake regulation schedule may not stimulate its expansion. Therefore, water levels should not be manipulated only to control Melaleuca. Control of Melaleuca should continue using current practices such as manual removal or chemical treatment. KEY WORDS: Melaleuca; Lake Okeechobee; Littoral zone; Water level; Regulation schedule

  17. Effects of Litter on Seedling Emergence and Seed Persistence of Three Common Species on the Loess Plateau in Northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Hu, Xiaowen; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C; Wang, Yanrong

    2017-01-01

    Litter accumulation resulting from land use change (enclosure) is one of the key variables influencing seedling recruitment and consequently the regeneration of plant populations and seed persistence in the soil seed bank. A better understanding of the effects of litter on seed germination and seedling emergence is crucial for developing a new set of indicators for grassland ecosystem health and for grassland management policy. We investigated the effects of seed position in litter and amount of litter covering the seed on seedling emergence and seed persistence of three common species on the Loess Plateau in northwestern China. Seed position beneath the litter layer provided a suitable environment for seedling emergence of the three species. A moderate amount of litter (160 g/m(2)) was beneficial for seedling emergence of the small-seeded species Stipa bungeana and Lespedeza davurica from seeds from beneath the litter layer. The large-seeded species Setaria glauca was more tolerant of a high amount of litter (240 g/m(2)) than the two small-seeded species. Seed persistence in the soil differed among the three species and also was affected by seed position in litter and amount of litter cover. The proportion of viable seeds of Stipa bungeana and Setaria glauca on top of the litter layer increased with an increase in amount of litter. Seedling emergence and seed persistence varied significantly among species, amount of litter and seed position in litter. A moderate amount of litter and seeds positioned beneath the litter layer were better for seedling recruitment than for those on top of the litter layer. A high amount of litter was more favorable for persistence of seeds positioned on top of the litter than for those beneath the litter. Our study showed that maintaining litter amount between 80 and 160 g/m(2) is optimal for S. bungeana dominated grassland on the Loess Plateau. We suggest that litter amount can serve as a guide for monitoring and managing grassland

  18. Effects of Litter on Seedling Emergence and Seed Persistence of Three Common Species on the Loess Plateau in Northwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Hu, Xiaowen; Baskin, Jerry M.; Baskin, Carol C.; Wang, Yanrong

    2017-01-01

    Litter accumulation resulting from land use change (enclosure) is one of the key variables influencing seedling recruitment and consequently the regeneration of plant populations and seed persistence in the soil seed bank. A better understanding of the effects of litter on seed germination and seedling emergence is crucial for developing a new set of indicators for grassland ecosystem health and for grassland management policy. We investigated the effects of seed position in litter and amount of litter covering the seed on seedling emergence and seed persistence of three common species on the Loess Plateau in northwestern China. Seed position beneath the litter layer provided a suitable environment for seedling emergence of the three species. A moderate amount of litter (160 g/m2) was beneficial for seedling emergence of the small-seeded species Stipa bungeana and Lespedeza davurica from seeds from beneath the litter layer. The large-seeded species Setaria glauca was more tolerant of a high amount of litter (240 g/m2) than the two small-seeded species. Seed persistence in the soil differed among the three species and also was affected by seed position in litter and amount of litter cover. The proportion of viable seeds of Stipa bungeana and Setaria glauca on top of the litter layer increased with an increase in amount of litter. Seedling emergence and seed persistence varied significantly among species, amount of litter and seed position in litter. A moderate amount of litter and seeds positioned beneath the litter layer were better for seedling recruitment than for those on top of the litter layer. A high amount of litter was more favorable for persistence of seeds positioned on top of the litter than for those beneath the litter. Our study showed that maintaining litter amount between 80 and 160 g/m2 is optimal for S. bungeana dominated grassland on the Loess Plateau. We suggest that litter amount can serve as a guide for monitoring and managing grassland

  19. Modeling Analysis on Germination and Seedling Growth Using Ultrasound Seed Pretreatment in Switchgrass

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Quanzhen; Chen, Guo; Yersaiyiti, Hayixia; Liu, Yuan; Cui, Jian; Wu, Chunhui; Zhang, Yunwei; He, Xueqing

    2012-01-01

    Switchgrass is a perennial C4 plant with great potential as a bioenergy source and, thus, a high demand for establishment from seed. This research investigated the effects of ultrasound treatment on germination and seedling growth in switchgrass. Using an orthogonal matrix design, conditions for the ultrasound pretreatment in switchgrass seed, including sonication time (factor A), sonication temperature (factor B) and ultrasound output power (factor C), were optimized for germinating and stimulating seedling growth (indicated as plumular and radicular lengths) through modeling analysis. The results indicate that sonication temperature (B) was the most effective factor for germination, whereas output power (C) had the largest effect on seedling growth when ultrasound treatment was used. Combined with the analyses of range, variance and models, the final optimal ultrasonic treatment conditions were sonication for 22.5 min at 39.7°C and at an output power of 348 W, which provided the greatest germination percentage and best seedling growth. For this study, the orthogonal matrix design was an efficient method for optimizing the conditions of ultrasound seed treatment on switchgrass. The electrical conductivity of seed leachates in three experimental groups (control, soaked in water only, and ultrasound treatment) was determined to investigate the effects of ultrasound on seeds and eliminate the effect of water in the ultrasound treatments. The results showed that the electrical conductivity of seed leachates during either ultrasound treatment or water bath treatment was significantly higher than that of the control, and that the ultrasound treatment had positive effects on switchgrass seeds. PMID:23071756

  20. Growth, allocation and tissue chemistry of Picea abies seedlings affected by nutrient supply during the second growing season.

    PubMed

    Kaakinen, Seija; Jolkkonen, Annika; Iivonen, Sari; Vapaavuori, Elina

    2004-06-01

    One-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings were grown hydroponically in a growth chamber to investigate the effects of low and high nutrient availability (LN; 0.25 mM N and HN; 2.50 mM N) on growth, biomass allocation and chemical composition of needles, stem and roots during the second growing season. Climatic conditions in the growth chamber simulated the mean growing season from May to early October in Flakaliden, northern Sweden. In the latter half of the growing season, biomass allocation changed in response to nutrient availability: increased root growth and decreased shoot growth led to higher root/shoot ratios in LN seedlings than in HN seedlings. At high nutrient availability, total biomass, especially stem biomass, increased, as did total nonstructural carbohydrate and nitrogen contents per seedling. Responses of stem chemistry to nutrient addition differed from those of adult trees of the same provenance. In HN seedlings, concentrations of alpha-cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin decreased in the secondary xylem. Our results illustrate the significance of retranslocation of stored nutrients to support new growth early in the season when root growth and nutrient uptake are still low. We conclude that nutrient availability alters allocation patterns, thereby influencing the success of 2-year-old Norway spruce seedlings at forest planting sites.

  1. Salt stress-induced seedling growth inhibition coincides with differential distribution of serotonin and melatonin in sunflower seedling roots and cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Soumya; David, Anisha; Yadav, Sunita; Baluška, František; Bhatla, Satish Chander

    2014-12-01

    Indoleamines regulate a variety of physiological functions during the growth, morphogenesis and stress-induced responses in plants. Present investigations report the effect of NaCl stress on endogenous serotonin and melatonin accumulation and their differential spatial distribution in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seedling roots and cotyledons using HPLC and immunohistochemical techniques, respectively. Exogenous serotonin and melatonin treatments lead to variable effect on hypocotyl elongation and root growth under NaCl stress. NaCl stress for 48 h increases endogenous serotonin and melatonin content in roots and cotyledons, thus indicating their involvement in salt-induced long distance signaling from roots to cotyledons. Salt stress-induced accumulation of serotonin and melatonin exhibits differential distribution in the vascular bundles and cortex in the differentiating zones of the primary roots, suggesting their compartmentalization in the growing region of roots. Serotonin and melatonin accumulation in oil body rich cells of salt-treated seedling cotyledons correlates with longer retention of oil bodies in the cotyledons. Present investigations indicate the possible role of serotonin and melatonin in regulating root growth during salt stress in sunflower. Effect of exogenous serotonin and melatonin treatments (15 μM) on sunflower seedlings grown in the absence or presence of 120 mM NaCl substantiates their role on seedling growth. Auxin and serotonin biosynthesis are coupled to the common precursor tryptophan. Salt stress-induced root growth inhibition, thus pertains to partial impairment of auxin functions caused by increased serotonin biosynthesis. In seedling cotyledons, NaCl stress modulates the activity of N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (HIOMT; EC 2.1.1.4), the enzyme responsible for melatonin biosynthesis from N-acetylserotonin.

  2. [Effects of aboveground and belowground competition between grass and tree on elm seedlings growth in Horqin Sandy Land].

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi; Jiang, De-ming; Chen, Zhuo; Toshio, Oshida

    2011-08-01

    Elm sparse woodland steppe plays an important role in vegetation restoration and landscape protection in Horqin Sandy Land. In this paper, a two-factor and two-level field experiment was conducted to explore the effects of aboveground and belowground competition between grass and tree on the growth of elm seedlings in the Sandy Land. Five aspects were considered, i.e., seedling biomass, belowground biomass/aboveground biomass, stem height, ratio of root to stem, and leaf number. For the one-year-old elm seedlings, their biomass showed a trend of no competition > aboveground competition > full competition > belowground competition, belowground biomass / aboveground biomass showed a trend of belowground competition > full competition > no competition > aboveground competition, stem height showed a trend of aboveground competition > no competition > full competition > belowground competition, root/stem ratio showed a trend of belowground competition > full competition > no competition > aboveground competition, and leaf number showed a trend of aboveground competition > no competition > belowground competition > full competition. Belowground competition had significant effects on the growth of one-year-old elm seedlings, while aboveground competition did not have. Neither belowground competition nor aboveground competition had significant effects on the growth of two-year-old elm seedlings. It was suggested that in Horqin Sandy Land, grass affected the growth of elm seedlings mainly via below-ground competition, but the belowground competition didn' t affect the resource allocation of elm seedlings. With the age increase of elm seedlings, the effects of grass competition on the growth of elm seedlings became weaker.

  3. Seedling Growth and Phosphorus Cycling in Northern Forest Soils Amended With Biochar and Wood Ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyce, G. L.; Jones, T.; Fulthorpe, R.; Basiliko, N.

    2015-12-01

    Biochar may be a powerful soil amendment to reduce nutrient depletion in North American forests where long-term nitrogen deposition has led to phosphorus (P) limitation, but many effects of biochar in these ecosystems are still unknown. We performed a 12-week growth chamber experiment in which red pine (Pinus resinosa) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) seedlings were grown in pots with soil from three Ontario forests and varying amounts of sugar maple biochar. Additionally, biochar effects were compared with the effects of wood ash, a forest biomass bioenergy by-product that may also be a beneficial soil amendment in these ecosystems. We assessed plant biomass, soil microbial biomass and phosphatase activity; additional chemical analyses of plant tissue and soils are ongoing. Biochar effects on seedling growth were not consistent across tree species, soil type, and addition rate. For sugar maple seedlings grown in sand and sandy-loam textured soils, biochar additions of 20 t ha-1 significantly (p = 0.03) decreased root biomass by 25 %, and the root-to-shoot ratio correspondingly declined, but this effect was not observed in a silty soil. For red pine seedlings, the same biochar addition rate slightly increased root biomass. Wood ash effects on biomass were similarly variable. For example, in the sandy soil, sugar maple root biomass was significantly lower after application of 16 t ash ha-1, but unchanged by rates of 4 or 40 t ash ha-1. Microbial biomass and soil phosphatase activity also varied by soil type. Phosphatase activity was significantly lower (p = 0.02) in soils with sugar maple compared to red pine, but there were no consistent biochar or ash effects across all soils and species. However, for red pine seedlings grown in silt, biochar significantly (p = 0.04) reduced the phosphatase activity compared to the control and ash soils. Overall, biochar may lessen P-limitation in forested ecosystems, but the suitability of biochar, and wood ash, for increasing P

  4. A Forest Tent Caterpillar Outbreak Increased Resource Levels and Seedling Growth in a Northern Hardwood Forest.

    PubMed

    Rozendaal, Danaë M A; Kobe, Richard K

    2016-01-01

    In closed-canopy forests, gap formation and closure are thought to be major drivers of forest dynamics. Crown defoliation by insects, however, may also influence understory resource levels and thus forest dynamics. We evaluate the effect of a forest tent caterpillar outbreak on understory light availability, soil nutrient levels and tree seedling height growth in six sites with contrasting levels of canopy defoliation in a hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan. We compared resource levels and seedling growth of six hardwood species before, during and in the three years after the outbreak (2008-2012). Canopy openness increased strongly during the forest tent caterpillar outbreak in the four moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites. Total inorganic soil nitrogen concentrations increased in response to the outbreak in moderately and severely defoliated sites. The increase in total inorganic soil nitrogen was driven by a strong increase in soil nitrate, and tended to become stronger with increasing site defoliation. Seedling height growth increased for all species in the moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites, either during the outbreak year or in the year after the outbreak. Growth increases did not become stronger with increasing site defoliation, but were strongest in a moderately defoliated site with high soil nutrient levels. Growth increases tended to be strongest for the shade intolerant species Fraxinus americana and Prunus serotina, and the shade tolerant species Ostrya virginiana. The strong growth response of F. americana and P. serotina suggests that recurring forest tent caterpillar outbreaks may facilitate the persistence of shade intolerant species in the understory in the absence of canopy gaps. Overall, our results suggest that recurrent canopy defoliation resulting from cyclical forest insect outbreaks may be an additional driver of dynamics in temperate closed

  5. [Effect of drought on photosynthetic characteristics and growth of Jatropha curcas seedlings under different nitrogen levels].

    PubMed

    Yin, Li; Hu, Ting-Xing; Liu, Yong-An; Yao, Shi-Fei; Ma, Juan; Liu, Weng-Ting; He, Cao

    2010-03-01

    A pot experiment with controlled water supply was conducted to study the effects of drought stress (continuous drought for 0 d, 5 d, 10 d, ... 45 d) on the photosynthetic characteristics and growth of Jatropha curcas seedlings under different nitrogen fertilization levels (N0, 0 kg N x hm(-2); N(L), 96 kg N x hm(-2; N(M), 288 kg N x hm(-2); N(H), 480 kg N x hm(-2)). With the enhancement of drought stress, the leaf relative water content (RWC1), height growth (Z(h)), basal diameter growth (Z(d), leaf area (L(a)), net photosynthetic rate ( P(n)), transpiration rate (T(r)), and stomatal conductance (G(s)) decreased significantly (P < 0.01), irrespective of nitrogen fertilization level. The chlorophyll (Chl) content and water use efficiency (WUE) increased first and decreased then, while the intercellular CO2, concentration (C(i)) had an increase after an initial decrease. Under adequate water condition, nitrogen fertilization promoted the photosynthesis and growth of J. curcas seedlings to different degrees, and the effect was increased with increasing nitrogen fertilization level. Under drought stress, the effects of nitrogen nutrition on the photosynthesis and growth were dependent on drought intensity and nitrogen fertilization level. Specifically, increasing nitrogen fertilization level could promote the photosynthesis and growth of J. curcas seedlings under mild drought, the promotion effect of N(M) was higher than that of N(L) and N(H) under moderate drought, and N(L) had the best promotion effect while N(H) weakened the effect or made it negative under severe drought.

  6. A Forest Tent Caterpillar Outbreak Increased Resource Levels and Seedling Growth in a Northern Hardwood Forest

    PubMed Central

    Rozendaal, Danaë M. A.; Kobe, Richard K.

    2016-01-01

    In closed-canopy forests, gap formation and closure are thought to be major drivers of forest dynamics. Crown defoliation by insects, however, may also influence understory resource levels and thus forest dynamics. We evaluate the effect of a forest tent caterpillar outbreak on understory light availability, soil nutrient levels and tree seedling height growth in six sites with contrasting levels of canopy defoliation in a hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan. We compared resource levels and seedling growth of six hardwood species before, during and in the three years after the outbreak (2008–2012). Canopy openness increased strongly during the forest tent caterpillar outbreak in the four moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites. Total inorganic soil nitrogen concentrations increased in response to the outbreak in moderately and severely defoliated sites. The increase in total inorganic soil nitrogen was driven by a strong increase in soil nitrate, and tended to become stronger with increasing site defoliation. Seedling height growth increased for all species in the moderately and severely defoliated sites, but not in lightly defoliated sites, either during the outbreak year or in the year after the outbreak. Growth increases did not become stronger with increasing site defoliation, but were strongest in a moderately defoliated site with high soil nutrient levels. Growth increases tended to be strongest for the shade intolerant species Fraxinus americana and Prunus serotina, and the shade tolerant species Ostrya virginiana. The strong growth response of F. americana and P. serotina suggests that recurring forest tent caterpillar outbreaks may facilitate the persistence of shade intolerant species in the understory in the absence of canopy gaps. Overall, our results suggest that recurrent canopy defoliation resulting from cyclical forest insect outbreaks may be an additional driver of dynamics in temperate closed

  7. DNA-protein cross-links involved in growth inhibition of rice seedlings exposed to Ga.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Zhang, Xue-Hong

    2015-07-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted with rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L. cv. XZX45) exposed to gallium nitrate (Ga(3+)) to investigate the accumulation of Ga in plant tissues and phytotoxic responses. Results showed that phyto-transport of Ga was apparent, and roots were the dominant site for Ga accumulation. The total accumulation rates of Ga responded biphasically to Ga treatments by showing increases at low (1.06-8.52 mg Ga/L) and constants at high (8.52-15.63 mg Ga/L) concentrations, suggesting that accumulation kinetics of Ga followed a typical saturation curve. Higher amount of Ga accumulation in plant tissues led to significant inhibition in relative growth rate and water use efficiency in a dose-dependent manner. DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs) analysis revealed that overaccumulation of Ga in plant tissues positively stimulated formation of DPCs in roots. Likewise, the measure of root cell viability evaluated by Evan blue uptake showed a similar trend. These results suggested that Ga can be absorbed, transported, and accumulated in plant materials of rice seedlings. Overaccumulation of Ga in plant tissues provoked the formation of DPCs in roots, which resulted in cell death and growth inhibition of rice seedlings.

  8. Tomato Seed Coat Permeability to Selected Carbon Nanomaterials and Enhancement of Germination and Seedling Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ratnikova, Tatsiana A.; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao M.; Taylor, Alan G.

    2015-01-01

    Seed coat permeability was examined using a model that tested the effects of soaking tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) seeds in combination with carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNMs) and ultrasonic irradiation (US). Penetration of seed coats to the embryo by CBNMs, as well as CBNMs effects on seed germination and seedling growth, was examined. Two CBNMs, C60(OH)20 (fullerol) and multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs), were applied at 50 mg/L, and treatment exposure ranged from 0 to 60 minutes. Bright field, fluorescence, and electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy provided corroborating evidence that neither CBNM was able to penetrate the seed coat. The restriction of nanomaterial (NM) uptake was attributed to the semipermeable layer located at the innermost layer of the seed coat adjacent to the endosperm. Seed treatments using US at 30 or 60 minutes in the presence of MWNTs physically disrupted the seed coat; however, the integrity of the semipermeable layer was not impaired. The germination percentage and seedling length and weight were enhanced in the presence of MWNTs but were not altered by C60(OH)20. The combined exposure of seeds to NMs and US provided insight into the nanoparticle-seed interaction and may serve as a delivery system for enhancing seed germination and early seedling growth. PMID:26495423

  9. Cu-Chitosan Nanoparticle Mediated Sustainable Approach To Enhance Seedling Growth in Maize by Mobilizing Reserved Food.

    PubMed

    Saharan, Vinod; Kumaraswamy, R V; Choudhary, Ram Chandra; Kumari, Sarita; Pal, Ajay; Raliya, Ramesh; Biswas, Pratim

    2016-08-10

    Food crop seedlings often have susceptibility to various abiotic and biotic stresses. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the impact of Cu-chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) on physiological and biochemical changes during maize seedling growth. Higher values of percent germination, shoot and root length, root number, seedling length, fresh and dry weight, and seed vigor index were obtained at 0.04-0.12% concentrations of Cu-chitosan NPs as compared to water, CuSO4, and bulk chitosan treatments. Cu-chitosan NPs at the same concentrations induced the activities of α-amylase and protease enzymes and also increased the total protein content in germinating seeds. The increased activities of α-amylase and protease enzymes corroborated with decreased content of starch and protein, respectively, in the germinating seeds. Cu-chitosan NPs at 0.16% and CuSO4 at 0.01% concentrations showed inhibitory effect on seedling growth. The observed results on seedling growth could be explained by the toxicity of excess Cu and growth promotory effect of Cu-chitosan NPs. Physiological and biochemical studies suggest that Cu-chitosan NPs enhance the seedling growth of maize by mobilizing the reserved food, primarily starch, through the higher activity of α-amylase.

  10. [Effects of sand burial on growth and physiological process of Agriophyllum squarrosum seedlings in Horqin Sand Land of Inner Mongolia, North China].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ha-Lin; Qu, Hao; Zhou, Rui-Lian; Wang, Jin; Li, Jin; Yun, Jian-Ying

    2013-12-01

    In 2010-2011, a sand burial experiment was conducted on the Horqin Sand Land of Inner Mongolia to study the growth characteristics and physiological properties of Agriophyllum squarrosum seedlings under different depths of sand burial. The A. squarrosum seedlings had stronger tolerance against sand burial. The seedling growth could be severely inhibited when the burial depth exceeded seedling height, but some seedlings could still be survived when the burial depth exceeded 1.66 times of seedling height. When the burial depth did not exceed the seedling height, the seedling MDA content and membrane permeability had no significant change, but the lipid peroxidation was aggravated and the cell membrane was damaged with increasing burial depth. Under sand burial stress, the seedling SOD and POD activities and proline content increased significantly, while the seedling CAT activity and soluble sugar content deceased. Sand burial decreased the leaf photosynthetic area and damaged cell membrane, inducing the increase of seedling mortality and the inhibition of seedling growth. The increase of SOD and POD activities and proline content played a definite role in reducing the sand burial damage to A. squarrosum seedlings.

  11. Irrigation and fertilization effects on seed number, size, germination and seedling growth: implications for desert shrub establishment.

    PubMed

    Breen, A N; Richards, J H

    2008-08-01

    Plants with limited resources adjust partitioning among growth, survival, and reproduction. We tested the effects of water and nutrient amendments on seed production, size, and quality in Sarcobatus vermiculatus (greasewood) to assess the magnitude and importance of changes in reproductive partitioning. In addition, we assessed interactions among the environment of seed-producing plants (adult plant scale), seed size, and seedling microenvironment (seedling scale) on successful seedling establishment. Interactions of these factors determine the scale of resource heterogeneity that affects seedling establishment in deserts. Both total number of seeds produced per plant and seed quality (weight and germination) increased significantly in the enriched treatment in a 3-year field experiment. Seedling length 3 days after germination and seed N concentration, other measures of seed quality, were higher for seed from both irrigated and enriched plants than for seed from control plants. Field S. vermiculatus seed production and quality can be substantially increased with irrigation and nutrient enrichment at the adult plant scale and this allows management of seed availability for restoration. However, based on a greenhouse study, seedling environment, not the environment of the seed-producing plant or seed size, was the most important factor affecting seedling germination, survival, and growth. Thus it appears that production of more seed may be more important than improved seed quality, because higher quality seed did not compensate for a low-resource seedling environment. For both natural establishment and restoration this suggests that heterogeneity at the scale of seedling microsites, perhaps combined with fertilization of adult shrubs (or multi-plant patches), would produce the greatest benefit for establishing seedlings in the field.

  12. Hormone-Mediated Pattern Formation in Seedling of Plants: a Competitive Growth Dynamics Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Satoshi; Mimura, Masayasu; Ohya, Tomoyuki; Oikawa, Noriko; Okabe, Hirotaka; Kai, Shoichi

    2001-10-01

    An ecologically relevant pattern formation process mediated by hormonal interactions among growing seedlings is modeled based on the experimental observations on the effects of indole acetic acid, which can act as an inhibitor and activator of root growth depending on its concentration. In the absence of any lateral root with constant hormone-sensitivity, the edge effect phenomenon is obtained depending on the secretion rate of hormone from the main root. Introduction of growth-stage-dependent hormone-sensitivity drastically amplifies the initial randomness, resulting in spatially irregular macroscopic patterns. When the lateral root growth is introduced, periodic patterns are obtained whose periodicity depends on the length of lateral roots. The growth-stage-dependent hormone-sensitivity and the lateral root growth are crucial for macroscopic periodic-pattern formation.

  13. Calcium ion involvement in growth inhibition of mechanically stressed soybean (Glycine max) seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1989-01-01

    A 40-50% reduction in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Century 84] hypocotyl elongation occurred 24 h after application of mechanical stress. Exogenous Ca2+ at 10 mM inhibited growth by 28% if applied with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 to the zone of maximum hypocotyl elongation. La3+ was even more inhibitory than Ca2+, especially above 5 mM. Treatment with ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethylether)-N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) alone had no effect on growth of non-stressed seedlings at the concentrations used but negated stress-induced growth reduction by 36% at 4 mM when compared to non-treated, stressed controls. Treatment with EDTA was ineffective in negating stress-induced growth inhibition. Calmodulin antagonists calmidazolium, chlorpromazine, and 48/80 also negated stress-induced growth reduction by 23, 50, and 35%, respectively.

  14. Growth, physiological, and biochemical responses of Camptotheca acuminata seedlings to different light environments

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaohua; Song, Lili; Yu, Weiwu; Hu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Jiasheng; Ying, Yeqing

    2015-01-01

    Light intensity critically affects plant growth. Camptotheca acuminata is a light-demanding species, but its optimum light intensity is not known. To investigate the response of C. acuminata seedlings to different light intensities, specifically 100% irradiance (PAR, 1500 ± 30 μmol m−2 s−1), 75% irradiance, 50% irradiance, and 25% irradiance, a pot experiment was conducted to analyze growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, stomatal structure and density, chloroplast ultrastructure, ROS concentrations, and antioxidant activities. Plants grown under 75% irradiance had significantly higher total biomass, seedling height, ground diameter, photosynthetic capacity, photochemical efficiency, and photochemical quenching than those grown under 100%, 25%, and 50% irradiance. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content, relative electrolyte conductivity (REC), superoxide anion (O.−2) production, and peroxide (H2O2) content were lower under 75% irradiance. The less pronounced plant growth under 100% and 25% irradiance was associated with a decline in photosynthetic capacity and photochemical efficiency, with increases in the activity of specific antioxidants (i.e., superoxidase dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase), and with increases in MDA content and REC. Lower levels of irradiance were associated with significantly higher concentrations of chlorophyll (Chl) a and b and lower Chla/b ratios. Stomatal development was most pronounced under 75% irradiance. Modification of chloroplast development was found to be an important mechanism of responding to different light intensities in C. acuminata. The results indicated that 75% irradiance is optimal for the growth of C. acuminata seedlings. The improvement in C. acuminata growth under 75% irradiance was attributable to increased photosynthesis, less accumulation of ROS, and the maintenance of the stomatal and chloroplast structure. PMID:26005446

  15. Postfire seedling dynamics and performance in Pinus halepensis Mill. populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalakou, Evangelia N.; Thanos, Costas A.

    2010-09-01

    Postfire dynamics of Aleppo pine seedling density, survival and growth were assessed in five burned forests of Attica, Greece (Stamata, Villia, Avlona, Kapandriti and Agios Stefanos) through the establishment of permanent experimental plots. All emerging seedlings were tagged and their survival and growth monitored at regular intervals. Seedling density dynamics show an initial, steep increase (to maximum values 2.9-4.6 seedlings m -2) followed by a gradual decrease that levels off at the second and third postfire year (1.3-3.0 seedlings m -2); similarly, postfire seedling survival more or less stabilised at 30-50%, 2-3 years after fire. On the basis of density and mortality trends as well as relevant bibliographic data, it is predicted that very dense, mature forests (10.000 trees ha -1 or more) will be reinstated within 15-20 years. During the first 5-7 postfire years, seedling/sapling annual height followed linear trends with various yearly rates, ranging mostly between 8 and 15 cm (and 27-30 cm in two exceptional, fast growing cases). Within an individual growth season, seedling height dynamics were found to follow sigmoid curves with growth increment peaks in mid-spring. The time (on a monthly basis) of seedling emergence did not affect seedling growth or survival. On the other hand, for the first time under natural conditions, it has been shown that cotyledon number per seedling, an indirect measure of both seed size and initial photosynthetic capacity, significantly affected seedling survival but not growth. Seedlings bearing a higher number of cotyledons, presumably derived from larger seeds, showed greater survival at the end of the first postfire year than seedlings with fewer cotyledons. A postfire selective pressure, favouring large seed size, is postulated to counteract with a contrasting one, which favours small seed size, expressed during fire-free conditions.

  16. Development and growth of several strains of Arabidopsis seedlings in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, J. Z.; Brinckmann, E.; Brillouet, C.

    2000-01-01

    Growth and development of dark-grown Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were studied in microgravity during space shuttle mission STS-84. The major purpose of this project was to determine if there were developmental differences among the four ecotypes studied--Wassilewskija (Ws), Columbia (Col), Landsberg erecta (Ler), and C24--and to evaluate whether particular ecotypes are better suited for spaceflight experimentation compared with others. A secondary goal was to study the growth of three starch-deficient strains of Arabidopsis by extending the observations made in a previously published report. For all strains, seed germination was not affected by microgravity, but seedlings were smaller in the spaceflight samples compared with the ground controls. The starch-deficient strains continued to exhibit vigorous growth until the termination of the experiment at 121 h after imbibition of seeds. However, ethylene effects, i.e., reduced growth and exaggerated hypocotyl hooks, were observed in all strains studied. Nevertheless, the Ler and C24 ecotypes seem to be more suitable for spaceflight research, compared with the other two ecotypes, based on measurements of their relative and absolute growth. This type of information should aid in the design of plant experiments for the International Space Station.

  17. Growth of apple seedlings on sludge-amended soils in the greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Korcak, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    Open pollinated York Imperial apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) seeds were germinated and grown for a period of 7 months in: (1) sand with complete nutrient solutions added; (2) limed and unlimed soil, (3) limed and unlimed soil amended with two different sewage sludges at rates of 25, 50 or 100 dry kg ha/sup -1/. A third composted, lime stabilized sludge was added either sieved or non-sieved at the same rates. The sludge materials used were: (1) a high metal, composted sludge from Baltimore, MD (BALT); (2) a high Cd sewage sludge (CITY) and (3) a low metal, composted sewage sludge from Washington, D.C. (DC). Germination was unaffected by treatments. After 7 months, the best growth was obtained from the sand plus nutrient solution media. Two of the three sludge materials increased seedling growth over that of the soil, either limed or unlimed. The BALT compost treated soils produced the lowest growth, particularly when unlimed. Elevated tissue metal levels indicated that Mn, Zn, Cu and Ni were the probable causes of reduced growth noted from the BALT compost treatment. The use of soil with or without low metal sludges as media for early apple seedling growth when compared to standard sand culture is not recommended.

  18. Water Deficit and Abscisic Acid Cause Differential Inhibition of Shoot versus Root Growth in Soybean Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Creelman, Robert A.; Mason, Hugh S.; Bensen, Robert J.; Boyer, John S.; Mullet, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Roots often continue to elongate while shoot growth is inhibited in plants subjected to low-water potentials. The cause of this differential response to water deficit was investigated. We examined hypocotyl and root growth, polysome status and mRNA populations, and abscisic acid (ABA) content in etiolated soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Williams) seedlings whose growth was inhibited by transfer to low-water potential vermiculite or exogenous ABA. Both treatments affected growth and dry weight in a similar fashion. Maximum inhibition of hypocotyl growth occurred when internal ABA levels (modulated by ABA application) reached the endogenous level found in the elongating zone of seedlings grown in water-deficient vermiculite. Conversely, root growth was affected to only a slight extent in low-water potential seedlings and by most ABA treatments (in some, growth was promoted). In every seedling section examined, transfer of seedlings into low-water potential vermiculite caused ABA levels to increase approximately 5- to 10-fold over that found in well-watered seedlings. Changes in soluble sugar content, polysome status, and polysome mRNA translation products seen in low-water potential seedlings did not occur with ABA treatments sufficient to cause significant inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. These data suggest that both variation in endogenous ABA levels, and differing sensitivity to ABA in hypocotyls and roots can modulate root/shoot growth ratios. However, exogenous ABA did not induce changes in sugar accumulation, polysome status, and mRNA populations seen after transfer into low-water potential vermiculite. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:16667248

  19. Growth rate and survivorship of drought: CO2 effects on the presumed tradeoff in seedlings of five woody legumes.

    PubMed

    Polley, H Wayne; Tischler, Charles R; Johnson, Hyrum B; Derner, Justin D

    2002-04-01

    Traits that promote rapid growth and seedling recruitment when water is plentiful may become a liability when seedlings encounter drought. We tested the hypothesis that CO2 enrichment reinforces any tradeoff between growth rate and drought tolerance by exaggerating interspecific differences in maximum relative growth rate (RGR) and survivorship of drought among seedlings of five woody legumes. We studied invasive species of grasslands that differ in distribution along a rainfall gradient. Survivorship of drought at ambient CO2 concentration ([CO2]) was negatively related to RGR in well-watered seedlings in one of two experiments, but the relationship was weak because interspecific differences in RGR were small. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was no significant relationship among well-watered seedlings between RGR at ambient [CO2] and either the relative or absolute increase in RGR at elevated [CO2]. As predicted, however, CO2 enrichment reinforced interspecific differences in survivorship of seedlings exposed to similar rates of soil water depletion. Doubling [CO2] improved seedling survivorship of the most drought-tolerant species throughout the period of soil water depletion, but did not consistently affect survivorship of more drought-sensitive species. Midday xylem pressure potentials of drought-treated seedlings were less negative at elevated [CO2] than at ambient [CO2], but no other measured trait was consistently correlated with improved survivorship at high [CO2]. Carbon dioxide enrichment may not reinforce species differences in RGR, but could exaggerate interspecific differences in drought tolerance. To the extent that seedling persistence in grasslands correlates with drought survivorship, our results indicate a positive effect of CO2 enrichment on recruitment of woody legumes that are currently tolerant of drought.

  20. Influence of total soluble salt concentration on growth and elemental concentration of winged bean seedlings, Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L. ) DC

    SciTech Connect

    Csizinszky, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) (L.) DC) seedlings of the accession TPT-1, were grown in a greenhouse with graded, balanced total soluble salt (TSS) concentrations. After 45 days, plant height increased quadratically, with a maximum (149 cm) at 3000 ppm TSS. Seedlings were shortest at 1000 and 10,000 ppm TSS, 44.0 and 79.0 cm, respectively. Fresh weight of shoots increased quadratically with greatest weight, 29.03 g, at 5000 ppm TSS. Percent dry matter increased linearly with increasing TSS. Concentration of N, K and P increased quadratically with an increase in the TSS concentration in the growth medium. Concentration of Ca decreased quadratically with increasing TSS. Among the micronutrients, Fe and Mo concentration was quadratic, both elements were highest in the seedlings at 1000 and 10,000 ppm TSS rates. Concentrations of Mn and Zn increased linearly with increasing TSS. Winged bean seedlings at the 1000 to 3000 ppm TSS rates had spindly stems and a sparse, yellow foliage, typical for winged bean seedlings observed in the field during the first 4 to 5 weeks of growth. Seedlings at the 4000 and 5000 ppm TSS rates had sturdy stems and an abundant green foliage. At higher TSS concentrations, 5000 to 10,000 ppm TSS, seedlings had short intermodes and dark green foliage.

  1. [Effects of sodium naphthalene acetate on growth and physiological characteristics of tomato seedlings under suboptimal temperature and light condition].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yun-na; Li, Yan-su; He, Chao-xing; Yu, Xian-chang

    2015-10-01

    Taking tomato 'Zhongza 105' as test material, the influences of sodium naphthalene acetate (SNA) on growth and physiological characteristics of tomato seedlings under suboptimal temperature and light condition were investigated. The results showed that the dry mass, vigorous seedling index, root activity, total nitrogen content, net photosynthesis rate (Pn) of tomato seedlings were significantly decreased by suboptimum temperature and light treatment. In addition, the catalase activity and zeatin riboside (ZR) concentration were also reduced. However, the superoxide dismutase, peroxidase activity and the content of abscisic acid (ABA) were increased. Compared with treatment of the same volume distilled water on tomato seedlings under suboptimum temperature and light condition, the dry mass of whole plant and vigorous seedling index of tomato seedlings were significantly increased by 16.4% and 22.9%, as the total N contents in roots and leaves and Pn were also increased by 8.5%, 28.5%and 37.0%, respectively, with the treatment of root application of 10 mg . L-1 SNA. Besides protective enzyme activity and the root activity were improved, the indole acetic acid (IAA) and ZR concentration of tomato were raised, and ABA concentration was reduced. The results indicated that root application of certain concentration of SNA could promote the growth of tomato seedlings by increasing the tomato root activity, protective enzymes activity, Pn and regulating endogenous hormone concentration under suboptimum temperature and light condition.

  2. Image Analysis of Geo-Induced Inhibition, Compression, and Promotion of Growth in an Inverted Helianthus annuus L. Seedling.

    PubMed

    Gordon, D C; Macdonald, I R; Hart, J W; Berg, A

    1984-11-01

    The growth responses of a sunflower seedling (Helianthus annuus L.), subjected to repeated inversion, were characterized by time-lapse recording in conjunction with video image analysis. The investigation revealed a characteristic response pattern and established that the directional movement of the seedling is achieved by both inhibition and stimulation of growth in the normal growing regions. The complex growth changes in contiguous regions of the hypocotyl are such as seem to be inexplicable in terms of an environmentally imposed gradient of a single growth substance.

  3. Dry matter, lipids, and proteins of canola seeds as affected by germination and seedling growth under illuminated and dark environments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyan; Vasanthan, Thava; Wettasinghe, Mahinda

    2004-12-29

    The effect of germination and growth under illuminated and dark environments on canola seed reserves was investigated. Depletion of proteins and lipids in whole seedlings and their top (leaf/cotyledons) and bottom parts (stem/roots/seed coat) was independent of light, whereas the protein solubility increased at a faster rate under an illuminated environment than in the dark. A rapid increase in free fatty acids but a net decrease of dry matter content in seedlings grown in the dark environment was observed. The dry matter content of seedlings grown in the illuminated environment increased due to photosynthetic biomass accumulation.

  4. HSPRO controls early Nicotiana attenuata seedling growth during interaction with the fungus Piriformospora indica.

    PubMed

    Schuck, Stefan; Camehl, Iris; Gilardoni, Paola A; Oelmueller, Ralf; Baldwin, Ian T; Bonaventure, Gustavo

    2012-10-01

    In a previous study aimed at identifying regulators of Nicotiana attenuata responses against chewing insects, a 26-nucleotide tag matching the HSPRO (ORTHOLOG OF SUGAR BEET Hs1(pro)(-)(1)) gene was found to be strongly induced after simulated herbivory (Gilardoni et al., 2010). Here we characterized the function of HSPRO during biotic interactions in transgenic N. attenuata plants silenced in its expression (ir-hspro). In wild-type plants, HSPRO expression was not only induced during simulated herbivory but also when leaves were inoculated with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 and roots with the growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica. Reduced HSPRO expression did not affect the regulation of direct defenses against Manduca sexta herbivory or P. syringae pv tomato DC3000 infection rates. However, reduced HSPRO expression positively influenced early seedling growth during interaction with P. indica; fungus-colonized ir-hspro seedlings increased their fresh biomass by 30% compared with the wild type. Grafting experiments demonstrated that reduced HSPRO expression in roots was sufficient to induce differential growth promotion in both roots and shoots. This effect was accompanied by changes in the expression of 417 genes in colonized roots, most of which were metabolic genes. The lack of major differences in the metabolic profiles of ir-hspro and wild-type colonized roots (as analyzed by liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry) suggested that accelerated metabolic rates were involved. We conclude that HSPRO participates in a whole-plant change in growth physiology when seedlings interact with P. indica.

  5. [Effects of shading light quality at seedling stage on the photosynthesis and growth of ginger].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui-Hua; Xu, Kun

    2008-03-01

    With different color plastic films as shading materials, this paper studied the effects of shading light quality at seedling stage on the growth and photosynthesis of ginger. The results showed that shading with green or blue film induced the greatest chlorophyll content in ginger leaves, followed by shading with white film, and red film. In parallel, the photosynthetic rate under green film-shading was the highest, being 14.9 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) in the 4th leaves, which was 5.7%, 10.4%, and 18.3% higher than that under white, red, and blue film-shading, respectively. After removing the films at vigorous growth stage, the photosynthetic rate became larger, and its change pattern in different shading treatments was similar to that at seedling stage. No significant differences in the chlorophyll content of young leaves were observed among the shading treatments, except the low chlorophyll content under red film-shading. In contrast, the chlorophyll content in low position leaves under blue and red film-shading was lower than that under green and white film-shading. In the whole growth period, the plants under blue film-shading were higher in height and with thinner stem and lesser shoot, compared with those shaded with other color films. The fresh mass of root, stem, leaf, and rhizome decreased in the order of green, white, red, and blue film-shading, and the yields at harvesting stage were 57,000, 53,709, 51,487, and 48,712 kg x hm(-2), respectively, illustrating that shading with green film at seedling stage could increase the leaf photosynthesis, plant growth, and yield of ginger.

  6. Genetic variation facilitates seedling establishment but not population growth rate of a perennial invader

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shou-Li; Vasemägi, Anti; Ramula, Satu

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Assessing the demographic consequences of genetic variation is fundamental to invasion biology. However, genetic and demographic approaches are rarely combined to explore the effects of genetic variation on invasive populations in natural environments. This study combined population genetics, demographic data and a greenhouse experiment to investigate the consequences of genetic variation for the population fitness of the perennial, invasive herb Lupinus polyphyllus. Methods Genetic and demographic data were collected from 37 L. polyphyllus populations representing different latitudes in Finland, and genetic variation was characterized based on 13 microsatellite loci. Associations between genetic variation and population size, population density, latitude and habitat were investigated. Genetic variation was then explored in relation to four fitness components (establishment, survival, growth, fecundity) measured at the population level, and the long-term population growth rate (λ). For a subset of populations genetic variation was also examined in relation to the temporal variability of λ. A further assessment was made of the role of natural selection in the observed variation of certain fitness components among populations under greenhouse conditions. Key Results It was found that genetic variation correlated positively with population size, particularly at higher latitudes, and differed among habitat types. Average seedling establishment per population increased with genetic variation in the field, but not under greenhouse conditions. Quantitative genetic divergence (QST) based on seedling establishment in the greenhouse was smaller than allelic genetic divergence (F′ST), indicating that unifying selection has a prominent role in this fitness component. Genetic variation was not associated with average survival, growth or fecundity measured at the population level, λ or its variability. Conclusions The study suggests that although genetic

  7. Effects of salt-drought stress on growth and physiobiochemical characteristics of Tamarix chinensis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junhua; Xia, Jiangbao; Fang, Yanming; Li, Tian; Liu, Jingtao

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to clarify the effects of salinity and water intercross stresses on the growth and physiobiochemical characteristics of Tamarix chinensis seedlings by pots culture under the artificial simulated conditions. The growth, activities of SOD, POD, and contents of MDA and osmotic adjusting substances of three years old seedlings of T. chinensis were studied under different salt-drought intercross stress. Results showed that the influence of salt stress on growth was greater than drought stress, the oxidation resistance of SOD and POD weakened gradually with salt and drought stresses intensified, and the content of MDA was higher under severe drought and mild and moderate salt stresses. The proline contents increased with the stress intensified but only significantly higher than control under the intercross stresses of severe salt-severe drought. It implied that T. chinensis could improve its stress resistance by adjusted self-growth and physiobiochemical characteristics, and the intercross compatibility of T. chinensis to salt and drought stresses can enhance the salt resistance under appropriate drought stress, but the dominant factors influencing the physiological biochemical characteristics of T. chinensis were various with the changing of salt-drought intercross stresses gradients.

  8. Photosynthetic and growth responses of Schima superba seedlings to sulfuric and nitric acid depositions.

    PubMed

    Yao, Fang-Fang; Ding, Hui-Ming; Feng, Li-Li; Chen, Jing-Jing; Yang, Song-Yu; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2016-05-01

    A continuing rise in acid deposition can cause forest degradation. In China, acid deposition has converted gradually from sulfuric acid deposition (SAD) to nitric acid deposition (NAD). However, the differing responses of photosynthesis and growth to depositions of sulfuric vs. nitric acid have not been well studied. In this study, 1-year-old seedlings of Schima superba, a dominant species in subtropical forests, were treated with two types of acid deposition SO4 (2-)/NO3 (-) ratios (8:1 and 0.7:1) with two applications (foliar spraying and soil drenching) at two pH levels (pH 3.5 and pH 2.5) over a period of 18 months. The results showed that the intensity, acid deposition type, and spraying method had significant effects on the physiological characteristics and growth performance of seedlings. Acid deposition at pH 2.5 via foliar application reduced photosynthesis and growth of S. superba, especially in the first year. Unlike SAD, NAD with high acidity potentially alleviated the negative effects of acidity on physiological properties and growth, probably due to a fertilization effect that improved foliar nitrogen and chlorophyll contents. Our results suggest that trees were damaged mainly by direct acid stress in the short term, whereas in the long term, soil acidification was also likely to be a major risk to forest ecosystems. Our data suggest that the shift in acid deposition type may complicate the ongoing challenge of anthropogenic acid deposition to ecosystem stability.

  9. Growth and survival of tree seedlings in a large-scale rainfall manipulation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Parikh, N.R.; Holmgren, M.; Huston, M.

    1995-06-01

    Seedlings of three species with different tolerance to shade and drought, Acer saccharum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus alba, were planted on the hillslope site of the Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment during the winter of 1993-1994, and their growth measured during the following growing season. Volumetric soil moisture in the upper 35cm of soil was measured twice monthly, and relative light availability above each seedling was measured in August. The most shade tolerant species, sugar maple, leafed out earlier and by the beginning of April had produced 80% of its total leaf area, compared with only 16% for tulip poplar and 39% for white oak. Leaf area and stem growth of sugar maple were positively correlated with soil moisture, but not with light, while stem growth of tulip poplar and white oak were positively correlated with light, but not with soil moisture. Tulip poplar had the highest mortality (15%) followed by sugar maple (3%). Mortality was higher in dry locations, but was not related to growth during the season.

  10. Effects of Salt-Drought Stress on Growth and Physiobiochemical Characteristics of Tamarix chinensis Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junhua; Xia, Jiangbao; Fang, Yanming; Li, Tian; Liu, Jingtao

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to clarify the effects of salinity and water intercross stresses on the growth and physiobiochemical characteristics of Tamarix chinensis seedlings by pots culture under the artificial simulated conditions. The growth, activities of SOD, POD, and contents of MDA and osmotic adjusting substances of three years old seedlings of T. chinensis were studied under different salt-drought intercross stress. Results showed that the influence of salt stress on growth was greater than drought stress, the oxidation resistance of SOD and POD weakened gradually with salt and drought stresses intensified, and the content of MDA was higher under severe drought and mild and moderate salt stresses. The proline contents increased with the stress intensified but only significantly higher than control under the intercross stresses of severe salt-severe drought. It implied that T. chinensis could improve its stress resistance by adjusted self-growth and physiobiochemical characteristics, and the intercross compatibility of T. chinensis to salt and drought stresses can enhance the salt resistance under appropriate drought stress, but the dominant factors influencing the physiological biochemical characteristics of T. chinensis were various with the changing of salt-drought intercross stresses gradients. PMID:25140348

  11. Effects of stress ethylene inhibitors on sweet clover (Melilotus Alba L.) seedling growth in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallegos, Gregory L.; Peterson, Barbara V.; Brown, Christopher S.; Guikema, James A.

    1995-01-01

    Previous experiments from our lab have shown that seeds of sweet clover, when germinated and grown within the Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA) on a slow rotating clinostat produce significantly greater levels of the volatile stress hormone, ethylene, when compared to seeds treated the same but without clinorotation. In both conditions, carbon dioxide levels reached high levels and seedling growth was inhibited. However, clinorotation inhibited growth to a greater extent. To help determine to what extent microgravity influences stress ethylene production and to what extent ethylene inhibits seedling growth, we have extended the above experiments by growing sweet clover in the presence of aminooxyacetic acid (AOA) and silver nitrate (AgNO3), inhibitors of stress ethylene biosynthesis and action, respectively. Seeds of sweet clover were germinated and grown for five days in the FPA under two gravity conditions: under stationary conditions on Earth and in microgravity onboard the space shuttle, Discovery (STS-63), which launched Feb. 3, 1995. Upon recovery, gas samples were aspirated from the growth chambers and carbon dioxide and ethylene concentrations were measured using a gas chromatograph. Then the tissue was weighed, photographed and fixed, and is current undergoing further morphological and microscopic characterization.

  12. Response of woody swamp seedlings to flooding and increased water temperatures. I. Growth, biomass, and survivorship

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, L.A.; McLeod, K.W.; Sherrod, K.C.; Stumpff, N.J. )

    1988-08-01

    Growth, biomass, and survival of bald cypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard), water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica L.), black willow (Salix nigra Marshall), and button bush (Cephalanthus occidentalis L.) were examined in a 3 {times} 3 factorial experiment varying water temperatures (Ambient, mid, and high ({approximately} 40 C)) and water levels (drained, saturated, and flooded). Stem diameter and height, biomass, and survivorship for water tupelo and bald cypress were all reduced by the high/flooded treatment. Black willow growth had the greatest variability among nonlethal flooding and temperature treatments, and achieved the greatest biomass of the four species. In the high/flooded treatment, however, only 47% of the black willow seedlings survived and stem diameter, height, and biomass of survivors were greatly reduced. Button bush had intermediate variability of growth to the nonlethal treatments as compared to the other study species. Survival of button bush seedlings in the high/flooded treatment was high (87%), but root biomass of the survivors was reduced. Interspecific differences in growth, biomass, survivorship, and morphological characteristics existed among these swamp species to experimental conditions. These responses may help explain vegetation patterns in a thermally impacted swamp.

  13. The availability of bone powder as inorganic element source on growth and development in wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Genisel, Mucip; Erdal, Serkan; Turk, Hulya; Dumlupinar, Rahmi

    2012-06-01

    Bone powder (BP), a by-product of cattle slaughtering plants, consists of fat, protein, amino acids, inorganic elements and vitamins. It is used as bone meal in biomedical and feed industry because of its rich content. In addition, bone contains a large amount of inorganic elements especially calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), which the plants need to maintain their physiological and biochemical processes. BP has been used as Ca and P source in agriculture for many years; however, its effects on plant growth and development have not yet been studied in detail. The present study aimed to determine the effects of BP on dry weight and contents of total chlorophyll, soluble protein and sugar as indicators of physiological response in the leaves. For this purpose, bone powder solutions (BPS) were prepared at different concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2%) and applied to growing media of the 10-day wheat seedlings. Afterward, the 14-day seedlings were harvested, and the effects of BPS on plant response were determined. The results showed that BPS treatments significantly stimulated dry weight and contents of total chlorophyll, protein and sugar compared to control seedlings. The best stimulatory effect of BPS was determined at 1% concentration. According to these results, it is possible to say that BP may be used to meet the inorganic element requirements of plants in poor soils and hydroponic systems.

  14. Magnesium Alleviates Adverse Effects of Lead on Growth, Photosynthesis, and Ultrastructural Alterations of Torreya grandis Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Song, Lili; Müller, Karin; Hu, Yuanyuan; Song, Yang; Yu, Weiwu; Wang, Hailong; Wu, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg2+) has been shown to reduce the physiological and biochemical stress in plants caused by heavy metals. To date our understanding of how Mg2+ ameliorates the adverse effects of heavy metals in plants is scarce. The potential effect of Mg2+ on lead (Pb2+) toxicity in plants has not yet been studied. This study was designed to clarify the mechanism of Mg2+-induced alleviation of lead (Pb2+) toxicity. Torreya grandis (T. grandis) seedlings were grown in substrate contaminated with 0, 700 and 1400 mg Pb2+ per kg-1 and with or without the addition of 1040 mg kg-1 Mg2+. Growth parameters, concentrations of Pb2+ and Mg2+ in the plants’ shoots and roots, photosynthetic pigment, gas exchange parameters, the maximum quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm), root oxidative activity, ultrastructure of chloroplasts and root growth were determined to analyze the effect of different Pb2+ concentrations on the seedlings as well as the potential ameliorating effect of Mg2+ on the Pb2+ induced toxicity. All measurements were tested by a one-way ANOVA for the effects of treatments. The growth of T. grandis seedlings cultivated in soils treated with 1400 mg kg-1 Pb2+ was significantly reduced compared with that of plants cultivated in soils treated with 0 or 700 mg kg-1 Pb2+. The addition of 1040 mg kg-1 Mg2+ improved the growth of the Pb2+-stressed seedlings, which was accompanied by increased chlorophyll content, the net photosynthetic rate and Fv/Fm, and enhanced chloroplasts development. In addition, the application of Mg2+ induced plants to accumulate five times higher concentrations of Pb2+ in the roots and to absorb and translocate four times higher concentrations of Mg2+ to the shoots than those without Mg2+ application. Furthermore, Mg2+ addition increased root growth and oxidative activity, and protected the root ultrastructure. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first report on the mechanism of Mg2+-induced alleviation of Pb2+ toxicity. The generated results

  15. Utilizing ARC EMCS Seedling Cassettes as Highly Versatile Miniature Growth Chambers for Model Organism Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, John L.; Steele, Marianne K.; Sun, Gwo-Shing; Heathcote, David; Reinsch, S.; DeSimone, Julia C.; Myers, Zachary A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our ground testing was to demonstrate the capability of safely putting specific model organisms into dehydrated stasis, and to later rehydrate and successfully grow them inside flight proven ARC EMCS seedling cassettes. The ARC EMCS seedling cassettes were originally developed to support seedling growth during space flight. The seeds are attached to a solid substrate, launched dry, and then rehydrated in a small volume of media on orbit to initiate the experiment. We hypothesized that the same seedling cassettes should be capable of acting as culture chambers for a wide range of organisms with minimal or no modification. The ability to safely preserve live organisms in a dehydrated state allows for on orbit experiments to be conducted at the best time for crew operations and more importantly provides a tightly controlled physiologically relevant growth experiment with specific environmental parameters. Thus, we performed a series of ground tests that involved growing the organisms, preparing them for dehydration on gridded Polyether Sulfone (PES) membranes, dry storage at ambient temperatures for varying periods of time, followed by rehydration. Inside the culture cassettes, the PES membranes were mounted above blotters containing dehydrated growth media. These were mounted on stainless steel bases and sealed with plastic covers that have permeable membrane covered ports for gas exchange. The results showed we were able to demonstrate acceptable normal growth of C.elegans (nematodes), E.coli (bacteria), S.cerevisiae (yeast), Polytrichum (moss) spores and protonemata, C.thalictroides (fern), D.discoideum (amoeba), and H.dujardini (tardigrades). All organisms showed acceptable growth and rehydration in both petri dishes and culture cassettes initially, and after various time lengths of dehydration. At the end of on orbit ISS European Modular Cultivation System experiments the cassettes could be frozen at ultra-low temperatures, refrigerated, or chemically

  16. Survival and growth of chestnut backcross seeds and seedlings on surface mines.

    PubMed

    Skousen, J; Cook, T; Wilson-Kokes, L; Pena-Yewtukhiw, E

    2013-01-01

    Some scientists consider the loss of the American chestnut from forests in the eastern United States as one of the greatest forest ecological disasters in the 20th century. The American Chestnut Foundation has been attempting to restore chestnut by backcrossing blight-resistant Chinese chestnut to American chestnut and selecting those strains with blight resistance. Third-generation backcross seeds and seedlings have been produced and planted by researchers. Surface-mined lands provide a land base where these backcross chestnut seedlings may be introduced back into forests. In 2008, seeds of two parent species of chestnut (100% American and 100% Chinese) and three breeding generations (BF, BF, and BF backcrosses) were planted into loosely graded mine soils with and without tree shelters. First-year establishment from seeds averaged 81%. After the fourth year, survival without shelters declined for all chestnut stock types except for Chinese (80%): American 40%, BF 70%, BF 40%, and BF 55%. Survival with shelters was only slightly better after the fourth year (average, 60% with shelters and 57% without). Height growth was not different among stock types, and average height after the fourth year was 43 cm without shelters and 56 cm with shelters. In 2009, seeds and seedlings of the same chestnut stock types were planted into brown (pH 4.5) or gray (pH 6.6) mine soils. Only six out of 250 seeds germinated, which was very poor considering 81% average seed germination in 2008. Transplanted chestnut seedling survival was much better. After the third year, seedling survival was 85% in brown and 80% in gray soil, but significant differences were found with stock types. Survival was significantly higher with American, Chinese, and BF stock types (75%) than with BF and BF (60%). Height after the third season averaged 90 cm on brown and 62 cm on gray soil. Chestnut backcrosses displayed no hybrid vigor and were not better in survival and growth than the parent stock. All five

  17. Invasive Plant Suppresses the Growth of Native Tree Seedlings by Disrupting Belowground Mutualisms

    PubMed Central

    Stinson, Kristina A; Campbell, Stuart A; Powell, Jeff R; Wolfe, Benjamin E; Callaway, Ragan M; Thelen, Giles C; Hallett, Steven G; Prati, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The impact of exotic species on native organisms is widely acknowledged, but poorly understood. Very few studies have empirically investigated how invading plants may alter delicate ecological interactions among resident species in the invaded range. We present novel evidence that antifungal phytochemistry of the invasive plant, Alliaria petiolata, a European invader of North American forests, suppresses native plant growth by disrupting mutualistic associations between native canopy tree seedlings and belowground arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Our results elucidate an indirect mechanism by which invasive plants can impact native flora, and may help explain how this plant successfully invades relatively undisturbed forest habitat. PMID:16623597

  18. Trichoderma asperellum Induces Maize Seedling Growth by Activating the Plasma Membrane H(+)-ATPase.

    PubMed

    López-Coria, M; J L Hernández-Mendoza; Sánchez-Nieto, S

    2016-10-01

    Although Trichoderma spp. have beneficial effects on numerous plants, there is not enough knowledge about the mechanism by which they improves plant growth. In this study, we evaluated the participation of plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase, a key enzyme involved in promoting cell growth, in the elongation induced by T. asperellum and compared it with the effect of 10 μM indol acetic acid (IAA) because IAA promotes elongation and PM H(+)-ATPase activation. Two seed treatments were tested: biopriming and noncontact. In neither were the tissues colonized by T. asperellum; however, the seedlings were longer than the control seedlings, which also accumulated IAA and increased root acidification. An auxin transport inhibitor (2,3,5 triiodobenzoic acid) reduced the plant elongation induced by Trichoderma spp. T. asperellum seed treatment increased the PM H(+)-ATPase activity in plant roots and shoots. Additionally, the T. asperellum extracellular extract (TE) activated the PM H(+)-ATPase activity of microsomal fractions of control plants, although it contained 0.3 μM IAA. Furthermore, the mechanism of activation of PM H(+)-ATPase was different for IAA and TE; in the latter, the activation depends on the phosphorylation state of the enzyme, suggesting that, in addition to IAA, T. asperellum excretes other molecules that stimulate PM H(+)-ATPase to induce plant growth.

  19. Growth and nitrogen acquisition strategies of Acacia senegal seedlings under exponential phosphorus additions.

    PubMed

    Isaac, M E; Harmand, J M; Drevon, J J

    2011-05-15

    There remains conflicting evidence on the relationship between P supply and biological N(2)-fixation rates, particularly N(2)-fixing plant adaptive strategies under P limitation. This is important, as edaphic conditions inherent to many economically and ecologically important semi-arid leguminous tree species, such as Acacia senegal, are P deficient. Our research objective was to verify N acquisition strategies under phosphorus limitations using isotopic techniques. Acacia senegal var. senegal was cultivated in sand culture with three levels of exponentially supplied phosphorus [low (200 μmol of P seedling(-1) over 12 weeks), mid (400 μmol) and high (600 μmol)] to achieve steady-state nutrition over the growth period. Uniform additions of N were also supplied. Plant growth and nutrition were evaluated. Seedlings exhibited significantly greater total biomass under high P supply compared to low P supply. Both P and N content significantly increased with increasing P supply. Similarly, N derived from solution increased with elevated P availability. However, both the number of nodules and the N derived from atmosphere, determined by the (15)N natural abundance method, did not increase along the P gradient. Phosphorus stimulated growth and increased mineral N uptake from solution without affecting the amount of N derived from the atmosphere. We conclude that, under non-limiting N conditions, A. senegal N acquisition strategies change with P supply, with less reliance on N(2)-fixation when the rhizosphere achieves a sufficient N uptake zone.

  20. High nutrient-use efficiency during early seedling growth in diverse Grevillea species (Proteaceae)

    PubMed Central

    He, Tianhua; Fowler, William M.; Causley, Casey L.

    2015-01-01

    Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the rich floristic diversity in regions characterised by nutrient-impoverished soils; however, none of these hypotheses have been able to explain the rapid diversification over a relatively short evolutionary time period of Grevillea, an Australian plant genus with 452 recognised species/subspecies and only 11 million years of evolutionary history. Here, we hypothesise that the apparent evolutionary success of Grevillea might have been triggered by the highly efficient use of key nutrients. The nutrient content in the seeds and nutrient-use efficiency during early seedling growth of 12 species of Grevillea were compared with those of 24 species of Hakea, a closely related genus. Compared with Hakea, the Grevillea species achieved similar growth rates (root and shoot length) during the early stages of seedling growth but contained only approximately half of the seed nutrient content. We conclude that the high nutrient-use efficiency observed in Grevillea might have provided a selective advantage in nutrient-poor ecosystems during evolution and that this property likely contributed to the evolutionary success in Grevillea. PMID:26607493

  1. A mutation in Arabidopsis seedling plastid development1 affects plastid differentiation in embryo-derived tissues during seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Ruppel, Nicholas J; Logsdon, Charles A; Whippo, Craig W; Inoue, Kentaro; Hangarter, Roger P

    2011-01-01

    Oilseed plants like Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) develop green photosynthetically active embryos. Upon seed maturation, the embryonic chloroplasts degenerate into a highly reduced plastid type called the eoplast. Upon germination, eoplasts redifferentiate into chloroplasts and other plastid types. Here, we describe seedling plastid development1 (spd1), an Arabidopsis seedling albino mutant capable of producing normal green vegetative tissues. Mutant seedlings also display defects in etioplast and amyloplast development. Precocious germination of spd1 embryos showed that the albino seedling phenotype of spd1 was dependent on the passage of developing embryos through the degreening and dehydration stages of seed maturation, suggesting that SPD1 is critical during eoplast development or early stages of eoplast redifferentiation. The SPD1 gene was found to encode a protein containing a putative chloroplast-targeting sequence in its amino terminus and also domains common to P-loop ATPases. Chloroplast localization of the SPD1 protein was confirmed by targeting assays in vivo and in vitro. Although the exact function of SPD1 remains to be defined, our findings reveal aspects of plastid development unique to embryo-derived cells.

  2. Seed germination, seedling emergence, seed persistence and triflusulfuron-methyl sensitivity in Galinsoga parviflora and G. quadriradiata.

    PubMed

    De Cauwer, B; Devos, R; Claerhout, S; Bulcke, R; Reheul, D

    2013-01-01

    Galinsoga quadriradiota Ruiz and Pavon (hairy galinsoga) and Galinsogo parviflora Cav. (smaliflower galinsoga, gallant soldier) are very troublesome weeds in many vegetable row crops in Europe. In order to optimize further management strategies for Galinsoga control in-depth study of germination biology was performed. Germination experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of light and alternating temperatures on germination of a large set of Galinsoga populations. Seedling emergence was investigated by burying seeds at different depths in a sand and sandy loam soil. Dormancy of fresh achenes harvested in autumn was evaluated by studying germination response in light at 25/20 degrees C with and without nitrate addition. Seed longevity was investigated in an accelerated ageing experiment by exposing seeds to 45 degrees C and 100% relative humidity. A dose-response pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse to evaluate the effectiveness of triflusulfuron-methyl, applied at the one leaf pair stage, for controlling Belgian Galinsoga populations. Galinsoga seeds required light for germination; light dependency varied among populations. Seedling emergence decreased drastically with increasing burial depth. Maximum depth of emergence varied between 4 and 10mm depending on soil type and population. In a sandy soil, emergence percentages were higher and seedlings were able to emerge from greater depths than in a sandy loam soil. Freshly produced G. parviflora seeds showed a varying but high degree of primary dormancy and were less persistent than G. quadriradiata seeds which lack primary dormancy. Galinsoga parviflora populations were more sensitive to triflusulfuron-methyl than G. quadriradiata populations. The lack of primary dormancy, high seed persistence and lower herbicide sensitivity may explain the higher distribution and abundance of G. quadriradiata over G. parviflora populations in Belgium. Overall, features such as lack of primary dormancy of freshly

  3. Effects of fluidized bed combustion residue on pecan seedling growth and nutrient content. [Carya illinoensis

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.H.; White, A.W. Jr.; Bennett, O.L.

    1985-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustion residue from a calcitic limestone source (FBCRC), a by-product of scrubbing SO/sub 2/ from fossil fuel fired boilers using the FBC technique was evaluated as a source of calcium for pecan (Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch) seedlings. Fluidized bed combustion residue produced following injection of calcitic limestone into the combustion chamber was more effective in neutralizing soil acidity and increasing extractable soil Ca levels than agricultural calcitic limestone. The Ca concentration in the pecan leaves was increased linearly by Ca rates for both 12- and 24-week growth periods, but stem and petiole Ca concentration was increased linearly for the second 12-week growth period. Macronutrient concentrations were affected by Ca rates for both 12- and 24-week growth periods, but no effect was observed with Ca source. The primary difference was between the control and all other Ca rates.

  4. Growing up or growing out? How soil pH and light affect seedling growth of a relictual rainforest tree

    PubMed Central

    Offord, Catherine A.; Meagher, Patricia F.; Zimmer, Heidi C.

    2014-01-01

    Seedling growth rates can have important long-term effects on forest dynamics. Environmental variables such as light availability and edaphic factors can exert a strong influence on seedling growth. In the wild, seedlings of Wollemi pine (Wollemia nobilis) grow on very acid soils (pH ∼4.3) in deeply shaded sites (∼3 % full sunlight). To examine the relative influences of these two factors on the growth of young W. nobilis seedlings, we conducted a glasshouse experiment growing seedlings at two soil pH levels (4.5 and 6.5) under three light levels: low (5 % full sun), medium (15 %) and high (50 %). Stem length and stem diameter were measured, stem number and branch number were counted, and chlorophyll and carotenoid content were analysed. In general, increased plant growth was associated with increased light, and with low pH irrespective of light treatment, and pigment content was higher at low pH. Maximum stem growth occurred in plants grown in the low pH/high light treatment combination. However, stem number was highest in low pH/medium light. We hypothesize that these differences in stem development of W. nobilis among light treatments were due to this species' different recruitment strategies in response to light: greater stem growth at high light and greater investment in multiple stem production at low light. The low light levels in the W. nobilis habitat may be a key limitation on stem growth and hence W. nobilis recruitment from seedling to adult. Light and soil pH are two key factors in the growth of this threatened relictual rainforest species. PMID:24790132

  5. Growing up or growing out? How soil pH and light affect seedling growth of a relictual rainforest tree.

    PubMed

    Offord, Catherine A; Meagher, Patricia F; Zimmer, Heidi C

    2014-01-01

    Seedling growth rates can have important long-term effects on forest dynamics. Environmental variables such as light availability and edaphic factors can exert a strong influence on seedling growth. In the wild, seedlings of Wollemi pine (Wollemia nobilis) grow on very acid soils (pH ∼4.3) in deeply shaded sites (∼3 % full sunlight). To examine the relative influences of these two factors on the growth of young W. nobilis seedlings, we conducted a glasshouse experiment growing seedlings at two soil pH levels (4.5 and 6.5) under three light levels: low (5 % full sun), medium (15 %) and high (50 %). Stem length and stem diameter were measured, stem number and branch number were counted, and chlorophyll and carotenoid content were analysed. In general, increased plant growth was associated with increased light, and with low pH irrespective of light treatment, and pigment content was higher at low pH. Maximum stem growth occurred in plants grown in the low pH/high light treatment combination. However, stem number was highest in low pH/medium light. We hypothesize that these differences in stem development of W. nobilis among light treatments were due to this species' different recruitment strategies in response to light: greater stem growth at high light and greater investment in multiple stem production at low light. The low light levels in the W. nobilis habitat may be a key limitation on stem growth and hence W. nobilis recruitment from seedling to adult. Light and soil pH are two key factors in the growth of this threatened relictual rainforest species.

  6. Stimulation of peanut seedling development and growth by zero-valent iron nanoparticles at low concentrations.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; Yang, Yuechao; Gao, Bin; Zhang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Because of its strong pollutant degradation ability, nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) has been introduced to soils and groundwater for remediation purposes, but its impacts on plants are still not very clear. In this work, the effects of low concentration (10-320 μmol/L) NZVI particles on seed germination and growth of peanut plants were evaluated. The exposure of peanut seeds to NZVI at all the tested concentrations altered the seed germination activity, especially the development of seedlings. In comparison with the deionized water treated controls (CK), all of the NZVI treatments had significantly larger average lengths. Further investigations with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) suggested that NZVI particles may penetrate the peanut seed coats to increase the water uptake to stimulate seed germination. The growth experiments showed that although NZVI at a relatively high concentration (320 μmol/L) showed phytotoxicity to the peanut plants, the lower concentrations of NZVI particles stimulated the growth and root development of the plants. At certain concentrations (e.g., 40 and 80 μmol/L), the NZVI treated samples were even better than the ethylenediaminetetraacetate-iron (EDTA-Fe) solution, a commonly used iron nutrient solution, in stimulating the plant growth. This positive effect was probably due to the uptake of NZVI by the plants, as indicated in the TEM analyses. Because low concentrations of NZVI particles stimulated both the seedling development and growth of peanut, they might be used to benefit the growth of peanuts in large-scale agricultural settings.

  7. Accelerated development in johnsongrass seedlings (Sorghum halepense) suppresses the growth of native grasses through size-asymmetric competition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Superior competitive ability is an expected characteristic of grassland invaders, but not all invaders exhibit traits that convey a persistent growth advantage. Here we examine priority, expressed as a brief seedling growth burst, as the driving mechanism through which the exotic weed Johnsongrass ...

  8. First year sugar maple (Acer saccharum, Marsh. ) seedling nutrition, vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization, physiology, and growth along an acidic deposition gradient in Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the use of foliar amino acid and root reducing sugar accumulations to separate acidic deposition from natural (i.e., soil phosphorus, mycorrhizae, and temperature) ecosystem stressors on first-year sugar maple seedling growth in three Michigan forests. Seedling growth was greatest at the sites exposed to highest levels of acidic deposition. However, sites receiving greatest acidic deposition rates also had high available soil phosphorus contents. No significant differences occurred, suggesting increased nitrogen loadings were not reflected in seedling tissue nitrogen. Seedling root or foliar calcium, magnesium, or potassium also were not significantly different, suggesting those elements were not growth limiting. Significant differences, however, occurred for seedling arginine and glutamine concentrations in foliage and reducing sugar concentrations in roots and were negatively correlated with seedling tissue phosphorus concentrations, suggesting phosphorus was limiting seedling growth at the low acidic deposition site. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of seedling roots was greater at the low acidic deposition site and positively correlated with seedling amino acid and reducing sugar accumulation but negatively correlated with sucrose concentrations in seedling roots, indicating that the fungal partner may have stimulated sucrose degradation to reducing sugars. Both air and soil temperatures were positively correlated with total sugar and sucrose concentrations in seedling roots. High levels of arginine, glutamine, and reducing sugars were negatively correlated with seedling growth indicating that seedlings at the low acidic deposition site were more stressed than seedlings at the sites receiving higher levels of pollutant loads. The results suggest differences in foliar arginine and glutamine and root reducing sugars in the forests in this study are likely due to natural rather than acidic deposition stress.

  9. Water Deficit and Abscisic Acid Cause Differential Inhibition of Shoot versus Root Growth in Soybean Seedlings : Analysis of Growth, Sugar Accumulation, and Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Creelman, R A; Mason, H S; Bensen, R J; Boyer, J S; Mullet, J E

    1990-01-01

    Roots often continue to elongate while shoot growth is inhibited in plants subjected to low-water potentials. The cause of this differential response to water deficit was investigated. We examined hypocotyl and root growth, polysome status and mRNA populations, and abscisic acid (ABA) content in etiolated soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Williams) seedlings whose growth was inhibited by transfer to low-water potential vermiculite or exogenous ABA. Both treatments affected growth and dry weight in a similar fashion. Maximum inhibition of hypocotyl growth occurred when internal ABA levels (modulated by ABA application) reached the endogenous level found in the elongating zone of seedlings grown in water-deficient vermiculite. Conversely, root growth was affected to only a slight extent in low-water potential seedlings and by most ABA treatments (in some, growth was promoted). In every seedling section examined, transfer of seedlings into low-water potential vermiculite caused ABA levels to increase approximately 5- to 10-fold over that found in well-watered seedlings. Changes in soluble sugar content, polysome status, and polysome mRNA translation products seen in low-water potential seedlings did not occur with ABA treatments sufficient to cause significant inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. These data suggest that both variation in endogenous ABA levels, and differing sensitivity to ABA in hypocotyls and roots can modulate root/shoot growth ratios. However, exogenous ABA did not induce changes in sugar accumulation, polysome status, and mRNA populations seen after transfer into low-water potential vermiculite.

  10. Effects of simulated acid rain on germination, seedling growth and oxidative metabolism of recalcitrant-seeded Trichilia dregeana grown in its natural seed bank.

    PubMed

    Ramlall, Chandika; Varghese, Boby; Ramdhani, Syd; Pammenter, Norman W; Bhatt, Arvind; Berjak, Patricia; Sershen

    2015-01-01

    Increased air pollution in a number of developing African countries, together with the reports of vegetation damage typically associated with acid precipitation in commercial forests in South Africa, has raised concerns over the potential impacts of acid rain on natural vegetation in these countries. Recalcitrant (i.e. desiccation sensitive) seeds of many indigenous African species, e.g. must germinate shortly after shedding and hence, may not be able to avoid exposure to acid rain in polluted areas. This study investigated the effects of simulated acid rain (rainwater with pH adjusted to pH 3.0 and 4.5 with 70:30, H2 SO4 :HNO3 ) on germination, seedling growth and oxidative metabolism in a recalcitrant-seeded African tree species Trichilia dregeana Sond., growing in its natural seed bank. The results suggest that acid rain did not compromise T. dregeana seed germination and seedling establishment significantly, relative to the control (non-acidified rainwater). However, pH 3.0 treated seedlings exhibited signs of stress typically associated with acid rain: leaf tip necrosis, abnormal bilobed leaf tips, leaf necrotic spots and chlorosis, reduced leaf chlorophyll concentration, increased stomatal density and indications of oxidative stress. This may explain why total and root biomass of pH 3.0 treated seedlings were significantly lower than the control. Acid rain also induced changes in the species composition and relative abundance of the different life forms emerging from T. dregeana's natural seed bank and in this way could indirectly impact on T. dregeana seedling establishment success.

  11. Studies on the growth and indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid content of Zea mays seedlings grown in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, A.; Jensen, P. J.; Desrosiers, M.; Buta, J. G.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements were made of the fresh weight, dry weight, dry weight-fresh weight ratio, free and conjugated indole-3-acetic acid, and free and conjugated abscisic acid in seedlings of Zea mays grown in darkness in microgravity and on earth. Imbibition of the dry kernels was 17 h prior to launch. Growth was for 5 d at ambient orbiter temperature and at a chronic accelerational force of the order of 3 x 10(-5) times earth gravity. Weights and hormone content of the microgravity seedlings were, with minor exceptions, not statistically different from seedlings grown in normal gravity. The tissues of the shuttle-grown plants appeared normal and the seedlings differed only in the lack of orientation of roots and shoots. These findings, based upon 5 d of growth in microgravity, cannot be extrapolated to growth in microgravity for weeks, months, and years, as might occur on a space station. Nonetheless, it is encouraging, for prospects of bioregeneration of the atmosphere and food production in a space station, that no pronounced differences in the parameters measured were apparent during the 5 d of plant seedling growth in microgravity.

  12. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis reveals new metabolic pathways of wheat seedling growth under hydrogen peroxide stress.

    PubMed

    Ge, Pei; Hao, Pengchao; Cao, Min; Guo, Guangfang; Lv, Dongwen; Subburaj, Saminathan; Li, Xiaohui; Yan, Xing; Xiao, Jitian; Ma, Wujun; Yan, Yueming

    2013-10-01

    As an abundant ROS, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) plays pivotal roles in plant growth and development. In this work, we conducted for the first time an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis of wheat seedling growth under different exogenous H2 O2 treatments. The growth of seedlings and roots was significantly restrained by increased H2 O2 concentration stress. Malondialdehyde, soluble sugar, and proline contents as well as peroxidase activity increased with increasing H2 O2 levels. A total of 3,425 proteins were identified by iTRAQ, of which 157 showed differential expression and 44 were newly identified H2 O2 -responsive proteins. H2 O2 -responsive proteins were mainly involved in stress/defense/detoxification, signal transduction, and carbohydrate metabolism. It is clear that up-regulated expression of signal transduction and stress/defence/detoxification-related proteins under H2 O2 stress, such as plasma membrane intrinsic protein 1, fasciclin-like arabinogalactan protein, and superoxide dismutase, could contribute to H2 O2 tolerance of wheat seedlings. Increased gluconeogenesis (phosphoenol-pyruvate carboxykinase) and decreased pyruvate kinase proteins are potentially related to the higher H2 O2 tolerance of wheat seedlings. A metabolic pathway of wheat seedling growth under H2 O2 stress is presented.

  13. Do mycorrhizal network benefits to survival and growth of interior Douglas-fir seedlings increase with soil moisture stress?

    PubMed

    Bingham, Marcus A; Simard, Suzanne W

    2011-11-01

    Facilitation of tree establishment by ectomycorrhizal (EM) networks (MNs) may become increasingly important as drought stress increases with climate change in some forested regions of North America. The objective of this study was to determine (1) whether temperature, CO(2) concentration ([CO(2)]), soil moisture, and MNs interact to affect plant establishment success, such that MNs facilitate establishment when plants are the most water stressed, and (2) whether transfer of C and water between plants through MNs plays a role in this. We established interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesiivar.glauca) seedlings in root boxes with and without the potential to form MNs with nearby conspecific seedlings that had consistent access to water via their taproots. We varied temperature, [CO(2)], and soil moisture in growth chambers. Douglas-fir seedling survival increased when the potential existed to form an MN. Growth increased with MN potential under the driest soil conditions, but decreased with temperature at 800 ppm [CO(2)]. Transfer of (13)C to receiver seedlings was unaffected by potential to form an MN with donor seedlings, but deuterated water (D(2)O) transfer increased with MN potential under ambient [CO(2)]. Chlorophyll fluorescence was reduced when seedlings had the potential to form an MN under high [CO(2)] and cool temperatures. We conclude that Douglas-fir seedling establishment in laboratory conditions is facilitated by MN potential where Douglas-fir seedlings have consistent access to water. Moreover, this facilitation appears to increase as water stress potential increases and water transfer via networks may play a role in this. These results suggest that conservation of MN potential may be important to forest regeneration where drought stress increases with climate change.

  14. Do mycorrhizal network benefits to survival and growth of interior Douglas-fir seedlings increase with soil moisture stress?

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, Marcus A; Simard, Suzanne W

    2011-01-01

    Facilitation of tree establishment by ectomycorrhizal (EM) networks (MNs) may become increasingly important as drought stress increases with climate change in some forested regions of North America. The objective of this study was to determine (1) whether temperature, CO2 concentration ([CO2]), soil moisture, and MNs interact to affect plant establishment success, such that MNs facilitate establishment when plants are the most water stressed, and (2) whether transfer of C and water between plants through MNs plays a role in this. We established interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesiivar.glauca) seedlings in root boxes with and without the potential to form MNs with nearby conspecific seedlings that had consistent access to water via their taproots. We varied temperature, [CO2], and soil moisture in growth chambers. Douglas-fir seedling survival increased when the potential existed to form an MN. Growth increased with MN potential under the driest soil conditions, but decreased with temperature at 800 ppm [CO2]. Transfer of 13C to receiver seedlings was unaffected by potential to form an MN with donor seedlings, but deuterated water (D2O) transfer increased with MN potential under ambient [CO2]. Chlorophyll fluorescence was reduced when seedlings had the potential to form an MN under high [CO2] and cool temperatures. We conclude that Douglas-fir seedling establishment in laboratory conditions is facilitated by MN potential where Douglas-fir seedlings have consistent access to water. Moreover, this facilitation appears to increase as water stress potential increases and water transfer via networks may play a role in this. These results suggest that conservation of MN potential may be important to forest regeneration where drought stress increases with climate change. PMID:22393502

  15. Growth, chemical composition and soil properties of Tipuana speciosa (Benth.) Kuntze seedlings irrigated with sewage effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Hayssam M.; Khamis, Mohamed H.; Hassan, Fatma A.

    2012-06-01

    This study was carried out at a greenhouse of Sabahia Horticulture Research Station, Alexandria, Egypt, to study the effect of sewage effluent on the growth and chemical composition of Tipuana speciosa (Benth.) Kuntze seedlings as well as on soil properties for three stages. The irrigation treatments were primary-treated wastewater and secondary-treated wastewater, in addition to tap water as control. Therefore, the treated wastewater was taken from oxidation ponds of New Borg El-Arab City. Results of these study revealed that the primary effluent treatment explored the highest significant values for vegetative growth and biomass, compared to the other treatments. In addition, the higher significant concentration and uptake of chemical composition in different plant parts were obtained from the primary effluent treatment during the three stages of irrigation. It was found that the concentration of heavy metals in either plant or soil was below as compared to the world-recommended levels. These findings suggested that the use of sewage effluent in irrigating T. speciosa seedlings grown in calcareous soil was beneficial for the improvement of soil properties and production of timber trees, and also important for the safe manner of disposal of wastewater.

  16. Fast growth involves high dependence on stored resources in seedlings of Mediterranean evergreen trees

    PubMed Central

    Uscola, Mercedes; Villar-Salvador, Pedro; Gross, Patrick; Maillard, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) needed for plant growth can come either from soil N and current photosynthesis or through remobilization of stored resources. The contribution of remobilization to new organ growth on a whole-plant basis is quite well known in deciduous woody plants and evergreen conifers, but this information is very limited in broadleaf evergreen trees. This study compares the contribution of remobilized C and N to the construction of new organs in spring, and assesses the importance of different organs as C and N sources in 1-year-old potted seedlings of four ecologically distinct evergreen Mediterranean trees, namely Quercus ilex, Q. coccifera, Olea europaea and Pinus hapelensis. Methods Dual 13C and 15N isotope labelling was used to unravel the contribution of currently taken up and stored C and N to new growth. Stored C was labelled under simulated winter conditions. Soil N was labelled with the fertilization during the spring growth. Key results Oaks allocated most C assimilated under simulated winter conditions to coarse roots, while O. europaea and P. halepensis allocated it to the leaves. Remobilization was the main N source (>74 %) for new fine-root growth in early spring, but by mid-spring soil supplied most of the N required for new growth (>64 %). Current photosynthesis supplied >60 % of the C in new fine roots by mid-spring in most species. Across species, the proportion of remobilized C and N in new shoots increased with the relative growth rate. Quercus species, the slowest growing trees, primarily used currently acquired resources, while P. halepensis, the fastest growing species, mainly used reserves. Increases in the amount of stored N increased N remobilization, which fostered absolute growth both within and across species. Old leaves were major sources of remobilized C and N, but stems and roots also supplied considerable amounts of both in all species except in P. halepensis, which mainly relied on foliage

  17. Growth and physiological responses of tree seedlings to experimental manipulation of light and water

    SciTech Connect

    Huston, M.A.; Holmgren, M.

    1995-06-01

    Seedlings of two tree species with similar tolerance to soil water and nutrient levels, but contrasting tolerance to shade (Acer saccharum and Liriodendron tulipifera) were grown in shade houses under 5 light levels (27%, 17%, 12%, 5%, and 1%) and three soil water regimes (5-9%, 11-15%, and >20%). Soil, light, and water conditions were representative of those in the Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment, where the same species are being monitored under field conditions. Treatments were maintained from mid-June through October, when all plants were harvested for determination of biomass allocation patterns. The only mortality occurred among the tulip poplars, but there was a significant interaction effect of the treatments on leaf area, total biomass, and allocation patterns. Highest growth rates in both species occurred at 17% light in the highest water treatment, with the 27% treatment showing reduced growth, perhaps due to photoinhibition. Gas exchange measurements indicated that the light compensation point increased under dry conditions.

  18. Growth and transpiration of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) seedlings in response to soil water content.

    PubMed

    Nagakura, Junko; Shigenaga, Hidetoshi; Akama, Akio; Takahashi, Masamichi

    2004-11-01

    To investigate the effects of soil water content on growth and transpiration of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) and Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa (Siebold et Zucc.) Endl.), potted seedlings were grown in well-watered soil (wet treatment) or in drying soil (dry treatment) for 12 weeks. Seedlings in the wet treatment were watered once every 2 or 3 days, whereas seedlings in the dry treatment were watered when soil water content (Theta; m3 m(-3)) reached 0.30, equivalent to a soil matric potential of -0.06 MPa. From Weeks 7 to 12 after the onset of the treatments, seedling transpiration was measured by weighing the potted seedlings. After the last watering, changes in transpiration rate during soil drying were monitored intensely. The dry treatment restricted aboveground growth but increased biomass allocation to the roots in both species, resulting in no significant treatment difference in whole-plant biomass production. The species showed similar responses in relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR) and shoot mass ratio (SMR) to the dry treatment. Although NAR did not change significantly in either C. japonica or C. obtusa as the soil dried, the two species responded differently to the dry treatment in terms of mean transpiration rate (E) and water-use efficiency (WUE), which are parameters that relate to NAR. In the dry treatment, both E and WUE of C. japonica were stable, whereas in C. obtusa, E decreased and WUE increased (E and WUE counterbalanced to maintain a constant NAR). Transpiration rates were lower in C. obtusa seedlings than in C. japonica seedlings, even in well-watered conditions. During soil drying, the transpiration rate decreased after Theta reached about 0.38 (-0.003 MPa) in C. obtusa and 0.32 (-0.028 MPa) in C. japonica. We conclude that C. obtusa has more water-saving characteristics than C. japonica, particularly when water supply is limited.

  19. Effects of Ion Irradiation on Seedlings Growth Monitored by Ultraweak Delayed Luminescence

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Tomoko; Cirrone, Giuseppe A. P.; Cuttone, Giacomo; Gulino, Marisa; Musumeci, Francesco; Romano, Francesco; Ryuto, Hiromichi; Scordino, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The optical technique based on the measurement of delayed luminescence emitted from the biological samples has demonstrated its ability to provide valid and predictive information on the functional status of various biological systems. We want to extend this technique to study the effect of ionizing radiation on biological systems. In particular we are interested in the action of ion beams, used for therapeutic purposes or to increase the biological diversity. In general, the assessment of the damage that radiation produces both in the target objects and in the surrounding tissues, requires considerable time because is based on biochemical analysis or on the examination of the evolution of the irradiated systems. The delayed luminescence technique could help to simplify this investigation. We have so started our studies performing irradiations of some relatively simple vegetable models. In this paper we report results obtained from mung bean (Vigna radiata) seeds submitted to a 12C ion beam at the energy of 62 MeV/nucleon. The dry seeds were irradiated at doses from 50 to 7000 Gy. The photoinduced delayed luminescence of each seed before and after ion irradiation was measured. The growth of seedlings after irradiation was compared with that of untreated seeds. A growth reduction on increasing the dose was registered. The results show strong correlations between the ion irradiation dose, seeds growth and delayed luminescence intensity. In particular, the delayed luminescence intensity is correlated by a logistic function to the seedlings elongation and, after performing a suitable measurement campaign based on blind tests, it could become a tool able to predict the growth of seeds after ion irradiation. Moreover these results demonstrate that measurements of delayed luminescence could be used as a fast and non-invasive technique to check the effects of ion beams on relatively simple biological systems. PMID:27936220

  20. Separate and combined effects of Cu and Cd on seedling growth and active oxygen metabolism system of Trifolium repens L.

    PubMed

    Chu, Ling; Liu, Deng-Yi; Wang, You-Bao; Ding, Jia-Hong; Wang, Li-Long

    2006-09-01

    Pot-culture experiments were used to examine the individual and combined effects of Cu and Cd pollutants on Trifolium repens L. seedlings, both on their growth and their active oxygen metabolism system, mainly superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) activities. The results showed that the negative action took place at low concentrations of Cu (less than 500 ppm) and Cd (less than 0.5 ppm), which had no obvious effects on the seedlings' growth. However, as the concentrations of Cu and Cd increased (500-3000 ppm and 0.5-50 ppm respectively), synergistic activities was observed, showing obvious negative effects (P less than 0.05). Compared with the control samples, the seedlings affected by Cu and Cd pollutants were shorter and smaller, their fresh/dry weight and content of soluble protein decreased drastically, their leaf electric conductivity increased, and the contents of their leaf pigments decreased. Chlorophyll a was more sensitive than chlorophyll b to Cu and Cd pollutants, and chlorophyll b was more sensitive than carotenoid. It was also shown that the active oxygen metabolism of T. repens seedlings was destroyed by high amounts of Cu and Cd, the balance of the anti-oxidase system was broken, and the CAT and SOD activities noticeably decreased while POD activity evidently increased. Cd had a more noticeable effect on seedling growth than Cu.

  1. BOA detoxification of four summer weeds during germination and seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Margot; Marocco, Adriano; Tabaglio, Vincenzo

    2012-07-01

    A recent greenhouse study revealed a significant reduction of germination and growth of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) and common purslane (Portulaca oleracea) by rye mulch, whereas velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) and common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) were not suppressed. Since BOA detoxification by metabolic alteration may influence the relation between the benzoxazinoid content of the soil mulch and weed suppression, we tested the dynamics in BOA detoxification in different plant organs of three and 10-day-old seedlings of four warm season weeds incubated with five BOA concentrations (4, 20, 40, 80, and 200 μmol g(-1) fresh weight). In addition, germination and length of 3-day-old seedlings were measured after exposure to 0, 0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15 μmol BOA. Finally, we tested the influence of the MDR translocator inhibitors verapamil, nifedipine, and the GST inhibitor ethycrynic acid on BOA accumulation and detoxification activity. Due to BOA-detoxification, all weeds were able to grow in environments with low BOA contents. At higher contents, Abutilon theophrasti and Chenopodium album had a better chance to survive because of highly active mechanisms that avoided the uptake of BOA (A. theophrasti) and of efficient detoxification activities in youngest seedlings (C. album). The interpretation of all of the data gave the following sequence of increasing sensitivity: A. theophrasti < C. album < P. oleracea ≤ A. retroflexus. The results were in agreement with recent findings of the suppression of these weeds by rye mulches and their benzoxazinoid contents. Our studies demonstrate for the first time that the detoxification of BOA influences the survival of certain weeds in environments enriched with this allelochemical. Therefore, detoxification processes affect the potential for weed suppression by soil allelochemicals in sustainable weed management.

  2. Elongation growth of the leaf sheath base of Avena sativa seedlings: regulation by hormones and sucrose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, T. G.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1991-01-01

    The leaf sheath base of the seedling of Avena sativa was characterized for growth response to hormones and sucrose. Six day old plants, raised under a 10:14 hr light:dark cycle, were excised at the coleoptilar node and 1 cm above the node for treatment. The growth of the leaf sheath base was promoted by gibberellic acid (GA3) and this response was dose dependent. The lag to response initiation was approximately 4 hr. Growth with or without GA3 (10 micromoles) was transient, diminishing appreciably after 48 hr. The addition of 10 mM sucrose greatly prolonged growth; the effect of GA3 and sucrose was additive. Neither indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) nor the cytokinin N6-benzyladenine (BA), alone or in combination, promoted the growth of leaf sheath bases. However, both significantly inhibited the action of GA3. The inhibitory effect of IAA was dose dependent and was not affected by the addition of BA or sucrose. These results indicate that the growth of leaf sheath bases of Avena sativa is promoted specifically by gibberellin, that this action depends on the availability of carbohydrates from outside of the leaf sheath base, and that the promotional effect of GA3 can be modified by either auxins or cytokinins.

  3. Growth response and acclimation of CO2 exchange characteristics to elevated temperatures in tropical tree seedlings.

    PubMed

    Cheesman, Alexander W; Winter, Klaus

    2013-09-01

    Predictions of how tropical forests will respond to future climate change are constrained by the paucity of data on the performance of tropical species under elevated growth temperatures. In particular, little is known about the potential of tropical species to acclimate physiologically to future increases in temperature. Seedlings of 10 neo-tropical tree species from different functional groups were cultivated in controlled-environment chambers under four day/night temperature regimes between 30/22 °C and 39/31 °C. Under well-watered conditions, all species showed optimal growth at temperatures above those currently found in their native range. While non-pioneer species experienced catastrophic failure or a substantially reduced growth rate under the highest temperature regime employed (i.e. daily average of 35 °C), growth in three lowland pioneers showed only a marginal reduction. In a subsequent experiment, three species (Ficus insipida, Ormosia macrocalyx, and Ochroma pyramidale) were cultivated at two temperatures determined as sub- and superoptimal for growth, but which resulted in similar biomass accumulation despite a 6°C difference in growth temperature. Through reciprocal transfer and temperature adjustment, the role of thermal acclimation in photosynthesis and respiration was investigated. Acclimation potential varied among species, with two distinct patterns of respiration acclimation identified. The study highlights the role of both inherent temperature tolerance and thermal acclimation in determining the ability of tropical tree species to cope with enhanced temperatures.

  4. Effect of lipo-chitooligosaccharide on early growth of C4 grass seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Kiwamu; Cho, Sung -Hwan; Lee, Hyeyoung; Pham, An Q.; Batek, Josef M.; Cui, Shiqi; Qiu, Jing; Khan, Saad M.; Joshi, Trupti; Zhang, Zhanyuan J.; Xu, Dong; Stacey, Gary

    2015-06-06

    Although lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs) are important signal molecules for plant-symbiont interactions, a number of reports suggest that LCOs can directly impact plant growth and development, separate from any role in plant symbioses. In order to investigate this more closely, maize and Setaria seedlings were treated with LCO and their growth was evaluated. The data indicate that LCO treatment significantly enhanced root growth. RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis of LCO-treated maize roots identified a number of genes whose expression was significantly affected by the treatment. Among these genes, some LCO-up-regulated genes are likely involved in root growth promotion. Interestingly, some stress-related genes were down-regulated after LCO treatment, which might indicate reallocation of resources from defense responses to plant growth. The promoter activity of several LCO-up-regulated genes using a β-glucuronidase reporter system was further analysed. The results showed that the promoters were activated by LCO treatment. Lastly, the data indicate that LCO can directly impact maize root growth and gene expression.

  5. Effect of lipo-chitooligosaccharide on early growth of C4 grass seedlings

    DOE PAGES

    Tanaka, Kiwamu; Cho, Sung -Hwan; Lee, Hyeyoung; ...

    2015-06-06

    Although lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs) are important signal molecules for plant-symbiont interactions, a number of reports suggest that LCOs can directly impact plant growth and development, separate from any role in plant symbioses. In order to investigate this more closely, maize and Setaria seedlings were treated with LCO and their growth was evaluated. The data indicate that LCO treatment significantly enhanced root growth. RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis of LCO-treated maize roots identified a number of genes whose expression was significantly affected by the treatment. Among these genes, some LCO-up-regulated genes are likely involved in root growth promotion. Interestingly, some stress-related genes were down-regulatedmore » after LCO treatment, which might indicate reallocation of resources from defense responses to plant growth. The promoter activity of several LCO-up-regulated genes using a β-glucuronidase reporter system was further analysed. The results showed that the promoters were activated by LCO treatment. Lastly, the data indicate that LCO can directly impact maize root growth and gene expression.« less

  6. Early Summer Drought Stress During the First Growing Year Stimulates Extra Shoot Growth in Oak Seedlings (Quercus petraea)

    PubMed Central

    Turcsán, Arion; Steppe, Kathy; Sárközi, Edit; Erdélyi, Éva; Missoorten, Marc; Mees, Ghislain; Mijnsbrugge, Kristine V.

    2016-01-01

    More severe summer droughts are predicted for mid-latitudes in Europe. To evaluate the impact on forest ecosystems and more specifically on forest regeneration, we studied the response to summer drought in oak seedlings (Quercus petraea). Acorns were collected from different mother trees in three stands in Belgium, sown in pots and grown in non-heated greenhouse conditions. We imposed drought on the seedlings in early summer by first watering the pots to saturation and then stopping any watering. Weight of the pots and stomatal conductance were regularly measured. Re-watering followed this drought period of 5 weeks. Height of the seedlings and apical bud development were observed. Stomatal resistance increased toward the end of the experiment in the drought-treated group and was restored after re-watering. The seedlings from the drought treatment displayed a higher probability to produce additional shoot growth after re-watering (p ≤ 0.05). A higher competition for water (two plants per pot) increased this chance. Although this chance was also higher for smaller seedlings, the actual length of the extra growth after re-watering was higher for larger seedlings (p ≤ 0.01). Both in the drought-treated and in the control group the autochthonous provenance growing on a xeric site produced less extra shoots compared to the two other provenances. Finally, stressed plants showed less developed apical buds compared to the control group after re-watering, suggesting a phenological effect on the growth cycle of oaks (p ≤ 0.0001). The higher chance for an extra shoot growth after the drought period can be considered as a compensation for the induced growth arrest during the drought period. PMID:26941760

  7. An investigation to enhance understanding of the stimulation of weed seedling emergence by soil disturbance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhanced understanding of soil disturbance effects on weed seedling recruitment will guide improved management approaches. Field experiments were conducted at 16 site-years at 10 research farms across Europe and North America to 1) quantify superficial soil disturbance (SSD) effects on Chenopodium ...

  8. Enhancement of nitrate uptake and growth of barley seedlings by calcium under saline conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, M. R.; Aslam, M.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of Ca2+ on NO3- assimilation in young barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var CM 72) seedlings in the presence and absence of NaCl was studied. Calcium increased the activity of the NO3- transporter under saline conditions, but had little effect under nonsaline conditions. Calcium decreased the induction period for the NO3- transporter under both saline and nonsaline conditions but had little effect on its apparent Km for NO3- both in the presence and absence of NaCl. The enhancement of NO3- transport by Ca2+ under saline conditions was dependent on the presence of Ca2+ in the uptake solution along with the salt, since Ca2+ had no effect when supplied before or after salinity stress. Although Mn2+ and Mg2+ enhanced NO3- uptake under saline conditions, neither was as effective as Ca2+. In longer studies, increasing the Ca2+ concentration in saline nutrient solutions resulted in increases in NO3- assimilation and seedling growth.

  9. [Impact of priming on seed germination and seedling growth of Oldenlandia diffusa under drought stress].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zai-Biao; Lu, Wei-Wei; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Cao, Ya-Yue; Feng, Shan; Ning, Zi-Jun

    2014-04-01

    Current study was carried out to optimize the priming condition of Oldenlandia diffusa seeds, and improve germination rate and seed vigor of 0. diffusa seeds under drought conditions. Uniform design was used to optimize the concentration and priming time of three priming materials (PEG, KNO3, GA3). Different concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used to simulate drought stress. The seedling was cultured in 1/4 Hoagland medium for 30 d. The results showed that seed priming treatment with 366 mg x kg(-1) GA3 for 1h resulted in significant increase in germination rate, germination index, vigor, root length, plant height and biomass of O. diffusa seeds under drought stress (15% PEG), while seed priming with 3.0% KNO3 for 1 h showed little effect on germination and growth of O. diffusa seeds under drought stress. Seed priming treatment with appropriate GA3 concentration and priming time could enhance seed germination and drought resistance of O. diffusa in seedling stage.

  10. Continuous measurement of stem-diameter growth response of Pinus pinea seedlings mycorrhizal with Rhizopogon roseolus and submitted to two water regimes.

    PubMed

    Parladé, J; Cohen, M; Doltra, J; Luque, J; Pera, J

    2001-08-01

    Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) sensors were used to detect continuous diameter growth responses of Pinus pinea (stone pine) seedlings inoculated with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Rhizopogon roseolus. Colonised and non-colonised seedlings provided with sensors were submitted to different water regimes in two consecutive experiments established in a controlled-temperature greenhouse module (cycle 1), and in an adjacent module without temperature control (cycle 2). Under regular irrigation, colonised seedlings showed significantly higher growth than non-colonised seedlings. Water-stressed seedlings showed no benefit from inoculation in terms of growth. Also, seedlings with a high colonisation level recovered more slowly from water stress than control seedlings. A significant positive relationship between maximum daily shrinkage (amplitude of the daily stem contraction) and global radiation was observed only in the first water-stress period in cycle 1 and in regularly irrigated seedlings in both cycles. However, no differential responses due to inoculation were observed. The mycorrhizal colonisation of the seedlings at the end of the experiment was related with the initial colonisation level. Mycorrhizal colonisation by R. roseolus in old roots was maintained at significantly higher levels in seedlings which had an initial colonisation level >50% than in seedlings with <50% initial colonisation. Also, more newly formed roots became colonised in seedlings which had an initial colonisation level >50% than in seedlings with an initial colonisation <50%, which had almost no new root colonisation. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that LVDT sensors can be used to detect a differential response of plants according to water supply, mycorrhizal status and, in some cases, to their colonisation level. The results are discussed in relation to the predictive possibilities of the method for the selection of efficient mycorrhizal fungi for the

  11. Plant species differ in early seedling growth and tissue nutrient responses to arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Holste, Ellen K; Kobe, Richard K; Gehring, Catherine A

    2017-04-01

    Experiments with plant species that can host both arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) are important to separating the roles of fungal type and plant species and understanding the influence of the types of symbioses on plant growth and nutrient acquisition. We examined the effects of mycorrhizal fungal type on the growth and tissue nutrient content of two tree species (Eucalyptus grandis and Quercus costaricensis) grown under four nutrient treatments (combinations of low versus high nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) with different N:P ratios) in the greenhouse. Trees were inoculated with unidentified field mixtures of AMF or EMF species cultivated on root fragments of AMF- or EMF-specific bait plants. In E. grandis, inoculation with both AMF and EMF positively affected belowground plant dry weight and negatively affected aboveground dry weight, while only inoculation with AMF increased tissue nutrient content. Conversely, Q. costaricensis dry weight and nutrient content did not differ significantly among inoculation treatments, potentially due to its dependence on cotyledon reserves for growth. Mineral nutrition of both tree species differed with the ratio of N to P applied while growth did not. Our results demonstrate that both tree species' characteristics and the soil nutrient environment can affect how AMF and EMF interact with their host plants. This research highlights the importance of mycorrhizal fungal-tree-soil interactions during early seedling growth and suggests that differences between AMF and EMF associations may be crucial to understanding forest ecosystem functioning.

  12. Arabidopsis thaliana sku mutant seedlings show exaggerated surface-dependent alteration in root growth vector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutherford, R.; Masson, P. H.

    1996-01-01

    Roots of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings in the Wassilewskija (WS) and Landsberg erecta (Ler) ecotypes often grow aslant on vertical agar surfaces. Slanted root growth always occurs to the right of the gravity vector when the root is viewed through the agar surface, and is not observed in the Columbia ecotype. Right-slanted root growth is surface-dependent and does not result directly from directional environmental stimuli or gradients in the plane of skewing. We have isolated two partially dominant mutations in WS (sku1 and sku2) that show an exaggerated right-slanting root-growth phenotype on agar surfaces. The right-slanting root-growth phenotype of wild-type and mutant roots is not the result of diagravitropism or of an alteration in root gravitropism. It is accompanied by a left-handed rotation of the root about its axis within the elongation zone, the rate of which positively correlates with the degree of right-slanted curvature. Our data suggest that the right-slanting root growth phenotype results from an endogenous structural asymmetry that expresses itself by a directional root-tip rotation.

  13. Between- and within-population differences in Phragmites australis : 1. The effects of nutrients on seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Clevering, O A

    1999-12-01

    Phragmites australis (common reed) is a dominant clonal species in the interface between land and water in many European wetlands. Along the land-water gradient, strong consistently different selective forces might operate to give rise to genetic substructuring. I have investigated the occurrence of genetic substructuring in European P. australis populations. The present paper examines whether seedlings, from seeds collected at both ends of the land-water gradient, showed differences in response to nutrient supply. Under controlled conditions, the relative growth rate (RGR) in the exponential growth phase, and growth characters of 10-week old seedlings were assessed. Among populations, no differences in response to nutrient supply were found. Although total dry weight was not related to the geographic origin of the populations, northern/western compared to southern/eastern European populations (1) formed more but shorter shoots, (2) formed thinner but longer rhizomes, and (3) invested more dry matter in leaves at the expense of stems. It was concluded that these trait differences are likely to originate from differences in the length of the growing season in the native habitat. Within populations, 'water-side' seedlings had a higher RGR under sub-optimal while for 'land-side' seedlings this was under optimal nutrient conditions. Ten-week-old 'water-side' seedlings had a higher total dry weight than 'land-side' ones, irrespective of nutrient loading. Differences in growth could not clearly be related to differences in single biomass allocation and morphological traits. A discriminant analysis on these traits, however, revealed that 'water-side' seedlings showed higher plasticity in discriminant scores than 'land-side' seedlings in response to nutrient supply. Discriminant scores also pointed towards a subtle trade-off between height versus expansion growth of seedlings, from the water to landward side. In the Romanian population, this could be related to

  14. Combined effects of lanthanum ion and acid rain on growth, photosynthesis and chloroplast ultrastructure in soybean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wen, Kejia; Liang, Chanjuan; Wang, Lihong; Hu, Gang; Zhou, Qing

    2011-07-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) have been accumulated in the agricultural environment. Acid rain is a serious environmental issue. In the present work, the effects of lanthanum ion (La(3+)) and acid rain on the growth, photosynthesis and chloroplast ultrastructure in soybean seedlings were investigated using the gas exchange measurements system, chlorophyll fluorometer, transmission electron microscopy and some biochemical techniques. It was found that although the growth and photosynthesis of soybean seedlings treated with the low concentration of La(3+) was improved, the growth and photosynthesis of soybean seedlings were obviously inhibited in the combined treatment with the low concentration of La(3+) and acid rain. At the same time, the chloroplast ultrastructure in the cell of soybean seedlings was destroyed. Under the combined treatment with the high concentration of La(3+) and acid rain, the chloroplast ultrastructure in the cell of soybean seedlings was seriously destroyed, and the growth and of photosynthesis were greatly decreased compared with those of the control, the single treatment with the high concentration of La(3+) and the single treatment with acid rain, respectively. The degree of decrease and destruction on chloroplast ultrastructure depended on the increases in the concentration of La(3+) and acid rain (H(+)). In conclusion, the combined pollution of La(3+) and acid rain obviously destroyed the chloroplast ultrastructure of cell and aggravated the harmful effect of the single La(3+) and acid rain on soybean seedlings. As a new combined pollutant, the harmful effect of REEs ions and acid rain on plant should be paid attention to.

  15. Growth and xylem water potential of white oak and loblolly pine seedlings as affected by simulated acidic rain

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.F. ); McLaughlin, S.B. )

    1993-01-01

    Effects of simulated acidic rainfall on the growth and water relations of white oak (Quercus albya L.) and loblolly pin (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings grown under two fertility regimes were examined. Seedling of each species grown in a loam soil were exposed to two simulated rains per week of pH 4.8, 4.2 or 3.6 for 26 wk. High and low fertility regimes were imposed by monthly application of one-half and one-quarter concentration, respectively, of Hoagland's solution No. 2. Diameter growth of both species was reduced by exposure to rains of the higher acidities regardless of fertility treatment, and seedlings that received pH 4.2 and 3.6 rains also exhibited greater foliar chlorosis and necrosis than those that received rains of pH 4.8. The high fertility treatment stimulated diameter growth of white oak, but height growth, shoot and root dry weights and total root length were no substantially affected b acid rain or fertility treatments in either species. Following the final rain applications, drought was simulated by withholding irrigation for 2 wk, and seedling xylem pressure potential was then measured using the pressure chamber technique. Xylem pressure potential of white oak seedlings which had received rains of pH 3.6 was significantly lower than that of seedlings which had received rains of higher pH, a result that became more pronounced as soil water potential decreased. Rain acidity had little effect on the xylem pressure potential of loblolly pine, however. Soil pH analyses before initiation and after completion of the rain applications indicated that rainfall of pH 3.6 increased soil acidity more than rains of pH 4.2 or 4.8, although changes in soil pH were small overall. 26 refs., 1 fig. 2 tabs.

  16. Cytokinin-producing, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria that confer resistance to drought stress in Platycladus orientalis container seedlings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangchun; Xing, Shangjun; Ma, Hailin; Du, Zhenyu; Ma, Bingyao

    2013-10-01

    One of the proposed mechanisms through which plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) enhance plant growth is the production of plant growth regulators, especially cytokinin. However, little information is available regarding cytokinin-producing PGPR inoculation on growth and water stress consistence of forest container seedlings under drought condition. This study determined the effects of Bacillus subtilis on hormone concentration, drought resistance, and plant growth under water-stressed conditions. Although no significant difference was observed under well-watered conditions, leaves of inoculated Platycladus orientalis (oriental thuja) seedlings under drought stress had higher relative water content and leaf water potential compared with those of noninoculated ones. Regardless of water supply levels, the root exudates, namely sugars, amino acids and organic acids, significantly increased because of B. subtilis inoculation. Water stress reduced shoot cytokinins by 39.14 %. However, inoculation decreased this deficit to only 10.22 %. The elevated levels of cytokinins in P. orientalis shoot were associated with higher concentration of abscisic acid (ABA). Stomatal conductance was significantly increased by B. subtilis inoculation in well-watered seedlings. However, the promoting effect of cytokinins on stomatal conductance was hampered, possibly by the combined action of elevated cytokinins and ABA. B. subtilis inoculation increased the shoot dry weight of well-watered and drought seedlings by 34.85 and 19.23 %, as well as the root by 15.445 and 13.99 %, respectively. Consequently, the root/shoot ratio significantly decreased, indicative of the greater benefits of PGPR on shoot growth than root. Thus, inoculation of cytokinin-producing PGPR in container seedlings can alleviate the drought stress and interfere with the suppression of shoot growth, showing a real potential to perform as a drought stress inhibitor in arid environments.

  17. Growth potential limits drought morphological plasticity in seedlings from six Eucalyptus provenances.

    PubMed

    Maseda, Pablo H; Fernández, Roberto J

    2016-02-01

    Water stress modifies plant above- vs belowground biomass allocation, i.e., morphological plasticity. It is known that all species and genotypes reduce their growth rate in response to stress, but in the case of water stress it is unclear whether the magnitude of such reduction is linked to the genotype's growth potential, and whether the reduction can be largely attributed to morphological adjustments such as plant allocation and leaf and root anatomy. We subjected seedlings of six seed sources, three from each of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (potentially fast growing) and E. globulus (inherently slow growing), to three experimental water regimes. Biomass, leaf area and root length were measured in a 6-month glasshouse experiment. We then performed functional growth analysis of relative growth rate (RGR), and aboveground (leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf mass ratio (LMR)) and belowground (root length ratio (RLR), specific root length (SRL) and root mass ratio (RMR)) morphological components. Total biomass, root biomass and leaf area were reduced for all Eucalyptus provenances according to drought intensity. All populations exhibited drought plasticity, while those of greater growth potential (RGRmax) had a larger reduction in growth (discounting the effect of size). A positive correlation was observed between drought sensitivity and RGRmax. Aboveground, drought reduced LAR and LMR; under severe drought a negative correlation was found between LMR and RGRmax. Belowground, drought reduced SRL but increased RMR, resulting in no change in RLR. Under severe drought, a negative correlation was found between RLR, SRL and RGRmax. Our evidence strongly supports the classic ecophysiological trade-off between growth potential and drought tolerance for woody seedlings. It also suggests that slow growers would have a low capacity to adjust their morphology. For shoots, this constraint on plasticity was best observed in partition (i.e., LMR) whereas for

  18. Exogenous 3,3'-diindolylmethane increases Brassica napus L. seedling shoot growth through modulation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide content.

    PubMed

    Gokul, Arun; Roode, Enrico; Klein, Ashwil; Keyster, Marshall

    2016-06-01

    Brassica napus L. (cv. AV Garnet) seeds were pre-treated with 15μM 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) to investigate whether DIM could enhance seed germination. Further treatment of seedlings with 15μM DIM for 14days explored the effects on seedling shoot growth. Exogenous DIM led to improved germination percentage, increased seedling shoot lengths, and increased fresh and dry weights. Furthermore, DIM triggered induction of superoxide radical (O2(-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content however, no change in malondialdehyde (MDA) content and cell death (assessed with Evans Blue assay) was detected for both the control and DIM treated seedling shoots. We also observed increases in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity in response to exogenous DIM, two fundamental enzymes in the control of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants. These results indicate that exogenous DIM treatment enhances seed germination and improves seedling shoot growth through possible activation of a reactive oxygen species signalling pathway involving O2(-) and H2O2 in B. napus.

  19. Responses of seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits to seed pretreatment in maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Guan, Bo; Zhou, Daowei; Yu, Junbao; Li, Guangdi; Lou, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    A series of seed priming experiments were conducted to test the effects of different pretreatment methods to seed germination, seedling growth, and seed yield traits in maize (Zea mays L.). Results indicated that the seeds primed by gibberellins (GA), NaCl, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) reagents showed a higher imbibitions rate compared to those primed with water. The final germination percentage and germination rate varied with different reagents significantly (P < 0.05). The recommended prime reagents were GA at 10 mg/L, NaCl at 50 mM, and PEG at 15% on account of germination experiment. 15% PEG priming reagent increased shoot and root biomass of maize seedling. The shoot biomass of seedlings after presoaking the seeds with NaCl reagent was significantly higher than the seedlings without priming treatment. No significant differences of plant height, leaf number, and hundred-grain weight were observed between control group and priming treatments. Presoaking with water, NaCl (50 mM), or PEG (15%) significantly increased the hundred-grain weight of maize. Therefore, seed pretreatment is proved to be an effective technique to improve the germination performance, seedling growth, and seed yield of maize. However, when compared with the two methods, if immediate sowing is possible, presoaking is recommended to harvest better benefits compared to priming method.

  20. Growth and graviresponsiveness of primary roots of Zea mays seedlings deficient in abscisic acid and gibberellic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.; Dickey, K.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine if gibberellic acid (GA) and/or abscisic acid (ABA) are necessary for graviresponsiveness by primary roots of Zea mays. To accomplish this objective we measured the growth and graviresponsiveness of primary roots of seedlings in which the synthesis of ABA and GA was inhibited collectively and individually by genetic and chemical means. Roots of seedlings treated with Fluridone (an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis) and Ancymidol (an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis) were characterized by slower growth rates but not significantly different gravicultures as compared to untreated controls. Gravicurvatures of primary roots of d-5 mutants (having undetectable levels of GA) and vp-9 mutants (having undectable levels of ABA) were not significantly different from those of wild-type seedlings. Roots of seedlings in which the biosynthesis of ABA and GA was collectively inhibited were characterized by gravicurvatures not significantly different for those of controls. These results (1) indicate that drastic reductions in the amount of ABA and GA in Z. mays seedlings do not significantly alter root graviresponsiveness, (2) suggest that neither ABA nor GA is necessary for root gravicurvature, and (3) indicate that root gravicurvature is not necessarily proportional to root elongation.

  1. Influence of colonisation by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus on the growth of seedlings of Banksia ericifolia (Proteaceae).

    PubMed

    Pattinson, G S; McGee, P A

    2004-04-01

    Tap and primary lateral roots of seedlings of the putatively non-mycorrhizal Banksia ericifolia became marginally colonised when grown in an established mycelium of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus in the laboratory. A similar degree of colonisation was found in seedlings from an open woodland. All colonies lacked arbuscules. Two factors influencing colonisation and associated growth of host plants were examined experimentally: concentration of P in the soil and organic energy associated with the fungus. While some inoculated seedlings were slightly smaller when colonised by AM fungi, the results were inconsistent and never statistically significant. Seedlings take up insignificant quantities of soil P during early growth, even in the presence of abundant added P. Though colonisation was minor in all cases, an existing mycelium, whether or not connected to a companion plant, slightly increased the amount of root of B. ericifolia colonised by an AM fungus. All seedlings grew slowly. Shoots were significantly larger than roots, until the initiation of proteoid roots which commenced at about 40 days after germination, with both relatively high and low P supply.

  2. Hardwood seedling growth on different mine spoil types with and without topsoil amendment.

    PubMed

    Showalter, Julia M; Burger, James A; Zipper, Carl E

    2010-01-01

    The goal of many owners of reclaimed mined land in the Appalachian region is to restore the diverse native hardwood forest for environmental, economic, and cultural reasons. However, native hardwoods often grow poorly on mined sites because they are planted in unsuitable spoils devoid of native topsoil. In a greenhouse experiment, we examined the suitability of four growth media available for use on many mined sites in the central Appalachians-forest topsoil (FT), weathered sandstone (WS), unweathered sandstone (US), and unweathered shale (UH)-as well as the effects of topsoil amendment (none vs. amended) on the growth of three native hardwood species: Fraxinus americana, Quercus rubra, and Liriodendron tulipifera. A 4 x 2 x 3 factorial greenhouse experiment was conducted with planted 1-yr-old seedlings. Tree growth, foliar nutrients, and soil properties were measured and characterized. The WS was the spoil most conducive to growth for F. americana and Q. rubra. Liriodendron tulipifera did not respond to any treatments. Tree growth was highly correlated with mineralizable soil nitrogen and extractable soil phosphorus. Topsoil amendment significantly increased growth on the UH but not on the US or WS. Topsoil amendment increased the number of native herbaceous plants growing in the pots and improved foliar nutrient content in F. americana and L. tulipifera. Many properties of the WS, such as pH, microbial activity, and water availability, more closely approximated the control soil than the US or UH. This study showed that trees are sensitive to spoil type and that certain spoil types that are conducive to good growth of native trees should be used during the reclamation process, particularly if forest topsoil is not applied. Forest topsoil amendment improved tree growth on some spoil materials, improved tree nutrition, and helped restore the native soil organisms and plants that were present before mining.

  3. [Effects of acid rain stress on Eleocarpus glabripetalus seedlings leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and growth].

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiu-Min; Yu, Shu-Quan; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Mei-Hu

    2010-06-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the Eleocarpus glabripetalus seedlings leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and growth in different seasons under simulated acid rain stress (heavy, pH = 2. 5; moderate, pH = 4.0; and control, pH = 5.6). In the same treatments, the leaf relative chlorophyll content (SPAD), maximum PS II photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)), actual PSII photochemical quantum yield (phi(PS II)), plant height, and stem diameter in different seasons were all in the order of October > July > April > January. In the same seasons, all the parameters were in the order of heavy acid rain > moderate acid rain > control. The interactions between different acid rain stress and seasons showed significant effects on the SPAD, F(v)/F(m), plant height, and stem diameter, but lesser effects on phi(PS II), qp and qN.

  4. Phototropism experiments in microgravity-the Seedling Growth project in the EMCS on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, John; Edelmann, Richard; Herranz, Raul; Medina, Francisco Javier; Millar, Katherine

    The microgravity environment aboard orbiting spacecraft has provided a unique laboratory to explore important topics in basic plant biology. Our group has utilized the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to study plant growth, development, tropisms, and gene expression in a series of spaceflight experiments. The most current project performed on the ISS was termed Seeding Growth-1 (SG-1) which builds on the previous TROPI (for tropisms) experiments. TROPI-1 was the first EMCS experiment, and we discovered a novel red-light-based phototropism in hypocotyls of seedlings grown in microgravity (Millar et al. 2010). In TROPI-2, our experiments were extended to reduced gravity levels and found that 0.1-0.3 g can attenuate the red-light response (Kiss et al. 2012). In addition, we performed gene profiling studies and noted that approximately 280 genes that were differentially regulated at least two-fold in the space samples compared to the ground controls (Correll et al. 2013). Major technical and operational changes in SG-1 (launched in March 2013) compared to the TROPI experiments include: improvements in lighting conditions within the EMCS to optimize the environment for phototropism studies and the use of infrared illumination to provide high-quality images of the seedlings. In SG-1, the red-light-based phototropism in roots and hypocotyls of seedlings that was noted in TROPI-2 was confirmed and now can be more precisely characterized based on the improvements in procedures. As we move forward, the SG-2 experiments (to be launched in 2014), in addition to a continued focus on phototropism, will consider the cell cycle as well as the growth and proliferation of plant cells in microgravity (Matía et al. 2010). Furthermore, the lessons learned from sequential experiments from TROPI-1 to TROPI-2 to SG-1 can provide insights to other researchers developing space experiments in plant biology. References: Correll M.J., T

  5. Growth reponses of eggplant and soybean seedlings to mechanical stress in greenhouse and outdoor environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latimer, J. G.; Pappas, T.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L. var. esculentum 'Burpee's Black Beauty') and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. 'Wells II'] seedlings were assigned to a greenhouse or a windless or windy outdoor environment. Plants within each environment received either periodic seismic (shaking) or thigmic (flexing or rubbing) treatment, or were left undisturbed. Productivity (dry weight) and dimensional (leaf area and stem length) growth parameters generally were reduced more by mechanical stress in the greenhouse (soybean) or outdoor-windless environment (eggplant) than in the outdoor windy environment. Outdoor exposure enhanced both stem and leaf specific weights, whereas mechanical stress enhanced only leaf specific weight. Although both forms of controlled mechanical stress tended to reduce node and internode diameters of soybean, outdoor exposure increased stem diameter.

  6. Evaluation of bacteria isolated from rice for plant growth promotion and biological control of seedling disease of rice.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, T B; Joseph, C M; Yang, G; Phillips, D A; Nelson, L M

    2001-10-01

    Of 102 rhizoplane and endophytic bacteria isolated from rice roots and stems in California, 37% significantly (P < or = 0.05) inhibited the growth in vitro of two pathogens, Achlya klebsiana and Pythium spinosum, causing seedling disease of rice. Four endophytic strains were highly effective against seedling disease in growth pouch assays, and these were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens (S3), Pseudomonas tolaasii (S20), Pseudomonas veronii (S21), and Sphingomonas trueperi (S12) by sequencing of amplified 16S rRNA genes. Strains S12, S20, and S21 contained the nitrogen fixation gene, nifD, but only S12 was able to reduce acetylene in pure culture. The four strains significantly enhanced plant growth in the absence of pathogens, as evidenced by increases in plant height and dry weight of inoculated rice seedlings relative to noninoculated rice. Three bacterial strains (S3, S20, and S21) were evaluated in pot bioassays and reduced disease incidence by 50%-73%. Strain S3 was as effective at suppressing disease at the lowest inoculum density (106 CFU/mL) as at higher density (10(8) CFU/mL or undiluted suspension). This study indicates that selected endophytic bacterial strains have potential for control of seedling disease of rice and for plant growth promotion.

  7. Ammonia Volatilization from Urea-Application Influenced Germination and Early Seedling Growth of Dry Direct-Seeded Rice

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xiaoli; Wu, Wei; Shah, Farooq; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Liu, Hongyan; Nie, Lixiao

    2012-01-01

    Poor seed germination and early seedling growth associated with urea-induced soil ammonia volatilization are major constraints in the adoption of dry direct-seeded rice. To directly examine soil ammonia volatilization and its damage to seed germination and early seedling growth of dry direct-seeded rice when urea is applied at seeding, two Petri-dish incubation experiments and a field experiment were conducted. Ammonia volatilization due to urea application significantly reduced seed germination and early seedling growth of dry direct-seedling rice. NBPT significantly reduced ammonia volatilization following urea application. The application of ammonium sulfate, instead of urea at seeding, may mitigate poor crop establishment of dry direct-seeded rice. Root growth of dry direct-seeded rice was more seriously inhibited by soil ammonia volatilization than that of shoot. Results suggest that roots are more sensitive to soil ammonia toxicity than shoots in dry direct-seeded rice system when N is applied as urea at seeding. PMID:22454611

  8. Potent endogenous allelopathic compounds in Lepidium sativum seed exudate: effects on epidermal cell growth in Amaranthus caudatus seedlings.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Amjad; Fry, Stephen C

    2012-04-01

    Many plants exude allelochemicals--compounds that affect the growth of neighbouring plants. This study reports further studies of the reported effect of cress (Lepidium sativum) seed(ling) exudates on seedling growth in Amaranthus caudatus and Lactuca sativa. In the presence of live cress seedlings, both species grew longer hypocotyls and shorter roots than cress-free controls. The effects of cress seedlings were allelopathic and not due to competition for resources. Amaranthus seedlings grown in the presence of cress allelochemical(s) had longer, thinner hypocotyls and shorter, thicker roots--effects previously attributed to lepidimoide. The active principle was more abundant in cress seed exudate than in seedling (root) exudates. It was present in non-imbibed seeds and releasable from heat-killed seeds. Release from live seeds was biphasic, starting rapidly but then continuing gradually for 24 h. The active principle was generated by aseptic cress tissue and was not a microbial digestion product or seed-treatment chemical. Crude seed exudate affected hypocotyl and root growth at ~25 and ~450 μg ml(-1) respectively. The exudate slightly (28%) increased epidermal cell number along the length of the Amaranthus hypocotyl but increased total hypocotyl elongation by 129%; it resulted in a 26% smaller hypocotyl circumference but a 55% greater epidermal cell number counted round the circumference. Therefore, the effect of the allelochemical(s) on organ morphology was imposed primarily by regulation of cell expansion, not cell division. It is concluded that cress seeds exude endogenous substances, probably including lepidimoide, that principally regulate cell expansion in receiver plants.

  9. Improving survival and growth of planted Austrocedrus chilensis seedlings in disturbed patagonian forests of Argentina by managing understory vegetation.

    PubMed

    Pafundi, Leticia; Urretavizcaya, M Florencia; Defossé, Guillermo E

    2014-12-01

    This study was aimed at determining, under field conditions, early interactions between planted cypress seedlings and their associated shrubs in a mesic area of Andean Patagonia and, in a nursery, the effects of increasing light availability on cypress performance when soil water was not a limiting factor. The field experiment was performed in a former cypress-coihue mixed forest (42°02'S, 71°33'W), which was replaced in the 1970s by a plantation of radiata pine. In 2005, 800 cypress seedlings were planted under maqui shrubs in a clear-cut area of the pine stand. In 2007, two treatments were set: no-competition treatment ([NCT] i.e., the surrounding aboveground biomass was removed) and competition treatment ([CT] i.e., without disturbance). The nursery experiment (42°55'S, 71°21'W) consisted of two groups: "shade" (grown under shade cloth) and "sun" (grown at full sun) cypress seedlings. After one growing season, seedling survival and stem growth (in height and diameter) were determined at both sites. Furthermore, the growth rate of leaves, stems, and roots was determined in the nursery. In the field experiment, height growth and survival in NCT were significantly greater than in CT, and a competition process occurred between cypress and surrounding shrubs. In the nursery, sun plants grew more in diameter and increased root weight more than shade plants. Results also showed that in mesic areas of Patagonia, decreasing competition and increasing light levels produced stouter seedlings better adapted to support harsh environmental conditions. Therefore, the removal of protecting shrubs could be a good management practice to improve seedling establishment.

  10. Protective roles of nitric oxide on seed germination and seedling growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    He, Junyu; Ren, Yanfang; Chen, Xiulan; Chen, Hui

    2014-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a bioactive molecule in plants which mediates a variety of physiological processes and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses including heavy metals. In the present study, the effects of exogenous NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on rice seed germination and seedlings growth were investigated under Cd stress and a possible mechanism was postulated. The results indicated that 100μM Cd significantly decreased rice seed germination index, vigor index, root and shoot lengths as well as fresh weight compared to control. Exogenous SNP dose-dependently attenuated the inhibition of rice seed germination and thereafter seedling growth caused by Cd. The promoting effect was most pronounced at 30μM SNP. Cd exposure caused oxidative stress by elevating hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in root and shoot of rice seedlings. 30μM SNP counteracted partly Cd toxicity by reducing the H2O2 and MDA contents of Cd-exposed seedlings. Meanwhile, application of SNP markedly stimulated the activities of superoxide dismutases (SOD), ascorbate peroxidases (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (POD) and catalases (CAT) compared with Cd treatment alone, thereby indicating the enhancement of the antioxidative capacity in the root and shoot under Cd stress. In addition, addition of 30μM SNP increased accumulation of proline in both root and shoot. The Cd accumulation in seedlings was significant reduced by SNP, implicating that the protective role of SNP was responsible for preventing Cd accumulation. However, the effects of SNP were reverted by addition of cPTIO, a NO scavenger, suggesting the protective roles of SNP might be related to the induction of NO. Furthermore, K3Fe(CN)6 and [Formula: see text] / [Formula: see text] had no similar roles as SNP. Based on these results, it can be concluded that SNP exerted an advantageous effect on alleviating the inhibitory effect of Cd on rice seed germination and seedling growth, which might interact with

  11. Improving Survival and Growth of Planted Austrocedrus chilensis Seedlings in Disturbed Patagonian Forests of Argentina by Managing Understory Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pafundi, Leticia; Urretavizcaya, M. Florencia; Defossé, Guillermo E.

    2014-12-01

    This study was aimed at determining, under field conditions, early interactions between planted cypress seedlings and their associated shrubs in a mesic area of Andean Patagonia and, in a nursery, the effects of increasing light availability on cypress performance when soil water was not a limiting factor. The field experiment was performed in a former cypress-coihue mixed forest (42°02'S, 71°33'W), which was replaced in the 1970s by a plantation of radiata pine. In 2005, 800 cypress seedlings were planted under maqui shrubs in a clear-cut area of the pine stand. In 2007, two treatments were set: no-competition treatment ([NCT] i.e., the surrounding aboveground biomass was removed) and competition treatment ([CT] i.e., without disturbance). The nursery experiment (42°55'S, 71°21'W) consisted of two groups: "shade" (grown under shade cloth) and "sun" (grown at full sun) cypress seedlings. After one growing season, seedling survival and stem growth (in height and diameter) were determined at both sites. Furthermore, the growth rate of leaves, stems, and roots was determined in the nursery. In the field experiment, height growth and survival in NCT were significantly greater than in CT, and a competition process occurred between cypress and surrounding shrubs. In the nursery, sun plants grew more in diameter and increased root weight more than shade plants. Results also showed that in mesic areas of Patagonia, decreasing competition and increasing light levels produced stouter seedlings better adapted to support harsh environmental conditions. Therefore, the removal of protecting shrubs could be a good management practice to improve seedling establishment.

  12. Soil nitrogen and ozone effects on growth, physiology, and nutrition of loblolly pine and yellow-poplar seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Tjoelker, M.G.; Luxmoore, R.J.; Schwarz, O.J.

    1989-06-01

    The effects of soil nitrogen level and chronic ozone (O /sub 3/) stress on carbon and nutrient economy were investigated in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L). The objectives of the study were: (1) to compare the growth and biomass partitioning in seedlings in response to varied low-nitrogen forest soil treatments in combination with chronic ozone levels over one growing season and (2) to investigate seedling physiological responses, including water use efficiency (WUE), photosynthesis, fine root and leaf nitrate reductase activity (NRA), nutrient concentration, nutrient uptake, and nutrient use efficiency (NUE). 135 refs., 12 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. The influence of variable rainfall frequency on germination and early growth of shade-tolerant dipterocarp seedlings in borneo.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Michael J; Philipson, Christopher D; Tay, John; Hector, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Climate change induced alterations to rainfall patterns have the potential to affect the regeneration dynamics of plant species, especially in historically everwet tropical rainforest. Differential species response to infrequent rainfall may influence seed germination and seedling establishment in turn affecting species distributions. We tested the role of watering frequency intervals (from daily to six-day watering) on the germination and the early growth of Dipterocarpaceae seedlings in Borneo. We used seeds that ranged in size from 500 to 20,000 mg in order to test the role of seed mass in mediating the effects of infrequent watering. With frequent rainfall, germination and seedling development traits bore no relationship to seed mass, but all metrics of seedling growth increased with increasing seed mass. Cumulative germination declined by 39.4% on average for all species when plants were watered at six-day intervals, and days to germination increased by 76.5% on average for all species from daily to six-day intervals. Final height and biomass declined on average in the six-day interval by 16% and 30%, respectively, but the percentage decrease in final size was greater for large-seeded species. Rooting depth per leaf area also significantly declined with seed mass indicating large-seeded species allocate relatively more biomass for leaf production. This difference in allocation provided an establishment advantage to large-seeded species when water was non-limiting but inhibited their growth under infrequent rainfall. The observed reduction in the growth of large-seeded species under infrequent rainfall would likely restrict their establishment in drier microsites associated with coarse sandy soils and ridge tops. In total, these species differences in germination and initial seedling growth indicates a possible niche axis that may help explain both current species distributions and future responses to climate change.

  14. [Effect of exogenous sucrose on growth and active ingredient content of licorice seedlings under salt stress conditions].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fu-zhi; Yang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Licorice seedlings were taken as experimental materials, an experiment was conducted to study the effects of exogenous sucrose on growth and active ingredient content of licorice seedlings under NaCl stress conditions. The results of this study showed that under salt stress conditions, after adding a certain concentration of exogenous sucrose, the licorice seedlings day of relative growth rate was increasing, and this stress can be a significant weakening effect, indicating that exogenous sucrose salt stress-relieving effect. The total flavonoids and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity were significantly increased, the exogenous sucrose can mitigated the seedling roots under salt stress, the licorice flavonoid content in the enhanced growth was largely due to the activity of PAL an increased, when the concentration of exogenous sucrose wae 10 mmol x L(-1), PAL activity reaching a maximum, when the concentration of exogenous sucrose was 15 mmol x L(-1), PAL activity turned into a downward trend, the results indicating that this mitigation has concentration effect. After applying different concentrations of exogenous sugar, the contents of liquiritin changes with the change of flavonoids content was similar. After applying different concentrations of exogenous sucrose, the content of licorice acid under salt stress was higher than the levels were not reached during salt stress, the impact of exogenous sucrose concentration gradient of licorice acid accumulation was not obvious.

  15. Insect herbivores increase mortality and reduce tree seedling growth of some species in temperate forest canopy gaps

    PubMed Central

    Burkepile, Deron E.; Parker, John D.

    2017-01-01

    Insect herbivores help maintain forest diversity through selective predation on seedlings of vulnerable tree species. Although the role of natural enemies has been well-studied in tropical systems, relatively few studies have experimentally manipulated insect abundance in temperate forests and tracked impacts over multiple years. We conducted a three-year experiment (2012–2014) deterring insect herbivores from seedlings in new treefall gaps in deciduous hardwood forests in Maryland. During this study, we tracked recruitment of all tree seedlings, as well as survivorship and growth of 889 individual seedlings from five tree species: Acer rubrum, Fagus grandifolia, Fraxinus spp., Liriodendron tulipifera, and Liquidambar styraciflua. Insect herbivores had little effect on recruitment of any tree species, although there was a weak indication that recruitment of A. rubrum was higher in the presence of herbivores. Insect herbivores reduced survivorship of L. tulipifera, but had no significant effects on A. rubrum, Fraxinus spp., F. grandifolia, or L. styraciflua. Additionally, insects reduced growth rates of early pioneer species A. rubrum, L. tulipifera, and L. styraciflua, but had little effect on more shade-tolerant species F. grandifolia and Fraxinus spp. Overall, by negatively impacting growth and survivorship of early pioneer species, forest insects may play an important but relatively cryptic role in forest gap dynamics, with potentially interesting impacts on the overall maintenance of diversity. PMID:28344904

  16. [Effects of stress duration and non-toxic ions on heavy metals toxicity to Arabidopsis seed germination and seedling growth].

    PubMed

    Li, Weiqiang; Mao, Renzhao; Liu, Xiaojing

    2005-10-01

    The study on the toxicity of heavy metals Hg2+, Cd+, Cu2+ and Pb2+ to Arabidopsis se d germination and seedling growth showed that the test heavy metals had a stronger toxicity on seedling growth than on seed germination. The toxicity on seedlings was in order of Cu2+ > Hg2+ > Cd2+ /Pb2+, while on seeds was Hg2+ > Cd2+ > Pb2+/Cu2+. Seed germination rate was decreased with increasing stress duration, and different heavy metals showed different toxicity at different stress duration. For example, Hg2+ displayed a stronger toxicity at 12 - 24 h stress, while Cd2+ was at 0 - 12 h stress. It seemed that seed coat played an important role in seed tolerance to heavy metals. The interaction between non-toxic ions and heavy metal ions on seed germination showed that Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and Na+ at 5 mmol x L(-1) could enhance the toxicity of Hg2+, but did not affect Cd2+ toxicity. For seedling growth, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and Na+ might enhance the toxicity of Hg2+, Ca2+ might alleviate the toxicity of Cd2+ but enhance the toxicity of Cu2+ , and K+ might alleviate Pb2+ toxicity. The mechanism of heavy metals injury was discussed in the paper.

  17. Increased nitrogen input enhances Kandelia obovata seedling growth in the presence of invasive Spartina alterniflora in subtropical regions of China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaowei; Song, Weimin; Feng, Jianxiang; Jia, Dai; Guo, Jiemin; Wang, Zhonglei; Wu, Hao; Qi, Fei; Liang, Jie; Lin, Guanghui

    2017-01-01

    Mangroves in China are severely affected by the rapid invasion of the non-native species Spartina alterniflora Although many studies have addressed the possible impacts of S. alterniflora on the performance of mangrove seedlings, how excessive nitrogen (N) input due to eutrophication affects the interactions between mangrove species and S. alterniflora remains unknown. Here, we report the results from a mesocosm experiment using seedlings of the native mangrove species Kandelia obovata and the exotic S. alterniflora grown in monoculture and mixed culture under no nitrogen addition and nitrogen (N) addition treatments for 18 months. Without N addition, the presence of S. alterniflora inhibited the growth of K. obovata seedlings. Excessive N addition significantly increased the growth rate of K. obovata in both cultures. However, the positive and significantly increasing relative interaction intensity index under excessive N input suggested that the invasion of S. alterniflora could favour the growth of K. obovata under eutrophication conditions. Our results imply that excessive N input in southeastern China can increase the competitive ability of mangrove seedlings against invasive S. alterniflora.

  18. Over-expression of STP13, a hexose transporter, improves plant growth and nitrogen use in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings.

    PubMed

    Schofield, R A; Bi, Y-M; Kant, S; Rothstein, S J

    2009-03-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the regulation of hexose levels by the large monosaccharide transporter (MST) gene family influences many aspects of plant growth. The cloning and transgenic expression of one family member (STP13) enabled the manipulation of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism in Arabidopsis. Transgenic seedlings constitutively over-expressing STP13 (STP13OX) had increased rates of glucose uptake, higher endogenous sucrose levels and accumulated more total C and biomass per plant when grown on soil-less media supplemented with 55 mM glucose and sufficient N (9 mM nitrate). Furthermore, STP13OX seedlings acquired 90% more total N than the Col-0 seedlings, and had higher levels of expression of the nitrate transporter NRT2.2. In addition, STP13OX seedlings were larger and had higher biomass than Col-0 seedlings when grown under a limiting N condition (3 mM nitrate). Transgene analysis of STP13 reveals that its gene product is localized to the plasma membrane (PM) in tobacco BY-2 suspension cells, that it encodes a functional MST in planta, and that the STP13 promoter directs GUS expression to the vasculature and to leaf mesophyll cells. This work highlights the link between C and N metabolism, demonstrating that a plant's N use may be improved by increasing the availability of C.

  19. [Effects of exogenous AsA and GSH on the growth of Dianthus chinensis seedlings exposed to Cd].

    PubMed

    Ding, Ji-Jun; Liu, Shi-Liang; Pan, Yuan-Zhi; Li, Li

    2014-02-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under greenhouse condition to investigate the effects of different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg x L(-1)) of exogenous AsA, GSH on Dianthus chinensis seedlings which were stressed by 50 mg x kg(-1) Cd in the soil. The results indicated that 50 mg x kg(-1) of Cd significantly inhibited the growth of D. chinensis seedlings. An appropriate concentration of exogenous AsA significantly improved the biomass, plant height, tiller number, GAT and APX activities, and AsA and GSH contents. However, with the increase of exogenous AsA concentration, the ameliorating effect decreased and prooxidant effect occurred. Exogenous GSH could replenish the non-enzymatic antioxidants of D. chinensis seedlings, but the changes of antioxidant enzyme activities were relatively slight. The main mechanisms of GSH to alleviate Cd toxicity might be promoting root PCs synthesis, thereby reducing the Cd concentration in the seedlings. Both 35-45 mg x L(-1) exogenous AsA and 55-65 mg x L(-1) exogenous GSH could alleviate the Cd toxicity on D. chinensis seedlings, and the former was superior to the latter.

  20. Trade-offs in seedling growth and survival within and across tropical forest microhabitats

    PubMed Central

    Inman-Narahari, Faith; Ostertag, Rebecca; Asner, Gregory P; Cordell, Susan; Hubbell, Stephen P; Sack, Lawren

    2014-01-01

    For niche differences to maintain coexistence of sympatric species, each species must grow and/or survive better than each of the others in at least one set of conditions (i.e., performance trade-offs). However, the extent of niche differentiation in tropical forests remains highly debated. We present the first test of performance trade-offs for wild seedlings in a tropical forest. We measured seedling relative growth rate (RGR) and survival of four common native woody species across 18 light, substrate, and topography microhabitats over 2.5 years within Hawaiian montane wet forest, an ideal location due to its low species diversity and strong species habitat associations. All six species pairs exhibited significant performance trade-offs across microhabitats and for RGR versus survival within microhabitats. We also found some evidence of performance equivalence, with species pairs having similar performance in 26% of comparisons across microhabitats. Across species, survival under low light was generally positively associated with RGR under high light. When averaged over all species, topography (slope, aspect, and elevation) explained most of the variation in RGR attributable to microhabitat variables (51–53%) followed by substrate type (35–37%) and light (11–12%). However, the relative effects of microhabitat differed among species and RGR metric (i.e., RGR for height, biomass, or leaf area). These findings indicate that performance trade-offs among species during regeneration are common in low-diversity tropical forest, although other mechanisms may better explain the coexistence of species with small performance differences. PMID:25614790

  1. Is there a cost to resprouting? Seedling growth rate and drought tolerance in sprouting and nonsprouting Ceanothus (Rhamnaceae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwilk, D.W.; Ackerly, D.D.

    2005-01-01

    Many woody plant species that depend upon fire-cued seed germination lack the ability to resprout. As the ability to resprout is widely assumed to be the ancestral condition in most plant groups, the failure to sprout is an evolutionary derived trait. Models for the evolutionary loss of sprouting assume a trade-off between seedling success and vegetative resprouting ability of adults. Such models require higher seedling success rates in nonsprouters than in sprouters. On the other hand, there seem to be few a priori reasons why a strong sprouter might not also have highly competitive post-fire seedlings. To test the hypothesis that nonsprouting plants have higher growth rates and/or drought survival, we grew seedlings of Ceanothus tomentosus from sprouting and nonsprouting populations in a common garden experiment. Each of these C. tomentosus populations was paired with a sympatric Ceanothus species that differed in resprouting ability. Sprouters exhibited greater allocation to root carbohydrate storage than did nonsprouters, but overall relative growth rates did not differ. Nonsprouters had earlier onset of flowering. These results provide mixed support for models of a sprouting/nonsprouting allocation trade-off.

  2. Growth inhibition and effect on photosystem by three imidazolium chloride ionic liquids in rice seedlings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huijun; Zhang, Shuxian; Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Caidong

    2015-04-09

    The effects of three imidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs) including 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid ([OMIM]Cl), 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid ([DMIM]Cl) and 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid ([C12MIM]Cl) were studied in hydroponically grown rice seedlings. The growth inhibition rate increased and the Hill reaction activity of isolated rice chloroplasts decreased with increasing ILs concentrations. The IC50,5d for stem length was 0.70 mg/L of [OMIM]Cl, 0.15 mg/L of [DMIM]Cl, and 0.055 mg/L of [C12MIM]Cl, respectively. The SOD, POD and CAT activities of chloroplast exhibited initial increases followed by decreases in activity with increasing ILs concentrations. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters such as the maximum effective quantum yield of PSII(Fv/Fm), the potential activity of PSII(Fv/F0), the yield of photochemical quantum [Y(II)], the photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), the non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) and the relative electron transport ratio (rETR) were affected, showing that ILs will damage the PSII. The results demonstrated that imidazolium chloride ILs are phytotoxic to rice growth and their photosystem, the toxicity increased as the alkyl chain length increased with the following order: [OMIM]Cl<[DMIM]Cl<[C12MIM]Cl. The results will help to better understand the possible role of the defense mechanism in rice caused by ILs exposure.

  3. The effects of dopamine on root growth and enzyme activity in soybean seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Guidotti, Bruno Boni; Gomes, Bruno Ribeiro; Siqueira-Soares, Rita de Cássia; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of dopamine, an allelochemical exuded from the velvetbean (Mucuna pruriens L DC. var utilis), on the growth and cell viability of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) roots. We analyzed the effects of dopamine on superoxide dismutase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and cell wall-bound peroxidase activities as well as its effects on lignin contents in the roots. Three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution (pH 6.0), without or with 0.25 to 1.0 mM dopamine, in a growth chamber (25°C, 12L:12D photoperiod, irradiance of 280 μmol m−2 s−1) for 24 h. In general, the length, fresh weight and dry weight of roots, cell viability, PAL and POD activities decreased, while SOD activities increased after dopamine treatment. The content of lignin was not altered. The data demonstrate the susceptibility of soybean to dopamine and reinforce the role of this catecholamine as a strong allelochemical. The results also suggest that dopamine-induced inhibition in soybean roots is not related to the production of lignin, but may be related to damage caused by reactive oxygen species. PMID:23838960

  4. S-nitrosylation triggers ABI5 degradation to promote seed germination and seedling growth

    PubMed Central

    Albertos, Pablo; Romero-Puertas, María C.; Tatematsu, Kiyoshi; Mateos, Isabel; Sánchez-Vicente, Inmaculada; Nambara, Eiji; Lorenzo, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Plant survival depends on seed germination and progression through post-germinative developmental checkpoints. These processes are controlled by the stress phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). ABA regulates the basic leucine zipper transcriptional factor ABI5, a central hub of growth repression, while the reactive nitrogen molecule nitric oxide (NO) counteracts ABA during seed germination. However, the molecular mechanisms by which seeds sense more favourable conditions and start germinating have remained elusive. Here we show that ABI5 promotes growth via NO, and that ABI5 accumulation is altered in genetic backgrounds with impaired NO homeostasis. S-nitrosylation of ABI5 at cysteine-153 facilitates its degradation through CULLIN4-based and KEEP ON GOING E3 ligases, and promotes seed germination. Conversely, mutation of ABI5 at cysteine-153 deregulates protein stability and inhibition of seed germination by NO depletion. These findings suggest an inverse molecular link between NO and ABA hormone signalling through distinct posttranslational modifications of ABI5 during early seedling development. PMID:26493030

  5. Influence of mycorrhizal fungus, phosphorus, and burrowing nematode interactions on growth of rough lemon citrus seedlings.

    PubMed

    Smith, G S; Kaplan, D T

    1988-10-01

    Rough lemon seedlings were grown in mycorrhizal-infested or phosphorus-amended soil (25 and 300 mg P/kg) in greenhouse experiments. Plants Were inoculated with the citrus burrowing nematode, Radopholus citrophilus (0, 50, 100, or 200 nematodes per pot). Six months later, mycorrhizal plants and nonmycorrhizal, high-P plants had larger shoot and root weights than did non-mycorrhizal, low-P plants. Burrowing nematode population densities were lower in roots of mycorrhizal or nonmycorrhizal, high-P plants than in roots of nonmycorrhizal, low-P plants; however, differences in plant growth between mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants were not significant with respect to initial nematode inoculum densities. Phosphorus content in leaf tissue was significantly greater in mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal, high-P plants compared with nonmycorrhizal, low-P plants. Nutrient concentrations of K, Mg, and Zn were unaffected by nematode parasitism, whereas P, Ca, Fe, and Mn were less in nematode-infected plants. Enhanced growth associated with root colonization by the mycorrhizal fungus appeared to result from improved P nutrition and not antagonism between the fungus and the nematode.

  6. A plant growth-promoting bacterium that decreases nickel toxicity in seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Burd, G.I.; Dixon, D.G.; Glick, B.R.

    1998-10-01

    A plant growth-promoting bacterium, Kluyvera ascorbata SUD165, that contained high levels of heavy metals was isolated from soil collected near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The bacterium was resistant to the toxic effects of Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and CrO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, produced a siderophore(s), and displayed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity. Canola seeds inoculated with this bacterium and then grown under gnotobiotic conditions in the presence of high concentrations of nickel chloride were partially protected against nickel toxicity. In addition, protection by the bacterium against nickel toxicity was evident in pot experiments with canola and tomato seeds. The presence of K. ascorbata SUD165 had no measurable influence on the amount of nickel accumulated per milligram (dry weight) of either roots or shoots of canola plants. Therefore, the bacterial plant growth-promoting effect in the presence of nickel was probably not attributable to the reduction of nickel uptake by seedlings. Rather, it may reflect the ability of the bacterium to lower the level of stress ethylene induced by the nickel.

  7. Bacillus subtilis and Enterobacter cloacae endophytes from healthy Theobroma cacao L. trees can systemically colonize seedlings and promote growth.

    PubMed

    Leite, Hianna Almeida Câmara; Silva, Anderson Barbosa; Gomes, Fábio Pinto; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Faria, José Cláudio; de Souza, Jorge Teodoro; Loguercio, Leandro Lopes

    2013-03-01

    Clonal genotypes resistant to fungal diseases are an important component of the cocoa production system in southeastern Bahia state (Brazil), so that technologies for faster production of stronger and healthier plantlets are highly desirable. In this study, the effects of inoculated bacterial endophytes isolated from healthy adult cacao plants on seedlings, and aspects related to inoculation methods, colonization patterns, and photosynthesis were investigated. Sequencing of 16S rRNA, hsp-60, and rpo-B genes placed the wild-type isolates within the species Enterobacter cloacae (isolates 341 and 344) and Bacillus subtilis (isolate 629). Spontaneous rifampicin-resistant (rif(R)) variants for 344 were also produced and tested. Endophytic application was either by immersion of surface sterilized seeds in bacterial suspensions or direct inoculation into soil, 20 days after planting non-inoculated seeds into pots. Results from in vitro recovery of inoculated isolates showed that the wild-type endophytes and rif(R) variants systemically colonized the entire cacao seedlings in 15-20 days, regardless of the inoculation method. Some endophytic treatments showed significant increases in seedlings' height, number of leaves, and dry matter. Inoculation methods affected the combined application of endophytes, which maintained the growth-promotion effects, but not in the same manner as in single applications. Interestingly, the 344-3.2 rif(R) variant showed improved performance in relation to both the wild type and another related variant. Photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance increased significantly for some endophytic treatments, being partially associated with effects on growth and affected by the inoculation method. The results suggest that E. cloacae and B. subtilis endophytes from healthy adult plants (not transmitted by seeds) were able to promote vegetative growth on cacao seedlings. The development of products for large-scale use in seedlings

  8. [Combined injured effects of acid rain and lanthanum on growth of soybean seedling].

    PubMed

    Liang, Chan-juan; Pan, Dan-yun; Xu, Qiu-rong; Zhou, Qing

    2010-07-01

    Combined effects of acid rain and lanthanum on growth of soybean seedling (Glycine max) and its inherent mechanism were studied in this paper. Compared with treatments by simulated acid rain (pH 3.0, 3.5, 4.5) or rare earth La(III) (60, 100 and 300 mg x L(-1)), the decrease degree of growth parameters in combined treatments was higher, indicating that there were a synergistic effects between acid rain and La. Moreover,the inhibition effects of acid rain and La(III) were more obvious when pH value of acid rain was lower or the concentration of La(III) was higher. The changes of photosynthetic parameters were similar to those of growth, but the decrease degree of each parameter was not same in the same treatment group. The decrease degree of optimal PSII photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and chlorophyll content (Chl) were 9.35%-22.75% and 9.14%-24.53%, respectively, lower than that of photosynthetic rate Pn (22.78%-84.7%), Hill reaction rate (15.52%-73.38%) and Mg2+ -ATPase activity (14.51%-71.54%), showing that the sensitivity of photosynthetic parameters to the combined factors was different. Furthermore, relative analysis showed that the change of Pn were mainly affected by Hill reaction rate and Mg2+ -ATPase activity, and was less influenced by Chl and Fv/Fm. It indicates that the effect of acid rain and La on each reaction in photosynthesis was different, and the inhibition of combined treatments on photosynthesis in plants was one of the main factors affecting growth of plant.

  9. Purification and Partial Characterization of a Dehydrin Involved in Chilling Tolerance during Seedling Emergence of Cowpea1

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Abdelbagi M.; Hall, Anthony E.; Close, Timothy J.

    1999-01-01

    Dehydrins are a family of proteins (LEA [late-embryogenesis abundant] D11) commonly induced by environmental stresses associated with low temperature or dehydration and during seed maturation drying. Our previous genetic studies suggested an association of an approximately 35-kD protein (by immunological evidence a dehydrin) with chilling tolerance during emergence of seedlings of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) line 1393-2-11. In the present study we found that the accumulation of this protein in developing cowpea seeds is coordinated with the start of the dehydration phase of embryo development. We purified this protein from dry seeds of cowpea line 1393-2-11 by using the characteristic high-temperature solubility of dehydrins as an initial enrichment step, which was followed by three chromatography steps involving cation exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and anion exchange. Various characteristics of this protein confirmed that indeed it is a dehydrin, including total amino acid composition, partial amino acid sequencing, and the adoption of α-helical structure in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. The propensity of dehydrins to adopt α-helical structure in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, together with the apparent polypeptide adhesion property of this cowpea dehydrin, suggests a role in stabilizing other proteins or membranes. Taken together, the genetic, physiological, and physicochemical data are at this stage consistent with a cause-and-effect relationship between the presence in mature seeds of the approximately 35-kD dehydrin, which is the product of a single member of a multigene family, and an increment of chilling tolerance during emergence of cowpea seedlings. PMID:10318701

  10. Extracellular superoxide production associated with secondary root growth following desiccation of Pisum sativum seedlings.

    PubMed

    Roach, Thomas; Kranner, Ilse

    2011-10-15

    The seedling stage is arguably the most vulnerable phase in the plant life cycle, where the young establishing plant is extremely sensitive to environmental stresses such as drought. Here, the production of superoxide (O(2)(-)), a molecule involved in stress signaling, was measured in response to desiccation of Pisum sativum L. seedlings. Following desiccation that was sufficient to kill the radicle meristem, viability could be retained by seedlings that grew secondary roots. Upon rehydration, secondary roots formed in a region that had displayed intense extracellular O(2)(-)production on desiccation. Treating partially desiccated seedlings with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) prevented viability loss. In summary, reactive oxygen species (ROS) appear to participate in the signaling required for secondary root formation following desiccation stress of P. sativum seedlings.

  11. Study of allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus erythrocorys L. crude extracts against germination and seedling growth of weeds and wheat.

    PubMed

    Ben Ghnaya, Asma; Hamrouni, Lamia; Amri, Ismail; Ahoues, Haifa; Hanana, Mohsen; Romane, Abderrahmane

    2016-09-01

    Allelopathic materials inside a tree can produce positive or negative change in the survival, growth, reproduction and behaviour of other organisms if they escape into the environment. To assess these effects, this work was carried out to evaluate the allelopathic impact of Eucalyptus erythrocorys L. on seed germination and seedling growth of two weeds: Sinapis arvensis L. and Phalaris canariensis L.; on one cultivated crop: Triticum durum L. Aqueous; and on ethanolic leaf extracts of E. erythrocorys L. The study was effected using four concentrations (10, 20, 25 and 30 μL/mL) while distilled water was used as a control. The results showed that the E. erythrocorys L. crude extracts had an inhibitory effect on seed germination and seedling growth of both studied weeds and wheat. The inhibition rate was increased by the increase in extract concentration. Only ethanolic extracts of E. erythrocorys L. induced a significant inhibition of seed germination of durum wheat. The effect of E. erythrocorys L. crude extracts was more severe on weeds than on durum wheat. These results indicate that the seedling growth, especially radicle elongation, was the more sensitive indicator to evaluate the effects of extracts than was the seed germination.

  12. Autumn photosynthetic decline and growth cessation in seedlings of white spruce are decoupled under warming and photoperiod manipulations.

    PubMed

    Stinziano, Joseph R; Way, Danielle A

    2017-01-19

    Climate warming is expected to increase the seasonal duration of photosynthetic carbon fixation and tree growth in high-latitude forests. However, photoperiod, a crucial cue for seasonality, will remain constant, which may constrain tree responses to warming. We investigated the effects of temperature and photoperiod on weekly changes in photosynthetic capacity, leaf biochemistry and growth in seedlings of a boreal evergreen conifer, white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss]. Warming delayed autumn declines in photosynthetic capacity, extending the period when seedlings had high carbon uptake. While photoperiod was correlated with photosynthetic capacity, short photoperiods did not constrain the maintenance of high photosynthetic capacity under warming. Rubisco concentration dynamics were affected by temperature but not photoperiod, while leaf pigment concentrations were unaffected by treatments. Respiration rates at 25 °C were stimulated by photoperiod, although respiration at the growth temperatures was increased in warming treatments. Seedling growth was stimulated by increased photoperiod and suppressed by warming. We demonstrate that temperature is a stronger control on the seasonal timing of photosynthetic down-regulation than is photoperiod. Thus, while warming can stimulate carbon uptake in boreal conifers, the extra carbon may be directed towards respiration rather than biomass, potentially limiting carbon sequestration under climate change.

  13. HSPRO acts via SnRK1-mediated signaling in the regulation of Nicotiana attenuata seedling growth promoted by Piriformospora indica

    PubMed Central

    Schuck, Stefan; Baldwin, Ian T.; Bonaventure, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Nicotiana attenuata HSPRO (NaHSPRO) is a negative regulator of seedling growth promoted by the fungus Piriformospora indica. Homologs of NaHSPRO in Arabidopsis thaliana (i.e., AtHSPRO1 and AtHSPRO2) are known to physically interact with the AKINβγ subunit of the SnRK1 complex.2 To investigate whether NaHSPRO is associated with SnRK1 function during the stimulation of seedling growth by P. indica, we studied N. attenuata plants silenced in the expression of NaGAL83 (as-gal83 plants)—a gene that encodes for the regulatory β-subunit of SnRK1—and plants silenced in the expression of both NaHSPRO and NaGAL83 (ir-hspro/as-gal83 plants). The results showed that P. indica differentially stimulated the growth of both as-gal83 and ir-hspro/as-gal83 seedlings compared with control seedlings, with a magnitude similar to that observed in ir-hspro seedlings. Thus, we showed that, similar to NaHSPRO, NaGAL83 is a negative regulator of seedling growth stimulated by P. indica. We propose that the effect of NaHSPRO on seedling growth is associated with SnRK1 signaling. PMID:23333980

  14. Suppression of Elongation and Growth of Tomato Seedlings by Auxin Biosynthesis Inhibitors and Modeling of the Growth and Environmental Response

    PubMed Central

    Higashide, Tadahisa; Narukawa, Megumi; Shimada, Yukihisa; Soeno, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    To develop a growth inhibitor, the effects of auxin inhibitors were investigated. Application of 30 μM L-α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP) or (S)-methyl 2-((1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-yl)oxy)-3-phenylpropanoate (KOK1101), decreased the endogenous IAA levels in tomato seedlings at 8 days after sowing. Then, 10–1200 μM AOPP or KOK1101 were sprayed on the leaves and stem of 2–3 leaf stage tomato plants grown under a range of environmental conditions. We predicted plant growth and environmental response using a model based on the observed suppression of leaf enlargement. Spraying AOPP or KOK1101 decreased stem length and leaf area. Concentration-dependent inhibitions and dose response curves were observed. Although the effects of the inhibitors on dry weight varied according to the environmental conditions, the net assimilation rate was not influenced by the inhibitors. Accordingly, the observed decrease in dry weight caused by the inhibitors may result from decreased leaf area. Validation of the model based on observed data independent of the dataset showed good correlations between the observed and predicted values of dry weight and leaf area index. PMID:24690949

  15. Effects of continual burial by sediment on seedling emergence and morphology of Suaeda salsa in the coastal marsh of the Yellow River estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhigao; Song, Hongli; Sun, Jingkuan; Sun, Wenguang

    2014-03-15

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the impacts of continual burial on seedling emergence and morphology of Suaeda salsa, a pioneer species in the coastal marsh of the Yellow River estuary. From May to June 2012, seeds of S. salsa were artificially buried to depths of 0 cm (no burial), 2 cm (burial of 1 mm d(-1)), 4 cm (burial of 2 mm d(-1)), 6 cm (burial of 3 mm d(-1)), 8 cm (burial of 4 mm d(-1)) and 10 cm (burial of 5 mm d(-1)) in plastic pots filled with unsterilized sediment. Results showed that the percent emergence of seedlings had a significantly negative correlation with continual burial depth (p < 0.001). A large percentage of seedlings emerged from 2, 4 and 6 cm burial depths, with the highest emergence (56.00 ± 6.60%) occurring from 2 cm depth. The shortest emergence time occurred at 4 cm burial depth and seeds buried at 10 cm depth took longer to emerge than those at other depths. At shallow or moderate burials, a stimulatory effect on seedling height, stem diameter, number and length of branch, taproot length and dry mass were observed. With increasing burial depth, root-mass and leaf-mass ratios generally increased while stem-mass ratio decreased. Sediment burial also stimulated part of the hypocotyl below the sediment to form adventitious roots, implying that S. salsa seedlings had a special adaptive strategy in response to the rapid and dynamic burial environment in the coastal marsh of the Yellow River estuary. The use of thin-layer continual burial (1-2 mm d(-1)) to promote the emergence of S. salsa seedlings in degraded marsh was feasible, and our study provided another way for the restoration of S. salsa marsh during the initial stage of seedling establishment and laid a good foundation for the scientific decision-making and management of restoration project at a large scale.

  16. Water Relations of Pine Seedlings in Relation to Root and Shoot Growth 1

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Merrill R.

    1968-01-01

    The effects of water stress on growth and water relations of loblolly and white pine seedlings were studied during series of drying cycles. As mean soil water potential decreased, growth of roots, needles, and buds decreased. Growth of roots during successive severe drying cycles was not uniform, however. A study of needle and root extension showed that of the total growth of roots for 3 7-day drying cycles, only 6% occurred during the third cycle, while needle extension was uniform for the 3 cycles. The difference in response of needles and roots to drying cycles may be attributed primarily to the effect of water stress on the growing region. When subjected to a severe stress, roots matured toward the tip and became dormant, resulting in less growth during subsequent drying cycles. The intercalary growing region of needles, however, was not altered seriously enough by the stress to cause a difference in amount of growth during each drying cycle. Transpiration of loblolly pine was lower in the second drying cycle than in the first. Needle water potential after rewatering was as high as that of control plants watered daily; root resistance was apparently not important in restricting transpiration during a second drying cycle. Needle diffusion resistance of loblolly pine, measured with a low-resistance diffusion porometer, was slightly higher during the second drying cycle than during the first. In addition, many primary needles were killed during the first period of stress. These factors contributed to the reduction of transpiration during the second drying cycle. Diffusion resistance of Coleus increased and transpiration ceased during the first drying cycle while water potential remained relatively high. After rewatering, both leaf resistance and transpiration returned to the control level, presumably because the stress during the first period of drying was not severe. The diffusion resistances observed for well-watered plants were 30 to 50 sec·cm−1 for loblolly

  17. Photosynthesis mediated decrease in cadmium translocation protect shoot growth of Oryza sativa seedlings up on ammonium phosphate-sulfur fertilization.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Abin; Prasad, M N V

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) stress responses in seedlings of two Indian rice cultivars, MTU 7029 and MO 16 were investigated under ammonium-based fertilizer amendment. Cd translocation was reduced by fertilizer treatment. An increase in the production of organic acids as well as nitrogenous compounds and maintenance of nutrient status were implicated for decrease in Cd translocation which in turn promoted shoot growth. Fertilizer treatment increased photosynthetic pigments and activity of antioxidant enzymes that ensured steady photosynthetic rate during Cd stress. MO 16 showed Cd exclusion characteristics when compared with MTU 7029. Photosynthesis performance of MO 16 was not affected by Cd treatments. These findings suggest that photosynthesis influenced decrease in Cd translocation enhanced shoot growth of seedlings during ammonium phosphate-sulfur fertilizer supplementation.

  18. Effect of UV-C radiation and hypergravity on germination, growth and content of chlorophyll of wheat seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupiasih, N. Nyoman; Vidyasagar, Pandit B.

    2016-03-01

    An investigation of the effects of UV-C radiation and hypergravity on germination, growth and content of chlorophyll of wheat seedlings has been done. The UV-C irradiation periods of exposure were 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 minutes. The hypergravity used were 1000 g, 2000 g and 2500 g. The combination treatment is UV-C irradiation for 180 min followed by each hypergravity. The results showed that irradiation of UV-C on wheat seeds have stimulated the seed germination, but hypergravity and combination treatments on wheat seeds have inhibited the seed germination. Those treatments gave negative effects to growth rate, the content of chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll of wheat seedlings.

  19. Glucose trimming of N-glycan in endoplasmic reticulum is indispensable for the growth of Raphanus sativus seedling (kaiware radish).

    PubMed

    Mega, Tomohiro

    2005-07-01

    Recently I found that glycosidase inhibitors such as castanospermine, deoxynojirimycin, swainsonine, 2-acetamindo 2,3-dideoxynojirimycin, and deoxymannojirimycin change the N-glycan structure of root glycoproteins, and that the glucosidase inhibitors castanospermine and deoxynojirimycin suppress the growth of Raphanus sativus seedlings (Mega, T., J. Biochem., 2004). The present study undertook to see whether the growth suppression is due to the inhibition of glucose trimming in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The study, using three glucosidase inhibitors, castanospermine, N-methyl deoxynojirimycin, and deoxynojirimycin, upon the growth of R. sativus foliage leaf, made clear that glucose trimming is indispensable for plant growth, because the inhibition of glucose trimming correlated with leaf growth. On the other hand, processing inhibition in the Golgi apparatus by other glycosidase inhibitors had little effect on plant growth, although N-glycan processing was disrupted depending on inhibitor specificity. These results suggest that N-glycan processing after glucosidase processing is dispensable for plant growth and cell differentiation.

  20. Effects of 60-day NO2 fumigation on growth, oxidative stress and antioxidative response in Cinnamomum camphora seedlings*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhuo-mei; Chen, Ying-xu; Du, Guo-jian; Wu, Xi-lin; Li, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the oxidative stress and antioxidative response of Cinnamomum camphora seedlings exposed to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) fumigation. Methods: Measurements were made up of the growth, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation of one-year-old C. camphora seedlings exposed to NO2 (0.1, 0.5, and 4 μl/L) fumigation in open top chambers over a period of 60 d. Results: After the first 30 d, 0.5 and 4.0 μl/L NO2 showed insignificant effects on the growth of C. camphora seedlings. However, exposure to 0.5 and 4.0 μl/L NO2 for 15 d significantly reduced their chlorophyll content (P<0.05), enhanced their malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (P<0.05), and also significantly reduced the maximal quantum yield of PSII in the dark [the ratio of variable fluorescence to maximal fluorescence (F v/F m)] (P<0.05). In the latter 30 d, 0.5 μl/L NO2 showed a positive effect on the vitality of the seedlings, which was reflected by a recovery in the ratio of F v/F m and chlorophyll content, and obviously enhanced growth, SOD activity, ascorbate (AsA) content and glutathione reductase (GR) activity (P<0.05); 4.0 μl/L NO2 then showed a negative effect, indicated by significant reductions in chlorophyll content and the ratio of F v/F m, and inhibited growth (P<0.05). Conclusion: The results suggest adaptation of C. camphora seedlings to 60-d exposure to 0.1 and 0.5 μl/L NO2, but not to 60-d exposure to 4.0 μl/L NO2. C. camphora seedlings may protect themselves from injury by strengthening their antioxidant system in response to NO2-induced oxidative stress. PMID:20205305

  1. Regulation of growth and antioxidant enzyme activities by 28-homobrassinolide in seedlings of Raphanus sativus L. under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Indu; Pati, Pratap Kumar; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2010-06-01

    28-Homobrassinolide (28-HBL), a brassinosteroid is reported to play significant role in diverse physiological processes. It induces a range of cellular and adaptive responses to a range of environmental stresses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential metal which alters various physiological processes and generates ROS, which can oxidize biological macromolecules and causes oxidative stress. This stress is generally overcome by the internal antioxidative defense system and stress shielding phytohormones. In this study, effect of 28-HBL was studied on growth and activities of antioxidant enzymes in known hyperaccumulator Raphanus sativus L. (radish) seedlings grown under cadmium (Cd) metal stress. To determine the influence of 28-HBL (0, 10-(11), 10-(9), 10-(7) M) in radish seedlings subjected to Cd (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mM) stress, the activities of antioxidant enzymes (APOX, CAT, GR, POD and SOD) were analyzed. In addition, length and biomass of radish seedlings was also recorded. Cd toxicity resulted in reduced length, biomass, protein content and activities of antioxidant enzymes. 28-HBL treatments lowered the Cd toxicity by enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, biomass and seedling length. The present study thus suggests a possible role of 28-HBL in amelioration of metal stress by regulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes in radish.

  2. Control by Ethylene of Arginine Decarboxylase Activity in Pea Seedlings and Its Implication for Hormonal Regulation of Plant Growth 1

    PubMed Central

    Apelbaum, Akiva; Goldlust, Arie; Icekson, Isaac

    1985-01-01

    Activity of arginine decarboxylase in etiolated pea seedlings appears 24 hours after seed imbibition, reaches its highest level on the 4th day, and levels off until the 7th day. This activity was found in the apical and subapical tissue of the roots and shoots where intensive DNA synthesis occurs. Exposure of the seedlings to ethylene greatly reduced the specific activity of this enzyme. The inhibition was observed within 30 min of the hormone application, and maximal effect—90% inhibition—after 18 hours. Ethylene at physiological concentrations affected the enzyme activity; 50% inhibitory rate was recorded at 0.12 microliters per liter ethylene and maximal response at 1.2 microliters per liter. Ethylene provoked a 5-fold increase in the Kmapp of arginine decarboxylase for its substrate and reduced the Vmaxapp by 10-fold. However, the enzyme recovered from the inhibition and regained control activity 7 hours after transferral of the seedlings to ethylene-free atmosphere. Reducing the endogenous level of ethylene in the tissue by hypobaric pressure, or by exposure to light, as well as interfering with ethylene action by treatment with silver thiosulfate or 2,5-norbornadiene, caused a gradual increase in the specific activity of arginine decarboxylase in the apical tissue of the etiolated seedlings. On the basis of these findings, the possible control of arginine decarboxylase activity by endogenous ethylene, and its implication for the hormone effect on plant growth, are discussed. PMID:16664464

  3. Understanding Trichoderma in the root system of Pinus radiata: associations between rhizosphere colonisation and growth promotion for commercially grown seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Pierre; Jones, E Eirian; Hill, Robert A; Stewart, Alison

    2011-08-01

    Two Trichoderma isolates (T. hamatum LU592 and T. atroviride LU132) were tested for their ability to promote the growth and health of commercially grown Pinus radiata seedlings. The colonisation behaviour of the two isolates was investigated to relate rhizosphere competence and root penetration to subsequent effects on plant performance. Trichoderma hamatum LU592 was shown to enhance several plant health and growth parameters. The isolate significantly reduced seedling mortality by up to 29%, and promoted the growth of shoots (e.g. height by up to 16%) and roots (e.g. dry weight by up to 31%). The introduction of LU592 as either seed coat or spray application equally improved seedling health and growth demonstrating the suitability of both application methods for pine nursery situations. However, clear differences in rhizosphere colonisation and root penetration between the two application methods highlighted the need for more research on the impact of inoculum densities. When spray-applied, LU592 was found to be the predominant Trichoderma strain in the plant root system, including bulk potting mix, rhizosphere and endorhizosphere. In contrast, T. atroviride LU132 was shown to colonise the root system poorly, and no biological impact on P. radiata seedlings was detected. This is the first report to demonstrate rhizosphere competence as a useful indicator for determining Trichoderma bio-inoculants for P. radiata. High indigenous Trichoderma populations with similar population dynamics to the introduced strains revealed the limitations of the dilution plating technique, but this constraint was alleviated to some extent by the use of techniques for morphological and molecular identification of the introduced isolates.

  4. Effect of heavy metals on seed germination and seedling growth of common ragweed and roadside ground cover legumes.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jichul; Benoit, Diane L; Watson, Alan K

    2016-06-01

    In southern Québec, supplement roadside ground covers (i.e. Trifolium spp.) struggle to establish near edges of major roads and thus fail to assist turf recruitment. It creates empty niches vulnerable to weed establishment such as common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). We hypothesized that heavy metal stresses may drive such species shifts along roadside edges. A growth chamber experiment was conducted to assess effects of metals (Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Cd) on germination and seedling behaviors of roadside weed (A. artemisiifolia) and ground cover legumes (Coronilla varia, Lotus corniculatus, and Trifolium arvense). All metals inhibited T. arvense germination, but the effect was least on A. artemisiifolia. Low levels of Pb and Ni promoted germination initiation of A. artemisiifolia. Germination of L. corniculatus was not affected by Zn, Pb, and Ni, but inhibited by Cu and Cd. Germination of C. varia was decreased by Ni, Cu, and Cd and delayed by Zn and Pb. Metal additions hindered seedling growth of all test species, and the inhibitory effect on the belowground growth was greater than on the aboveground growth. Seedling mortality was lowest in A. artemisiifolia but highest in T. arvense when exposed to the metal treatments. L. corniculatus and C. varia seedlings survived when subjected to high levels of Zn, Pb, and Cd. In conclusion, the successful establishment of A. artemisiifolia along roadside edges can be associated with its greater tolerance of heavy metals. The findings also revealed that L. corniculatus is a potential candidate for supplement ground cover in metal-contaminated roadside edges in southern Québec, especially sites contaminated with Zn and Pb.

  5. Do common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis) seedling emergence patterns meet criteria for herbicide resistance simulation modeling?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to quantify the magnitude of, and sources of variation in, common waterhemp temporal patterns of emergence over 1 yr. In 2008 and 2010, emergence patterns in the absence of soil disturbance were determined for replicated samples of maternal families (progeny from one individua...

  6. Effects of ultrasonication on increased germination and improved seedling growth of aged grass seeds of tall fescue and Russian wildrye

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Wang, Quanzhen; Karagić, Đura; Liu, Xv; Cui, Jian; Gui, Jing; Gu, Muyu; Gao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The effects of ultrasonic treatments on the germination and seedling growth of aged tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and Russian wild rye (Psathyrostaehys juncea Nevski) seeds were determined using orthogonal matrix experimental design with four ultrasonic factors. The multivariate analysis of variance detected significant differences and coupling effects of the pair-wise factors. The activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Peroxidase (POD) and the Malondialdehyde (MDA) content were affected. The ultrasonic treatments had positive effects on the germination percentage (GP) of the aged seeds and the growth of the seedlings (GS) and therefore we provided a basic evidence for the application of ultrasonic treatment to pretreat aged grass seeds. For the four ultrasonic factors, the optimal conditions were a sonication time of 36.7 min, a sonication temperature of 35 °C, an output power of 367 W and a seed soaking time 4.1 h after binary quadratic regressions analyses. The ultrasonic treatment has the potential to improve seedling growth. Moreover, the longevity of the tall fescue and the Russian wild rye seeds was approximately 9.5 and 11.5 years, respectively, under natural conditions of storage. The physiological mechanisms that might contribute to the improved GP and GS were discussed. PMID:26928881

  7. Effects of ultrasonication on increased germination and improved seedling growth of aged grass seeds of tall fescue and Russian wildrye.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Wang, Quanzhen; Karagić, Đura; Liu, Xv; Cui, Jian; Gui, Jing; Gu, Muyu; Gao, Wei

    2016-03-01

    The effects of ultrasonic treatments on the germination and seedling growth of aged tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and Russian wild rye (Psathyrostaehys juncea Nevski) seeds were determined using orthogonal matrix experimental design with four ultrasonic factors. The multivariate analysis of variance detected significant differences and coupling effects of the pair-wise factors. The activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Peroxidase (POD) and the Malondialdehyde (MDA) content were affected. The ultrasonic treatments had positive effects on the germination percentage (GP) of the aged seeds and the growth of the seedlings (GS) and therefore we provided a basic evidence for the application of ultrasonic treatment to pretreat aged grass seeds. For the four ultrasonic factors, the optimal conditions were a sonication time of 36.7 min, a sonication temperature of 35 °C, an output power of 367 W and a seed soaking time 4.1 h after binary quadratic regressions analyses. The ultrasonic treatment has the potential to improve seedling growth. Moreover, the longevity of the tall fescue and the Russian wild rye seeds was approximately 9.5 and 11.5 years, respectively, under natural conditions of storage. The physiological mechanisms that might contribute to the improved GP and GS were discussed.

  8. Seed priming with chitosan improves maize germination and seedling growth in relation to physiological changes under low temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ya-jing; Hu, Jin; Wang, Xian-ju; Shao, Chen-xia

    2009-06-01

    Low temperature stress during germination and early seedling growth is an important constraint of global production of maize. The effects of seed priming with 0.25%, 0.50%, and 0.75% (w/v) chitosan solutions at 15 degrees C on the growth and physiological changes were investigated using two maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines, HuangC (chilling-tolerant) and Mo17 (chilling-sensitive). While seed priming with chitosan had no significant effect on germination percentage under low temperature stress, it enhanced germination index, reduced the mean germination time (MGT), and increased shoot height, root length, and shoot and root dry weights in both maize lines. The decline of malondialdehyde (MDA) content and relative permeability of the plasma membrane and the increase of the concentrations of soluble sugars and proline, peroxidase (POD) activity, and catalase (CAT) activity were detected both in the chilling-sensitive and chilling-tolerant maize seedlings after priming with the three concentrations of chitosan. HuangC was less sensitive to responding to different concentrations of chitosan. Priming with 0.50% chitosan for about 60 approximately 64 h seemed to have the best effects. Thus, it suggests that seed priming with chitosan may improve the speed of germination of maize seed and benefit for seedling growth under low temperature stress.

  9. Inhibition of root growth by narciclasine is caused by DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest in lettuce seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanfeng; Li, Jiaolong; Yang, Lijing; Nan, Wenbin; Cao, Xiaoping; Bi, Yurong

    2014-09-01

    Narciclasine (NCS) is an Amaryllidaceae alkaloid isolated from Narcissus tazetta bulbs. Its phytotoxic effects on plant growth were examined in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings. Results showed that high concentrations (0.5-5 μM) of NCS restricted the growth of lettuce roots in a dose-dependent manner. In NCS-treated lettuce seedlings, the following changes were detected: reduction of mitotic cells and cell elongation in the mature region, inhibition of proliferation of meristematic cells, and cell cycle. Moreover, comet assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay indicated that higher levels NCS (0.5-5 μM) induced DNA damage in root cells of lettuce. The decrease in meristematic cells and increase in DNA damage signals in lettuce roots in responses to NCS are in a dose-dependent manner. NCS-induced reactive oxygen species accumulation may explain an increase in DNA damage in lettuce roots. Thus, the restraint of root growth is due to cell cycle arrest which is caused by NCS-induced DNA damage. In addition, it was also found that NCS (0.5-5 μM) inhibited the root hair development of lettuce seedlings. Further investigations on the underlying mechanism revealed that both auxin and ethylene signaling pathways are involved in the response of root hairs to NCS.

  10. Salt tolerance during germination and seedling growth of wild wheat Aegilops tauschii and its impact on the species range expansion

    PubMed Central

    Saisho, Daisuke; Takumi, Shigeo; Matsuoka, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation to edaphic stress may have a key role in plant species range expansion. Aegilops tauschii Coss., the common wheat’s D-genome progenitor native to the Transcaucasus-Middle East region, is a good model to study the relationships between soil salinity and plant distributions: one of its intraspecific sublineages, TauL1b, drove the long-distance eastward expansion of this species range reaching semi-arid-central Asia. Salt tolerance during germination and seedling growth was evaluated in 206 Ae. tauschii accessions by treating seeds with NaCl solutions differing in concentrations. Differences in natural variation patterns were analyzed between sublineages and associated with natural edaphic condition variables, and then compared with reproductive trait variation patterns. The natural variations observed in NaCl-induced-stress tolerance had clear geographic and genetic structure. Seedling growth significantly increased in the TauL1b accessions that were collected from salt-affected soil habitats, whereas germinability did not. Principal component analysis suggested that the NaCl-induced-stress tolerances and reproductive traits might have had a similar degree of influence on Ae. tauschii’s eastward range expansion. Adaptation to salt-affected soils through increased seedling growth was an important factor for the species’ successful colonization of the semi-arid central Asian habitats. TauL1b accessions might provide useful genetic resources for salt-tolerant wheat breeds. PMID:27929044

  11. [Effects of bryophytes in dark coniferous forest of Changbai Mountains on three conifers seed germination and seedling growth].

    PubMed

    Lin, Fei; Hao, Zhanqing; Ye, Ji; Jiang, Ping

    2006-08-01

    This paper studied the effects of Hylocomium splendens and Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus, the main bryophytes in dark coniferous forests of Changbai Mountains, on the seed germination and seedling growth of Pinus koraiensis, Picea koraiensis and Larix olgensis. The results indicated that at definite concentrations, the water extract of H. splendens inhibited Picea koraiensis seed germination, while that of R. triquetrus promoted it. Although the water extracts of the two bryophytes had no obvious effects on the seed germination of Picea koraiensis and Larix olgensis, they expedited the occurrence of the tree species' daily germination peak. The water extracts of test bryophytes inhibited the seedling growth of P. koraiensis and Picea koraiensis, but promoted that of Larix olgensis. The living shoots of the two bryophytes had no obvious effects on the seed germination of Picea koraiensis and Larix olgensis, but delayed the daily germination peak of Picea koraiensis while promoted that of Larix olgensis, andthe killed shoots inhibited the seed germination of all test tree species. Living shoots in larger amounts promoted the seedling growth of Picea koraiensis and Larix olgensis, but killed shoots were inadverse.

  12. Effects of ultrasonication on increased germination and improved seedling growth of aged grass seeds of tall fescue and Russian wildrye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Juan; Wang, Quanzhen; Karagić, Đura; Liu, Xv; Cui, Jian; Gui, Jing; Gu, Muyu; Gao, Wei

    2016-03-01

    The effects of ultrasonic treatments on the germination and seedling growth of aged tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and Russian wild rye (Psathyrostaehys juncea Nevski) seeds were determined using orthogonal matrix experimental design with four ultrasonic factors. The multivariate analysis of variance detected significant differences and coupling effects of the pair-wise factors. The activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Peroxidase (POD) and the Malondialdehyde (MDA) content were affected. The ultrasonic treatments had positive effects on the germination percentage (GP) of the aged seeds and the growth of the seedlings (GS) and therefore we provided a basic evidence for the application of ultrasonic treatment to pretreat aged grass seeds. For the four ultrasonic factors, the optimal conditions were a sonication time of 36.7 min, a sonication temperature of 35 °C, an output power of 367 W and a seed soaking time 4.1 h after binary quadratic regressions analyses. The ultrasonic treatment has the potential to improve seedling growth. Moreover, the longevity of the tall fescue and the Russian wild rye seeds was approximately 9.5 and 11.5 years, respectively, under natural conditions of storage. The physiological mechanisms that might contribute to the improved GP and GS were discussed.

  13. Plant growth with new fluorescent lamps : I. Fresh and dry weight yields of tomato seedlings.

    PubMed

    Thomas, A S; Dunn, S

    1966-06-01

    Tomato seedlings were grown under seven kinds of fluorescent lamps, including two that are commercially available, and five experimental lamps. Detailed descriptions and spectral emission curves for these lamps are presented.The 78/22 lamp, which emitted most of its energy above 500 mμ, more than ten percent above 700 mμ, and had a sharp peak output at 660 mμ, generally produced superior fresh and dry weight yields. This effect may be due primarily to the high peak of energy emitted at approximately 660 mμ, combined with a considerable emission in the far-red, which in turn may be related to the red ↔ far-red reversibility phenomeon.The Com I lamp, which lacked the sharp peak output at 660 mμ and emitted more energy in the blue than the 78/22 lamp, was generally second only to the latter in promoting plant growth. A high moisture content was found in plants under this lamp in some experiments.The IRIII lamp had the sharp peak output at 660 mμ but greater output in the blue than the 78/22 lamp. The 282 lamp output was similar to the 78/22 but lacked the high peak. Both of these lamps generally gave improved results over those produced by commercial Gro-Lux, Warm-white, and FLAT lamps. This was attributed to the greater percentage of red and far-red energy emission by the former two lamps. The yields with the FLAT lamp were consistently lowest of all. This has been attributed to the high percentage of emitted energy in the blue and green portions of the spectrum.Both length of the test period (13 days versus 26 days) and light intensity (550 μw/cm(2) versus 1100 μw/cm(2)) may be important factors in determining which composition of spectral energy emission produces the greatest yields. Under low intensity and short test period the Com I light produced highest fresh- and dry-weight yields, but under high intensity and longer growth period the 78/22 lamp gave greatest yields. This effect may be due to inhibition of leaf expansion by red light in the early

  14. Response of wheat and pea seedlings on increase of bromine concentration in the growth medium.

    PubMed

    Shtangeeva, Irina; Niemelä, Matti; Perämäki, Paavo; Timofeev, Sergey

    2015-12-01

    Biogeochemical cycles of bromine (Br) and its quantitative requirements for different plant species are still studied poorly. There is a need to examine Br pathways in plants and evaluate the factors important for Br accumulation in a plant. In the present work, the effects of different Br compounds on an uptake of Br by two plant species (wheat and pea) that tolerate Br differently (pea is more sensitive to Br compared with wheat) have been studied. The growth medium was spiked with either KBr or NaBr at concentrations 0, 10, 50 and 100 mg/L. Elemental analysis of the plants was performed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and ICP-MS analytical techniques after leaching of the samples with tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide at mild temperature (60 °C). The experimental results have shown that wheat and pea seedlings can accumulate rather large amounts of Br. An increase of Br concentration in a plant was not always directly proportional to the variations in the Br concentration in the growth medium. In wheat, the greater part of Br was accumulated during first 7 days. In pea, the uptake of Br lasted until the end of the experiment. Certain differences in the ability of plants to accumulate Br were observed when the plants were grown in a medium spiked with different Br compounds. In most cases, Br accumulation was higher in the leaves of the plants grown in the medium spiked with KBr. The same tendency was observed for another halogen, chlorine (Cl).

  15. Effect of ZnO Nanoparticles on Brassica nigra Seedlings and Stem Explants: Growth Dynamics and Antioxidative Response

    PubMed Central

    Zafar, Hira; Ali, Attarad; Ali, Joham S.; Haq, Ihsan U.; Zia, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have diverse properties when compared to respective chemicals due to their structure, surface to volume ratio, morphology, and reactivity. Toxicological effects of metallic NPs on organisms including plants have been reported. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is still not any report on the effect of NPs on in vitro culture of plant explants. In this study, ZnO NPs concentration ranging from 500 to 1500 mg/L adversely affects the Brassica nigra seed germination and seedling growth and also lead to an increase in the antioxidative activities and non-enzymatic antioxidants. While, culturing the stem explants of B. nigra on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium at lower concentration of ZnO NPs (1–20 mg/L) resulted in the production of white thin roots with thick root hairs. At 10 mg/L ZnO NPs, shoots emergence is also observed. The developed calli/roots showed 79% DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl) radical scavenging activity at 10 mg/L. The total antioxidant and reducing power potential also significantly affected in presence of ZnO NPs. Moreover, an increase in non-enzymatic antioxidative molecules, phenolics (up to 0.15 μg GAE/mg FW) and flavonoids (up to 0.22 μg QE/mg FW), depending on NPs concentration is also observed. We conclude that ZnO NPs may induce roots from explants cultured on appropriate medium that can be used for production of valuable secondary metabolites. PMID:27148347

  16. Adventitious roots of wheat seedlings that emerge in oxygen-deficient conditions have increased root diameters with highly developed lysigenous aerenchyma.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Takaki; Abe, Fumitaka; Kawaguchi, Kentaro; Oyanagi, Atsushi; Nakazono, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    Exposing roots of plants to hypoxic conditions is known to greatly improve their anoxic stress tolerance. We previously showed that pre-treatment of wheat seedlings with an ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (ACC), enhanced their tolerance of oxygen-deficient conditions. Although ACC-pretreated seminal roots of wheat seedlings grown under oxygen-deficient conditions avoided root tip death, they elongated very little. In the present study, we assessed the effects of ethylene on the responses of adventitious roots of wheat seedlings to oxygen-deficient conditions. Lysigenous aerenchyma formation in the adventitious roots of wheat seedlings pretreated with ACC appeared to reduce tip death under oxygen-deficient conditions, but the adventitious roots, like the seminal roots, hardly elongated. We also found that adventitious roots that emerge in oxygen-deficient conditions continued to elongate even under such conditions. The adventitious roots emerged in oxygen-deficient conditions were found to have thicker root diameters than those emerged in aerated conditions. These results suggest that the adventitious roots with thicker root diameters can better cope with oxygen-deficient conditions. Measurements of the area of the lysigenous aerenchyma confirmed that the increased root diameters have a greater amount of air space generated by lysigenous aerenchyma formation.

  17. Seedlings Transduce the Depth and Mechanical Pressure of Covering Soil Using COP1 and Ethylene to Regulate EBF1/EBF2 for Soil Emergence.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hui; Liu, Renlu; Xue, Chang; Shen, Xing; Wei, Ning; Deng, Xing Wang; Zhong, Shangwei

    2016-01-25

    The survival of seed plants in natural environments requires the successful emergence from the soil. In this process, the ethylene signaling pathway is utilized by plants to sense and respond to the mechanical resistance of the soil. Here, we report that constitutive photomorphogenesis 1 (COP1), a central repressor of light signaling, is a key component required for seedlings to sense the depth of soil overlay. Mutation in COP1 causes severe defects in penetrating soil, due to decreased level of EIN3, a master transcription factor in ethylene pathway that mediates seedling emergence. We show that COP1 directly targets the F box proteins EBF1 and EBF2 for ubiquitination and degradation, thus stabilizing EIN3. As seedlings grow toward the surface, the depth of soil overlay decreases, resulting in a gradual increase of light fluences. COP1 channels the light signals, while ethylene transduces the information on soil mechanical conditions, which cooperatively control EIN3 protein levels to promote seedling emergence from the soil. The COP1-EBF1/2-EIN3 module reveals a mechanism by which plants sense the depth to surface and uncovers a novel regulatory paradigm of an ubiquitin E3 ligase cascade.

  18. [Effects of NaCl stress on Hippophae rhamnoides and Shepherdia argentea seedlings growth and photosynthetic characteristics].

    PubMed

    Qin, Jing; He, Kang-Ning; Tan, Guo-Dong; Wang, Zhan-Lin; Chen, Jing

    2009-04-01

    With two-year old seedlings of Hippophea rhamnoides and Shepherdia argentea as test materials, this paper studied their growth and photosynthetic characteristics under the stress of different concentration (0, 200, 400 and 600 mmol x L(-1)) NaCl. The results showed that the biomass and total leaf area per plant of H. rhamnoides and S. argentea seedlings decreased significantly with increasing NaCl concentration. Comparing with the control, the root/shoot ratio of H. rhamnoides and S. argentea seedlings under NaCl stress increased obviously, while the leaf mass per area (LMA) decreased slightly. When the NaCl concentration increased and the stress time prolonged, the net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), transpiration rate (T(r)), and stomatal conductance (G(s)) of H. rhamnoides and S. argentea seedlings declined markedly, the intercellular CO2 concentration (C(i)) increased after an initial decrease, whereas the water use efficiency (WUE) and stomatal limiting value (L(s)) decreased after an initial increase. The dynamic changes of G(s), C(i) and L(s) indicated that the decline of P(n) was mainly caused by the stomatal limitation in a short-term stress, and by non-stomatal limitation in a long-term stress. The poorer the salt tolerance of tree species and the higher the NaCl concentration, the earlier the transition from stomatal limitation to non-stomatal limitation would occur. As for H. rhamnoides, its morphological symptoms of salt injury appeared on the 10th day, and all of its seedlings were died on the 22th day under 600 mmol NaCl x L(-1) stress. In contrast, S. argentea could tolerate 600 mmol NaCl x L(-1) stress for above 30 days, illustrating that S. argentea, as an introduced tree species, had higher salt tolerance than H. rhamnoides, and could be planted widely in saline regions of China.

  19. The role of population origin and microenvironment in seedling emergence and early survival in Mediterranean maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton).

    PubMed

    Vizcaíno-Palomar, Natalia; Revuelta-Eugercios, Bárbara; Zavala, Miguel A; Alía, Ricardo; González-Martínez, Santiago C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding tree recruitment is needed to forecast future forest distribution. Many studies have reported the relevant ecological factors that affect recruitment success in trees, but the potential for genetic-based differences in recruitment has often been neglected. In this study, we established a semi-natural reciprocal sowing experiment to test for local adaptation and microenvironment effects (evaluated here by canopy cover) in the emergence and early survival of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton), an emblematic Mediterranean forest tree. A novel application of molecular markers was also developed to test for family selection and, thus, for potential genetic change over generations. Overall, we did not find evidence to support local adaptation at the recruitment stage in our semi-natural experiment. Moreover, only weak family selection (if any) was found, suggesting that in stressful environments with low survival, stochastic processes and among-year climate variability may drive recruitment. Nevertheless, our study revealed that, at early stages of recruitment, microenvironments may favor the population with the best adapted life strategy, irrespectively of its (local or non-local) origin. We also found that emergence time is a key factor for seedling survival in stressful Mediterranean environments. Our study highlights the complexity of the factors influencing the early stages of establishment of maritime pine and provides insights into possible management actions aimed at environmental change impact mitigation. In particular, we found that the high stochasticity of the recruitment process in stressful environments and the differences in population-specific adaptive strategies may difficult assisted migration schemes.

  20. Growth and photosynthetic responses of ectomycorrhizal pine seedlings exposed to elevated Cu in soils.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yahua; Nara, Kazuhide; Wen, Zhugui; Shi, Liang; Xia, Yan; Shen, Zhenguo; Lian, Chunlan

    2015-10-01

    It is still controversial whether ectomycorrhizal (ECM) mycelia filter out toxic metals in nutrient absorption of host trees. In this study, pine (Pinus densiflora) seedlings colonized by Cu-sensitive and Cu-tolerant ECM species were exposed to a wide spectrum of soil Cu concentrations to investigate functions of ECM fungi under Cu stress. The photosynthetic rates of intact needles were monitored in situ periodically. The biomass and elements of plants were also measured after harvest. The ameliorating effect of ECM infection on host plants exposed to toxic stress was metal concentration specific. Under lower-level Cu stress, ECM fungi increased seedling performance, while ECM seedlings accumulated more Cu than nonmycorrhizal (NM) seedlings. Under higher-level Cu stress, photosynthesis decreased well before visible symptoms of Cu toxicity appeared. The reduced photosynthesis and biomass in ECM seedlings compared to NM seedlings under higher Cu conditions were also accompanied by lower phosphorus in needles. There was no marked difference between the two fungal species. Our results indicate that the two ECM fungi studied in our system may not have an ability to selectively eliminate Cu in nutrient absorption and may not act as effective barriers that decrease toxic metal uptake into host plants.

  1. Seedling growth and biomass allocation in relation to leaf habit and shade tolerance among 10 temperate tree species.

    PubMed

    Modrzyński, Jerzy; Chmura, Daniel J; Tjoelker, Mark G

    2015-08-01

    Initial growth of germinated seeds is an important life history stage, critical for establishment and succession in forests. Important questions remain regarding the differences among species in early growth potential arising from shade tolerance. In addition, the role of leaf habit in shaping relationships underlying shade tolerance-related differences in seedling growth remains unresolved. In this study we examined variation in morphological and physiological traits among seedlings of 10 forest tree species of the European temperate zone varying in shade tolerance and leaf habit (broadleaved winter-deciduous species vs needle-leaved conifers) during a 10-week period. Seeds were germinated and grown in a controlled environment simulating an intermediate forest understory light environment to resolve species differences in initial growth and biomass allocation. In the high-resource experimental conditions during the study, seedlings increased biomass allocation to roots at the cost of leaf biomass independent of shade tolerance and leaf habit. Strong correlations between relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf mass fraction (LMF) indicate that physiology and biomass allocation were equally important determinants of RGR as plant structure and leaf morphology among these species. Our findings highlight the importance of seed mass- and seed size-related root morphology (specific root length-SRL) for shade tolerance during early ontogeny. Leaf and plant morphology (SLA, LAR) were more successful in explaining variation among species due to leaf habit than shade tolerance. In both broadleaves and conifers, shade-tolerant species had lower SRL and greater allocation of biomass to stems (stem mass fraction). Light-seeded shade-intolerant species with greater SRL had greater RGR in both leaf habit groups. However, the greatest plant mass was accumulated in the group of heavy-seeded shade

  2. Correlated responses of root growth and sugar concentrations to various defoliation treatments and rhythmic shoot growth in oak tree seedlings (Quercus pubescens)

    PubMed Central

    Willaume, Magali; Pagès, Loïc

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims To understand whether root responses to aerial rhythmic growth and contrasted defoliation treatments can be interpreted under the common frame of carbohydrate availability; root growth was studied in parallel with carbohydrate concentrations in different parts of the root system on oak tree seedlings. Methods Quercus pubescens seedlings were submitted to selective defoliation (removal of mature leaves, cotyledons or young developing leaves) at appearance of the second flush and collected 1, 5 or 10 d later for morphological and biochemical measurements. Soluble sugar and starch concentrations were measured in cotyledons and apical and basal root parts. Key Results Soluble sugar concentration in the root apices diminished during the expansion of the second aerial flush and increased after the end of aerial growth in control seedlings. Starch concentration in cotyledons regularly decreased. Continuous removal of young leaves did not alter either root growth or apical sugar concentration. Starch storage in basal root segments was increased. After removal of mature leaves (and cotyledons), root growth strongly decreased. Soluble sugar concentration in the root apices drastically decreased and starch reserves in the root basal segments were emptied 5 d after defoliation, illustrating a considerable shortage in carbohydrates. Soluble sugar concentrations recovered 10 d after defoliation, after the end of aerial growth, suggesting a recirculation of sugar. No supplementary recourse to starch in cotyledons was observed. Conclusions The parallel between apical sugar concentration and root growth patterns, and the correlations between hexose concentration in root apices and their growth rate, support the hypothesis that the response of root growth to aerial periodic growth and defoliation treatments is largely controlled by carbohydrate availability. PMID:21239407

  3. Degradation of seed mucilage by soil microflora promotes early seedling growth of a desert sand dune plant.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuejun; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Zhang, Wenhao; Huang, Zhenying

    2012-05-01

    In contrast to the extensive understanding of seed mucilage biosynthesis, much less is known about how mucilage is biodegraded and what role it plays in the soil where seeds germinate. We studied seed mucilage biodegradation by a natural microbial community. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) was used to determine monosaccharide composition in achene mucilage of Artemisia sphaerocephala. Mucilage degradation by the soil microbial community from natural habitats was examined by monosaccharide utilization tests using Biolog plates, chemical assays and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Glucose (29.4%), mannose (20.3%) and arabinose (19.5%) were found to be the main components of achene mucilage. The mucilage was biodegraded to CO(2) and soluble sugars, and an increase in soil microbial biomass was observed during biodegradation. Fluorescence microscopy showed the presence of mucilage (or its derivatives) in seedling tissues after growth with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled mucilage. The biodegradation also promoted early seedling growth in barren sand dunes, which was associated with a large soil microbial community that supplies substances promoting seedling establishment. We conclude that biodegradation of seed mucilage can play an ecologically important role in the life cycles of plants especially in harsh desert environments to which A. sphaerocephala is well-adapted.

  4. Effects of Light-Emitting Diode Irradiation on Growth Characteristics and Regulation of Porphyrin Biosynthesis in Rice Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Tran, Lien Hong; Jung, Sunyo

    2017-03-16

    We examined the effects of light quality on growth characteristics and porphyrin biosynthesis of rice seedlings grown under different wavelengths from light emitting diodes (LEDs). After 10 days of exposure to various wavelengths of LEDs, leaf area and shoot biomass were greater in seedlings grown under white and blue LEDs than those of green and red LEDs. Both green and red LED treatments drastically decreased levels of protoporphyrin IX (Proto IX) and Mg-porphyrins compared to those of white LED, while levels of Mg-Proto IX monomethyl ester and protochlorophyllide under blue LED were decreased by 21% and 49%, respectively. Transcript levels of PPO1 were greatly upregulated in seedlings grown under red LED compared to white LED, whereas transcript levels of HO2 and CHLD were upregulated under blue LED. Overall, most porphyrin biosynthetic genes in the Fe-porphyrin branch remained almost constant or upregulated, while most genes in the Mg-porphyrin branch were downregulated. Expression levels of nuclear-encoded photosynthetic genes Lhcb and RbcS noticeably decreased after exposure to blue and red LEDs, compared to white LED. Our study suggests that specific wavelengths of LED greatly influence characteristics of growth in plants partly through altering the metabolic regulation of the porphyrin biosynthetic pathway, and possibly contribute to affect retrograde signaling.

  5. [Effect of smoke water and distillation liquid on the seed germination and seedling growth of Trichosathes kirilowii].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Bian, Li-hua; Zou, Lin; Zhou, Bin-qian; Liu, Wei; Wang, Xiao

    2015-10-01

    Smoke water and distillation liquid were used to treat the seeds of Trichosathes kirilowii and to study the effects of smoke water and distillation liquid on the seed germination and seedling growth of T. kirilowii. The results showed that germination rate, germination index and germination vigor of T. kirilowii all were significantly improved with the treatment of SW and DL treatment. The activity of α-amylase were significantly increased with the treatment of SW and DL at 1:2,000. SW and DL treatment showed no significant effects on the activity of SOD. The activity of POD were markedly enhanced under the treatment of SW (1:000) and DL (1:2,000). CAT activity were increased with the treatment of SW and DL at 1:2,000 while were inhibited by SW and DL at 1:500. Seedling height and root length were increased with the treatment of SW and DL (1:1,000, 1:2,000). SW and DL treaments improved the content of chlorophyll, and moreover with the concentration of SW and DL, the stimulatory were also increased. This work demonstrated that smoke water and diatillation liquid at 1:2,000 could stimulate the seed germination and seedling growth of T. kirilowii, and it provided the references for the study of seed germination technology.

  6. Effects of Light-Emitting Diode Irradiation on Growth Characteristics and Regulation of Porphyrin Biosynthesis in Rice Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Lien Hong; Jung, Sunyo

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effects of light quality on growth characteristics and porphyrin biosynthesis of rice seedlings grown under different wavelengths from light emitting diodes (LEDs). After 10 days of exposure to various wavelengths of LEDs, leaf area and shoot biomass were greater in seedlings grown under white and blue LEDs than those of green and red LEDs. Both green and red LED treatments drastically decreased levels of protoporphyrin IX (Proto IX) and Mg-porphyrins compared to those of white LED, while levels of Mg-Proto IX monomethyl ester and protochlorophyllide under blue LED were decreased by 21% and 49%, respectively. Transcript levels of PPO1 were greatly upregulated in seedlings grown under red LED compared to white LED, whereas transcript levels of HO2 and CHLD were upregulated under blue LED. Overall, most porphyrin biosynthetic genes in the Fe-porphyrin branch remained almost constant or upregulated, while most genes in the Mg-porphyrin branch were downregulated. Expression levels of nuclear-encoded photosynthetic genes Lhcb and RbcS noticeably decreased after exposure to blue and red LEDs, compared to white LED. Our study suggests that specific wavelengths of LED greatly influence characteristics of growth in plants partly through altering the metabolic regulation of the porphyrin biosynthetic pathway, and possibly contribute to affect retrograde signaling. PMID:28300754

  7. Reduced growth of soybean seedlings after exposure to weak microwave radiation from GSM 900 mobile phone and base station.

    PubMed

    Halgamuge, Malka N; Yak, See Kye; Eberhardt, Jacob L

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study possible effects of environmental radiation pollution on plants. The association between cellular telephone (short duration, higher amplitude) and base station (long duration, very low amplitude) radiation exposure and the growth rate of soybean (Glycine max) seedlings was investigated. Soybean seedlings, pre-grown for 4 days, were exposed in a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic cell for 2 h to global system for mobile communication (GSM) mobile phone pulsed radiation or continuous wave (CW) radiation at 900 MHz with amplitudes of 5.7 and 41 V m(-1) , and outgrowth was studied one week after exposure. The exposure to higher amplitude (41 V m(-1)) GSM radiation resulted in diminished outgrowth of the epicotyl. The exposure to lower amplitude (5.7 V m(-1)) GSM radiation did not influence outgrowth of epicotyl, hypocotyls, or roots. The exposure to higher amplitude CW radiation resulted in reduced outgrowth of the roots whereas lower CW exposure resulted in a reduced outgrowth of the hypocotyl. Soybean seedlings were also exposed for 5 days to an extremely low level of radiation (GSM 900 MHz, 0.56 V m(-1)) and outgrowth was studied 2 days later. Growth of epicotyl and hypocotyl was found to be reduced, whereas the outgrowth of roots was stimulated. Our findings indicate that the observed effects were significantly dependent on field strength as well as amplitude modulation of the applied field.

  8. Effects of saline-alkaline stress on seed germination and seedling growth of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanyun; Lu, Zhaohua; He, Lei

    2014-08-01

    In order to study the adaptation ability of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) in the Yellow River Delta, the sweet sorghum variety Mart was used in this study to determine the roles of different saline-alkaline ratio stress treatment during seed germination to seedling stage. The results showed that Na+ concentration had a significant impact on the seed germination, seedling growth, and plant survival of sweet sorghum. Increasing Na+ concentration led to a decline in germination rate, final germination percentage, survival percentage, plant height, and dry weight per plant, a prolonged mean time of germination, as well as loss of improvement effect of low-Na+ concentration. The interaction effect of Na+ concentration and pH on the mean time of germination and germination rate was not significant (p<0.05). However, under the condition of low-Na+ concentration (100 mM), high pH reduced the mean time of germination and increased the germination rate, without decline in final germination percentage and survival percentage. Therefore, at least in the duration of seed germination to the harvest period in the research, the sweet sorghum was resistant to the pH stress (≥9.04) when the Na+ concentration was below 100 mM. When suffered from the saline-alkaline stress, the seedling of sweet sorghum was characterized by ecological adaptive features, such as decreased stem ratio and chlorophyll b content in leaves and increased root ratio and chlorophyll a content, in order to maintain the uptakes of water and nutrient, and carbon assimilation. When the stress intensified, the lipid oxidation products, e.g., malondialdehyde (MDA), increased in sweet sorghum seedlings. However, the increasing of soluble protein content and antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), and gatalase (CAT)) was only founded in neutral low-Na+ concentration treatment (A1), which indicated that high-salt concentration and pH all elicited harmful effects

  9. Assessing plant response to ambient ozone: growth of ozone-sensitive loblolly pine seedlings treated with ethylenediurea or sodium erythorbate.

    PubMed

    Manning, W J; Flagler, R B; Frenkel, M A

    2003-01-01

    One-year-old seedlings from an ozone-sensitive half-sib family of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were transplanted into replicated plots in blocks in a large forest clearing near Nacogdoches, Texas. Seedlings were either non-treated (controls) or treated bi-weekly with foliar sprays of ethylenediurea (EDU), at 150, 300 or 450 ppm or sodium erythorbate (NaE), at 515, 1030, or 1545 ppm, for three growing seasons. Results from the final third year harvest indicated that both EDU and NaE increased all growth parameters, with significant differences only for EDU at 450 ppm. Both EDU and NaE would be useful for long-term studies on assessing the effects of ambient ozone on established native plants.

  10. Soil lime level (pH) and VA-Mycorrhiza effects on growth responses of sweetgum seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.A.; Young, J.L.; Linderman, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    Sequential greenhouse experiments limed a strongly acid surface and subsurface horizons of phosphorus-deficient Jory clay loam with increments of calcium carbonate to attain a range in soil pH from 5.0 to 8.1. In the absence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM), neither the organic matter-rich surface nor the organic matter-poor subsurface horizon supported growth of sweetgum seedlings at any pH despite regular nutrient supplements. The effects of pH, VAM, and soil horizon on nutrient accumulation and plant nutrient concentrations were variable. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were generally higher in the VAM than in control seedlings, which suggests that host plant should be matched with VAM species adapted to particular soil and climate conditions to obtain maximum benefit from a mycorrhizal association. 18 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Atmospheric CO sub 2 concentrations within a mixed forest: Implications for seedling growth

    SciTech Connect

    Bazzaz, F.A.; Williams, W.E. )

    1991-02-01

    The authors studied carbon dioxide concentrations in a mixed deciduous forest in New England, US by making continuous measurements at 0.05, 0.2, 3, and 12m above the soil surface. The measurements began in early March and continued until the end of November 1985; therefore, they spanned the growing season and parts of the dormant seasons both before and afterwards. The data were compared with those from Mauna Loa Hawaii, which represent global atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels in the Northern Hemisphere. The results show strong seasonal and daily variations in CO{sub 2} concentrations at all heights in the forest. On average, during the growing season, CO{sub 2} levels were generally higher in the forest than in bulk air at Mauna Loa. The highest level of CO{sub 2} was found near the forest floor and the lowest at the 12-m level. Daily levels of CO{sub 2} were constant throughout the day in the dormant season and were the same for all heights in the forest. However, during the growing season, the Co{sub 2} concentrations were lowest during the middle of the day, especially at the 12m height. Thus, this study shows that the CO{sub 2} concentrations in the forest may be quite different than those in bulk air and that seedlings, saplings, and mature trees may experience different CO{sub 2} environments for which they may show different responses in photosynthesis, growth, and water use. Moreover, a tree may experience different CO{sub 2} environments as it grows towards the canopy, and different modules of an individual may also be growing in different CO{sub 2} atmospheres.

  12. Chronic herbivory negatively impacts cone and seed production, seed quality and seedling growth of susceptible pinyon pines.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Rebecca C; Wade, Brian D; Gehring, Catherine A; Whitham, Thomas G

    2005-05-01

    Although herbivory often reduces the reproduction of attacked trees, few studies have examined how naturally occurring insect-resistant and susceptible trees differ in their reproduction, nor have these effects been experimentally examined through long-term herbivore removals. In addition, few studies have examined the effects of herbivory on the quality of seeds produced and the implications of reduced seed quality on seedling establishment. We evaluated the impact of chronic herbivory by the stem-boring moth, Dioryctria albovittella, on cone and seed production of the pinyon pine (Pinus edulis) during two mast years. Three patterns emerged. First, moth herbivory was associated with reductions in cone production, viable seed production and seed mass. Specifically, pinyons susceptible to moth attack had 93-95% lower cone production, and surviving cones produced 31-37% fewer viable seeds, resulting in a 96-97% reduction in whole tree viable seed production. In addition, surviving seeds from susceptible trees had 18% lower mass than resistant trees. Second, long-term experimental removal of the herbivore resulted in increased rates of cone and seed production and quality, indicating that moth herbivory was the driver of these reductions. Third, seed size was positively associated with seed germination and seedling biomass and height, suggesting that trees suffering chronic herbivory produce poorer quality offspring. Thus, the resistance traits of pinyons can affect the quality of offspring, which in turn may affect subsequent seedling establishment and population dynamics.

  13. Carbon and nitrogen gain during the growth of orchid seedlings in nature.

    PubMed

    Stöckel, Marcus; Těšitelová, Tamara; Jersáková, Jana; Bidartondo, Martin I; Gebauer, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    For germination and establishment, orchids depend on carbon (C) and nutrients supplied by mycorrhizal fungi. As adults, the majority of orchids then appear to become autotrophic. To compare the proportional C and nitrogen (N) gain from fungi in mycoheterotrophic seedlings and in adults, here we examined in the field C and N stable isotope compositions in seedlings and adults of orchids associated with ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi. Using a new highly sensitive approach, we measured the isotope compositions of seedlings and adults of four orchid species belonging to different functional groups: fully and partially mycoheterotrophic orchids associated with narrow or broad sets of ectomycorrhizal fungi, and two adult putatively autotrophic orchids associated exclusively with saprotrophic fungi. Seedlings of orchids associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi were enriched in (13) C and (15) N similarly to fully mycoheterotrophic adults. Seedlings of saprotroph-associated orchids were also enriched in (13) C and (15) N, but unexpectedly their enrichment was significantly lower, making them hardly distinguishable from their respective adult stages and neighbouring autotrophic plants. We conclude that partial mycoheterotrophy among saprotroph-associated orchids cannot be identified unequivocally based on C and N isotope compositions alone. Thus, partial mycoheterotrophy may be much more widely distributed among orchids than hitherto assumed.

  14. Interactive effects of juvenile defoliation, light conditions, and interspecific competition on growth and ectomycorrhizal colonization of Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris seedlings.

    PubMed

    Trocha, Lidia K; Weiser, Ewa; Robakowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Seedlings of forest tree species are exposed to a number of abiotic (organ loss or damage, light shortage) and biotic (interspecific competition) stress factors, which may lead to an inhibition of growth and reproduction and, eventually, to plant death. Growth of the host and its mycorrhizal symbiont is often closely linked, and hence, host damage may negatively affect the symbiont. We designed a pot experiment to study the response of light-demanding Pinus sylvestris and shade-tolerant Fagus sylvatica seedlings to a set of abiotic and biotic stresses and subsequent effects on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) root tip colonization, seedling biomass, and leaf nitrogen content. The light regime had a more pronounced effect on ECM colonization than did juvenile damage. The interspecific competition resulted in higher ECM root tip abundance for Pinus, but this effect was insignificant in Fagus. Low light and interspecific competition resulted in lower seedling biomass compared to high light, and the effect of the latter was partially masked by high light. Leaf nitrogen responded differently in Fagus and Pinus when they grew in interspecific competition. Our results indicated that for both light-demanding (Pinus) and shade-tolerant (Fagus) species, the light environment was a major factor affecting seedling growth and ECM root tip abundance. The light conditions favorable for the growth of seedlings may to some extent compensate for the harmful effects of juvenile organ loss or damage and interspecific competition.

  15. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration alters the effect of phosphate supply on growth of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kogawara, Satoshi; Norisada, Mariko; Tange, Takeshi; Yagi, Hisayoshi; Kojima, Katsumi

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrated that the inorganic phosphate (P(i)) requirement for growth of Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc.) seedlings is increased by elevated CO(2) concentration ([CO(2)]) and that responses of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker & Couch to P(i) supply are also altered. To investigate the growth response of non-mycorrhizal seedlings to P(i) supply in elevated [CO(2)], non-mycorrhizal seedlings were grown for 73 days in ambient or elevated [CO(2)] (350 or 700 micromol mol(-1)) with nutrient solutions containing one of seven phosphate concentrations (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10 and 0.20 mM). In ambient [CO(2)], the growth response to P(i) was saturated at about 0.1 mM P(i), whereas in elevated [CO(2)], the growth response to P(i) supply did not saturate, even at the highest P(i) supply (0.2 mM), indicating that the P(i) requirement is higher in elevated [CO(2)] than in ambient [CO(2)]. The increased requirement was due mainly to an altered shoot growth response to P(i) supply. The enhanced P(i) requirement in elevated [CO(2)] was not associated with a change in photosynthetic response to P(i) or a change in leaf phosphorus (P) status. We investigated the effect of P(i) supply (0.04, 0.08 and 0.20 mM) on the ectomycorrhizal fungus P. tinctorius in mycorrhizal seedlings grown in ambient or elevated [CO(2)]. Root ergosterol concentration (an indicator of fungal biomass) decreased with increasing P(i) supply in ambient [CO(2)], but the decrease was far less in elevated [CO(2)]. In ambient [CO(2)] the ratio of extramatrical mycelium to root biomass decreased with increasing P(i) supply but did not change in elevated [CO(2)]. We conclude that, because elevated [CO(2)] increased the P(i) requirement for shoot growth, the significance of the ectomycorrhizal association was also increased in elevated [CO(2)].

  16. Effects of open-field experimental warming on the growth of two-year-old Pinus densiflora and Abies holophylla seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S.; Son, Y.; Lee, S.; Jo, W.; Yoon, T.; Park, C.; Ko, S.; Kim, J.; Han, S.; Jung, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Temperature increase due to climate change is expected to affect tree growth and distribution [Way and Oren, 2010]. The responses of trees to warming vary with tree species, ontogenic stages, tree life forms, and biomes. Especially, seedling stage is a vulnerable period for tree survival and competition [Saxe et al., 2007] and thus research on effects of temperature increase on seedling stage is needed. We aimed to examine the responses of coniferous seedlings to future temperature increase by conducting an open-field warming experiment. An experimental warming set-up using infra-red heater was built in 2011 and the temperature in warming plots has been regulated to 3°C higher than that of control plots constantly. The seeds of Pinus densiflora and Abies holophylla were planted in each 1 m × 1 m plot (n=3) in April, 2012. Seedling growth, root collar diameter (RCD) and height of 45 individuals of each plot were measured in June and July, 2012. The survival rate of seedlings was also measured. Survival rate of P. densiflora was lower in warming plots (93.3%) than in control plots (100.0%, p<0.05) and that of A. holophylla was also decreased in warming plots (79.3%) than in control plots (97.0%, p<0.01). RCD and height of P. densiflora seedlings were not significantly different between control and warming plots, however, height of A. holophylla was significantly higher in warming plots in June and July (p<0.01). Comparatively, RCD of A. holophylla was only higher in control plots in June. While there is still a lack of case studies on the growth of seedlings under experimental warming, a few studies reported increased seedling growth [Yin et al., 2008] or and no difference [Han et al., 2009] in warming plots. Different responses of seedling growth between two species of the current study might be derived from species-specific acclimation to temperature increase and/or other limiting factors [Way and Oren, 2010]. This result is, to our knowledge, unprecedented and

  17. Differences in weed seedling emergence is not involved in pea synergism to corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have observed the dry pea is synergistic to corn and improves its tolerance to weeds. We are examining various aspects of this interaction between dry pea and corn to understand this natural benefit. This study compared the impact of soybean and dry pea on corn growth and tolerance to foxtail m...

  18. Germination and seedling growth in grasspea (Lathyrus sativus) cultivars under salinity conditions.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, B; Sanavy, Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres

    2007-01-15

    In four grasspea varieties include ardabil, sharekord, mashhad and zanjan, the effects of different salinity concentrations on seed germination percent, proline concentration, malondialdehyde (MDA), germination index, radicle and hypocotyl length and weight were studied. Result showed that salinity had significant effects on seed germination percentage and germination index. The most and least of germination percentage were observed in 6 and 18 dS m(-1), respectively. Salinity had significantly effect on radicle and hypocotyl length, dry and fresh weight, MDA and proline concentration of seedlings. Salinity had not effect on dry weight of seedling. Increasing salinity reduced radicle and hypocotyl length, dry and fresh weight of seedlings and enhanced proline and malondialdehyde in them. Sharkord cultivar had the most germination percentage at 18 dS m(-1) sodium chloride. Sharkord and ardabil varieties were the most tolerance and sensitive varieties to salinity stress, respectively.

  19. Development of growth media for solid substrate propagation of ectomycorrhizal fungi for inoculation of Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Vuorinen, Irmeli; Hamberg, Leena; Müller, Michael; Seiskari, Pekka; Pennanen, Taina

    2015-05-01

    A silica-based propagation medium was developed for large-scale production of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal inoculum by solid state fermentation. Development of the medium was started by screening for an optimal growth medium among six different semisynthetic agar media traditionally used in cultivation of ECM fungi. The majority (65 %) of the twenty tested ECM fungal strains that typically colonize Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings grew best on modified Melin-Norkrans (MMN) medium with reduced sugar content (½MMN). In order to develop a nutritionally similar medium for large-scale cultivation of the ECM fungi, we chose silica to form a solid matrix and light brewery malt extract to provide nutrients. The medium was supplemented with a commercial humic acid product that was shown to boost fungal growth. The optimal concentration of the constituents was screened for in two assays by determining the growth rates of seven potential inoculant ECM fungal strains (Amphinema sp., Cenococcum geophilum, Hebeloma sp., Meliniomyces bicolor, Paxillus involutus, Piloderma byssinum, and Tylospora asterophora). As a result, we composed a silica-based mass propagation medium (pH 5.8) containing 2.5 % brewery malt extract and 0.5 g/l humic acid product Lignohumate AM. This medium is easily produced and supported good growth of even the slowly growing and rarely studied Athelioid ECM strains. Furthermore, root systems of Norway spruce nursery seedlings were colonized by the tested ECM fungi by using solid inoculum formulated from the silica medium.

  20. The influence of microbial associations on germination of wheat seeds and growth of seedlings under impact of zinc salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somova, L. A.; Pechurkin, N. S.

    2009-04-01

    The life support systems (LSS) for long-term missions are to use cycling-recycling systems, including biological recycling. Higher plants are the traditional regenerator of air and producer of food. They should be used in many successive generations of their reproduction in LSS. Studies of influence of microbial associations on germination of wheat seeds and on growth of seedlings under impact of heavy metals are necessary because of migration of heavy metals in LSS. Microbial associations are able to stimulate growth of plants, to protect them from pathogenic organisms and from toxicity of heavy metal salts. The goal of this work was to investigate effect of microbial associations on the germination of wheat seeds and on the growth of seedlings under impact of different concentrations of ZnSO4. The results of investigations showed that:Zinc salt had an adverse effect on germination of wheat seeds, beginning with concentrations of 8 MPC (Maximum Permissible Concentration) and higher.Microbial associations (concentrations -104 to 107 cells/ml) were able to decrease (partly or completely) the adverse effect of ZnSO4 on germination of wheat seeds.Concentrations (104-107 cells/ml) of microbial associations were able to decrease partly the adverse effect of zinc salts (intervals: from 1 to 32 MP?) on the growth and development of wheat plantlets during heterotrophic phase.The root system of plants was more sensitive to the adverse effect of ZnSO4 than shoots of plants.

  1. Using of ants and earthworm to modify of soil biological quality and its effect on cocoa seedlings growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilowasid, Laode Muhammad Harjoni; Budianto, Wayan; Syaf, Hasbullah; Tufaila, Muhammad; Safuan, La Ode

    2015-09-01

    Ant and earthworm can act as soil ecosystem engineers. Ant and earthworm are very dominant in smallholder cocoa plantation. The first experiment aimed to study the effect of the abundance of ants and earthworms on soil microbial activity and microfauna, and the second experiment to analyse the effect of soil modified by ants and earthworms on the cocoa seedlings growth. Ant (Ponera sp.) and earthworm (Pontoscolex sp.) collected from smallholder cocoa plantation, and kept in a container up to applied. In the first experiment, nine combinations of the abundance of ants and earthworms applied to each pot containing 3 kg of soil from smallholder cocoa plantation, and each combination of the abundance was repeated five times in a completely randomized design. After the soil was incubated for thirty days, ants and earthworms removed from the soil using hand sorting techniques. Soil from each pot was analysed for soil microbial activity, abundance of flagellates and nematodes. In the second experiment, the soil in each pot was planted with cocoa seedlings and maintained up to ninety days. The results showed the FDA hydrolytic activity of microbes, the abundance of flagellates and nematodes between the combination of the abundance of ants and earthworms have been significantly different. Dry weight of root, shoot and seedling cacao have been significantly different between the combination of the abundance of ants and earthworms. It was concluded that the combination of the abundance of ants and earthworms can be used in ecological engineering to improve soil quality.

  2. Effects of extract liquid of SLS made from three different materials on seed germination and seedling growth of rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Lingzhi; Fu, Wenting; Liu, Hong; Yan, Min; Li, Leyuan

    Rice and wheat are the main candidate crops in the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) of China, for they are traditional food in Asia. Thus the recycling of their straws is an important issue in our BLSS, and it is a vital way to biologically process them into the soil like substrate (SLS) first and then reuse them in the plant cultivation system to achieve their recycle in BLSS. However, rice is a plant with strong allelopathic effects. And so far, it is also not clear that what kind of raw materials can be processed into proper SLS to grow rice in the BLSS. Therefore, in this study, the extract liquid of SLS made from three different materials including rice straw, wheat straw and rice-wheat mixed straw was utilized to investigate its effects on the seed germination and seedling growth of rice. The gradients of the extract concentrations (soil: water) were 1:3, 1:5, 1:9, and 1:15 with the deionized water used as control. The effects of different types of SLS on seed germination and seedling vitality of rice were confirmed by analyzing the germination rate, seedling length, root length, root fresh weight, seedling fresh weight and other indicates. In addition, based on the analysis towards pH, organic matter composition and other factors of the SLS as well as the chlorophyll and hormone content of rice, the mechanism of the inhibition was speculated and the preventive methods of this phenomenon was explored. Finally, the feasibility of cultivating rice on the SLS made from the above three kinds of raw materials was evaluated and the proper raw materials to be processed into SLS to grow rice were determined.

  3. The Role of Population Origin and Microenvironment in Seedling Emergence and Early Survival in Mediterranean Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton)

    PubMed Central

    Vizcaíno-Palomar, Natalia; Revuelta-Eugercios, Bárbara; Zavala, Miguel A.; Alía, Ricardo; González-Martínez, Santiago C.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding tree recruitment is needed to forecast future forest distribution. Many studies have reported the relevant ecological factors that affect recruitment success in trees, but the potential for genetic-based differences in recruitment has often been neglected. In this study, we established a semi-natural reciprocal sowing experiment to test for local adaptation and microenvironment effects (evaluated here by canopy cover) in the emergence and early survival of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton), an emblematic Mediterranean forest tree. A novel application of molecular markers was also developed to test for family selection and, thus, for potential genetic change over generations. Overall, we did not find evidence to support local adaptation at the recruitment stage in our semi-natural experiment. Moreover, only weak family selection (if any) was found, suggesting that in stressful environments with low survival, stochastic processes and among-year climate variability may drive recruitment. Nevertheless, our study revealed that, at early stages of recruitment, microenvironments may favor the population with the best adapted life strategy, irrespectively of its (local or non-local) origin. We also found that emergence time is a key factor for seedling survival in stressful Mediterranean environments. Our study highlights the complexity of the factors influencing the early stages of establishment of maritime pine and provides insights into possible management actions aimed at environmental change impact mitigation. In particular, we found that the high stochasticity of the recruitment process in stressful environments and the differences in population-specific adaptive strategies may difficult assisted migration schemes. PMID:25286410

  4. [Effects of simulated acid rain on seed germination and seedling growth of different type corn Zea mays].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Yan

    2013-06-01

    Taking normal corn, waxy corn, pop corn, and sweet corn as test materials, this paper studied their seed germination and seedling growth under effects of simulated acid rain (pH 6.0, 5.0, 4.0, 3.0, 2.0, and 1.0). Simulated acid rain at pH 2.0-5.0 had no significant effects on the seed germination and seedling growth, but at pH 1.0, the germination rate of normal corn, waxy corn, pop corn, and sweet corn was 91.3%, 68.7%, 27.5%, and 11.7%, respectively. As compared with those at pH 6.0 (CK), the germination rate, germination index, vigor index, germination velocity, shoot height, root length, shoot and root dry mass, and the transformation rate of stored substances at pH 1.0 had significant decrease, and the average germination time extended apparently. At pH 1.0, the effects of acid rain were greater at seedling growth stage than at germination stage, and greater on underground part than on aboveground part. Due to the differences in gene type, normal corn and waxy corn had the strongest capability against acid rain, followed by pop corn, and sweet corn. It was suggested that corn could be categorized as an acid rain-tolerant crop, the injury threshold value of acid rain was likely between pH 1.0 and pH 2.0, and normal corn and waxy corn would be prioritized for planting in acid rain-stricken area.

  5. Effects of calcium on seed germination, seedling growth and photosynthesis of six forest tree species under simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting-Wu; Wu, Fei-Hua; Wang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Juan; Li, Zhen-Ji; Dong, Xue-Jun; Patton, Janet; Pei, Zhen-Ming; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2011-04-01

    We selected six tree species, Pinus massoniana Lamb., Cryptomeria fortunei Hooibr. ex Otto et Dietr., Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook., Liquidambar formosana Hance, Pinus armandii Franch. and Castanopsis chinensis Hance, which are widely distributed as dominant species in the forest of southern China where acid deposition is becoming more and more serious in recent years. We investigated the effects and potential interactions between simulated acid rain (SiAR) and three calcium (Ca) levels on seed germination, radicle length, seedling growth, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and Ca content in leaves of these six species. We found that the six species showed different responses to SiAR and different Ca levels. Pinus armandii and C. chinensis were very tolerant to SiAR, whereas the others were more sensitive. The results of significant SiAR × Ca interactions on different physiological parameters of the six species demonstrate that additional Ca had a dramatic rescue effect on the seed germination and seedling growth for the sensitive species under SiAR. Altogether, we conclude that the negative effects of SiAR on seed germination, seedling growth and photosynthesis of the four sensitive species could be ameliorated by Ca addition. In contrast, the physiological processes of the two tolerant species were much less affected by both SiAR and Ca treatments. This conclusion implies that the degree of forest decline caused by long-term acid deposition may be attributed not only to the sensitivity of tree species to acid deposition, but also to the Ca level in the soil.

  6. Screening selected genotypes of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] for salt tolerance during seedling growth stage.

    PubMed

    Gogile, A; Andargie, M; Muthuswamy, M

    2013-07-15

    The environmental stress such as, salinity (soil or water) are serious obstacles for field crops especially in the arid and semi-arid parts of the world. This study was conducted to assess the potential for salt tolerance of cowpea genotypes during the seedling stage. The experimental treatments were 9 cowpea genotypes and 4 NaCl concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 200 mM) and they were tested in greenhouse. The experimental design was completely randomized design in factorial combination with three replications. Data analysis was carried out using SAS (version 9.1) statistical software. Seedling shoots and root traits, seedling shoots and root weight, number of leaves and total biological yield were evaluated. The analyzed data revealed highly significant (p < 0.001) variation among cowpea genotypes, treatments and their interactions. It is found that salt stress significantly decreased root length, shoot length, seedling shoot and root weight of cowpea genotypes. The extent of decrease varied with genotypes and salt concentrations. Most genotypes were highly susceptible to 200 mM NaCl concentration. The correlation analysis revealed positive and significant association among most of the parameters. Genotypes 210856, 211557 and Asebot were better salt tolerant. The study revealed the presence of broad intra specific genetic variation in cowpea varieties for salt stress with respect to their early biomass production.

  7. The limitations of seedling growth and drought tolerance to novel soil substrates in arid systems: Implications for restoration success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateman, Amber; Lewandrowski, Wolfgang; Stevens, Jason; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam

    2016-04-01

    Introduction With the limited knowledge available regarding the impact of drought on seedling growth, an understanding of seedling tolerance to arid conditions is crucial for restoration success (James et al., 2013; Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2014). However, restoration in semi-arid areas faces the challenge of re-establishing plant communities on altered soil substrates (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2015). These substrates are a result of anthropogenic disturbances such as mining which have altered the plant-soil-water dynamics of the ecosystem (Machado et al., 2013). The aim of this study was to assess the impact of mining on the plant-soil-water dynamics of an arid ecosystem of Western Australia (Pilbara region, North Western Australia) and the implications these altered relationships have on seedling growth and their responses to drought. Methods Drought responses of native plant species were assessed through a series of glasshouse experiments. Firstly, 21 species dominant to the Pilbara region were subjected to drought in a topsoil growth media to assess variation in responses (leaf water potential at the time of stomatal closure) across species and identify traits associated with drought tolerance. Secondly, four species ranging in their drought tolerance identified previously, were grown to two leaf stages (second and fourth leaf stage) in three mining substrates (topsoil, a topsoil and waste mix and waste) to assess seedling drought responses to various potential restoration substrates and how that varied with plant development stage. Results and discussion Four morphological traits were found to be significantly associated with drought indicators (leaf mass ratio, stem area, stem length, stem weight), however, these were weak correlations. Waste substrate and its addition to topsoil reduced plant total biomass but did not alter species responses to drought. However, the soil physical properties of the waste reduced water retention and water availability for plant uptake

  8. Gibberellin Structure-Dependent Interaction between Gibberellins and Deoxygibberellin C in the Growth of Dwarf Maize Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, T

    1987-04-01

    The effects of 3-deoxygibberellin C (DGC) on the growth-promoting actions of gibberellins A(1), A(2), A(3), A(4), A(5), A(7), A(8), A(9), A(13), A(18), A(19), A(20), and A(23) (GAn) as well as 13-deoxygibberellin A(5) (deoxy-GA(5)) were tested with seedlings of gibberellin-deficient dwarf mutants (d(2) and d(5)) of maize (Zea mays L.). It was found that DGC promoted the actions of gibberellins having both C-1 double bond and C-3 axial hydroxyl group, and it inhibited the action of gibberellins having the saturated ring A and lacking the C-3 axial hydroxyl group, whereas it did not affect that of the ones having the hydroxyl group. The presence of C-2 double bond, as in GA(5) and deoxy-GA(5), diminished the inhibitory action of DGC. The DGC inhibition was alleviated by raising the doses of the relevant GAs, suggesting that it is a competitive inhibition. These results and the finding that the growth of normal maize and rice seedlings are inhibited by DGC indicate that GA(9), GA(19), GA(20) or other gibberellins having ring A of the same structure are involved in the growth of these plants as active form(s) or as intermediate(s) leading to the active form(s).

  9. Assessment of UV biological spectral weighting functions for phenolic metabolites and growth responses in silver birch seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kotilainen, Titta; Venäläinen, Tuulia; Tegelberg, Riitta; Lindfors, Anders; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Sutinen, Sirkka; O'Hara, Robert B; Aphalo, Pedro J

    2009-01-01

    In research concerning stratospheric ozone depletion, action spectra are used as biological spectral weighting functions (BSWFs) for describing the effects of UV radiation on plant responses. Our aim was to evaluate the appropriateness of six frequently used BSWFs that differ in effectiveness with increasing wavelength. The evaluation of action spectra was based on calculating the effective UV radiation doses according to 1-2) two formulations of the generalized plant action spectrum, 3) a spectrum for ultraviolet induced erythema in human skin, 4) a spectrum for the accumulation of a flavonol in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, 5) a spectrum for DNA damage in alfalfa seedlings and 6) the plant growth action spectrum. We monitored effects of UV radiation on the concentration of individual UV absorbing metabolites and chlorophyll concentrations in leaves and growth responses of silver birch (Betula pendula) seedlings. Experiments were conducted outdoors using plastic films attenuating different parts of the UV spectrum. Chlorophyll concentrations and growth were not affected by the UV treatments. The response to UV radiation varied between and within groups of phenolics. In general, the observed responses of phenolic groups and individual flavonoids were best predicted by action spectra extending into the UV-A region with moderate effectiveness.

  10. High-Throughput Growth Prediction for Lactuca sativa L. Seedlings Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence in a Plant Factory with Artificial Lighting

    PubMed Central

    Moriyuki, Shogo; Fukuda, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Poorly grown plants that result from differences in individuals lead to large profit losses for plant factories that use large electric power sources for cultivation. Thus, identifying and culling the low-grade plants at an early stage, using so-called seedlings diagnosis technology, plays an important role in avoiding large losses in plant factories. In this study, we developed a high-throughput diagnosis system using the measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) in a commercial large-scale plant factory, which produces about 5000 lettuce plants every day. At an early stage (6 days after sowing), a CF image of 7200 seedlings was captured every 4 h on the final greening day by a high-sensitivity CCD camera and an automatic transferring machine, and biological indices were extracted. Using machine learning, plant growth can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy based on biological indices including leaf size, amount of CF, and circadian rhythms in CF. Growth prediction was improved by addition of temporal information on CF. The present data also provide new insights into the relationships between growth and temporal information regulated by the inherent biological clock. PMID:27242805

  11. High-Throughput Growth Prediction for Lactuca sativa L. Seedlings Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence in a Plant Factory with Artificial Lighting.

    PubMed

    Moriyuki, Shogo; Fukuda, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Poorly grown plants that result from differences in individuals lead to large profit losses for plant factories that use large electric power sources for cultivation. Thus, identifying and culling the low-grade plants at an early stage, using so-called seedlings diagnosis technology, plays an important role in avoiding large losses in plant factories. In this study, we developed a high-throughput diagnosis system using the measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) in a commercial large-scale plant factory, which produces about 5000 lettuce plants every day. At an early stage (6 days after sowing), a CF image of 7200 seedlings was captured every 4 h on the final greening day by a high-sensitivity CCD camera and an automatic transferring machine, and biological indices were extracted. Using machine learning, plant growth can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy based on biological indices including leaf size, amount of CF, and circadian rhythms in CF. Growth prediction was improved by addition of temporal information on CF. The present data also provide new insights into the relationships between growth and temporal information regulated by the inherent biological clock.

  12. Seed dispersal and seedling emergence in a created and a natural salt marsh on the Gulf of Mexico coast in Southwest Louisiana, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elsey-Quirk, T.; Middleton, B.A.; Proffitt, C.E.

    2009-01-01

    Early regeneration dynamics related to seed dispersal and seedling emergence can contribute to differences in species composition among a created and a natural salt marsh. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) whether aquatic and aerial seed dispersal differed in low and high elevations within a created marsh and a natural marsh and (2) whether seedling emergence was influenced by marsh, the presence of openings in the vegetation, and seed availability along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast. Aerial seed traps captured a greater quantity of seeds than aquatic traps. Several factors influenced aquatic and aerial seed dispersal in a created and a natural salt marsh, including distance from the marsh edge, cover of existing vegetation, and water depth. The natural marsh had a high seed density of Spartina alterniflora and Distichlis spicata, the low-elevation created marsh had a high seed density of S. alterniflora, and the high-elevation created marsh had a high seed density of Aster subulatus and Iva frutescens. The presence of adult plants and water depth above the marsh surface influenced seed density. In the natural marsh, openings in vegetation increased seedling emergence for all species, whereas in the low-elevation created marsh, S. alterniflora had higher seedling density under a canopy of vegetation. According to the early regeneration dynamics, the future vegetation in areas of the low-elevation created marsh may become similar to that in the natural marsh. In the high-elevation created marsh, vegetation may be upland fringe habitat dominated by high-elevation marsh shrubs and annual herbaceous species. ?? 2009 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  13. Pseudomonas fluorescens Transportome Is Linked to Strain-Specific Plant Growth Promotion in Aspen Seedlings under Nutrient Stress

    PubMed Central

    Shinde, Shalaka; Cumming, Jonathan R.; Collart, Frank R.; Noirot, Philippe H.; Larsen, Peter E.

    2017-01-01

    Diverse communities of bacteria colonize plant roots and the rhizosphere. Many of these rhizobacteria are symbionts and provide plant growth promotion (PGP) services, protecting the plant from biotic and abiotic stresses and increasing plant productivity by providing access to nutrients that would otherwise be unavailable to roots. In return, these symbiotic bacteria receive photosynthetically-derived carbon (C), in the form of sugars and organic acids, from plant root exudates. PGP activities have been characterized for a variety of forest tree species and are important in C cycling and sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. The molecular mechanisms of these PGP activities, however, are less well-known. In a previous analysis of Pseudomonas genomes, we found that the bacterial transportome, the aggregate activity of a bacteria's transmembrane transporters, was most predictive for the ecological niche of Pseudomonads in the rhizosphere. Here, we used Populus tremuloides Michx. (trembling aspen) seedlings inoculated with one of three Pseudomonas fluorescens strains (Pf0-1, SBW25, and WH6) and one Pseudomonas protegens (Pf-5) as a laboratory model to further investigate the relationships between the predicted transportomic capacity of a bacterial strain and its observed PGP effects in laboratory cultures. Conditions of low nitrogen (N) or low phosphorus (P) availability and the corresponding replete media conditions were investigated. We measured phenotypic and biochemical parameters of P. tremuloides seedlings and correlated P. fluorescens strain-specific transportomic capacities with P. tremuloides seedling phenotype to predict the strain and nutrient environment-specific transporter functions that lead to experimentally observed, strain, and media-specific PGP activities and the capacity to protect plants against nutrient stress. These predicted transportomic functions fall in three groups: (i) transport of compounds that modulate aspen seedling root

  14. Influence of pulsed magnetic field on soybean (Glycine max L.) seed germination, seedling growth and soil microbial population.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kumari, Bollipo Dyana Ranjitha

    2013-08-01

    The effects of pulsed magnetic field (PMF) treatment of soybean (Glycine max L. cv CO3) seeds were investigated on rate of seed germination, seedling growth, physico-chemical properties of seed leachates and soil microbial population under laboratory conditions. Seeds were exposed to PMF of 1500 nT at 0.1, 1.0 10.0 and 100.0 Hz for 5 h per day for 20 days, induced by enclosure coil systems. Non-treated seeds were considered as controls. All PMF treatments significantly increased the rate of seed germination, while 10 and 100 Hz PMFs showed the most effective response. The 1.0 and 10 Hz PMFs remarkably improved the fresh weight of shoots and roots, leaf area and plant height from seedlings from magnetically-exposed seeds compared to the control, while 10 Hz PMF increased the total soluble sugar, total protein and phenol contents. The leaf chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll were higher in PMF (10 and 100 Hz) pretreated plants, as compared to other treatments. In addition, activities of alpha-amylase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, nitrate reductase, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase were increased, while beta-amylase and protease activities were declined in PMF (10 Hz)-exposed soybean plants. Similarly, the capacity of absorbance of water by seeds and electrical conductivity of seed leachates were significantly enhanced by 10 Hz PMF exposure, whereas PMF (10 Hz) pretreated plants did not affect the microbial population in rhizosphere soil. The results suggested the potential of 10 Hz PMF treatment to enhance the germination and seedling growth of soybean.

  15. Auxin polar transport of etiolated epicotyls of ageotropum pea seedlings is not affected by gravistimulation: Relevance to automorphosis-like growth and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, K.; Hoshino, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Ueda, J.

    Both true microgravity conditions in space STS-95 space experiment and simulated ones on a three-dimensional 3-D clinostat have been demonstrated to induce automorphosis in etiolated pea Pisum sativum L cv Alaska seedlings represented as epicotyl bending as well as changes in root growth direction and inhibition of hook formation and to alter the activities of auxin polar transport of epicotyls The fact that the application of inhibitors of auxin polar transport phenocopied automorphosis together with the result of detail kinetic analyses of epicotyl bending on the 3-D clinostat suggests that automorphosis of etiolated pea epicotyls is due to suppression of a negative gravitropic response on 1 g conditions and graviresponse of etiolated pea seedlings under 1 g conditions requires normal activities of auxin polar transport To study the role of auxin polar transport in graviresponse in early growth stage of etiolated pea seedlings effect of gravistimulation on auxin polar transport in epicotyls of Alaska pea seedlings was studied in comparison with that of the agravitropic pea mutant ageotropum seedlings Dry pea seeds whose embryo axes were set in a horizontal position referred to as horizontal position or an inclinational one to the gravity vector referred to as inclinational position allowed to germinate and grow in the dark for 2 5 days Epicotyls of etiolated Alaska pea seedlings grown under horizontal position showed negative gravitropisum due to relatively larger elongation in the proximal side to the cotyledons

  16. [Effects of thinning intensity on the seed bank and seedling growth of Quercus variabilis on the south slope of Qinling Mountains, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Ran, Ran; Zhang, Wen-Hui; Zhou, Jian-Yun; He, Jing-Feng

    2013-06-01

    In August-November 2010 and August 2011, and taking the pure Quercus variabilis forests under close-to-natural management of different thinning intensity (30%, 20%, and 10%) in Shangluo district of south slope of Qinling Mountains as the object, an investigation was conducted on the seed amount of seed bank, the survival rate and growth status of seedlings, and their relationships with environmental factors 4-5 years after thinning. As compared with the control, the seed amount in the seed bank of 10%, 20%, and 30% thinning plots increased by 2.0%, 21.1%, and 34.8%, respectively in the fourth year after thinning, and the 1-year-old seedlings amount increased by 28.5%, 99.7%, and 122.2%, respectively in the next year. The survival rate of the seedlings in the 10%, 20%, and 30% thinning plots was increased by 25.5%, 235.7%, and 480.0%, respectively in the fifth year after thinning. Thinning improved the light, temperature, soil moisture, and soil nutrient conditions in the forests, which promoted the height- and new shoot growth and the leaf area index of each age seedlings. The three growth indices also increased with increasing thinning intensity. In the Q. variabilis forest with a canopy density of > or = 0.85, the thinning intensity 30% (canopy density 0.6) was most conducive to the seed germination and seedling growth.

  17. Differential effects of two phospholipase D inhibitors, 1-butanol and N-acylethanolamine, on in vivo cytoskeletal organization and Arabidopsis seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Motes, Christy M; Pechter, Priit; Yoo, Cheol Min; Wang, Yuh-Shuh; Chapman, Kent D; Blancaflor, Elison B

    2005-12-01

    Plant development is regulated by numerous chemicals derived from a multitude of metabolic pathways. However, we know very little about the biological effects and functions of many of these metabolites in the cell. N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) are a group of lipid mediators that play important roles in mammalian physiology. Despite the intriguing similarities between animals and plants in NAE metabolism and perception, not much is known about the precise function of these metabolites in plant physiology. In plants, NAEs have been shown to inhibit phospholipase Dalpha (PLDalpha) activity, interfere with abscisic acid-induced stomatal closure, and retard Arabidopsis seedling development. 1-Butanol, an antagonist of PLD-dependent phosphatidic acid production, was reported to induce defects in Arabidopsis seedling development that were somewhat similar to effects induced by elevated levels of NAE. This raised the possibility that the impact of NAE on seedling growth could be mediated in part via its influence on PLD activity. To begin to address this possibility, we conducted a detailed, comparative analysis of the effects of 1-butanol and N-lauroylethanolamine (NAE 12:0) on Arabidopsis root cell division, in vivo cytoskeletal organization, seed germination, and seedling growth. Although both NAE 12:0 and 1-butanol induced profound cytoskeletal and morphological alterations in seedlings, there were distinct differences in their overall effects. 1-Butanol induced more pronounced modifications in cytoskeletal organization, seedling growth, and cell division at concentrations severalfold higher than NAE 12:0. We propose that these compounds mediate their differential effects on cellular organization and seedling growth, in part through the differential modulation of specific PLD isoforms.

  18. Effects of mechanical stress or abscisic acid on growth, water status and leaf abscisic acid content of eggplant seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latimer, J. G.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    Container-grown eggplant (Solanum melongena L. var esculentum Nees. 'Burpee's Black Beauty') seedlings were conditioned with brief, periodic mechanical stress or abscisic acid (ABA) in a greenhouse prior to outdoor exposure. Mechanical stress consisted of seismic (shaking) or thigmic (stem flexing) treatment. Exogenous ABA (10(-3) or 10(-4)M) was applied as a soil drench 3 days prior to outdoor transfer. During conditioning, only thigmic stress reduced stem elongation and only 10(-3) M ABA reduced relative growth rate (RGR). Both conditioning treatments increased leaf specific chlorophyll content, but mechanical stress did not affect leaf ABA content. Outdoor exposure of unconditioned eggplant seedlings decreased RGR and leaf-specific chlorophyll content, but tended to increase leaf ABA content relative to that of plants maintained in the greenhouse. Conditioning did not affect RGR of plants subsequently transferred outdoors, but did reduce stem growth. Seismic stress applied in the greenhouse reduced dry weight gain by plants subsequently transferred outdoors. Mechanical stress treatments increased leaf water potential by 18-25% relative to that of untreated plants.

  19. Arabidopsis fatty acid desaturase FAD2 is required for salt tolerance during seed germination and early seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiantao; Liu, Hua; Sun, Jian; Li, Bei; Zhu, Qiang; Chen, Shaoliang; Zhang, Hongxia

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid desaturases play important role in plant responses to abiotic stresses. However, their exact function in plant resistance to salt stress is unknown. In this work, we provide the evidence that FAD2, an endoplasmic reticulum localized ω-6 desaturase, is required for salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. Using vacuolar and plasma membrane vesicles prepared from the leaves of wild-type (Col-0) and the loss-of-function Arabidopsis mutant, fad2, which lacks the functional FAD2, we examined the fatty acid composition and Na+-dependent H+ movements of the isolated vesicles. We observed that, when compared to Col-0, the level of vacuolar and plasma membrane polyunsaturation was lower, and the Na+/H+ exchange activity was reduced in vacuolar and plasma membrane vesicles isolated from fad2 mutant. Consistent with the reduced Na+/H+ exchange activity, fad2 accumulated more Na+ in the cytoplasm of root cells, and was more sensitive to salt stress during seed germination and early seedling growth, as indicated by CoroNa-Green staining, net Na+ efflux and salt tolerance analyses. Our results suggest that FAD2 mediated high-level vacuolar and plasma membrane fatty acid desaturation is essential for the proper function of membrane attached Na+/H+ exchangers, and thereby to maintain a low cytosolic Na+ concentration for salt tolerance during seed germination and early seedling growth in Arabidopsis.

  20. Preparation of Microencapsulated Bacillus subtilis SL-13 Seed Coating Agents and Their Effects on the Growth of Cotton Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Liang; He, Yanhui; Shan, Chunhui; Wu, Zhansheng

    2016-01-01

    Inoculation of the bacterial cells of microbial seed coating agents (SCAs) into the environment may result in limited survival and colonization. Therefore, the application efficacy of an encapsulated microbial seed coating agent (ESCA) was investigated on potted cotton plants; the agent was prepared with polyvinyl alcohol, sodium dodecyl sulfate, bentonite, and microencapsulated Bacillus subtilis SL-13. Scanning electron micrography revealed that the microcapsules were attached to ESCA membranes. The ESCA film was uniform, bubble-free, and easy to peel. The bacterial contents of seeds coated with each ESCA treatment reached 106 cfu/seed. Results indicated that the germination rate of cotton seeds treated with ESCA4 (1.0% (w/v) sodium alginate, 4.0% polyvinyl alcohol, 1.0% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 0.6% acacia, 0.5% bentonite, and 10% (v/v) microcapsules) increased by 28.74%. Other growth factors of the cotton seedlings, such as plant height, root length, whole plant fresh weight, and whole plant dry weight, increased by 52.70%, 25.13%, 46.47%, and 33.21%, respectively. Further analysis demonstrated that the peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities of cotton seedlings improved, whereas their malondialdehyde contents decreased. Therefore, the ESCA can efficiently improve seed germination, root length, and growth. The proposed ESCA exhibits great potential as an alternative to traditional SCA in future agricultural applications. PMID:26885507

  1. Croton argenteus preparation inhibits initial growth, mitochondrial respiration and increase the oxidative stress from Senna occidentalis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Rech, Katlin S; Silva, Cristiane B; Kulik, Juliana D; Dias, Josiane F G; Zanin, Sandra M W; Kerber, Vitor A; Ocampos, Fernanda M M; Dalarmi, Luciane; Santos, Gedir O; Simionatto, Euclésio; Lima, Cristina P; Miguel, Obdúlio G; Miguel, Marilis D

    2015-01-01

    Senna ocidentalis is a weed, native to Brazil, considered to infest crops and plantations, and is responsible for yield losses of several crops, particularly soybean. The aim of this work was to evaluate if the Croton argenteus extract and fractions possess phytotoxic activity on S. ocidentalis. The crude ethanolic extract (CEE) and its hexanic (HF), chloroformic (CLF) and ethyl acetate (EAF) fractions were tested in germination, growth, oxidative stress increase, Adenosine triphosphate, L-malate and succinate synthesis. The crude extract and its fractions slowed down the germination of S. ocidentalis and decreased the final percentage of germination. Oxidative stress was also increased in the seedlings, by an increase of catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and lipid peroxidation; and it became clear that the ethyl acetate fraction was more phytotoxic. The results indicate that the crude extract and fractions of C. argenteus compromise the mitochondrial energy metabolism, by the inhibition of mitochondrial ATP production, with a decrease in the production of L-malate and succinate. The ethyl acetate fraction of C. argenteus showed high activity on germination and growth, and these effects take place by means of mitochondrial metabolism alterations and increase the oxidative stress, leading the seedling death.

  2. Preparation of Microencapsulated Bacillus subtilis SL-13 Seed Coating Agents and Their Effects on the Growth of Cotton Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Tu, Liang; He, Yanhui; Shan, Chunhui; Wu, Zhansheng

    2016-01-01

    Inoculation of the bacterial cells of microbial seed coating agents (SCAs) into the environment may result in limited survival and colonization. Therefore, the application efficacy of an encapsulated microbial seed coating agent (ESCA) was investigated on potted cotton plants; the agent was prepared with polyvinyl alcohol, sodium dodecyl sulfate, bentonite, and microencapsulated Bacillus subtilis SL-13. Scanning electron micrography revealed that the microcapsules were attached to ESCA membranes. The ESCA film was uniform, bubble-free, and easy to peel. The bacterial contents of seeds coated with each ESCA treatment reached 10(6) cfu/seed. Results indicated that the germination rate of cotton seeds treated with ESCA4 (1.0% (w/v) sodium alginate, 4.0% polyvinyl alcohol, 1.0% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 0.6% acacia, 0.5% bentonite, and 10% (v/v) microcapsules) increased by 28.74%. Other growth factors of the cotton seedlings, such as plant height, root length, whole plant fresh weight, and whole plant dry weight, increased by 52.70%, 25.13%, 46.47%, and 33.21%, respectively. Further analysis demonstrated that the peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities of cotton seedlings improved, whereas their malondialdehyde contents decreased. Therefore, the ESCA can efficiently improve seed germination, root length, and growth. The proposed ESCA exhibits great potential as an alternative to traditional SCA in future agricultural applications.

  3. Seedling root responses to soil moisture and the identification of a belowground trait spectrum across three growth forms.

    PubMed

    Larson, Julie E; Funk, Jennifer L

    2016-05-01

    Root trait variation and plasticity could be key factors differentiating plant performance under drought. However, water manipulation and root measurements are rarely coupled empirically across growth forms to identify whether belowground strategies are generalizable across species. We measured seedling root traits across three moisture levels in 18 Mediterranean forbs, grasses, and woody species. Drought increased the root mass fraction (RMF) and decreased the relative proportion of thin roots (indicated by increased root diameters and decreased specific root length (SRL)), rates of root elongation and growth, plant nitrogen uptake, and plant growth. Although responses varied across species, plasticity was not associated with growth form. Woody species differed from forbs and grasses in many traits, but herbaceous groups were similar. Across water treatments, trait correlations suggested a single spectrum of belowground trade-offs related to resource acquisition and plant growth. While effects of SRL and RMF on plant growth shifted with drought, root elongation rate consistently represented this spectrum. We demonstrate that general patterns of root morphology and plasticity are identifiable across diverse species. Root trait measurements should enhance our understanding of belowground strategy and performance across growth forms, but it will be critical to incorporate plasticity and additional aspects of root function into these efforts.

  4. The role of auxin and ethylene for gravitropic differential growth of coleoptiles and roots of rye- and maize seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelmann, H. G.; Sabovljevic, A.; Njio, G.; Roth, U.

    The relevance of auxin and ethylene for differential gravitropic growth has been analyzed both in shoots and roots of etiolated rye- and maize seedlings. As previously demonstrated for indolyl-3-acetic acid (IAA), incubation of coleoptiles in dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) resulted in a two- to threefold length increase compared to water controls. In spite of this immense effect on elongation growth, gravi-curvature was similar to water controls. In contrast, inhibition of ethylene synthesis prevented differential growth of abraded coleoptiles as well as of roots without a significant inhibiting effect on elongation. Inhibition of ethylene perception in horizontally stimulated maize roots growing on surfaces eliminated the capacity of the roots to adapt growth to the surface and a vertical orientation of the root tip. This effect is accompanied by up- and down-regulation of a number of proteins as detected with the 2D-MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization- time of flight) method. Exogenous ethylene inhibited growth but enhanced gravitropic curvature in roots that were "freely" gravistimulated in a horizontal position, exhibiting a pronounced "waving" behavior. Together the data challenge the regulatory relevance of IAA-redistribution for gravitropic differential growth. They corroborate the crucial regulatory relevance of ethylene for gravitropic growth, in both roots and coleoptiles.

  5. Extracellular production of reactive oxygen species during seed germination and early seedling growth in Pisum sativum.

    PubMed

    Kranner, Ilse; Roach, Thomas; Beckett, Richard P; Whitaker, Claire; Minibayeva, Farida V

    2010-07-01

    Extracellularly produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) play key roles in plant development, but their significance for seed germination and seedling establishment is poorly understood. Here we report on the characteristics of extracellular ROS production during seed germination and early seedling development in Pisum sativum. Extracellular superoxide (O2(.-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and the activity of extracellular peroxidases (ECPOX) were determined spectrophotometrically, and O2(.-) was identified by electron paramagnetic resonance. Cell wall fractionation of cotyledons, seed coats and radicles was used in conjunction with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to investigate substrate specificity and molecular masses of O2(.-)-producing enzymes, and the forces that bind them to the cell wall. Seed imbibition was accompanied by an immediate, transient burst of redox activity that involved O2(.-) and other substances capable of oxidizing epinephrine, and also H2O2. At the final stages of germination, coinciding with radicle elongation, a second increase in O2(.-) but not H2O2 production occurred and was correlated with an increase in extracellular ECPOX activity. Electrophoretic analyses of cell wall fractions demonstrated the presence of enzymes capable of O2(.-) production. The significance of extracellular ROS production during seed germination and early seedling development, and also during seed aging, is discussed.

  6. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens L-H15, a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from cucumber seedling substrate.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yuxuan; Han, Yuzhu; Shang, QingMao; Li, Pinglan

    2015-04-20

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens L-H15 is a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) isolated from the cucumber seedling substrate collected in Beijing, China. The complete genome of B. amyloliquefaciens L-H15 consists of one single circular chromosome (3,864,316 bp) without any plasmid. From the genome, we identified clusters responsible for non-ribosomal synthesis of secondary metabolites, and genes related to the plant growth promotion hormone such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and acetoin secretion. In addition, genes that contribute to biofilm formation were also found on the genome of L-H15. Complete genome information enables further study on the beneficial interactions between B. amyloliquefaciens L-H15 and host plants, and the future application of B. amyloliquefaciens L-H15 as biofertilizer and biocide.

  7. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth, photosynthesis and photosynthetic pigments of Leymus chinensis seedlings under salt-alkali stress and nitrogen deposition.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jixiang; Wang, Yingnan; Sun, Shengnan; Mu, Chunsheng; Yan, Xiufeng

    2017-01-15

    Leymus chinensis is the most promising grass species for salt-alkaline grassland restoration in northern China. However, little information exists concerning the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis in the adaptation of seedlings to salt-alkali stress, particularly under increased nitrogen deposition, which has become a major environmental problem throughout the world. In this study, Leymus chinensis seedlings were cultivated in soil with 0, 100 and 200mM NaCl/NaHCO3 under two forms of nitrogen (10mM NH4NO3 or NH4Cl: NH4NO3=3:1), and the root colonization, growth and photosynthetic characteristics of the seedlings were measured. The results showed that the colonization rate and intensity decreased with increasing salt-alkali stress and were much lower under alkali stress. The nitrogen treatments also decreased the colonization, particularly under the NH4(+)-N treatment. Compared with the non-mycorrhizal controls, mycorrhizal seedlings generally presented higher plant biomass, photosynthetic parameters and contents of photosynthetic pigments under stresses, and the inhibitive effects of alkali stress were substantially stronger. In addition, both nitrogen forms decreased the physiological indexes compared with those of the AM seedlings. Our results suggest that salt stress and alkali stress are significantly different and that the salt-alkali tolerance of Leymus chinensis seedlings could be enhanced by associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, in which would yield better plant growth and photosynthesis. Excessive nitrogen in the soil affects mycorrhizal colonization and thereby inhibits the growth and photosynthetic ability of the seedlings.

  8. The effects of seed size, cotyledon reserves, and herbivory on seedling survival and growth in Quercus rugosa and Q. laurina (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Bonfil, C

    1998-01-01

    In a greenhouse experiment, seedling survival of two oak species (Quercus rugosa and Q. laurina) was greatly affected by the excision of cotyledons 1 mo after germination, with a greater impact on Q. laurina. The effect of seed size was also significant for both species, with a positive correlation between seed mass and survival and growth. The effect of cotyledon excision on seedling growth persisted throughout the first growing season in Q. rugosa and was not analyzed for Q. laurina due to the low number of seedlings that survived cotyledon excision. Seed size significantly affected seedling height, diameter, leaf area, and biomass at 6 mo. Seed size and cotyledon retention affected the ability of Q. rugosa to recover from herbivory, as both factors had a significant effect on relative growth rates after aerial biomass removal. The results show that seedlings originating from large seeds can better endure loss of cotyledons and aerial biomass and thus are better equipped to confront stress early in their lives.

  9. Growth and survival of seedlings of native plants in an impoverished and highly disturbed soil following inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Pattinson, G S; Hammill, K A; Sutton, B G; McGee, P A

    2004-12-01

    We investigated whether arbuscular mycorrhizas influenced growth and survival of seedlings in an extremely impoverished and highly disturbed soil. Seedlings of four plants species native to the site were either inoculated with native sporocarpic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi or fertilised prior to transplanting, and followed over 86 weeks at the site. One treatment was also irrigated with N-rich leachate from the site. In a laboratory experiment, seedlings were fertilised with excess P for 6 weeks, and location of the P store determined. Growth and survival of AM and fertilised seedlings were similar at the site. Inoculated mycorrhizal fungi and roots appeared to extend into the surrounding soil together. P concentration in leaves of all plants was extremely low. Irrigation with leachate increased growth of seedlings. In the laboratory experiment, significantly more P was stored in roots than shoots. We suggest that successful revegetation of extremely disturbed and impoverished sites requires selection of mycorrhizal fungi and plants to suit the edaphic conditions and methods of out-planting.

  10. [Synergistic effects of low temperature in winter and ebb tide at night on Sonneratia apetala seedlings growth and key eco-physiological traits].

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu-Zhen; Du, Xiao-Na; Lu, Luan-Mei; Zheng, Shi-Jie; Yang, Sheng-Chang

    2012-04-01

    By setting up a set of simulated tidal systems with different air- and water temperature and tidal flood conditions, this paper studied the synergistic effects of low temperature in winter and ebb tide at night on the growth and key eco-physiological traits of Sonneratia apetala seedlings. Low air temperature depressed the seedlings growth, but the reduction in the seedling height and basal stem diameter was compensated 41.2% and 44.6%, respectively by a 5 degrees C increase of water temperature. Low air temperature (15 degrees C) reduced the leaf Fv/Fm significantly, indicating a dramatic reduction in the leaf photosynthetic capacity, whereas the flooded tide with higher water temperature could not compensate this damage. The flooded tide with high air temperature increased the proline and soluble sugar contents in mature leaves, which could protect the mature leaves from cold damage. When extreme cold events occurred, the flooded tide at night worked as a heat storage medium, which alleviated the cold damage on the seedlings growth and leaf physiological traits, and promoted the survival rate of S. apetala seedlings.

  11. Melatonin and nitric oxide regulate sunflower seedling growth under salt stress accompanying differential expression of Cu/Zn SOD and Mn SOD.

    PubMed

    Arora, Dhara; Bhatla, Satish C

    2017-02-28

    Salinity results in significant reduction in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedling growth and excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Present work highlights the possible role of melatonin as an antioxidant through its interaction with nitric oxide (NO), and as an early and long distance NaCl-stress sensing signaling molecule in seedling cotyledons. Exogenous melatonin (15µM)±NaCl (120mM) inhibit seedling growth, which is also correlated with NO availability, accumulation of potential superoxide anion (O2(•-)) and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO(-)), extent of tyrosine-nitration of proteins, spatial localization and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms. NO acts as a positive modulator of melatonin accumulation in seedling cotyledons as a long-distance signaling response. Modulation of superoxide anion and peroxynitrite anion content by melatonin highlights its crucial role in combating deleterious effects of ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Present findings provide evidence for an interaction between melatonin and NO in their effect on seedling growth under salt stress accompanying differential modulation of two SOD isoforms, i.e. Cu/Zn SOD and Mn SOD.

  12. Interspecific Competition and Trade-offs in Resource Allocation are the Key to Successful Growth of Seedlings of White Spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) at Subarctic Treelines in Warming Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okano, K.; Bret-Harte, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Alpine treelines in Alaska have advanced for the past 50 years in response to the recent climate warming. However, further increases in temperatures may cause treeline species drought stress and increase susceptibility to insect outbreaks and fire. Complex factors such as soil conditions and plant species composition also impact the growth of seedlings, which are essential to sustain boreal forests. Our goals were to assess 1) the current optimal elevation for the treeline species Picea glauca (white spruce) seedlings and how it is altered by climate change, and 2) their growth/survival strategies at each environmental site. We studied the growth response of spruce seedlings along an altitudinal gradient at 6 sites, consisting of tundra, forest, or transitional ecotone in Denali National Park and one forest site in Fairbanks, AK. In May 2012, four-month old seedlings were planted with or without naturally occurring plants to compare the presence or absence of the interspecific interaction. Summer temperatures were increased by one small greenhouse per site. Over 2 growing seasons, growth was measured non-destructively, and then the seedlings were harvested. Relative growth rate (RGR) in height was increased significantly as the altitude was increased. Elevated temperature increased height only in seedlings at a high-altitude forest. Seedlings with neighboring plants had a higher RGR in height than seedlings that had neighbors removed, while significantly wider diameters were measured from the seedlings without neighbors. A weak trend of declining diameter width with increasing altitudes was seen. Seedlings that grew taller did not grow their stems wider, indicating trade-offs in resource allocation. None of the altitudinal sites had a clear advantage for the growth of the seedlings. Habitat microclimate and the interaction with other species could be more important than the altitude or temperatures and hence, key to the survival and growth of spruce seedlings in

  13. Growth response of Douglas-fir seedlings to nitrogen fertilization: importance of Rubisco activation state and respiration rates.

    PubMed

    Manter, Daniel K; Kavanagh, Kathleen L; Rose, Cathy L

    2005-08-01

    High foliar nitrogen concentration ([N]) is associated with high rates of photosynthesis and thus high tree productivity; however, at excessive [N], tree productivity is reduced. Reports of excessive [N] in the Douglas-fir forests of the Oregon Coast Range prompted this investigation of growth and needle physiological responses to increasing foliar N concentrations in 1-year-old Douglas-fir seedlings. After 1 year of N fertilization, total seedling biomass increased with each successive increase in N fertilizer concentration, except in the highest N fertilization treatment. Of the many physiological responses that were analyzed, only photosynthetic capacity (i.e., Vcmax), respiration rates and leaf specific conductance (KL) differed significantly between N treatments. Photosynthetic capacity showed a curvilinear relationship with foliar [N], reaching an apparent maximum rate when needle N concentrations exceeded about 12 mg g(-1). In vitro measurements of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) activity suggested that photosynthetic capacity was best related to activated, not total, Rubisco content. Rubisco activation state declined as foliar [N] increased, and based on its significant correlation (r2= 0.63) with foliar Mn:Mg ratios, it may be related to Mn inactivation of Rubisco. Respiration rates increased linearly as foliar N concentration increased (r2= 0.84). The value of K(L) also increased as foliar [N] increased, reaching a maximum when foliar [N] exceeded about 10 mg g(-1). Changes in K(L) were unrelated to changes in leaf area or sapwood area because leaf area to sapwood area ratios remained constant. Cumulative effects of the observed physiological responses to N fertilization were analyzed by modeling annual net CO2 assimilation (Anet) based on treatment specific values of Vcmax, dark respiration (Rdark) and KL. Estimates of Anet were highly correlated with measured total seedling biomass (r2= 0.992), suggesting that long-term, cumulative

  14. Isolation and characterization of nonrhizobial plant growth promoting bacteria from nodules of Kudzu (Pueraria thunbergiana) and their effect on wheat seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, G; Kundu, S; Gupta, Anand D; Shouche, Yogesh S; Gupta, Hari S

    2008-02-01

    The leguminous vine Kudzu (Pueraria thunbergiana) is an introduction into the N. W. Himalayan region of India. Despite its value as a fodder and cover crop, little is known about the nature of the nodule microflora. In an attempt to study the nodule bacteria, we isolated and characterized three nonrhizobial plant growth promoting bacteria from surface sterilized nodules of Kudzu. Based on the sequencing of the 16 S r RNA gene, the isolates were designated as Bacillus thuringiensis KR-1, Enterobacter asburiae KR-3, and Serratia marcescens KR-4. Crystalline bodies were detected in the isolate KR-1, confirming its identity as B. thuringiensis. Under in vitro conditions, all three isolates were found to produce indole acetic acid. Other plant growth promotion attributes such as P solubilization, hydrogen cyanide production, and ammonia production varied among the isolates. All of the three isolates promoted growth and positively influenced nutrient uptake parameters of wheat seedlings.

  15. Cation Uptake and Allocation by Red Pine Seedlings under Cation-Nutrient Stress in a Column Growth Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Zhenqing; Balogh-Brunstad, Zsuzsanna; Grant, Michael R.; Harsh, James B.; Gill, Richard; Thomashow, Linda; Dohnalkova, Alice; Stacks, Daryl; Letourneau, Melissa; Keller, Chester K.

    2014-01-10

    Background and Aims Plant nutrient uptake is affected by environmental stress, but how plants respond to cation-nutrient stress is poorly understood. We assessed the impact of varying degrees of cation-nutrient limitation on cation uptake in an experimental plant-mineral system. Methods Column experiments, with red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) seedlings growing in sand/mineral mixtures, were conducted for up to nine months under a range of Ca- and K-limited conditions. The Ca and K were supplied from both minerals and nutrient solutions with varying Ca and K concentrations. Results Cation nutrient stress had little impact on carbon allocation after nine months of plant growth and K was the limiting nutrient for biomass production. The Ca/Sr and K/Rb ratio results allowed independent estimation of dissolution incongruency and discrimination against Sr and Rb during cation uptake processes. The fraction of K in biomass from biotite increased with decreasing K supply from nutrient solutions. The mineral anorthite was consistently the major source of Ca, regardless of nutrient treatment. Conclusions Red pine seedlings exploited more mineral K in response to more severe K deficiency. This did not occur for Ca. Plant discrimination factors must be carefully considered to accurately identify nutrient sources using cation tracers.

  16. UV-B radiation increases anthocyanin levels in cotyledons and inhibits the growth of common buckwheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Dębski, Henryk; Szwed, Magdalena; Wiczkowski, WiesŁaw; Szawara-Nowak, Dorota; Bączek, Natalia; Horbowicz, Marcin

    2016-12-01

    The impact of short-term UV-B treatment on the content of individual flavonoids and photosynthetic pigments in cotyledons and the growth of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) seedlings was investigated. Seeds of four common buckwheat cultivars were germinated in darkness over a period of 4 days and acclimatized for 2 days under a 16/8 h light/dark photoperiod at 24/18 °C day/night, and exposure to 100-120 μmol ∙ m(-2) ∙ s(-1) of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Seedlings were divided into three batches, including two batches subjected to different doses of UV-B (5 W ∙ m(-2) and 10 W ∙ m(-2), one hour per day) for 5 days, and a control group exposed to PAR only. Exposure to UV-B increased anthocyanin levels in the cotyledons of all examined cultivars, it inhibited hypocotyl elongation, but did not affect the content of photosynthetic pigments. Flavone concentrations increased in cv. Red Corolla and Kora, remained constant in cv. Panda and decreased in cv. Hruszowska. Exposure to UV-B decreased rutin levels in cv. Hruszowska, but not in the remaining cultivars. Cultivars Hruszowska, Panda and Kora appeared to be less resistant to UV-B than Red Corolla. Higher resistance to UV-B radiation in Red Corolla can probably be attributed to its higher content of anthocyanins and rutin in comparison with the remaining cultivars.

  17. Effect of BPA on the germination, root development, seedling growth and leaf differentiation under different light conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wen-Juan; Xiong, Can; Wua, Qiu-Ping; Liu, Jin-Xia; Liao, Hong-Mei; Chen, Wei; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Zheng, Lei

    2013-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known environmental toxic substance, which exerts unfavorable effects through endocrine disruptor (ER)-dependent and ER-independent mechanisms to threaten ecological systems seriously. BPA may also interact with other environmental factors, such as light and heavy metals, to have a synergetic effect in plants. However, there is little data concerning the toxic effect of BPA on the primary producers-plants and its possible interaction with light-dependent response. Here, the effects of BPA on germination, fresh weight, tap root length, and leaf differentiation were studied in Arabidopsis thaliana under different parts of light spectrum (dark, red, yellow, green, blue, and white light). Our results showed that low-dose BPA (1.0, 5.0 µM) caused an increase in the fresh weight, the tap root length and the lateral root formation of A. thaliana seedlings, while high-dose BPA (10.0, 25.0 µM) show an inhibition effect in a dose-dependent manner. Unlike karrikins, the effects of BPA on germination fresh weight and tap roots length under various light conditions are similar, which imply that BPA has no notable role in priming light response in germination and early seedling growth in A. thaliana. Meanwhile, BPA exposure influences the differentiation of A. thaliana leaf blade significantly in a light-dependent manner with little to no effect in dark and clear effect under red illumination.

  18. Growth under elevated air temperature alters secondary metabolites in Robinia pseudoacacia L. seedlings in Cd- and Pb-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y H; Jia, X; Wang, W K; Liu, T; Huang, S P; Yang, M Y

    2016-09-15

    Plant secondary metabolites play a pivotal role in growth regulation, antioxidant activity, pigment development, and other processes. As the global climate changes, increasing atmospheric temperatures and contamination of soil by heavy metals co-occur in natural ecosystems, which alters the pH of rhizosphere soil and influences the bioavailability and mobility of metals. Elevated temperatures in combination with heavy metals are expected to affect plant secondary metabolites, but this issue has not been extensively examined. Here, we investigated secondary metabolites in Robiniapseudoacacia seedlings exposed to elevated temperatures using a passive warming device in combination with Cd- and Pb-contaminated soils. Heavy metals significantly stimulated the accumulation of saponins, phenolic compounds, and flavonoids in leaves and stems; alkaloid compounds increased in leaves and decreased in stems, and condensed tannins fluctuated. Elevated temperatures, alone and in combination with Cd and Pb, caused increases in secondary metabolites in the plant tissues. Phenolic compounds showed the greatest changes among the secondary metabolites and significant interactive effects of temperature and metals were observed. These results suggest that slightly elevated temperature could enhance protective and defense mechanisms of Robinia pseudoacacia seedlings exposed to heavy metals by stimulating the production of secondary metabolites.

  19. Proteomic study participating the enhancement of growth and salt tolerance of bottle gourd rootstock-grafted watermelon seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanjuan; Wang, Liping; Tian, Jing; Li, Jing; Sun, Jin; He, Lizhong; Guo, Shirong; Tezuka, Takafumi

    2012-09-01

    An insertion grafting technique to do research on salt tolerance was applied using watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Mansf. cv. Xiuli) as a scion and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl. cv. Chaofeng Kangshengwang) as a rootstock. Rootstock-grafting significantly relieved the inhibition of growth and photosynthesis induced by salt stress in watermelon plants. Proteomic analysis revealed 40 different expressed proteins in response to rootstock-grafting and/or salt stress. These proteins were involved in Calvin cycle, amino acids biosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, ROS defense, hormonal biosynthesis and signal transduction. Most of these proteins were up-regulated by rootstock-grafting and/or susceptible to salt stress. The enhancement of the metabolic activities of Calvin cycle, biosynthesis of amino acids, carotenoids and peroxisomes, glycolytic pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle will probably contribute to intensify the biomass and photosynthetic capacity in rootstock-grafted seedlings under condition without salt. The accumulation of key enzymes included in these biological processes described above seems to play an important role in the enhancement of salt tolerance of rootstock-grafted seedlings. Furthermore, leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein kinase and phospholipase may be involved in transmitting the internal and external stimuli induced by grafting and/or salt stress.

  20. Effects of substrate water potential in root growth of Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck seedlings.

    PubMed

    Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia B; Sánchez-Urdaneta, Adriana B

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that root of maguey (Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck) seedlings reacts during the first 24 h to low substrate water potential (PsiW), by anatomical modifications. Three-4 cm root length seedlings were planted in vermiculite for 24 h at PsiW between -0.03 and -2.35 MPa. Root dimensions, proline content and anatomy were evaluated. Substrate PsiW between -0.65 and -2.35 MPa did not significantly affect longitudinal root growth. However, proline content significantly increased from 1.6 to 2.1 micromoles mg(-1). Significant reductions of transverse root area (41%), thickness of mucilage covering the epidermis (47%), thickness of epidermis (between 15 and 46%), area of the parenchyma (between 35 and 41%) and number of vessels (up to 28%) were observed with PsiW of -2.35 MPa. In contrast, thickness of xylem wall, diameter of xylem vessels and the number of cells of the cortex of the differentiation root region significantly increased (64, 17, and 97%, respectively). The anatomical changes associated with low substrate PsiW indicate a net increase of root apoplatic paths; structures involved in water conduction increased their diameter under low substrate PsiW conditions and anatomical changes occurred during the first 24 h of water stress.

  1. Effects of pig manure and wheat straw on growth of mung bean seedlings grown in aluminium toxicity soil.

    PubMed

    Shen, Q R; Shen, Z G

    2001-02-01

    Crop production in red soil areas may be limited by Al toxicity. A possible alternative to ameliorate Al toxicity is the application of such organic manure as crop straw and animal manure. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of organic materials on the alleviation of Al toxicity in acid red soil. Ground wheat straw, pig manure or CaCO3 were mixed with the soil and incubated, at 85% of water holding capacity and 25 degrees C, for 8 weeks. After the incubation, 14 seedlings of mung bean (Phaseolus aures Roxb) were allowed to grow for 12 days. Results showed that application of organic material or CaCO3 increased soil pH and decreased soil monomeric inorganic Al concentrations. Growth of mung bean seedling was improved sustantially by the application of organic material or CaCO3. Pig manure or wheat straw was more effective in ameliorating Al toxicity than was CaCO3. Mung bean plants receiving pig manure or wheat straw contained relatively high concentrations of P, Ca and K in their leaves. It is suggested that the beneficial effect of organic manure on mung bean is likely due to decreasing concentrations of monomeric inorganic Al concentrations in soil solution and improvement of mineral nutrition.

  2. The effects of light on foliar chemistry, growth and susceptibility of seedlings of a canopy tree to an attine ant.

    PubMed

    Nichols-Orians, Colin M

    1991-05-01

    Seedlings of Inga oerstediana Benth. (Mimosaceae) growing in three different light environments (the understory, tree-fall gaps and full sun) were tested for differences in chemistry (nutrients and tannins), wound-induced increases in tannins, growth, and susceptibility to leaf-cutter ants, Atta cephalotes (L.) (Formicidae: Attini). I hypothesized that seedlings of I. oerstediana would contain higher concentrations of tannins when growing in high light conditions and, therefore, would be less susceptible to leaf-cutter ants.Foliar concentrations of condensed tannins were much higher in plants growing in full sun compared to those growing in the understory. The concentrations of condensed tannins did not increase following damage. Despite higher concentrations of condensed tannins in sun foliage, leaf-cutter ants found these leaves more acceptable. The preference for sun leaves was consistent with higher concentrations of foliar nutrients. I suggest that the magnitude of the increase in condensed tannins was not great enough to override the benefits of increased concentrations of foliar nutrients. Finally, based on these results and those of others, I suggest that foraging by leaf-cutter ants may be an important factor determining patterns of succession in early successional habitats.

  3. Effect of soil acidification on the growth of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) seedlings in a granite-derived forest soil.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong-Su; Jin, Hyun-O; Lee, Choong-Hwa; Kim, Young-Chai; Kayama, Masazumi

    2005-01-01

    The growth of pine trees has diminished in recent years in industrial areas of Korea. Soil acidification is believed to be responsible. To study its effects, we grew seedlings of three-year-old Korean pine in brown forest soil derived from granite, which had been treated with an acid solution, for 182 days. The anion mol ratio in the solution was SO4(2-):NO3-:Cl-=5:3:2, which is the average in the total precipitation in Korea; six H+ ion concentrations in the soil were studied (0 (control), 10, 30, 60 and 90 mmol H+.kg-1). With increasing amounts of H+ added to the soil, the concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, Al and Mn increased, especially below a soil pH of 3.8. The concentrations of Ca, Mg and K in pine needles and stems increased with increasing H+ added to the soil, whereas their concentrations in the root decreased. Conversely, the concentration of N and P in each organ of the pine plant was higher in all treatments than in controls. Also, the concentrations of Al and Mn increased significantly in all organs of the plant with increasing H+. We also estimated the effect of deliberate soil acidification on tree growth, using the molar ratio (Ca+Mg+K)/Al as an indicator of soil acidification. A strong positive correlation was found between the total dry mass (TDM) of seedlings and the (Ca+Mg+K)/Al molar ratio calculated from the concentrations of water-soluble elements in soil (r=0.99, p<0.001). When the (Ca+Mg+K)/Al molar ratio reached 1.0, the relative TDM had fallen to 40%. These results show that deliberate soil acidification reduces the growth of the Korean pine less than it does the Red pine, which has been the dominant species in Korea.

  4. Phytochrome induces changes in the immunodetectable level of a wall peroxidase that precede growth changes in maize seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S. H.; Shinkle, J. R.; Roux, S. J.

    1989-01-01

    The regulatory pigment phytochrome induces rapid and opposite growth changes in different regions of etiolated maize seedlings: it stimulates the elongation rate of coleoptiles and inhibits that of mesocotyls. As measured by a quantitative immunoassay, phytochrome also promotes rapid and opposite changes in the extractable content of a Mr 98,000 anionic isoperoxidase in the cell walls of these same organs: it induces a decrease of this peroxidase in coleoptiles and an increase in mesocotyls. The peroxidase changes precede the growth changes. As measured by video stereomicroscopy or a position transducer, red light (R), which photoactivates phytochrome, stimulates coleoptile elongation with a lag of about 15-20 min and suppresses mesocotyl growth with a lag of 45-50 min. R also induces a 50% reduction in the extractable level of the anionic peroxidase in coleoptile walls in less than 10 min and a 40% increase in the level of this peroxidase in mesocotyl walls within 30 min. Ascorbic acid, an inhibitor of peroxidase activity, blocks the effects of R on mesocotyl section growth. These results are relevant to hypotheses that postulate that certain wall peroxidases can participate in light-induced changes in growth rate by their effects on wall extensibility.

  5. Effects of Understory Vegetation and Litter on Plant Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), N∶P Ratio and Their Relationships with Growth Rate of Indigenous Seedlings in Subtropical Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Hui, Dafeng; Ren, Hai; Liu, Zhanfeng; Yang, Long

    2013-01-01

    Establishing seedlings in subtropical plantations is very important for forest health, succession and management. Information on seedling nutrient concentrations is essential for both the selection of suitable indigenous tree species to accelerate succession of the established plantation and sustainable forest management. In this study, we investigated the concentrations of nitrogen ([N]), phosphorus ([P]), and N∶P ratio in leaves, stems and roots of seedlings of three indigenous tree species (Castanopsis chinensis, Michelia chapensis and Psychotria rubra) transplanted with removing or retaining understory vegetation and litter at two typical subtropical forest plantations (Eucalyptus plantation and native species plantation). We also measured the relative growth rate (RGR) of seedling height, and developed the relationships between RGR and leaf [N], [P] and N∶P ratio. Results showed that treatments of understory vegetation and associated litter (i.e. removal or retained) generally had no significant effects on leaf [N], [P], N∶P ratio and RGR of the transplanted tree seedlings for the experimental period. But among different species, there were significant differences in nutrient concentrations. M. chapensis and P. rubra had higher [N] and [P] compared to C. chinensis. [N] and [P] also varied among different plant tissues with much higher values in leaves than in roots for all indigenous species. RGR of indigenous tree seedlings was mostly positively correlated with leaf [N] and [P], but negatively correlated with leaf N∶P ratio. Considering the low [P] and high N∶P ratio observed in the introduced indigenous tree seedlings, we propose that the current experimental plantations might be P limited for plant growth. PMID:24386340

  6. Oak seedling growth and ectomycorrhizal colonization are less in eastern hemlock stands infested with hemlock woolly adelgid than in adjacent oak stands.

    PubMed

    Lewis, James D; Licitra, Jeff; Tuininga, Amy R; Sirulnik, Abby; Turner, Gregory D; Johnson, Jacqui

    2008-04-01

    Invasive, non-indigenous, phytophagous insects have caused widespread declines in several dominant tree species. The decline in dominant tree species may lead to cascading effects on other tree and microbial species and their interactions, affecting forest recovery following the decline. In the eastern USA, eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr) is declining because of infestation by the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA; Adelges tsugae Annand). Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) is a common replacement species in declining hemlock stands, but reduced mycorrhizal inoculum potential in infested hemlock stands may cause oak to grow more slowly compared with oak in oak stands. We grew red oak seedlings for one growing season in declining hemlock-dominated stands infested with HWA and in adjacent oak-dominated stands. Ectomycorrhizal root tip density and morphotype richness in soil cores were 63 and 27% less, respectively, in declining hemlock stands than in oak stands. Similarly, ectomycorrhizal percent colonization and morphotype richness on oak seedlings were 33 and 30% less, respectively, in declining hemlock stands than in oak stands. In addition, oak seedlings in declining hemlock stands had 29% less dry mass than oak seedlings in oak stands. Analysis of covariance indicated that morphotype richness could account for differences in oak seedling dry mass between declining hemlock stands and oak stands. Additionally, oak seedling dry mass in declining hemlock stands significantly decreased with decreasing ectomycorrhizal percent colonization and morphotype richness. These results suggest that oak seedling growth in declining hemlock stands is affected by reduced ectomycorrhizal inoculum potential. Further, the rate of forest recovery following hemlock decline associated with HWA infestation may be slowed by indirect effects of HWA on the growth of replacement species, through effects on ectomycorrhizal colonization and morphotype richness.

  7. Effects of elevated nitrogen dioxide and carbon dioxide on the growth of Sugar Maple and Hemlock seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eller, A. S.; McGuire, K. L.; Sparks, J. P.

    2005-12-01

    The partial pressure of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the earth's atmosphere has been rising since the industrial revolution and is likely to continue rising due to the burning of fossil fuels. When NO2 enters plant leaves, it can undergo reactions that produce nitrate, which can be a source of nutrient nitrogen for the plant. However, NO2 is also an oxidant with the potential to damage cell membranes and decrease growth. The goals of this study were to examine the effect of NO2 on plant productivity alone and in combination with elevated CO2 under both nitrogen- and non-nitrogen-limiting conditions. To assess these effects, we conducted CO2, NO2, and CO2 + NO2 fumigations of sugar maple and eastern hemlock seedlings in open-topped chambers and measured relative growth rate, specific leaf area, root:shoot, and C:N of the leaves, stems, and roots. Sugar maple growth was reduced by 7% under elevated NO2 when nitrogen was limiting. When nitrogen was not limiting and CO2 was ambient, elevated NO2 caused a 4% decrease in growth and when CO2 was elevated there was no growth effect. Hemlock growth was increased by elevated NO2 regardless of nitrogen status and under both partial pressures of CO2; 3 and 8% increase in growth under ambient and elevated CO2, respectively. These data suggest gaseous reactive nitrogen may augment or decrease the future growth effects of elevated CO2 depending on plant species identity. In addition, perhaps because of differences in nitrogen metabolism and physiology, deciduous and evergreen tree species appear to have different responses to reactive nitrogen fumigation. These results underscore the need for examining the responses of vegetation to mixtures of gases representative of the future atmosphere rather than examining the influence of carbon dioxide alone.

  8. Effects of high CO2 on growth and metabolism of Arabidopsis seedlings during growth with a constantly limited supply of nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Takatani, Nobuyuki; Ito, Takuro; Kiba, Takatoshi; Mori, Marie; Miyamoto, Tetsuro; Maeda, Shin-Ichi; Omata, Tatsuo

    2014-02-01

    Elevated CO2 has been reported to stimulate plant growth under nitrogen-sufficient conditions, but the effects of CO2 on growth in a constantly nitrogen-limited state, which is relevant to most natural habitats of plants, remain unclear. Here, we maintained Arabidopsis seedlings under such conditions by growing a mutant with reduced nitrate uptake activity on a medium containing nitrate as the sole nitrogen source. Under nitrogen-sufficient conditions (i.e. in the presence of ammonium), growth of shoots and roots of both the wild type (WT) and the mutant was increased approximately 2-fold by elevated CO2. Growth stimulation of shoots and roots by elevated CO2 was observed in the WT growing with nitrate as the sole nitrogen source, but in the mutant grown with nitrate, the high-CO2 conditions stimulated only the growth of roots. In the mutant, elevated CO2 caused well-known symptoms of nitrogen-starved plants, including decreased shoot/root ratio, reduced nitrate content and accumulation of anthocyanin, but also had an increased Chl content in the shoot, which was contradictory to the known effect of nitrogen depletion. A high-CO2-responsive change specific to the mutant was not observed in the levels of the major metabolites, although CO2 responses were observed in the WT and the mutant. These results indicated that elevated CO2 causes nitrogen limitation in the seedlings grown with a constantly limited supply of nitrogen, but the Chl content and the root biomass of the plant increase to enhance the activities of both photosynthesis and nitrogen uptake, while maintaining normal metabolism and response to high CO2.

  9. Growth and Heavy Metal Accumulation of Koelreuteria Paniculata Seedlings and Their Potential for Restoring Manganese Mine Wastelands in Hunan, China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhihong; Xiang, Wenhua; Ma, Yu’e; Lei, Pifeng; Tian, Dalun; Deng, Xiangwen; Yan, Wende; Fang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    The planting of trees on mine wastelands is an effective, long-term technique for phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated wastes. In this study, a pot experiment with seedlings of Koelreuteria paniculata under six treatments of local mine wastes was designed to determine the major constraints on tree establishment and to evaluate the feasibility of planting K. paniculata on manganese mine wastelands. Results showed that K. paniculata grew well in mine tailings, and also under a regime of equal amounts of mine tailings and soil provided in adjacent halves of pots. In contrast, mine sludge did not favor survival and growth because its clay texture limited fine root development. The bio-concentration factor and the translocation factor were mostly less than 1, indicating a low phytoextraction potential for K. paniculata. K. paniculata is suited to restore manganese mine sludge by mixing the mine sludge with local mine tailings or soil. PMID:25654773

  10. Effect of length of interval between cereal rye cover crop termination and corn planting on seedling root disease and corn growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal rye cover crops terminated immediately before corn planting can sometimes reduce corn population, early growth, and yield. We hypothesized that cereal rye may act as a green bridge for corn pathogens and may increase corn seedling root disease. A field experiment was conducted over two years ...

  11. Salt-induced delay in cotyledonary globulin mobilization is abolished by induction of proteases and leaf growth sink strength at late seedling establishment in cashew.

    PubMed

    Ponte, Luiz Ferreira Aguiar; Silva, André Luis Coelho da; Carvalho, Fabrício Eulálio Leite; Maia, Josemir Moura; Voigt, Eduardo Luiz; Silveira, Joaquim Albenisio Gomes

    2014-09-15

    Seedling establishment in saline conditions is crucial for plant survival and productivity. This study was performed to elucidate the biochemical and physiological mechanisms involved with the recovery and establishment of cashew seedlings subjected to salinity. The changes in the Na+ levels and K/Na ratios, associated with relative water content, indicated that osmotic effects were more important than salt toxicity in the inhibition of seedling growth and cotyledonary protein mobilization. Salinity (50mM NaCl) induced a strong delay in protein breakdown and amino acid accumulation in cotyledons, and this effect was closely related to azocaseinolytic and protease activities. In parallel, proline and free amino acids accumulated in the leaves whereas the protein content decreased. Assays with specific inhibitors indicated that the most important proteases in cotyledons were of serine, cysteine and aspartic types. Proteomic analysis revealed that most of the cashew reserve proteins are 11S globulin-type and that these proteins were similarly degraded under salinity. In the late establishment phase, the salt-treated seedlings displayed an unexpected recovery in terms of leaf growth and N mobilization from cotyledon to leaves. This recovery coordinately involved a great leaf expansion, decreased amino acid content and increased protein synthesis in leaves. This response occurred in parallel with a prominent induction in the cotyledon proteolytic activity. Altogether, these data suggest that a source-sink mechanism involving leaf growth and protein synthesis may have acted as an important sink for reserve mobilization contributing to the seedling establishment under salinity. The amino acids that accumulated in the leaves may have exerted negative feedback to act as a signal for the induction of protease activity in the cotyledon. Overall, these mechanisms employed by cashew seedlings may be part of an adaptive process for the efficient rescue of cotyledonary proteins

  12. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus and plant growth promoting rhizomicroorganisms (PGPR's) on medicinal plant Solanum viarum seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hemashenpagam, N; Selvaraj, T

    2011-09-01

    A green house nursery study was conducted to assess the interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus aggregatum and some plant growth promoting rhizomicrooganisms (PGPR's), Bacillus coagulans and Trichoderma harzianum, in soil and their consequent effect on growth, nutrition and content of secondary metabolities of Solanum viarum seedlings. Triple inoculation of G. aggregatum+B. coagulans+T. harzainum with Solanum viarum in a green house nursery study resulted in maximum plant biomass (plant height 105 cm and plant dry weight 12.17 g), P, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn and secondary metabolities [total phenols (129.6 microg g(-1) f.wt.), orthodihydroxy phenols (90.6 microg g(-1) f.wt.), flavonoids (3.94 microg g(-1) f.wt.), alkaloids (5.05 microg g(-1) f.wt.), saponins (5.05 microg g(-1) f.wt.) and tannins (0.324 microg g(-1) f.wt.)] of S. viarum seedlings. The mycorrhizal root colonization and spore numbers in the root zone soil of the inoculated plants increased. The enzyme activity namely acid phosphatase (53.44 microg PNP g(-1) soil), alkaline phosphatase (40.95 microg PNP g(-1) soil) and dehydrogenase (475.5 microg PNP g(-1) soil) and total population of B. coagulans (12.5x10(4) g(-1)) and T. harzianum (12.4 x 10(4) g(-1)), in the root zone soil was found high in the triple inoculation with G. aggregatum+B. coagulans+T. harzianum that proved to be the best microbial consortium.

  13. An evaluation of the allelopathic potential of selected perennial groundcovers: foliar volatiles of catmint (Nepeta x faassenii) inhibit seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Eom, Seok Hyun; Yang, Hyun Seuk; Weston, Leslie A

    2006-08-01

    Six perennial groundcovers including Alchemilla mollis, Nepeta x faassenii, Phlox subulata, Sedum acre, Solidago cutleri, and Thymus praecox were investigated for the allelopathic potential of their respective foliar tissues via evaluation of volatile constituents produced by foliage. These groundcovers were selected for further laboratory evaluation because of superior performance as weed-suppressive groundcovers in previous field experiments. Foliar volatile components of N. x faassenii exhibited the strongest inhibitory effects on seedling growth of curly cress (Lepidium sativum), but S. cutleri also showed allelopathic potential by reducing shoot growth of curly cress seedlings with extracted volatiles. Although A. mollis and P. subulata exhibited strong weed-suppressive traits in past field experiments, weed suppression is apparently associated with either competition for resources or other allelopathic mechanisms rather than an allelopathic effect caused by volatiles. Volatiles of N. x faassenii were further evaluated with gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 21 chemical constituents were identified in the volatile cocktail; 17 components were identified from a direct crude leaf sample extraction, including sabinene, beta-pinene, beta-myrcene, 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)-ethanol, 1,8-cineole, ocimene, neryl Acetate, 4aalpha,7alpha,7aalpha-nepetalactone, alpha-copaene, trans-caryophyllene, alloaromadendrene, 4abeta,7alpha,7abeta-nepetalactone, germacrene D, beta-farnesene, chi-cadinene, germacrene B, and beta-sesquiphellandrene. Five additional constituents were identified in a methanolic extract of dried of N. x faassenii foliage, but not the volatile cocktail collected from N. x faassenii foliage. These included methyl benzoate, 2,4-decadienal, neryl acetate, isodihydronepetalactone, and caryophyllene oxide. Three components, 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)-ethanol, alloaromadendrene, and chi-cadinene, were not only detected in both the volatile

  14. Higher growth temperatures decreased net carbon assimilation and biomass accumulation of northern red oak seedlings near the southern limit of the species range.

    PubMed

    Wertin, Timothy M; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O

    2011-12-01

    If an increase in temperature will limit the growth of a species, it will be in the warmest portion of the species distribution. Therefore, in this study we examined the effects of elevated temperature on net carbon assimilation and biomass production of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings grown near the southern limit of the species distribution. Seedlings were grown in chambers in elevated CO(2) (700 µmol mol(-1)) at three temperature conditions, ambient (tracking diurnal and seasonal variation in outdoor temperature), ambient +3 °C and ambient +6 °C, which produced mean growing season temperatures of 23, 26 and 29 °C, respectively. A group of seedlings was also grown in ambient [CO(2)] and ambient temperature as a check of the growth response to elevated [CO(2)]. Net photosynthesis and leaf respiration, photosynthetic capacity (V(cmax), J(max) and triose phosphate utilization (TPU)) and chlorophyll fluorescence, as well as seedling height, diameter and biomass, were measured during one growing season. Higher growth temperatures reduced net photosynthesis, increased respiration and reduced height, diameter and biomass production. Maximum net photosynthesis at saturating [CO(2)] and maximum rate of electron transport (J(max)) were lowest throughout the growing season in seedlings grown in the highest temperature regime. These parameters were also lower in June, but not in July or September, in seedlings grown at +3 °C above ambient, compared with those grown in ambient temperature, indicating no impairment of photosynthetic capacity with a moderate increase in air temperature. An unusual and potentially important observation was that foliar respiration did not acclimate to growth temperature, resulting in substantially higher leaf respiration at the higher growth temperatures. Lower net carbon assimilation was correlated with lower growth at higher temperatures. Total biomass at the end of the growing season decreased in direct proportion to the

  15. Workshop on seedling physiology and growth problems in oak plantings (5th) (abstracts). Held in Ames, Iowa on March 4-5, 1992. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.R.; Schultz, R.C.; Van Sambeek, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The fifth workshop on seedling physiology and growth problems in oak plantings was held at the Holiday Inn Gateway Center in Ames, Iowa on March 4 and 5, 1992 with more than 45 participants. The workshop continues to serve as an informal forum for researchers to exchange ideas and research results. Papers were divided into four general subject areas: (1) field performance of planted oaks, (2) seedling propagation and production, (3) oak physiology and genetics, and (4) natural and acorn germination regeneration. All abstracts prepared for the workshop are included in the technical report.

  16. A Comparison of Oligogalacturonide- and Auxin-Induced Extracellular Alkalinization and Growth Responses in Roots of Intact Cucumber Seedlings1

    PubMed Central

    Spiro, Mark D.; Bowers, Jonathan F.; Cosgrove, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    Oligogalacturonic acid (OGA) affects plant growth and development in an antagonistic manner to that of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the mechanism by which remains to be determined. This study describes the relationship between IAA and OGA activity in intact cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings. Both OGA and IAA induced rapid and transient extracellular alkalinization; however, the characteristics of the OGA and IAA responses differed in their kinetics, magnitude, calcium dependence, and region of the root in which they induced their maximal response. IAA (1 μm) induced a saturating alkalinization response of approximately 0.2 pH unit and a rapid reduction (approximately 80%) in root growth that only partially recovered over 20 h. OGAs, specifically those with a degree of polymerization of 10 to 13, induced a maximal alkalinization response of 0.48 pH unit, but OGA treatment did not alter root growth. Saturating concentrations of OGA did not block IAA-induced alkalinization or the initial IAA-induced inhibition of root growth but allowed IAA-treated roots to recover their initial growth rate within 270 min. IAA-induced alkalinization occurs primarily in the growing apical region of the root, whereas OGA induced its maximal response in the basal region of the root. This study demonstrates that OGA and IAA act by distinct mechanisms and that OGA does not simply act by inhibition of IAA action. These results also suggest that IAA-induced extracellular alkalinization is not sufficient to account for the mechanism by which IAA inhibits root growth. PMID:12376654

  17. RNA-seq reveals the downregulated proteins related to photosynthesis in growth-inhibited rice seedlings induced by low-energy N+ beam implantation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Q F; Ya, H Y; Wang, W D; Jiao, Z

    2014-03-26

    Transcriptomic research based on RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology is innovative and will provide new opportunities and biological perspectives for the use of ion-beam implantation in plants. Using RNA-seq, transcriptomes of whole rice seedlings generated from seeds implanted with a low-energy N+ beam were analyzed 96 h after planting. We identified 544 transcripts that were differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the non-growth-inhibited sample implanted by an N+ beam, including 262 upregulated transcripts and 282 downregulated transcripts. Next, 776 transcripts were identified as DEGs in significantly damaged and growth-inhibited rice seedlings induced by N+ beam implantation, including 283 upregulated transcripts and 493 downregulated transcripts. The Gene Ontology (GO) analysis showed that 19 downregulated DEGs in the injured rice seedlings are enriched for the biological process GO term photosynthesis. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis also showed that 11 downregulated DEGs related to chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins are statistically significantly enriched in the photosynthesis-antenna protein pathway (Pathwayid: map00196). This result suggested that the downregulated and injured photosynthesis system contributed to the growth inhibition of rice seedlings induced by low-energy N+ beam implantation.

  18. D27E mutation of VTC1 impairs the interaction with CSN5B and enhances ascorbic acid biosynthesis and seedling growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Shenghui; Wang, Juan; Yu, Yanwen; Wang, Fengru; Dong, Jingao; Huang, Rongfeng

    2016-11-01

    Our previous investigation revealed that GDP-Man pyrophosphorylase (VTC1), a vital ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthesis enzyme, could be degraded through interaction with the photomorphogenic factor COP9 signalosome subunit 5B (CSN5B) in the darkness, demonstrating the posttranscriptional regulation of light signal in AsA production. Here, we further report that a point mutation in D27E of VTC1 disables the interaction with CSN5B, resulting in enhancement of AsA biosynthesis and seedling growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. To identify the interaction sites with CSN5B, we first predicted the key amino acids in VTC1 via bioinformatics analysis. And then we biochemically and genetically demonstrated that the 27th Asp was the amino acid that influenced the interaction of VTC1 with CSN5B in plants. Moreover, transgenic lines overexpressing the site-specific mutagenesis from D27 (Asp) into E27 (Glu) in VTC1 showed enhanced AsA accumulation and reduced H2O2 content in Arabidopsis seedlings, compared with the lines overexpressing the mutation from D27 into N27 (Asn) in VTC1. In addition, this regulation of VTC1 D27E mutation promoted seedling growth. Together, our data reveal that the 27th amino acid of VTC1 confers a key regulation in the interaction with CSN5B and AsA biosynthesis, as well as in Arabidopsis seedling growth.

  19. Extraradical mycelium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi radiating from large plants depresses the growth of nearby seedlings in a nutrient deficient substrate.

    PubMed

    Janoušková, Martina; Rydlová, Jana; Püschel, David; Száková, Jiřina; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2011-10-01

    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) on the interaction of large plants and seedlings in an early succession situation was investigated in a greenhouse experiment using compartmented rhizoboxes. Tripleurospermum inodorum, a highly mycorrhiza-responsive early coloniser of spoil banks, was cultivated either non-mycorrhizal or inoculated with AM fungi in the central compartment of the rhizoboxes. After two months, seedlings of T. inodorum or Sisymbrium loeselii, a non-host species colonising spoil banks simultaneously with T. inodorum, were planted in lateral compartments, which were colonised by the extraradical mycelium (ERM) of the pre-cultivated T. inodorum in the inoculated treatments. The experiment comprised the comparison of two AM fungal isolates and two substrates: spoil bank soil and a mixture of this soil with sand. As expected based on the low nutrient levels in the substrates, the pre-cultivated T. inodorum plants responded positively to mycorrhiza, the response being more pronounced in phosphorus uptake than in nitrogen uptake and growth. In contrast, the growth of the seedlings, both the host and the non-host species, was inhibited in the mycorrhizal treatments. Based on the phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations in the biomass of the experimental plants, this growth inhibition was attributed to nitrogen depletion in the lateral compartments by the ERM radiating from the central compartment. The results point to an important aspect of mycorrhizal effects on the coexistence of large plants and seedlings in nutrient deficient substrates.

  20. Effects of growth medium, nutrients, water, and aeration on mycorrhization and biomass allocation of greenhouse-grown interior Douglas-fir seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kazantseva, Olga; Bingham, Marcus; Simard, Suzanne W; Berch, Shannon M

    2009-11-01

    Commercial nursery practices usually fail to promote mycorrhization of interior Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco] seedlings in British Columbia, which may account for their poor performance following planting in the field. We tested the effects of four nursery cultivation factors (nitrogen fertilization, phosphorus fertilization, watering, and soil aeration) and field soil addition on mycorrhization, survival, growth, and biomass allocation of interior Douglas-fir seedlings in a series of greenhouse experiments. Where field soil was added to the growing medium, mycorrhization and root/shoot ratios were maximized at lower levels of mineral nutrient application and aeration. Where field soil was not added, mycorrhization was negligible across all fertilization and aeration treatments, but root/shoot ratio was maximized at lower levels of mineral nutrients and the highest level of aeration. Regardless of whether field soil was added, intermediate levels of soil water resulted in the best mycorrhizal colonization and root/shoot ratios. However, field soil addition reduced seedling mortality at the two lowest water levels. A cluster analysis placed ectomycorrhizal morphotypes into three groups (Mycelium radicis-atrovirens Melin, Wilcoxina, and mixed) based on their treatment response, with all but two morphotypes in the mixed group whose abundance was maximized under conditions common to advanced seedling establishment. For maximal mycorrhization and root development of interior Douglas-fir seedlings, nurseries should minimize addition of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients, maximize aeration, provide water at moderate rates, and, where possible, add small amounts of field soil to the growing medium.

  1. Influence of Bacillus spp. strains on seedling growth and physiological parameters of sorghum under moisture stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Grover, Minakshi; Madhubala, R; Ali, Sk Z; Yadav, S K; Venkateswarlu, B

    2014-09-01

    Microorganisms isolated from stressed ecosystem may prove as ideal candidates for development of bio-inoculants for stressed agricultural production systems. In the present study, moisture stress tolerant rhizobacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of sorghum, pigeonpea, and cowpea grown under semiarid conditions in India. Four isolates KB122, KB129, KB133, and KB142 from sorghum rhizosphere exhibited plant growth promoting traits and tolerance to salinity, high temperature, and moisture stress. These isolates were identified as Bacillus spp. by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The strains were evaluated for growth promotion of sorghum seedlings under two different moisture stress conditions (set-I, continuous 50% soil water holding capacity (WHC) throughout the experiment and set-II, 75% soil WHC for 27 days followed by no irrigation for 5 days) under greenhouse conditions. Plate count and scanning electron microscope studies indicated successful root surface colonization by inoculated bacteria. Plants inoculated with Bacillus spp. strains showed better growth in terms of shoot length and root biomass with dark greenish leaves due to high chlorophyll content while un-inoculated plants showed rolling of the leaves, stunted appearance, and wilting under both stress conditions. Inoculation also improved leaf relative water content and soil moisture content. However, variation in proline and sugar content in the different treatments under two stress conditions indicated differential effect of microbial treatments on plant physiological parameters under stress conditions.

  2. Effects of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate particles on growth and gas exchange rates of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Otani, Yoko; Li, Peiran; Nagao, Hiroshi; Lenggoro, I. Wuled; Ishida, Atsushi; Yazaki, Kenichi; Noguchi, Kyotaro; Nakaba, Satoshi; Yamane, Kenichi; Kuroda, Katsushi; Sano, Yuzou; Funada, Ryo; Izuta, Takeshi

    2014-11-01

    To clarify the effects of long-term exposure to ammonium sulfate (AS) particles on growth and physiological functions of forest tree species, seedlings of Fagus crenata, Castanopsis sieboldii, Larix kaempferi and Cryptomeria japonica were exposed to submicron-size AS particles during two growing seasons from 3 June 2011 to 8 October 2012. The mean sulfate concentration in PM2.5 increased during the exposure inside the chamber in 2011 and 2012 by 2.73 and 4.32 μg SO42- m-3, respectively. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were detected on the whole-plant dry mass of the seedlings. These results indicate that the exposure to submicrometer AS particles at the ambient level for two growing seasons did not significantly affect the growth of the seedlings. No significant effects of exposure to AS particles were found on the net photosynthetic rate in the leaves or needles of F. crenata, C. sieboldii and L. kaempferi seedlings. Also, in the previous-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, exposure to AS particles significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, which may be caused by the reduction in the concentration of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). On the contrary, in current-year needles of C. japonica seedlings, net photosynthetic rate significantly increased with exposure to AS particles, which may be the result of increases in stomatal conductance and concentrations of Rubisco and chlorophyll. Furthermore, exposure to AS particles correlated with an increase in concentrations of NH4+, free amino acid and total soluble protein, suggesting that AS particles may be deliquesced, absorbed into the leaves and metabolized into amino acid and protein. These results suggest that net photosynthesis in the needles of C. japonica is relatively sensitive to submicron-size AS particles as compared with the other three tree species.

  3. Seed reserve composition in 19 tree species of a tropical deciduous forest in Mexico and its relationship to seed germination and seedling growth

    PubMed Central

    Soriano, Diana; Orozco-Segovia, Alma; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith; Kitajima, Kaoru; Gamboa-de Buen, Alicia; Huante, Pilar

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The size and composition of seed reserves may reflect the ecological strategy and evolutionary history of a species and also temporal variation in resource availability. The seed mass and composition of seed reserves of 19 co-existing tree species were studied, and we examined how they varied among species in relation to germination and seedling growth rates, as well as between two years with contrasting precipitation (652 and 384 mm). Methods Seeds were collected from a tropical deciduous forest in the northwest of Mexico (Chamela Biological Station). The seed dry mass, with and without the seed coat, and the concentrations of lipids, nitrogen and non-structural carbohydrates for the seed minus seed coat were determined. The anatomical localization of these reserves was examined using histochemical analysis. The germination capacity, rate and lag time were determined. The correlations among these variables, and their relationship to previously reported seedling relative growth rates, were evaluated with and without phylogenetic consideration. Key Results There were interannual differences in seed mass and reserve composition. Seed was significantly heavier after the drier year in five species. Nitrogen concentration was positively correlated with seed coat fraction, and was significantly higher after the drier year in 12 species. The rate and lag time of germination were negatively correlated with each other. These trait correlations were also supported for phylogenetic independent contrasts. Principal component analysis supported these correlations, and indicated a negative association of seedling relative growth rate with seed size, and a positive association of germination rate with nitrogen and lipid concentrations. Conclusions Nitrogen concentration tended to be higher after the drier year and, while interannual variations in seed size and reserve composition were not sufficient to affect interspecific correlations among seed and seedling

  4. Graviresponse and its regulation from the aspect of molecular levels in higher plants: growth and development, and auxin polar transport in etiolated pea seedlings under microgravity.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Kensuke; Hoshino, Tomoki; Hitotsubashi, Reiko; Tanimoto, Eiichi; Ueda, Junichi

    2003-10-01

    In STS-95 space experiments we have demonstrated that microgravity conditions resulted in automorphosis in etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings (Ueda et al. 1999). Automorphosis-like growth and development in etiolated pea seedlings were also induced under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional (3-D) clinostat, epicotyls being the most oriented toward the direction far from the cotyledons. Detail analysis of epicotyl bending revealed that within 36 h after watering, no significant difference in growth direction of epicotyls was observed in between seedlings grown on the 3-D clinostat and under 1 g conditions, differential growth near the cotyledonary node resulting in epicotyl bending of ca. 45 degrees toward the direction far from the cotyledons. Thereafter epicotyls continued to grow almost straightly keeping this orientation on the 3-D clinostat. On the other hand, the growth direction in etiolated seedlings changed to antigravity direction by negative gravitropic response under 1 g conditions. Automorphological epicotyl bending was also phenocopied by the application of auxin polar transport inhibitors such as 9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid, N-(1-naphtyl)phthalamic acid and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid. These results together with the fact that auxin polar transport activity in etiolated pea epicotyls was substantially reduced in space suggested that reduced auxin polar transport is closely related to automorphosis. Strenuous efforts to learn how gravity contributes to the auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls in molecular bases resulted in successful identification of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 encoding putative auxin-efflux and influx carrier proteins, respectively. Based on the results of these gene expression under simulated microgravity conditions, a possible role of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 genes for auxin polar transport in etiolated pea seedlings will be discussed.

  5. Arabidopsis NITRILASE 1 Contributes to the Regulation of Root Growth and Development through Modulation of Auxin Biosynthesis in Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Thomas; Janowitz, Tim; Sánchez-Parra, Beatriz; Alonso, Marta-Marina Pérez; Trompetter, Inga; Piotrowski, Markus; Pollmann, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Nitrilases consist of a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of organic cyanides. They are found ubiquitously distributed in the plant kingdom. Plant nitrilases are mainly involved in the detoxification of ß-cyanoalanine, a side-product of ethylene biosynthesis. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana a second group of Brassicaceae-specific nitrilases (NIT1-3) has been found. This so-called NIT1-subfamily has been associated with the conversion of indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN) into the major plant growth hormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). However, apart of reported functions in defense responses to pathogens and in responses to sulfur depletion, conclusive insight into the general physiological function of the NIT-subfamily nitrilases remains elusive. In this report, we test both the contribution of the indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx) pathway to general auxin biosynthesis and the influence of altered nitrilase expression on plant development. Apart of a comprehensive transcriptomics approach to explore the role of the IAOx route in auxin formation, we took a genetic approach to disclose the function of NITRILASE 1 (NIT1) of A. thaliana. We show that NIT1 over-expression (NIT1ox) results in seedlings with shorter primary roots, and an increased number of lateral roots. In addition, NIT1ox plants exhibit drastic changes of both free IAA and IAN levels, which are suggested to be the reason for the observed phenotype. On the other hand, NIT2RNAi knockdown lines, capable of suppressing the expression of all members of the NIT1-subfamily, were generated and characterized to substantiate the above-mentioned findings. Our results demonstrate for the first time that Arabidopsis NIT1 has profound effects on root morphogenesis in early seedling development.

  6. Arabidopsis NITRILASE 1 Contributes to the Regulation of Root Growth and Development through Modulation of Auxin Biosynthesis in Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Thomas; Janowitz, Tim; Sánchez-Parra, Beatriz; Alonso, Marta-Marina Pérez; Trompetter, Inga; Piotrowski, Markus; Pollmann, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Nitrilases consist of a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of organic cyanides. They are found ubiquitously distributed in the plant kingdom. Plant nitrilases are mainly involved in the detoxification of ß-cyanoalanine, a side-product of ethylene biosynthesis. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana a second group of Brassicaceae-specific nitrilases (NIT1-3) has been found. This so-called NIT1-subfamily has been associated with the conversion of indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN) into the major plant growth hormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). However, apart of reported functions in defense responses to pathogens and in responses to sulfur depletion, conclusive insight into the general physiological function of the NIT-subfamily nitrilases remains elusive. In this report, we test both the contribution of the indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx) pathway to general auxin biosynthesis and the influence of altered nitrilase expression on plant development. Apart of a comprehensive transcriptomics approach to explore the role of the IAOx route in auxin formation, we took a genetic approach to disclose the function of NITRILASE 1 (NIT1) of A. thaliana. We show that NIT1 over-expression (NIT1ox) results in seedlings with shorter primary roots, and an increased number of lateral roots. In addition, NIT1ox plants exhibit drastic changes of both free IAA and IAN levels, which are suggested to be the reason for the observed phenotype. On the other hand, NIT2RNAi knockdown lines, capable of suppressing the expression of all members of the NIT1-subfamily, were generated and characterized to substantiate the above-mentioned findings. Our results demonstrate for the first time that Arabidopsis NIT1 has profound effects on root morphogenesis in early seedling development. PMID:28174581

  7. Influence of electrolytes on growth, phototropism, nutation and surface potential in etiolated cucumber seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalding, E. P.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    A variety of electrolytes (10-30 mol m-3) increased the relative growth rate of etiolated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Burpee's Pickler) hypocotyls by 20-50% relative to water-only controls. The nonelectrolyte mannitol inhibited growth by 10%. All salts tested were effective, regardless of chemical composition or valence. Measurements of cell-sap osmolality ruled out an osmotic mechanism for the growth stimulation by electrolytes. This, and the nonspecificity of the response, indicate that an electrical property of the solutions was responsible for their growth-stimulating activity. Measurements of surface electrical potential supported this reasoning. Treatment with electrolytes also enhanced nutation and altered the pattern of phototropic curvature development. A novel analytical method for quantitating these effects on growth was developed. The evidence indicates that electrolytes influence an electrophysiological parameter that is involved in the control of cell expansion and the coordination of growth underlying tropisms and nutations.

  8. [Effects of soil water regimes on the growth of Quercus mongolica seedlings in Changbai Mountains].

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao; Li, Qiurong; Hao, Zhanqing; Dong, Baili

    2004-10-01

    This paper studied the response of the seedlings of Quercus mongolica, one of the dominant tree species in Changbai Mountains, to the artificially controlled three soil water gradients, including their morphology, biomass and photosynthetic characteristics. The results indicated that various water regimes significantly affected the biomass and its distribution pattern in the leaves, branches and roots, as well as the leaf gas exchange. Under soil water stress, the crown structure changed, and the tree height, groundline diameter, single leaf area, and aboveground and belowground biomass were inhibited. As soil water content decreased, the ratio of belowground and aboveground biomass dry weight significantly increased. Water stress had a negative effect on net photosynthetic rate, CO2 use efficiency and carbon use efficiency. The responses of stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and water use efficiency to water stress were complicated. Only at low soil water content, the stomatal conductance and transpiration rate significantly decreased, while water use efficiency increased. It was demonstrated that Quercus mongolica was the tree species with variable resistance to drought, and the resistance could be improved by long-term soil water stress.

  9. Emergent properties of a computational model of tumour growth

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    While there have been enormous advances in our understanding of the genetic drivers and molecular pathways involved in cancer in recent decades, there also remain key areas of dispute with respect to fundamental theories of cancer. The accumulation of vast new datasets from genomics and other fields, in addition to detailed descriptions of molecular pathways, cloud the issues and lead to ever greater complexity. One strategy in dealing with such complexity is to develop models to replicate salient features of the system and therefore to generate hypotheses which reflect on the real system. A simple tumour growth model is outlined which displays emergent behaviours that correspond to a number of clinically relevant phenomena including tumour growth, intra-tumour heterogeneity, growth arrest and accelerated repopulation following cytotoxic insult. Analysis of model data suggests that the processes of cell competition and apoptosis are key drivers of these emergent behaviours. Questions are raised as to the role of cell competition and cell death in physical cancer growth and the relevance that these have to cancer research in general is discussed. PMID:27413638

  10. Early survival and height growth of douglas-fir and lodgepole pine seedling and variations in site factors following treatment of logging residues. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Lopushinsky, W.; Zabowski, D.; Anderson, T.D.

    1992-06-01

    Logging residues were (1) broadcast burned, (2) piled and burned, (3) removed, or (4) left in place after clearcutting in a high elevation subalpine fir/lodgepole pine forest in north-central Washington. Survival, height growth, and nutrient content of foliage of planted Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine seedlings, and variations in soil factors (nutrients, temperature, moisture, and compaction) and air temperature were compared for the four treatments. Little height growth occurred the first year, and it was similar for all treatments, probably due to transplant shock. Height growth the second year increased the most in the burned treatments, and the least in the slash-left treatment. Levels of nutrients in foliage were similar for all treatments and above threshold-deficiency levels except for sulfur. Extractable soil nutrients increased with burn treatments but returned to levels in other treatments within 3 years, best performance of seedlings during the first 2 years was in burn treatments.

  11. [Effects nutrients on the seedlings root hair development and root growth of Poncirus trifoliata under hydroponics condition].

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiu; Xia, Ren-Xue; Zhang, De-Jian; Shu, Bo

    2013-06-01

    Ahydroponics experiment was conducted to study the effects of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn) deficiency on the length of primary root, the number of lateral roots, and the root hair density, length, and diameter on the primary root and lateral roots of Poncirus trifoliata seedlings. Under the deficiency of each test nutrient, root hair could generate, but was mainly concentrated on the root base and fewer on the root tip. The root hair density on lateral roots was significantly larger than that on primary root, but the root hair length was in adverse. The deficiency of each test nutrient had greater effects on the growth and development of root hairs, with the root hair density on primary root varied from 55.0 to 174.3 mm(-2). As compared with the control, Ca deficiency induced the significant increase of root hair density and length on primary root, P deficiency promoted the root hair density and length on the base and middle part of primary root and on the lateral roots significantly, Fe deficiency increased the root hair density but decreased the root hair length on the tip of primary root significantly, K deficiency significantly decreased the root hair density, length, and diameter on primary root and lateral roots, whereas Mg deficiency increased the root hair length of primary root significantly. In all treatments of nutrient deficiency, the primary root had the similar growth rate, but, with the exceptions of N and Mg deficiency, the lateral roots exhibited shedding and regeneration.

  12. An increase in melatonin in transgenic rice causes pleiotropic phenotypes, including enhanced seedling growth, delayed flowering, and low grain yield.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Yeong; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2014-05-01

    No previous reports have described the effects of an increase in endogenous melatonin levels on plant yield and reproduction. Here, the phenotypes of melatonin-rich transgenic rice plants overexpressing sheep serotonin N-acetyltransferase were investigated under field conditions. Early seedling growth of melatonin-rich transgenic rice was greatly accelerated, with enhanced biomass relative to the wild type (WT). However, flowering was delayed by 1 wk in the transgenic lines compared with the WT. Grain yields of the melatonin-rich transgenic lines were reduced by 33% on average. Other phenotypes also varied among the transgenic lines. For example, the transgenic line S1 exhibited greater height and biomass than the WT, while the S10 transgenic line showed diminished height and an increase in panicle numbers per plant. The expression levels of Oryza sativa homeobox1 (OSH1) and TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 (TB1) genes, two key regulators of meristem initiation and maintenance, were not altered in the transgenic lines. These data demonstrate that an alteration of endogenous melatonin levels leads to pleiotropic effects such as height, biomass, panicle number, flowering time, and grain yield, indicating that melatonin behaves as a signaling molecule in plant growth and reproduction.

  13. Studies on amendment of different biopolymers in sandy loam and their effect on germination, seedling growth of Gossypium herbaceum L.

    PubMed

    Patil, Satish Vitthalrao; Salunke, B K; Patil, C D; Salunkhe, R B

    2011-03-01

    Different biopolymers, agar, cellulose, alginate, psyllium gaur gum, and bacterial exopolysaccharide (EPS) powders were amended to check their efficacy in enhancing maximum water holding capacity (MWHC), permanent wilting point (PWP), and germination and seedling growth of the Gossypium herbaceum in a laboratory scale. The efficacy of all biopolymers for enhancement of MWHC, PWP, and growth was also analyzed by measuring organic carbon, organic matter, total nitrogen, respiration rate, and microflora in amended and control sandy loams. The range of concentrations (0.2-2%) of all biopolymers was incorporated in sandy loam containing pots. The soil without polymer was considered as control. The psyllium (0.6%) and bacterial EPS (1%) amended soil has 242 and 233% increase in MWHC and thus delaying in the permanent wilting point by 108 and 84 h at 37 °C, respectively, as compared to control. All biopolymers found to increase more or less MWHC, organic matter, total nitrogen, microflora, and PWP as compared to control. The psyllium and bacterial EPS show the highest increase organic matter, biomass, and microflora. The highest reduction in MWHC after 12 weeks were observed in cellulose, gaur gum, and alginate; besides, psyllium, bacterial EPS, and agar showed comparatively less reduction MWHC, i.e., 24% and 14.5%, respectively. The toxicity studies of biopolymer were carried out on earthworm (Eisenia foetida). It revealed their nontoxic nature. The biopolymer amendment in sandy loam can be an effective strategy to improved soil texture, fertility, and thereby crop yield.

  14. Isolation and Screening of Bacteria for Their Diazotrophic Potential and Their Influence on Growth Promotion of Maize Seedlings in Greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Kifle, Medhin H; Laing, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Poor soil fertility is one of the major constraints for crop production. Nitrogen is the most limiting nutrient for increasing crop productivity. Therefore, there is a need to identify diazotrophic inoculants as an alternative or supplement to N-fertilizers for sustainable agriculture. In the current study, a number of free-living diazotrophic bacteria were isolated from soils collected from maize rhizosphere and from leaves and roots of maize within the KwaZulu-Natal Province, Republic of South Africa. Ninety-two isolates were selected for further screening because they were able to grow on N-free media containing different carbon sources. Isolates that were very slow to grow on N-free media were discarded. The isolates were screened in vitro for diazotrophic potential tests for ammonia production and acetylene reduction. Ethylene (C2H4) production was quantified and ranged from 4 to 73 nmoles of C2H4h(-1) culture(-1). The top 20 isolates were re-screened on maize seedlings, and eight isolates significantly (P = 0.001) enhanced some growth parameters of maize above the un-inoculated control. Isolates that showed significant effect on at least two growth parameters were identified at species or genera level. In conclusion, selected diazotrophic isolates may be potentially beneficial but they should be tested more in greenhouse and field conditions with maize to confirm their potential for application as biofertilizers.

  15. Isolation and Screening of Bacteria for Their Diazotrophic Potential and Their Influence on Growth Promotion of Maize Seedlings in Greenhouses

    PubMed Central

    Kifle, Medhin H.; Laing, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Poor soil fertility is one of the major constraints for crop production. Nitrogen is the most limiting nutrient for increasing crop productivity. Therefore, there is a need to identify diazotrophic inoculants as an alternative or supplement to N-fertilizers for sustainable agriculture. In the current study, a number of free-living diazotrophic bacteria were isolated from soils collected from maize rhizosphere and from leaves and roots of maize within the KwaZulu-Natal Province, Republic of South Africa. Ninety-two isolates were selected for further screening because they were able to grow on N-free media containing different carbon sources. Isolates that were very slow to grow on N-free media were discarded. The isolates were screened in vitro for diazotrophic potential tests for ammonia production and acetylene reduction. Ethylene (C2H4) production was quantified and ranged from 4 to 73 nmoles of C2H4h−1 culture−1. The top 20 isolates were re-screened on maize seedlings, and eight isolates significantly (P = 0.001) enhanced some growth parameters of maize above the un-inoculated control. Isolates that showed significant effect on at least two growth parameters were identified at species or genera level. In conclusion, selected diazotrophic isolates may be potentially beneficial but they should be tested more in greenhouse and field conditions with maize to confirm their potential for application as biofertilizers. PMID:26779245

  16. Poultry litter placement effects on cotton seedling emergence and early growth stage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in using poultry litter (PL) as a nutrient source for row crop production has increased in the Southeastern U.S. Poultry litter is generally broadcasted on the soil surface. This practice exposes litter N to volatilization and litter P to loss with surface water runoff, which potentially ne...

  17. CARRY-OVER EFFECTS OF OZONE ON ROOT GROWTH AND CARBOHYDRATE CONCENTRATIONS OF PONDEROSA PINE SEEDLINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone exposure decreases belowground carbon allocation and root growth of plants;however,the extent to which these effects persist and the cumulative impact of ozone stress on plant growth are poorly understood.To evaluate the potential for plant compensation,we followed the prog...

  18. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) impact on post-germination seedling growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chemical interaction between plants, which is referred to as allelopathy, may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plant extracts on the post-germination growth of five plant species...

  19. [Graviresponse in higher plants and its regulation in molecular bases: relevance to growth and development, and auxin polar transport in etiolated pea seedlings].

    PubMed

    Ueda, Junichi; Miyamoto, Kensuke

    2003-08-01

    We review the graviresponse under true and simulated microgravity conditions on a clinostat in higher plants, and its regulation in molecular bases, especially on the aspect of auxin polar transport in etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings which were the plant materials subjected to STS-95 space experiments. True and simulated microgravity conditions substantially affected growth and development in etiolated pea seedlings, especially the direction of growth of stems and roots, resulting in automorphosis. In etiolated pea seedlings grown in space, epicotyls were the most oriented toward the direction far from the cotyledons, and roots grew toward the aerial space of Plant Growth Chamber. Automorphosis observed in space were well simulated by a clinorotation on a 3-dimensional clinostat and also phenocopied by the application of auxin polar transport inhibitors of 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, N-(1-naphtyl)phthalamic acid and 9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid. Judging from the results described above together with the fact that activities of auxin polar transport in epicotyls of etiolated pea seedlings grown in space substantially were reduced, auxin polar transport seems to be closely related to automorphosis. Strenuous efforts to learn in molecular levels how gravity contributes to the auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls resulted in successful identification of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 genes located in plasma membrane which products are considered to be putative efflux and influx carriers of auxin, respectively. Based on the results of expression of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 genes under various gravistimulations, a possible role of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 genes for auxin polar transport in etiolated pea seedlings will be discussed.

  20. Effect of temperature and nutrients on the growth and development of seedlings of an invasive plant

    PubMed Central

    Skálová, Hana; Moravcová, Lenka; Dixon, Anthony F. G.; Kindlmann, P.; Pyšek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Plant species distributions are determined by the response of populations to regional climates; however, little is known about how alien plants that arrive in central Europe from climatically warmer regions cope with the temperature conditions at the early stage of population development. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) is an invasive annual plant causing considerable health and economic problems in Europe. Although climate-based models predict that the whole of the Czech Republic is climatically suitable for this species, it is confined to the warmest regions. To determine the factors possibly responsible for its restricted occurrence, we investigated the effects of temperature and nutrient availability on its seedlings. The plants were cultivated at one of seven temperature regimes ranging from 10 to 34 °C, combined with three nutrient levels. The data on the rate of leaf development were used to calculate the lower developmental threshold (LDT, the temperature, in °C, below which development ceases), the sum of effective temperatures (SET, the amount of heat needed to complete a developmental stage measured in degree days above LDT) and width of the thermal window. The rate of development decreased with decrease in temperature and nutrient supply. Besides this, the decrease in the availability of nutrients resulted in decreased LDT, increased SET and wider thermal window. The dependence of LDT and SET on the availability of nutrients contradicts the concept that thermal constants do not vary. Our results highlight temperature as the main determinant of common ragweed's distribution and identify nutrient availability as a factor that results in the realized niche being smaller than the fundamental niche; both of these need to be taken into account when predicting the future spread of A. artemisiifolia. PMID:25926326

  1. Effect of temperature and nutrients on the growth and development of seedlings of an invasive plant.

    PubMed

    Skálová, Hana; Moravcová, Lenka; Dixon, Anthony F G; Kindlmann, P; Pyšek, Petr

    2015-04-28

    Plant species distributions are determined by the response of populations to regional climates; however, little is known about how alien plants that arrive in central Europe from climatically warmer regions cope with the temperature conditions at the early stage of population development. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) is an invasive annual plant causing considerable health and economic problems in Europe. Although climate-based models predict that the whole of the Czech Republic is climatically suitable for this species, it is confined to the warmest regions. To determine the factors possibly responsible for its restricted occurrence, we investigated the effects of temperature and nutrient availability on its seedlings. The plants were cultivated at one of seven temperature regimes ranging from 10 to 34 °C, combined with three nutrient levels. The data on the rate of leaf development were used to calculate the lower developmental threshold (LDT, the temperature, in °C, below which development ceases), the sum of effective temperatures (SET, the amount of heat needed to complete a developmental stage measured in degree days above LDT) and width of the thermal window. The rate of development decreased with decrease in temperature and nutrient supply. Besides this, the decrease in the availability of nutrients resulted in decreased LDT, increased SET and wider thermal window. The dependence of LDT and SET on the availability of nutrients contradicts the concept that thermal constants do not vary. Our results highlight temperature as the main determinant of common ragweed's distribution and identify nutrient availability as a factor that results in the realized niche being smaller than the fundamental niche; both of these need to be taken into account when predicting the future spread of A. artemisiifolia.

  2. De Novo Amino Acid Biosynthesis Contributes to Salmonella enterica Growth in Alfalfa Seedling Exudates

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Grace; Pisithkul, Tippapha; Amador-Noguez, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a member of the plant microbiome. Growth of S. enterica in sprouting-seed exudates is rapid; however, the active metabolic networks essential in this environment are unknown. To examine the metabolic requirements of S. enterica during growth in sprouting-seed exudates, we inoculated alfalfa seeds and identified 305 S. enterica proteins extracted 24 h postinoculation from planktonic cells. Over half the proteins had known metabolic functions, and they are involved in over one-quarter of the known metabolic reactions. Ion and metabolite transport accounted for the majority of detected reactions. Proteins involved in amino acid transport and metabolism were highly represented, suggesting that amino acid metabolic networks may be important for S. enterica growth in association with roots. Amino acid auxotroph growth phenotypes agreed with the proteomic data; auxotrophs in amino acid-biosynthetic pathways that were detected in our screen developed growth defects by 48 h. When the perceived sufficiency of each amino acid was expressed as a ratio of the calculated biomass requirement to the available concentration and compared to growth of each amino acid auxotroph, a correlation between nutrient availability and bacterial growth was found. Furthermore, glutamate transport acted as a fitness factor during S. enterica growth in association with roots. Collectively, these data suggest that S. enterica metabolism is robust in the germinating-alfalfa environment; that single-amino-acid metabolic pathways are important but not essential; and that targeting central metabolic networks, rather than dedicated pathways, may be necessary to achieve dramatic impacts on bacterial growth. PMID:25416761

  3. Clinorotation influence on the growth of root hairs in Beta Vulgaris L. seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, G. V.; Kordyum, E. L.

    It is shown that clinorotation affects the angle of Beta Vulgaris L. root hair growth and changes it from 85-95° to 40-60° at the stage of hair initiation. The investigation of actin cytoskeleton arrangement and tip-based gradient of calcium ions proved the involvement of above components in the maintenance of the directed growth in simulated microgravity (clinorotation).

  4. Barley seedling growth in soils amended with fly ash or agricultural lime followed by acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Renken, R.R.; McCallister, D.L.; Tarkalson, D.D.; Hergert, G.W.; Marx, D.B.

    2006-05-15

    Calcium-rich coal combustion fly ash can be used as an amendment to neutralize soil acidity because of its oxides and carbonate content, but its aluminum content could inhibit plant growth if soil pH values fall below optimal agronomic levels. This study measured root and shoot growth of an acid-sensitive barley (Hordeum vulgare L. 'Kearney') grown in the greenhouse on three naturally acid soils. The soils were either untreated or amended with various liming materials (dry fly ash, wet fly ash, and agricultural lime) at application rates of 0, .5, 1, and 1.5 times the recommended lime requirement, then treated with dilute acid solutions to simulate management-induced acidification. Plant growth indexes were measured at 30 days after planting. Root mass per plant and root length per plant were greater for the limed treatments than in the acidified check. Root growth in the limed treatments did not differ from root growth in the original nonacidified soils. Top mass per plant in all limed soils was either larger than or not different from that in the original nonacidified soils. Based on top mass per plant, no liming material or application rate was clearly superior. Both fly ash and agricultural lime reduced the impact of subsequent acidification on young barley plants. Detrimental effects of aluminum release on plant growth were not observed. Calcium-rich fly ash at agronomic rates is an acceptable acid-neutralizing material with no apparent negative effects.

  5. Effects of Atmospheric-Pressure N2, He, Air, and O2 Microplasmas on Mung Bean Seed Germination and Seedling Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Renwu; Zhou, Rusen; Zhang, Xianhui; Zhuang, Jinxing; Yang, Size; Bazaka, Kateryna; (Ken) Ostrikov, Kostya

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric-pressure N2, He, air, and O2 microplasma arrays have been used to investigate the effects of plasma treatment on seed germination and seedling growth of mung bean in aqueous solution. Seed germination and growth of mung bean were found to strongly depend on the feed gases used to generate plasma and plasma treatment time. Compared to the treatment with atmospheric-pressure O2, N2 and He microplasma arrays, treatment with air microplasma arrays was shown to be more efficient in improving both the seed germination rate and seedling growth, the effect attributed to solution acidification and interactions with plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Acidic environment caused by air discharge in water may promote leathering of seed chaps, thus enhancing the germination rate of mung bean, and stimulating the growth of hypocotyl and radicle. The interactions between plasma-generated reactive species, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitrogen compounds, and seeds led to a significant acceleration of seed germination and an increase in seedling length of mung bean. Electrolyte leakage rate of mung bean seeds soaked in solution activated using air microplasma was the lowest, while the catalase activity of thus-treated mung bean seeds was the highest compared to other types of microplasma.

  6. The effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria on asparagus seedlings and germinating seeds subjected to water stress under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Liddycoat, Scott M; Greenberg, Bruce M; Wolyn, David J

    2009-04-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can have positive effects on vigour and productivity, especially under stress conditions. In asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) field culture, seeds are planted in high-density nurseries, and 1-year-old crowns are transplanted to production fields. Performance can be negatively affected by water stress, transplant shock, and disease pressure on wounded roots. PGPR inoculation has the potential to alleviate some of the stresses incurred in the production system. In this study, the effects of PGPR (Pseudomonas spp.) treatment were determined on 3-week-old greenhouse-grown seedlings and germinating seeds of 2 asparagus cultivars. The pots were irrigated to a predetermined level that resulted in optimum growth or the plants were subjected to drought or flooding stress for 8 weeks. The cultivars responded differently to PGPR: single inoculations of seedlings enhanced growth of 'Guelph Millennium' under optimum conditions and 'Jersey Giant' seedlings under drought stress. Seed inoculations with PGPR resulted in a positive response only for 'Guelph Millennium', for which both single or multiple inoculations enhanced plant growth under drought stress.

  7. Automorphosis-like growth in etiolated pea seedlings is induced by the application of chemicals affecting perception of gravistimulation and its signal transduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Kensuke; Hoshino, Tomoki; Hitotsubashi, Reiko; Yamashita, Masamichi; Ueda, Junichi

    Both microgravity conditions in space and simulated microgravity using a 3-dimensional clinostat resulted in: (1) automorphosis of etiolated pea seedlings, (2) epicotyls bending ca. 45° from the vertical line to the direction away from cotyledons, (3) inhibition of hook formation and (4) alternation of growth direction of roots. These facts indicate that the growth and development of etiolated pea seedlings on earth is under the influence of gravistimulation. Lanthanum and gadolinium ions, blockers of stretch-activated mechanosensitive ion channels, induced automorphosis-like epicotyl bending. Cantharidin, an inhibitor of protein phosphatase, also phenocopied automorphosis-like growth. On the other hand, cytochalasin B, cytochalasin D and brefeldin A did not induce automorphological epicotyl bending and inhibition of hook formation, although these compounds strikingly inhibited elongation of etiolated pea epicotyls. These results strongly suggest that stretch-activated mechanosensitive ion channels are involved in the perception of signals of gravistimuli in plants, and they are transduced by protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation cascades by changing levels of calcium ions. Possible mechanisms to induce automorphosis-like growth in relation to gravity signals in etiolated pea seedlings are discussed.

  8. Effects of Atmospheric-Pressure N2, He, Air, and O2 Microplasmas on Mung Bean Seed Germination and Seedling Growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Renwu; Zhou, Rusen; Zhang, Xianhui; Zhuang, Jinxing; Yang, Size; Bazaka, Kateryna; (Ken) Ostrikov, Kostya

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure N2, He, air, and O2 microplasma arrays have been used to investigate the effects of plasma treatment on seed germination and seedling growth of mung bean in aqueous solution. Seed germination and growth of mung bean were found to strongly depend on the feed gases used to generate plasma and plasma treatment time. Compared to the treatment with atmospheric-pressure O2, N2 and He microplasma arrays, treatment with air microplasma arrays was shown to be more efficient in improving both the seed germination rate and seedling growth, the effect attributed to solution acidification and interactions with plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Acidic environment caused by air discharge in water may promote leathering of seed chaps, thus enhancing the germination rate of mung bean, and stimulating the growth of hypocotyl and radicle. The interactions between plasma-generated reactive species, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitrogen compounds, and seeds led to a significant acceleration of seed germination and an increase in seedling length of mung bean. Electrolyte leakage rate of mung bean seeds soaked in solution activated using air microplasma was the lowest, while the catalase activity of thus-treated mung bean seeds was the highest compared to other types of microplasma. PMID:27584560

  9. Bacterial Compatibility in Combined Inoculations Enhances the Growth of Potato Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Christine D.; Yagi, Shogo; Ijima, Motoaki; Nashimoto, Tomoya; Sawada, Maki; Ikeda, Seishi; Asano, Kenji; Orikasa, Yoshitake; Ohwada, Takuji

    2017-01-01

    The compatibility of strains is crucial for formulating bioinoculants that promote plant growth. We herein assessed the compatibility of four potential bioinoculants isolated from potato roots and tubers (Sphingomonas sp. T168, Streptomyces sp. R170, Streptomyces sp. R181, and Methylibium sp. R182) that were co-inoculated in order to improve plant growth. We screened these strains using biochemical tests, and the results obtained showed that R170 had the highest potential as a bioinoculant, as indicated by its significant ability to produce plant growth-promoting substances, its higher tolerance against NaCl (2%) and AlCl3 (0.01%), and growth in a wider range of pH values (5.0–10.0) than the other three strains. Therefore, the compatibility of R170 with other strains was tested in combined inoculations, and the results showed that the co-inoculation of R170 with T168 or R182 synergistically increased plant weight over un-inoculated controls, indicating the compatibility of strains based on the increased production of plant growth promoters such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and siderophores as well as co-localization on roots. However, a parallel test using strain R181, which is the same Streptomyces genus as R170, showed incompatibility with T168 and R182, as revealed by weaker plant growth promotion and a lack of co-localization. Collectively, our results suggest that compatibility among bacterial inoculants is important for efficient plant growth promotion, and that R170 has potential as a useful bioinoculant, particularly in combined inoculations that contain compatible bacteria. PMID:28163278

  10. Influence of copper on root growth and morphology of Pinus pinea L. and Pinus pinaster Ait. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Arduini, I; Godbold, D L; Onnis, A

    1995-06-01

    We assessed the effects of Cu on root growth and morphology of stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) and maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) seedlings grown in culture solutions supplied with 0.012 (control), 0.1, 1 or 5 micro M CuSO(4). The presence of 5 micro M Cu in the nutrient solution completely inhibited root growth of both species within 3 days. In both species, taproot elongation was reduced in the presence of 1 micro M Cu, although partial growth recovery occurred after 7 days of treatment. The presence of 0.1 micro M Cu in the culture solution slightly enhanced root elongation in P. pinaster, but did not significantly influence root elongation in P. pinea. In both species, root weight per unit length increased in response to Cu exposure, and in P. pinaster, root diameter was significantly increased. The Cu treatments also affected lateral root number and length. In the presence of 1 micro M Cu, both species formed only short lateral primordia. The 1 micro M Cu treatment increased the lateral root index (number of roots per cm of root length) of P. pinaster, but decreased that of P. pinea, compared with control values. Neither the 0.1 nor 1 micro M Cu treatment had a significant effect on the mitotic index of either species. We conclude that cell elongation is more sensitive to Cu than cell division. Cell membrane damage, as indicated by Trypan blue staining, occurred after 10 days of exposure to 1 micro M Cu.

  11. The plastidic DEAD-box RNA helicase 22, HS3, is essential for plastid functions both in seed development and in seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Masatake; Hayashi, Makoto; Kondo, Maki; Nishimura, Mikio

    2013-09-01

    Plants accumulate large amounts of storage products in seeds to provide an energy reserve and to supply nutrients for germination and post-germinative growth. Arabidopsis thaliana belongs to the Brassica family, and oil is the main storage product in Arabidopsis seeds. To elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of oil biosynthesis in seeds, we screened for high density seeds (heavy seed) that have a low oil content. HS3 (heavy seed 3) encodes the DEAD-box RNA helicase 22 that is localized to plastids. The triacylglycerol (TAG) content of hs3-1 seeds was 10% lower than that of wild-type (WT) seeds, while the protein content was unchanged. The hs3-1 plants displayed a pale-green phenotype in developing seeds and seedlings, but not in adult leaves. The HS3 expression level was high in developing seeds and seedlings, but was low in stems, rosette leaves and flowers. The plastid gene expression profile of WT developing seeds and seedlings differed from that of hs3-1 developing seeds and seedlings. The expression of several genes was reduced in developing hs3-1 seeds, including accD, a gene that encodes the β subunit of carboxyltransferase, which is one component of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in plastids. In contrast, no differences were observed between the expression profiles of WT and hs3-1 rosette leaves. These results show that HS3 is essential for proper mRNA accumulation of plastid genes during seed development and seedling growth, and suggest that HS3 ensures seed oil biosynthesis by maintaining plastid mRNA levels.

  12. Effect of three insecticides and two herbicides on rice (Oryza sativa) seedling germination and growth.

    PubMed

    Moore, M T; Kröger, R

    2010-11-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important food crops worldwide. However, it is also a valuable tool in assessing toxicity of organic and inorganic compounds. For more than 20 years, it has been an approved species for standardized phytotoxicity experiments. The objective of this study is to determine germination and radicle (root) and coleoptile (shoot) growth of rice seeds exposed to three insecticides and two herbicides, commonly used in the agricultural production landscape. Although no germination effects of pesticide exposure were observed, significant growth effects were noted between pesticide treatments. Coleoptile growth was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lowered in metolachlor/atrazine mixture, diazinon, and lambda-cyhalothrin exposures when compared with controls. Radicles of fipronil-exposed seeds were significantly larger (p ≤ 0.05) when compared with controls. This research contributes to the phytotoxicity assessment database, in addition to laying the foundation for the use of rice as a phytoremediation tool for agricultural pesticide runoff.

  13. Biomechanical tactics of chiral growth in emergent aquatic macrophytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zi-Long; Zhao, Hong-Ping; Li, Bing-Wei; Nie, Ben-Dian; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Gao, Huajian

    2015-01-01

    Through natural selection, many plant organs have evolved optimal morphologies at different length scales. However, the biomechanical strategies for different plant species to optimize their organ structures remain unclear. Here, we investigate several species of aquatic macrophytes living in the same natural environment but adopting distinctly different twisting chiral morphologies. To reveal the principle of chiral growth in these plants, we performed systematic observations and measurements of morphologies, multiscale structures, and mechanical properties of their slender emergent stalks or leaves. Theoretical modeling of pre-twisted beams in bending and buckling indicates that the different growth tactics of the plants can be strongly correlated with their biomechanical functions. It is shown that the twisting chirality of aquatic macrophytes can significantly improve their survivability against failure under both internal and external loads. The theoretical predictions for different chiral configurations are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements. PMID:26219724

  14. Biomechanical tactics of chiral growth in emergent aquatic macrophytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zi-Long; Zhao, Hong-Ping; Li, Bing-Wei; Nie, Ben-Dian; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Gao, Huajian

    2015-07-01

    Through natural selection, many plant organs have evolved optimal morphologies at different length scales. However, the biomechanical strategies for different plant species to optimize their organ structures remain unclear. Here, we investigate several species of aquatic macrophytes living in the same natural environment but adopting distinctly different twisting chiral morphologies. To reveal the principle of chiral growth in these plants, we performed systematic observations and measurements of morphologies, multiscale structures, and mechanical properties of their slender emergent stalks or leaves. Theoretical modeling of pre-twisted beams in bending and buckling indicates that the different growth tactics of the plants can be strongly correlated with their biomechanical functions. It is shown that the twisting chirality of aquatic macrophytes can significantly improve their survivability against failure under both internal and external loads. The theoretical predictions for different chiral configurations are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements.

  15. Effects of kaurane diterpene derivatives on germination and growth of Lactuca sativa seedlings.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Henriete S; Takahashi, Jacqueline A; Pimenta, Lúcia P S; Boaventura, Maria Amélia D

    2005-01-01

    Kaurenoic and grandiflorenic acid, isolated from Wedelia paludosa (Asteraceae), some derivatives from these acids (alcohols, esters, amides, lactones, oximes) and other naturally occurring kaurane diterpenes were tested for their action on the growth of radical and shoot of Lactuca sativa. Gibberellic acid, GA3, a commercially available phytohormone, belonging to the same class of diterpenes, was also tested. Some of the tested substances showed a remarkable activity either in the inhibition or in stimulation of L. sativa growth. The activity, in some cases, was even higher than that of GA3.

  16. Time and dose of irrigation impact Tuber melanosporum ectomycorrhiza proliferation and growth of Quercus ilex seedling hosts in young black truffle orchards.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Antoni; Bonet, José Antonio; Oliach, Daniel; Colinas, Carlos

    2014-04-01

    In Mediterranean climate, young truffle-oak orchards are subjected to drought episodes that can compromise the development of Tuber melanosporum. We investigated the responses of T. melanosporum to water supply in three periods: May to July, August to October, and May to October. In each period, five water doses were established: 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of the reference evapotranspiration (ETo). Five orchards were planted with Quercus ilex inoculated with T. melanosporum, and in each orchard, we arranged a two-factorial design with irrigation period and irrigation dose as main factors to test their combined effects on the development of both T. melanosporum and Q. ilex after 3 years in the field. Irrigation period significantly interacted with irrigation doses for the absolute presence per seedling of T. melanosporum mycorrhizae. Irrigation in May-July increased significantly T. melanosporum colonization in seedlings irrigated with 50% ETo dose compared to the 0% ETo dose. A similar pattern with smaller differences in means was observed in August-October period, but the irrigation doses did not change T. melanosporum colonization when we watered from May to October. We found ectomycorrhizae different from T. melanosporum in 51% of the seedlings studied, but their presence was marginal. Our results suggest that a moderate irrigation dose promotes seedling growth and number of fine root tips per unit of fine root length, which may be potentially colonized by T. melanosporum.

  17. Effects of ambient ozone on first-year growth and physiology of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh. ) seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, T.E.; Skelly, J.M.; Steiner, K.C.; Dunn, K. Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park )

    1993-06-01

    Black cherry seedlings of two open-pollinated families were exposed to ambient ozone in open plots (100%) and plots receiving non-filtered (95%), half-filtered (60%) and full-filtered (40%) concentrations via open-top chambers between early June and late-September 1992 in a replicated field experiment in central Pennsylvania. Seasonal 24-hour ambient ozone concentration averaged 34 ppb with a peak 1-hour concentration of 110 ppb. Foliar symptoms of ozone damage (adaxial stipple) occurred most prominently in open and non-filtered plots and differed between families. Net photosynthetic rate for both families was significantly lower in open and non-filtered plots compared with half- and full-filtered plots on most dates, while ozone concentration had no consistent effect on leaf conductance or dark respiration. Leaf conductance of the ozone sensitive family was significantly greater than the ozone tolerant family on most dates. First-year height and diameter growth were significantly lower in open and non-filtered plots compared with half- and full-filtered plots for both families.

  18. Effects of copper excess on growth, H2O2, production and peroxidase activities in maize seedlings (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Bouazizi, Houda; Jouili, Hager; El Ferjani, Ezzeddine

    2007-03-01

    Ten day old mays seedlings (Zea mays L., var. Aligreen) cultured in hydroponic medium were treated by toxic amounts of copper (50 and 100 microM of CuSO4) during seven days. Cupric stress induced changes in growth parameters: The matter productions were more reduced in roots than in shoots. Also, a significant decrease in shoot and root elongation was observed. On the other hand, excess of copper increased significantly endogenous H2O2 in the two investigated organs and induced changes in peroxidase activities. Our results showed that in shoots, inducibility of GPX (Guaiacol peroxidase, EC 1.11.1.7), CAPX (Coniferyl alcohol peroxidase, EC 1.11.1.4) and APX (Ascorbate peroxidase, EC.1.11.1.11) was highly significant after application of 100 microM of CuSO4. While, this effect was not observed in 50 microM Cu-stressed shoots, in roots, data showed that 50 microM of CuSO4 induced stimulation in GPX and APX activities but ACPX activity remains unchanged. In roots, by contrast, exposure to 100 microM Cu induced significant increase only in ACPX activity.

  19. Characterization of culturable bacteria isolated from hot springs for plant growth promoting traits and effect on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) seedling.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kinjal Samir; Naik, Jinal Hardik; Chaudhari, Sejal; Amaresan, Natarajan

    2017-03-23

    To elucidate the functional diversity of hot spring bacteria, 123 bacteria were isolated and screened for evaluating their multifunctional plant growth promoting (PGP) properties. The antagonistic activity against different phytopathogens showed the presence of a high amount of biocontrol bacteria in the hot springs. During screening for PGP properties, 61.0% isolates showed production of indole acetic acid and 23.6% showed inorganic phosphate solubilization qualitatively. For production of extracellular enzymes, it was found that 61.0% isolates produced lipase, 56.9% produced protease, and 43.9% produced cellulase. In extreme properties, half of the isolates showed tolerance to 5% NaCl (w/v) and 48.8% isolates survived heat shock at 70°C. The identification of 12 multipotential bacteria based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the bacteria belonged to Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus and Bacillus spp. Bacterization of tomato seeds showed that the hot spring bacteria promoted shoot height, fresh shoot weight, root length, and fresh root weight of tomato seedlings, with values ranging from 3.12% to 74.37%, 33.33% to 350.0%, 16.06% to 130.41%, and 36.36% to 318.18%, respectively, over the control. This research shows that multifunctional bacteria could be isolated from the hot springs. The outcome of this research may have a potential effect on crop production methodologies used in saline and arid environments.

  20. Ethylene-induced inhibition of root growth requires abscisic acid function in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Ma, Biao; Yin, Cui-Cui; He, Si-Jie; Lu, Xiang; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Lu, Tie-Gang; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2014-10-01

    Ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) have a complicated interplay in many developmental processes. Their interaction in rice is largely unclear. Here, we characterized a rice ethylene-response mutant mhz4, which exhibited reduced ethylene-response in roots but enhanced ethylene-response in coleoptiles of etiolated seedlings. MHZ4 was identified through map-based cloning and encoded a chloroplast-localized membrane protein homologous to Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) ABA4, which is responsible for a branch of ABA biosynthesis. MHZ4 mutation reduced ABA level, but promoted ethylene production. Ethylene induced MHZ4 expression and promoted ABA accumulation in roots. MHZ4 overexpression resulted in enhanced and reduced ethylene response in roots and coleoptiles, respectively. In root, MHZ4-dependent ABA pathway acts at or downstream of ethylene receptors and positively regulates root ethylene response. This ethylene-ABA interaction mode is different from that reported in Arabidopsis, where ethylene-mediated root inhibition is independent of ABA function. In coleoptile, MHZ4-dependent ABA pathway acts at or upstream of OsEIN2 to negatively regulate coleoptile ethylene response, possibly by affecting OsEIN2 expression. At mature stage, mhz4 mutation affects branching and adventitious root formation on stem nodes of higher positions, as well as yield-related traits. Together, our findings reveal a novel mode of interplay between ethylene and ABA in control of rice growth and development.

  1. Waterlogging in late dormancy and the early growth phase affected root and leaf morphology in Betula pendula and Betula pubescens seedlings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ai-Fang; Roitto, Marja; Sutinen, Sirkka; Lehto, Tarja; Heinonen, Jaakko; Zhang, Gang; Repo, Tapani

    2016-01-01

    The warmer winters of the future will increase snow-melt frequency and rainfall, thereby increasing the risk of soil waterlogging and its effects on trees in winter and spring at northern latitudes. We studied the morphology of roots and leaves of 1-year-old silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and pubescent birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) seedlings exposed to waterlogging during dormancy or at the beginning of the growing season in a growth-chamber experiment. The experiment included 4-week dormancy (Weeks 1-4), a 4-week early growing season (Weeks 5-8) and a 4-week late growing season (Weeks 9-12). The treatments were: (i) no waterlogging, throughout the experiment ('NW'); (ii) 4-week waterlogging during dormancy (dormancy waterlogging 'DW'); (iii) 4-week waterlogging during the early growing season (growth waterlogging 'GW'); and (iv) 4-week DW followed by 4-week GW during the early growing season ('DWGW'). Dormancy waterlogging affected the roots of silver birch and GW the roots and leaf characteristics of both species. Leaf area was reduced in both species by GW and DWGW. In pubescent birch, temporarily increased formation of thin roots was seen in root systems of GW seedlings, which suggests an adaptive mechanism with respect to excess soil water. Additionally, the high density of non-glandular trichomes and their increase in DWGW leaves were considered possible morphological adaptations to excess water in the soil, as was the constant density of stem lenticels during stem-diameter growth. The higher density in glandular trichomes of DWGW silver birch suggests morphological acclimation in that species. The naturally low density of non-glandular trichomes, low density of stem lenticels in waterlogged seedlings and decrease in root growth seen in DWGW and DW silver birch seedlings explain, at least partly, why silver birch grows more poorly relative to pubescent birch in wet soils.

  2. In Vitro Seeds Germination and Seedling Growth of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae))

    PubMed Central

    Koné, Mongomaké; Koné, Tchoa; Silué, Nakpalo; Soumahoro, André Brahima; Kouakou, Tanoh Hilaire

    2015-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an indigenous grain legume. It occupies a prominent place in the strategies to ensure food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Development of an efficient in vitro regeneration system, a prerequisite for genetic transformation application, requires the establishment of optimal conditions for seeds germination and plantlets development. Three types of seeds were inoculated on different basal media devoid of growth regulators. Various strengths of the medium of choice and the type and concentration of carbon source were also investigated. Responses to germination varied with the type of seed. Embryonic axis (EA) followed by seeds without coat (SWtC) germinated rapidly and expressed a high rate of germination. The growth performances of plantlets varied with the basal medium composition and the seeds type. The optimal growth performances of plants were displayed on half strength MS basal medium with SWtC and EA as source of seeds. Addition of 3% sucrose in the culture medium was more suitable for a maximum growth of plantlets derived from EA. PMID:26550604

  3. In Vitro Seeds Germination and Seedling Growth of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae)).

    PubMed

    Koné, Mongomaké; Koné, Tchoa; Silué, Nakpalo; Soumahoro, André Brahima; Kouakou, Tanoh Hilaire

    2015-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an indigenous grain legume. It occupies a prominent place in the strategies to ensure food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Development of an efficient in vitro regeneration system, a prerequisite for genetic transformation application, requires the establishment of optimal conditions for seeds germination and plantlets development. Three types of seeds were inoculated on different basal media devoid of growth regulators. Various strengths of the medium of choice and the type and concentration of carbon source were also investigated. Responses to germination varied with the type of seed. Embryonic axis (EA) followed by seeds without coat (SWtC) germinated rapidly and expressed a high rate of germination. The growth performances of plantlets varied with the basal medium composition and the seeds type. The optimal growth performances of plants were displayed on half strength MS basal medium with SWtC and EA as source of seeds. Addition of 3% sucrose in the culture medium was more suitable for a maximum growth of plantlets derived from EA.

  4. Propagation container and timing of propagation affects growth and quality of oak seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the container effect and the timeline of seed propagation on germination and subsequent shoot and root development for container-grown oaks. Quercus nigra and Q. texana had equal or better growth and better root ratings when acorns were sown in Anderson t...

  5. Increase of seed germination, growth and membrane integrity of wheat seedlings by exposure to static and a 10-KHz electromagnetic field.

    PubMed

    Payez, Atefeh; Ghanati, Faezeh; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Abdolmaleki, Parviz; Hajnorouzi, Abazar; Rajabbeigi, Elham

    2013-12-01

    There is a large body of experimental data demonstrating various effects of magnetic field (MF) on plants growth and development. Although the mechanism(s) of perception of MF by plants is not yet elucidated, there is a possibility that like other stimuli, MF exerts its effects on plants by changing membrane integrity and conductance of its water channels, thereby influencing growth characteristics. In this study, the seeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Kavir) were imbibed in water overnight and then treated with or without a 30-mT static magnetic field (SMF) and a 10-kHz electromagnetic field (EMF) for 4 days, each 5 h. Water uptake of seeds reduced 5 h of the treatment with EMF but did not show changes in SMF treatment. Exposure to both magnetic fields did not affect germination percent of the seeds but increased the speed of germination, compared to the control group. Treatment with EMF significantly reduced seedling length and subsequently vigor index I, while SMF had no effects on these parameters. Both treatments significantly increased vigor index II, compared to the control group. These treatments also remarkably increased catalase activity and proline contents of seedlings but reduced the activity of peroxidase, the rate of lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakages of membranes. The results suggest promotional effects of EMFs on membrane integrity and growth characteristics of wheat seedlings.

  6. Effects of Ge-132 and GeO2 on seed germination and seedling growth of Oenothera biennis L. under NaCl stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Hou, Long-Yu; Li, Qing-Mei; Jiang, Ze-Ping; Gao, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Hai-Bo

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of β-carboxyethyl germanium sequioxide (Ge-132) and germanium dioxide (GeO2) on improving salt tolerance of evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), seed germination, seedling growth, antioxidase and malondialdehyde (MDA) were observed under treatments of various concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20, 30 μM) of Ge in normal condition and in 50 mM NaCl solution. The results showed that both Ge-132 and GeO2 treatments significantly increased seed germination percentage and shoot length in dose-dependent concentrations but inhibited early root elongation growth. 5-30 μM Ge-132 and 10, 20 μM GeO2 treatments could significantly mitigate even eliminate harmful influence of salt, representing increased percentage of seed germination, root length, ratio between length of root and shoot, and decreased shoot length. These treatments also significantly decreased peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities and MDA content. The mechanism is likely that Ge scavenges reactive oxygen species - especially hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) - by its electron configuration 4S(2)4P(2) so as to reduce lipid peroxidation. This is the first report about the comparison of bioactivity effect of Ge-132 and GeO2 on seed germination and seedling growth under salt stress. We conclude that Ge-132 is better than GeO2 on promoting salt tolerance of seed and seedling.

  7. Regulation of cell division and growth in roots of Lactuca sativa L. seedlings by the Ent-Kaurene diterpenoid rabdosin B.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lan; Jing, Hongwei; Qin, Bo; Qi, Linlin; Li, Jing; Wang, Tao; Liu, Guoan

    2010-05-01

    Rabdosin B, an ent-kaurene diterpenoid purified from the air-dried aerial parts of Isodon japonica (Burm.f) Hara var. galaucocalyx (maxin) Hara, showed a biphasic, dose-dependent effect on root growth and a strong inhibitory effect on root hair development in lettuce seedlings (Lactuca sativa L.). Lower concentrations of rabdosin B (20-80 microM) significantly promoted root growth, but its higher levels at 120-200 microM, by contrast, had inhibitory effects. Additionally, all tested concentrations (10-40 microM) inhibited root hair development of seedlings in a dose-dependent manner. Further investigations on the underlying mechanism revealed that the promotion effect of rabdosin B at the lower concentrations resulted from increasing the cell length in the mature region and enhancing the mitotic activity of meristematic cells in seedlings' root tips. In contrast, rabdosin B at higher concentrations inhibited root growth by affecting both cell length in the mature region and division of meristematic cells. Comet assay and cell cycle analysis demonstrated that the decrease of mitotic activity of root meristematic cells was due to DNA damage induced cell cycle retardation of the G(2) phase and S phase at different times.

  8. Application of an enthalpy balance model of the relation between growth and respiration to temperature acclimation of Eucalyptus globulus seedlings.

    PubMed Central

    Macfarlane, Craig; Adams, Mark A; Hansen, Lee D

    2002-01-01

    The enthalpy balance model of growth uses measurements of the rates of heat and CO(2) production to quantify rates of decarboxylation, oxidative phosphorylation and net anabolism. Enthalpy conversion efficiency (eta(H)) and the net rate of conservation of enthalpy in reduced biosynthetic products (R(SG)DeltaH(B)) can be calculated from metabolic heat rate (q) and CO(2) rate (R(CO2)). eta(H) is closely related to carbon conversion efficiency and the efficiency of conservation of available electrons in biosynthetic products. R(SG)DeltaH(B) and eta(H) can be used, together with biomass composition, to describe the rate and efficiency of growth of plant tissues. q is directly related to the rate of O(2) consumption and the ratio q:R(CO2) is inversely related to the respiratory quotient. We grew seedlings of Eucalyptus globulus at 16 and 28 degrees C for four to six weeks, then measured q and R(CO2) using isothermal calorimetry. Respiratory rate at a given temperature was increased by a lower growth temperature but eta(H) was unaffected. Enthalpy conversion efficiency - and, therefore, carbon conversion efficiency - decreased with increasing temperature from 15 to 35 degrees C. The ratio of oxidative phosphorylation to oxygen consumption (P/O ratio) was inferred in vivo from eta(H) and by assuming a constant ratio of growth to maintenance respiration with changing temperature. The P/O ratio decreased from 2.1 at 10-15 degrees C to less than 0.3 at 35 degrees C, suggesting that decreased efficiency was not only due to activity of the alternative oxidase pathway. In agreement with predictions from non-equilibrium thermodynamics, growth rate was maximal near 25 degrees C, where the calculated P/O ratio was about half maximum. We propose that less efficient pathways, such as the alternative oxidase pathway, are necessary to satisfy the condition of conductance matching whilst maintaining a near constant phosphorylation potential. These conditions minimize entropy production

  9. Earthworm bioassays and seedling emergence for monitoring toxicity, aging and bioaccumulation of anthropogenic waste indicator compounds in biosolids-amended soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinney, Chad A.; Campbell, Bryan R.; Thompson, Regina; Furlong, Edward T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Burkhardt, Mark R.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Werner, Stephen L.; Hay, Anthony G.

    2012-01-01

    Land application of biosolids (treated sewage sludge) can be an important route for introducing xenobiotic compounds into terrestrial environments. There is a paucity of available information on the effects of biosolids amendment on terrestrial organisms. In this study, the influence of biosolids and biosolids aging on earthworm (Eisenia fetida) reproduction and survival and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedling emergence was investigated. Earthworms were exposed to soils amended with varying quantities of biosolids (0, 1, 2, 3, or 4% dry mass). To investigate the influence of biosolids aging, the biosolids used in the study were aged for differing lengths of time (2 or 8 weeks) prior to exposure. All of the adult earthworms survived in the biosolids–amended soils at all concentrations that were aged for 2 weeks; however, only 20% of the adults survived in the soil amended with the highest concentration of biosolids and aged for 8 weeks. Reproduction as measured by mean number of juveniles and unhatched cocoons produced per treatment correlated inversely with biosolids concentration, although the effects were generally more pronounced in the 8-week aged biosolids–soil samples. Latent seedling emergence and reduced seedling fitness correlated inversely with biosolids concentration, but these effects were tempered in the 8-week aged versus the 2-week aged soil–biosolids mixtures. Anthropogenic waste indicator compounds (AWIs) were measured in the biosolids, biosolids–soil mixtures, and earthworm samples. Where possible, bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated or estimated. A wide variety of AWIs were detected in the biosolids (51 AWIs) and earthworm samples (≤ 19 AWI). The earthworms exposed to the 8-week aged biosolids–soil mixtures tended to accumulate greater quantities of AWIs compared to the 2-week aged mixture, suggesting that the bioavailability of some AWIs was enhanced with aging. The BAFs for a given AWI varied with treatment. Notably large

  10. Molecular Control of Cell Growth During Gravity Responses of Maize Seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, Daniel J.

    2003-01-01

    Gravity influences plants in many ways via its physical effects on the convective flows of gases and liquids, the buoyancy and sedimentation of cellular organelles, and the distribution of mechanical stresses in weight-bearing structures. These physical effects lead to a variety of reactions and adaptive developmental responses in plants. Perhaps the best-studied plant gravity response is gravitropism - the "homing in" of growing organs towards a particular angle with respect to gravity. Most plants respond to gravity by gravitropic bending of roots downwards and stems upwards. Such gravitropic bending arises from differential cell growth on the two sides of the bending organ. For this project we hypothesized that such growth differences arise from differences in expansin activity, which come about because of organ-level asymmetries of H+ efflux and expansin export to the wall.

  11. Structure-activity relationship of benzoxazinones and related compounds with respect to the growth inhibition and alpha-amylase activity in cress seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Macías, Francisco A; Molinillo, José M G

    2010-10-15

    Benzoxazinones and their degradation compounds inhibited root growth and alpha-amylase activity in cress seedlings. The inhibitory activity of these compounds was divided into three groups: the high active group; 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one, 2,4-dihydroxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one, 4-hydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one, 4-hydroxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one, the moderate active group; 7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one, (2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one, 6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one, benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one and 2-amino-phenoxazine-3-one, and the low active group; 2-hydroxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one, 2-hydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one, 2-amino-7-hydroxyphenoxazine-3-one and 2-amino-7-methoxyphenoxazine-3-one. The structure-activity of these compounds suggests that compounds that have benzoxazinone skeletons are the most active structure, and a hydroxyl group at position C-2 on the benzoxazinone skeleton may not affect inhibitory activity, whereas a hydroxyl group at position N-4 on the skeleton is essential for inhibitory activity. However, the concentration-response curves of these compounds and the I(50) values (the concentrations required for 50% inhibition) for root growth and alpha-amylase indicated that root growth was positively correlated with the alpha-amylase activity in the seedlings. alpha-Amylase is required not only for seed germination, but also subsequent seedling growth until photosynthesis is sufficient to support seedling growth. Therefore, these results suggest that the compounds studied here may inhibit the root growth of cress seedlings by inhibiting alpha-amylase activity.

  12. Experimental sand burial affects seedling survivorship, morphological traits, and biomass allocation of Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa in the Horqin Sandy Land, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jiao; Busso, Carlos Alberto; Jiang, Deming; Musa, Ala; Wu, Dafu; Wang, Yongcui; Miao, Chunping

    2016-07-01

    As a native tree species, Ulmus pumila var. sabulosa (sandy elm) is widely distributed in the Horqin Sandy Land, China. However, seedlings of this species have to withstand various depths of sand burial after emergence because of increasing soil degradation, which is mainly caused by overgrazing, climate change, and wind erosion. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the changes in its survivorship, morphological traits, and biomass allocation when seedlings were buried at different burial depths: unburied controls and seedlings buried vertically up to 33, 67, 100, or 133 % of their initial mean seedling height. The results showed that partial sand burial treatments (i.e., less than 67 % burial) did not reduce seedling survivorship, which still reached 100 %. However, seedling mortality increased when sand burial was equal to or greater than 100 %. In comparison with the control treatment, seedling height and stem diameter increased at least by 6 and 14 % with partial burial, respectively. In the meantime, seedling taproot length, total biomass, and relative mass growth rates were at least enhanced by 10, 15.6, and 27.6 %, respectively, with the partial sand burial treatment. Furthermore, sand burial decreased total leaf area and changed biomass allocation in seedlings, partitioning more biomass to aboveground organs (e.g., leaves) and less to belowground parts (roots). Complete sand burial after seedling emergence inhibited its re-emergence and growth, even leading to death. Our findings indicated that seedlings of sandy elm showed some resistance to partial sand burial and were adapted to sandy environments from an evolutionary perspective. The negative effect of excessive sand burial after seedling emergence might help in understanding failures in recruitments of sparse elm in the study region.

  13. The role of seedling recruitment from juvenile populations of Carex brevicuspis (Cyperaceae) at the Dongting Lake wetlands, China

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zheng-miao; Chen, Xin-sheng; Xie, Yong-hong; Xie, Ya-jun; Hou, Zhi-yong; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Seedlings and vegetative ramets may contribute differentially to the recruitment of clonal populations in different growth phases, but this has rarely been investigated. In this study, we quantified the number and survivorship of seedlings and vegetative ramets monthly in juvenile and mature populations of Carex brevicuspis. During the first growing season after flooding (from October to January), 9 seedlings m−2 (13% of all established shoots) were found in juvenile populations, while no seedlings were found in mature populations. During the second growing season before flooding (from February to May), no new seedling recruits were found either in juvenile or in mature populations. All shoots of seedlings were withered during the dormant season (January and February), but 62.5% seedlings could produce vegetative ramets in the following growing season. During the dormant season, all the early emerging ramets (sprouted in October) withered, but the later emerging ones (sprouted in November and December) survived in both mature and juvenile populations. These results indicated that seedling recruitment was only apparent in juvenile populations of C. brevicuspis. The genetic diversity in mature C. brevicuspis populations may be established in juvenile populations by seedling recruitment, and sustained in mature populations by vegetative reproduction. PMID:25728624

  14. Cytokinin interplay with ethylene, auxin, and glucose signaling controls Arabidopsis seedling root directional growth.

    PubMed

    Kushwah, Sunita; Jones, Alan M; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2011-08-01

    Optimal root architecture is established by multiple intrinsic (e.g. hormones) and extrinsic (e.g. gravity and touch) signals and is established, in part, by directed root growth. We show that asymmetrical exposure of cytokinin (CK) at the root tip in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) promotes cell elongation that is potentiated by glucose in a hexokinase-influenced, G protein-independent manner. This mode of CK signaling requires the CK receptor, ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE KINASE4 and, at a minimum, its cognate type B ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATORS ARR1, ARR10, and ARR11 for full responsiveness, while type A response regulators act redundantly to attenuate this CK response. Ethylene signaling through the ethylene receptor ETHYLENE RESISTANT1 and its downstream signaling element ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2 are required for CK-induced root cell elongation. Negative and positive feedback loops are reinforced by CK regulation of the expression of the genes encoding these elements in both the CK and ethylene signaling pathways. Auxin transport facilitated by PIN-FORMED2 as well as auxin signaling through control of the steady-state level of transcriptional repressors INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID7 (IAA7), IAA14, and IAA17 via TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE1/AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX PROTEIN are involved in CK-induced root cell elongation. This action lies downstream of ethylene and CK induction. Intrinsic signaling in this response operates independently of the extrinsic signal touch, although actin filament organization, which is important in the touch response, may be important for this response, since latrunculin B can induce similar growth. This root growth response may have adaptive significance, since CK responsiveness is inversely related to root coiling and waving, two root behaviors known to be important for fitness.

  15. Endo- and ectomycorrhizas in Quercus agrifolia Nee. (Fagaceae): patterns of root colonization and effects on seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Egerton-Warburton, L; Allen, M F

    2001-12-01

    We documented the patterns of root occupancy by Glomalean and ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi in Quercus agrifolia, and host plant responses to inoculation with each mycorrhizal type alone o