Endom, E E; Myers, J H; Shook, J E
Computers are becoming an increasingly important tool in the management of emergency departments across the United States. Many emergency physicians are unfamiliar with computer systems and are uncomfortable with the idea of implementing computer technology into their departments. This article summarizes the benefits of computerized patient tracking systems and outlines the process by which such a program can be selected and incorporated into an emergency center.
Hughes, Jennifer L.; Asarnow, Joan R.
Suicide is the third leading cause of death in adolescents, and often youths with suicidal behavior or ideation present to the emergency department (ED) for care. Many suicidal youths do not receive mental health care after discharge from the ED, and interventions are needed to enhance linkage to outpatient intervention. This paper describes the Family Intervention for Suicide Prevention (FISP). Designed for use in emergency settings, the FISP is a family-based cognitive-behavior therapy session designed to increase motivation for follow-up treatment, support, coping, and safety, augmented by care linkage telephone contacts after discharge. In a randomized trial of the intervention, the FISP was shown to significantly increase the likelihood of youths receiving outpatient treatment, including psychotherapy and combined medication and psychotherapy. The FISP is a brief, focused, efficacious treatment that can be delivered in the ED to improve the probability of follow-up treatment for suicidal youths. PMID:25904825
Background Nearly all Dutch citizens have a general practitioner (GP), acting as a gatekeeper to secondary care. Some patients bypass the GP and present to the emergency department (ED). To make best use of existing emergency care, Dutch health policy makers and insurance companies have proposed the integration of EDs and GP cooperatives (GPCs) into one facility. In this study, we examined ED use and assessed the characteristics of self-referrals and non-self-referrals, their need for hospital emergency care and self-referrals' motives for presenting at the ED. Methods A descriptive cohort study was conducted in a Dutch level 1 trauma centre. Differences in patient characteristics, time of presentation and need for hospital emergency care were analysed using χ2 tests and t tests. A patient was considered to need hospital emergency care when he/she was admitted to the hospital, had an extremity fracture and/or when diagnostic tests were performed. Main determinants of self-referral were identified via logistic regression. Results Of the 5,003 consecutive ED patients registering within the 5-week study period, 3,028 (60.5%) were self-referrals. Thirty-nine percent of the self-referrals had urgent acuity levels, as opposed to 65% of the non-self-referrals. Self-referrals more often suffered from injuries (49 vs. 20%). One third of the self-referrals presented during office hours. Of all self-referrals, 51% needed hospital emergency care. Younger age; non-urgent acuity level; chest pain, ear, nose or throat problems; and injuries were independent predictors for self-referral. Most cited motives for self-referring were ‘accessibility and convenience’ and perceived ‘medical necessity’. Conclusions A substantial part of the self-referrals needed hospital emergency care. The 49% self-referrals who were eligible for GP care presented during out-of-hours as well as during office hours. This calls for an integrative approach to this health care problem. PMID:25097670
Provencher, Véronique; Généreux, Mélissa; Gagnon-Roy, Mireille; Veillette, Nathalie; Egan, Mary; Sirois, Marie-Josée; Lacasse, Francis; Rose, Kathy; Stocco, Stéphanie
Introduction Older adults with cognitive impairment represent a large portion (21–42%) of people (65+) who consult at an emergency department (ED). Because this sub-group is at higher risk for hospitalisation and mortality following an ED visit, awareness about ‘avoidable’ incidents should be increased in order to prevent presentations to the ED due to such incidents. This study aims to synthetise the actual knowledge related to ‘avoidable’ incidents (ie, traumatic injuries, poisoning and other consequences of external causes) (WHO, 2016) leading to ED presentations in older people with cognitive impairment. Methodology and analysis A scoping review will be performed. Scientific and grey literature (1996–2016) will be searched using a combination of key words pertaining to avoidable incidents, ED presentations, older adults and cognitive impairment. A variety of databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Ageline, SCOPUS, ProQuest Dissertations/theses, EBM Reviews, Healthstar), online library catalogues, governmental websites and published statistics will be examined. Included sources will pertain to community-dwelling older adults presenting to the ED as a result of an avoidable incident, with the main focus on those with cognitive impairment. Data (eg, type, frequency, severity, circumstances of incidents, preventive measures) will be extracted and analysed using a thematic chart and content analysis. Discussion and dissemination This scoping review will provide a picture of the actual knowledge on the subject and identify knowledge gaps in existing literature to be filled by future primary researches. Findings will help stakeholders to develop programmes in order to promote safe and healthy environments and behaviours aimed at reducing avoidable incidents in seniors, especially those with cognitive impairment. PMID:26873049
Bruce, Beau B.; Thulasi, Praneetha; Fraser, Clare L.; Keadey, Matthew T.; Ward, Antoinette; Heilpern, Katherine L.; Wright, David W.; Newman, Nancy J.; Biousse, Valérie
Objective During the first phase of the FOTO-ED Study, 13% (44/350;95%CI:9–17%) of patients had an ocular fundus finding, such as papilledema, relevant to their emergency department (ED) management found by non-mydriatic ocular fundus photography reviewed by neuro-opthalmologists. All of these findings were missed by ED physicians (EPs), who only examined 14% of enrolled patients by direct ophthalmoscopy. In the present study, we evaluated the sensitivity of non-mydriatic ocular fundus photography, an alternative to direct ophthalmoscopy, for relevant findings when photographs were made available for use by EPs during routine clinical care. Methods 354 patients presenting to our ED with headache, focal neurologic deficit, visual change, or diastolic blood pressure ≥120 mmHg had non-mydriatic fundus photography obtained (Kowa nonmyd-alpha-D). Photographs were placed on the electronic medical record for EPs review. Identification of relevant findings on photographs by EPs was compared to a reference standard of neuro-ophthalmologist review. Results EPs reviewed photographs of 239 patients (68%). 35 patients (10%;95%CI:7–13%) had relevant findings identified by neuro-ophthalmologist review (6 disc edema, 6 grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy, 7 isolated hemorrhages, 15 optic disc pallor, and 1 retinal vascular occlusion). EPs identified 16/35 relevant findings (sensitivity:46%;95%CI:29–63%), and also identified 289/319 normal findings (specificity:96%; 95%CI:87–94%). EPs reported that photographs were helpful for 125 patients (35%). Conclusions EPs used non-mydriatic fundus photographs more frequently than they perform direct ophthalmoscopy, and their detection of relevant abnormalities improved. Ocular fundus photography often assisted ED care even when normal. Non-mydriatic ocular fundus photography offers a promising alternative to direct ophthalmoscopy. PMID:23433654
Thijssen, Wendy A M H; Giesen, Paul H J; Wensing, Michel
Emergency medicine in The Netherlands is faced with an increasing interest by politicians and stakeholders in health care. This is due to crowding, increasing costs, criticism of the quality of emergency care, restructuring of out-of-hours services in primary care and the introduction of a training programme for emergency physicians in 2000. A comprehensive search was conducted of published research, policy reports and updated Dutch websites on acute care. Publications were included in this review if these referred to emergency care, including emergency departments (ED), general practitioner (GP) cooperatives and emergency medical services in The Netherlands and were written in English or Dutch. The literature search identified 14 eligible papers. The manual search identified 11 additional papers. Seven reports and two PhD theses were also included. Given the lack of relevant empirical research the review was liberal in its inclusion, but the analysis focused on research when available. ED in The Netherlands are in different stages of development. However, it is obvious that the presence of emergency physicians is increasing and more ED will be staffed by emergency physicians. Although this seems an important step, it does not necessarily imply a good position of the emergency physician in the ED. What the characteristics of the future patient of the Dutch ED will be is dependent on the development of different ED levels of care and GP cooperatives. The lack of empirical research also points out the need for research on quality of care in Dutch ED.
Weiner, Scott G
Advertising emergency department (ED) wait times has become a common practice in the United States. Proponents of this practice state that it is a powerful marketing strategy that can help steer patients to the ED. Opponents worry about the risk to the public health that arises from a patient with an emergent condition self-triaging to a further hospital, problems with inaccuracy and lack of standard definition of the reported time, and directing lower acuity patients to the higher cost ED setting instead to primary care. Three sample cases demonstrating the pitfalls of advertising ED wait times are discussed. Given the lack of rigorous evidence supporting the practice and potential adverse effects to the public health, caution about its use is advised.
Emergency department (ED) overcrowding has been an international phenomenon for more than 10 years. It is important to understand that ED overcrowding is a measure of health system efficiency and is not strictly related to ED volumes or capacity. ED overcrowding is defined as a situation in which the demand for emergency services exceeds the ability of physicians and nurses to provide quality care within a reasonable time. The major factor resulting in ED overcrowding is the presence of admitted patients in the ED for prolonged periods of time, not a high volume of low-acuity patients. While limited data are available for paediatric EDs, winter respiratory illnesses set the stage for ED overcrowding, which are epidemic in adult or general EDs. Prehospital-, ED- and hospital-related factors are described in the present article, and these may help prevent or manage this important patient safety problem. PMID:19030415
Gabayan, Gelareh Z.; Derose, Stephen F.; Chiu, Vicki Y.; Yiu, Sau C.; Sarkisian, Catherine A.; Jones, Jason P.; Sun, Benjamin C.
Study objective We assess whether a panel of emergency department (ED) crowding measures, including 2 reported by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), is associated with inpatient admission and death within 7 days of ED discharge. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of ED discharges, using data from an integrated health system for 2008 to 2010. We assessed patient transit-level (n=3) and ED system-level (n=6) measures of crowding, using multivariable logistic regression models. The outcome measures were inpatient admission or death within 7 days of ED discharge. We defined a clinically important association by assessing the relative risk ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) difference and also compared risks at the 99th percentile and median value of each measure. Results The study cohort contained a total of 625,096 visits to 12 EDs. There were 16,957 (2.7%) admissions and 328 (0.05%) deaths within 7 days. Only 2 measures, both of which were patient transit measures, were associated with the outcome. Compared with a median evaluation time of 2.2 hours, the evaluation time of 10.8 hours (99th percentile) was associated with a relative risk of 3.9 (95% CI 3.7 to 4.1) of an admission. Compared with a median ED length of stay (a CMS measure) of 2.8 hours, the 99th percentile ED length of stay of 11.6 hours was associated with a relative risk of 3.5 (95% CI 3.3 to 3.7) of admission. No system measure of ED crowding was associated with outcomes. Conclusion Our findings suggest that ED length of stay is a proxy for unmeasured differences in case mix and challenge the validity of the CMS metric as a safety measure for discharged patients. PMID:26003004
Bellow, Aaron A; Flottemesch, Thomas J; Gillespie, Gordon L
As health care systems across the United States continue to grapple with emergency department (ED) crowding and identify mechanisms to improve ED throughput, quantification of intradepartmental efficiency and workload is required to provide much-needed objective measures to assist in the continuing development, implementation, and evaluation of these strategic initiatives. In an attempt to establish a straightforward measure of ED efficiency in relation to daily census and ED crowding, T. J. Flottemesch (2006) developed the ED Census Model. The purpose of this study was to apply the ED Census Model in a Southwestern U.S. community hospital setting. This application of the ED Census Model yielded 3 components: the ED Census Component, the ED Throughput Component, and the ED Efficiency Threshold Component. The components provide information necessary for understanding the impact of patient arrivals and departures on the underlying workflow processes that determine throughput.
Jarvis, Paul Richard Edwin
Emergency departments (ED) face significant challenges in delivering high quality and timely patient care on an ever-present background of increasing patient numbers and limited hospital resources. A mismatch between patient demand and the ED's capacity to deliver care often leads to poor patient flow and departmental crowding. These are associated with reduction in the quality of the care delivered and poor patient outcomes. A literature review was performed to identify evidence-based strategies to reduce the amount of time patients spend in the ED in order to improve patient flow and reduce crowding in the ED. The use of doctor triage, rapid assessment, streaming and the co-location of a primary care clinician in the ED have all been shown to improve patient flow. In addition, when used effectively point of care testing has been shown to reduce patient time in the ED. Patient flow and departmental crowding can be improved by implementing new patterns of working and introducing new technologies such as point of care testing in the ED.
Jarvis, Paul Richard Edwin
Emergency departments (ED) face significant challenges in delivering high quality and timely patient care on an ever-present background of increasing patient numbers and limited hospital resources. A mismatch between patient demand and the ED’s capacity to deliver care often leads to poor patient flow and departmental crowding. These are associated with reduction in the quality of the care delivered and poor patient outcomes. A literature review was performed to identify evidence-based strategies to reduce the amount of time patients spend in the ED in order to improve patient flow and reduce crowding in the ED. The use of doctor triage, rapid assessment, streaming and the co-location of a primary care clinician in the ED have all been shown to improve patient flow. In addition, when used effectively point of care testing has been shown to reduce patient time in the ED. Patient flow and departmental crowding can be improved by implementing new patterns of working and introducing new technologies such as point of care testing in the ED. PMID:27752619
Yordanov, Youri; Beltramini, Alexandra; Debuc, Erwan; Pateron, Dominique
Emergency departments use has been constantly increasing over the world. Overcrowding is defined as a situation which compromises patient safety because of delayed cares. This situation is often reached. Emergency departments have to continuously improve their organization to be able to ensure the same quality of care to a higher number of patients. Thus a good organization is essential: it doesn't always avoid overcrowding. The rest of the hospital has to be involved in this process to ensure efficiency. We examine the various interventions and procedures that can be found in medical literature for improving patients flow and management in emergency departments.
Blanchard, A.; Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.
In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services.
RESPECT-ED: Rates of Pulmonary Emboli (PE) and Sub-Segmental PE with Modern Computed Tomographic Pulmonary Angiograms in Emergency Departments: A Multi-Center Observational Study Finds Significant Yield Variation, Uncorrelated with Use or Small PE Rates
Chu, Kevin; Joseph, Anthony; Read, Catherine; Blecher, Gabriel; Furyk, Jeremy; Bharat, Chrianna; Velusamy, Karthik; Munro, Andrew; Baker, Kylie; Kinnear, Frances; Mukherjee, Ahses; Watkins, Gina; Buntine, Paul; Livesay, Georgia
Introduction Overuse of CT Pulmonary Angiograms (CTPA) for diagnosing pulmonary embolism (PE), particularly in Emergency Departments (ED), is considered problematic. Marked variations in positive CTPA rates are reported, with American 4–10% yields driving most concerns. Higher resolution CTPA may increase sub-segmental PE (SSPE) diagnoses, which may be up to 40% false positive. Excessive use and false positives could increase harm vs. benefit. These issues have not been systematically examined outside America. Aims To describe current yield variation and CTPA utilisation in Australasian ED, exploring potential factors correlated with variation. Methods A retrospective multi-centre review of consecutive ED-ordered CTPA using standard radiology reports. ED CTPA report data were inputted onto preformatted data-sheets. The primary outcome was site level yield, analysed both intra-site and against a nominated 15.3% yield. Factors potentially associated with yield were assessed for correlation. Results Fourteen radiology departments (15 ED) provided 7077 CTPA data (94% ≥64-slice CT); PE were reported in 1028 (yield 14.6% (95%CI 13.8–15.4%; range 9.3–25.3%; site variation p <0.0001) with four sites significantly below and one above the 15.3% target. Admissions, CTPA usage, PE diagnosis rates and size of PE were uncorrelated with yield. Large PE (≥lobar) were 55% (CI: 52.1–58.2%) and SSPE 8.8% (CI: 7.1–10.5%) of positive scans. CTPA usage (0.2–1.5% adult attendances) was correlated (p<0.006) with PE diagnosis but not SSPE: large PE proportions. Discussion/ Conclusions We found significant intra-site CTPA yield variation within Australasia. Yield was not clearly correlated with CTPA usage or increased small PE rates. Both SSPE and large PE rates were similar to higher yield historical cohorts. CTPA use was considerably below USA 2.5–3% rates. Higher CTPA utilisation was positively correlated with PE diagnoses, but without evidence of increased proportions
Hategan, Ana; Tisi, Daniel; Abdurrahman, Mariam; Bourgeois, James A.
Background Homeless adults frequently use emergency departments (EDs), yet previous studies investigating ED utilization by the older segment received little attention. This study sought to characterize older homeless adults who utilized local urban EDs. Methods ED encounters at three hospitals in Hamilton (Ont.) were analyzed, and demographic and clinical characteristics of the older homeless (age > 50) vs. younger counterparts (age ≤ 50) were compared during a 24-month period. Results Of all adults, 1,330 were homeless, of whom 66% were above age 50. Older homeless adults sought less acute care within 30 days from an index visit compared with their younger counterparts. Non-acute illnesses constituted only 18% of triaged cases. Older homeless women with access to a primary care physician (PCP) were 3.3 times more likely to return to ED within 30 days, whereas older homeless men (irrespective of PCP access) were less likely to return to ED. Conclusions Despite high homeless patient acuity, a lesser number of ED visits with increasing age remains concerning because of previously reported high morbidity and mortality rates. Access to primary care may not be enough to reduce ED utilization. Further research is needed to evaluate acute care interventions and their effectiveness in ED, and to identify homeless patients requiring more targeted services. PMID:28050223
Fan, Lin; Shah, Manish N.; Veazie, Peter J.; Friedman, Bruce
Context: Emergency Department (ED) use among the rural elderly may present a different pattern from the urban elderly, thus requiring different policy initiatives. However, ED use among the rural elderly has seldom been studied and is little understood. Purpose: To characterize factors associated with having any versus no ED use among the rural…
Flood, Colin; Sheehan, Karen; Crandall, Marie
Preventable visits to the emergency department (ED) are estimated to represent as much as 56% of overall annual ED utilization and contribute to the high cost of health care in the United States. There are more than 25 million annual pediatric ED visits.
Brouns, Steffie H. A.; Lambooij, Suze L. E.; Dieleman, Jeanne; Vanderfeesten, Irene T. P.; Haak, Harm R.
Background Emergency department (ED) crowding leads to prolonged emergency department length of stay (ED-LOS) and adverse patient outcomes. No uniform definition of ED crowding exists. Several scores have been developed to quantify ED crowding; the best known is the Emergency Department Work Index (EDWIN). Research on the EDWIN is often applied to limited settings and conducted over a short period of time. Objectives To explore whether the EDWIN as a measure can track occupancy at a Dutch ED over the course of one year and to identify fluctuations in ED occupancy per hour, day, and month. Secondary objective is to investigate the discriminatory value of the EDWIN in detecting crowding, as compared with the occupancy rate and prolonged ED-LOS. Methods A retrospective cohort study of all ED visits during the period from September 2010 to August 2011 was performed in one hospital in the Netherlands. The EDWIN incorporates the number of patients per triage level, physicians, treatment beds and admitted patients to quantify ED crowding. The EDWIN was adjusted to emergency care in the Netherlands: modified EDWIN (mEDWIN). ED crowding was defined as the 75th percentile of mEDWIN per hour, which was ≥0.28. Results In total, 28,220 ED visits were included in the analysis. The median mEDWIN per hour was 0.15 (Interquartile range (IQR) 0.05–0.28); median mEDWIN per patient was 0.25 (IQR 0.15–0.39). The EDWIN was higher on Wednesday (0.16) than on other days (0.14–0.16, p<0.001), and a peak in both mEDWIN (0.30–0.33) and ED crowding (52.9–63.4%) was found between 13:00–18:00 h. A comparison of the mEDWIN with the occupancy rate revealed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.86 (95%CI 0.85–0.87). The AUC of mEDWIN compared with a prolonged ED-LOS (≥4 hours) was 0.50 (95%CI 0.40–0.60). Conclusion The mEDWIN was applicable at a Dutch ED. The mEDWIN was able to identify fluctuations in ED occupancy. In addition, the mEDWIN had high discriminatory power for
Utility of Procalcitonin (PCT) and Mid regional pro-Adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) in risk stratification of critically ill febrile patients in Emergency Department (ED). A comparison with APACHE II score
Background The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic value of MR-proADM and PCT levels in febrile patients in the ED in comparison with a disease severity index score, the APACHE II score. We also evaluated the ability of MR-proADM and PCT to predict hospitalization. Methods This was an observational, multicentric study. We enrolled 128 patients referred to the ED with high fever and a suspicion of severe infection such as sepsis, lower respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal infections, soft tissue infections, central nervous system infections, or osteomyelitis. The APACHE II score was calculated for each patient. Results MR-proADM median values in controls were 0.5 nmol/l as compared with 0.85 nmol/l in patients (P < 0.0001), while PCT values in controls were 0.06 ng/ml versus 0.56 ng/ml in patients (P < 0.0001). In all patients there was a statistically significant stepwise increase in MR-proADM levels in accordance with PCT values (P < 0.0001). MR-proADM and PCT levels were significantly increased in accordance with the Apache II quartiles (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0012 respectively). In the respiratory infections, urinary infections, and sepsis-septic shock groups we found a correlation between the Apache II and MR-proADM respectively and MR-proADM and PCT respectively. We evaluated the ability of MR-proADM and PCT to predict hospitalization in patients admitted to our emergency departments complaining of fever. MR-proADM alone had an AUC of 0.694, while PCT alone had an AUC of 0.763. The combined use of PCT and MR-proADM instead showed an AUC of 0.79. Conclusions The present study highlights the way in which MR-proADM and PCT may be helpful to the febrile patient’s care in the ED. Our data support the prognostic role of MR-proADM and PCT in that setting, as demonstrated by the correlation with the APACHE II score. The combined use of the two biomarkers can predict a subsequent
Mistry, Rakesh D; Newland, Jason G; Gerber, Jeffrey S; Hersh, Adam L; May, Larissa; Perman, Sarah M; Kuppermann, Nathan; Dayan, Peter S
BACKGROUND Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) effectively optimize antibiotic use for inpatients; however, the extent of emergency department (ED) involvement in ASPs has not been described. OBJECTIVE To determine current ED involvement in children's hospital ASPs and to assess beliefs and preferred methods of implementation for ED-based ASPs. METHODS A cross-sectional survey of 37 children's hospitals participating in the Sharing Antimicrobial Resistance Practices collaboration was conducted. Surveys were distributed to ASP leaders and ED medical directors at each institution. Items assessed included beliefs regarding ED antibiotic prescribing, ED prescribing resources, ASP methods used in the ED such as clinical decision support and clinical care guidelines, ED participation in ASP activities, and preferred methods for ED-based ASP implementation. RESULTS A total of 36 ASP leaders (97.3%) and 32 ED directors (86.5%) responded; the overall response rate was 91.9%. Most ASP leaders (97.8%) and ED directors (93.7%) agreed that creation of ED-based ASPs was necessary. ED resources for antibiotic prescribing were obtained via the Internet or electronic health records (EHRs) for 29 hospitals (81.3%). The main ASP activities for the ED included production of antibiograms (77.8%) and creation of clinical care guidelines for pneumonia (83.3%). The ED was represented on 3 hospital ASP committees (8.3%). No hospital ASPs actively monitored outpatient ED prescribing. Most ASP leaders (77.8%) and ED directors (81.3%) preferred implementation of ED-based ASPs using clinical decision support integrated into the EHR. CONCLUSIONS Although ED involvement in ASPs is limited, both ASP and ED leaders believe that ED-based ASPs are necessary. Many children's hospitals have the capability to implement ED-based ASPs via the preferred method: EHR clinical decision support. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:469-475.
Richards, J R; Bretz, S W; Johnson, E B; Turnipseed, S D; Brofeldt, B T; Derlet, R W
Methamphetamine (MAP) abuse continues to increase worldwide, based on morbidity, mortality, drug treatment, and epidemiologic studies and surveys. MAP abuse has become a significant health care, environmental, and law enforcement problem. Acute intoxication often results in agitation, violence, and death. Chronic use may lead to infection, heart failure, malnutrition, and permanent psychiatric illness. MAP users frequently use the emergency department (ED) for their medical care. Over a 6-month period we studied the demographics, type, and frequency of medical and traumatic problems in 461 MAP patients presenting to our ED, which serves an area noted for high levels of MAP production and consumption. Comparison was made to the general ED population to assess use patterns. MAP patients were most commonly Caucasian males who lacked health insurance. Compared to other ED patients during this time, MAP patients used ambulance transport more and were more likely to be admitted to the hospital. There was a significant association between trauma and MAP use in this patient population. Our data suggest MAP users utilize prehospital and hospital resources at levels higher than the average ED population. Based on current trends, we can expect more ED visits by MAP users in the future. PMID:10344172
Liang, Stephen Y.; Theodoro, Daniel L.; Schuur, Jeremiah D.; Marschall, Jonas
Infection prevention remains a major challenge in emergency care. Acutely ill and injured patients seeking evaluation and treatment in the emergency department (ED) not only have the potential to spread communicable infectious diseases to healthcare personnel and other patients, but are vulnerable to acquiring new infections associated with the care they receive. This article will evaluate these risks and review the existing literature for infection prevention practices in the ED, ranging from hand hygiene, standard and transmission-based precautions, healthcare personnel vaccination, and environmental controls to strategies for preventing healthcare-associated infections. We will conclude by examining what can be done to optimize infection prevention in the ED and identify gaps in knowledge where further research is needed. Successful implementation of evidence-based practices coupled with innovation of novel approaches and technologies tailored specifically to the complex and dynamic environment of the ED are the keys to raising the standard for infection prevention and patient safety in emergency care. PMID:24721718
Mayer, T A; Tilson, W; Hemingway, J
This article outlines the elements of successful ED marketing, as well as providing definitions for terms used within the marketing process. In today's competition and rapidly changing environment, marketing and public relations are tools that every ED Medical Director may want to consider. Because the marketing process requires a great deal of time and effort, as well as a high degree of intellectual honesty, it should never be entered into without a strong commitment. However, marketing the ED can be among the most productive, stimulating, and gratifying experiences for the ED Medical Director, the emergency department physicians, and all ED service personnel.
Casey, Michelle M.; Wholey, Douglas; Moscovice, Ira S.
Context: The practice of emergency medicine presents many challenges in rural areas. Purpose: We describe how rural hospitals nationally are staffing their Emergency Departments (EDs) and explore the participation of rural ED physicians and other health care professionals in selected certification and training programs that teach skills needed to…
Klingner, Jill; Moscovice, Ira
Purpose: Communication problems are a major contributing factor to adverse events in hospitals. The contextual environment in small rural hospitals increases the importance of emergency department (ED) patient transfer communication quality. This study addresses the communication problems through the development and testing of ED quality…
Bennett, Kevin J.; Moore, Charity G.; Probst, Janice C.
Context: Rural hospitals face multiple financial burdens. Due to federal law, emergency departments (ED) provide a gateway for uninsured and self-pay patients to gain access to treatment. It is unknown how much uncompensated care in rural hospitals is due to ED visits. Purpose: To develop a national estimate of uncompensated care from patients…
Vohra, Rini; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Usha
A cross-sectional analyses using Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (2006-2011) was conducted to examine the trends, type of ED visits, and mean total ED charges for adults aged 22-64 years with and without ASD (matched 1:3). Around 0.4% ED visits (n = 25,527) were associated with any ASD and rates of such visits more than doubled from 2006 to…
Medical identity theft in the emergency department (ED) can harm numerous individuals, and many frontline healthcare providers are unaware of this growing concern. The two cases described began as typical ED encounters until red flags were discovered upon validating the patient's identity. Educating all healthcare personnel within and outside the ED regarding the subtle signs of medical identity theft and implementing institutional policies to identify these criminals will discourage further fraudulent behavior.
Göransson, Katarina; Ehrenberg, Anna; Ehnfors, Margareta
The aim of this study was to identify the organisation of and knowledge about triage work in Swedish emergency departments (ED) as a first step to understanding what is necessary for decision support in ED triage systems in Sweden. A national survey using telephone interviews for data collection was used. Results showed great variety in how work regarding ED triage is organised and performed. The variety occurs in several areas including education, personnel performing triage, facilities available and scales used. PMID:14728356
In this study, we evaluated national differences in emergency department (ED) crowding to identify factors significantly associated with crowding in institutes and communities across Korea. This was a cross-sectional nationwide observational study using data abstracted from the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS). We calculated mean occupancy rates to quantify ED crowding status and divided EDs into three groups according to their occupancy rates (cutoffs: 0.5 and 1.0). Factors potentially related to ED crowding were collected from the NEDIS. We performed a multivariate regression analysis to identify variables significantly associated with ED crowding. A total of 120 EDs were included in the final analysis. Of these, 73 were categorized as 'low crowded' (LC, occupancy rate < 0.50), 37 as 'middle crowded' (MC, 0.50 ≤ occupancy rate < 1.00), 10 EDs as 'high crowded' (HC, 1.00 ≤ occupancy rate). The mean ED occupancy rate varied widely, from 0.06 to 2.33. The median value was 0.39 with interquartile ranges (IQRs) from 0.20 to 0.71. Multivariate analysis revealed that after adjustment, ED crowding was significantly associated with the number of visits, percentage of patients referred, number of nurses, and ED disposition. This nationwide study observed significant variety in ED crowding. Several input, throughput, and output factors were associated with crowding. PMID:27478347
Bruner, David; Gustafson, Corey G; Visintainer, Catherine
According to 2007 data, gunshot wounds from homicides, suicides, and accidents caused 31,000 deaths in the United States, with even higher numbers of serious, nonfatal injuries. In recent years, new evidence on effective treatment of patients with gunshot wounds has come from military settings and is being adapted for civilian emergency departments (EDs). Effective, evidence-based management of ballistic injuries in the ED is vital. This issue reviews the physics of ballistics as it relates to the tracts and patterns of tissue injury caused by different types of firearms and missiles, and it takes a regional approach to reviewing the current evidence for managing gunshot wounds to the head, neck, thorax, abdomen, genitourinary (GU) system, extremities, and soft tissues. Current guidelines as well as new research and evidence regarding fluid resuscitation, airway management, evaluation strategies, drug therapies, and documentation are discussed.
Goodarzi, Hassan; Javadzadeh, Hamidreza; Hassanpour, Kasra
Background: Emergency Department (ED) is considered to be the heart of a hospital. Based on many studies, a well-organized physical environment can enhance efficacy. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of physical environment in EDs on efficacy. Materials and Methods: This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted via the faculty members of the ED and residents of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected using a predefined questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Results: Sixty-two participants, including 21 females and 41 males, completed the questionnaires. The mean age of the participants was 37 years (SD: 8.42). The mean work experience was 8 years (SD: 4.52) and all the studied variables varied within a range of 3.3 - 4.2. Time indices had the highest mean among variables followed by capacity, work space, treatment units, critical care units and, triage indices, respectively. Conclusions: In general, time indices including length of patient stay in the ED and space capacity, emphasizing the need to address these shortcomings. PMID:26839860
Lee, C T; Guo, H R; Chen, J B
Hyponatremia is a clinical manifestation of a wide variety of diseases, some of which have high mortality rates. To assess the prevalence, cause, and prognosis of hyponatremia encountered in the emergency department, we conducted a prospective study at a major hospital in southern Taiwan. We included all adult internal medicine patients treated in the emergency department during a 2-month period. Hyponatremia was defined as a serum sodium level below 134 mEq/L, and cases patients were followed till being discharged. Among the 3,784 patients included, 166 case patients were identified. Most (65%) case patients were hypovolemic, and the overall mortality rate was 17.9%. The mortality rate increased as the sodium level decreased, but was not related to gender, age, cause, or serum potassium level. When 21 hyperglycemic patients whose serum sodium levels went beyond 134 mEq/L after the adjustment for blood sugar levels were excluded, the prevalence of true hyponatremia was 3.83%. The most common underlying diseases were those of the gastrointestinal system. It is concluded that hyponatremia is a common condition encountered in the emergency department. The mortality is correlated with the serum sodium level, and adjustment of the level is required in hyperglycemic patients to make a correct diagnosis. Unlike the cases in some other clinical settings, almost all cases of hyponatremia encountered in the emergency department were not iatrogenic and had recognizable underlying diseases. Therefore, more effort is generally required to identify the cause of hyponatremia cases in the emergency department.
Mierendorf, Susanne M; Gidvani, Vinita
The Emergency Department (ED) is the place where people most frequently seek urgent care. For patients living with chronic disease or malignancy who may be in a crisis, this visit may be pivotal in determining the patients’ trajectory. There is a large movement in education of emergency medicine physicians, hospitalists, and intensivists from acute aggressive interventions to patient-goal assessment, recognizing last stages of life and prioritizing symptom management. Although the ED is not considered an ideal place to begin palliative care, hospital-based physicians may assist in eliciting the patient’s goals of care and discussing prognosis and disease trajectory. This may help shift to noncurative treatment. This article will summarize the following: identification of patients who may need palliation, discussing prognosis, eliciting goals of care and directives, symptom management in the ED, and making plans for further care. These efforts have been shown to improve outcomes and to decrease length of stay and cost. The focus of this article is relieving “patient” symptoms and family distress, honoring the patient’s goals of care, and assisting in transition to a noncurative approach and placement where this may be accomplished. PMID:24694318
Witting, Michael D.; Furuno, Jon P.; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Krugman, Scott D.; Perisse, Andre R. S.; Limcangco, Rhona
Emergency department (ED) screening for intimate partner violence (IPV) faces logistic difficulties and has uncertain efficacy. We surveyed 146 ED visitors and 108 ED care providers to compare their support for ED IPV screening in three hypothetical scenarios of varying IPV risk. Visitor support for screening was 5 times higher for the high-risk…
Ferns, Terry; Cork, Alison
Internationally, violence in the emergency department (ED) is of a constant concern to emergency practitioners. Frequently, both original research papers and anecdotal reports emphasise the phenomenon of alcohol related aggression in the ED. In this first paper, we highlight the literatures discussion of alcohol related violence in the emergency department and the potential psychological effects of alcohol intoxication. In the second we offer personal and organisational strategies clinical nursing staff may consider appropriate to minimise the risk of assault when caring for service users projecting alcohol related aggression.
Taylor, Todd B
Information system planning for the ED is complex and new to emergency medicine, despite being used in other industries for many years. It has been estimated that less than 15% of EDs have comprehensive EDIS currently in place. The manner in which administration is approached in large part determines the success in obtaining appropriate institutional support for an EDIS. Active physician and nurse involvement is essential in the process if the new system is to be accepted at the user level. In the ED, large volumes of information are collected, collated,interpreted, and acted on immediately. Effective information management therefore is key to the successful operation of any ED. Although computerized information systems have tremendous potential for improving information management, such systems are often underused or implemented in such a way that they increase the workload on caregivers and staff. This is counter productive and should be avoided. In developing and implementing EDIS one should be careful not to automate poorly designed manual processes. Examples are ED tracking systems that require staff to manually relocate patients in the system. This task probably is completed only when the ED volume is low and "worked around" when the department is busy. Information from such a system is, therefore, flawed; at best useless and at worst counter productive. Alternatively, systems are available that can track patients automatically through the ED by way of infrared sensors similar to those used in baggage-tracking systems that have been in place in airports for years. In the automated (computerized) ED, we must have zero-fault-tolerant,enterprise-wide, hospital information networked systems that prevent unnecessary duplication of tasks, assist in tracking and entering data, and ultimately help analyze the information on a minute-to-minute basis. Such systems only reach their potential when they are fully integrated, including legacy systems, rather than stand
Jaimes-Albornoz, Walter; Serra-Mestres, Jordi
Disturbances of the level of awareness are a frequent motive of attendance to emergency departments where the initial assessment and management will determine the direction of their outcome. The syndrome of catatonia must be taken into consideration and although it is normally associated with psychiatric diagnoses, it is also very often found in a great variety of neurological and medical conditions. Due to the clinical complexity of catatonia, there are still difficulties in its correct identification and initial management, something that leads to diagnostic delays and increased morbidity and mortality. In this article, a review of the literature on catatonia is presented with the aim of assisting emergency department doctors (and clinicians assessing patients in emergency situations) in considering this condition in the differential diagnosis of stupor due to its high frequency of association with organic pathology.
O'Malley, Patricia; Barata, Isabel; Snow, Sally
The death of a child in the emergency department (ED) is one of the most challenging problems facing ED clinicians. This revised technical report and accompanying policy statement reaffirm principles of patient- and family-centered care. Recent literature is examined regarding family presence, termination of resuscitation, bereavement responsibilities of ED clinicians, support of child fatality review efforts, and other issues inherent in caring for the patient, family, and staff when a child dies in the ED. Appendices are provided that offer an approach to bereavement activities in the ED, carrying out forensic responsibilities while providing compassionate care, communicating the news of the death of a child in the acute setting, providing a closing ritual at the time of terminating resuscitation efforts, and managing the child with a terminal condition who presents near death in the ED.
LaMantia, Michael A; Stump, Timothy E; Messina, Frank C; Miller, Douglas K; Callahan, Christopher M
Although persons with dementia are frequently hospitalized, relatively little is known about the health profile, patterns of health care use, and mortality rates for patients with dementia who access care in the emergency department (ED). We linked data from our hospital system with Medicare and Medicaid claims, Minimum Data Set, and Outcome and Assessment Information Set data to evaluate 175,652 ED visits made by 10,354 individuals with dementia and 15,020 individuals without dementia over 11 years. Survival rates after ED visits and associated charges were examined. Patients with dementia visited the ED more frequently, were hospitalized more often than patients without dementia, and had an increased odds of returning to the ED within 30 days of an index ED visit compared with persons who never had a dementia diagnosis (odds ratio, 2.29; P<0.001). Survival rates differed significantly between patients by dementia status (P<0.001). Mean Medicare payments for ED services were significantly higher among patients with dementia. These results show that older adults with dementia are frequent ED visitors who have greater comorbidity, incur higher charges, are admitted to hospitals at higher rates, return to EDs at higher rates, and have higher mortality after an ED visit than patients without dementia.
Brady, Joanne E.; DiMaggio, Charles J.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Doyle, John J.; Richardson, Lynne D.; Li, Guohua
Purpose Prescription drug overdose (PDO) deaths are a critical public health problem in the United States. This study aims to assess the association between emergency department (ED) utilization patterns in a cohort of ED patients and the risk of subsequent unintentional PDO mortality. Methods Using data from the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System for 2006–2010, a nested case-control design was used to examine the relationship between ED utilization patterns in New York State residents of age 18–64 years and subsequent PDO death. Results The study sample consisted of 2732 case patients who died of PDO and 2732 control ED patients who were selected through incidence density sampling. With adjustment for demographic characteristics, and diagnoses of pain, substance abuse, and psychiatric disorders, the estimated odds ratios of PDO death relative to one ED visit or less in the previous year were 4.90 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.50–5.34) for those with two ED visits, 16.61 (95% CI: 14.72–18.75) for those with three ED visits, and 48.24 (95% CI: 43.23–53.83) for those with four ED visits or more. Conclusions Frequency of ED visits is strongly associated with the risk of subsequent PDO death. Intervention programs targeting frequent ED users are warranted to reduce PDO mortality. PMID:25935710
Cork, Alison; Ferns, Terry
Violence in the emergency department (ED) is a global problem. In our first paper, we highlighted the potential psychological effects of alcohol intoxication, the literatures discussion of alcohol related violence in the emergency department and the importance of developing positive nurse/service user relationships. In this second paper, we discuss personal and organisational strategies clinical nursing staff may consider appropriate to minimise the risk of assault when caring for service users projecting alcohol related aggression.
Background Patients with high emergency department (ED) utilization account for a disproportionate number of ED visits. The existing research on high ED utilization has raised doubts about the homogeneity of the frequent ED user. Attention to differences among the subgroups of frequent visitors (FV) and highly frequent visitors (HFV) is necessary in order to plan more effective interventions. In the Netherlands, the incidence of high ED utilization is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the well-documented international high ED utilization also exists in the Netherlands and if so, to characterize these patients. Therefore, we assessed the proportion of FV and HFV; compared age, sex, and visit outcomes between patients with high ED utilization and patients with single ED visits; and explored the factors associated with high ED utilization. Methods A 1-year retrospective descriptive correlational study was performed in two Dutch EDs, using thresholds of 7 to 17 visits for frequent ED use, and greater than or equal to 18 visits for highly frequent ED use. Results FV and HFV (together accounting for 0.5% of total ED patients) attended the ED 2,338 times (3.3% of the total number of ED visits). FV and HFV were equally likely to be male or female, were less likely to be self-referred, and they suffered from urgent complaints more often compared to patients with single visits. FV were significantly older than patients with single visits and more often admitted than patients with single visits. Several chief complaints were indicative for frequent and highly frequent ED use, such as shortness of breath and a psychiatric disorder. Conclusions Based on this study, high ED utilization in the Netherlands seems to be less a problem than outlined in international literature. No major differences were found between FV and HFV, they presented with the same, often serious, problems. Our study supports the notion that most patients with high ED utilization visit
Latham, Lesley P.; Ackroyd-Stolarz, Stacy
Background Emergency Departments (EDs) are playing an increasingly important role in the care of older adults. Characterizing ED usage will facilitate the planning for care delivery more suited to the complex health needs of this population. Methods In this retrospective cross-sectional study, administrative and clinical data were extracted from four study sites. Visits for patients aged 65 years or older were characterized using standard descriptive statistics. Results We analyzed 34,454 ED visits by older adults, accounting for 21.8% of the total ED visits for our study time period. Overall, 74.2% of patient visits were triaged as urgent or emergent. Almost half (49.8%) of visits involved diagnostic imaging, 62.1% involved lab work, and 30.8% involved consultation with hospital services. The most common ED diagnoses were symptom- or injury-related (25.0%, 17.1%. respectively). Length of stay increased with age group (Mann-Whitney U; p < .0001), as did the proportion of visits involving diagnostic testing and consultation (χ2; p < .0001). Approximately 20% of older adults in our study population were admitted to hospital following their ED visit. Conclusions Older adults have distinct patterns of ED use. ED resource use intensity increases with age. These patterns may be used to target future interventions involving alternative care for older adults. PMID:25452824
Many patients present to emergency departments with anorectal problems, such as haemorrhoids, anal fissure and pruritis ani. Often, patients with such problems are embarrassed about them or fearful about their potential diagnoses, so practitioners must approach history taking and examination sensitively. They should also have a good understanding of the anatomy of the anorectal area, and be able to recognise the signs and symptoms of relevant conditions. This article provides an overview of the anatomy and physiology of the anorectal area, explains how to undertake anorectal examinations, and describes the signs and symptoms of some common conditions.
Schuur, Jeremiah D; Hsia, Renee Y; Burstin, Helen; Schull, Michael J; Pines, Jesse M
As the United States seeks to improve the value of health care, there is an urgent need to develop quality measurement for emergency departments (EDs). EDs provide 130 million patient visits per year and are involved in half of all hospital admissions. Efforts to measure ED quality are in their infancy, focusing on a small set of conditions and timeliness measures, such as waiting times and length-of-stay. We review the history of ED quality measurement, identify policy levers for implementing performance measures, and propose a measurement agenda. Initial priorities include measures of effective care for serious conditions that are commonly seen in EDs, such as trauma; measures of efficient use of resources, such as high-cost imaging and hospital admission; and measures of diagnostic accuracy. More research is needed to support the development of measures of care coordination and regionalization and the episode cost of ED care. Policy makers can advance quality improvement in ED care by asking ED researchers and organizations to accelerate the development of quality measures of ED care and incorporating the measures into programs that publicly report on quality of care and incentive-based payment systems.
Émond, Marcel; Grenier, David; Morin, Jacques; Eagles, Debra; Boucher, Valérie; Le Sage, Natalie; Mercier, Éric; Voyer, Philippe; Lee, Jacques S.
Background Caring for older patients can be challenging in the Emergency Department (ED). A > 12 hr ED stay could lead to incident episodes of delirium in those patients. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and impacts of ED-stay associated delirium. Methods A historical cohort of patients who presented to a Canadian ED in 2009 and 2011 was randomly constituted. Included patients were aged ≥ 65 years old, admitted to any hospital ward, non-delirious upon arrival and had at least a 12-hour ED stay. Delirium was detected using a modified chart-based Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) tool. Hospital length of stay (LOS) was log-transformed and linear regression assessed differences between groups. Adjustments were made for age and comorbidity profile. Results 200 records were reviewed, 55.5% were female, median age was 78.9 yrs (SD:7.3). 36(18%) patients experienced ED-stay associated delirium. Nearly 50% of episodes started in the ED and within 36 hours of arrival. Comorbidity profile was similar between the positive CAM group and the negative CAM group. Mean adjusted hospital LOS were 20.5 days and 11.9 days respectively (p<.03). Conclusions 1 older adult out of 5 became delirious after a 12 hr ED stay. Since delirium increases hospital LOS by more than a week, better screening and implementation of preventing measures for delirium could reduce LOS and overcrowding in the ED.
Patterson, P. Daniel; Pfeiffer, Anthony J.; Lave, Judith R.; Weaver, Matthew D.; Abebe, Kaleab; Krackhardt, David; Arnold, Robert M.; Yealy, Donald M.
Objectives Lack of familiarity between teammates is linked to worsened safety in high-risk settings. The Emergency Department (ED) is a high-risk health care setting where unfamiliar teams are created by diversity in clinician shift schedules and flexibility in clinician movement across the department. We sought to characterize familiarity between clinician teammates in one urban teaching hospital Emergency Department (ED) over a 22-week study period. Methods We used a retrospective study design of shift-scheduling data to calculate the mean weekly hours of familiarity between teammates at the dyadic level, and the proportion of clinicians with a minimum of 2-hours, 5-hours, 10-hours, and 20-hours of familiarity at any given hour during the study period. Results Mean weekly hours of familiarity between ED clinician dyads was 2 hours (SD 1.5). At any given hour over the study period, the proportion of clinicians with a minimum of 2, 5, 10, or 20-hours of familiarity was 80%, 51%, 27%, and 0.8%, respectively. Conclusions In our study, few clinicians could be described as having a high level of familiarity with teammates. The limited familiarity between ED clinicians identified in this study may be a natural feature of ED care delivery in academic settings. We provide a template for measurement of ED team familiarity. PMID:24351519
Cremonesi, P; Di Bella, E; Montefiori, M
This paper is intended to examine both clinical and economic data concerning the activity of an emergency department of an Italian primary Hospital. Real data referring to arrivals, waiting times, service times, severity (according to triage classification) of patients' condition collected along the whole 2009 are matched up with the relevant accounting and economic information concerning the costs faced. A new methodological approach is implemented in order to identify a "standard production cost" and its variability. We believe that this kind of analysis well fits the federalizing process that Italy is experiencing. In fact the federal reform is driving our Country toward a decentralized provision and funding of local public services. The health care services are "fundamental" under the provisions of the law that in turn implies that a standard cost has to be defined for its funding. The standard cost (as it is defined by the law) relies on the concepts of appropriateness and efficiency in the production of the health care service, assuming a standard quality level as target. The identification and measurement of health care costs is therefore a crucial task propaedeutic to health services economic evaluation. Various guidelines with different amount of details have been set up for costing methods which, however, are defined in simplified frameworks and using fictious data. This study is a first attempt to proceed in the direction of a precise definition of the costs inherent to the emergency department activity.
Wijesekera, Olindi; Reed, Amanda; Chastain, Parker S; Biggs, Shauna; Clark, Elizabeth G; Kole, Tamorish; Chakrapani, Anoop T; Ashish, Nandy; Rajhans, Prasad; Breaud, Alan H; Jacquet, Gabrielle A
Introduction Without a universal Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system in India, data on the epidemiology of patients who utilize EMS are limited. This retrospective chart review aimed to quantify and describe the burden of disease and patient demographics of patients who arrived by EMS to four Indian emergency departments (EDs) in order to inform a national EMS curriculum.
Kruse, Lakota K; Deshpande, Sandy; Vezina, Melissa
We examined the race/ethnicity variation in the risk of hospitalization among children seen in the emergency department (ED) for asthma. ED and hospitalization records for children 1 to 19 years of age in New Jersey for 2004 and 2005 were linked. The dataset identified 47,548 ED and hospitalizations among 37,216 children. ED and hospitalization rates indicated persistent disparities in pediatric asthma. ED admission rates were similar across race/ethnic groups, suggesting similar management of pediatric asthma patients once they are seen in the ED. Integrating existing ED and hospitalization records will enhance asthma surveillance and the targeting of interventions to reduce race/ethnicity disparities.
Reichard, Audrey A.; Konda, Srinivas; Jackson, Larry L.
Background Despite reported declines, occupational burn injuries remain a workplace safety concern. More severe burns may result in costly medical treatment and long-term physical and psychological consequences. Methods We used the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System—Occupational Supplement to produce national estimates of burns treated in emergency departments (EDs). We analyzed data trends from 1999 to 2008 and provided detailed descriptions of 2008 data. Results From 1999 to 2008 there were 1,132,000 (95% CI: ±192,300) nonfatal occupational burns treated in EDs. Burn numbers and rates declined approximately 40% over the 10 years. In 2008, men and younger workers 15–24 years old had the highest rates. Scalds and thermal burns accounted for more than 60% of burns. Accommodation and food service, manufacturing, and construction industries had the largest number of burns. Conclusions Despite declining burn rates, emphasis is needed on reducing burn hazards to young food service workers and using job specific hazard analyses to prevent burns. PMID:25678457
Lash, Rebecca S.; Bell, Janice F.; Reed, Sarah C.; Poghosyan, Hermine; Rodgers, James; Kim, Katherine K.; Bold, Richard J.; Joseph, Jill G.
Background Recent reports call for reductions in costly and potentially avoidable services such as emergency department (ED) visits. Providing high-quality and safe care for oncology patients remains challenging for ED providers given the diversity of patients seeking care and the unpredictable clinical environment. While ED use by oncology patients is appropriate for acute health concerns, some ED visits may be preventable with well-coordinated care and adequate symptom management. Objective The aim of this study was to summarize available evidence regarding the incidence, predictors of, and reasons for ED visits among oncology patients. Methods Keyword/MeSH term searches were conducted using 4 online databases. Inclusion criteria were publication date between April 1, 2003, and December 5, 2014; sample size of 50 or more; and report of the incidence or predictors of ED use among oncology patients. Results The 15 studies that met criteria varied in study aim, design, and time frames for calculating ED utilization rates. The incidence of ED visits among oncology patients ranged from 1% to 83%. The 30-day standardized visit rate incidence ranged from 1% to 12%. Collectively, the studies lack population-based estimates for all cancers combined. Conclusions The studies included in this review suggest that rates of ED use among cancer patients exceed those of the general population. However, the extent of ED use by oncology patients and the reasons for ED visits remain understudied. Implications for Practice Nurses are involved in the treatment of cancer, patient education, and symptom management. Nurses are well positioned to develop patient-centered treatment and care coordination plans to improve quality of care and reduce ED visits. PMID:26925998
McNaughton, Candace; Self, Wesley H.; Jones, Ian D.; Arbogast, Patrick G.; Chen, Ning; Dittus, Robert S.; Russ, Stephan
Background and Objectives In an effort to compensate for crowding, many emergency departments (EDs) evaluate and treat patients in nontraditional settings such as gurneys in hallways and conference rooms. The impact of this practice on ED evaluation time is unknown. Research Design and Subjects An historical cohort of adult ED visits to an academic hospital between 8/1/2009 and 8/1/2010 was used to evaluate the relationship between ED bed assignment (traditional, hallway, or conference room bed) and mean ED evaluation time, defined as the time spent in an ED bed before admission or discharge. Chief complaints were categorized into the five most frequent categories: abdominal/genitourinary, joint/muscle, general (fever, malaise), head/neck, and other. Multiple linear regression and marginal prediction were used to calculate mean ED evaluation times for each bed type, overall and by chief complaint category. Results During the study period, 15,073 patient visits met inclusion criteria. After adjustment for patient and ED factors, assignments to hallway and conference room beds were associated with increases in mean ED evaluation time of 13.3 minutes (95% confidence interval 13.2, 13.3) and 10.9 minutes (95% CI 10.8, 10.9), respectively, compared to the traditional bed ED evaluation time. This varied by chief complaint category. Conclusions Use of nontraditional beds is associated with increases in mean ED evaluation time; however, these increases are small and may be further minimized by restricting use of nontraditional beds to patients with specific chief complaints. Nontraditional beds may have a role in improving ED throughput during times of crowding. PMID:22386355
Choo, Esther K.; Spiro, David M.; Lowe, Robert A.; Newgard, Craig D.; Hall, Michael Kennedy; McConnell, Kenneth John
Purpose: To characterize differences in child abuse management resources between urban and rural emergency departments (EDs). Methods: We surveyed ED directors and nurse managers at hospitals in Oregon to gain information about available abuse-related resources. Chi-square analysis was used to test differences between urban and rural EDs.…
Schwartz, Katherine E.; Monie, Daphne; Scribani, Melissa B.; Krupa, Nicole L.; Jenkins, Paul; Leinhart, August; Kjolhede, Chris L.
Background: Previous studies of urban school-based health centers (SBHCs) have shown that SBHCs decrease emergency department (ED) utilization. This study seeks to evaluate the effect of SBHCs on ED utilization in a rural setting. Methods: This retrospective, controlled, quasi-experimental study used an ED patient data set from the Bassett…
Stephens, Caroline E.; Newcomer, Robert; Blegen, Mary; Miller, Bruce; Harrington, Charlene
Purpose: To examine the 1-year prevalence and risk of emergency department (ED) use and ambulatory care-sensitive (ACS) ED use by nursing home (NH) residents with different levels of severity of cognitive impairment (CI). Design and Methods: We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate the effect of CI severity on the odds of any ED visit…
Rosen, Joshua B.; Olson, Mark H.; Kelly, Marianne
Objective: The authors examined the impact of a collegiate-based emergency medical service (CBEMS) on the frequency of emergency department (ED) transports. Participants: Students transported to the ED for acute alcohol intoxication during the Fall 2008 and the Fall 2009 semesters (N = 50). Methods: The frequency of students receiving…
Kadri, Farid; Harrou, Fouzi; Chaabane, Sondès; Tahon, Christian
Efficient management of patient flow (demand) in emergency departments (EDs) has become an urgent issue for many hospital administrations. Today, more and more attention is being paid to hospital management systems to optimally manage patient flow and to improve management strategies, efficiency and safety in such establishments. To this end, EDs require significant human and material resources, but unfortunately these are limited. Within such a framework, the ability to accurately forecast demand in emergency departments has considerable implications for hospitals to improve resource allocation and strategic planning. The aim of this study was to develop models for forecasting daily attendances at the hospital emergency department in Lille, France. The study demonstrates how time-series analysis can be used to forecast, at least in the short term, demand for emergency services in a hospital emergency department. The forecasts were based on daily patient attendances at the paediatric emergency department in Lille regional hospital centre, France, from January 2012 to December 2012. An autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) method was applied separately to each of the two GEMSA categories and total patient attendances. Time-series analysis was shown to provide a useful, readily available tool for forecasting emergency department demand.
McGarry, Jonathon; Krall, Scott P.; McLaughlin, Thomas
Objective: Evaluate the impact of adding emergency medicine residents to a medium-size urban hospital by comparing emergency department (ED) admission rate, total census, length of stay (LOS), and proportion of patients who left without being seen (LWBS). Methods: Using the student t-test, the study compared commonly used ED metrics for a mid-sized urban hospital (annual census 43,000) for the four-month period prior to (March-June 2006) and after (March-June 2007) residents began providing 24-hour coverage at the institution. Results: There was no significant difference in the number of patients seen (NPS) in the two time periods, 14,471 and 14,699 patients respectively (p=0.507). Analysis of the NPS and LWBS was not statistically significant. The percentage of patients who LWBS decreased with the presence of residents (6.5% to 5.8%, p=0.531), and the overall ED LOS was similar (210 min vs. 219 min, p=0.56). Admission rate data demonstrated that residents had a similar admission rate (17.5% vs. 18%, p =0.332). Conclusion: ED flow depends on a number of variables with complex interactions. When comparing two similar time periods in consecutive years, the presence of resident physicians in the ED had no effect on the number of patients seen, patient LOS in the ED, or LWBS, thus supporting the conclusion that residents did not adversely affect the patient flow within the ED. PMID:21079704
Healthcare professionals manage patients with a vast range of conditions, but often specialise and acquire expertise in specific disease processes. Emergency and pre-hospital clinicians care for patients with various conditions for short periods of time, so have less opportunity to become familiar with more unusual conditions, yet it is vital that they have some knowledge and understanding of these. Patients with rare conditions can present at emergency departments with common complaints, but the effect of their original diagnosis on the presenting complaint may be overlooked or underestimated. This article uses a case study to describe the experience of one patient who presented with vomiting, but who also had hypopituitarism and therefore required specific management she did not at first receive. The article describes hypopituitarism and the initial management of patients with this condition who become unwell, and discusses how the trust responded to the patient's complaint to improve patient safety and care. It has been written with the full participation and consent of the patient and her husband.
Mirhaghi, Amir; Heydari, Abbas; Ebrahimi, Mohsen; Noghani Dokht Bahmani, Mohsen
Background Triage in the interactive atmosphere of the emergency department (ED) has been described as complex and challenging. Nonemergent ED visits have been accompanied by ethical and legal conflicts. Objectives The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of ED nurses’ practice regarding triage of nonemergent patients. Patients and Methods Focused micro-ethnography based on Spradley’s developmental research sequence (DRS) was used. This study was conducted in an emergency department. Data was collected through complete participant observations along with formal and informal interviews, and then analyzed using DRS. Results Nine key informants were interviewed formally. Four main categories emerged from the nurses’ culture: nonemergent patient as an uninvited guest, nonemergent patient as an elephant in a dark room, nonemergent patient as an aggressive client, and being nonemergency unless at risk of death. Conclusions Providing care in the emergency department is significantly affected by nonemergent patients, as the emergency department is a place for critically ill patients thus awareness training program is recommended. PMID:28180119
Background In The Netherlands, the state of emergency department (ED) crowding is unknown. Anecdotal evidence suggests that current ED patients experience a longer length of stay (LOS) compared to some years ago, which is indicative of ED crowding. However, no multicenter studies have been performed to quantify LOS and assess crowding at Dutch EDs. We performed this study to describe the current state of emergency departments in The Netherlands regarding patients’ length of stay and ED nurse managers’ experiences of crowding. Methods A survey was sent to all 94 ED nurse managers in The Netherlands with questions regarding the type of facility, annual ED census, and patients’ LOS. Additional questions included whether crowding was ever a problem at the particular ED, how often it occurred, which time periods had the worst episodes of crowding, and what measures the particular ED had undertaken to improve patient flow. Results Surveys were collected from 63 EDs (67%). Mean annual ED visits were 24,936 (SD ± 9,840); mean LOS for discharged patients was 119 (SD ± 40) min and mean LOS for admitted patients 146 (SD ± 49) min. Consultation delays, laboratory and radiology delays, and hospital bed shortages for patients needing admission were the most cited reasons for crowding. Admitted patients had a longer LOS because of delays in obtaining inpatient beds. Thirty-nine of 57 respondents (68%) reported that crowding occurred several times a week or even daily, mostly between 12:00 and 20:00. Measures taken by hospitals to manage crowding included placing patients in hallways and using fasttrack with treatment of patients by trained nurse practitioners. Conclusions Despite a relatively short LOS, frequent crowding appears to be a nationwide problem according to Dutch ED nurse managers, with 68% of them reporting that crowding occurred several times a week or even daily. Consultations delays, laboratory and radiology delays, and hospital bed shortage
Trzeciak, S; Rivers, E P
Numerous reports have questioned the ability of United States emergency departments to handle the increasing demand for emergency services. Emergency department (ED) overcrowding is widespread in US cities and has reportedly reached crisis proportions. The purpose of this review is to describe how ED overcrowding threatens patient safety and public health, and to explore the complex causes and potential solutions for the overcrowding crisis. A review of the literature from 1990 to 2002 identified by a search of the Medline database was performed. Additional sources were selected from the references of the articles identified. There were four key findings. (1) The ED is a vital component of America's health care "safety net". (2) Overcrowding in ED treatment areas threatens public health by compromising patient safety and jeopardising the reliability of the entire US emergency care system. (3) Although the causes of ED overcrowding are complex, the main cause is inadequate inpatient capacity for a patient population with an increasing severity of illness. (4) Potential solutions for ED overcrowding will require multidisciplinary system-wide support.
Background Patients with infections account for a significant proportion of Emergency Department (ED) workload, with many hospital patients admitted with severe sepsis initially investigated and resuscitated in the ED. The aim of this registry is to systematically collect quality observational clinical and microbiological data regarding emergency patients admitted with infection, in order to explore in detail the microbiological profile of these patients, and to provide the foundation for a significant programme of prospective observational studies and further clinical research. Methods/design ED patients admitted with infection will be identified through daily review of the computerised database of ED admissions, and clinical information such as site of infection, physiological status in the ED, and components of management abstracted from patients' charts. This information will be supplemented by further data regarding results of investigations, microbiological isolates, and length of stay (LOS) from hospital electronic databases. Outcome measures will be hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) LOS, and mortality endpoints derived from a national death registry. Discussion This database will provide substantial insights into the characteristics, microbiological profile, and outcomes of emergency patients admitted with infections. It will become the nidus for a programme of research into compliance with evidence-based guidelines, optimisation of empiric antimicrobial regimens, validation of clinical decision rules and identification of outcome determinants. The detailed observational data obtained will provide a solid baseline to inform the design of further controlled trials planned to optimise treatment and outcomes for emergency patients admitted with infections. PMID:21269438
Gordon, J A
In an era of social welfare reform marked by the erosion of a societal safety net, few institutions remain that can guarantee assistance to those most in need. The hospital emergency department is perhaps the only local institution where professional help is mandated by law, with guaranteed availability for all persons, all the time, regardless of the problem. Although the ED serves as a true social safety net, its potential as a social welfare institution generally goes underestimated, hampering its full development as an effective societal resource. More of the disadvantaged may pass through the ED than through any other community institution, making it a logical site not only for the treatment of acute illness, but also for the identification of basic social needs and the extension of existing community resources. By helping more fully incorporate the ED into the total care of its community, emergency physicians can become leaders in the design and implementation of integrated sociomedical systems of care.
Nolen, Haley A.; Moore, Justin Xavier; Rodgers, Joel B.; Wang, Henry E.; Walter, Lauren A.
Despite historical gender bias against female physicians, few studies have investigated patients’ physician gender preference in the emergency department (ED) setting. We sought to determine if there is an association between ED patient demographics and physician gender preference. We surveyed patients presenting to an ED to determine association between patient demographics and patient physician gender preference for five ED situations: 1) ‘routine’ visit, 2) emergency visit, 3) ‘sensitive’ medical visit, 4) minor surgical/‘procedural’ visit, and 5) ‘bad news’ delivery. A total of 200 ED patients were surveyed. The majority of ED patients reported no physician gender preference for ‘routine’ visits (89.5 percent), ‘emergent’ visits (89 percent), ‘sensitive’ medical visits (59 percent), ‘procedural’ visits (89 percent) or when receiving ‘bad news’ (82 percent). In the setting of ‘routine’ visits and ‘sensitive’ medical visits, there was a propensity for same-sex physician preference. PMID:27354840
Takase, Miyuki; Carlin, John
Overcrowding is a phenomenon commonly observed at emergency departments (EDs) in many hospitals, and negatively impacts patients, healthcare professionals and organisations. Health care organisations are expected to act proactively to cope with a high patient volume by understanding and predicting the patterns of ED presentations. The aim of this study was, therefore, to identify the patterns of patient flow at a paediatric ED in order to assist the management of EDs. Data for ED presentations were collected from the Royal Children's Hospital in Melbourne, Australia, with the time-frame of July 2003 to June 2008. A linear regression analysis with trigonometric functions was used to identify the pattern of patient flow at the ED. The results showed that a logarithm of the daily average ED presentations was increasing exponentially (as explained by 0.004t + 0.00005t2 with t representing time, p<0.001). The model also indicated that there was a yearly oscillation in the frequency of ED presentations, in which lower frequencies were observed in summer and higher frequencies during winter (as explained by -0.046 sin(2(pi)t/12)-0.083 cos(2(pi)t/12), p<0.001). In addition, the variation of the oscillations was increasing over time (as explained by -0.002t*sin(2(pi)t/12)-0.001t*cos(2(pi)t/12), p<0.05). The identified regression model explained a total of 96% of the variance in the pattern of ED presentations. This model can be used to understand the trend of the current patient flow as well as to predict the future flow at the ED. Such an understanding will assist health care managers to prepare resources and environment more effectively to cope with overcrowding.
Neuenschwander, James F.; Peacock, W. Frank; Migeed, Madgy; Hunter, Sara A.; Daughtery, John C.; McCleese, Ian C.; Hiestand, Brian C.
Objective Patients with implanted cardiac devices may wait extended periods for interrogation in emergency departments (EDs). Our purpose was to determine if device interrogation could be done safely and faster by ED staff. Methods Prospective randomized, standard therapy controlled, trial of ED staff device interrogation vs. standard process (SP), with 30-day follow-up. Eligibility criteria: ED presentation with a self-report of a potential device related complaint, with signed informed consent. SP interrogation was by company representative or hospital employee. Results Of 60 patients, 42 (70%) were male, all were white, with a median (interquartile range) age of 71 (64 to 82) years. No patient was lost to follow up. Of all patients, 32 (53%) were enrolled during business hours. The overall median (interquartile range) ED vs. SP time to interrogation was 98.5 (40 to 260) vs. 166.5 (64 to 412) minutes (P=0.013). While ED and SP interrogation times were similar during business hours, 102 (59 to 138) vs. 105 (64 to 172) minutes (P=0.62), ED interrogation times were shorter vs. SP during non-business hours; 97 (60 to 126) vs. 225 (144 to 412) minutes, P=0.002, respectively. There was no difference in ED length of stay between the ED and SP interrogation, 249 (153 to 390) vs. 246 (143 to 333) minutes (P=0.71), regardless of time of presentation. No patient in any cohort suffered an unplanned medical contact or post-discharge adverse device related event. Conclusion ED staff cardiac device interrogations are faster, and with similar 30-day outcomes, as compared to SP. PMID:28168230
Holden, Richard J
Emergency departments (EDs) face problems with crowding, delays, cost containment, and patient safety. To address these and other problems, EDs increasingly implement an approach called Lean thinking. This study critically reviewed 18 articles describing the implementation of Lean in 15 EDs in the United States, Australia, and Canada. An analytic framework based on human factors engineering and occupational research generated 6 core questions about the effects of Lean on ED work structures and processes, patient care, and employees, as well as the factors on which Lean's success is contingent. The review revealed numerous ED process changes, often involving separate patient streams, accompanied by structural changes such as new technologies, communication systems, staffing changes, and the reorganization of physical space. Patient care usually improved after implementation of Lean, with many EDs reporting decreases in length of stay, waiting times, and proportion of patients leaving the ED without being seen. Few null or negative patient care effects were reported, and studies typically did not report patient quality or safety outcomes beyond patient satisfaction. The effects of Lean on employees were rarely discussed or measured systematically, but there were some indications of positive effects on employees and organizational culture. Success factors included employee involvement, management support, and preparedness for change. Despite some methodological, practical, and theoretic concerns, Lean appears to offer significant improvement opportunities. Many questions remain about Lean's effects on patient health and employees and how Lean can be best implemented in health care.
Adebayo, Omoyemi; Rogers, Robert L
Hypertension affects approximately one-third of Americans. An additional 30% are unaware that they harbor the disease. Significantly increased blood pressure constitutes a hypertensive emergency that could lead to end-organ damage. When organs such as the brain, heart, or kidney are affected, an intervention that will lower the blood pressure in several hours is indicated. Several pharmacologic options are available for treatment, with intravenous antihypertensive therapy being the cornerstone, but there is no standard of care. Careful consideration of each patient's specific complaint, history, and physical examination guides the emergency physician through the treatment algorithm.
Pediatric information seeking behaviour, information needs, and information preferences of health care professionals in general emergency departments: Results from the Translating Emergency Knowledge for Kids (TREKK) Needs Assessment.
Scott, Shannon D; Albrecht, Lauren; Given, Lisa M; Hartling, Lisa; Johnson, David W; Jabbour, Mona; Klassen, Terry P
The majority of children requiring emergency care are treated in general emergency departments (EDs) with variable levels of pediatric care expertise. The goal of the Translating Emergency Knowledge for Kids (TREKK) initiative is to implement the latest research in pediatric emergency medicine in general EDs to reduce clinical variation.
Simpson, Scott A.; Pasic, Jagoda
Many emergency department (ED) psychiatric patients present after traveling. Although such travel, or peregrination, has long been associated with factitious disorder, other diagnoses are more common among travelers, including psychotic disorders, personality disorders, and substance abuse. Travelers’ intense psychopathology, disrupted social networks, lack of collateral informants, and unawareness of local resources complicate treatment. These patients can consume disproportionate time and resources from emergency providers. We review the literature on the emergency psychiatric treatment of peregrinating patients and use case examples to illustrate common presentations and treatment strategies. Difficulties in studying this population and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:27625725
McElroy, Lisa M.; Schmidt, Kathryn A.; Richards, Christopher T.; Lapin, Brittany; Abecassis, Michael M.; Holl, Jane L.; Adams, James; Ladner, Daniela P.
Background Research on post-transplant care has predominantly focused on predictors of readmission with little attention to emergency department (ED) visits. The goal of this study was to describe early postoperative ED care of transplant recipients. Methods A secondary database analysis of adult patients who underwent abdominal organ transplantation between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2013 and sought ED care within one year post-transplantation was conducted. Survival was compared using the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to adjust for pertinent covariates. Results A total of 1,900 abdominal organ transplants were performed during the study period. Of these, 37% (N=711) transplant recipients sought care in the ED (1,343 total visits) with 1.89 mean ED visits per recipient. Of recipients seen in the ED, 58% received a kidney transplant and 28% received a liver transplant, with 45% of recipients presenting within the first 60 postoperative days. The most common chief complaints were gastroenterological (17%) and abnormal laboratory values or vital signs (17%). In total, 74% of recipients were readmitted and 50% of admitted patients were discharged in less than 24 hours. Transplant recipients with ED visits had lower 3-year graft (81% vs. 87%; p<0.001) and patient (89% vs. 93%; p=0.002) survival. Conclusion Transplant recipients have a high frequency of ED visits in the first post-transplantation year and high rates of subsequent hospital admission. Further investigation is needed to understand what drives recipient presentation to the ED and create care models that achieve the best outcomes. PMID:26050012
Allen, Michael H.; Abar, Beau W.; McCormick, Mark; Barnes, Donna H.; Haukoos, Jason; Garmel, Gus M.; Boudreaux, Edwin D.
Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal 15 calls for organizations "to identify patients at risk for suicide." Overt suicidal behavior accounts for 0.6% of emergency department (ED) visits, but incidental suicidal ideation is found in 3%-11.6%. This is the first multicenter study of suicide screening in EDs. Of 2,243 patients in…
Baibergenova, Akerke; Leeb, Kira; Jokovic, Aleksandra; Gushue, Sharon
The rate of patients who visit emergency departments (EDs) but leave before being evaluated and treated is an important indicator of ED performance. This study examines patient- and hospital-level characteristics that may increase the risk of patients leaving EDs before being seen. The data are from the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System, an administrative database, and represent 4.3 million patient visits made to 163 Ontario EDs between April 2003 and March 2004. Among these data, the proportion that left without being seen (LWBS) was 3.1% (136,805). The rate of LWBS was highest among patients aged 15 to 35 years, those with less acute conditions and facilities that handle the highest volume of patients. Facility rates were positively correlated with facility median ED length of stay, annual facility volume and percentage of inpatient admissions. Understanding patient and facility characteristics that increase rates of LWBS may inform the process of developing measures to ensure timely access to ED care for all who seek it.
Gillespie, Gordon Lee; Bresler, Scott; Gates, Donna M; Succop, Paul
Workplace aggression has the potential to adversely affect the psychological health of emergency department (ED) workers. The purpose of this study was to compare posttraumatic stress symptomatology based on verbal and verbal plus physical aggression. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used with a convenience sample (n = 208) of ED workers who completed a three-component survey. Descriptive statistics were computed to compare traumatic stress scores based on type of aggression. Two-way analysis of variance statistics were computed to determine if scores differed on the demographic variables. Fewer than half of the ED workers reported traumatic stress symptomatology; however, workplace aggression has the potential to adversely affect the mental health of ED workers. Occupational health nurses can establish or maintain a nurturing and protective environment open to discussing the personal thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of ED workers related to their experiences of workplace aggression. This open and more positive work environment may aid in reducing the negative impact of posttraumatic stress symptoms among those ED workers who have been victimized.
Weiland, Tracey J.; Chong, Alvin H.; Jelinek, George A.
Background/Objectives. There is minimal data available on the types of dermatological conditions which present to tertiary emergency departments (ED). We analysed demographic and clinical features of dermatological presentations to an Australian adult ED. Methods. The St. Vincent's Hospital Melbourne (SVHM) ED database was searched for dermatological presentations between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2011 by keywords and ICD-10 diagnosis codes. The lists were merged, and the ICD-10 codes were grouped into 55 categories for analysis. Demographic and clinical data for these presentations were then analysed. Results. 123 345 people presented to SVHM ED during the 3-year period. 4817 (3.9%) presented for a primarily dermatological complaint. The most common conditions by ICD-10 diagnosis code were cellulitis (n = 1741, 36.1%), allergy with skin involvement (n = 939, 19.5%), boils/furuncles/pilonidal sinuses (n = 526, 11.1%), eczema/dermatitis (n = 274, 5.7%), and varicella zoster infection (n = 161, 3.3%). Conclusion. The burden of dermatological disease presenting to ED is small but not insignificant. This information may assist in designing dermatological curricula for hospital clinicians and specialty training organisations as well as informing the allocation of dermatological resources to ED. PMID:24800080
Olsen, Jon C; Sabin, Brad R
The study objective was to determine if Emergency Department (ED) patients experience breaches of privacy and confidentiality during their ED stay and to determine if the type of room in which the patient is placed affects privacy. We surveyed a convenience sample of ED patients at the conclusion of their ED stay regarding their privacy and confidentiality. Overall, 36% of patients overheard conversations with similar frequencies in walled and curtained rooms. The location of conversations overheard varied depending on the type of patient room, as curtained rooms allowed conversations from adjacent rooms to be overheard and walled rooms allowed more conversations from the hallway or nursing station to be overheard. Patients felt more comfortable giving their history and having physical examinations performed in walled vs. curtained rooms. Inappropriate or unprofessional comments by staff were heard by 1.6% of patients. Health care providers in the ED need to be aware of breaches in confidentiality and privacy, as our patients deserve respect of their privacy and confidentiality during their ED visit.
Gilbert, Stefanie K.; Wen, Leana S.; Pines, Jesse M.
BACKGROUND: Costs of care are increasingly important in healthcare policy and, more recently, in clinical care in the emergency department (ED). We compare ED resident and patient perspectives surrounding costs in emergency care. METHODS: We conducted a mixed methods study using surveys and qualitative interviews at a single, academic ED in the United States. The two study populations were a convenience sample of adult ED patients (>17 years of age) and ED residents training at the same institution. Participants answered open- and closed-ended questions on costs, medical decision making, cost-related compliance, and communication about costs. Closed-ended data were tabulated and described using standard statistics while open-ended responses were analyzed using grounded theory. RESULTS: Thirty ED patients and 24 ED residents participated in the study. Both patients and residents generally did not have knowledge of medical costs. Patients were comfortable discussing costs while residents were less comfortable. Residents agreed that doctors should consider costs when making medical decisions whereas patients somewhat disagreed. Additionally, residents generally took costs into consideration during clinical decision-making, yet nearly all residents agreed that they had too little education on costs. CONCLUSION: There were several notable differences in ED patient and resident perspectives on costs in this U.S. sample. While patients somewhat disagree that cost should factor into decision making, generally they are comfortable discussing costs yet report having insufficient knowledge of what care costs. Conversely, ED residents view costs as important and agree that cost should factor into decision making but lack education on what emergency care costs. PMID:28123619
Nicks, B. A.; Manthey, D. M.
Objectives. Studies have demonstrated the adverse effects of emergency department (ED) boarding. This study examines the impact of resource utilization, throughput, and financial impact for psychiatric patients awaiting inpatient placement. Methods. The authors retrospectively studied all psychiatric and non-psychiatric adult admissions in an Academic Medical Center ED (>68,000 adult visits) from January 2007-2008. The main outcomes were ED length of stay (LOS) and associated reimbursement. Results. 1,438 patients were consulted to psychiatry with 505 (35.1%) requiring inpatient psychiatric care management. The mean psychiatric patient age was 42.5 years (SD 13.1 years), with 2.7 times more women than men. ED LOS was significantly longer for psychiatric admissions (1089 min, CI (1039–1140) versus 340 min, CI (304–375); P < 0.001) when compared to non-psychiatric admissions. The financial impact of psychiatric boarding accounted for a direct loss of ($1,198) compared to non-psychiatric admissions. Factoring the loss of bed turnover for waiting patients and opportunity cost due to loss of those patients, psychiatric patient boarding cost the department $2,264 per patient. Conclusions. Psychiatric patients awaiting inpatient placement remain in the ED 3.2 times longer than non-psychiatric patients, preventing 2.2 bed turnovers (additional patients) per psychiatric patient, and decreasing financial revenue. PMID:22888437
Kansagra, Susan M.; Rao, Sowmya R.; Sullivan, Ashley F.; Gordon, James A.; Magid, David J.; Kaushal, Rainu; Camargo, Carlos A.; Blumenthal, David
Objectives Workplace violence is a concerning issue. Healthcare workers represent a significant portion of the victims, especially those who work in the emergency department (ED). The objective of this study was to examine ED workplace violence and staff perceptions of physical safety. Methods Data were obtained from the National Emergency Department Safety Study (NEDSS), which surveyed staff across 69 U.S. EDs including physicians, residents, nurses, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants. The authors also conducted surveys of key informants (one from each site) including ED chairs, medical directors, nurse managers, and administrators. The main outcome measures included physical attacks against staff, frequency of guns or knives in the ED, and staff perceptions of physical safety. Results A total of 5,695 staff surveys were distributed, and 3,518 surveys from 65 sites were included in the final analysis. One-fourth of surveyed ED staff reported feeling safe sometimes, rarely, or never. Key informants at the sampled EDs reported a total of 3,461 physical attacks (median of 11 attacks per ED) over the 5-year period. Key informants at 20% of EDs reported that guns or knives were brought to the ED on a daily or weekly basis. In multivariate analysis, nurses were less likely to feel safe “most of the time” or “always” when compared to other surveyed staff. Conclusions This study showed that violence and weapons in the ED are common, and nurses were less likely to feel safe than other ED staff. PMID:18976337
Hsia, Renee Y.; Asch, Steven M.; Weiss, Robert E.; Zingmond, David; Liang, Li-Jung; Han, Weijuan; McCreath, Heather; Sun, Benjamin C.
Study objective The proportion of patients who leave without being seen in the emergency department (ED) is an outcome-oriented measure of impaired access to emergency care and represents the failure of an emergency care delivery system to meet its goals of providing care to those most in need. Little is known about variation in the amount of left without being seen or about hospital-level determinants. Such knowledge is necessary to target hospital-level interventions to improve access to emergency care. We seek to determine whether hospital-level socioeconomic status case mix or hospital structural characteristics are predictive of ED left without being seen rates. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of all acute-care, nonfederal hospitals in California that operated an ED in 2007, using data from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development database and the US census. Our outcome of interest was whether a visit to a given hospital ED resulted in left without being seen. The proportion of left without being seen was measured by the number of left without being seen cases out of the total number of visits. Results We studied 9.2 million ED visits to 262 hospitals in California. The percentage of left without being seen varied greatly over hospitals, ranging from 0% to 20.3%, with a median percentage of 2.6%. In multivariable analyses adjusting for hospital-level socioeconomic status case mix, visitors to EDs with a higher proportion of low-income and poorly insured patients experienced a higher risk of left without being seen. We found that the odds of an ED visit resulting in left without being seen increased by a factor of 1.15 for each 10-percentage-point increase in poorly insured patients, and odds of left without being seen decreased by a factor of 0.86 for each $10,000 increase in household income. When hospital structural characteristics were added to the model, county ownership, trauma center designation, and teaching
Gutierrez, Catherine; Lindor, Rachel A; Baker, Olesya; Cutler, David; Schuur, Jeremiah D
Freestanding emergency departments (EDs), which offer emergency medical care at sites separate from hospitals, are a rapidly growing alternative to traditional hospital-based EDs. We evaluated state regulations of freestanding EDs and describe their effect on the EDs' location, staffing, and services. As of December 2015, thirty-two states collectively had 400 freestanding EDs. Twenty-one states had regulations that allowed freestanding EDs, and twenty-nine states did not have regulations that applied specifically to such EDs (one state had hospital regulations that precluded them). State policies regarding freestanding EDs varied widely, with no standard requirements for location, staffing patterns, or clinical capabilities. States requiring freestanding EDs to have a certificate of need had fewer of such EDs per capita than states without such a requirement. For patients to better understand the capabilities and costs of freestanding EDs and to be able to choose the most appropriate site of emergency care, consistent state regulation of freestanding EDs is needed.
Brody, Aaron; Rahman, Tahsin; Reed, Brian; Millis, Scott; Ference, Brian; Flack, John M.; Levy, Phillip D.
Background Poor blood pressure (BP) control is a primary risk factor for target organ damage in the heart, brain, and kidney. Uncontrolled hypertension is common among emergency department (ED) patients, particularly in underresourced settings, but it is unclear what role ED providers should play in the management of chronic antihypertensive therapy. Objectives The objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of prescribing antihypertensive therapy from the ED. Methods This was a retrospective study of data pooled from two prospective, longitudinal, randomized controlled trials, both of which enrolled ED patients with asymptomatic hypertension. Antihypertensives were prescribed at emergency physician discretion, and this was not related to randomization arm. Demographic data, BP at screening and randomization visit, and data on adverse effects potentially related to antihypertensive therapy were compiled. Means were compared using Student’s t-tests, and proportions were compared using chi-square tests. The effect of antihypertensive therapy on BP control was further analyzed using multivariable regression modeling controlling for age, race, sex, hypertension history, study cohort, and ED BP. Results Data were abstracted for 217 subjects. The median interval from ED visit to randomization was 12 days. Seventy-six subjects (35%) received one or more prescriptions for antihypertensive therapy. Age, sex, race, hypertension history, and mean duration of hypertension were equivalent between groups. Although mean ED BP was higher among those who received prescriptions, the mean systolic BP (sBP) reduction from ED to randomization was significantly greater (difference = 19 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval = 12 to 26 mm Hg). No patient in either group had an sBP less than 100 mm Hg at randomization. On multiple regression modeling, randomization sBP reduction was independently associated with antihypertensive prescription (p = 0.001). The incidence of adverse effects
Mehrotra, Abhishek; Sklar, David P; Tayal, Vivek S; Kocher, Keith E; Handel, Daniel A; Myles Riner, R
This article is drawn from a report created for the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) Emergency Department (ED) Categorization Task Force and also reflects the proceedings of a breakout session, "Beyond ED Categorization-Matching Networks to Patient Needs," at the 2010 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference, "Beyond Regionalization: Integrated Networks of Emergency Care." The authors describe a brief history of the significant national and state efforts at categorization and suggest reasons why many of these efforts failed to persevere or gain wider implementation. The history of efforts to categorize hospital (and ED) emergency services demonstrates recognition of the potential benefits of categorization, but reflects repeated failures to implement full categorization systems or limited excursions into categorization through licensing of EDs or designation of receiving and referral facilities. An understanding of the history of hospital and ED categorization could better inform current efforts to develop categorization schemes and processes.
Sabbagh, C; Chaddad, M; El Rassy, E
Morning report in the emergency medicine departments is an emerging teaching modality in the medicine curriculum. Our institution, Hotel-Dieu de France hospital, a multidisciplinary tertiary care university hospital affiliated to the Saint Joseph University of Medical Sciences, is the only hospital in Middle East to hold morning reports in the emergency department (ED). We evaluate the usefulness of the morning report as a pedagogic tool as it assesses the content, quality of the discussions, professionalism, leadership, participation and duration of the morning report. The particularity of this paper is that it takes into consideration the interns' input often under-recognised in the studies. An anonymous questionnaire was diffused to the residents and interns that rotated in the ED during the previous year. It consisted of seven multiple-choice questions to evaluate the quality of the presentations, targeted discussions, ethics and professionalism, evidence-based medicine, clinical reasoning, relation of cases to discussions and implication of the ED physician. Overall, of the 63 patients who answered the survey, 65.1% were satisfied by the content. The majority considered the quality of the discussions acceptable and the leadership and participation satisfactory, professionalism was judged poor. Both residents and interns were satisfied of the teaching point of the morning reports. The only fail back observed was professionalism and pathophysiological discussions that require to be added to the sessions, whereas clinical management, teaching points, leadership and time management were completely satisfactory.
Travers, Debbie A; Waller, Anna; Haas, Stephanie W; Lober, William B; Beard, Carmen
Emergency Department (ED) data are a key component of bioterrorism surveillance systems. Little research has been done to examine differences in ED data capture and entry across hospitals, regions and states. The purpose of this study was to describe the current state of ED data for use in bioterrorism surveillance in 2 regions of the country. We found that chief complaint (CC) data are available electronically in 54% of the North Carolina EDs surveyed, and in 100% of the Seattle area EDs. Over half of all EDs reported that CCs are recorded in free text form. Though all EDs have electronic diagnosis data, less than half report that diagnoses are coded within 24 hours of the ED visit.
Thompson, L H; Malik, M T; Gumel, A; Strome, T; Mahmud, S M
We evaluated syndromic indicators of influenza disease activity developed using emergency department (ED) data - total ED visits attributed to influenza-like illness (ILI) ('ED ILI volume') and percentage of visits attributed to ILI ('ED ILI percent') - and Google flu trends (GFT) data (ILI cases/100 000 physician visits). Congruity and correlation among these indicators and between these indicators and weekly count of laboratory-confirmed influenza in Manitoba was assessed graphically using linear regression models. Both ED and GFT data performed well as syndromic indicators of influenza activity, and were highly correlated with each other in real time. The strongest correlations between virological data and ED ILI volume and ED ILI percent, respectively, were 0·77 and 0·71. The strongest correlation of GFT was 0·74. Seasonal influenza activity may be effectively monitored using ED and GFT data.
Wang, Lin; Tchopev, Nikolay; Kuntz-Melcavage, Kara; Hawkins, Michelle; Richardson, Regina
This study investigated patient-reported reasons for treat-and-release emergency department (ED) visits by Medicaid beneficiaries. An in-house-designed educational survey was conducted that consisted of 3 components: patient's health, patient's primary care, and patient's ED visit. An ED patient was asked an open-ended question about the reason for a recent ED visit. The patient's answer was classified into 1 of 3 types: health care service delivery issues, population behavior issues, and unavoidable ED visits. Among 2711 ED visits, 56% were related to health care service delivery issues (ie, access to care, primary care provider [PCP] availability), 2% were associated with population behavior issues, and 42% were unavoidable. For those ED visits related to PCP unavailability, 72% occurred during off-hours or weekends and 28% were because of no timely PCP appointments. The findings suggest that inadequate access to primary care is a major cause of potentially avoidable ED utilization in the Medicaid population.
McCusker, Jane; Verdon, Josee; Veillette, Nathalie; Berg, Katherine; Emond, Tina; Belzile, Eric
Cost-effective methods have been developed to help busy emergency department (ED) staff cope with the growing number of older patients, including quick screening and assessment tools to identify those at high risk and note their specific needs. This survey, from a sample of key informants from all EDs (n=111) in the province of Quebec…
Somji, Zeeshanefatema; Plint, Amy; McGahern, Candice; Al-Saleh, Ahmed; Boutis, Kathy
Objectives: Pediatric fractures suspicious for abuse are often evaluated in emergency departments (ED), although corresponding diagnostic coding for possible abuse may be lacking. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to determine the proportion of fracture cases investigated in the ED for abuse that had corresponding International…
Rust, George; Baltrus, Peter; Ye, Jiali; Daniels, Elvan; Quarshie, Alexander; Boumbulian, Paul; Strothers, Harry
Context: Community health centers (CHCs) provide essential access to a primary care medical home for the uninsured, especially in rural communities with no other primary care safety net. CHCs could potentially reduce uninsured emergency department (ED) visits in rural communities. Purpose: We compared uninsured ED visit rates between rural…
Urso, D L
This article describes the management of acute asthma exacerbation in the Emergency Department (ED). An asthma exacerbation can be defined as clinical worsening of disease or an asymptomatic decrease in peak flows. Acute exacerbations of asthma may represent reactions to airway irritants or failures of chronic treatment. Hospitalizations and ED visits account for a large proportion of the health-care cost burden of asthma. The assessment of an asthma exacerbation constitutes a process with two different dimensions: to determine the severity of attack, and to evaluate the response to treatment. The principal goals of managing an asthma acute exacerbation may be summarized as maintenance of adequate arterial oxygen saturation with supplemental oxygen, relief of airflow obstruction with repetitive administration of short acting beta-2 agonists (SABA), and treatment of airway inflammation with systemic corticosteroids (CS) to prevent future relapses. SABA, oxygen, and CS form the basis of management of acute asthma exacerbation but a role is emerging for anthicolinergics.
Yamamoto, Loren G; Manzi, Shannon; Shaw, Kathy N; Ackerman, Alice D; Chun, Thomas H; Conners, Gregory P; Dudley, Nanette C; Fein, Joel A; Fuchs, Susan M; Moore, Brian R; Selbst, Steven M; Wright, Joseph L
Although most health care services can and should be provided by their medical home, children will be referred or require visits to the emergency department (ED) for emergent clinical conditions or injuries. Continuation of medical care after discharge from an ED is dependent on parents or caregivers' understanding of and compliance with follow-up instructions and on adherence to medication recommendations. ED visits often occur at times when the majority of pharmacies are not open and caregivers are concerned with getting their ill or injured child directly home. Approximately one-third of patients fail to obtain priority medications from a pharmacy after discharge from an ED. The option of judiciously dispensing ED discharge medications from the ED's outpatient pharmacy within the facility is a major convenience that overcomes this obstacle, improving the likelihood of medication adherence. Emergency care encounters should be routinely followed up with primary care provider medical homes to ensure complete and comprehensive care.
Van Parys, Jessica
Despite the significant responsibility that physicians have in healthcare delivery, we know surprisingly little about why physician practice styles vary within or across institutions. Estimating variation in physician practice styles is complicated by the fact that patients are rarely randomly assigned to physicians. This paper uses the quasi-random assignment of patients to physicians in emergency departments (EDs) to show how physicians vary in their treatment of patients with minor injuries. The results reveal a considerable degree of variation in practice styles within EDs; physicians at the 75th percentile of the spending distribution spend 20% more than physicians at the 25th percentile. Observable physician characteristics do not explain much of the variation across physicians, but there is a significant degree of sorting between physicians and EDs over time, with high-cost physicians sorting into high-cost EDs as they gain experience. The results may shed light on why some EDs remain persistently higher-cost than others. PMID:27517464
Hoot, Nathan R; Aronsky, Dominik
Emergency department (ED) crowding represents an international crisis that may affect the quality and access of health care. We conducted a comprehensive PubMed search to identify articles that (1) studied causes, effects, or solutions of ED crowding; (2) described data collection and analysis methodology; (3) occurred in a general ED setting; and (4) focused on everyday crowding. Two independent reviewers identified the relevant articles by consensus. We applied a 5-level quality assessment tool to grade the methodology of each study. From 4,271 abstracts and 188 full-text articles, the reviewers identified 93 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. A total of 33 articles studied causes, 27 articles studied effects, and 40 articles studied solutions of ED crowding. Commonly studied causes of crowding included nonurgent visits, "frequent-flyer" patients, influenza season, inadequate staffing, inpatient boarding, and hospital bed shortages. Commonly studied effects of crowding included patient mortality, transport delays, treatment delays, ambulance diversion, patient elopement, and financial effect. Commonly studied solutions of crowding included additional personnel, observation units, hospital bed access, nonurgent referrals, ambulance diversion, destination control, crowding measures, and queuing theory. The results illustrated the complex, multifaceted characteristics of the ED crowding problem. Additional high-quality studies may provide valuable contributions toward better understanding and alleviating the daily crisis. This structured overview of the literature may help to identify future directions for the crowding research agenda.
Buckler, David L.
The Emergency Department (ED) simulation project was established to demonstrate how requirements-driven analysis and process simulation can help improve the quality of patient care for the Veterans Health Administration's (VHA) Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMC). This project developed a web-based simulation prototype of patient flow in EDs, validated the performance of the simulation against operational data, and documented IT requirements for the ED simulation.
Lecky, Fiona; Benger, Jonathan; Mason, Suzanne; Cameron, Peter; Walsh, Chris
All emergency departments (EDs) have an obligation to deliver care that is demonstrably safe and of the highest possible quality. Emergency medicine is a unique and rapidly developing specialty, which forms the hub of the emergency care system and strives to provide a consistent and effective service 24 h a day, 7 days a week. The International Federation of Emergency Medicine, representing more than 70 countries, has prepared a document to define a framework for quality and safety in the ED. Following a consensus conference and with subsequent development, a series of quality indicators have been proposed. These are tabulated in the form of measures designed to answer nine quality questions presented according to the domains of structure, process and outcome. There is an urgent need to improve the evidence base to determine which quality indicators have the potential to successfully improve clinical outcomes, staff and patient experience in a cost-efficient manner--with lessons for implementation.
White, Faber A; Zwemer, Frank L; Beach, Christopher; Westesson, Per-Lennart; Fairbanks, Rollin J; Scialdone, Gary
Emergency department (ED) patient care relies heavily on radiologic imaging. As advances in technologic innovation continue to present opportunities to streamline and simplify the delivery of care, emergency medicine (EM) practitioners face the challenge of transitioning from a system of primarily film-based radiography to one that utilizes digitized images. The move to digital radiology can result in enhanced quality of patient care, reduction of errors, and increased ED efficiency; however, making this transition will necessarily involve changes in EM practice. As the technology evolves, digital radiology will gradually become ingrained into everyday practice because of these and other notable benefits; however, EM practitioners will need to overcome several challenges to make the transition smoothly and consider the potential impacts that this change will have on ED workflow. The authors discuss the benefits, challenges, and other operational considerations involved with the ED implementation of digital radiology and close by presenting guiding principles for current and future users. Despite the unresolved issues, digital radiology will mature as a technology and improve EM practice, making it one of the great information technology advances in EM.
Hsia, Renee Y; Antwi, Yaa Akosa
Objective Previous studies have shown that charges for inpatient and clinic procedures vary substantially; however, there is scant data on variation in charges for emergency department (ED) visits. Outpatient ED visits are typically billed using CPT-coded levels to standardize the intensity of services received, providing an ideal element on which to evaluate charge variation. Thus, we sought to analyze the variation in charges for each level of ED visits, and examine whether hospital and market-level factors could help predict these charges. Methods Using 2011 charge data provided by every non-federal California hospital to the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, we analyzed the variability in charges for each level of ED visits and used linear regression to assess whether hospital and market characteristics could explain the variation in charges. Results Charges for each ED visit level varied widely; for example, charges for a level 4 visit ranged from $275 to $6,662. Government hospitals charged significantly less than non-profit hospitals, while hospitals that paid higher wages, served higher proportions of Medicare and Medicaid patients, and were located in areas with high costs of living charged more. Overall our models explained only 30–41% of the between-hospital variation in charges for each level of ED visits. Conclusions Our findings of extensive charge variation in ED visits add to the literature in demonstrating the lack of systematic charge setting in the U.S. healthcare system. These widely varying charges affect the hospital bills of millions of uninsured patients and insured patients seeking care out-of-network, and continue to play a role in many aspects of healthcare financing. PMID:24888673
Gras-Le Guen, Christèle; Vrignaud, Bénédicte; Levieux, Karine
The number of children admitted to paediatric emergencies is increasing steadily, and is responsible for an altered quality in the patients' reception and some major perturbations in the care organization. In this context, the primary care physicians play a major role in explaining their patients "how to use" the paediatric emergency department (priority in case of vital emergency, periods with lot of admissions and increased waiting time ...). Everything must be done to find an altemative to the pediatric emergency department passage by facilitating communication between caregivers and for example by offering semi urgent consultations possibility.
Smith, Bryan; Burscough, Sheila
Orthopaedic and musculoskeletal injuries are commonly identified in the emergency department (ED). Whilst much orthopaedic trauma literature focuses on fractures of the proximal femur, raising key issues such as length of stay and timely discharge, the start of the patients' journey is just as important in ensuring an appropriate assessment and a smooth transition through each stage of care. In the UK targets have been set for proximal hip fractured patients to attend theatre within 48 hours of admission, if fit. Appraising such patients expediently on initial point of contact in the ED has demonstrated that a number of factors can impinge and delay the patients' progress. This said a large number of other orthopaedic and musculoskeletal self presenting patients rely on the same appropriate transition to suitable medical assistance. The emergency department triage system has been used in the UK in its latest format since 2001, yet elderly patients with painful Colles fractures find they wait for specialist attention in a linear queue, possibly over extended lengths of time. This short paper explores how 'streaming' patients in one local ED has improved waiting/treatment times, and identified the fact that in some months (December 2012), 1 in 3 attendees present with a musculoskeletal problem. Using audit data collected over the last four years the benefits of 'streaming' patients is evident.
Kozin, Elliott D.; Sethi, Rosh K.V.; Remenschneider, Aaron K.; Kaplan, Alyson; del Portal, Daniel A.; Gray, Stacey T.; Shrime, Mark G.; Lee, Daniel J.
Objective Otologic complaints may place a significant burden on emergency departments (EDs) in the United States; however, few studies have comprehensively examined this discrete patient population. We aim to identify utilization of EDs by patients with primary otologic complaints. Study Design Retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) from 2009 through 2011. Methods The NEDS database was queried for patient encounters with a primary otologic diagnosis based on ICD9 codes (380–389). Weighted estimates for demographic, diagnostic characteristics, SES, and trends over time were extracted. Predictors of mortality and admission were determined by multivariable logistic regression. Results A weighted total of 8,611,282 visits between 2009 and 2011 were attributed to otologic diagnoses, representing 2.21% of all ED visits. Stratified by patient age, otologic diagnoses encompassed 1.01% and 6.79% of all adult and pediatric ED visits, respectively. The majority of patients were treated and released (98.17%). The average age of patients presenting with an otologic complaint was 17.9 years (Standard Error [SE] = 0.23). Overall, 62.7% of patients that presented with an otologic complaint were 0–17 years old. The most common diagnoses among all age groups included otitis media NOS (60.6%), infected otitis externa NOS (11.8%), and otalgia NOS (6.8%). Conclusions We provide a comprehensive overview of otologic complaints that are an overlooked diagnostic category in public health research. NEDS data demonstrates significant number of visits related to otologic complaints, especially in the pediatric population, that are non-emergent. PMID:25702897
Sulyman, Naseem; Kim, Min Kyeong; Rampa, Sankeerth; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Nalliah, Romesh P.; Allareddy, Veerajalandhar
Objective The objectives of the current study are to provide nationally representative estimates of hospital based emergency department visits (ED) attributed to self inflicted injuries and attempted suicides among children in United States; and to identify potential methods of such intentional self inflicted injuries and attempted suicides. Methods The Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (year 2007) was used. All ED visits occurring among children (aged ≤18 years) with an External Cause of Injury for any of self inflicted injuries were selected. Outcomes examined include hospital ED charges and hospitalization charges. All estimates were projected to national levels. Results 77,420 visits to hospital based emergency departments were attributed to self inflicted injuries among children (26,045 males and 51,370 females). The average age of the ED visits was 15.7 years. 134 patients died in ED’s (106 males and 28 females) and 93 died in hospitals following in-patient admission (75 males and 18 females). A greater proportion of male ED visits were discharged routinely as opposed to female ED visits (51.1% versus 44%). A greater proportion of male ED visits also died in the emergency departments compared to female visits (0.4% versus 0.05%). 17,965 ED visits necessitated admission into same hospital. The mean charge for each ED visit was $1,874. Self inflicted injuries by poisoning were the most frequently reported sources accounting for close to 70% of all ED visits. Conclusions Females comprise a greater proportion of ED visits attributed to self inflicted injuries. 227 children died either in the ED’s or in hospitals. The current study results highlight the burden associated with such injuries among children. PMID:23875006
Pedrosa, Maria; Prieto-García, Alicia; Sala-Cunill, Anna
Angioedema refers to a localized, transient swelling of the deep skin layers or the upper respiratory or gastrointestinal mucosa. It develops as a result of mainly two different vasoactive peptides, histamine or bradykinin. Pathophysiology, as well as treatment, is different in each case; nevertheless, the resulting signs and symptoms may be similar and difficult to distinguish. Angioedema may occur at any location. When the affected area involves the upper respiratory tract, both forms of angioedema can lead to an imminent upper airway obstruction and a life-threatening emergency. Emergency physicians must have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology underlying this process. Angioedema evaluation in the emergency department (ED) should aim to distinguish between histamine- and bradykinin-induced angioedema, in order to provide appropriate treatment to patients. However, diagnostic methods are not available at the ED setting, neither to confirm one mechanism or the other, nor to identify a cause. For this reason, the management of angioedema should rely on clinical data depending on the particular features of the episode and the patient in each case. The history-taking should be addressed to identify a possible etiology or triggering agent, recording complete information for an ulterior diagnostic study in the outpatient clinic. It is mandatory quickly to recognize and treat a potential life-threatening upper airway obstruction or anaphylaxis. This review focuses on the underlying mechanisms and management of histamine- and bradykinin-induced angioedema at the emergency department and provides an update on the currently available treatments.
Nugus, Peter; Forero, Roberto; McCarthy, Sally; McDonnell, Geoff; Travaglia, Joanne; Hilman, Ken; Braithwaite, Jeffrey
Emergency department (ED) overcrowding reduces efficiency and increases the risk of medical error leading to adverse events. Technical solutions and models have done little to redress this. A full year's worth of ethnographic observations of patient flow were undertaken, which involved making hand-written field-notes of the communication and activities of emergency clinicians (doctors and nurses), in two EDs in Sydney, Australia. Observations were complemented by semi-structured interviews. We applied thematic analysis to account for the verbal communication and activity of emergency clinicians in moving patients through the ED. The theoretical model that emerged from the data analysis is the ED "carousel". Emergency clinicians co-construct a moving carousel which we conceptualise visually, and which accounts for the collective agency of ED staff, identified in the findings. The carousel model uniquely integrates diagnosis, treatment and transfer of individual patients with the intellectual labour of leading and coordinating the department. The latter involves managing staff skill mix and the allocation of patients to particular ED sub-departments. The model extends traditional patient flow representations and underlines the importance of valuing ethnographic methods in health services research, in order to foster organisational learning, and generate creative practical and policy alternatives that may, for example, reduce or ameliorate access block and ED overcrowding.
Optimal older adult emergency care: introducing multidisciplinary geriatric emergency department guidelines from the American College of Emergency Physicians, American Geriatrics Society, Emergency Nurses Association, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
Carpenter, Christopher R; Bromley, Marilyn; Caterino, Jeffrey M; Chun, Audrey; Gerson, Lowell W; Greenspan, Jason; Hwang, Ula; John, David P; Lyons, William L; Platts-Mills, Timothy F; Mortensen, Betty; Ragsdale, Luna; Rosenberg, Mark; Wilber, Scott
In the United States and around the world, effective, efficient, and reliable strategies to provide emergency care to aging adults is challenging crowded emergency departments (EDs) and strained healthcare systems. In response, geriatric emergency medicine clinicians, educators, and researchers collaborated with the American College of Emergency Physicians, American Geriatrics Society, Emergency Nurses Association, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine to develop guidelines intended to improve ED geriatric care by enhancing expertise, educational, and quality improvement expectations, equipment, policies, and protocols. These Geriatric Emergency Department Guidelines represent the first formal society-led attempt to characterize the essential attributes of the geriatric ED and received formal approval from the boards of directors of each of the four societies in 2013 and 2014. This article is intended to introduce emergency medicine and geriatric healthcare providers to the guidelines while providing recommendations for continued refinement of these proposals through educational dissemination, formal effectiveness evaluations, cost-effectiveness studies, and eventually institutional credentialing.
Pangka, Kyle R; Chandrasena, Ranjith; Wijeratne, Nishardi; Mann, Miriam
Patients presenting to a rural emergency department (ED) with mental health symptoms have difficulty accessing services of mental health professionals [1,2]. Videoconferencing (VC) has been found to improve patient access to health services that require specialist care in rural EDs [3,4,5]. Although previous studies highlight the benefit of using VC for patients presenting with mental health emergencies, no study has investigated the current views and use of VC for mental health emergencies in EDs in Southwestern Ontario [3,5,6]. To explore the views of ED staff regarding the use of VC in mental health emergencies, structured telephone interviews were conducted with representatives from EDs in the Erie St. Clair and Southwest Local Health Integration Networks (LHIN). Participants noted that using VC for mental health emergencies may improve patient experience and benefit crisis response teams. VC was perceived by some participants as a means to expedite the direct assessment of a patient presenting with a mental health emergency by a mental health specialist. However several participants stated that using VC for mental health emergencies strains ED resources. Lack of use and difficulty accessing a psychiatrist were identified as potential barriers to implementing the use of VC for mental health emergencies.
O'Malley, Ann S; Gerland, Anneliese M; Pham, Hoangmai H; Berenson, Robert A
Pressures--ranging from persuading specialists to provide on-call coverage to dealing with growing numbers of patients with serious mental illness--are building in already-crowded hospital emergency departments (EDs) across the country, according to findings from the Center for Studying Health System Change's (HSC) 2005 site visits to 12 nationally representative communities. As the number of ED visits rises significantly faster than population growth, many hospitals are expanding emergency department capacity. At the same time, hospitals face an ongoing nursing shortage, contributing to tight inpatient capacity that in turn hinders admitting ED patients. In their role as hospitals' "front door" for attracting insured inpatient admissions, emergency departments also increasingly are expected to help hospitals compete for insured patients while still meeting obligations to provide emergency care to all-comers under federal law. Failure to address these growing pressures may compromise access to emergency care for patients and spur already rapidly rising health care costs.
Mastitis is a common clinical condition and, although not exclusive to lactating mothers, most patients with the condition seen by clinical staff fall into this group. Between 3 and 33 per cent of lactating mothers experience an episode of mastitis (Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine 2008, Jahanfar et al 2009). Most of these mothers receive treatment from their midwives or GPs, but some attend EDs and require treatment for, and education about, the condition from emergency care staff, including nurse practitioners (NPs). This article describes mastitis and the various treatment measures, and aims to improve NPs' ability and confidence in recognising and treating the condition.
Innes, Kelli; Crawford, Kimberley; Jones, Tamsin; Blight, Renee; Trenham, Catherine; Williams, Allison; Griffiths, D; Morphet, Julia
In response to increasing demands some emergency departments have introduced transdisciplinary care coordination teams. Such teams comprise staff from multiple disciplines who are trained to perform roles outside their usual scope of practice. This study aimed to critically evaluate the patient, carer and ED staff perceptions of the transdisciplinary model of care in an emergency department in a Melbourne metropolitan hospital. The evaluation of the transdisciplinary team involved interviews with patients and carers who have received the transdisciplinary team services, and focus groups with emergency nursing and transdisciplinary team staff. Analysis of the data revealed that the transdisciplinary model provided an essential service, where staff members were capable of delivering care across all disciplines. The ability to perform comprehensive patient assessments ensured safe discharge, with follow-up services in place. The existence of this team was seen to free up time for the emergency nursing staff, enabling them to see other patients, and improving department efficiency while providing quality care and increasing staff satisfaction. This study identified several important factors which contributed to the success of the transdisciplinary team, which was well integrated into the larger emergency department team.
Samuels-Kalow, Margaret; Rhodes, Karen; Uspal, Julie; Smith, A. Reyes; Hardy, Emily; Mollen, Cynthia
Objectives Emergency department (ED) discharge requires conveying critical information in a time-limited and distracting setting. Limited health literacy may put patients at risk of incomplete comprehension, but the relationship between discharge communication needs and health literacy has not been well defined. The goal of this study was to characterize the variation in needs and preferences regarding the ED discharge process by health literacy, and identify novel ideas for process improvement from parents and patients. Methods This was an in-depth qualitative interview study in two EDs using asthma as a model system for health communication. Adult patients and parents of pediatric patients with an asthma exacerbation and planned discharge were enrolled using purposive sampling to balance across literacy groups at each site. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, coded independently by two team members, and analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. Interviews were conducted until thematic saturation was reached in both literacy groups at each site. Results In-depth interviews were completed with 51 participants: 20 adult patients and 31 pediatric parents. The majority of participants identified barriers related to ED providers, such as use of medical terminology; and systems of care, such as absence of protected time for discharge communication. Patients with limited health literacy, but not those with adequate literacy, identified conflicting information between health care sources as a barrier to successful ED discharge. Conclusions Participants across literacy groups and settings identified multiple actionable areas for improvement in the ED discharge process. These included the use of simplified/lay language, increased visual learning and demonstration, and the desire for complete information. Individuals with limited literacy may particularly benefit from increased attention to consistency. PMID:26683867
Handel, Daniel A.; Ma, O. John; Workman, Judi; Fu, Rongwei
Objective: Our hypothesis was that an individual whose primary role was to assist with patient throughput would decrease emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS), elopements and ambulance diversion. The objective of this study was to measure how the use of an expeditor affected these throughput metrics. Methods: This pre-and post-intervention study analyzed ED patients ≥ 21-years-old between June 2008 and June 2009, at a level one trauma center in an academic medical center with an annual ED census of 40,000 patients. We created the expeditor position as our study intervention in December 2008, by modifying the job responsibilities of an existing paramedic position. An expeditor was on duty from 1PM–1AM daily. The pre-intervention period was June to November 2008, and the post-intervention period was January to June 2009. We used multivariable to assess the impact of the expeditor on throughput metrics after adjusting for confounding variables. Results: We included a total of 13,680 visits in the analysis. There was a significant decrease in LOS after expeditor implementation by 0.4 hours, despite an increased average daily census (109 vs. 121, p<0.001). The expeditor had no impact on elopements. The probability that the ED experienced complete ambulance diversion during a 24-hour period decreased from 55.2% to 16.0% (OR:0.17, 95%CI:0.05–0.67). Conclusion: The use of an expeditor was associated with a decreased LOS and ambulance diversion. These findings suggest that EDs may be able to improve patient flow by using expeditors. This tool is under the control of the ED and does not require larger buy-in, resources, or overall hospital changes. PMID:21691526
Eggman, Ashley A.; Leff, Jared A.; Braunlin, Megan; Felsen, Uriel R.; Fitzpatrick, Lisa; Telzak, Edward E.; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Branson, Bernard M.
Objective The HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 065 trial sought to expand HIV screening of emergency department (ED) patients in Bronx, New York, and Washington, D.C. This study assessed the testing costs associated with different expansion processes and compared them with costs of a hypothetical optimized process. Methods Micro-costing studies were conducted in two participating EDs in each city that switched from point-of-care (POC) to rapid-result laboratory testing. In three EDs, laboratory HIV testing was only conducted for patients having blood drawn for clinical reasons; in the other ED, all HIV testing was conducted with laboratory testing. Costs were estimated through direct observation and interviews to document process flows, time estimates, and labor and materials costs. A hypothetical optimized process flow used minimum time estimates for each process step. National wage and fringe rates and local reagent costs were used to determine the average cost (excluding overhead) per completed nonreactive and reactive test in 2013 U.S. dollars. Results Laboratory HIV testing costs in the EDs ranged from $17.00 to $23.83 per completed nonreactive test, and POC testing costs ranged from $17.64 to $37.60; cost per completed reactive test ranged from $89.29 to $123.17. Costs of hypothetical optimized HIV testing with automated process steps were approximately 45% lower for nonreactive tests and 20% lower for reactive tests. The cost per ED visit to conduct expanded HIV testing in each hospital ranged from $1.21 to $3.96. Conclusion An optimized process could achieve additional cost savings but would require an investment in electronic system interfaces to further automate testing processes. PMID:26862232
White, Douglas A. E.; Anderson, Erik S.; Pfeil, Sarah K.; Deering, Laura J.; Todorovic, Tamara; Trivedi, Tarak K.
Background Recent studies demonstrate high rates of previously undiagnosed hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among patients screened in urban emergency departments (ED). Experts caution, however, that public health interventions, such as screening for infectious diseases, must not interfere with the primary mission of EDs to provide timely acute care. Increases in ED length of stay (LOS) have been associated with decreased quality of ED care. Objective In this study, we assess the influence of an integrated HCV screening protocol on ED LOS. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study analyzing timestamp data for all discharged patients over a 1-year period. The primary outcome compared the median LOS in minutes between patients who completed HCV screening and those who did not. Further analysis compared LOS for HCV screening by whether or not complete blood count (CBC) testing was conducted. Results Of 69,639 visits, 2,864 (4%) had HCV screening tests completed and 272 (9.5%) were antibody positive. The median LOS for visits that included HCV screening was greater than visits that did not include screening (151 versus 119 minutes, P < 0.001). Among the subset of visits in which CBC testing was conducted, there was no significant difference in median LOS between visits that also included HCV screening and those that did not (240 versus 242 minutes, P = 0.68). Conclusion Integrated HCV screening modestly prolongs ED LOS. However, among patients undergoing other blood tests, screening had no effect on LOS. Programs may consider routinely offering HCV screening to patients who are undergoing laboratory testing. PMID:27760176
Carter, Eileen J.; Pouch, Stephanie M.; Larson, Elaine L.
Purpose Emergency department (ED) crowding is a significant patient safety concern associated with poor quality of care. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the relationship between ED crowding and patient outcomes. Design We searched the Medline search engine and relevant emergency medicine and nursing journals for studies published in the past decade that pertained to ED crowding and the following patient outcome measures: mortality, morbidity, patient satisfaction, and leaving the ED without being seen. All articles were appraised for study quality. Findings A total of 196 abstracts were screened and 11 articles met inclusion criteria. Three of the eleven studies reported a significant positive relationship between ED crowding and mortality either among patients admitted to the hospital or discharged home. Five studies reported that ED crowding is associated with higher rates of patients leaving the ED without being seen. Measures of ED crowding varied across studies. Conclusions ED crowding is a major patient safety concern associated with poor patient outcomes. Interventions and policies are needed to address this significant problem. Clinical Relevance This review details the negative patient outcomes associated with ED crowding. Study results are relevant to medical professionals and those that seek care in the ED. PMID:24354886
Johnson, Tara; Gaus, David; Herrera, Diego
Introduction There is a paucity of data studying patients and complaints presenting to emergency departments (EDs) in low- and middle-income countries. The town of Pedro Vicente Maldonado (PVM) is located in the northwestern highlands of Ecuador. Hospital PVM (HPVM) is a rural teaching hospital providing family medicine residency training. These physicians provide around-the-clock acute medical care in HPVM’s ED. This study provides a first look at a functioning ED in rural Latin America by reviewing one year of ED visits to HPVM. Methods All ED visits between April 14, 2013, and April 13, 2014, were included and analyzed, totaling 1,239 patient visits. Data were collected from their electronic medical record and exported into a de-identified Excel® database where it was sorted and categorized. Variables included age, gender, mode of arrival, insurance type, month and day of the week of the service, chief complaint, laboratory and imaging requests, and disposition. We performed descriptive statistics, and where possible, comparisons using Student’s T or chi-square, as appropriate. Results Of the 1239 total ED visits, 48% were males and 52% females; 93% of the visits were ambulatory, and 7% came by ambulance. Sixty-three percent of the patients had social security insurance. The top three chief complaints were abdominal pain (25.5%), fever (15.1%) and trauma (10.8%). Healthcare providers requested labs on 71.3% of patients and imaging on 43.2%. The most frequently requested imaging studies were chest radiograph (14.9%), upper extremity radiograph (9.4%), and electrocardiogram (9.0%). There was no seasonal or day-of-week variability to number of ED patients. The chief complaint of human or animal bite made it more likely the patient would be admitted, and the chief complaint of traumatic injury made it more likely the patient would be transferred. Conclusion Analysis of patients presenting to a rural ED in Ecuador contributes to the global study of acute care in
Hughes, H E; Morbey, R; Hughes, T C; Locker, T E; Pebody, R; Green, H K; Ellis, J; Smith, G E; Elliot, A J
Seasonal respiratory infections place an increased burden on health services annually. We used a sentinel emergency department syndromic surveillance system to understand the factors driving respiratory attendances at emergency departments (EDs) in England. Trends in different respiratory indicators were observed to peak at different points during winter, with further variation observed in the distribution of attendances by age. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed acute respiratory infection and bronchitis/bronchiolitis ED attendances in patients aged 1-4 years were particularly sensitive indicators for increasing respiratory syncytial virus activity. Using near real-time surveillance of respiratory ED attendances may provide early warning of increased winter pressures in EDs, particularly driven by seasonal pathogens. This surveillance may provide additional intelligence about different categories of attendance, highlighting pressures in particular age groups, thereby aiding planning and preparation to respond to acute changes in EDs, and thus the health service in general.
White, Debra; Kaplan, Louise; Eddy, Linda
This study identifies characteristics of patients who return to the emergency department (ED) within 72 hr after an initial visit. An exploratory quantitative descriptive study was conducted to identify characteristics of patients with unscheduled 72 hr ED returns. The sample consisted of all patients with 72 hr ED return visits for the month of January 2009 at the study facility. Data were collected from electronic patient records utilizing the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey instrument modified to eliminate patient identifiers. There were 169 individuals who had at least one 72 hr return visit to the ED for a total of 393 initial and return ED visits. The most common diagnoses were for gastrointestinal complaints. Over a third of the patients who returned had chronic health conditions. There were more emergency department return visits in individuals who lacked access to primary care.
Pulliam, Bryce C.; Liao, Mark Y.; Geissler, Theodore M.; Richards, John R.
Introduction: The boarding of admitted patients in the emergency department (ED) is a major cause of crowding and access block. One solution is boarding admitted patients in inpatient ward (W) hallways. This study queried and compared ED and W nurses’ opinions toward ED and W boarding. It also assessed their preferred boarding location if they were patients. Methods: A survey administered to a convenience sample of ED and W nurses was performed in a 631-bed academic medical center (30,000 admissions/year) with a 68-bed ED (70,000 visits/ year). We identified nurses as ED or W, and if W, whether they had previously worked in the ED. The nurses were asked if there were any circumstances where admitted patients should be boarded in ED or W hallways. They were also asked their preferred location if they were admitted as a patient. Six clinical scenarios were then presented, and the nurses’ opinions on boarding based on each scenario were queried. Results: Ninety nurses completed the survey, with a response rate of 60%; 35 (39%) were current ED nurses (cED), 40 (44%) had previously worked in the ED (pED). For all nurses surveyed 46 (52%) believed admitted patients should board in the ED. Overall, 52 (58%) were opposed to W boarding, with 20% of cED versus 83% of current W (cW) nurses (P < 0.0001), and 28% of pED versus 85% of nurses never having worked in the ED (nED) were opposed (P < 0.001). If admitted as patients themselves, 43 (54%) of all nurses preferred W boarding, with 82% of cED versus 33% of cW nurses (P < 0.0001) and 74% of pED versus 34% nED nurses (P = 0.0007). The most commonly cited reasons for opposition to hallway boarding were lack of monitoring and patient privacy. For the 6 clinical scenarios, significant differences in opinion regarding W boarding existed in all but 2 cases: a patient with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease but requiring oxygen, and an intubated, unstable sepsis patient. Conclusion: Inpatient nurses and those who have
Wilber, Scott T.
Synopsis Altered mental status is a common chief complaint among older emergency department (ED) patients. Acute changes in mental status are more concerning and are usually secondary to delirium, stupor, and coma. These forms of acute brain dysfunction are commonly precipitated by an underlying medical illness that can be potentially life-threatening and are associated with a multitude of adverse outcomes. Though stupor and coma are easily identifiable, the clinical presentation of delirium can be subtle and is often missed without actively screening for it. For patients with acute brain dysfunction, the ED evaluation should focus on searching for the underlying etiology. Infection is one of the most common precipitants of delirium, but multiple etiologies may exist concurrently. PMID:23177603
Núñez, S; Moreno, A; Green, K; Villar, J
The purposes of this study were to determine whether microorganisms can be isolated from the membranes of stethoscopes used by clinicians and nurses, and to analyse whether or not the degree of bacterial colonization could be reduced with different cleaning methods. We designed a transversal before-after study in which 122 stethoscopes were examined. Coagulase negative staphylococci (which are also potentially pathogenic microorganisms) were isolated together with 13 other potentially pathogenic microorganisms, including S. aureus, Acinetobacter sp. and Enterobacter agglomerans. The most effective antiseptic was propyl alcohol. Analysis of the cleaning habits of the Emergency Department (ED) staff, showed that 45% cleaned the stethoscope annually or never. The isolation of potentially pathogenic microorganisms suggests that the stethoscope must be considered as a potential vector of infection not only in the ED but also in other hospital wards and out-patient clinics.
Murphy, Alison R.; Reddy, Madhu C.
Patient-care teams frequently encounter information problems during their daily activities. These information problems include wrong, outdated, conflicting, incomplete, or missing information. Information problems can negatively impact the patient-care workflow, lead to misunderstandings about patient information, and potentially lead to medical errors. Existing research focuses on understanding the cause of these information problems and the impact that they can have on the hospital’s workflow. However, there is limited research on how patient-care teams currently identify and manage information problems that they encounter during their work. Through qualitative observations and interviews in an emergency department (ED), we identified the types of information problems encountered by ED staff, and examined how they identified and managed the information problems. We also discuss the impact that these information problems can have on the patient-care teams, including the cascading effects of information problems on workflow and the ambiguous accountability for fixing information problems within collaborative teams. PMID:25954457
Brunetti, Lorenzo; Bambi, Stefano
Workplace violence is a widespread phenomenon in every kind of settings. Among these ones there are emergency departments (ED), that have distinctive features as like the large daily number of patients' presentations, and high emotional content or stressing situations related to the management of diagnostic-therapeutic priorities. We reviewed the medical and nursing literature to quantify the international widespread of aggressions towards nurses working in EDs, distinguish the typologies and the perpetrators, and identify the consequences on victims and healthcare organizations. Original papers were searched using Medline, CINHAL, and Medscape databases. 35 research articles met the inclusion criteria, but 6 were not retrieved. The rate of verbal abuses reported by ED nurses varies from 50% to 100% of those who were surveyed, while physical violence ranges between 16.7% and 72%. Patients and relatives are the main perpetrators, followed by doctors, and, only in lower percentages, by nurses colleagues. Alcohol, drugs abuse, and overcrowding in EDs are acknowledged as motivating factors for violent events. Under-reporting of aggressions is frequent up to the 80% of victims, and some papers report that nurses consider assaults as a normal part of their work. There is a direct relation between aggressions and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disturb syndrome. Moreover there is a sense of continuous fear in nurses, causing the likelihood of workplace leaving. Special educational courses seem to be effective in diminishing the number of aggressions and to adopt adequate adaptive behaviors.
Leetch, Aaron N; Woolridge, Dale
Child abuse presents commonly to emergency departments. Emergency providers are confronted with medical, social, and legal dilemmas with each case. A solid understanding of the definitions and risk factors of victims and perpetrators aids in identifying abuse cases. Forensic examination should be performed only after the child is medically stable. Emergency providers are mandatory reporters of a reasonable suspicion of abuse. The role of the emergency provider is to identify abuse, facilitate a thorough investigation, treat medical needs, protect the patient, provide an unbiased medical consultation to law enforcement, and to provide an ethical testimony if called to court.
Nelson, Joan M; Robinson, Marylou V
Hyponatremia is a common disorder seen in the emergency department and is more prevalent in older adults than in other adult populations (Miller, 2009). Though often discovered by accident, through routine bloodwork, even mild hyponatremia has been shown to have potentially dangerous consequences for older adults, increasing their risks for falls, altered mental status, osteoporosis and fractures, and gastrointestinal disturbances (Soiza and Talbot, 2011). Optimal management of older adults with hyponatremia in the ED involves not only treatment of serum sodium levels and the immediate consequence of the disorder, but exploration and reversal of the causes of the hyponatremia to avoid recurrence. This case study illustrates the clinical presentation, complications and management of hyponatremia in the setting of the emergency department.
Kleyn, Tatyana; López, Dina; Makar, Carmina
Amidst the debates surrounding teacher quality and preparation programs, the edTPA (education Teaching Performance Assessment) has emerged to assess future teachers through a portfolio-based certification process. This study offers the perspective of three faculty members who participated in an experimental configuration of edTPA implementation…
Wiler, Jennifer L; Griffey, Richard T; Olsen, Tava
Emergency department (ED) crowding is an international phenomenon that continues to challenge operational efficiency. Many statistical modeling approaches have been offered to describe, and at times predict, ED patient load and crowding. A number of formula-based equations, regression models, time-series analyses, queuing theory-based models, and discrete-event (or process) simulation (DES) models have been proposed. In this review, we compare and contrast these modeling methodologies, describe the fundamental assumptions each makes, and outline the potential applications and limitations for each with regard to usability in ED operations and in ED operations and crowding research.
Abujarad, Fuad; Vaca, Federico E.
Latino drinkers experience a disparate number of negative health and social consequences. Emergency Department Alcohol Screening Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (ED-SBIRT) is viable and effective at reducing harmful and hazardous drinking. However, barriers (e.g. readily available language translators, provider time burden, resources) to broad implementation remain and account for a major lag in adherence to national guidelines. We describe our approach to the design of a patient-centered bilingual Web-based mobile health ED-SBIRT App that could be integrated into a clinically complex ED environment and used regularly to provide ED-SBIRT for Spanish speaking patients. PMID:26844234
Optimal older adult emergency care: introducing multidisciplinary geriatric emergency department guidelines from the American College of Emergency Physicians, American Geriatrics Society, Emergency Nurses Association, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
Carpenter, Christopher R; Bromley, Marilyn; Caterino, Jeffrey M; Chun, Audrey; Gerson, Lowell W; Greenspan, Jason; Hwang, Ula; John, David P; Lyons, William L; Platts-Mills, Timothy F; Mortensen, Betty; Ragsdale, Luna; Rosenberg, Mark; Wilber, Scott
In the United States and around the world, effective, efficient, and reliable strategies to provide emergency care to aging adults is challenging crowded emergency departments (EDs) and a strained health care system. In response, geriatric emergency medicine (EM) clinicians, educators, and researchers collaborated with the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), American Geriatrics Society (AGS), Emergency Nurses Association (ENA), and the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) to develop guidelines intended to improve ED geriatric care by enhancing expertise, educational, and quality improvement expectations; equipment; policies; and protocols. These "Geriatric Emergency Department Guidelines" represent the first formal society-led attempt to characterize the essential attribute of the geriatric ED and received formal approval from the boards of directors for each of the four societies in 2013 and 2014. This article is intended to introduce EM and geriatric health care providers to the guidelines, while providing proposals for educational dissemination, refinement via formal effectiveness evaluations and cost-effectiveness studies, and institutional credentialing.
Moon, J M; Chun, B J
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify independent factors that can be used to predict whether febrile neutropenic patients who appear healthy at presentation will develop subsequent complications, using variables that are readily available in the emergency department (ED). Method: The medical records of 192 episodes in which the patients presented to the ED with neutropenic fever resulting from chemotherapy, with an alert mental state and haemodynamic stability were retrospectively reviewed. Endpoints examined were fever response to administered antibiotics, death or severe medical complications during hospitalisation. Results: Thirty-eight episodes of neutropenic fever with complicated outcomes were identified from among a total of 192 episodes. Three parameters emerged as independent factors for the prediction of neutropenic fever with complications in the multivariate regression analysis: platelet count (130−450 × 103 cells/mm3) <50 000 cells/mm3, serum C-reactive protein (CRP, 0.1–1 mg/dl) >10 mg/dl and pulmonary infiltration on chest x ray. Conclusions: Platelet count, CRP and pulmonary infiltration on chest x ray at presentation could be used to identify febrile neutropenic patients who will develop complications, and these factors may be useful in making treatment-related decisions in the ED. PMID:19850806
Langabeer, James R.; Gonzalez, Michael; Alqusairi, Diaa; Champagne-Langabeer, Tiffany; Jackson, Adria; Mikhail, Jennifer; Persse, David
Introduction Emergency medical services (EMS) agencies transport a significant majority of patients with low acuity and non-emergent conditions to local emergency departments (ED), affecting the entire emergency care system’s capacity and performance. Opportunities exist for alternative models that integrate technology, telehealth, and more appropriately aligned patient navigation. While a limited number of programs have evolved recently, no empirical evidence exists for their efficacy. This research describes the development and comparative effectiveness of one large urban program. Methods The Houston Fire Department initiated the Emergency Telehealth and Navigation (ETHAN) program in 2014. ETHAN combines telehealth, social services, and alternative transportation to navigate primary care-related patients away from the ED where possible. Using a case-control study design, we describe the program and compare differences in effectiveness measures relative to the control group. Results During the first 12 months, 5,570 patients participated in the telehealth-enabled program, which were compared against the same size control group. We found a 56% absolute reduction in ambulance transports to the ED with the intervention compared to the control group (18% vs. 74%, P<.001). EMS productivity (median time from EMS notification to unit back in service) was 44 minutes faster for the ETHAN group (39 vs. 83 minutes, median). There were no statistically significant differences in mortality or patient satisfaction. Conclusion We found that mobile technology-driven delivery models are effective at reducing unnecessary ED ambulance transports and increasing EMS unit productivity. This provides support for broader EMS mobile integrated health programs in other regions. PMID:27833678
Felder, Sarah; Curtis, R Mason; Ball, Ian; Borici-Mazi, Rozita
Angioedema is a transient, localized swelling caused by two distinct mechanisms, mediated by histamine and bradykinin, respectively, although a proportion of cases remain idiopathic. Studies that characterize undifferentiated angioedema presenting in emergency departments (EDs) are limited. This study investigates the presentation patterns of undifferentiated angioedema in the ED based on the presumed mechanism of swelling. Medical records from all ED visits to two tertiary care hospitals from July 2007 to March 2012 were electronically reviewed. Records with documented visible swelling on general inspection and/or fiberoptic laryngoscopy and a diagnostic code for anaphylactic shock, angioneurotic edema, allergy unspecified, defects in the complement system, or unspecified drug adverse effects were included. Demographic, clinical, and outcome data were collected via a standardized form. Data were analyzed descriptively, including frequencies and percentages for categorical data and means and SDs for continuous data. Predictors for admission were identified using multivariate logistic regression models. ED records from 527 visits for angioedema by 455 patients were included in the study. Annual rate of angioedema was 1 per 1000 ED visits. Urticaria was associated with peripheral (p = 0.008) and lip angioedema (p = 0.001), and the absence of urticaria correlated with tongue angioedema (p = 0.001) and trended toward correlation with pharyngeal angioedema (p = 0.056). Significant predictors of admission included nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced angioedema (odds ratio [OR], 15.3), epinephrine treatment (OR, 8.34), hypotension (OR, 15.7), multiple-site angioedema (OR, 4.25), and pharyngeal (OR, 1.23) and tongue angioedema (OR, 4.62). Concomitant urticaria was associated with a significant longer stay in the ED (p < 0.001). The presence of urticaria correlated with the location of angioedema, need for airway management, length of ED visit, and recurrence. A
Makam, Anil N.; Nguyen, Oanh K.
Importance Cardiac biomarker testing is not routinely indicated in the emergency department (ED) because of low utility and potential downstream harms from false-positive results. However, current rates of testing are unknown. Objective To determine the use of cardiac biomarker testing overall, as well as stratified by disposition status and selected characteristics. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective study of ED visits by adults (≥18 years old) selected from the 2009 and 2010 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, a probability sample of ED visits in the United States. Exposures Selected patient, visit, and ED characteristics. Main Outcomes and Measures Receipt of cardiac biomarker testing during the ED visit. Results Of 44 448 ED visits, cardiac biomarkers were tested in 16.9% of visits, representing 28.6 million visits. Biomarker testing occurred in 8.2% of visits in the absence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS)-related symptoms, representing 8.5 million visits, almost one-third of all visits with biomarker testing. Among individuals subsequently hospitalized, cardiac biomarkers were tested in 47.0% of all visits. In this group, biomarkers were tested in 35.4% of visits despite the absence of ACS-related symptoms. Among all ED visits, the number of other tests or services performed was the strongest predictor of biomarker testing independent of symptoms of ACS. Compared with 0 to 5 other tests or services performed, more than 10 other tests or services performed was associated with 59.55 (95% CI, 39.23-90.40) times the odds of biomarker testing. The adjusted probabilities of biomarker testing if 0 to 5, 6 to 10, or more than 10 other tests or services performed were 6.3%, 34.3%, and 62.3%, respectively. Conclusions and Relevance Cardiac biomarker testing in the ED is common even among those without symptoms suggestive of ACS. Cardiac biomarker testing is also frequently used during visits with a high volume of other tests or services
Kim, Theresa Y; Mortensen, Karoline; Eldridge, Barbara
Use of the emergency department (ED) has increased significantly over the past twenty years, especially among people who lack access to regular care, such as from a primary care provider. Not only are many ED visits avoidable, but receiving care through the ED also may disrupt continuity of care and result in increased overall health care costs. This article analyzes one of the twenty-nine local projects funded by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services: the Emergency Department-Primary Care Connect initiative of the Primary Care Coalition of Montgomery County, Maryland. The initiative linked low-income or uninsured patients with local safety-net primary care providers. In the period 2009-11, five participating hospital EDs referred 10,761 low-income uninsured ED patients to four local primary care clinics. The intervention did not significantly reduce overall subsequent ED visits, but there was a significant reduction in subsequent ED visits among the subpopulation with chronic physical or behavioral conditions if they had more than two visits to the same primary care clinic. Our findings suggest that expansion of safety-net clinics, combined with strategies to link high-need patients in the ED with these primary care providers, can reduce subsequent ED use.
Miro, O; Sanchez, M; Espinosa, G; Coll-Vinent, B; Bragulat, E; Milla, J; Wardrope, J
Objectives: To evaluate the different internal factors influencing patient flow, effectiveness, and overcrowding in the emergency department (ED), as well as the effects of ED reorganisation on these indicators. Methods: The study compared measurements at regular intervals of three hours of patient arrivals and patient flow between two comparable periods (from 10 February to 2 March) of 1999 and 2000. In between, a structural and staff reorganisation of ED was undertaken. The main reason for each patient remaining in ED was recorded and allocated to one of four groups: (1) factors related to ED itself ; (2) factors related to ED-hospital interrelation; (3) factors related to hospital itself; and (4) factors related to neither ED nor hospital. The study measured the number of patients waiting to be seen and the waiting time to be seen as effectiveness markers, as well as the percentage of time that ED was overcrowded, as judged by numerical and functional criteria. Results: Effectiveness of ED was closely related with some ED related and hospital related factors. After the reorganisation, patients who remained in ED because of hospital related or non-ED-non-hospital related factors decreased. ED reorganisation reduced the number of patients waiting to be seen from 5.8 to 2.5 (p<0.001) and waiting time from 87 to 24 minutes (p<0.001). Before the reorganisation, 31% and 48% of the time was considered to be overcrowded in numerical and functional terms respectively. After the reorganisation, these figures were reduced to 8% and 15% respectively (p<0.001 for both). Conclusions: ED effectiveness and overcrowding are not only determined by external pressure, but also by internal factors. Measurement of patient flow across ED has proved useful in detecting these factors and in being used to plan an ED reorganisation. PMID:12642527
Pant, Chaitanya; Deshpande, Abhishek; Sferra, Thomas J; Olyaee, Mojtaba
To analyze visits to and admissions from the emergency department (ED) in children with a primary diagnosis of functional abdominal pain (FAP). This was a cross-sectional study using data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (HCUP-NEDS 2008-2012). FAP-related ED visits were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. The most frequent secondary diagnoses associated with FAP-related ED visits were also extracted. In 2012, a total of 796,665 children presented to the ED with a primary diagnosis of FAP. This correlated to a rate of 11.5 ED visits/1000 population. The highest incidence of ED visits was observed for children in the 10-14-year age group; median (IQR) age of 11 (8) years. In analyzing the temporal trends associated with FAP-related ED visits, we observed an increase in both the overall number of visits (14.0%) as well as the population-adjusted incidence (16.0%) during the period 2008-2012. This coincided with a decreasing trend in hospital admissions from the ED; from 1.4% in 2008 to 1.0% in 2012 (-28.5%). The overwhelming majority (96.7%) of patients with FAP who presented to the ED were treated and released. On multivariate analysis, the leading factor associated with an increased likelihood of admission from the ED was teaching hospital status (aOR 2.07; 95% CI 1.97 to 2.18). The secondary diagnosis most commonly associated with FAP-related ED visits was nausea and/or emesis (19.8%). Pediatric FAP-related ED visits increased significantly from the period 2008 to 2012. However, the incidence of hospital admissions from the ED declined during the same period.
Takayesu, James Kimo; Hutson, H Range
Disclosing a new, life-threatening diagnosis to a patient is difficult for the physician, the patient, and the family. The disclosure provokes a wide range of reactions from both the patient and family, to which the emergency physician must respond. This interaction is further complicated by the limited time the emergency physician can spend with the patient, the strained resources of a busy emergency department (ED), and, oftentimes, the inability to make a definitive diagnosis based on the ED workup and evaluation. We present a case seen recently in the ED in which a new, life-threatening illness requires disclosure. We offer guidelines for the emergency physician that emphasize patient- and family-centered disclosure of the worrisome diagnostic findings. Additionally, we discuss the essential roles of other allied health professionals in addressing the patient's nonmedical concerns (eg, health insurance, social issues) and in creating a smooth transition for the patient from the ED to further inpatient or outpatient care.
Kunisch, Joseph Martin
Background: The Emergency Severity Index (ESI) is an emergency department (ED) triage classification system based on estimated patient-specific resource utilization. Rules for a computerized clinical decision support (CDS) system based on a patient's chief complaint were developed and tested using a stochastic model for predicting ESI scores.…
Jones, Courtney M C; Wasserman, Erin B; Li, Timmy; Amidon, Ashley; Abbott, Marissa; Shah, Manish N
Introduction Previous studies have found that older adults are more likely to use Emergency Medical Services (EMS) than younger adults, but the reasons for this remain understudied. Hypothesis/Problem This study aimed to determine if older age is associated with using EMS for transportation to an emergency department (ED) after controlling for confounding variables.
Rodriguez, Robert M.; Reeves, Jabari; Houston, Sherard; McClung, Christian
Study Objective: From September through December 2001, 22 Americans were diagnosed with anthrax, prompting widespread national media attention and public concern over bioterrorism. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the threat of anthrax bioterrorism on patient presentation to a West Coast emergency department (ED). Methods: This survey was conducted at an urban county ED in Oakland, CA between December 15, 2001 and February 15, 2002. During random 8-hour blocks, all adult patients presenting for flu or upper respiratory infection (URI) symptoms were surveyed using a structured survey instrument that included standard visual numerical and Likert scales. Results: Eighty-nine patients were interviewed. Eleven patients (12%) reported potential exposure risk factors. Eighty percent of patients watched television, read the newspaper, or listened to the radio daily, and 83% of patients had heard about anthrax bioterrorism. Fifty-five percent received a chest x-ray, 10% received either throat or blood cultures, and 28% received antibiotics. Twenty-one percent of patients surveyed were admitted to the hospital. Most patients were minimally concerned that they may have contracted anthrax (mean=3.3±3.3 where 0=no concern and 10=extremely concerned). Patient concern about anthrax had little influence on their decision to visit the ED (mean=2.8±3.0 where 0=no influence and 10=greatly influenced). Had they experienced their same flu or URI symptoms one year prior to the anthrax outbreak, 91% of patients stated they would have sought medical attention. Conclusions: After considerable exposure to media reports about anthrax, most patients in this urban West Coast ED population were not concerned about anthrax infection. Fear of anthrax had little effect on decisions to come to the ED, and most would have sought medical help prior to the anthrax outbreak. PMID:20847852
Paik, Angie M; Granick, Mark S; Scott, Sandra
Plastic surgery is a field that is particularly amenable to a telehealth milieu, as visual exam and radiographs guide proper diagnosis and management. The goals of this study were to evaluate telehealth feedback executed through an iPad app for plastic surgery-related consultations. A Quality Assurance/Quality Improvement (QA/QI) study was conducted over a 1-month period during which patients with hand injuries, facial injuries, or acute wounds presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) of a level-one trauma centre and university hospital were monitored. The study utilized a commercial iPad application through which up to four images and a brief history could be sent to a remote Plastic Surgery Educator (PSE) for evaluation. The PSE would respond with best practice information, references and videos to assist ED point-of-care providers. During the 1-month period of this study, there were 42 ED consultations for plastic surgical conditions. There was a highly significant difference in overall mean response time between consultants and PSEs (48.3 minutes vs. 8.9 minutes respectively, p < 0.001). The agreement between PSEs and consultants regarding patient assessment and care was 85.7% for in-person consultations and 100% for phone consultations. In four cases of telephone consultations, the ED providers placed splints incorrectly on hand-injured patients. Our results show that telehealth consultations to a remote plastic surgeon based on digital images and a brief history were able to produce timely and accurate responses in an emergency care facility. This design may have significant impact in rural areas, underserved populations, or regions abroad.
Maeng, Daniel D; Hao, Jing; Bulger, John B
Context: Overutilization and overreliance on Emergency Departments (EDs) as a usual source of care can lead to unnecessarily high costs and undesirable consequences, such as a gap in care coordination and inadequate provision of preventive care. Objective: To identify factors associated with multiple ED visits by patients, in particular, the impact of primary care physicians (PCPs) on their patients’ multiple ED visit rates. Design: Geisinger Health Plan claims data among adult patients who averaged more than 1 ED visit within a 12-month period between 2013 and 2014 were obtained (N = 20,351). Main Outcome Measures: Rate of ED visits. Three linear regression models using patient characteristics and utilization patterns as covariates along with PCP fixed effects were estimated to explain the variation in the multiple ED visit rates. Results: Multiple ED visits were significantly associated with younger age (18–39 years), having Medicaid insurance, and greater comorbidity. Higher rates of physician office visits and inpatient admissions were also associated with higher rates of multiple ED visits. Accounting for PCP characteristics only marginally improved the explained variation (R2 increased from 0.14 to 0.16). Conclusions: Multiple ED visit patterns are likely driven by patients’ health conditions and care needs rather than by their PCPs. Multiple ED visits also appear to be complementary, rather than substitutionary, to PCP visits, suggesting that PCP-focused interventions aimed at reducing ED use are unlikely to have a major impact. PMID:28333606
Mahmoodian, Farzad; Eqtesadi, Razie; Ghareghani, Atefe
Background: Hospital emergency departments (EDs) are as barometers of the health care system. Crowded EDs threaten delivery of timely care. Prolonged ED wait times reduce the quality of care and increase adverse and sometimes irreversible events. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the patients' waiting time at Namazi and Shahid Faghihi hospitals in Shiraz, Iran. Patients and Methods: This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in two phases from December 2012 to May 2013. First, the researcher attended the EDs of the two hospitals and recorded the information of 900 patients who entered the ED, including arrival time, level of triage, and time of first visit by physician. Then, among patients admitted to the ED units, 273 were followed and waiting times for the first physician order in the referral unit and the commencement of clinical interventions (defined as check time by the nurse) were recorded. Results: The median waiting time from arrival to first visit by physician for the 900 patients included in the study was 8 (5-14) minutes [median (interquartile range)]. For the patients admitted to referral units, waiting time was 84 (43-145) minutes for the physician order and 85 (45-147) minutes for the commencement of first clinical intervention; 75% of the patients in triage level I, 84.6% in triage level II, and 95.6% in triage level III were visited within the target time limit. Conclusions: Waiting time for commencement of clinical action in patients admitted to the EDs was considerably high for patients with higher priorities; so, rapid care of critically ill patients, identified during the triage process, should be emphasized. PMID:25738132
Hsiao, Chun-Ju; Hing, Esther
This study examines emergency department (ED) visits by nursing home (NH) residents aged 65 and over, and factors associated with hospital admission from the ED visit using data from the 2001-2008 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on patient characteristics, diagnosis, procedures received, and triage status. On average, elderly NH residents visited EDs at a rate of 123 visits per 100 institutionalized persons. Nearly 15% of all ED visits had ambulatory care sensitive condition diagnoses. Nearly half of these visits resulted in hospital admission; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, kidney/urinary tract infection, and dehydration were associated with higher odds of admission. Previous studies suggested that adequate medical staffing and appropriate care in the NH could reduce ED visits and hospital admissions. Recent initiatives seek to reduce ED visits and hospitalizations by providing financial incentives to spur better coordination between NH and hospital.
O'Connell, Beverly; Hawkins, Mary; Considine, Julie; Au, Catherine
This research aimed to describe the number and type of residents admitted to emergency departments (EDs) over 2 years; and to explore nurses' perceptions of the reasons why residential aged care facility (RACF) residents are referred to EDs. The research objective was addressed in a retrospective exploratory study using data on admissions to EDs from RACFs (N = 3,094) at the participating organisation over a 2-year period, and interview data on seven RACF and four ED nurses' perceptions of the issues involved. Most residents presenting at EDs required urgent medical attention. Major themes identified by RACF and ED nurses included issues related to staff competency, availability of general practitioners, lack of equipment in RACFs, residents and family members requesting referrals, communication difficulties, and poor attitudes towards RACF staff. There is a need to use strategies to detect residents whose conditions are deteriorating and treat them promptly in RACFs.
Witting, Michael D; Furuno, Jon P; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Krugman, Scott D; Périssé, André R S; Limcangco, Rhona
Emergency department (ED) screening for intimate partner violence (IPV) faces logistic difficulties and has uncertain efficacy. We surveyed 146 ED visitors and 108 ED care providers to compare their support for ED IPV screening in three hypothetical scenarios of varying IPV risk. Visitor support for screening was 5 times higher for the high-risk (86%) than for the low-risk (17%) scenario. Providers showed significantly more support for the need for ED IPV screening than visitors. Controlling for confounding by gender, race, experience with IPV, hospital, and marital status did not affect comparisons between groups. These responses indicate greater support for IPV screening in the ED for high-risk than for low-risk cases, particularly among visitors.
Callen, Joanne L; Blundell, Leanne; Prgomet, Mirela
Increases in attendance rates at emergency departments (EDs) have prompted concerns regarding inappropriate utilisation. Factors instigating patient ED attendance were examined using a cross sectional survey of 522 patients presenting to the ED of a rural hospital in Australia, during a 1-week period. The results highlighted the importance of the rural hospital ED as an additional and alternate service to existing primary care facilities, particularly outside of business hours. The findings indicated that although patients' perception of an emergency does not necessarily correspond with clinical interpretations, the primary factors prompting attendance, including general practitioner unavailability, referrals and special service needs, suggest that, from a patients' perspective, the majority of presentations to the ED are justified.
Background There is an increasing number of urgently ill and injured children being seen in emergency departments (ED) of developing countries. The pediatric disease burden in EDs across Pakistan is generally unknown. Our main objective was to determine the spectrum of disease and injury among children seen in EDs in Pakistan through a nationwide ED-based surveillance system. Methods Through the Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance (Pak-NEDS), data were collected from November 2010 to March 2011 in seven major tertiary care centers representing all provinces of Pakistan. These included five public and two private hospitals, with a collective annual census of over one million ED encounters. Results Of 25,052 children registered in Pak-NEDS (10% of all patients seen): 61% were male, 13% under 5 years, while almost 65% were between 10 to < 16 years. The majority (90%) were seen in public hospital EDs. About half the patients were discharged from the EDs, 9% admitted to hospitals and only 1.3% died in the EDs. Injury (39%) was the most common presenting complaint, followed by fever/malaise (19%) and gastrointestinal symptoms (18%). Injury was more likely in males vs. females (43% vs. 33%; p < 0.001), with a peak presentation in the 5-12 year age group (45%). Conclusions Pediatric patients constitute a smaller proportion among general ED users in Pakistan. Injury is the most common presenting complaint for children seen in the ED. These data will help in resource allocation for cost effective pediatric ED service delivery systems. Prospective longer duration surveillance is needed in more representative pediatric EDs across Pakistan. PMID:26691052
Goldman, Ran D; Vohra, Sunita; Rogovik, Alexander L
Increasing use of vitamins has been documented worldwide in children and adolescents, and potential for vitamin-drug interactions exists. The aim of this study was to identify vitamin use by children visiting a pediatric emergency department (ED). A survey of parents and/or patients 0-18 years was conducted at a large pediatric ED in Canada. A total of 1804 families were interviewed. The main outcome measure was prevalence of vitamin use by children in the preceding 3 months. A third (32.3%) of the patients in our cohort had used vitamins in the preceding 3 months, and 48% of them were taking vitamins daily. Over 8% of all children used vitamins within the last 24 h. The use of vitamins was higher with older patient and parental age (P<0.001), chronic patient illness (P<0.001), completed immunization (P<0.001), concurrent patient use of prescribed medications (P=0.02), higher parental education (P<0.01), and English as a primary language spoken at home (P=0.002). Prevalence of vitamin use among children in the ED is 32% in the preceding 3 months and 8% within the last 24 h. In light of these findings, pediatricians should ask about vitamin use and discuss with parents potential interactions and possible adverse effects.
Caplan, Edward; Dey, Indranil; Scammell, Andrea; Burnage, Katy; Paul, Siba Prosad
Seizure is defined as 'a sudden surge of electrical activity in the brain, which usually affects how a person appears or acts for a short time'. Children who have experienced seizures commonly present to emergency departments (EDs), and detailed history taking will usually help differentiate between epileptic and non-epileptic events. ED nurses are often the first health professionals to manage children with seizures, and this is best done by following the ABCDE approach. Treatment involves termination of seizures with anticonvulsants, and children may need other symptomatic management. Seizures in children can be an extremely distressing experience for parents, who should be supported and kept informed by experienced ED nurses. Nurses also play a vital role in educating parents on correct administration of anticonvulsants and safety advice. This article discusses the aetiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of children with seizures, with particular emphasis on epilepsy. It includes two reflective case studies to highlight the challenges faced by healthcare professionals managing children who present with convulsions.
Pagano, Antonio; Numis, Fabio Giuliano; Visone, Giuseppe; Pirozzi, Concetta; Masarone, Mario; Olibet, Marinella; Nasti, Rodolfo; Schiraldi, Fernando; Paladino, Fiorella
Lung ultrasound (LUS) in the emergency department (ED) has shown a significant role in the diagnostic workup of pulmonary edema, pneumothorax and pleural effusions. The aim of this study is to assess the reliability of LUS for the diagnosis of acute pneumonia compared to chest X-ray (CXR) study. The study was conducted from September 2013 to March 2015. 107 patients were admitted to the ED with a clinical appearance of pneumonia. All the patients underwent a CXR study, read by a radiologist, and an LUS, performed by a trained ED physician on duty. Among the 105 patients, 68 were given a final diagnosis of pneumonia. We found a sensitivity of 0.985 and a specificity of 0.649 for LUS, and a sensitivity of 0.735 and specificity of 0.595 for CXR. The positive predictive value for LUS was 0.838 against 0.7 for CXR. The negative predictive value of LUS was 0.960 versus 0.550 for CXR. This study has shown sensitivity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of LUS compared to the CXR study for the diagnosis of acute pneumonia. These results suggest the use of bedside thoracic US first-line diagnostic tool in patients with suspected pneumonia.
Hicks, Derek; Li, Chi-Ying
Macroscopic haematuria is a commonly seen condition in the emergency department (ED), which has a variety of causes. However, most importantly, macroscopic haematuria has a high diagnostic yield for urological malignancy. 30% of patients presenting with painless haematuria are found to have a malignancy. The majority of these patients can be managed in the outpatient setting. This review of current literature suggests a management pathway that can be used in the ED. A literature search was done using Medline, PubMed and Google. In men aged >60 years, the positive predictive value of macroscopic haematuria for urological malignancy is 22.1%, and in women of the same age it is 8.3%. In terms of the need for follow-up investigation, a single episode of haematuria is equally important as recurrent episodes. Baseline investigation in the ED includes full blood count, urea and electrolyte levels, midstream urine dipstick, beta human chorionic gonadotrophin, and formal microscopy, culture and sensitivities. Treatment of macroscopic haematuria aims at RESP--Resuscitation, Ensuring, Safe and Prompt. Indications for admission include clot retention, cardiovascular instability, uncontrolled pain, sepsis, acute renal failure, coagulopathy, severe comorbidity, heavy haematuria or social restrictions. Discharged patients should drink plenty of clear fluids and return for further medical attention if the following occur: clot retention, worsening haematuria despite adequate fluid intake, uncontrolled pain or fever, or inability to cope at home. Follow-up by a urological team should be promptly arranged, ideally within the 2-week cancer referral target.
Ballard, Dustin W.; Price, Mary; Fung, Vicki; Brand, Richard; Reed, Mary E.; Fireman, Bruce; Newhouse, Joseph P.; Selby, Joseph V.; Hsu, John
Background Differentiating between appropriate and inappropriate resource use represents a critical challenge in health services research. The New York University Emergency Department (NYU ED) visit severity algorithm attempts to classify visits to the ED based on diagnosis, but it has not been formally validated. Objective To assess the validity of the NYU algorithm. Research Design: A longitudinal study in a single integrated delivery system (IDS) from January 1999 to December 2001. Subjects 2,257,445 commercial and 261,091 Medicare members of an IDS. Measures ED visits were classified as emergent, non-emergent, or intermediate severity, using the NYU ED algorithm. We examined the relationship between visit-severity and the probability of future hospitalizations and death using a logistic model with a general estimating equation (GEE) approach. Results Among commercially insured subjects, ED visits categorized as emergent were significantly more likely to result in a hospitalization within one-day (OR=3.37, 95% CI: 3.31–3.44) or death within 30-days (OR=2.81, 95% CI: 2.62–3.00) than visits categorized as non-emergent. We found similar results in Medicare patients and in sensitivity analyses using different probability thresholds. ED overuse for non-emergent conditions was not related to socio-economic status or insurance type. Conclusions The evidence presented supports the validity of the NYU ED visit severity algorithm for differentiating ED visits based on need for hospitalization and/or mortality risk; therefore, it can contribute to evidence-based policies aimed at reducing the use of the ED for non-emergencies. PMID:19952803
Improved management of tuberculosis is a key priority for Public Health England due to unacceptably high rates of the disease in the UK, particularly in London and other major cities. A survey of 20 staff in the acute medical unit at Queen Alexandra Hospital, Portsmouth, explored potential barriers to early TB detection and infection control in busy emergency departments. Low awareness and little familiarity with TB among many emergency admissions staff increased the likelihood of transmission from undiagnosed patients in crowded waiting areas. The study suggested regular updates on TB so staff could refresh their knowledge and awareness, and help improve TB detection and infection control.
Hoot, Nathan R.; LeBlanc, Larry J.; Jones, Ian; Levin, Scott R.; Zhou, Chuan; Gadd, Cynthia S.; Aronsky, Dominik
Objective Emergency department crowding threatens quality and access to health care, and a method of accurately forecasting near-future crowding should enable novel ways to alleviate the problem. The authors sought to implement and validate the previously developed ForecastED discrete event simulation for real-time forecasting of emergency department crowding. Design and Measurements The authors conducted a prospective observational study during a three-month period (5/1/07–8/1/07) in the adult emergency department of a tertiary care medical center. The authors connected the forecasting tool to existing information systems to obtain real-time forecasts of operational data, updated every 10 minutes. The outcome measures included the emergency department waiting count, waiting time, occupancy level, length of stay, boarding count, boarding time, and ambulance diversion; each forecast 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours into the future. Results The authors obtained crowding forecasts at 13,239 10-minute intervals, out of 13,248 possible (99.9%). The R2 values for predicting operational data 8 hours into the future, with 95% confidence intervals, were 0.27 (0.26, 0.29) for waiting count, 0.11 (0.10, 0.12) for waiting time, 0.57 (0.55, 0.58) for occupancy level, 0.69 (0.68, 0.70) for length of stay, 0.61 (0.59, 0.62) for boarding count, and 0.53 (0.51, 0.54) for boarding time. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for predicting ambulance diversion 8 hours into the future, with 95% confidence intervals, was 0.85 (0.84, 0.86). Conclusions The ForecastED tool provides accurate forecasts of several input, throughput, and output measures of crowding up to 8 hours into the future. The real-time deployment of the system should be feasible at other emergency departments that have six patient-level variables available through information systems. PMID:19261948
During redevelopment of the emergency department at the Royal Sussex County Hospital, Brighton, it was deemed vital that its internal communication system should be as effective as possible. An audit of staff perceptions of the existing communication system and a relevant literature review were undertaken, therefore, to inform a proposal for the development of a new online system. This article describes the development and implementation of the system.
Jatau, Abubakar Ibrahim; Aung, Myat Moe Thwe; Kamauzaman, Tuan Hairulnizam Tuan; Chedi, Basheer A. Z.; Sha’aban, Abubakar; Rahman, Ab Fatah Ab
Many studies have been conducted in health-care settings with regards to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among patients. However, information regarding CAM use among patients in the emergency department (ED) is scarce. The aim of this article was to conduct a systematic review of published studies with regards to CAM use among the ED patients. A literature search of published studies from inception to September 2015 was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, and manual search of the reference list. 18 studies that met the inclusion criteria were reviewed. The prevalence rate of CAM use among ED patients across the studies ranged of 1.4-68.1%. Herbal therapy was the sub-modality of CAM most commonly used and frequently implicated in CAM-related ED visits. Higher education, age, female gender, religious affiliation, and chronic diseases were the most frequent factors associated with CAM use among the ED patients. Over 80% of the ED physicians did not ask the patients about the CAM therapy. Similarly, 80% of the ED patients were ready to disclose CAM therapy to the ED physician. The prevalence rate of CAM use among patients at ED is high and is growing with the current increasing popularity, and it has been a reason for some of the ED visits. There is a need for the health-care professionals to receive training and always ask patients about CAM therapy to enable them provide appropriate medical care and prevent CAM-related adverse events. PMID:27104042
Jatau, Abubakar Ibrahim; Aung, Myat Moe Thwe; Kamauzaman, Tuan Hairulnizam Tuan; Chedi, Basheer A Z; Sha'aban, Abubakar; Rahman, Ab Fatah Ab
Many studies have been conducted in health-care settings with regards to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among patients. However, information regarding CAM use among patients in the emergency department (ED) is scarce. The aim of this article was to conduct a systematic review of published studies with regards to CAM use among the ED patients. A literature search of published studies from inception to September 2015 was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, and manual search of the reference list. 18 studies that met the inclusion criteria were reviewed. The prevalence rate of CAM use among ED patients across the studies ranged of 1.4-68.1%. Herbal therapy was the sub-modality of CAM most commonly used and frequently implicated in CAM-related ED visits. Higher education, age, female gender, religious affiliation, and chronic diseases were the most frequent factors associated with CAM use among the ED patients. Over 80% of the ED physicians did not ask the patients about the CAM therapy. Similarly, 80% of the ED patients were ready to disclose CAM therapy to the ED physician. The prevalence rate of CAM use among patients at ED is high and is growing with the current increasing popularity, and it has been a reason for some of the ED visits. There is a need for the health-care professionals to receive training and always ask patients about CAM therapy to enable them provide appropriate medical care and prevent CAM-related adverse events.
Soril, Lesley J. J.; Leggett, Laura E.; Lorenzetti, Diane L.; Noseworthy, Tom W.; Clement, Fiona M.
Objective The objective of this study was to establish the effectiveness of interventions to reduce frequent emergency department (ED) use among a general adult high ED-use population. Methods Systematic review of the literature from 1950-January 2015. Studies were included if they: had a control group (controlled trials or comparative cohort studies), were set in an ED or acute care facility, and examined the impact of an intervention to reduce frequent ED use in a general adult population. Studies reporting non-original data or focused on a specific patient population were excluded. Study design, patient population, intervention, the frequency of ED visits, and costs of frequent ED use and/or interventions were extracted and narratively synthesized. Results Among 17 included articles, three intervention categories were identified: case management (n = 12), individualized care plans (n = 3), and information sharing (n = 2). Ten studies examining case management reported reductions in mean (-0.66 to -37) or median (-0.1 to -20) number of ED visits after 12-months; one study reported an increase in mean ED visits (+2.79); and one reported no change. Of these, 6 studies also reported reduced hospital costs. Only 1 study evaluating individualized care plans examined ED utilization and found no change in median ED visits post-intervention. Costs following individualized care plans were also only evaluated in 1 study, which reported savings in hospital costs of $742/patient. Evidence was mixed regarding information sharing: 1 study reported no change in mean ED visits and did not examine costs; whereas the other reported a decrease in mean ED visits (-16.9) and ED cost savings of $15,513/patient. Conclusions The impact of all three frequent-user interventions was modest. Case management had the most rigorous evidence base, yielded moderate cost savings, but with variable reductions in ED use. Future studies evaluating non-traditional interventions, tailoring to patient
Newton, Edward J; Love, John
Rather than providing an encyclopedic review of extremity injuries, this article reviews selected serious injuries of the extremities that can be missed in the emergency department, either because they are relatively uncommon or because they are subtle in their clinical and radiographic presentation. They include injuries to the scapula, the shoulder, the forearm, the femur and hip, the knee, the tibia (which is the most common long bone fracture), and the ankle and foot. Their various causes include sports injuries, falls, and motor vehicle accidents. Several of these injuries can result in emergent complications or have time-dependent outcomes. Consequently, these injuries often must be managed by emergency physicians before specialist expertise becomes available.
Letz, Adrian G; Quinn, James M
The U.S. Air Force conducts basic military training (BMT) in San Antonio, TX, an area with occasionally adverse air quality. Many individuals from the BMT population are evaluated for asthma symptoms. The relationship of air quality with these symptoms has not been studied in this population. This study examines the correlation of several air quality indicators in relation to emergency department (ED) visits for asthma from the BMT population. The variables studied were basic trainee ED visits for asthma, the 8-hour air quality index (AQI) for ozone, and the 24-hour AQI for particulate matter <2.5 microm for the San Antonio metropolitan area, daily pollen and fungal spore counts, and daily high temperature. The ED visits were obtained by retrospective review of medical records. Basic trainees reporting asthma symptoms often are referred to the allergy/immunology department for evaluation. The ED visits for only those patients who were later formally diagnosed with asthma were correlated also with the air quality indicators. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated for all data pairs. There were 149 ED visits meeting inclusion criteria for the period of time studied (328 days). Forty-one percent of the basic trainees seen in the ED for asthma symptoms were later formally diagnosed with asthma in the allergy/immunology department. There was no significant correlation between basic trainee ED visits for asthma and the selected air quality indicators. Air quality does not significantly correlate with the occurrence of ED visits for asthma from the BMT population.
Yiadom, Maame Yaa A B; Ward, Michael J; Chang, Anna Marie; Pines, Jesse M; Jouriles, Nick; Yealy, Donald M
The consensus conference on "Advancing Research in Emergency Department (ED) Operations and Its Impact on Patient Care," hosted by The ED Operations Study Group (EDOSG), convened to craft a framework for future investigations in this important but understudied area. The EDOSG is a research consortium dedicated to promoting evidence-based clinical practice in emergency medicine. The consensus process format was a modified version of the NIH Model for Consensus Conference Development. Recommendations provide an action plan for how to improve ED operations study design, create a facilitating research environment, identify data measures of value for process and outcomes research, and disseminate new knowledge in this area. Specifically, we call for eight key initiatives: 1) the development of universal measures for ED patient care processes; 2) attention to patient outcomes, in addition to process efficiency and best practice compliance; 3) the promotion of multisite clinical operations studies to create more generalizable knowledge; 4) encouraging the use of mixed methods to understand the social community and human behavior factors that influence ED operations; 5) the creation of robust ED operations research registries to drive stronger evidence-based research; 6) prioritizing key clinical questions with the input of patients, clinicians, medical leadership, emergency medicine organizations, payers, and other government stakeholders; 7) more consistently defining the functional components of the ED care system, including observation units, fast tracks, waiting rooms, laboratories, and radiology subunits; and 8) maximizing multidisciplinary knowledge dissemination via emergency medicine, public health, general medicine, operations research, and nontraditional publications.
Richman, Peter B; Loutfi, Hassan; Lester, Steven J; Cambell, Patricia; Matthews, Jessica; Friese, Jeremy; Wood, Joseph; Kasper, David; Chen, Frederick; Mandell, Mark
To assess the pre-study, null hypothesis that there is no difference in the electrocardiogram (EKG) findings for Emergency Department (ED) patients who rule in vs. rule out for suspected pulmonary embolism, a retrospective review of a cohort of patients with pulmonary embolism and their controls was conducted in an academic, suburban ED. Patients who were evaluated in the ED during a one-year study period for symptoms suggestive of pulmonary embolism were eligible for inclusion. All patients with pulmonary embolism and sex- and age-matched controls comprised the final study groups. Two board-certified cardiologists reviewed each patient's EKG. There were 350 eligible patients identified; 49 patients with pulmonary embolism and 49 controls were entered into the study. The most common rhythm observed in both groups was normal sinus rhythm (67.3% cases vs. 68.6 % controls; p = 1.0). Abnormalities believed to be associated with pulmonary embolism occurred with similar frequency in both case and control groups (sinus tachycardia [18.8 % vs. 11.8%, respectively; p = 0.40]), incomplete right bundle branch block (4.2% vs. 0.0%, respectively; p = 0.24), complete right bundle branch block (4.2% vs. 6.0, respectively; p = 1.0), S1Q3T3 pattern (2.1 vs. 0.0, respectively; p = 0.49), S1Q3 pattern (0.0 vs. 0.0), and extreme right axis (0.0 vs. 0.0). New EKG changes were identified more frequently for patients with pulmonary embolism (33.3% vs. 12.5% controls; p = 0.03), but specific findings were rarely different between cases and controls. In our cohort of ED patients, we did not identify EKG features that are likely to help distinguish patients with pulmonary embolism from those who rule out for the disease.
Shahrami, Ali; Norouzi, Mehdi; Kariman, Hamid; Hatamabadi, Hamid Reza; Arhami Dolatabadi, Ali
Introduction: Vertigo prevalence is estimated to be 1.8% among young adults and more than 30% in the elderly. 13-38% of the referrals of patients over 65 years old in America are due to vertigo. Vertigo does not increase the risk of mortality but it can affect the patient’s quality of life. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the epidemiologic characteristics of vertigo patients referred to the emergency department (ED). Methods: In this 6-month retrospective cross-sectional study, the profiles of all vertigo patients referred to the ED of Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from October 2013 to March 2014 were evaluated. Demographic data and baseline characteristics of the patients were recorded and then patients were divided into central and peripheral vertigo. The correlation of history and clinical examination with vertigo type was evaluated and screening performance characteristics of history and clinical examination in differentiating central and peripheral vertigo were determined. Results: 379 patients with the mean age of 50.69 ± 11.94 years (minimum 18 and maximum 86) were enrolled (58.13% female). There was no sex difference in vertigo incidence (p = 0.756). A significant correlation existed between older age and increase in frequency of central cases (p < 0.001). No significant difference was detected between the treatment protocols regarding ED length of stay (p = 0.72). There was a significant overlap between the initial diagnosis and the final decision based on imaging and neurologist’s final opinion (p < 0.001). In the end, 361 (95.3%) patients were discharged from ED, while 18 were disposed to the neurology ward. No case of mortality was reported. Conclusion: Sensitivity and specificity of history and clinical examination in differentiating central and peripheral vertigo were 99 (95% CI: 57-99) and 99 (95% CI: 97-99), respectively PMID:26862546
Pan, Chih-Long; Chang, Chin-Fu; Chiu, Chun-Wen; Chi, Chih-Hsien; Tian, Zhong; Wen, Jyh-Horng; Wen, Jet-Chau
Abstract This research focuses on developing an improved and robust measurement for emergency department (ED) performance and a criterion standard for global use via kinetic analysis. Based on kinetic approach, the input-throughput-output conceptual model of ED crowding is compared to the procedure of enzyme catalysis. All in average, the retented patients in EDs are defined as substrate ( ), whereas the patients who depart the EDs as product ( ). Therefore, the average ED departure velocity ( ) can be presented as divided by a given time (t) of the ED length of stay (LOS). The and plots are depicted hourly for the kinetic analysis. The long-term stability of the kinetic parameters is ascertained by the method of coefficient of variation (CV). The participants collected for this study are from the EDs of Changhua Christian Medical Center and the five branched hospitals, all located in Taiwan. Based on the plot analysis, the results clearly show 2 curves, an upper and a lower curve. The timeline of the lower curve includes approximately the total ED busy hours, and thus it can be used for the subsequent kinetic analysis. In order to explore the adequate kinetic parameters for ED performance, the try-and-error process was followed in this study. As a result, the plots adapted from the lower curves show the best linear regression of on with a good coefficient of determination (R2). The Pan-Wen constant (PW), which is the slope of the liner regression line, and the ED medical personnel unit turnover number (EDMPU TON) were deduced from the kinetic meanings of plots. In this research, the 2 kinetic parameters, PW and EDMPU TON were applied for the ED performance evaluations. An innovative relationship between the ED retented patients and the ED departure velocity is verified as PW; whereas, a feasible kinetic parameter, the EDMPU TON explicates the teamwork efficiency of the ED providers. Moreover, the EDMPU TON may not only be a reliable
Kumar, Juvva Gowtham; Abhilash, K. P. P.; Saya, Rama Prakasha; Tadipaneni, Neeha; Bose, J. Maheedhar
Background: Hypoglycemia is one among the leading causes for Emergency Department (ED) visits and is the most common and easily preventable endocrine emergency. This study is aimed at assessing the incidence and elucidating the underlying causes of hypoglycemia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, observational study which included patients registering in ED with a finger prick blood glucose ≤60 mg/dl at the time of arrival. All patients aged above 15 years with the above inclusion criteria during the period of August 2010 to July 2013 were selected. The study group was categorized based on diabetic status into diabetic and nondiabetic groups. Results: A total of 1196 hypoglycemic episodes encountered at the ED during the study period were included, and of which 772 with complete data were analyzed. Underlying causes for hypoglycemia in the diabetic group (535) mainly included medication related 320 (59.81%), infections 108 (20.19%), and chronic kidney disease 61 (11.40%). Common underlying causes of hypoglycemia in nondiabetic group (237, 30.69%) included infections 107 (45.15%), acute/chronic liver disease 42 (17.72%), and malignancies 22 (9.28%). Among diabetic subjects on antidiabetic medications (n = 320), distribution over 24 h duration clearly reported two peaks at 8th and 21st h. The incidence of hypoglycemia and death per 1000 ED visits were 16.41 and 0.73 in 2011, 16.19 and 0.78 in 2012, 17.20 and 1.22 in 2013 with an average of 16.51 and 0.91, respectively. Conclusion: Bimodal distribution with peaks in incidences of hypoglycemic attacks at 8th and 21st h based on hourly distribution in a day can be correlated with the times just before next meal. None of the patients should leave ED without proper evaluation of the etiology of hypoglycemia and the problem should be addressed at each individual level. Increasing incidence of death over the years is alarming, and further studies are needed to conclude the root cause. PMID:28217510
Lavoie, Megan Elizabeth
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a common problem among known and newly diagnosed diabetic children and adolescents for which they will often seek care in the emergency department (ED). Technological advances are leading to changes in outpatient management of diabetes. The ED physician needs to be aware of the new technologies in the care of diabetic children and comfortable managing patients using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusions. This article reviews the ED management of diabetic ketoacidosis and its associated complications, as well as the specific recommendations in caring for patients using the continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, serum ketone monitoring, and continuous glucose monitoring.
Knutson, Tristan; Bothwell, Jason; Durbin, Ricky
Posttraumatic knee pain is a common presentation in the emergency department (ED). The use of clinical decision rules can rule out reliably fractures of the knee and reduce the unnecessary cost and radiation exposure associated with plain radiographs. If ligamentous or meniscal injury to the knee is suspected, the ED physician should arrange for expedited follow- up with the patient's primary care physician or an orthopedic specialist for consideration of an MRI and further management. Patients presenting after high-energy mechanisms are at risk for occult fracture and vascular injuries. ED providers must consider these injuries in the proper clinical setting.
Mahmoudi, Sadrollah; Taghipour, Hamid Reza; Javadzadeh, Hamid Reza; Ghane, Mohammad Reza; Goodarzi, Hassan; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein
Background Hospital readmission places a high burden on both health care systems and patients. Most readmissions are thought to be related to the quality of the health care system. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the causes and rates of early readmission in emergency department in a Tehran hospital. Patients and Methods A cross-sectional investigation was performed to study readmission of inpatients at a large academic hospital in Tehran, Iran. Patients admitted to hospital from July 1, 2014 to December 30, 2014 via the emergency department were enrolled. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the distribution demographics in the sample. Data was analyzed by chi2 test using SPSS 20 software. Results The main cause of readmission was complications related to surgical procedures (31.0%). Discharge from hospital based on patient request at the patient's own risk was a risk factor for emergency readmission in 8.5%, a very small number were readmitted after complete treatment (0.6%). The only direct complication of treatment was infection (17%). Conclusions Postoperative complications increase the probability of patients returning to hospital. Physicians, nurses, etc., should focus on these specific patient populations to minimize the risk of postoperative complications. Future studies should assess the relative connections of various types of patient information (e.g., social and psychosocial factors) to readmission risk prediction by comparing the performance of models with and without this information in a specific population. PMID:27626018
Lewin, Matthew R
The Emergency Department (ED) may be an ideal place to screen and refer patients for blood pressure monitoring in the outpatient setting. Yet, little is known about the public health significance of asymptomatically elevated blood pressure measurements in the ED and what to tell patients when these abnormal vital signs are recorded. Since the prevalence of hypertension and inadequately treated hypertension is so high, the incidental finding of elevated blood pressure in a previously undiagnosed patient may be a pivotal moment in that patient's life. For those patients carrying the diagnosis of hypertension, it is the author's opinion that the observation of elevated blood pressures should trigger advice to see their physicians to consider medication adjustments or changes. Emergency Physicians and their staff are in a unique position to screen and refer large populations of patients to their community physicians and help abort the long-term sequelae of unidentified or inadequately managed hypertension. How best to advise physicians and their patients requires research and innovative methods for transmitting important information to patients that may be unrelated to their primary complaint in the ED.
Background We sought to determine the impact of delays to admission from the Emergency Department (ED) on inpatient length of stay (LOS), and IP cost. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of 13,460 adult (≥ 18 yrs) ED visits between April 1 2006 and March 30 2007 at a tertiary care teaching hospital with two ED sites in which the mode of disposition was admission to ICU, surgery or inpatient wards. We defined ED Admission Delay as ED time to decision to admit > 12 hours. The primary outcomes were IP LOS, and total IP cost. Results Approximately 11.6% (n = 1558) of admitted patients experienced admission delay. In multivariate analysis we found that admission delay was associated with 12.4% longer IP LOS (95% CI 6.6% - 18.5%) and 11.0% greater total IP cost (6.0% - 16.4%). We estimated the cumulative impact of delay on all delayed patients as an additional 2,183 inpatient days and an increase in IP cost of $2,109,173 at the study institution. Conclusions Delays to admission from the ED are associated with increased IP LOS and IP cost. Improving patient flow through the ED may reduce hospital costs and improve quality of care. There may be a business case for investments to reduce emergency department admission delays. PMID:20618934
Welch, Shari J; Stone-Griffith, Suzanne; Asplin, Brent; Davidson, Steven J; Augustine, James; Schuur, Jeremiah D
The public, payers, hospitals, and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) are demanding that emergency departments (EDs) measure and improve performance, but this cannot be done unless we define the terms used in ED operations. On February 24, 2010, 32 stakeholders from 13 professional organizations met in Salt Lake City, Utah, to standardize ED operations metrics and definitions, which are presented in this consensus paper. Emergency medicine (EM) experts attending the Second Performance Measures and Benchmarking Summit reviewed, expanded, and updated key definitions for ED operations. Prior to the meeting, participants were provided with the definitions created at the first summit in 2006 and relevant documents from other organizations and asked to identify gaps and limitations in the original work. Those responses were used to devise a plan to revise and update the definitions. At the summit, attendees discussed and debated key terminology, and workgroups were created to draft a more comprehensive document. These results have been crafted into two reference documents, one for metrics and the operations dictionary presented here. The ED Operations Dictionary defines ED spaces, processes, patient populations, and new ED roles. Common definitions of key terms will improve the ability to compare ED operations research and practice and provide a common language for frontline practitioners, managers, and researchers.
Khakoo, Naushad M.; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Hart, Kimberly W.; Ruffner, Andrew H.; Wayne, D. Beth; Lyons, Michael S.
This cross-sectional study approached emergency department (ED) patients after the treating physician’s disposition decision to measure patient understanding of whether or not they had received an HIV test during their ED encounter. Of the 300 respondents, 24 were excluded due to missing data or because they had received an ED HIV test. Mean age was 41 years, 51% were men, 61% were black, and 29% had no high school degree. There were 5.8% (95% confidence interval: 3.5%–9.4%) who erroneously reported HIV test delivery during their ED course. Our results suggest a small but significant minority of patients falsely assume that they have been tested for HIV during their ED visit. This misperception could have broad implications, leading to less frequent subsequent testing, false reassurance of HIV-negative status, and inaccuracies in surveillance estimates or surveys that depend on self-report. PMID:24522763
Aronsky, Dominik; Jones, Ian; Lanaghan, Kevin; Slovis, Corey M.
Efficient information management and communication within the emergency department (ED) is essential to providing timely and high-quality patient care. The ED whiteboard (census board) usually serves as an ED’s central access point for operational and patient-related information. This article describes the design, functionality, and experiences with a computerized ED whiteboard, which has the ability to display relevant operational and patient-related information in real time. Embedded functionality, additional whiteboard views, and the integration with ED and institutional information system components, such as the computerized patient record or the provider order entry system, provide rapid access to more detailed information. As an information center, the computerized whiteboard supports our ED environment not only for providing patient care, but also for operational, educational, and research activities. PMID:18096913
Roulet, Lucien; Asseray, Nathalie; Ballereau, Françoise
Overview of clinical pharmacy practice around the world shows that pharmaceutical services in emergency departments (EDs) are far less common in Europe than in North America. Reported experiences have shown the impact of a clinical pharmacy service on drug utilisation and safety issues. This commentary presents the implementation of a pharmacy presence in the ED of a French tertiary care hospital. Our experience helps to define the role of the clinical pharmacist in the ED, including patient interviewing, providing medication reconciliation, promoting drug safety, and supporting specific interventions to improve quality of care and patient safety. The role of ED pharmacists in the improvement of quality of care is not necessarily limited to drug therapy, e.g. by helping outpatients to access care and treatment facilities as best suits their needs. Challenges of implementing ED pharmacy services have been identified well, but still require developing strategies to be overcome.
Burmeister, David B; Sacco, Regina; Rupp, Valerie
Vertigo is a common clinical manifestation in the emergency department (ED). It is important for physicians to determine if the peripheral cause of vertigo is benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), a disorder accounting for 20% of all vertigo cases. However, the Dix-Hallpike test--the standard for BPPV diagnosis--is not common in the ED setting. If no central origin of the vertigo is determined, patients in the ED are typically treated with benzodiazepine, antihistamine, or anticholinergic agents. Studies have shown that these pharmaceutical treatment options may not be the best for patients with BPPV. The authors describe a case of a 38-year-old woman who presented to the ED with complaints of severe, sudden-onset vertigo. The patient's BPPV was diagnosed by means of a Dix-Hallpike test and the patient was acutely treated in the ED with physical therapy using the canalith repositioning maneuver.
Ibrahim, Ireen Munira; Liong, Choong-Yeun; Bakar, Sakhinah Abu; Ahmad, Norazura; Najmuddin, Ahmad Farid
The Emergency Department (ED) is a very complex system with limited resources to support increase in demand. ED services are considered as good quality if they can meet the patient's expectation. Long waiting times and length of stay is always the main problem faced by the management. The management of ED should give greater emphasis on their capacity of resources in order to increase the quality of services, which conforms to patient satisfaction. This paper is a review of work in progress of a study being conducted in a government hospital in Selangor, Malaysia. This paper proposed a simulation optimization model framework which is used to study ED operations and problems as well as to find an optimal solution to the problems. The integration of simulation and optimization is hoped can assist management in decision making process regarding their resource capacity planning in order to improve current and future ED operations.
Tucker, Paula W; Evans, Dian Dowling; Clevenger, Carolyn K; Ardisson, Michelle; Hwang, Ula
Gait speed assessment is a rapid, simple and objective measure for predicting risk of unfavorable outcomes which may provide better prognostic and reliable information than existing geriatric ED (Emergency Department) screening tools. This descriptive pilot project was designed to determine feasibility of implementing gait speed screening into routine nursing practice by objectively identifying patients with sub-optimal gait speeds. Participants included community-dwelling adults 65 years and older with plans for discharge following ED treatment. Patients with a gait speed <1.0 m/s were identified as "high-risk" for an adverse event, and referred to the ED social worker for individualized resources prior to discharge. Thirty-five patients were screened and nurse initiated gait speed screens were completed 60% of the time. This project demonstrates ED gait speed screening may be feasible. Implications for practice should consider incorporating gait speed screening into routine nursing assessment to improve provider ED decision-making and disposition planning.
Vogel, Jody A.; Ginde, Adit A.; Lowenstein, Steven R.; Betz, Marian E.
Introduction: To describe the epidemiology and characteristics of emergency department (ED) visits by older adults for motor vehicle collisions (MVC) in the United States (U.S.). Methods: We analyzed ED visits for MVCs using data from the 2003–2007 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). Using U.S. Census data, we calculated annual incidence rates of driver or passenger MVC-related ED visits and examined visit characteristics, including triage acuity, tests performed and hospital admission or discharge. We compared older (65+ years) and younger (18–64 years) MVC patients and calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to measure the strength of associations between age group and various visit characteristics. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of admissions for MVC-related injuries among older adults. Results: From 2003–2007, there were an average of 237,000 annual ED visits by older adults for MVCs. The annual ED visit rate for MVCs was 6.4 (95% CI 4.6–8.3) visits per 1,000 for older adults and 16.4 (95% CI 14.0–18.8) visits per 1,000 for younger adults. Compared to younger MVC patients, after adjustment for gender, race and ethnicity, older MVC patients were more likely to have at least one imaging study performed (OR 3.69, 95% CI 1.46–9.36). Older MVC patients were not significantly more likely to arrive by ambulance (OR 1.47; 95% CI 0.76–2.86), have a high triage acuity (OR 1.56; 95% CI 0.77–3.14), or to have a diagnosis of a head, spinal cord or torso injury (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.42–2.23) as compared to younger MVC patients after adjustment for gender, race and ethnicity. Overall, 14.5% (95% CI 9.8–19.2) of older MVC patients and 6.1% (95% CI 4.8–7.5) of younger MVC patients were admitted to the hospital. There was also a non-statistically significant trend toward hospital admission for older versus younger MVC patients (OR 1.78; 95% CI 0.71–4.43), and
Lyons, Michael S.; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Haukoos, Jason S.; Almond, Gregory; Brown, Jeremy; Calderon, Yvette; Couture, Eileen; Merchant, Roland C.; White, Douglas A.E.; Rothman, Richard E.
Early diagnosis of persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through diagnostic testing and screening is a critical priority for individual and public health. Emergency departments (EDs) have an important role in this effort. As EDs gain experience in HIV testing, it is increasingly apparent that implementing testing is conceptually and operationally complex. A wide variety of HIV testing practice and research models have emerged, each reflecting adaptations to site-specific factors and the needs of local populations. The diversity and complexity inherent in nascent ED HIV testing practice and research are associated with the risk that findings will not be described according to a common lexicon. This article presents a comprehensive set of terms and definitions that can be used to describe ED-based HIV testing programs, developed by consensus opinion from the inaugural meeting of the National ED HIV Testing Consortium. These definitions are designed to facilitate discussion, increase comparability of future reports, and potentially accelerate wider implementation of ED HIV testing. PMID:19076107
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office of Applied Studies.
This publication presents estimates of drug-related emergency department (ED) episodes from the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) from 1994 through the first half of 2001. DAWN is an ongoing, national data system that collects information on drug-related visits to EDs from a national probability sample of hospitals. This publication marks a major…
Migraine can be a disabling condition for the sufferer. For the small number of patients who fail home therapy and seek treatment in an emergency department, there are a number of therapeutic options. This paper reviews the evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of the following therapies: the phenothiazines, lignocaine (lidocaine), ketorolac, the ergot alkaloids, metoclopramide, the "triptans", haloperidol, pethidine and magnesium. Based on available evidence, the most effective agents seem to be prochlorperazine, chlorpromazine and sumatriptan, each of which have achieved greater then 70% efficacy in a number of studies. PMID:10921808
Billings, John; Raven, Maria C
Urban legend has often characterized frequent emergency department (ED) patients as mentally ill substance users who are a costly drain on the health care system and who contribute to ED overcrowding because of unnecessary visits for conditions that could be treated more efficiently elsewhere. This study of Medicaid ED users in New York City shows that behavioral health conditions are responsible for a small share of ED visits by frequent users, and that ED use accounts for a small portion of these patients' total Medicaid costs. Frequent ED users have a substantial burden of disease, and they have high rates of primary and specialty care use. They also have linkages to outpatient care that are comparable to those of other ED patients. It is possible to use predictive modeling to identify who will become a repeat ED user and thus to help target interventions. However, policy makers should view reducing frequent ED use as only one element of more-comprehensive intervention strategies for frequent health system users.
Zavotsky, Kathleen Evanovich; Chan, Garrett K
Emergency department (ED) nurses practice in environments that are highly charged and unpredictable in nature and can precipitate conflict between the necessary prescribed actions and the individual's sense of what is morally the right thing to do. As a consequence of multiple moral dilemmas, ED staff nurses are at risk for experiencing distress and how they cope with these challenges may impact their practice. To examine moral distress in ED nurses and its relationship to coping in that specialty group. Using survey methods approach. One hundred ninety-eight ED nurses completed a moral distress, coping, and demographic collection instruments. Advanced statistical analysis was completed to look at relationships between the variables. Data analysis did show that moral distress is present in ED nurses (M = 80.19, SD = 53.27), and when separated into age groups, the greater the age, the less the experience of moral distress. A positive relationship between moral distress and some coping mechanisms and the ED environment was also noted. This study's findings suggest that ED nurses experience moral distress and could receive some benefit from utilization of appropriate coping skills. This study also suggests that the environment in which ED nurses practice has a significant impact on the experience of moral distress. Because health care is continuing to evolve, it is critical that issues such as moral distress and coping be studied in ED nurses to help eliminate human suffering.
Billings, John; Raven, Maria C.
Urban legend has often characterized frequent emergency department (ED) patients as mentally ill substance users who are a costly drain on the health care system and who contribute to ED overcrowding because of unnecessary visits for conditions that could be treated more efficiently elsewhere. This study of Medicaid ED users in New York City shows that behavioral health conditions are responsible for a small share of ED visits by frequent users, and that ED use accounts for a small portion of these patients' total Medicaid costs. Frequent ED users have a substantial burden of disease, and they have high rates of primary and specialty care use. They also have linkages to outpatient care that are comparable to those of other ED patients. It is possible to use predictive modeling to identify who will become a repeat ED user and thus to help target interventions. However, policy makers should view reducing frequent ED use as only one element of more-comprehensive intervention strategies for frequent health system users. PMID:24301392
McGrath, Jayne; LeGare, Anne; Hermanson, Leigh; Repplinger, Michael D.
Introduction Crowding in emergency departments is a multifaceted problem. We hypothesized that implementing an on-call “Flexible Care Area” (FCA), utilizing multiple front-end throughput solutions, would reduce emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS). Methods This retrospective study evaluates the impact of an FCA on ED throughput at one hospital over a two-year period (2011–2012). The average arrival-to-room time, arrival-to-physician time, LOS, number of inpatient admissions, and number of discharges during FCA hours were collected, comparing days with and without FCA functionality. Results The FCA was open 165 days in 2011 and 252 days in 2012. The mean daily ED census as well as number of ED visits and inpatient admissions during FCA hours were higher on days with FCA functionality than without. Total ED LOS was shorter for Emergency Severity Index (ESI) 3 patients on days with FCA than days without it in 2011, but this finding was not repeated in 2012. ESI 4 patients had shorter LOS on FCA days in both years. The arrival-to-room and arrival-to-physician times showed variable improvement for ESI 3 and 4 patients over the study period. There was no statistically significant difference for these measures when evaluating ESI levels 2 and 5. Discussion Implementing upfront throughput solutions through use of the FCA correlated with reduced ED LOS for all ESI 3–4 patients, not just those who were seen in FCA. PMID:26296717
Sheele, Johnathan M; Gaines, Stephanie; Maurer, Nicholas; Coppolino, Katirina; Li, Jennifer S; Pound, Amy; Luk, Jeffrey H; Mandac, Ed
Bed bugs are one of the most important human ectoparasites in the United States, and a growing problem in the emergency department. We evaluated 40 emergency department (ED) patients found with a bed bug. The data show that ED patients with bed bugs are statistically more likely to be male, older, more likely to be admitted to the hospital, have higher triage emergency severity index (ESI) scores, and arrive by ambulance than the general ED patient population (p<0.05). On average bed bugs were found 108min after a patient arrived to the ED, after 35% of subjects had already received a blood draw, and after 23% had already received a radiology study; putting other ED patients and staff at risk for acquiring the infestation. We found that 13% and 18% of subjects had wheezing and a papular rash, respectively on physical exam. Of those patients found with a bed bug in the ED, 42% reported having bed bugs at home and 21% reporting having a possible home infestation.
patient education opportunities, which may ultimately change both patient perception and ED utilization behavior. Statement of the... Patient education about the Emergency Department policies, triage process, and associated wait times should serve to narrow the gap between the patient’s...perceptions and the provider’s perceptions. The DDEAMC ED has made advancements in the patient education arena, as well as streamlining ED process
Schwartz, L R; Overton, D T
We conducted an analysis of all complaints received in a busy suburban emergency department during 1985. All complaints were handled in a standardized fashion, and were categorized as billing, physician, nursing, or miscellaneous. Data were expressed as a "complaint frequency" (complaints per 1,000 patient visits). Complaints were analyzed for the following characteristics: reason, gender of the patient, gender of the complaining party, relationship of the complaining party to the patient, health care provider, patient age, and patient disposition. The chi-square method was used to identify characteristics associated with a high risk for complaints. There were a total of 244 complaints, arising from 64,910 patient visits, yielding an overall complaint frequency of 3.8. The largest number of complaints (135), involved billing (frequency, 2.0). The most common (60) was insurance carrier rejection of the bill as a nonemergency. The next most common billing complaint (25) was a charge mistakenly billed too high by the ED. There were 70 complaints regarding emergency physicians, for a complaint frequency of 1.1. Of these, 17 were due to a perceived lack of communication with the patient, the patient's family, or the patient's private physician. Eighteen complaints were regarding a perceived misdiagnosis. One physician had a significantly higher complaint frequency than the group as a whole (P less than .005). There were 17 complaints regarding the nursing staff, for a complaint frequency of 0.2. Twenty-two complaints were classified as miscellaneous. Expressing data as complaint frequencies allows comparison of trends in a department, staff members, and different EDs with varied patient populations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Chi, Donald L.; Masterson, Erin E.; Wong, Jacqueline J.
The authors hypothesized that individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) are more likely to have an emergency department (ED) admission for nontraumatic dental conditions (NTDCs). The authors analyzed 2009 U.S. National Emergency Department Sample data and ran logistic regression models for children ages 3-17 years and…
Melo, Manuel Rocha; Ferreira-Magalhães, Manuel; Flor-Lima, Filipa; Rodrigues, Mariana; Severo, Milton; Almeida-Santos, Luis; Caldas-Afonso, Alberto; Barros, Pedro Pita; Ferreira, António
Background Dedicated pediatricians in emergency departments (EDs) may be beneficial, though no previous studies have assessed the related costs and benefits/harms. We aimed to evaluate the net benefits and costs of dedicated emergency pediatricians in a pediatric ED. Methods Cost-consequences analysis of visits to a pediatric ED of a tertiary hospital. Two pediatric ED Medical Teams (MT) were compared: MT-A (May–September 2012), with general pediatrics physicians only; and MT-B (May–September 2013), with emergency dedicated pediatricians. The main outcomes analyzed were relevant clinical outcomes, patient throughput time and costs. Results We included 8,694 children in MT-A and 9,417 in MT-B. Medication use in the ED increased from 42.3% of the children in MT-A to 49.6% in MT-B; diagnostic tests decreased from 24.2% in MT-A to 14.3% in MT-B. Hospitalization increased from 1.3% in MT-A to 3.0% in MT-B; however, there was no significant difference in diagnosis-related group relative weight of hospitalized children in MT-A and MT-B (MT-A, 0.979; MT-B, 1.075). No differences were observed in ED readmissions or in patients leaving without being seen by a physician. The patient throughput time was significantly shorter in MT-B, with faster times to first medical observation. Within the cost domains analyzed, the total expenditures per children observed in the ED were 16% lower in MT-B: 37.87 euros in MT-A; 31.97 euros in MT-B. Conclusion The presence of dedicated emergency pediatricians in a pediatric ED was associated with significantly lower waiting times in the ED, reduced costs, and similar clinical outcomes. PMID:27564093
Liu, Guodong; Pearl, Amanda M.; Kong, Lan; Leslie, Douglas L.; Murray, Michael J.
There has been an increase in utilization of the Emergency Department (ED) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) which may reflect a deficit of services (Green et al., "Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry" 40(3):325-332, 2001; Gurney et al., "Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent…
Boltz, Marie; Parke, Belinda; Shuluk, Joseph; Capezuti, Elizabeth; Galvin, James E.
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to describe nurses' views of the issues to be addressed to improve care of the older adult in the emergency department (ED). Design and Methods: An exploratory content analysis examined the qualitative responses of 527 registered nurses from 49U.S. hospitals who completed the Geriatric Institutional Profile.…
Shook, Janice; Hiestand, Brian C.
Objective: In 2003, after several post-college football game riots, multiple strategies including strict enforcement of open container laws were instituted by the authors' city and university. The authors compared alcohol-related visits to the on-campus emergency department (ED) associated with home football games in 2002 and 2006, hypothesizing…
Rhodes, Anne E.; Boyle, Michael H.; Bethell, Jennifer; Wekerle, Christine; Tonmyr, Lil; Goodman, Deborah; Leslie, Bruce; Lam, Kelvin; Manion, Ian
Objectives: To identify factors associated with repeat emergency department (ED) presentations for suicide-related behaviors (SRB)--hereafter referred to as repetition--among children/youth to aid secondary prevention initiatives. To compare rates of repetition in children/youth with substantiated maltreatment requiring removal from their parental…
Rhodes, Anne E.; Boyle, Michael H.; Bethell, Jennifer; Wekerle, Christine; Goodman, Deborah; Tonmyr, Lil; Leslie, Bruce; Lam, Kelvin; Manion, Ian
Objectives: To determine whether the rates of a first presentation to the emergency department (ED) for suicide-related behavior (SRB) are higher among children/youth permanently removed from their parental home because of substantiated maltreatment than their peers. To describe the health care settings accessed by these children/youth before a…
Sauter, Thomas C.; Veerakatty, Sajitha; Haider, Dominik G.; Geiser, Thomas; Ricklin, Meret E.; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K.
Introduction Somnambulism is a state of dissociated consciousness, in which the affected person is partially asleep and partially awake. There is pervasive public opinion that sleepwalkers are protected from hurting themselves. There have been few scientific reports of trauma associated with somnambulism and no published investigations on the epidemiology or trauma patterns associated with somnambulism. Methods We included all emergency department (ED) admissions to University Hospital Inselspital, Berne, Switzerland, from January 1, 2000, until August 11, 2015, when the patient had suffered a trauma associated with somnambulism. Demographic data (age, gender, nationality) and medical data (mechanism of injury, final diagnosis, hospital admission, mortality and medication on admission) were included. Results Of 620,000 screened ED admissions, 11 were associated with trauma and sleepwalking. Two patients (18.2%) had a history of known non-rapid eye movement parasomnias. The leading cause of admission was falls. Four patients required hospital admission for orthopedic injuries needing further diagnostic testing and treatment (36.4%). These included two patients with multiple injuries (18.2%). None of the admitted patients died. Conclusion Although sleepwalking seems benign in the majority of cases and most of the few injured patients did not require hospitalization, major injuries are possible. When patients present with falls of unknown origin, the possibility should be evaluated that they were caused by somnambulism. PMID:27833677
White, Benjamin A.; Baron, Jason M.; Dighe, Anand S.; Camargo, Carlos A.; Brown, David F.M.
Background Increasing the value of healthcare delivery is a national priority, and providers face growing pressure to reduce cost while improving quality. Ample opportunity exists to increase efficiency and quality simultaneously through the application of systems engineering science. Objective We examined the hypothesis that Lean-based reorganization of laboratory process flow would improve laboratory turnaround times (TAT) and reduce waste in the system. Methods This study was a prospective, before-after analysis of laboratory process improvement in a teaching hospital Emergency Department (ED). The intervention included a reorganization of laboratory sample flow based in systems engineering science and Lean methodologies, with no additional resources. The primary outcome was the median TAT from sample collection to result for six tests previously performed in an ED kiosk. Results Following the intervention, median laboratory TAT decreased across most tests. The greatest decreases were found in “reflex tests” performed after an initial screening test: troponin T TAT was reduced by 33 minutes (86 to 53 min, 99%CI 30–35 min) and urine sedimentation TAT by 88 minutes (117 to 29 min, 99% CI 87–90 min). In addition, troponin I TAT was reduced by 12 minutes, urinalysis by 9 minutes, and urine HCG by 10 minutes. Microbiology rapid testing TAT, a ‘control’, did not change. Conclusions In this study, Lean-based reorganization of laboratory process flow significantly increased process efficiency. Broader application of systems engineering science might further improve healthcare quality and capacity, while reducing waste and cost. PMID:26145581
Nielsen, Gayla; Peschel, Laura; Burgess, Ann
The use of real-time feedback about documentation may improve compliance with best practice standards, provide immediate rewards for high-quality documentation, and present an opportunity to make instantaneous improvements to the documentation. This project was conducted in a large, urban emergency department (ED) to enhance patient safety, improve documentation quality, and increase timeliness of documentation. The PDSA (Plan, Do, Study, Act) model was used to develop a valid and reliable process to enhance the clinical care process. Passive electronic visual cues with real-time feedback to the clinician were developed. Between March 2011 and 2012, a total of 89,521 ED records were reviewed for compliance with 16 documentation elements. Documentation improvements were achieved with seven elements. There was a slight decrease in compliance for four elements, and equivalent levels of compliance in five elements were noted. Staff reported that the program was helpful in providing reminders and that passive cues were more helpful than hard stops. Areas for software refinement were also identified. This process demonstrated that the data collection burden was reduced and sampling error was eliminated. Although additional study is needed, the electronic health record can provide passive visual cues to enhance nursing care, improve regulatory compliance and data collection, and provide immediate feedback to the clinician.
White, J M; Nowak, R M; Martin, G B; Best, R; Carden, D L; Tomlanovich, M C
Approximately 25% of patients in prehospital cardiac arrest present in bradyasystolic rhythms, and their long-term prognosis is very poor. Our study was undertaken to determine the utility of immediate emergency department (ED) external cardiac pacing in this situation. Twenty patients presenting with bradyasystolic prehospital cardiac arrest were entered in the study. All received the usual advanced cardiac life support therapy, but also were externally paced immediately using an automated external defibrillator and pacemaker (AEDP). Only two of 20 patients showed evidence of electrical capture, and none developed pulses with pacing. Four of the 20 patients developed a sinus rhythm and blood pressure during resuscitation. Three survived to leave the ED, but none survived to leave the hospital. An increase in the rate of bradycardia and pulseless idioventricular rhythms that was independent of electrical capture or pharmacologic therapy was noted occasionally. Although survival was not enhanced using the AEDP, the device was reliable, easy to use, and free of complications. External cardiac pacing warrants further investigation in the prehospital setting.
Chinnis, A; White, K R
Chaos is order without predictability (1 ). Any unfortunate patient who has recently made a trek to an Emergency Department (ED) or even better, has watched the immensely popular TV show, ER, knows that the visit can be a frustrating and a time consuming experience. The waits are so protracted that one can observe all cycles of birth, death, love, and romance in the waiting room. The process is tedious for the patient who must tell one's tale to a triage nurse, a registration clerk, the primary nurse, the nursing care partner, and finally the emergency physician. Then, the patient must face more delays while being pushed, ineffectively, in a horizontal fashion, through vertical functional silos of care, such as laboratory and radiology. The mind-set or dominant logic of this system of ED patient flow assumes that waits are acceptable and unavoidable, and that the function of the ED is to care for only the truly emergent patient. This dominant logic, coupled with the market constraints of population-based versus case-based payment mechanisms, has led to a declining trend in ED visits for the first time in 20 years (2). In order to improve the quality of ED care as well as to increase acceptability for patient and payer, the dominant logic must be challenged. An understanding of chaos theory and perception of the Emergency Department as a complex adaptive system foster methods for challenging the dominant logic.
Grignon, O; Montassier, E; Corvec, S; Lepelletier, D; Hardouin, J-B; Caillon, J; Batard, E
Ciprofloxacin and cotrimoxazole are recommended to treat uncomplicated pyelonephritis and uncomplicated cystitis, respectively, provided that local resistance rates of uropathogens do not exceed specified thresholds (10 and 20 %, respectively). However, Escherichia coli resistance rates in Emergency Departments (ED) remain poorly described. Our objectives were to assess E. coli ciprofloxacin and cotrimoxazole resistance rates in EDs of a French administrative region, and to determine if resistance rates differ between EDs. This was a retrospective study of E. coli urine isolates sampled in ten EDs between 2007 and 2012. The following risk factors for resistance were tested using logistic regression: ED, sex, age, sampling year, sampling month. A total of 17,527 isolates were included. Ciprofloxacin local resistance rates (range, 5.3 % [95 % CI, 4.0-7.1 %] to 11.7 % [95 % CI, 5.2-23.2 %]) were ≤10 % in nine EDs in 2012. Five EDs were risk factors for ciprofloxacin resistance, as were male sex, age and sampling in April or October. Cotrimoxazole local resistance rates (range, 13.3 % [95 % CI, 6.3-25.1 %] to 20.4 % [95 % CI, 18.9-22.0 %]) were ≤20 % in seven EDs in 2012. Five EDs were risk factors for cotrimoxazole resistance, as were age, sampling between October and December, and sampling in 2011 and 2012. We found a significant variability of E. coli ciprofloxacin and cotrimoxazole resistance rates among EDs of a small region. These differences impact on the feasibility of empirical treatment of urinary tract infections with ciprofloxacin or cotrimoxazole in a given ED. Continuous local survey of antibacterial resistance in ED urinary isolates is warranted to guide antibacterial therapy of urinary tract infections.
Widmer, Andrew J; Basu, Rashmita; Hochhalter, Angela K
The purpose of our study was to describe the relationship between office-based provider visits and emergency department (ED) utilization by adult Medicaid beneficiaries. Data were extracted from the publicly-available Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, a nationally representative sample of the civilian non-institutionalized population in the United States. The sample included 1,497 respondents who had full year Medicaid coverage in 2009. Study variables included insurance coverage type, usual source of care, chronic illnesses, and beneficiary demographics. Multivariate analyses were conducted to describe associations between individual characteristics and (a) likelihood of any ED utilization, and (b) number of ED visits by those who utilized the ED at least once in the study year. The analysis was adjusted for demographic characteristics and chronic health conditions. A greater number of office-based provider visits was associated with a higher likelihood of ED utilization. Among those with at least one ED visit, a greater number of office-based visits was associated with a higher number of ED visits. A respondent's age, history of hypertension or myocardial infarction, and Hispanic/Latino ethnicity were associated with having one or more ED visits; age and Hispanic/Latino ethnicity were associated with total number of ED visits among those with at least one. In this representative sample of adult Medicaid beneficiaries, there was no evidence that office-based provider visits reduced ED utilization. Office visits were associated with higher ED utilization, as were certain chronic conditions, older age, and Hispanic/Latino ethnicity. Findings do not support efforts to reduce ED utilization by increasing office-based visits alone.
Mitchell, Rebecca; Finch, Caroline; Boufous, Soufiane; Browne, Gary
Narrative text can be a useful means of identifying injury in routine data collections. An analysis of data from a near real-time emergency department surveillance system (NREDSS) in New South Wales (NSW, Australia) was conducted to determine if sports injuries can be identified from routine narrative text recorded in emergency departments. Around one-third of all emergency department (ED) presentations during 1 September 2003 to 15 February 2007 were identified as injury-related. Narrative text searching of triage nursing assessments using keywords identified between 282 (i.e. football) and 26,944 (i.e. play) potential sports injury presentations depending on the selected sports-related keyword used. Routine narrative text descriptions from triage nurse assessments show promise for the identification of sports injury presentations to EDs. Further work is required regarding in-depth assessment of case detection capabilities and the likelihood of improving the quality of narrative text recorded.
Wang, Hao; Robinson, Richard D; Garrett, John S; Bunch, Kellie; Huggins, Charles A; Watson, Katherine; Daniels, Joni; Banks, Brett; D'Etienne, James P; Zenarosa, Nestor R
Background. The accuracy and utility of current Emergency Department (ED) crowding estimation tools remain uncertain in EDs with high annual volumes. We aimed at deriving a more accurate tool to evaluate overcrowding in a high volume ED setting and determine the association between ED overcrowding and patient care outcomes. Methods. A novel scoring tool (SONET: Severely overcrowded-Overcrowded-Not overcrowded Estimation Tool) was developed and validated in two EDs with both annual volumes exceeding 100,000. Patient care outcomes including the number of left without being seen (LWBS) patients, average length of ED stay, ED 72-hour returns, and mortality were compared under the different crowding statuses. Results. The total number of ED patients, the number of mechanically ventilated patients, and patient acuity levels were independent risk factors affecting ED overcrowding. SONET was derived and found to better differentiate severely overcrowded, overcrowded, and not overcrowded statuses with similar results validated externally. In addition, SONET scores correlated with increased length of ED stay, number of LWBS patients, and ED 72-hour returns. Conclusions. SONET might be a better fit to determine high volume ED overcrowding. ED overcrowding negatively impacts patient care operations and often produces poor patient perceptions of standardized care delivery.
Wang, Hao; Robinson, Richard D.; Garrett, John S.; Bunch, Kellie; Huggins, Charles A.; Watson, Katherine; Daniels, Joni; Banks, Brett; D'Etienne, James P.; Zenarosa, Nestor R.
Background. The accuracy and utility of current Emergency Department (ED) crowding estimation tools remain uncertain in EDs with high annual volumes. We aimed at deriving a more accurate tool to evaluate overcrowding in a high volume ED setting and determine the association between ED overcrowding and patient care outcomes. Methods. A novel scoring tool (SONET: Severely overcrowded-Overcrowded-Not overcrowded Estimation Tool) was developed and validated in two EDs with both annual volumes exceeding 100,000. Patient care outcomes including the number of left without being seen (LWBS) patients, average length of ED stay, ED 72-hour returns, and mortality were compared under the different crowding statuses. Results. The total number of ED patients, the number of mechanically ventilated patients, and patient acuity levels were independent risk factors affecting ED overcrowding. SONET was derived and found to better differentiate severely overcrowded, overcrowded, and not overcrowded statuses with similar results validated externally. In addition, SONET scores correlated with increased length of ED stay, number of LWBS patients, and ED 72-hour returns. Conclusions. SONET might be a better fit to determine high volume ED overcrowding. ED overcrowding negatively impacts patient care operations and often produces poor patient perceptions of standardized care delivery. PMID:26167302
Considine, Julie; Lucas, Elspeth; Martin, Roslyn; Stergiou, Helen E; Kropman, Matthew; Chiu, Herman
The impact of emergency nursing roles in demand management systems is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate emergency nurses' role in a specific emergency department (ED) demand management system: rapid intervention and treatment zone (RITZ). A descriptive exploratory approach was used. Data were collected from audit of 193 randomly selected patient records and 12 h of clinical practice observation. The median age of participants was 31 years, 51.8% were males and 99.5% were discharged home. Nurse qualifications or seniority had no significant effect on waiting time or length of stay (LOS). There were disparities between documented and observed nursing practice. The designation and qualifications of RITZ nurses made little difference to waiting times and ED LOS. Specific documentation and communication systems for areas of the ED that manage large numbers of low complexity patients warrant further research.
Carter, Eileen J.; Pouch, Stephanie M.; Larson, Elaine L.
Background Healthcare associated infections (HAIs) are a major health concern, despite being largely avoidable. The emergency department (ED) is an essential component of the healthcare system and subject to workflow challenges, which may hinder ED personnel adherence to guideline based infection prevention practices. Aim The purpose of this review was to examine published literature regarding adherence rates among ED personnel to selected infection control practices, including hand hygiene (HH) and aseptic technique during the placement of central venous catheters and urinary catheters. We also reviewed studies reporting rates of ED equipment contamination. Methods PubMed was searched for studies that included adherence rates among ED personnel to HH during routine patient care, aseptic technique during the placement of central venous catheters and urinary catheters, and rates of equipment contamination. Findings A total of 853 studies were screened and 589 abstracts reviewed. The full texts of 36 papers were examined and 22 articles were identified as meeting inclusion criteria. Eight studies used various scales to measure HH compliance, which ranged from 7.7–89.7%. Seven articles examined central venous catheters inserted in the ED or by emergency medicine residents. Detail of aseptic technique practices during urinary catheterization was lacking. Four papers described equipment contamination in the ED. Conclusion Standardized methods and definitions of compliance monitoring are needed in order to compare results across settings. PMID:25179326
Landman, Adam; Teich, Jonathan M; Pruitt, Peter; Moore, Samantha E; Theriault, Jennifer; Dorisca, Elizabeth; Harris, Sheila; Crim, Heidi; Lurie, Nicole; Goralnick, Eric
Emergency department (ED) information systems are designed to support efficient and safe emergency care. These same systems often play a critical role in disasters to facilitate real-time situation awareness, information management, and communication. In this article, we describe one ED's experiences with ED information systems during the April 2013 Boston Marathon bombings. During postevent debriefings, staff shared that our ED information systems and workflow did not optimally support this incident; we found challenges with our unidentified patient naming convention, real-time situational awareness of patient location, and documentation of assessments, orders, and procedures. As a result, before our next mass gathering event, we changed our unidentified patient naming convention to more clearly distinguish multiple, simultaneous, unidentified patients. We also made changes to the disaster registration workflow and enhanced roles and responsibilities for updating electronic systems. Health systems should conduct disaster drills using their ED information systems to identify inefficiencies before an actual incident. ED information systems may require enhancements to better support disasters. Newer technologies, such as radiofrequency identification, could further improve disaster information management and communication but require careful evaluation and implementation into daily ED workflow.
Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Morrison, Doug; Goldstein, Ben A.; Hsia, Renee Y.
Study objective The 2010 provision of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) extended eligibility for health insurance for young adults aged 19 to 25 years. It is unclear, however, how expanded coverage changes health care behavior and promotes efficient use of emergency department (ED) services. Our objective was to use population-level emergency department data to characterize any changes in diagnoses seen in ED among young adults since the implementation of the ACA dependent coverage expansion. Methods We performed a difference-in-differences analysis of 2009 to 2011 ED visits from California, Florida, and New York, using all-capture administrative data to determine how the use of ED services changed for clinical categories after the ACA provision among young adults aged 19 to 25 years compared with slightly older adults unaffected by the provision, aged 26 to 31 years. Results We analyzed a total of 10,158,254 ED visits made by 4,734,409 patients. After the implementation of the 2010 ACA provision, young adults had a relative decrease of 0.5% ED visits per 1,000 people compared with the older group. For the majority of diagnostic categories, young adults’ rates and risk of visit did not change relative to that of slightly older adults after the implementation of the ACA. However, although young adults’ ED visits significantly increased for mental illnesses (2.6%) and diseases of the circulatory system (eg, nonspecific chest pain) (4.8%), visits decreased for pregnancy-related diagnoses and diseases of the skin (eg, cellulitis, abscess) compared with that of the older group (3.7% and 3.1%, respectively). Conclusion Our results indicate that increased coverage has kept young adults out of the ED for specific conditions that can be cared for through access to other channels. As EDs face capacity challenges, these results are encouraging and offer insight into what could be expected under further insurance expansions from health care reform. PMID
Read, Jen'nan Ghazal; Varughese, Shinu; Cameron, Peter A.
Background: The use of emergency department (ED) services for non-urgent conditions is well-studied in many Western countries but much less so in the Middle East and Gulf region. While the consequences are universal—a drain on ED resources and poor patient outcomes—the causes and solutions are likely to be region and country specific. Unique social and economic circumstances also create gender-specific motivations for patient attendance. Alleviating demand on ED services requires understanding these circumstances, as past studies have shown. We undertook this study to understand why female patients with low-acuity conditions choose the emergency department in Qatar over other healthcare options. Setting and design: Prospective study at Hamad General Hospital's (HGH) emergency department female “see-and-treat” unit that treats low-acuity cases. One hundred female patients were purposively recruited to participate in the study. Three trained physicians conducted semi-structured interviews with patients over a three-month period after they had been treated and given informed consent. Results: The study found that motivations for ED attendance were systematically influenced by employment status as an expatriate worker. Forty percent of the sample had been directed to the ED by their employers, and the vast majority (89%) of this group cited employer preference as the primary reason for choosing the ED. The interviews revealed that a major obstacle to workers using alternative facilities was the lack of a government-issued health card, which is available to all citizens and residents at a nominal rate. Conclusion: Reducing the number of low-acuity cases in the emergency department at HGH will require interventions aimed at encouraging patients with non-urgent conditions to use alternative healthcare facilities. Potential interventions include policy changes that require employers to either provide workers with a health card or compel employees to acquire one for
Chi, Donald L.; Schwarz, Eli; Milgrom, Peter; Yagapen, Annick; Malveau, Susan; Chen, Zunqui; Chan, Ben; Danner, Sankirtana; Owen, Erin; Morton, Vickie; Lowe, Robert A.
Objectives. We documented emergency department (ED) visits for nontraumatic dental problems and identified strategies to reduce ED dental visits. Methods. We used mixed methods to analyze claims in 2010 from a purposive sample of 25 Oregon hospitals and Oregon’s All Payer All Claims data set and interviewed 51 ED dental visitors and stakeholders from 6 communities. Results. Dental visits accounted for 2.5% of ED visits and represented the second-most-common discharge diagnosis in adults aged 20 to 39 years, were associated with being uninsured (odds ratio [OR] = 5.2 [reference: commercial insurance]; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.8, 5.5) or having Medicaid insurance (OR = 4.0; 95% CI = 3.7, 4.2), resulted in opioid (56%) and antibiotic (56%) prescriptions, and generated $402 (95% CI = $396, $408) in hospital costs per visit. Interviews revealed health system, community, provider, and patient contributors to ED dental visits. Potential solutions provided by interviewees included Medicaid benefit expansion, care coordination, water fluoridation, and patient education. Conclusions. Emergency department dental visits are a significant and costly public health problem for vulnerable individuals. Future efforts should focus on implementing multilevel interventions to reduce ED dental visits. PMID:25790415
Albert, Michael; McCaig, Linda F
Data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 2010-2011. In 2010-2011, the emergency department (ED) visit rate for motor vehicle traffic injuries was highest among persons aged 16-24 years. The rates declined with age after 16-24, with rates for those aged 0-15 similar to those 65 and over. The overall ED visit rate for motor vehicle traffic injuries was higher among non-Hispanic black persons compared with non-Hispanic white and Hispanic persons. Imaging services were ordered or provided at 70.2% of ED visits for motor vehicle traffic injuries, which was higher than for other injury-related ED visits (55.9%). About one-half of ED visits for motor vehicle traffic injuries had a primary diagnosis of sprains and strains of the neck and back, contusion with intact skin surface, or spinal disorders. In spite of improvements in motor vehicle safety in recent years, motor vehicle crashes remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in the United States (1-3). Motor vehicle-related deaths and injuries also result in substantial economic and societal costs related to medical care and lost productivity (4). This report describes the rates and characteristics of emergency department (ED) visits for motor vehicle traffic injuries during 2010-2011 based on nationally representative data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS).
Ward, Michael J; Ferrand, Yann B; Laker, Lauren F; Froehle, Craig M; Vogus, Timothy J; Dittus, Robert S; Kripalani, Sunil; Pines, Jesse M
Hospital-based emergency departments (EDs), given their high cost and major role in allocating care resources, are at the center of the debate about how to maximize value in delivering health care in the United States. To operate effectively and create value, EDs must be flexible, having the ability to rapidly adapt to the highly variable needs of patients. The concept of flexibility has not been well described in the ED literature. We introduce the concept, outline its potential benefits, and provide some illustrative examples to facilitate incorporating flexibility into ED management. We draw on operations research and organizational theory to identify and describe 5 forms of flexibility: physical, human resource, volume, behavioral, and conceptual. Each form of flexibility may be useful individually or in combination with other forms in improving ED performance and enhancing value. We also offer suggestions for measuring operational flexibility in the ED. A better understanding of operational flexibility and its application to the ED may help us move away from reactive approaches of managing variable demand to a more systematic approach. We also address the tension between cost and flexibility and outline how "partial flexibility" may help resolve some challenges. Applying concepts of flexibility from other disciplines may help clinicians and administrators think differently about their workflow and provide new insights into managing issues of cost, flow, and quality in the ED.
De Luca, A; Francia, C; Gabriele, S; Guasticchi, G
Triage is an efficient system that emergency departments (EDs) use to sort out presenting patients on the basis of the speed with which they need treatment. Because triage is not used consistently in the EDs of Latium, a region in central Italy, the regional Public Health Agency (PHA) planned and implemented a regional model of triage in all EDs. This manuscript describe the regional implementation strategy. The PHA activated the "Regional Triage Program--RTP" including: development and testing of a "triage section" in the computerized EDs clinical chart; production of an operational handbook for the RTP for triage health professionals (HPs); implementation of an continuum educational program on the "RTP" in all EDs of Latium. The computerized triage section was tested and implemented in all EDs in the region. The handbook for triage HPs was produced. The educational program, has been ongoing since 2008 in all regional EDs. Selected HPs, identified as "facilitators", were trained on how to implement the RTP. They will organize, in their own EDs, small groups of nurses to conduct on-site training of the RTP. The RTP was received with enthusiasm by most HPs, however its introduction into current practice could be hampered by organizational/structural problems and conflicts between nurses and doctors. Next actions of the regional program will be to overcome the possible above mentioned troubles.
Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Burns, Carson S; Wang, N Ewen; Baker, Laurence C; Goldstein, Benjamin A
The Affordable Care Act (ACA) extended eligibility for health insurance for young adults ages 19-25. This extension may have affected how young adults use emergency department (ED) care and other health services. To test the impact of the ACA on how young adults used ED services, we used 2009-11 state administrative records from California, Florida, and New York to compare changes in ED use in young adults ages 19-25 before and after the ACA provision was implemented with changes in the same period for people ages 26-31 (the control group). Following implementation of the ACA provision, the younger group had a decrease of 2.7 ED visits per 1,000 people compared to the older group--a relative change of -2.1 percent. The largest relative decreases were found in women (-3.0 percent) and blacks (-3.4 percent). This relative decrease in ED use implies a total reduction of more than 60,000 visits from young adults ages 19-25 across the three states in 2011. When we compared the probability of ever using the ED before and after implementation of the ACA provision, we found a minimal decrease (-0.4 percent) among the younger group compared to the older group. This suggests that the change in the number of visits was driven by fewer visits among ED users, not by changes in the number of people who ever visited the ED.
Bronskill, Susan E.; Newman, Alice; Bell, Chaim M.; Gozdyra, Peter; Anderson, Geoffrey M.; Rochon, Paula A.
Background: Nursing home (NH) residents are frequently transferred to the emergency department (ED) but there is little data on inter-facility variation, which has implications for intervention planning and implementation. Objectives: To describe variation in ED transfer rates (TRs) across NHs and the association with NH characteristics. Design/setting: Retrospective cohort study using linked administrative data from Ontario. Participants: 71,780 residents of 604 NHs in 2010 and followed for one year. Measurements: Funnel plots were used to identify high transfer NHs and logistic regression to test the association with NH location, size, ownership and historical ED transfer rate. Results: One-year ED transfer rates ranged from 4.3% to 58.6% (mean 28.4%); 115 (19%) NHs were considered high. Being within five minutes of an ED, larger size and high historical ED transfer rate were associated with being a high ED transfer home. Conclusion: There was substantial variation across NHs. Consideration of characteristics such as proximity to an ED may be important in the development and targeting of different interventions for NHs. PMID:28032826
Fingar, Kathryn R; Smith, Mark W; Davies, Sheryl; McDonald, Kathryn M; Stocks, Carol; Raven, Maria C
Medicaid was expanded to millions of individuals under the Affordable Care Act, but many states do not provide dental coverage for adults under their Medicaid programs. In the absence of dental coverage, patients may resort to costly emergency department (ED) visits for dental conditions. Medicaid coverage of dental benefits could help ease the burden on the ED, but ED use for dental conditions might remain a problem in areas with a scarcity of dentists. We examined county-level rates of ED visits for nontraumatic dental conditions in twenty-nine states in 2010 in relation to dental provider density and Medicaid coverage of nonemergency dental services. Higher density of dental providers was associated with lower rates of dental ED visits by patients with Medicaid in rural counties but not in urban counties, where most dental ED visits occurred. County-level Medicaid-funded dental ED visit rates were lower in states where Medicaid covered nonemergency dental services than in other states, although this difference was not significant after other factors were adjusted for. Providing dental coverage alone might not reduce Medicaid-funded dental ED visits if patients do not have access to dental providers.
Tagliaferri, Annarita; Di Perna, Caterina; Biasoli, Chiara; Rivolta, Gianna Franca; Quintavalle, Gabriele; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Barozzi, Marco; Benedettini, Laura; Pattacini, Corrado
Treatment of patients with inherited bleeding disorders (PWIBD) in the emergency department (ED) is challenging. In 2010, a project was started involving all eight hemophilia centers (HC) and all 44 EDs of the Region of Emilia-Romagna (Italy) to improve emergency care for PWIBD. The project incorporates guidelines for emergency treatment, education for ED staff, and a dedicated Web site providing extensive information, proposing treatments, and sharing data with patients' electronic clinical records. A Web algorithm, accessible to PWIBD as well as ED and HC staff, suggests the first dose of concentrate for each type and severity of bleed or trauma. Following training courses in each ED, the network was activated. During 2012 and 2013, the site was visited 14,000 times, the EDs accessed the Web site 1,739 times, and used the algorithms 206 times. In two reference EDs, triage-assessment and triage-treatment times were reduced in 2013 and 2012 (27/20 and 110/71.5 minutes, respectively) and medical advice from the HC increased (54 vs. 24% cases). The main advantages of this system are better management of patients in ED (shorter triage-to-treatment times) and improved collaboration between HCs and EDs. The most critical point remaining is staff turnover in EDs, necessitating continual training.
It is not so important the specific professional organizations to which one belongs, but rather one's activity in the organization and his or her willingness to get involved and contribute to it. The relevance of a professional organization to a member of the ED staff is only as valid as the level of participation by that member in the professional organization. Membership in any organization, including a professional organization, is a contractual two-way street. The individual or the group of individuals gives something to the professional organization and the professional organization gives something back to the individual or the group of individuals. The relationship is only as strong a link as the effort that both parties are willing to commit. There are also many instances in which individuals in the ED are passive beneficiaries or recipients of activities and functions of a professional organization because the professional organization provides benefits to all members of a class without requiring membership. An excellent example of this is national legislation and the regulations that follow, such as EMTALA and Medicare funding. Professional organizations can play many roles in the EDs of America. Their relative applicability and need depends entirely on the unique characteristics of each ED and its staff.
Peterson, Lars E.; Dodoo, Martey; Bennett, Kevin J.; Bazemore, Andrew; Phillips, Robert L., Jr.
Context: Rural areas have fewer physicians compared to urban areas, and rural emergency departments often rely on community or contracted providers for staffing. The emergency department workforce is composed of a variety of physician specialties and clinicians. Purpose: To determine the distribution of emergency department clinicians and the…
Ranney, Megan L; Locci, Natalie; Adams, Erica J; Betz, Marian; Burmeister, David B; Corbin, Ted; Dalawari, Preeti; Jacoby, Jeanne L; Linden, Judith; Purtle, Jonathan; North, Carol; Houry, Debra E
Mental illness is a growing, and largely unaddressed, problem for the population and for emergency department (ED) patients in particular. Extensive literature outlines sex and gender differences in mental illness' epidemiology and risk and protective factors. Few studies, however, examined sex and gender differences in screening, diagnosis, and management of mental illness in the ED setting. Our consensus group used the nominal group technique to outline major gaps in knowledge and research priorities for these areas, including the influence of violence and other risk factors on the course of mental illness for ED patients. Our consensus group urges the pursuit of this research in general and conscious use of a gender lens when conducting, analyzing, and authoring future ED-based investigations of mental illness.
Jacobson, Kathleen R; Arora, Sanjay; Walsh, Kristin B; Lora, Meredith; Merjavy, Stephen; Livermore, Shanna; Menchine, Michael
Earlier intervention in acute HIV infection limits HIV reservoirs and may decrease HIV transmission. We developed criteria for empiric antiretroviral therapy (ART) in an emergency department (ED) routine HIV screening program. We assessed the feasibility and willingness of patients with suspected acute HIV infection in the ED to begin ART. A suspected acute HIV infection was defined as a positive HIV antigen antibody combination immunoassay with pending HIV-antibody differentiation test results and HIV RNA viral load. During the study period, there were 16 confirmed cases of acute HIV infection: 11 met our criteria for empiric ART and agreed to treatment, 10 were prescribed ART, and 1 left the ED against medical advice without a prescription for ART. Eight patients completed at least one follow-up visit. Empiric HIV treatment in an ED is feasible, well received by patients, and offers a unique entry point into the HIV care continuum.
Ranney, Megan L.; Locci, Natalie; Adams, Erica J.; Betz, Marian; Burmeister, David B.; Corbin, Ted; Dalawari, Preeti; Jacoby, Jeanne L.; Linden, Judith; Purtle, Jonathan; North, Carol; Houry, Debra E.
Mental illness is a growing, and largely unaddressed, problem for the population and for emergency department (ED) patients in particular. Extensive literature outlines sex and gender differences in mental illness’ epidemiology and risk and protective factors. Few studies, however, examined sex and gender differences in screening, diagnosis, and management of mental illness in the ED setting. Our consensus group used the nominal group technique to outline major gaps in knowledge and research priorities for these areas, including the influence of violence and other risk factors on the course of mental illness for ED patients. Our consensus group urges the pursuit of this research in general, and conscious use of a gender lens when conducting, analyzing, and authoring future ED-based investigations of mental illness. PMID:25413369
Lau, Francis; Partridge, Colin; Penn, Andrew; Stanley, Dana; Votova, Kristine; Bibok, Maximilian; Harris, Devin; Lu, Linghong
This paper describes the adoption of a prototype electronic decision support tool for managing transient ischemic attack (TIA) in the Emergency Department (ED) of a health region in Canada. A clinician-driven sociotechnical design approach is used to develop, test and implement the prototype with the aim to improve TIA management in the ED. In this study, we worked closely with ED staff to: identify issues and needs in TIA management; build/test/refine prototype versions of the electronic TIA decision support tool; and explore strategies to implement the tool for routine use in the ED. A blood protein biomarker test under development will also be incorporated as part of this tool in a subsequent phase. Thus far the prototype has demonstrated the potential to improve triage, risk stratification, and disposition decisions based on historical TIA and mimic cases. A prospective multi-site clinical utility study is planned for spring of 2016.
Brouns, Steffie H. A.; Stassen, Patricia M.; Lambooij, Suze L. E.; Haak, Harm R.
Study objective To assess the association of patient and organisational factors with emergency department length of stay (ED-LOS) in elderly ED patients (226565 years old) and in younger patients (<65 years old). Methods A retrospective cohort study of internal medicine patients visiting the emergency department between September 1st 2010 and August 31st 2011 was performed. All emergency department visits by internal medicine patients 226565 years old and a random sample of internal medicine patients <65 years old were included. Organisational factors were defined as non-medical factors. ED-LOS is defined as the time between ED arrival and ED discharge or admission. Prolonged ED-LOS is defined as ≥75th percentile of ED-LOS in the study population, which was 208 minutes. Results Data on 1782 emergency department visits by elderly patients and 597 emergency department visits by younger patients were analysed. Prolonged ED-LOS in elderly patients was associated with three organisational factors: >1 consultation during the emergency department visit (odds ratio (OR) 3.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3–4.3), a higher number of diagnostic tests (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.16–1.33) and evaluation by a medical student or non-trainee resident compared with a medical specialist (OR 4.2, 95% CI 2.0–8.8 and OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.4–3.9). In younger patients, prolonged ED-LOS was associated with >1 consultation (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4–4.6). Factors associated with shorter ED-LOS were arrival during nights or weekends as well as a high urgency level in elderly patients and self-referral in younger patients. Conclusion Organisational factors, such as a higher number of consultations and tests in the emergency department and a lower seniority of the physician, were the main aspects associated with prolonged ED-LOS in elderly patients. Optimisation of the organisation and coordination of emergency care is important to accommodate the needs of the continuously growing number of elderly
Chisholm, Robin; Finnell, John T.
Objective: This study explored the Internet log files from emergency department workstations to determine search patterns, compared them to discharge diagnoses, and the emergency medicine curriculum as a way to quantify physician search behaviors. Methods: The log files from the computers from January 2006 to March 2010 were mapped to the EM curriculum and compared to discharge diagnoses to explore search terms and website usage by physicians and students. Results: Physicians in the ED averaged 1.35 searches per patient encounter using Google.com and UpToDate.com 83.9% of the time. The most common searches were for drug information (23.1%) by all provider types. The majority of the websites utilized were in the third tier evidence level for evidence-based medicine (EBM). Conclusion: We have shown a need for a readily accessible drug knowledge base within the EMR for decision support as well as easier access to first and second tier EBM evidence. PMID:23304394
Jung, Ileok; Kim, Ji-Soo
Acute dizziness/vertigo is among the most common causes for visiting the emergency department. The traditional approach to dizziness starts with categorizing dizziness into four types: vertigo, presyncope, disequilibrium, and nonspecific dizziness. However, a recently proposed approach begins with classifying dizziness/vertigo as acute prolonged spontaneous dizziness/vertigo, recurrent spontaneous dizziness/vertigo, recurrent positional vertigo, or chronic persistent dizziness and imbalance. Vestibular neuritis and stroke are key disorders causing acute prolonged spontaneous dizziness/vertigo, but the diagnosis of isolated vascular vertigo has increased by virtue of developments in clinical neurotology and neuroimaging. However, a well-organized bedside examination appears more sensitive than brain imaging in diagnosing strokes presenting with acute dizziness/vertigo. A detailed history is vital to diagnose recurrent spontaneous dizziness/vertigo since confirmatory diagnostic tests are usually unavailable. Isolated positional vertigo is usually caused by benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, which can be treated at the bedside. In recent years, marked progress has occurred in the evaluation/management of acute dizziness/vertigo. However, even with developments in imaging technology, the diagnosis of acute dizziness/vertigo largely relies on bedside examination. PMID:27752577
Children who require emergency care have unique needs, especially when emergencies are serious or life-threatening. The majority of ill and injured children are brought to community hospital emergency departments (EDs) by virtue of their geography within communities. Similarly, emergency medical services (EMS) agencies provide the bulk of out-of-hospital emergency care to children. It is imperative, therefore, that all hospital EDs have the appropriate resources (medications, equipment, policies, and education) and staff to provide effective emergency care for children. This statement outlines resources necessary to ensure that hospital EDs stand ready to care for children of all ages, from neonates to adolescents. These guidelines are consistent with the recommendations of the Institute of Medicine's report on the future of emergency care in the United States health system. Although resources within emergency and trauma care systems vary locally, regionally, and nationally, it is essential that hospital ED staff and administrators and EMS systems' administrators and medical directors seek to meet or exceed these guidelines in efforts to optimize the emergency care of children they serve. This statement has been endorsed by the Academic Pediatric Association, American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Physician Assistants, American College of Osteopathic Emergency Physicians, American College of Surgeons, American Heart Association, American Medical Association, American Pediatric Surgical Association, Brain Injury Association of America, Child Health Corporation of America, Children's National Medical Center, Family Voices, National Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions, National Association of EMS Physicians, National Association of Emergency Medical Technicians, National Association of State EMS Officials, National Committee for Quality Assurance, National PTA, Safe Kids USA, Society of Trauma Nurses, Society for Academic
Thiruganasambandamoorthy, Venkatesh; Taljaard, Monica; Stiell, Ian G; Sivilotti, Marco L A; Murray, Heather; Vaidyanathan, Aparna; Rowe, Brian H; Calder, Lisa A; Lang, Eddy; McRae, Andrew; Sheldon, Robert; Wells, George A
Variations in emergency department (ED) syncope management have not been well studied. The goals of this study were to assess variations in management, and emergency physicians' risk perception and disposition decision making. We conducted a prospective study of adults with syncope in six EDs in four cities over 32 months. We collected patient characteristics, ED management, disposition, physicians' prediction probabilities at index presentation and followed patients for 30 days for serious outcomes: death, myocardial infarction (MI), arrhythmia, structural heart disease, pulmonary embolism, significant hemorrhage, or procedural interventions. We used descriptive statistics, ROC curves, and regression analyses. We enrolled 3662 patients: mean age 54.3 years, and 12.9 % were hospitalized. Follow-up data were available for 3365 patients (91.9 %) and 345 patients (10.3 %) suffered serious outcomes: 120 (3.6 %) after ED disposition including 48 patients outside the hospital. After accounting for differences in patient case mix, the rates of ED investigations and disposition were significantly different (p < 0.0001) across the four study cities; as were the rates of 30-day serious outcomes (p < 0.0001) and serious outcomes after ED disposition (p = 0.0227). There was poor agreement between physician risk perception and both observed event rates and referral patterns (p < 0.0001). Only 76.7 % (95 % CI 68.1-83.6) of patients with serious outcomes were appropriately referred. There are large and unexplained differences in ED syncope management. Moreover, there is poor agreement between physician risk perception, disposition decision making, and serious outcomes after ED disposition. A valid risk-stratification tool might help standardize ED management and improve disposition decision making.
... Privacy Act of 1974; Computer Matching Program between the U.S. Department of Education (ED) and the U.S..., the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988, 54 FR 25818 (June 19, 1989), and OMB... hereby given of the renewal of the computer matching program between the U.S. Department of Education...
Patton, Rikki; Lau, Chung Hin (Joshua); Blow, Frederic C; Ranney, Megan; Cunningham, Rebecca; Walton, Maureen
Background Both alcohol use and depression are concerning health issues among youth. The Emergency Department (ED) is a critical location to access youth with depressive symptoms and alcohol misuse. Objectives To inform future interventions in the ED, this study examined the relationship between drinking behaviors and depressive symptoms among youth seeking ED care. Methods Youth ages 14-20 were recruited from a level-1 trauma ED located in the Midwest as part of a larger ongoing study. Participants completed an electronic screening survey, which included assessment of alcohol use, depressive symptoms, and demographic variables. Two logistic regression models were conducted to assess the relationship between depressive symptoms with alcohol consumption and specific alcohol-related consequences. Results Among 3,659 participants, bivariate analysis indicated that individuals screening positive for depression were more likely to be female, non-white, receive public assistance, and report higher scores on both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences. Regression analyses indicated alcohol consumption, inability to stop drinking once starting, and feelings of guilt or remorse after drinking were significantly positively related to screening positive for depression. Conclusions/Importance Current findings support use of the ED as a location for identifying youth who are experiencing co-morbid alcohol use and depressive symptoms. Future research should focus on the effectiveness of brief intervention in the ED that focuses on the co-occurrence of alcohol misuse and depressive symptoms among youth. PMID:26669633
Burke, Robert E.; Rooks, Sean P.; Levy, Cari; Schwartz, Robert; Ginde, Adit A.
Objectives To identify and describe potentially preventable emergency department (ED) visits by nursing home (NH) residents in the United States. These visits are important because they are common, frequently lead to hospitalization, and can be associated with significant cost to the patient and the health care system. Design Retrospective analysis of the 2005-2010 National Hospital Ambulatory Care Survey (NHAMCS), comparing ED visits by nursing home residents that did not lead to hospital admission (potentially preventable) to those that led to admission (less likely preventable). Setting Nationally representative sample of United States EDs; Federal hospitals and hospitals with less than six beds were excluded. Participants Older (age ≥65 years) nursing home residents with an ED visit during this time period. Measurements Patient demographics, ED visit information including testing performed, interventions (both procedures and medications) provided, and diagnoses treated. Results Older NH residents accounted for 3,857 of 208,956 ED visits during the time period of interest (1.8%). When weighted to be nationally representative, these represent 13.97 million ED visits, equivalent to 1.8 ED visits annually per NH resident in the United States. More than half of visits (53.5%) did not lead to hospital admission; of those discharged from the ED, 62.8% had normal vital signs on presentation and 18.9% did not have any diagnostic testing prior to ED discharge. Injuries were 1.78 times more likely to be discharged than admitted (44.8% versus 25.3%, respectively, p<0.001), while infections were 2.06 times as likely to be admitted as discharged (22.9% versus 11.1%, respectively). CT scans were performed in 25.4% and 30.1% of older NH residents who were discharged from the ED and admitted to the hospital, respectively, and more than 70% of these were CTs of the head. NH residents received centrally acting, sedating medications prior to ED discharge in 9.4% of visits
Ramacciati, Nicola; Ceccagnoli, Andrea; Addey, Beniamino; Lumini, Enrico; Rasero, Laura
Introduction The phenomenon of workplace violence in health care settings, and especially in the emergency department (ED), has assumed the dimensions of a real epidemic. Many studies highlight the need for methods to ensure the safety of staff and propose interventions to address the problem. Aim The aim of this review was to propose a narrative of the current approaches to reduce workplace violence in the ED, with a particular focus on evaluating the effectiveness of emergency response programs. Methods A search was conducted between December 1, 2015 and December 7, 2015, in PubMed and CINAHL. Ten intervention studies were selected and analyzed. Results Seven of these interventions were based on sectoral interventions and three on comprehensive actions. Conclusion The studies that have attempted to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions have shown weak evidence to date. Further research is needed to identify effective actions to promote a safe work environment in the ED. PMID:27307769
Sanchez, Miquel; Smally, Alan J; Grant, Robert J; Jacobs, Lenworth M
To determine if a fast-track area (FTA) would improve Emergency Department (ED) performance, a historical cohort study was performed in the ED of a tertiary care adult hospital in the United States. Two 1-year consecutive periods, pre fast track area (FTA) opening-from February 1, 2001 to January 31, 2002 and after FTA opening-from February 1, 2002 to January 31, 2003 were studied. Daily values of the following variables were obtained from the ED patient tracking system: 1) To assess ED effectiveness: waiting time to be seen (WT), length of stay (LOS); 2) To assess ED care quality: rate of patients left without being seen (LWBS), mortality, and revisits; 3) To assess determinants of patient homogeneity between periods: daily census, age, acuity index, admission rate and emergent patient rate. For comparisons, the Wilcoxon test and the Student's t-test were used to analyze the data. Results showed that despite an increase in the daily census (difference [diff] 8.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6 to 11.41), FTA was associated with a decrease in WT (diff -51 min, 95% CI [-56 to -46]), LOS (diff -28 min, 95% CI [-31 to -23]) and LWBS (diff -4.06, 95% CI [-4.48 to -3.46]), without change in the rates of mortality or revisits. In conclusion, the opening of a FTA improved ED effectiveness, measured by decreased WT and LOS, without deterioration in the quality of care provided, measured by rates of mortality and revisits.
McNamara, R; Yu, D K; Kelly, J J
Violence within the emergency department (ED) is an area of concern for both the staff and public. Emergency physicians and nurses express a great deal of concern for their personal safety. The use of weapons in events occurring in the ED has prompted a call for the widespread use of metal detectors. The use of these devices can meet with resistance regarding concerns over the creation of a bad image. This study examined the opinion of the public as to personal safety in an urban ED and sought public opinion regarding the use of a metal detector. Although the majority of the 303 persons surveyed felt safe (75%) in the ED and were satisfied with the level of security (68%), two thirds reported they would feel better if a metal detector was in use. Women were more likely than men to prefer the use of a metal detector. A small percentage (11%) of the public reported a fear of being physically harmed in the ED. Concerns about the potential for a negative image caused by use of a metal detector do not appear warranted in this urban ED.
Pallin, Daniel J; Allen, Matthew B; Espinola, Janice A; Camargo, Carlos A; Bohan, J Stephen
With US emergency care characterized as "at the breaking point," we studied how the aging of the US population would affect demand for emergency department (ED) services and hospitalizations in the coming decades. We applied current age-specific ED visit rates to the population structure anticipated by the Census Bureau to exist through 2050. Our results indicate that the aging of the population will not cause the number of ED visits to increase any more than would be expected from population growth. However, the data do predict increases in visit lengths and the likelihood of hospitalization. As a result, the aggregate amount of time patients spend in EDs nationwide will increase 10 percent faster than population growth. This means that ED capacity will have to increase by 10 percent, even without an increase in the number of visits. Hospital admissions from the ED will increase 23 percent faster than population growth, which will require hospitals to expand capacity faster than required by raw population growth alone.
Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Operario, Don; Barnett, Nancy P.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Monti, Peter M.
Background The study aim was to assess the prevalence and co-occurrence of alcohol and sexual risk behaviors among emergency department (ED) patients in community hospitals. Methods Systematic screening of ED patients (N = 6,486; 56.5% female) was conducted in 2 community hospitals in the northeast during times with high patient volume, generally between the hours of 10 AM to 8 PM, Monday through Saturday. Screening occurred from May 2011 through November 2013. Assessment included validated measures of alcohol use and sexual risk behavior. Results Overall results identified high rates of alcohol use, sexual risk behaviors, and their co-occurrence in this sample of ED patients. Specifically, ED patients in between the ages of 18 and 35 were consistently highest in hazardous alcohol use (positive on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test or endorsing heavy episodic drinking [HED]), sexual risk behaviors, and the co-occurrence of alcohol and sex-risk behaviors. Conclusions Findings show a high co-occurrence of hazardous drinking and unprotected sex among ED patients and highlight the role of HED as a factor associated with sexual risk behavior. Efforts to integrate universal screening for the co-occurrence of alcohol and sexual risk behavior in ED settings are warranted; brief interventions delivered to ED patients addressing the co-occurrence of alcohol and sexual risk behaviors have the potential to decrease the risk of sexually transmitted infections and HIV among a large number of patients. PMID:26332359
DiPietro, Barbara Y; Kindermann, Dana; Schenkel, Stephen M
The purpose of this study was to document the clinical and demographic characteristics of the 20 most frequent users of emergency departments (EDs) in one urban area. We reviewed administrative records from three EDs and two agencies providing services to homeless people in Baltimore City. The top 20 users accounted for 2,079 visits at the three EDs. Their mean age was 48, and median age was 51. Nineteen patients visited at least 2 EDs, 18 were homeless, and 13 had some form of public insurance. The vast majority of visits (86%) were triaged as moderate or high acuity. The five most frequent diagnoses were limb pain (n = 9), lack of housing (n = 6), alteration of consciousness (n = 6), infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (n = 5), and nausea/vomiting (n = 5). Hypertension, HIV infection, diabetes, substance abuse, and alcohol abuse were the most common chronic illnesses. The most frequent ED users were relatively young, accounted for a high number of visits, used multiple EDs, and often received high triage scores. Homelessness was the most common characteristic of this patient group, suggesting a relationship between this social factor and frequent ED use.
Ryan, James; Hendler, James; Bennett, Kristin P
Electronic Healthcare Records (EHRs) have the potential to improve healthcare quality and to decrease costs by providing quality metrics, discovering actionable insights, and supporting decision-making to improve future outcomes. Within the United States Medicaid Program, rates of recidivism among emergency department (ED) patients serve as metrics of hospital performance that help ensure efficient and effective treatment within the ED. We analyze ED Medicaid patient data from 1,149,738 EHRs provided by a hospital over a 2-year period to understand the characteristics of the ED return visits within a 72-hour time frame. Frequent flyer patients with multiple revisits account for 47% of Medicaid patient revisits over this period. ED encounters by frequent flyer patients with prior 72-hour revisits in the last 6 months are thrice more likely to result in a readmit than those of infrequent patients. Statistical L1-logistic regression and random forest analyses reveal distinct patterns of ED usage and patient diagnoses between frequent and infrequent patient encounters, suggesting distinct opportunities for interventions to improve efficacy of care and streamline ED workflow. This work forms a foundation for future development of predictive models, which could flag patients at high risk of revisiting.
Vedovetto, Alessio; Soriani, Nicola; Merlo, Emanuela; Gregori, Dario
Objective To better understand the issue of inappropriate pediatric Emergency Department (ED) visits in Italy, including the impact of the last National Health System reform. Study Design A retrospective cohort study was conducted with five health care providers in the Veneto region (Italy) in a 2-year period (2010–2011). ED visits were considered “inappropriate” by evaluating both nursing triage and resource utilization, as addressed by the Italian Ministry of Health in 2007. Factors associated with inappropriate ED visits were identified. The cost of each visit was calculated. Principal Findings In total, 134,358 ED visits with 455,650 performed procedures were recorded in the 2-year period; of these, 76,680 (57.1 percent) were considered inappropriate ED visits. Patients likely to make inappropriate ED visits were younger, female, visiting the ED during night or holiday, when the primary care provider (PCP) is not available. Conclusion The National Health System reform aims to improve efficiency, effectiveness, and costs by opening PCP offices 24 hours a day and 7 days a week. This study highlights the need for a deep reorganization of the Italian Primary Care System not only providing a larger time availability but also treating the parents' lack of education on children's health. PMID:24495258
Marchesi, C; Brusamonti, E; Borghi, C; Giannini, A; Di, R; Minneo, F; Quarantelli, C; Maggini, C
Objective: In this study anxiety and depressive disorders were evaluated in patients admitted to an emergency department (ED) or to a medical department (MD). Methods: The General Health Questionnaire-30 (GHQ-30) was administered to screen all patients (n = 719) consecutively admitted to an ED (n = 556) and to MD (n = 163) in a 120 day period. All GHQ-30 positive (score>4) underwent the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, a structured interview to diagnose mental disorders according to DSM-IV criteria. Results: Subjects positive to GHQ-30 were 264 (47%) in ED and 88 (54%) in MD. A mental disorder was diagnosed in 233 ED patients (42%) and in 77 MD patients (47%) (p = 0.70). The most frequent disorders were anxiety disorders in ED patients (18.1%) and depressive disorders in MD patients (21%) (p = 0.04). Conclusions: Anxious patients more frequently seek attention at ED, whereas patients with depressive disorders are more often observed in medical units. The improvement of quality of care, the waste of healthcare resources through unnecessary medical care, and the well known efficacy of appropriate treatments in patients with anxiety and depressive disorders make the diagnosis of these patients particularly important. PMID:14988342
Dexheimer, Judith W; Kennebeck, Stephanie
Electronic health records (EHRs) are used for data storage; provider, laboratory, and patient communication; clinical decision support; procedure and medication orders; and decision support alerts. Clinical decision support is part of any EHR and is designed to help providers make better decisions. The emergency department (ED) poses a unique environment to the use of EHRs and clinical decision support. Used effectively, computerized tracking boards can help improve flow, communication, and the dissemination of pertinent visit information between providers and other departments in a busy ED. We discuss the unique modifications and decisions made in the implementation of an EHR and computerized tracking board in a pediatric ED. We discuss the changing views based on provider roles, customization to the user interface including the layout and colors, decision support, tracking board best practices collected from other institutions and colleagues, and a case study of using reminders on the electronic tracking board to drive pain reassessments.
Neelon, Brian; Ghosh, Pulak; Loebs, Patrick F.
Summary We develop a spatial Poisson hurdle model to explore geographic variation in emergency department (ED) visits while accounting for zero inflation. The model consists of two components: a Bernoulli component that models the probability of any ED use (i.e., at least one ED visit per year), and a truncated Poisson component that models the number of ED visits given use. Together, these components address both the abundance of zeros and the right-skewed nature of the nonzero counts. The model has a hierarchical structure that incorporates patient- and area-level covariates, as well as spatially correlated random effects for each areal unit. Because regions with high rates of ED use are likely to have high expected counts among users, we model the spatial random effects via a bivariate conditionally autoregressive (CAR) prior, which introduces dependence between the components and provides spatial smoothing and sharing of information across neighboring regions. Using a simulation study, we show that modeling the between-component correlation reduces bias in parameter estimates. We adopt a Bayesian estimation approach, and the model can be fit using standard Bayesian software. We apply the model to a study of patient and neighborhood factors influencing emergency department use in Durham County, North Carolina. PMID:23543242
Neelon, Brian; Ghosh, Pulak; Loebs, Patrick F
We develop a spatial Poisson hurdle model to explore geographic variation in emergency department (ED) visits while accounting for zero inflation. The model consists of two components: a Bernoulli component that models the probability of any ED use (i.e., at least one ED visit per year), and a truncated Poisson component that models the number of ED visits given use. Together, these components address both the abundance of zeros and the right-skewed nature of the nonzero counts. The model has a hierarchical structure that incorporates patient- and area-level covariates, as well as spatially correlated random effects for each areal unit. Because regions with high rates of ED use are likely to have high expected counts among users, we model the spatial random effects via a bivariate conditionally autoregressive (CAR) prior, which introduces dependence between the components and provides spatial smoothing and sharing of information across neighboring regions. Using a simulation study, we show that modeling the between-component correlation reduces bias in parameter estimates. We adopt a Bayesian estimation approach, and the model can be fit using standard Bayesian software. We apply the model to a study of patient and neighborhood factors influencing emergency department use in Durham County, North Carolina.
Maughan, Brandon C.; Bachhuber, Marcus A.; Mitra, Nandita; Starrels, Joanna L.
Objective To determine the association between prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) implementation and emergency department (ED) visits involving opioid analgesics. Methods Rates of ED visits involving opioid analgesics per 100,000 residents were estimated from the Drug Abuse Warning Network dataset for 11 geographically diverse metropolitan areas in the United States on a quarterly basis from 2004 to 2011. Generalized estimating equations assessed whether implementation of a prescriber-accessible PDMP was associated with a difference in ED visits involving opioid analgesics. Models were adjusted for calendar quarter, metropolitan area, metropolitan area-specific linear time trends, and unemployment rate. Results Rates of ED visits involving opioid analgesics increased in all metropolitan areas. PDMP implementation was not associated with a difference in ED visits involving opioid analgesics (mean difference of 0.8 visits [95% CI: −3.7 to 5.2] per 100,000 residents per quarter). Conclusions During 2004–2011, PDMP implementation was not associated with a change in opioid-related morbidity, as measured by emergency department visits involving opioid analgesics. Urgent investigation is needed to determine the optimal PDMP structure and capabilities to improve opioid analgesic safety. PMID:26454836
Pereira, Rui; Oliveira, Sara; Almeida, André
Nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) is one of the most common infections arising amongst nursing home residents, and its incidence is expected to increase as population ages. The NHAP recommendation for empiric broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, arising from the concept of healthcare-associated pneumonia, has been challenged by recent studies reporting low rates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. This single center study analyzes the results of NHAP patients admitted through the Emergency Department (ED) at a tertiary center during the year 2010. There were 116 cases, male gender corresponded to 34.5 % of patients and median age was 84 years old (IQR 77-90). Comorbidities were present in 69.8 % of cases and 48.3 % of patients had used healthcare services during the previous 90 days. In-hospital mortality rate was 46.6 % and median length-of-stay was 9 days. Severity assessment at the Emergency Department provided CURB65 index score and respective mortality (%) results: zero: n = 0; one: n = 7 (0 %); two: n = 18 (38.9 %); three: n = 26 (38.5 %); four: n = 30 (53.3 %); and five; n = 22 (68.2 %); and sepsis n = 50 (34.0 %), severe sepsis n = 43 (48.8 %) and septic shock n = 22 (72.7 %). Significant risk factors for in-hospital mortality in multivariate analysis were polypnea (p = 0.001), age ≥ 75 years (p = 0.02), and severe sepsis or shock (p = 0.03) at the ED. Microbiological testing in 78.4 % of cases was positive in 15.4 % (n = 15): methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (26.7 %), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.0 %), S. pneumoniae (13.3 %), Escherichia coli (13.3 %), others (26.7 %); the rate of MDR bacteria was 53.3 %. This study reveals high rates of mortality and MDR bacteria among NHAP hospital admissions supporting the use of empirical broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy in these patients.
Iserson, K V; Kastre, T Y
This study was designed to quantify the willingness of emergency departments (EDs) and private care practitioners to see medically indigent patients. Three case scenarios were developed to represent severe, moderate, and mild problems that typically confront ED physicians. A female investigator made telephone calls using these scenarios, each time declaring herself to be medically indigent. All EDs received calls about all three scenarios, but only the least severe scenario was used for private practitioners. The timing and order of all calls were randomized. A control survey of the same population was subsequently performed in which the caller related that she had third-party insurance and had the minimal (rash) problem. The participants were all 54 nonmilitary EDs in Arizona and 69 randomly chosen private primary care practitioners in the same locales as the EDs. Calls to EDs were made during all time periods and days of the week; private practitioners were called only during their weekday office hours. The majority of all EDs were willing to see medically indigent patients, recommending that the caller come to the ED immediately 76% of the time. This response did not vary by geography or the facility's size, although ED personnel suggested initial home treatment more commonly at smaller hospitals (P = .02), and suggested coming to the ED more often on weekends (P < .02). Some EDs, however, clearly did not comply with their own telephone advice policies, and some ED personnel failed to give medically appropriate advice. In contrast to the EDs (P < .001), 62% of private practitioners' staffs stated they were not taking new patients or required at least $30 in advance. Private practitioners in the largest communities were significantly more reluctant to see the medically indigent than their peers in smaller communities (P < .05). For an insured caller, 55% of private practitioners would see the caller for < $30 and only 35% were not taking new patients or provided
Design and Rationale of a Randomized Trial of a Care Transition Strategy in Patients With Acute Heart Failure Discharged From the Emergency Department: GUIDED-HF (Get With the Guidelines in Emergency Department Patients With Heart Failure).
Fermann, Gregory J; Levy, Phillip D; Pang, Peter; Butler, Javed; Ayaz, S Imran; Char, Douglas; Dunn, Patrick; Jenkins, Cathy A; Kampe, Christy; Khan, Yosef; Kumar, Vijaya A; Lindenfeld, JoAnn; Liu, Dandan; Miller, Karen; Peacock, W Frank; Rizk, Samaa; Robichaux, Chad; Rothman, Russell L; Schrock, Jon; Singer, Adam; Sterling, Sarah A; Storrow, Alan B; Walsh, Cheryl; Wilburn, John; Collins, Sean P
GUIDED-HF (Get With the Guidelines in Emergency Department Patients With Heart Failure) is a multicenter randomized trial of a patient-centered transitional care intervention in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) who are discharged either directly from the emergency department (ED) or after a brief period of ED-based observation. To optimize care and reduce ED and hospital revisits, there has been significant emphasis on improving transitions at the time of hospital discharge for patients with HF. Such efforts have been almost exclusively directed at hospitalized patients; individuals with AHF who are discharged from the ED or ED-based observation are not included in these transitional care initiatives. Patients with AHF discharged directly from the ED or after a brief period of ED-based observation are randomly assigned to our transition GUIDED-HF strategy or standard ED discharge. Patients in the GUIDED arm receive a tailored discharge plan via the study team, based on their identified barriers to outpatient management and associated guideline-based interventions. This plan includes conducting a home visit soon after ED discharge combined with close outpatient follow-up and subsequent coaching calls to improve postdischarge care and avoid subsequent ED revisits and inpatient admissions. Up to 700 patients at 11 sites will be enrolled over 3 years of the study. GUIDED-HF will test a novel approach to AHF management strategy that includes tailored transitional care for patients discharged from the ED or ED-based observation. If successful, this program may significantly alter the current paradigm of AHF patient care.
Iannuzzi, Dorothea A.; Cheng, Erika R.; Broder-Fingert, Sarabeth; Bauman, Margaret L.
To identify medical problems most commonly presenting to emergency departments among individuals with autism as compared to non-autistic persons across age groups. Data was obtained from the 2010 National Emergency Department database and was analyzed by age categories: 3-5, 6-11, 12-15, 16-18 and 19 years and older. Epilepsy emerged as the…
Lee, Soung; Brunero, Scott; Fairbrother, Greg; Cowan, Darrin
Public mental health systems have been called on to better meet the needs of consumers presenting to health services with the police, yet few studies have examined police presentations among mental health consumers in large public mental health systems. This study was designed to determine the frequency profile and characteristics of consumers of mental health services brought in by police to an emergency department (ED) in Sydney, Australia. Using data from the emergency department information system and obtaining the psychiatric assessment from the medical record, we have examined trends and characteristics in mental health presentations brought in by the police to a general ED between 2003 and 2005. The sample consisted of 542 consumers with a mental health problem brought in by the police to the ED of a 350-bed community hospital. The characteristics of this group were compared with those of all mental health related ED presentations for the same period using logistic regression. Results indicated that police presentations are likely to be young males who are unemployed, have past and present alcohol and other drugs use, present after hours, and are admitted to hospital as a result of their presentation. These consumers are likely to have a presenting problem of a psychotic disorder, less likely to have a presenting problem of depression and/or anxiety, and given a triage code of three or higher. The study results highlight the importance of the availability of 24-hour access to mental health care to ensure a quick care delivery response. Police presentations to EDs with mental health issues are an indicator of significant impact on health services, especially with the current overcrowding of EDs and the associated long waiting times. Systems need to be developed that facilitate collaboration between EDs, hospital security, police services, mental health, and ambulance services.
Background Hospital-based Emergency Departments are struggling to provide timely care to a steadily increasing number of unscheduled ED visits. Dwindling compensation and rising ED closures dictate that meeting this challenge demands greater operational efficiency. Methods Using techniques from operations research theory, as well as a novel event-driven algorithm for processing priority queues, we developed a flexible simulation platform for hospital-based EDs. We tuned the parameters of the system to mimic U.S. nationally average and average academic hospital-based ED performance metrics and are able to assess a variety of patient flow outcomes including patient door-to-event times, propensity to leave without being seen, ED occupancy level, and dynamic staffing and resource use. Results The causes of ED crowding are variable and require site-specific solutions. For example, in a nationally average ED environment, provider availability is a surprising, but persistent bottleneck in patient flow. As a result, resources expended in reducing boarding times may not have the expected impact on patient throughput. On the other hand, reallocating resources into alternate care pathways can dramatically expedite care for lower acuity patients without delaying care for higher acuity patients. In an average academic ED environment, bed availability is the primary bottleneck in patient flow. Consequently, adjustments to provider scheduling have a limited effect on the timeliness of care delivery, while shorter boarding times significantly reduce crowding. An online version of the simulation platform is available at http://spark.rstudio.com/klopiano/EDsimulation/. Conclusion In building this robust simulation framework, we have created a novel decision-support tool that ED and hospital managers can use to quantify the impact of proposed changes to patient flow prior to implementation. PMID:24912662
Caterino, Jeffrey M; Hiestand, Brian C; Martin, Daniel R
Background The goals of the study were to assess the relationship between age and processes of care in emergency department (ED) patients admitted with pneumonia and to identify independent predictors of failure to meet recommended quality care measures. Methods This was a prospective cohort study of a pre-existing database undertaken at a university hospital ED in the Midwest. ED patients ≥18 years of age requiring admission for pneumonia, with no documented use of antibiotics in the 24 hours prior to ED presentation were included. Compliance with Pneumonia National Quality Measures was assessed including ED antibiotic administration, antibiotics within 4 hours, oxygenation assessment, and obtaining of blood cultures. Odds ratios were calculated for elders and non-elders. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of process failure. Results One thousand, three hundred seventy patients met inclusion criteria, of which 560 were aged ≥65 years. In multiple variable logistic regression analysis, age ≥65 years was independently associated with receiving antibiotics in the ED (odds ratio [OR] = 2.03, 95% CI 1.28–3.21) and assessment of oxygenation (OR = 2.10, 95% CI, 1.18–3.32). Age had no significant impact on odds of receiving antibiotics within four hours of presentation (OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.84–1.43) or having blood cultures drawn (OR 1.02, 95%CI 0.78–1.32). Certain other patient characteristics were also independently associated with process failure. Conclusion Elderly patients admitted from the ED with pneumonia are more likely to receive antibiotics while in the ED and to have oxygenation assessed in the ED than younger patients. The independent association of certain patient characteristics with process failure provides an opportunity to further increase compliance with recommended quality measures in admitted patients diagnosed with pneumonia. PMID:18447936
The calculator program ED (Emergency Doses) was developed from several HP-41CV calculator programs documented in the report Seven Health Physics Calculator Programs for the HP-41CV, RHO-HS-ST-5P (Rittman 1984). The program was developed to enable estimates of offsite impacts more rapidly and reliably than was possible with the software available for emergency response at that time. The ED - Revision 3, documented in this report, revises the inhalation dose model to match that of ICRP 30, and adds the simple estimates for air concentration downwind from a chemical release. In addition, the method for calculating the Pasquill dispersion parameters was revised to match the GENII code within the limitations of a hand-held calculator (e.g., plume rise and building wake effects are not included). The summary report generator for printed output, which had been present in the code from the original version, was eliminated in Revision 3 to make room for the dispersion model, the chemical release portion, and the methods of looping back to an input menu until there is no further no change. This program runs on the Hewlett-Packard programmable calculators known as the HP-41CV and the HP-41CX. The documentation for ED - Revision 3 includes a guide for users, sample problems, detailed verification tests and results, model descriptions, code description (with program listing), and independent peer review. This software is intended to be used by individuals with some training in the use of air transport models. There are some user inputs that require intelligent application of the model to the actual conditions of the accident. The results calculated using ED - Revision 3 are only correct to the extent allowed by the mathematical models. 9 refs., 36 tabs.
Krall, Scott P.; Cornelius, Angela P.; Addison, J. Bruce
Introduction To analyze the correlation between the many different emergency department (ED) treatment metric intervals and determine if the metrics directly impacted by the physician correlate to the “door to room” interval in an ED (interval determined by ED bed availability). Our null hypothesis was that the cause of the variation in delay to receiving a room was multifactorial and does not correlate to any one metric interval. Methods We collected daily interval averages from the ED information system, Meditech©. Patient flow metrics were collected on a 24-hour basis. We analyzed the relationship between the time intervals that make up an ED visit and the “arrival to room” interval using simple correlation (Pearson Correlation coefficients). Summary statistics of industry standard metrics were also done by dividing the intervals into 2 groups, based on the average ED length of stay (LOS) from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2008 Emergency Department Summary. Results Simple correlation analysis showed that the doctor-to-discharge time interval had no correlation to the interval of “door to room (waiting room time)”, correlation coefficient (CC) (CC=0.000, p=0.96). “Room to doctor” had a low correlation to “door to room” CC=0.143, while “decision to admitted patients departing the ED time” had a moderate correlation of 0.29 (p <0.001). “New arrivals” (daily patient census) had a strong correlation to longer “door to room” times, 0.657, p<0.001. The “door to discharge” times had a very strong correlation CC=0.804 (p<0.001), to the extended “door to room” time. Conclusion Physician-dependent intervals had minimal correlation to the variation in arrival to room time. The “door to room” interval was a significant component to the variation in “door to discharge” i.e. LOS. The hospital-influenced “admit decision to hospital bed” i.e. hospital inpatient capacity, interval had a correlation to
Fergus, Thomas A; Bardeen, Joseph R; Gratz, Kim L; Fulton, Jessica J; Tull, Matthew T
With the burden of emergency department (ED) use increasing, research examining the factors associated with ED visits among individuals who use the ED most frequently is needed. Given that substance use is strongly linked to ED visits, this study sought to examine the factors associated with greater ED visits among patients with substance use disorders (SUD). More precisely, we examined whether health anxiety incrementally contributes to the prediction of ED visits for medical care among adult patients (N = 118) in a residential substance abuse disorder treatment facility. As predicted, health anxiety was significantly positively correlated with ED visits during the past year. Furthermore, health anxiety remained a significant predictor of ED visits after accounting for sociodemographic variables, frequency of substance use, and physical health status. These results suggest that health anxiety may contribute to increased ED visits for medical care among individuals with SUD.
Kilner, Emily; Sheppard, Lorraine A
The aim of this study was to develop a systematic review using international research to describe the role of teamwork and communication in the emergency department, and its relevance to physiotherapy practice in the emergency department. Searches were conducted of CINAHL, Academic Search Premier, Scopus, Cochrane, PEDro, Medline, Embase, Amed and PubMed. Selection criteria included full-text English language research papers related to teamwork and/or communication based directly in the emergency department, involvement of any profession in the emergency department, publication in peer-reviewed journals, and related to adult emergency services. Studies were appraised using a validated critical appraisal tool. Fourteen eligible studies, all of mid-range quality, were identified. They demonstrated high levels of staff satisfaction with teamwork training interventions and positive staff attitudes towards the importance of teamwork and communication. There is moderate evidence that the introduction of multidisciplinary teams to the ED may be successful in reducing access block, and physiotherapists may play a role in this. The need for teamwork and communication in the ED is paramount, and their roles are closely linked, with the common significant purposes of improving patient safety, reducing clinical errors, and reducing waiting times.
Stone, Bryan L; Johnson, Michael D; Nkoy, Flory L
Background In young children, bronchiolitis is the most common illness resulting in hospitalization. For children less than age 2, bronchiolitis incurs an annual total inpatient cost of $1.73 billion. Each year in the United States, 287,000 emergency department (ED) visits occur because of bronchiolitis, with a hospital admission rate of 32%-40%. Due to a lack of evidence and objective criteria for managing bronchiolitis, ED disposition decisions (hospital admission or discharge to home) are often made subjectively, resulting in significant practice variation. Studies reviewing admission need suggest that up to 29% of admissions from the ED are unnecessary. About 6% of ED discharges for bronchiolitis result in ED returns with admission. These inappropriate dispositions waste limited health care resources, increase patient and parental distress, expose patients to iatrogenic risks, and worsen outcomes. Existing clinical guidelines for bronchiolitis offer limited improvement in patient outcomes. Methodological shortcomings include that the guidelines provide no specific thresholds for ED decisions to admit or to discharge, have an insufficient level of detail, and do not account for differences in patient and illness characteristics including co-morbidities. Predictive models are frequently used to complement clinical guidelines, reduce practice variation, and improve clinicians’ decision making. Used in real time, predictive models can present objective criteria supported by historical data for an individualized disease management plan and guide admission decisions. However, existing predictive models for ED patients with bronchiolitis have limitations, including low accuracy and the assumption that the actual ED disposition decision was appropriate. To date, no operational definition of appropriate admission exists. No model has been built based on appropriate admissions, which include both actual admissions that were necessary and actual ED discharges that were
Lim, Magdalen; Weiland, Tracey; Gerdtz, Marie; Dent, Andrew
Objective. We explored perspectives of emergency department users (patients and visitors) regarding the management of acute behavioural disturbances in the emergency department and whether these disturbances influenced their levels of anxiety. Methods. Emergency department patients and visitors were surveyed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and a purpose-designed questionnaire and semistructured interview. The main outcome measures were themes that emerged from the questionnaires, the interviews, and scores from the state component of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results. 70 participants were recruited. Users of the emergency department preferred behaviourally disturbed people be managed in a separate area from the general emergency department population so that the disturbance was inaudible (n = 32) and out of view (n = 40). The state anxiety levels of those that witnessed an acute behavioural disturbance were within the normal range and did not differ to that of ED patients that were not present during such a disturbance (median, control = 37, Code Grey = 33). Conclusions. Behavioural disturbances in the emergency department do not provoke anxiety in other users. However, there is a preference that such disturbances be managed out of visual and audible range. Innovative design features may be required to achieve this. PMID:22046537
Choo, Esther K.; Benz, Madeline; Rybarczyk, Megan; Broderick, Kerry; Linden, Judith; Boudreaux, Edwin L.; Ranney, Megan L.
The relationship between gender, violence, and substance use in the emergency department (ED) is complex. This paper examines the role of gender in the intersection of substance use and three types of violence: peer violence, intimate partner violence, and firearm violence. Current approaches to treatment of substance abuse and violence are similar across both genders; however, as patterns of violence and substance abuse differ by gender, interventions may be more effective if they are designed with a specific gender focus. PMID:25421993
Bosmia, Anand N.; Quinn, James F.; Peterson, Todd B.; Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Tubbs, R. Shane
Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs) are an iconic element of the criminal landscape in the United States, the country of their origin. Members of OMGs may present to the emergency department (ED) as a result of motor vehicle accidents or interpersonal violence. When one member of an OMG is injured, other members and associates are likely to arrive in the ED to support the injured member. The extant literature for ED personnel lacks an overview of the culture of OMGs, a culture that promotes the display of unique symbols and that holds certain paraphernalia as integral to an outlaw biker’s identity and pride. The objective of this manuscript is to discuss various aspects of the culture of OMGs so that ED personnel may better understand the mentality of the outlaw biker. Knowledge of their symbols, values, and hierarchy can be crucial to maintaining order in the ED when an injured outlaw biker presents to the ED. We used standard search engines to obtain reports from law enforcement agencies and studies in academic journals on OMGs. We present the observations of 1 author who has conducted ethnographic research on outlaw bikers since the 1980s. PMID:25035762
Pines, Jesse M; Zocchi, Mark; Moghtaderi, Ali; Black, Bernard; Farmer, Steven A; Hufstetler, Greg; Klauer, Kevin; Pilgrim, Randy
In 2014 twenty-eight states and the District of Columbia had expanded Medicaid eligibility while federal and state-based Marketplaces in every state made subsidized private health insurance available to qualified individuals. As a result, about seventeen million previously uninsured Americans gained health insurance in 2014. Many policy makers had predicted that Medicaid expansion would lead to greatly increased use of hospital emergency departments (EDs). We examined the effect of insurance expansion on ED use in 478 hospitals in 36 states during the first year of expansion (2014). In difference-in-differences analyses, Medicaid expansion increased Medicaid-paid ED visits in those states by 27.1 percent, decreased uninsured visits by 31.4 percent, and decreased privately insured visits by 6.7 percent during the first year of expansion compared to nonexpansion states. Overall, however, total ED visits grew by less than 3 percent in 2014 compared to 2012-13, with no significant difference between expansion and nonexpansion states. Thus, the expansion of Medicaid coverage strongly affected payer mix but did not significantly affect overall ED use, even though more people gained insurance coverage in expansion states than in nonexpansion states. This suggests that expanding Medicaid did not significantly increase or decrease overall ED visit volume.
Thornton, Victoria L.; Holl, Jane L.; Cline, David M.; Freiermuth, Caroline E.; Sullivan, Dori T.; Tanabe, Paula
Introduction Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) often seek care in emergency departments (EDs) for severe pain. However, there is evidence that they experience inaccurate assessment, suboptimal care, and inadequate follow-up referrals. The aim of this project was to 1) explore the feasibility of applying a failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) in two EDs examining four processes of care (triage, analgesic management, high risk/high users, and referrals made) for patients with SCD, and 2) report the failures of these care processes in each ED. Methods A FMECA was conducted of ED SCD patient care at two hospitals. A multidisciplinary group examined each step of four processes. Providers identified failures in each step, and then characterized the frequency, impact, and safeguards, resulting in risk categorization. Results Many “high risk” failures existed in both institutions, including a lack of recognition of high-risk or high-user patients and a lack of emphasis on psychosocial referrals. Specific to SCD analgesic management, one setting inconsistently used existing analgesic policies, while the other setting did not have such policies. Conclusion FMECA facilitated the identification of failures of ED SCD care and has guided quality improvement activities. Interventions can focus on improvements in these specific areas targeting improvements in the delivery and organization of ED SCD care. Improvements should correspond with the forthcoming National Heart, Lung and Blood-sponsored guidelines for treatment of patients with sickle cell disease. PMID:25035751
Bosmia, Anand N; Quinn, James F; Peterson, Todd B; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Tubbs, R Shane
Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs) are an iconic element of the criminal landscape in the United States, the country of their origin. Members of OMGs may present to the emergency department (ED) as a result of motor vehicle accidents or interpersonal violence. When one member of an OMG is injured, other members and associates are likely to arrive in the ED to support the injured member. The extant literature for ED personnel lacks an overview of the culture of OMGs, a culture that promotes the display of unique symbols and that holds certain paraphernalia as integral to an outlaw biker's identity and pride. The objective of this manuscript is to discuss various aspects of the culture of OMGs so that ED personnel may better understand the mentality of the outlaw biker. Knowledge of their symbols, values, and hierarchy can be crucial to maintaining order in the ED when an injured outlaw biker presents to the ED. We used standard search engines to obtain reports from law enforcement agencies and studies in academic journals on OMGs. We present the observations of 1 author who has conducted ethnographic research on outlaw bikers since the 1980s.
Liu, Nan; Stone, Patricia W; Schnall, Rebecca
To improve HIV screening rates, New York State in 2010 mandated that all persons 13-64 years receiving health care services, including care in emergency departments (EDs), be offered HIV testing. Little attention has been paid to the effect of screening on patient flow. Time-stamped ED visit data from patients eligible for HIV screening, 7,844 of whom were seen by providers and 767 who left before being seen by providers, were retrieved from electronic health records in one adult ED. During day shifts, 10% of patients left without being seen, and during evening shifts, 5% left without being seen. All patients seen by providers were offered testing, and 6% were tested for HIV. Queuing models were developed to evaluate the effect of HIV screening on ED length of stay, patient waiting time, and rate of leaving without being seen. Base case analysis was conducted using actual testing rates, and sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the impact of increasing the testing rate. Length of ED stay of patients who received HIV tests was 24 minutes longer on day shifts and 104 minutes longer on evening shifts than for patients not tested for HIV. Increases in HIV testing rate were estimated to increase waiting time for all patients, including those who left without being seen. Our simulation suggested that incorporating HIV testing into ED patient visits not only adds to practitioner workload but also increases patient waiting time significantly during busy shifts, which may increase the rate of leaving without being seen.
Kua, Phek Hui Jade; Wu, Li; Ong, E-Lin Tessa; Lim, Zi Ying; Yiew, Jinmian Luther; Thia, Xing Hui Michelle; Sung, Sharon Cohan
INTRODUCTION A significant percentage of paediatric emergency department (ED) attendances worldwide are nonurgent, adversely affecting patient outcomes and healthcare systems. This study aimed to understand the reasons behind nonurgent ED visits, in order to develop targeted and effective preventive interventions. METHODS In-depth interviews were conducted with 49 caregivers to identify the decision-making factors related to taking children to the ED of KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore. Interviews were carried out in the emergency room of the hospital after the children had been diagnosed with nonurgent conditions by the attending physician. Interview transcripts were analysed based on grounded theory principles. RESULTS The demographics of our study cohort were representative of the target population. The main reasons given by the caregivers for attending paediatric EDs included perceived severity of the child’s symptoms, availability of after-hours care, perceived advantage of a paediatric specialist hospital and mistrust of primary care physicians’ ability to manage paediatric conditions. Insurance or welfare was a contributing factor for only a small portion of caregivers. CONCLUSION The reasons provided by Singaporean caregivers for attending paediatric EDs were similar to those reported in studies conducted in Western countries. However, the former group had a unique understanding of the local healthcare system. The study’s findings may be used to develop interventions to change the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of caregivers in Singapore. PMID:26805668
Tarraf, Wassim; Vega, William; González, Hector M.
Background Immigrants have disproportionate lack of access to healthcare and insurance. Emergency departments could serve as a healthcare substitute and increased demand can negatively affect the U.S. emergency services system. Methods Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (2000–2008) data was modeled to compare ED use between non-citizens, foreign-born (naturalized), and US-born citizens. Group differences were assessed using non-linear decomposition techniques. Results Non-citizens were less likely to use ED services (8.7%) compared to naturalized immigrants (10.6%) and US-born Americans (14.7%). Differences in ED use persisted after adjusting for the Behavioral Model covariates. Healthcare need and insurance partially explained the differences in ED use between the groups. Conclusion Between 2000–2008 non-citizen immigrants used markedly less ED services compared to U.S. citizens, regardless of their nation of origin. We also found that demographic and healthcare need profiles contributed to the divergence in use patterns between groups. A less restrictive healthcare policy environment can potentially contribute to lower population disease burden and greater efficiencies in the U.S. health care system. PMID:23447058
Background Evidence-based decision making is essential for appropriate prioritization and service provision by healthcare systems. Despite higher demands, data needs for this practice are not met in many cases in low- and middle-income countries because of underdeveloped sources, among other reasons. Emergency departments (EDs) provide an important channel for such information because of their strategic position within healthcare systems. This paper describes the design and pilot test of a national ED based surveillance system suitable for the Pakistani context. Methods The Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance Study (Pak-NEDS) was pilot tested in the emergency departments of seven major tertiary healthcare centres across the country. The Aga Khan University, Karachi, served as the coordinating centre. Key stakeholders and experts from all study institutes were involved in outlining data needs, development of the study questionnaire, and identification of appropriate surveillance mechanisms such as methods for data collection, monitoring, and quality assurance procedures. The surveillance system was operational between November 2010 and March 2011. Active surveillance was done 24 hours a day by data collectors hired and trained specifically for the study. All patients presenting to the study EDs were eligible participants. Over 270,000 cases were registered in the surveillance system over a period of four months. Coverage levels in the final month ranged from 91-100% and were highest in centres with the least volume of patients. Overall the coverage for the four months was 79% and crude operational costs were less than $0.20 per patient. Conclusions Pak-NEDS is the first multi-centre ED based surveillance system successfully piloted in a sample of major EDs having some of the highest patient volumes in Pakistan. Despite the challenges identified, our pilot shows that the system is flexible and scalable, and could potentially be adapted for many other
... Privacy Act of 1974; Computer Matching Program Between the Department of Education (ED) and the Social... Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988, the Computer Matching and Privacy Protections... Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988, published in the Federal Register on June 19,...
Angelis, Maria Vittoria De; Giacomo, Roberta Di; Muzio, Antonio Di; Onofrj, Marco; Bonanni, Laura
Abstract Background: Movement disorder emergencies include any movement disorder which develops over hours to days, in which failure to appropriately diagnose and manage can result in patient morbidity or mortality. Movement disorder emergencies include acute dystonia: sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements. Acute dystonia is a serious challenge for emergency room doctors and neurologists, because of the high probability of misdiagnosis, due to the presence of several mimickers including partial seizures, meningitis, localized tetanus, serum electrolyte level abnormalities, strychnine poisoning, angioedema, malingering, catatonia, and conversion. Methods: We describe 2 examples, accompanied by videos, of acute drug-induced oro-mandibular dystonia, both subsequent to occasional haloperidol intake. Results: Management and treatment of this movement disorder are often difficult: neuroleptics withdrawal, treatment with benzodiazepines, and anticholinergics are recommended. Conclusion: Alternative treatment options are also discussed. PMID:27741141
Murphy, Adrian; McCoy, Siobhan; O'Reilly, Kay; Fogarty, Eoin; Dietz, Jason; Crispino, Gloria; Wakai, Abel; O'Sullivan, Ronan
Pain is the most common symptom in the emergency setting and remains one of the most challenging problems for emergency care providers, particularly in the pediatric population. The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of acute pain in children attending emergency departments (EDs) in Ireland by ambulance. In addition, this study sought to describe the prehospital and initial ED management of pain in this population, with specific reference to etiology of pain, frequency of pain assessment, pain severity, and pharmacological analgesic interventions. A prospective cross-sectional study was undertaken over a 12-month period of all pediatric patients transported by emergency ambulance to four tertiary referral hospitals in Ireland. All children (<16 years) who had pain as a symptom (regardless of cause) at any stage during the prehospital phase of care were included in this study. Over the study period, 6,371 children attended the four EDs by emergency ambulance, of which 2,635 (41.4%, 95% confidence interval 40.2-42.3%) had pain as a documented symptom on the ambulance patient care report (PCR) form. Overall 32% (n = 856) of children who complained of pain were subject to a formal pain assessment during the prehospital phase of care. Younger age, short transfer time to the ED, and emergency calls between midnight and 6 am were independently associated with decreased likelihood of having a documented assessment of pain intensity during the prehospital phase of care. Of the 2,635 children who had documented pain on the ambulance PCR, 26% (n = 689) received some form of analgesic agent prior to ED arrival. Upon ED arrival 54% (n = 1,422) of children had a documented pain assessment and some form of analgesic agent was administered to 50% (n = 1,324). Approximately 41% of children who attend EDs in Ireland by ambulance have pain documented as their primary symptom. This study suggests that the management of acute pain in children transferred by
Morrison, Andrea K.; Schapira, Marilyn M.; Gorelick, Marc H.; Hoffmann, Raymond G.; Brousseau, David C.
Objective We sought to determine the association between low caregiver health literacy and child emergency department (ED) use, both the number and urgency of ED visits. Methods This year long cross-sectional study utilized the Newest Vital Sign to measure the health literacy of caregivers accompanying children to a pediatric ED. Prior ED visits were extracted from a regional database. ED visit urgency was classified by resources utilized during the index ED visit. Regression analyses were used to model the outcomes: 1) prior ED visits and 2) ED visit urgency, stratified by chronic illness. Analyses were weighted by triage level. Results Overall, 503 caregivers completed the study; 55% demonstrated low health literacy. Children of caregivers with low health literacy had more prior ED visits (aIRR 1.5; 95% C.I.1.2, 1.8) and increased odds of a non-urgent index ED visit (AOR 2.4; 1.3, 4.4). Among children without chronic illness, low caregiver health literacy was associated with an increased proportion of non-urgent index ED visits (48% vs 22%; AOR 3.2; 1.8, 5.7). Conclusions Over half of caregivers presenting with their children to the ED have low health literacy. Low caregiver health literacy is an independent predictor of higher ED use and use of the ED for non-urgent conditions. In children without a chronic illness, low health literate caregivers had more than three times great odds of presenting for a non-urgent condition than those with adequate health literacy. PMID:24767784
Welch, Shari; Dalto, Joseph
Door-to-physician time in the emergency department (ED) correlates with patient satisfaction and clinical quality and outcomes. Delays in seeing a provider result in a 3% nationwide rate of patients leaving without being seen (LWBS) after presenting for ED care. Two community hospitals had door-to-physician times of 51 and 47 minutes. The LWBS rates were 3% and 2%. A quality improvement project was initiated with a change package, including prompts, training, and feedback. Door-to-physician times decreased to 31 and 27 minutes. The change occurred in less than a month and was sustained for 6 months after the study. In addition, the LWBS rates at each facility fell by one third. Basic process improvement strategies borrowed from service industries were used in 2 EDs to improve the door-to-physician process.
Grazer, R.E.; Meislin, H.W.; Westerman, B.R.; Criss, E.A.
Emergency department personnel experience potential occupational hazards from exposure to ionizing radiation (x-rays). To assess this risk, ionizing radiation exposure was analyzed during a nine-year period for 128 ED personnel. The group consisted of 21 physicians, 92 nurses, and 15 ancillary personnel. Exposure was measured for both penetrating and nonpenetrating radiation using standard film dosimeter badges. Film badge use compliance was 66.7% for physicians, 86.2% for nurses, and 86.7% for ancillary personnel. Penetrating radiation exposure averaged 0.12 mrem/month for physicians, 0.70 mrem/month for nurses, and 0 mrem/month for ancillary personnel, all less than the average natural background exposure. We concluded that if standard radiation precautions are taken, the occupational risk from ionizing radiation exposure to personnel in the ED is minimal, and that routine monitoring of radiation exposure of ED personnel is unnecessary.
d'Ettorre, Gabriele; Greco, Maria Rita
Recent changes in the organization of the healthcare system, triggered by the current economic crisis in Italy, require interventions aimed at minimizing the impact of work-related stress (WRS) on healthcare workers' health status and well-being. Emergency department (ED) personnel appear to be particularly vulnerable to WRS as a consequence of specific occupational risk factors. The aim of this retrospective observational study was to analyze the level of WRS after improvement interventions implemented by the management staff of the ED and focused on work context factors. The assessment of WRS showed that nurses and physicians of the ED are exposed to a medium level of risk; the improvement interventions aimed at reducing WRS were focused on: (1) function and organizational culture; (2) role within the occupational organization; and (3) relationships at work policy. These interventions were found to be significantly effective in reducing the risk of WRS.
Ramirez, Dorian; Engel, Kirsten G; Tang, Tricia S
The emergency department (ED) serves as the entry point into the U.S. health care system for many patients with limited English proficiency (LEP). This paper reviews the literature on language interpreter utilization in the ED setting. We focused on three clinical issues related to professional language interpretation: (1) patient satisfaction, (2) health care delivery, and (3) current interpreter utilization practices. Compared with-English speaking patients, LEP patients report less satisfaction with medical encounters, have different rates of diagnostic testing, and receive less explanation and follow-up. Although professional interpretation has been associated with improvements in patient satisfaction, communication, and health care access, these services are largely under-utilized in ED settings. Reliance on untrained ad hoc interpreters, perceived time and labor associated with obtaining and working with an interpreter, and costs of implementing professional interpreter services serve as barriers to implementation and utilization.
Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; López, Beatriz; León, Juan María Borreguero; Sánchez, Miquel Sánchez; González, Martin García; Rodriguez, Alberto Domínguez; Afonso, Eva Vallbona; Sosa, Alejandro Jiménez; Mirò, Oscar
Aims Illicit cocaine consumption in Spain is one of the highest in Europe. Our objective was to study the incidence of undisclosed cocaine consumption in patients attending in two Spanish Emergency Departments for chest pain. Methods We analysed urine samples from consenting consecutive patients attending ED for chest pain to determine the presence of cocaine, and other drugs, by semiquantative tests with fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). Results Of 140 cases, 15.7 presented positive test for drugs, and cocaine was present in 6.4%. All cocaine-positive patients were younger (p < 0.001); none was admitted to Hospital (p = 0.08). No significant differences in ED stay or need for hospitalization were found between cocaine-positive and negative patients. Conclusion This finding in chest pain patients who consented to urine analysis suggests that the true incidence of cocaine use leading to such ED visits may be higher. PMID:19254377
Over the past two decades, rates of violence in the workplace have grown significantly. Such growth has been more prevalent in some fields than others, however. Research shows that rates of violence against healthcare workers are continuously among the highest of any career field. Within the healthcare field, the overwhelming majority of victims of workplace violence are hospital employees, with those working in emergency departments (EDs) experiencing the lion's share of violent victimization. Though this fact is well-known by medical researchers and practitioners, it has received relatively little attention from criminal justice researchers or practitioners. Unfortunately, this oversight has severely limited the use of effective crime prevention techniques in hospital EDs. The goal of this analysis is to utilize techniques of situational crime prevention to develop an effective and easily applicable crime prevention strategy for hospital EDs.
Singh, Valene; Belostotsky, Vladimir; Roy, Madan; Yamamura, Deborah; Gambarotto, Kathryn; Lau, Keith
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in young children and are seen in emergency departments (EDs) frequently. Left untreated, UTIs can lead to more severe conditions. Our goal was to undertake a quality improvement (QI) initiative to help minimize the number of children with missed UTIs in a newly established tertiary care pediatric emergency department (PED). A retrospective chart review was undertaken to identify missed UTIs in children < 3 years old who presented to a children's hospital's ED with positive urine cultures. It was found that there was no treatment or follow-up in 12% of positive urine cultures, indicating a missed or possible missed UTI in a significant number of children. Key stakeholders were then gathered and process mapping (PM) was completed, where gaps and barriers were identified and interventions were subsequently implemented. A follow-up chart review was completed to assess the impact of PM in reducing the number of missed UTIs. Following PM and its implementation within the ED, there was no treatment or follow-up in only 1% of cases. Based on our results, the number of potentially missed UTIs in the ED decreased dramatically, indicating that PM can be a successful QI tool in an acute care pediatric setting. PMID:27974897
Chalmers, Natalia; Grover, Jane; Compton, Rob
Access to oral health care is a critical need for the adult Medicaid population. Following the 2014 expansion of Medicaid eligibility in Kentucky, millions of adults became eligible to receive dental benefits. We examined the impact of the expansion on adult Medicaid enrollees' use of hospital emergency departments (EDs) for conditions related to dental or oral health in the period 2010-14. Based on our analysis of data for Kentucky from the State Emergency Department Databases, we found that the rate of discharges for these conditions from the ED increased significantly, from 1,833 per 100,000 population in 2013 to 5,635 in 2014. Adults covered by Medicaid who used the ED for treatment of oral health conditions in 2014 had high levels of chronic comorbidities and were more likely to be male and nonwhite than those in earlier years. To avoid costly and inappropriate use of the ED, states considering adding an adult Medicaid dental benefit should consider also making changes to assist beneficiaries in obtaining access to the dental health care delivery system.
Motov, Sergey M; Khan, Abu NGA
Pain is the most common reason people visit emergency rooms. Pain does not discriminate on the basis of gender, race or age. The state of pain management in the emergency department (ED) is disturbing. ED physicians often do not provide adequate analgesia to their patients, do not meet patients’ expectations in treating their pain, and struggle to change their practice regarding analgesia. A review of multiple publications has identified the following causes of poor management of painful conditions in the ED: failure to acknowledge pain, failure to assess initial pain, failure to have pain management guidelines in ED, failure to document pain and to assess treatment adequacy, and failure to meet patient’s expectations. The barriers that preclude emergency physicians from proper pain management include ethnic and racial bias, gender bias, age bias, inadequate knowledge and formal training in acute pain management, opiophobia, the ED, and the ED culture. ED physicians must realize that pain is a true emergency and treat it as such. PMID:21197290
Househ, Mowafa; Yunus, Faisel
Saudi hospital emergency departments (ED) have suffered from long waiting times, which have led to a delay in emergency patient care. The increase in the population of Saudi Arabia is likely to further stretch the healthcare services due to overcrowding leading to decreased healthcare quality, long patient waits, patient dissatisfaction, ambulance diversions, decreased physician productivity, and increased frustration among medical staff. This will ultimately put patients at risk for poor health outcomes. Time is of the essence in emergencies and to get to an ED that has the shortest waiting time can mean life or death for a patient, especially in cases of stroke and myocardial infarction. In this paper, we present our work on the development of a mHealth Application - EDWaT - that will: provide patient flow information to the emergency medical services staff, help in quick routing of patients to the nearest hospital, and provide an opportunity for patients to review and rate the quality of care received at an ED, which will then be forwarded to ED services administrators. The quality ratings will help patients to choose between two EDs with the same waiting time and distance from their location. We anticipate that the use of EDWaT will help improve ED wait times and the quality of care provision in Saudi hospitals EDs.
department, leave without being seen, pri mary care access, wait times Emergency department (ED) waiting rooms can be anxietyprovoking, uncomfortable, and...Our patients, despite being in a closed healthcare system with ready access to care, identified long wait times as the pri- mary reason they left... Somerville , Everett. http://www.boston.com/yourtown/news/ cambridge/2011/02/check cambridge hospital emerg.html. Accessed February 21, 2012. 19. In an
Unterman, Sarah; Zimmerman, Michael; Tyo, Carissa; Sterk, Ethan; Gehm, Lisa; Edison, Marcia; Benedetti, Enrico; Orsay, Elizabeth
Background As solid organ transplants become more common, recipients present more frequently to the emergency department (ED) for care. Methods We performed a retrospective medical record review of ED visits of all patients who received an organ transplant at our medical center from 2000–2004, and included all visits following the patients’ transplant surgery through December 2005 or until failed graft, lost to follow up, or death. Clinically relevant demographic variables, confounding and outcome variables were recorded. Kidney, liver and combined kidney with other organ transplant recipients were included. Results Five hundred ninety-three patients received kidney (395), liver (161), or combined renal (37) organ transplants during the study period, resulting in 1,251 ED visits. This represents 3.15 ED visits/patient followed over a mean of 30.8 months. Abdominal pain/gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (31.3%) and infectious complaints (16.7%) were the most common presentations. The most common ED discharge diagnoses were fever/infection (36%), GI/Genitourinary (GU) pathology (20.4%) and dehydration (15%). Renal transplant recipients were diagnosed with infectious processes most often, despite time elapsed from transplant. Liver transplant patients had diagnoses of fever/infection most often in their first 30 days post transplant. Thereafter they were more likely to develop GI/GU pathology. After the first year of transplantation, cardiopulmonary and musculoskeletal pathology become more common in all transplant organ groups. Of the 1,251 ED visits, 762 (60.9%) resulted in hospitalization. Chief complaints of abdominal pain/GI symptoms, infectious complaints, cardiovascular and neurologic symptoms, and abnormal laboratory studies were significantly likely to result in hospitalization. Conclusions This study demonstrates a significant utilization of the ED by transplant recipients, presenting with a wide variety of symptoms and diagnoses, and with a high
Staib, Andrew; Sullivan, Clair; Jones, Matt; Griffin, Bronwyn; Bell, Anthony; Scott, Ian
Patients who require emergency admission to hospital require complex care that can be fragmented, occurring in the ED, across the ED-inpatient interface (EDii) and subsequently, in their destination inpatient ward. Our hospital had poor process efficiency with slow transit times for patients requiring emergency care. ED clinicians alone were able to improve the processes and length of stay for the patients discharged directly from the ED. However, improving the efficiency of care for patients requiring emergency admission to true inpatient wards required collaboration with reluctant inpatient clinicians. The inpatient teams were uninterested in improving time-based measures of care in isolation, but they were motivated by improving patient outcomes. We developed a dashboard showing process measures such as 4 h rule compliance rate coupled with clinically important outcome measures such as inpatient mortality. The EDii dashboard helped unite both ED and inpatient teams in clinical redesign to improve both efficiencies of care and patient outcomes.
Bandurchin, Annabelle; McNally, Mary Jane; Ferguson-Paré, Mary
Avoidable emergency department (ED) visits are a source of clinical risk, stress and anxiety for older, more vulnerable patients. The complexity of health conditions and the unique challenges associated with the care of older patients can also contribute to overcrowding and longer wait times in EDs--issues of significant concern for both healthcare providers and patients. Generally, older patients are more likely than younger patients to visit EDs and be admitted to hospital. In addition, older adults living in long-term care (LTC) homes are more likely to be transferred to EDs for preventable issues than those living in other settings. This paper describes how mobilizing a team of registered nurses working at full scope of practice might reduce the number of avoidable transfers of older patients to the ED. Utilizing nurses in this capacity demonstrates how the nursing profession can drive systemwide change to improve care between healthcare sectors for older adults.
Prisk, David; Godfrey, A. Jonathan R.; Lawrence, Anne
Introduction Emergency department length of stay (ED LOS) is currently used in Australasia as a quality measure. In our ED, Maori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, have a shorter ED LOS than European patients. This is despite Maori having poorer health outcomes overall. This study sought to determine drivers of LOS in our provincial New Zealand ED, particularly looking at ethnicity as a determining factor. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study that reviewed 80,714 electronic medical records of ED patients from December 1, 2012, to December 1, 2014. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out on raw data, and we used a complex regression analysis to develop a predictive model of ED LOS. Potential covariates were patient factors, temporal factors, clinical factors, and workload variables (volume and acuity of patients three hours prior to and two hours after presentation by a baseline patient). The analysis was performed using R studio 0.99.467. Results Ethnicity dropped out in the stepwise regression procedure; after adjusting for other factors, a specific ethnicity effect was not informative. Maori were, on average, younger, less likely to receive bloodwork and radiographs, less likely to go to our observation area, less likely to have a general practitioner, and more likely to be discharged and to self-discharge; all of these factors decreased their length of stay. Conclusion Length of stay in our ED does not seem to be related to ethnicity alone. Patient factors had only a small impact on ED LOS, while clinical factors, temporal factors, and workload variables had much greater influence. PMID:27429694
Flores-Mateo, Gemma; Violan-Fors, Concepción; Carrillo-Santisteve, Paloma; Peiró, Salvador; Argimon, Josep-Maria
Background Emergency department (ED) utilization has dramatically increased in developed countries over the last twenty years. Because it has been associated with adverse outcomes, increased costs, and an overload on the hospital organization, several policies have tried to curb this growing trend. The aim of this study is to systematically review the effectiveness of organizational interventions designed to reduce ED utilization. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted electronic searches using free text and Medical Subject Headings on PubMed and The Cochrane Library to identify studies of ED visits, re-visits and mortality. We performed complementary searches of grey literature, manual searches and direct contacts with experts. We included studies that investigated the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce ED visits and the following study designs: time series, cross-sectional, repeated cross-sectional, longitudinal, quasi-experimental studies, and randomized trial. We excluded studies on specific conditions, children and with no relevant outcomes (ED visits, re-visits or adverse events). From 2,348 potentially useful references, 48 satisfied the inclusion criteria. We classified the interventions in mutually exclusive categories: 1) Interventions addressing the supply and accessibility of services: 25 studies examined efforts to increase primary care physicians, centers, or hours of service; 2) Interventions addressing the demand for services: 6 studies examined educational interventions and 17 examined barrier interventions (gatekeeping or cost). Conclusions/Significance The evidence suggests that interventions aimed at increasing primary care accessibility and ED cost-sharing are effective in reducing ED use. However, the rest of the interventions aimed at decreasing ED utilization showed contradictory results. Changes in health care policies require rigorous evaluation before being implemented since these can have a high impact on individual
Taylor, Lauren A.; Peak, David A.; Bearnot, Benjamin
The opioid epidemic in the United States carries significant morbidity and mortality and requires a coordinated response among emergency providers, outpatient providers, public health departments, and communities. Anecdotally, providers across the spectrum of care at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) in Boston, MA have noticed that Charlestown, a community in northeast Boston, has been particularly impacted by the opioid epidemic and needs both emergency and longer-term resources. We hypothesized that geospatial analysis of the home addresses of patients presenting to the MGH emergency department (ED) with opioid-related emergencies might identify “hot spots” of opioid-related healthcare needs within Charlestown that could then be targeted for further investigation and resource deployment. Here, we present a geospatial analysis at the United States census tract level of the home addresses of all patients who presented to the MGH ED for opioid-related emergency visits between 7/1/2012 and 6/30/2015, including 191 visits from 100 addresses in Charlestown, MA. Among the six census tracts that comprise Charlestown, we find a 9.5-fold difference in opioid-related ED visits, with 45% of all opioid-related visits from Charlestown originating in tract 040401. The signal from this census tract remains strong after adjusting for population differences between census tracts, and while this tract is one of the higher utilizing census tracts in Charlestown of the MGH ED for all cause visits, it also has a 2.9-fold higher rate of opioid-related visits than the remainder of Charlestown. Identifying this hot spot of opioid-related emergency needs within Charlestown may help re-distribute existing resources efficiently, empower community and ED-based physicians to advocate for their patients, and serve as a catalyst for partnerships between MGH and local community groups. More broadly, this analysis demonstrates that EDs can use geospatial analysis to address the emergency
Welch, Shari J; Asplin, Brent R; Stone-Griffith, Suzanne; Davidson, Steven J; Augustine, James; Schuur, Jeremiah
There is a growing mandate from the public, payers, hospitals, and Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) to measure and improve emergency department (ED) performance. This creates a compelling need for a standard set of definitions about the measurement of ED operational performance. This Concepts article reports the consensus of a summit of emergency medicine experts tasked with the review, expansion, and update of key definitions and metrics for ED operations. Thirty-two emergency medicine leaders convened for the Second Performance Measures and Benchmarking Summit on February 24, 2010. Before arrival, attendees were provided with the original definitions published in 2006 and were surveyed about gaps and limitations in the original work. According to survey responses, a work plan to revise and update the definitions was developed. Published definitions from key stakeholders in emergency medicine and health care were reviewed and circulated. At the summit, attendees discussed and debated key terminology and metrics and work groups were created to draft the revised document. Workgroups communicated online and by teleconference to reach consensus. When possible, definitions were aligned with performance measures and definitions put forth by the CMS, the Emergency Nurses Association Consistent Metrics Document, and the National Quality Forum. The results of this work are presented as a reference document.
Boyle, Adrian; Beniuk, Kathleen; Higginson, Ian; Atkinson, Paul
This paper summarises the consequences of emergency department crowding. It provides a comparison of the scales used to measure emergency department crowding. We discuss the multiple causes of crowding and present an up-to-date literature review of the interventions that reduce the adverse consequences of crowding. We consider interventions at the level of an individual hospital and a policy level. PMID:22454772
Pallin, Daniel J; Camargo, Carlos A; Yokoe, Deborah S; Espinola, Janice A; Schuur, Jeremiah D
Contact precautions policies in US emergency departments have not been studied. We surveyed a structured random sample and found wide variation; for example, 45% required contact precautions for stool incontinence or diarrhea, 84% for suspected Clostridium difficile, and 79% for suspected methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Emergency medicine departments and organizations should enact policies.
Kulstad, Christine E.; Holt, Shannon C.; Abrahamsen, Aaron A.; Lovell, Elise O.
Objectives: Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has been shown to improve survival and neurological outcome in patients resuscitated after out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) from ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia (VF/VT). We evaluated the effects of using a TH protocol in a large community hospital emergency department (ED) for all patients with neurological impairment after resuscitated OHCA regardless of presenting rhythm. We hypothesized improved mortality and neurological outcomes without increased complication rates. Methods: Our TH protocol entails cooling to 33°C for 24 hours with an endovascular catheter. We studied patients treated with this protocol from November 2006 to November 2008. All non-pregnant, unresponsive adult patients resuscitated from any initial rhythm were included. Exclusion criteria were initial hypotension or temperature less than 30°C, trauma, primary intracranial event, and coagulopathy. Control patients treated during the 12 months before the institution of our TH protocol met the same inclusion and exclusion criteria. We recorded survival to hospital discharge, neurological status at discharge, and rates of bleeding, sepsis, pneumonia, renal failure, and dysrhythmias in the first 72 hours of treatment. Results: Mortality rates were 71.1% (95% CI, 56–86%) for 38 patients treated with TH and 72.3% (95% CI 59–86%) for 47 controls. In the TH group, 8% of patients (95% CI, 0–17%) had a good neurological outcome on discharge, compared to 0 (95% CI 0–8%) in the control group. In 17 patients with VF/VT treated with TH, mortality was 47% (95% CI 21–74%) and 18% (95% CI 0–38%) had good neurological outcome; in 9 control patients with VF/VT, mortality was 67% (95% CI 28–100%), and 0% (95% CI 0–30%) had good neurological outcome. The groups were well-matched with respect to sex and age. Complication rates were similar or favored the TH group. Conclusion: Instituting a TH protocol for OHCA patients with any
Aguilera, Pablo; Garrido, Marcela; Lessard, Eli; Swanson, Julian; Mallon, William K.; Saldias, Fernando; Basaure, Carlos; Lara, Barbara; Swadron, Stuart P.
Introduction While a nationwide poison control registry exists in Chile, reporting to the center is sporadic and happens at the discretion of the treating physician or by patients’ self-report. Moreover, individual hospitals do not monitor accidental or intentional poisoning in a systematic manner. The goal of this study was to identify all cases of intentional medication overdose (MO) that occurred over two years at a large public hospital in Santiago, Chile, and examine its epidemiologic profile. Methods This study is a retrospective, explicit chart review conducted at Hospital Sótero del Rio from July 2008 until June 2010. We included all cases of identified intentional MO. Alcohol and recreational drugs were included only when they were ingested with other medications. Results We identified 1,557 cases of intentional MO and analyzed a total of 1,197 cases, corresponding to 0.51% of all emergency department (ED) presentations between July 2008 and June 2010. The median patient age was 25 years. The majority was female (67.6%). Two peaks were identified, corresponding to the spring of each year sampled. The rate of hospital admission was 22.2%. Benzodiazepines, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) were the causative agents most commonly found, comprising 1,044 (87.2%) of all analyzed cases. Acetaminophen was involved in 81 (6.8%) cases. More than one active substance was involved in 35% of cases. In 7.3% there was ethanol co-ingestion and in 1.0% co-ingestion of some other recreational drug (primarily cocaine). Of 1,557 cases, six (0.39%) patients died. TCA were involved in two of these deaths. Conclusion Similar to other developed and developing nations, intentional MO accounts for a significant number of ED presentations in Chile. Chile is unique in the region, however, in that its spectrum of intentional overdoses includes an excess burden of tricyclic antidepressant and benzodiazepine overdoses, a relatively low rate
Sanon, Martine; Baumlin, Kevin M; Kaplan, Shari Sirkin; Grudzen, Corita R
Older adults who present to an emergency department (ED) generally have more-complex medical conditions with complicated care needs and are at high risk for preventable adverse outcomes during their ED visit. The Care and Respect for Elders with Emergencies (CARE) volunteer initiative is a geriatric-focused volunteer program developed to help prevent avoidable complications such as falls, delirium and use of restraints, and functional decline in vulnerable elders in the ED. The CARE program consists of bedside volunteer interventions ranging from conversation to various short activities designed to engage and reorient high-risk, older, unaccompanied individuals in the ED. This article describes the development and characteristics of the CARE program, the services provided, the experiences of the elderly patients and their volunteers, and the growth of the program over time. CARE volunteers provide elders with the additional attention needed in an often chaotic, unfamiliar environment by enhancing their care, improving satisfaction, and preventing potential decline.
Chan, HY; Lo, SM; Lee, LLY; Lo, WYL; Yu, WC; Wu, YF; Ho, ST; Yeung, RSD; Chan, JTS
BACKGROUND: Emergency departments (EDs) face problems with overcrowding, access block, cost containment, and increasing demand from patients. In order to resolve these problems, there is rising interest to an approach called “lean” management. This study aims to (1) evaluate the current patient flow in ED, (2) to identify and eliminate the non-valued added process, and (3) to modify the existing process. METHODS: It was a quantitative, pre- and post-lean design study with a series of lean management work implemented to improve the admission and blood result waiting time. These included structured re-design process, priority admission triage (PAT) program, enhanced communication with medical department, and use of new high sensitivity troponin-T (hsTnT) blood test. Triage waiting time, consultation waiting time, blood result time, admission waiting time, total processing time and ED length of stay were compared. RESULTS: Among all the processes carried out in ED, the most time consuming processes were to wait for an admission bed (38.24 minutes; SD 66.35) and blood testing result (mean 52.73 minutes, SD 24.03). The triage waiting time and end waiting time for consultation were significantly decreased. The admission waiting time of emergency medical ward (EMW) was significantly decreased from 54.76 minutes to 24.45 minutes after implementation of PAT program (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The application of lean management can improve the patient flow in ED. Acquiescence to the principle of lean is crucial to enhance high quality emergency care and patient satisfaction. PMID:25215143
Background We aimed to analyse the frequency and patterns of fall-related injuries presenting to the emergency departments (EDs) across Pakistan. Methods Pakistan National Emergency Departments surveillance system collected data from November 2010 to March 2011 on a 24/7 basis using a standardized tool in seven major EDs (five public and two private hospitals) in six major cities of Pakistan. For all patients presenting with fall-related injuries, we analysed data by intent with focus on unintentional falls. Simple frequencies were run for basic patient demographics, mechanism of falls, outcomes of fall injuries, mode of arrival to ED, investigations, and procedures with outcomes. Results There were 3335 fall-related injuries. In cases where intent was available, two-thirds (n = 1186, 65.3%) of fall injuries were unintentional. Among unintentional fall patients presenting to EDs, the majority (76.9%) were males and between 15-44 years of age (69%). The majority of the unintentional falls (n = 671, 56.6%) were due to slipping, followed by fall from height (n = 338, 28.5%). About two-thirds (n = 675, 66.6%) of fall injuries involved extremities, followed by head/neck (n = 257, 25.4%) and face (n = 99, 9.8%). Most of the patients were discharged from the hospital (n = 1059, 89.3%). There were 17 (1.3%) deaths among unintentional fall cases. Conclusion Falls are an important cause of injury-related visits to EDs in Pakistan. Most of the fall injury patients were men and in a productive age group. Fall injuries pose a burden on the healthcare system, especially emergency services, and future studies should therefore focus on safety measures at home and in workplaces to reduce this burden. PMID:26691821
Majid, Noriza; Mohd Suradi, Nur Riza; Ahmad Sabri, Safura
This study was conducted to examine the waiting time of non-critical patients in the Emergency Department (ED) of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) using the approach of six sigma (6σ). The define phase is completed by obtaining customers' critical to quality in UKMMC using survey. In measure phase, data on patients to the ED of UKMMC in May 2009 were gathered. Subsequently, analysis phase is performed using cause-and-effect diagram to identify root causes of the problems. Finally, improvements are proposed based on the identified problems. Results show that waiting time is critical to quality for health services in the ED.
large amount of RBCs and FFP. The length of stay in the ICU was highly variable among the survivors. AKA, above knee amputation; ED, emergency...aortic occlusion be- fore laparotomy can be beneficial in abdominal exsangui- nation. Branney and colleagues15 showed that gunshot wounds to the abdomen...multiple injuries and multiple sources for exsanguination is relatively un- studied in its relation to EDT. EDT followed by aortic occlusion may allow
Schmiedhofer, Martina; Searle, Julia; Slagman, Anna; Frick, Johann; Ruhla, Stephan; Möckel, Martin
Background The increasing number of low-acuity visits to Emergency Departments (ED) is an important issue in Germany and contributes to ED crowding. A sustainable solution needs deeper knowledge of patients' underlying rationales. Methods To explore patients' motives we conducted 31 semi-structured face-to-face interviews with low-acuity ED patients in a rural region in Saxony-Anhalt. Subsequently we interviewed 12 General Practitioners (GP)s about their perspectives on patients visiting ED with low-acuity conditions and referring patients to ED. A qualitative content analysis approach was used for data analysis. Results All patients were connected to a GP. One third had visited ED because of 24/7 availability when consultation hours and working times overlapped. Another third had addressed EDs full range of laboratory and imaging technology with a subjective need for fast diagnosis. One group reported that they had been referred to the ED by their GP. The interviewed GPs classified patients' ED usage for time-constraints as impatience and growing demand, while they expressed greater understanding for patients striving to ED for anxiety reasons. Most GPs sometimes referred patients to ED for diagnostic reasons. Conclusion The findings demonstrate that ED usage with non-urgent conditions takes place for different reasons. Therefore, ED plays a pivotal role not only in emergency care, but also in ambulant care. The growing demand for ambulant care indicates a need for changed health care structures.
The American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Emergency Physicians, and Emergency Nurses Association have collaborated to identify practices and principles to guide the care of children, families, and staff in the challenging and uncommon event of the death of a child in the emergency department in this policy statement and in an accompanying technical report.
Describes the jobs, training, qualifications, and advancement potential of the following emergency department personnel: physicians, nurses, medical technicians, and registration clerks. Briefly reviews eleven other occupations with emergency medical services. Employment outlook and earnings/benefits of emergency personnel are discussed. Provides…
Baillargeon, Jacques; Paar, David; Giordano, Thomas P; Zachariah, Brian; Rudkin, Laura L; Wu, Z Helen; Raimer, Ben G
The number of uninsured Texas residents who rely on the medical emergency department as their primary health care provider continues to increase. Unfortunately, little information about the characteristics of this group of emergency department users is available. Using an administrative billing database, we conducted a descriptive study to examine the demographic and clinical features of 17,110 consecutive patients without medical insurance who presented to the emergency department of the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston over a 12-month period. We also analyzed the risk of multiple emergency department visits or hospitalization according to demographic characteristics. Twenty percent of the study population made two or more emergency department visits during the study period; 19% of the population was admitted to the hospital via the emergency department. The risk of multiple emergency department visits was significantly elevated among African Americans and increased in a stepwise fashion according to age. The risk of being hospitalized was significantly reduced among females, African Americans, and Hispanics. There was an age-related monotonic increase in the risk of hospitalization. Abdominal pain, cellulitis, and spinal disorders were the most common primary diagnoses in patients who made multiple emergency department visits. Hospitalization occurred most frequently in patients with a primary diagnosis of chest pain, nonischemic heart disease, or an affective disorder. Additional studies of emergency department usage by uninsured patients from other regions of Texas are warranted. Such data may prove helpful in developing effective community-based alternatives to the emergency department for this growing segment of our population. Local policymakers who are responsible for the development of safety net programs throughout the state should find this information particularly useful.
Graham, Michelle M.; Holroyd, Brian R.
Objectives Clinical familiarity plays a role in health outcomes; the relationship between emergency department (ED) volume and outcomes for atrial fibrillation and flutter (AFF) are not clear. We compared ED presentation outcomes for AFF between high (HV) and low volume (LV) EDs in Alberta, Canada. Methods 45,372 AFF presentations for patients aged ≥ 35 years from all 104 EDs in Alberta during 1999 to 2011 using administrative health databases formed a retrospective cohort. EDs were grouped by annual AFF volume: 11 high (>100 presentations) or 93 low (≤100 presentations). Outcomes included hospital admission rate, return to ED for AFF within 30 and 90 days, and death within 30 and 90 days. Analyses included statistical tests and mixed effects modeling. Results Mean age at ED presentation was 69.8 years (52% male). HV ED presentations were associated with lower admissions (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64, 0.72; p-value [p]<0.001), ED returns at 90 (aOR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.73, 0.90; p<0.001) days, and a higher likelihood of specialist visits at 30 (aOR = 1.81, 95% CI 1.68, 1.94; p<0.001) and 90 (aOR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.76, 2.03; p<0.001) days. For admitted patients, there were fewer returns to HV EDs at 30 (aOR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.15, 0.87; p = 0.02) and 90 (aOR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.26, 0.89; p = 0.02) days after hospital discharge. There was no difference in death between the two groups. Conclusions AFF patients presenting to HV EDs experienced fewer admissions and AFF ED revisit and higher specialist referrals compared to LV EDs. PMID:27814387
Capp, Roberta; West, David R.; Doran, Kelly; Sauaia, Angela; Wiler, Jennifer; Coolman, Tyler; Ginde, Adit A.
Background The Affordable Care Act has added millions of new Medicaid enrollees to the health care system. These patients account for large proportion of Emergency Department (ED) utilization. Objective To characterize this population and their ED use at a national level. Methods We used the 2010 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) to describe demographics and clinical characteristics of non-elderly adults (≥18 and ≤64 years old) with Medicaid covered ED visits. We defined frequent ED users as individuals who make ≥ 4 ED visits/year and business hours as (8AM to 5 PM). We used descriptive statistics to describe the epidemiology of Medicaid covered ED visits. Results NHAMCS contained 21,800 ED visits by non-elderly adults in 2010, of which 5,659 (24.09%) were covered by Medicaid insurance. Most ED visits covered by Medicaid were made by patients who are young (25 and 44 years old) and females (67.95%; 95% CI 66.00–69.89). A large proportion of the ED visits covered by Medicaid were revisits within 72 hours (14.66%; 95% CI 9.13–20.19), and from frequent ED users (32.32%; 95% CI 24.29–40.35). Almost half of all ED visits covered by Medicaid occurred during business hours (45.44%; 95% CI 43.45–47.43). Conclusions The vast majority of Medicaid enrollees who used the ED were females, young, with a large proportion of visits occurring during business hours. Furthermore, almost one third of all visits are from frequent ED users. PMID:26482830
Hopper, S M; Pangestu, I; Cations, J; Stewart, C; Sharwood, L N; Babl, F E
To improve care of adolescents in mental health crisis, the role of routine follow-up calls in discharged patients with referral plans after emergency department (ED) presentation to a children's hospital was explored. Main outcome measure was patient attendance at referral sites. In 113 mental health patients with follow-up appointments, either patient/carers or corresponding referral services could be contacted. Median age was 14 years, 77% were girls, and most presentations were after self-harm/depression (61%). Eighty-three per cent (95% CI 75% to 90%) were compliant with the discharge plan without prompting from the ED staff. Fourteen per cent (95% CI 8% to 22%) did not comply after being called by ED staff, and only 3% (95% CI 1% to 7%) were persuaded to attend their outpatient care after being prompted by ED staff. Routine follow-up calls for adolescent mental health patients after ED care are not warranted in all settings.
Fahmy, S A; Rasool, B K Abdul; Abdu, S
The objective of this study was to assess health-care professionals' attitudes and perceptions towards the value of certain pharmacist functions in the emergency department (ED). The study was conducted among 396 physicians, nurses and other professionals in 4 government hospitals and 10 private hospitals in Dubai. While 83.6% of respondents reported that pharmacy services were available in the ED only 30.7% had a permanent clinical pharmacist working there. A majority (75.7%) agreed that the availability of clinical pharmacists in the ED would improve quality of care. On the role of clinical pharmacists in the medication review process, 45.0% of respondents favoured the review of only high-risk medication orders in the ED. The study found favourable views towards a role for clinical pharmacists in the ED for assuring appropriate medicine prescribing and administration, monitoring patient adherence, providing drug information consultation and monitoring patient responses and treatment outcome.
Nakao, Sy; Scott, JoAnna M.; Masterson, Erin E.; Chi, Donald L.
We analyzed 2010 U.S. National Emergency Department Sample data and ran regression models to test the hypotheses that individuals with ASD are more likely to have non-traumatic dental condition (NTDC)-related emergency department (ED) visits and to incur greater costs for these visits than those without ASD. There were nearly 2.3 million NTDC-related ED visits in 2010. Less than 1.0% (children) and 2.1% (adults) of all ED visits were for NTDC. There was no significant difference in NTDC-related ED visits or costs for children by ASD status. Adults with ASD had significantly lower odds of NTDC-related ED visits (OR=0.39; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.52; P<0.001) but incurred significantly greater mean costs for NTDC-related ED visits (P<0.006) than did adults without ASD. PMID:25374135
Registered General Nurses (RGNs) play crucial roles in emergency departments (EDs). EDs in Ghana are primarily staffed by RGNs who have had no additional formal education in emergency care. Additionally, basic, master's, or doctoral level nursing education programs provide limited content on the complexities of emergency nursing. Nurses in EDs are affected by many challenges such as growing patient population, financial pressures, physical violence, verbal abuse, operational inefficiencies, overcrowding, and work overload. There is a paucity of research on challenges experienced by RGNs in EDs in the Volta Region of Ghana. In this qualitative study, twenty RGNs in EDs from three selected hospitals in the Volta Region of Ghana were interviewed. All recorded interviews were transcribed, reviewed several times by researchers and supervisors, and analyzed using content analysis. Five thematic categories were identified. These thematic categories of challenges were lack of preparation for ED role, verbal abuse from patients relatives, lack of resources in ED, stressful and time consuming nature of ED, and overcrowding in ED. Formal education of RGNs in the advanced role of emergency care, adequate supply of resources, increased hospital management support, and motivations for RGNs working in ED are necessary to improve the practice of emergency care. PMID:27885343
Dalip, Janelle; Phillips, Georgina A; Jelinek, George A; Weiland, Tracey J
The elderly have a higher mortality rate during heat waves and may, therefore, have higher morbidity. We investigated the effects of high ambient environmental temperature on emergency department (ED) function and patient (age >64 years) morbidity. A retrospective case-control study of ED presentations at an Australian metropolitan hospital from September 2005 to May 2010 was undertaken. Cases comprised 1297 ED presentations surrounding heat threshold days. These were compared with randomly selected presentations on nonthreshold days (3 controls: 1 case), analyzing patient morbidity and ED function variables: triage category, presenting complaint, demographics, arrival mode, time to doctor, ED length of stay (LOS), ED disposition, and discharge diagnoses. A greater proportion of cases presented with "weakness," and were diagnosed with "dehydration." There was little effect on ED function, with ED LOS 24 minutes longer for cases and time to doctor 3 minutes shorter. This study found limited evidence of increased morbidity in the elderly during heat wave conditions.
Imperato, Jason; Morris, Darren Scott; Binder, David; Fischer, Christopher; Patrick, John; Sanchez, Leon Dahomey; Setnik, Gary
To determine if a physician in triage (PIT) improves Emergency Department (ED) patient flow in a community teaching hospital. This is an interventional study comparing patient flow parameters for the 3-month periods before and after implementation of a PIT model. During the interventional time an additional attending physician was assigned to triage from 1 p.m. to 9 p.m. daily. Outcome measures were median time to attending physician evaluation, median length of stay (LOS), number of patients who left without being seen (LWBS), and total time and number of days on ambulance diversion. Non-normally distributed values were compared with the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Proportions were compared with Chi-square test. Outcome measures were available for 17,631 patients, of whom 8,620 were seen before the initiation of PIT, and 9,011 were seen after PIT was implemented. For all patients, the median time from registration to attending physician evaluation was reduced by 36 min (1:41 to 1:05, p < 0.01) while the median LOS for all patients was reduced by 12 min (3:51 to 3:39, p < 0.01) after the intervention. Both the number of days on diversion (24 vs. 9 days) and total time on diversion (68 h 25 min vs. 26 h 7 min) were decreased, p < 0.01. Finally, there was a slight reduction in the number of patients who LWBS from 1.5 to 1.3 %, but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.36). Patient flow parameters in a community teaching hospital were modestly improved as a result of PIT implementation.
Capote, Allan; Michael, Andrew; Almodovar, Jorge; Chan, Patricia; Skinner, Ruby; Martin, Maureen
Emergency department thoracotomy (EDT) is a dramatic lifesaving procedure demanding timely surgical intervention, technical expertise, and coordinated resuscitation efforts. Inappropriate use is costly and futile. All patients admitted to a Level II trauma center who underwent EDT from January 2003 to July 2012 were studied. The primary end point was appropriateness of EDT. Secondary end points were staff exposure, survival, and return to normal function. Eighty-seven patients including 59 patients with penetrating wounds had a mean loss of vital signs (LOV) 11.6 ±10.6 minutes and Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 45.8 ± 16.1, whereas 28 blunt injury patients had a mean LOV of 10.4 ± 11.5 minutes and ISS of 50.4 ± 19.4. Mortality was 81 per cent (48 of 59) in penetrating injury and 93 per cent (26 of 28) in blunt injury patients, respectively (odds ratio [OR] 2.99; P 0.21). Fifty-five EDTs were indicated with 10 survivors (18.2%) and 32 not indicated with three survivors (9.4%). Surgeons adhered to guidelines more compared with ED physicians (OR, 4.9; P = 0.03) whose patients were more likely to die (OR, 3.52; P = 0.124). Survivors (11 of 13 [84.6%]) were discharged home without significant long-term neurologic disability. EDT is lifesaving when performed for penetrating injury by experienced surgeons following established guidelines but futile in blunt injury or when performed by nonsurgeons regardless of mechanism.
Schneiderman, Janet U.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Leslie, Laurel K.; Zhang, Jinjin; Horwitz, Sarah McCue
Objectives: To examine emergency department (ED) use among children involved with child protective services (CPS) in the US but who remain at home, and to determine if ED use is related to child, caregiver and family characteristics as well as receipt of CPS services. Method: We analyzed data on 4,001 children in the National Survey of Child and…
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011
In 2008, adolescents made 23,124 visits to the emergency department (ED) for drug-related suicide attempts, and young adults made 38,036 such visits; of these visits, 23.0 percent (5,312 visits) among adolescents and 17.6 percent (6,700 visits) among young adults involved antidepressants. Among ED visits for suicide attempts involving…
Kessler, Chad S; Marcolini, Evie G; Schmitz, Gillian; Gerardo, Charles J; Burns, Glenn; DelliGatti, Brian; Marco, Catherine A; Manthey, David E; Gutman, Deborah; Jobe, Kathleen; Younggren, Bradley N; Stettner, Ted; Sokolove, Peter E
Although many residency programs mandate at least one rotation in emergency medicine (EM), to the best of our knowledge, a standardized curriculum for emergency department (ED) rotations for "off-service" residents has not been developed. As a result, the experiences of these residents in the ED tend to vary during their rotations. To design an off-service EM curriculum, we adopted Kern's six-step approach to curriculum development as a conceptual framework. The resulting program encompasses clinical experience and didactic sessions through which residents are trained in core topics and skills. This knowledge will be applicable in the clinical settings in which residents will continue to train and ultimately practice their specialty. It is flexible enough to be applicable and implementable without being limited by resource availability or faculty strengths.
Kane, Marlena; Chui, Kristen; Rimicci, Janet; Callagy, Patrice; Hereford, James; Shen, Sam; Norris, Robert; Pickham, David
A multidisciplinary team led by nursing leadership and physicians developed a plan to meet increasing demand and improve the patient experience in the ED without expanding the department's current resources. The approach included Lean tools and engaged frontline staff and physicians. Applying Lean management principles resulted in quicker service, improved patient satisfaction, increased capacity, and reduced resource utilization. Incorporating continuous daily management is necessary for sustainment of continuous improvement activities.
Uysal, Erdal; Dokur, Mehmet; Bakir, Hasan; Ikidag, Mehmet Ali; Kirdak, Turkay; Kazimoglu, Hatem
Introduction: Renal transplantation are admitted to emergency department (ED) more than normal population. The present brief report aimed to determine the reasons of renal transplant patients’ ED visits. Methods: This retrospective case series study analyzed the reasons of renal transplant recipients’ admission to one ED between 2011 and 2014. The patient data were collected via a checklist and presented using descriptive statistics tools. Results: 41 patients with the mean age of 40.63 ± 10.95 years were studied (60.9% male). The most common ED presenting complaints were fever (36.6%) and abdominal pain (26.8%). Infections were the most common final diagnosis (68.3%). Among non-infectious causes, the most common was acute renal failure (9.7 %). 73.2% of the patients were hospitalized and no cases of graft loss and mortality were seen. Conclusion: The most common reason for ED admission was fever, and infections were the most common diagnosis. Acute gastroenteritis being the most frequent infection and among non-infectious problems, acute renal failure was the most frequent one. PMID:27800542
Dart, R C; Lee, S C; Joyce, S M; Meislin, H W
A single temperature measurement recorded on admission to the emergency department provides no information about temperature alterations occurring during the course of evaluation. Continuous monitoring of patients' temperatures in the ED, however, may alter management and decrease morbidity. Our study evaluated the reliability of liquid crystal thermometers (LCTs) and the clinical benefit of continuous temperature monitoring in the ED. Commercially available LCTs (corrected 4 degrees F to reflect core temperature) were applied to the foreheads of randomly selected patients. Serial oral electronic thermometer readings were compared to those obtained by LCT. Fever was defined as a temperature higher than 99.5 F orally or 100 F by LCT. One hundred two patients underwent simultaneous LCT and oral temperature measurements, with a correlation coefficient of 0.661. Hypothermia was not encountered. Eighty-four patients were afebrile, and 18 were febrile by oral measurement on admission. Of the afebrile patients, 13 (15.5%) became febrile while in the ED. The temperature course was identified correctly by LCT in 83.3% of cases. The LCT correctly identified all patients who were febrile on admission, as well as 92.3% of those who developed fever while in the ED. The latter fevers would have been missed by routine single-temperature determination on ED admission. Detection of fever stimulated more aggressive clinical evaluation of these patients. Eight of nine patients who defervesced in response to antipyretic therapy were identified correctly by LCT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Safdari, Reza; Ghazisaeedi, Marjan; Mirzaee, Mahboobeh; Farzi, Jebrail; Goodini, Azadeh
Dynamic reporting tools, such as dashboards, should be developed to measure emergency department (ED) performance. However, choosing an effective balanced set of performance measures and key performance indicators (KPIs) is a main challenge to accomplish this. The aim of this study was to develop a balanced set of KPIs for use in ED strategic dashboards following an analytic hierarchical process. The study was carried out in 2 phases: constructing ED performance measures based on balanced scorecard perspectives and incorporating them into analytic hierarchical process framework to select the final KPIs. The respondents placed most importance on ED internal processes perspective especially on measures related to timeliness and accessibility of care in ED. Some measures from financial, customer, and learning and growth perspectives were also selected as other top KPIs. Measures of care effectiveness and care safety were placed as the next priorities too. The respondents placed least importance on disease-/condition-specific "time to" measures. The methodology can be presented as a reference model for development of KPIs in various performance related areas based on a consistent and fair approach. Dashboards that are designed based on such a balanced set of KPIs will help to establish comprehensive performance measurements and fair benchmarks and comparisons.
Williamson, Victoria; Creswell, Cathy; Butler, Ian; Christie, Hope
Objective Parents are often children's main source of support following fear-inducing traumatic events, yet little is known about how parents provide that support. The aim of this study was to examine parents' experiences of supporting their child following child trauma exposure and presentation at an emergency department (ED). Design Semistructured qualitative interviews analysed using thematic analysis. Setting The setting for this study was two National Health Service EDs in England. Participants 20 parents whose child experienced a traumatic event and attended an ED between August 2014 and October 2015. Results Parents were sensitive to their child's distress and offered reassurance and support for their child to resume normal activities. However, parental beliefs often inhibited children's reinstatement of pretrauma routines. Support often focused on preventing future illness or injury, reflective of parents' concerns for their child's physical well-being. In a minority of parents, appraisals of problematic care from EDs contributed to parents' anxiety and perceptions of their child as vulnerable post-trauma. Forgetting the trauma and avoidance of discussion were encouraged as coping strategies to prevent further distress. Parents highlighted their need for further guidance and support regarding their child's physical and emotional recovery. Conclusions This study provides insight into the experiences of and challenges faced by parents in supporting their child following trauma exposure. Perceptions of their child's physical vulnerability and treatment influenced parents' responses and the supportive strategies employed. These findings may enable clinicians to generate meaningful advice for parents following child attendance at EDs post-trauma. PMID:27821599
Rates of overdose deaths involving prescription drugs increased rapidly in the United States during 1999-2006. However, such mortality data do not portray the morbidity associated with prescription drug overdoses. Data from emergency department (ED) visits can represent this morbidity and can be accessed more quickly than mortality data. To better understand recent national trends in drug-related morbidity, CDC and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) reviewed the most recent 5 years of available data (2004-2008) on ED visits involving the nonmedical use of prescription drugs from SAMHSA's Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN). This report describes the results of that review, which showed that the estimated number of ED visits for nonmedical use of opioid analgesics increased 111% during 2004-2008 (from 144,600 to 305,900 visits) and increased 29% during 2007-2008. The highest numbers of ED visits were recorded for oxycodone, hydrocodone, and methadone, all of which showed statistically significant increases during the 5-year period. The estimated number of ED visits involving nonmedical use of benzodiazepines increased 89% during 2004-2008 (from 143,500 to 271,700 visits) and 24% during 2007-2008. These findings indicate substantial, increasing morbidity associated with the nonmedical use of prescription drugs in the United States during 2004-2008, despite recent efforts to control the problem. Stronger measures to reduce the diversion of prescription drugs to nonmedical purposes are warranted.
Odetola, Folafoluwa O; Gebremariam, Achamyeleh
Trauma is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity among children in the USA. To examine the variation in the epidemiology and patterns of visits to emergency departments (EDs), and test the hypothesis that children evaluated at trauma centre EDs will have higher injury severity and a higher likelihood of hospitalisation versus those evaluated at non-trauma centre EDs, we analysed a national database of all injured children aged 0-20 years evaluated at US EDs in 2009. Childhood injuries are a frequent cause of visits to US EDs, with a national point prevalence of 620 cases per 10,000 children aged 0-20 years. Epidemiology of childhood injuries in the USA is significant for male gender preponderance, significant seasonal and geographical variation, and disproportionately more frequent injury to the extremities than other sites of the body. National hospital resource use was significant, with greater burden borne by trauma centres which disproportionately provided care to the most severely injured children.
Chen, Zhiqiang; Chakrabarty, Sangita; Levine, Robert S.; Aliyu, Muktar H.; Ding, Tan; Jackson, Larry L.
Objective To characterize work-related knee injuries treated in U.S. emergency departments (EDs). Methods We characterized work-related knee injuries treated in EDs in 2007 and examined trends from 1998 to 2007 by using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System—occupational supplement (NEISS-Work). Results In 2007, 184,300 (± 54,000, 95% confidence interval) occupational knee injuries were treated in U.S. EDs, accounting for 5% of the 3.4 (± 0.9) million ED-treated occupational injuries. The ED-treated knee injury rate was 13 (± 4) injuries per 10,000 full-time equivalent workers. Younger workers and older female workers had high rates. Strains/sprains and contusions/abrasions were common—frequently resulting from falls and bodily reaction/overexertion events. Knee injury rates declined from 1998 through 2007. Conclusions Knee injury prevention should emphasize reducing falls and bodily reaction/overexertion events, particularly among all youth and older women. PMID:23969507
Okafor, Nnaemeka G.; Doshi, Pratik B.; Miller, Sara K.; McCarthy, James J.; Hoot, Nathan R.; Darger, Bryan F.; Benitez, Roberto C.; Chathampally, Yashwant G.
Introduction Medical errors are frequently under-reported, yet their appropriate analysis, coupled with remediation, is essential for continuous quality improvement. The emergency department (ED) is recognized as a complex and chaotic environment prone to errors. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a web-based ED-specific incident reporting system using an iterative process. Methods A web-based, password-protected tool was developed by members of a quality assurance committee for ED providers to report incidents that they believe could impact patient safety. Results The utilization of this system in one residency program with two academic sites resulted in an increase from 81 reported incidents in 2009, the first year of use, to 561 reported incidents in 2012. This is an increase in rate of reported events from 0.07% of all ED visits to 0.44% of all ED visits. In 2012, faculty reported 60% of all incidents, while residents and midlevel providers reported 24% and 16% respectively. The most commonly reported incidents were delays in care and management concerns. Conclusion Error reporting frequency can be dramatically improved by using a web-based, user-friendly, voluntary, and non-punitive reporting system. PMID:26759657
Browning, J; Atwood, B; Gray, A
Aim To describe the current use of non‐invasive ventilation in UK emergency departments. Methods A structured questionnaire was sent to all UK emergency departments assessing 25,000 new patients annually. Results 222 of 233 departments completed the questionnaire. 148 currently use non‐invasive ventilation (NIV). Most used NIV for either cardiogenic pulmonary oedema (n = 128) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 115). Only 49 departments have protocols for NIV use and 23 audited practice. Conclusion NIV is commonly used in UK emergency departments. Practices vary significantly. One solution would be the development of guidelines on when and how to use NIV in emergency medicine practice. PMID:17130599
Nakao, Sy; Scott, JoAnna M.; Masterson, Erin E.; Chi, Donald L.
We analyzed 2010 US National Emergency Department Sample data and ran regression models to test the hypotheses that individuals with ASD are more likely to have non-traumatic dental condition (NTDC)-related emergency department (ED) visits and to incur greater costs for these visits than those without ASD. There were nearly 2.3 million…
Pileggi, C; Nicotera, G; Angelillo, I
Objective: This study investigated the profile of drivers involved in automobile accidents attending a hospital emergency department (ED) in Catanzaro (Italy). Methods: Car drivers involved in automobile accidents who were registered for emergency care between May 2003 and February 2004 were included in the study. Demographics and details of the accident were collected immediately after admittance, before examination by the medical staff. For each patient, the medical staff completed a form including diagnostic investigations and medical/surgical examination in the ED. Results: Of a total of 424 drivers included in the study 27.4% had conditions that were definitely non-urgent problems. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the use of the ED as a source of non-urgent care was significantly higher among patients who were driving at a lower speed when the accident occurred, among those who presented to the ED before the implementation of the new Italian traffic code, and among those who underwent fewer diagnostic investigations and medical/surgical examinations in the ED. Most of the automobile related lesions occurred in the neck (43.9%) followed by multiple body regions (12.5%) and the upper extremities (10.4%). According to the nature of the injury a third were contusions (34%), followed by pain without physical signs and symptoms (28.8%), and dislocation, sprains, and strains (22.9%). Conclusions: Development of health promotion and education campaigns is required to prevent the use of the ED as a source of non-urgent care by those involved in automobile accidents. PMID:15788821
Majidi, Alireza; Tabatabaey, Ali; Motamed, Hassan; Motamedi, Maryam; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Mehdi
Physical design of the emergency department (ED) has an important effect on its role and function. To date, no guidelines have been introduced to set the standards for the construction of EDs in Iran. In this study, we aim to devise an easy-to-use tool based on the available literature and expert opinion for the quick and effective assessment of EDs in regards to their physical design. For this purpose, based on current literature on emergency design, a comprehensive checklist was developed. Then, this checklist was analyzed by a panel consisting of heads of three major EDs and contradicting items were decided. 178 crude items were derived from available literature. The Items were categorized in to three major domains of Physical space, Equipment, and Accessibility. The final checklist approved by the panel consisted of 163 items categorized into six domains. Each item was phrased as a “Yes or No” question for ease of analysis, meaning that the criterion is either met or not. PMID:26495348
Woodruff, Susan I.; McCabe, Cameron T.; Hohman, Melinda; Clapp, John D.; Shillington, Audrey M.; Eisenberg, Kimberly; Sise, C. Beth; Castillo, Edward M.; Chan, Theodore C.; Sise, Michael J.
Abstract Emergency department (ED) settings have gained interest as venues for illegal drug misuse prevention and intervention, with researchers and practitioners attempting to capitalize on the intersection of need and opportunity within these settings. This study of 686 adult patients visiting two EDs for various reasons who admitted drug use compared daily cannabis-only users, nondaily cannabis-only users, and other drug users on sociodemographic and drug-related severity outcomes. The three drug use groups did not differ on most sociodemographic factors or medical problem severity scores. Forty-five percent of the sample was identified as having a drug use problem. ED patients who used drugs other than cannabis were at particular risk for high drug use severity indicators and concomitant problems such as psychiatric problems and alcohol use severity. However, 19–29% of cannabis-only users were identified as having problematic drug use. Furthermore, daily cannabis-only users fared less well than nondaily cannabis users with regard to drug use severity indicators and self-efficacy for avoiding drug use. Results may assist emergency medicine providers and medical social workers in matching patients to appropriate intervention. For example, users of drugs other than cannabis (and perhaps heavy, daily cannabis-only users) may need referral to specialty services for further assessment. Enhancement of motivation and self-efficacy beliefs could be an important target of prevention and treatment for cannabis-only users screened in the ED. PMID:27689138
Bishop, Bryan M
Antimicrobial resistance is a national public health concern. Misuse of antimicrobials for conditions such as upper respiratory infection, urinary tract infections, and cellulitis has led to increased resistance to antimicrobials commonly utilized to treat those infections, such as sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and flouroquinolones. The emergency department (ED) is a site where these infections are commonly encountered both in ambulatory patients and in patients requiring admission to a hospital. The ED is uniquely positioned to affect the antimicrobial use and resistance patterns in both ambulatory settings and inpatient settings. However, implementing antimicrobial stewardship programs in the ED is fraught with challenges including diagnostic uncertainty, distractions secondary to patient or clinician turnover, and concerns with patient satisfaction to name just a few. However, this review article highlights successful interventions that have stemmed inappropriate antimicrobial use in the ED setting and warrant further study. This article also proposes other, yet to be validated proposals. Finally, this article serves as a call to action for pharmacists working in antimicrobial stewardship programs and in emergency medicine settings. There needs to be further research on the implementation of these and other interventions to reduce inappropriate antimicrobial use to prevent patient harm and curb the development of antimicrobial resistance.
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to describe nurses’ views of the issues to be addressed to improve care of the older adult in the emergency department (ED). Design and Methods: An exploratory content analysis examined the qualitative responses of 527 registered nurses from 49U.S. hospitals who completed the Geriatric Institutional Profile. Results: 5 central themes emerged from the analysis, representing a lack of older personhospital environment fit in the ED: (a) respect for the older adult and carers, (b) correct and best procedures and treatment, (c) time and staff to do things right, (d) transitions, and (e) a safe and enabling environment. The nurses offered solutions to address lack of fit, including modifications to the social climate, policies and procedures, care systems and processes, and physical design. Implications: The nurses’ descriptions of the pressing issues surrounding care of older adults in the ED provide useful information to consider when developing a senior-friendly ED. Results also illuminate solutions that can be taken to address issues. These solutions give direction for future intervention research. PMID:23442380
Stieb, D M; Burnett, R T; Beveridge, R C; Brook, J R
This study examines the relationship of asthma emergency department (ED) visits to daily concentrations of ozone and other air pollutants in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. Data on ED visits with a presenting complaint of asthma (n = 1987) were abstracted for the period 1984-1992 (May-September). Air pollution variables included ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfate, and total suspended particulate (TSP); weather variables included temperature, humidex, dewpoint, and relative humidity. Daily ED visit frequencies were filtered to remove day of the week and long wave trends, and filtered values were regressed on air pollution and weather variables for the same day and the 3 previous days. The mean daily 1-hr maximum ozone concentration during the study period was 41.6 ppb. A positive, statistically significant (p < 0.05) association was observed between ozone and asthma ED visits 2 days later, and the strength of the association was greater in nonlinear models. The frequency of asthma ED visits was 33% higher (95% CI, 10-56%) when the daily 1-hr maximum ozone concentration exceeded 75 ppb (the 95th percentile). The ozone effect was not significantly influenced by the addition of weather or other pollutant variables into the model or by the exclusion of repeat ED visits. However, given the limited number of sampling days for sulfate and TSP, a particulate effect could not be ruled out. We detected a significant association between ozone and asthma ED visits, despite the vast majority of sampling days being below current U.S. and Canadian standards.
Heyland, Michelle; Johnson, Mary
Adults with mental health issues lack clinically indicated options when in crisis. Historically, the emergency department (ED) has been the primary source of intervention largely due to funding cuts and decreased community resources in the USA. The literature highlights drastic mental health funding cuts alongside an increased prevalence of mental illness. A community-based alternative for adults in mental health crises was subsequently developed as a model of crisis care. The program has demonstrated impressive short-term outcomes, typically avoiding ED admissions in over 95% of the clients. This number benefits both the consumers who otherwise rely on the ED and the State of Illinois in terms of cost savings for avoidable ED visits. The current deflection rate only reflects ED admissions deflected on the day of the visit to the crisis respite program. To establish the long-term outcomes for this model, follow-up phone calls were conducted to determine whether or not the individual required an ED visit for a psychiatric reason within 30 days of utilization of the program. The follow-up phone calls began in May and continued for eight weeks. At this time, the data collected were analyzed and the outcomes of the program were further evaluated. Based on the follow-up survey results, the positive long-term outcomes validate this model as a cost-saving and clinically indicated alternative to the ED. Establishing such outcomes was necessary to ensure continued funding and to support establishment of similar models of crisis care.
Stieb, D M; Burnett, R T; Beveridge, R C; Brook, J R
This study examines the relationship of asthma emergency department (ED) visits to daily concentrations of ozone and other air pollutants in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. Data on ED visits with a presenting complaint of asthma (n = 1987) were abstracted for the period 1984-1992 (May-September). Air pollution variables included ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfate, and total suspended particulate (TSP); weather variables included temperature, humidex, dewpoint, and relative humidity. Daily ED visit frequencies were filtered to remove day of the week and long wave trends, and filtered values were regressed on air pollution and weather variables for the same day and the 3 previous days. The mean daily 1-hr maximum ozone concentration during the study period was 41.6 ppb. A positive, statistically significant (p < 0.05) association was observed between ozone and asthma ED visits 2 days later, and the strength of the association was greater in nonlinear models. The frequency of asthma ED visits was 33% higher (95% CI, 10-56%) when the daily 1-hr maximum ozone concentration exceeded 75 ppb (the 95th percentile). The ozone effect was not significantly influenced by the addition of weather or other pollutant variables into the model or by the exclusion of repeat ED visits. However, given the limited number of sampling days for sulfate and TSP, a particulate effect could not be ruled out. We detected a significant association between ozone and asthma ED visits, despite the vast majority of sampling days being below current U.S. and Canadian standards. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:9118879
Probst, Marc A.; Kanzaria, Hemal K.; Gbedemah, Misato; Richardson, Lynne D.; Sun, Benjamin C.
Background Over the last 20 years, numerous research articles and clinical guidelines aimed at optimizing resource utilization for emergency department (ED) patients presenting with syncope have been published. Hypothesis We hypothesized there would be temporal trends in syncope-related ED visits and associated trends in imaging, hospital admissions, and diagnostic frequencies. Methods The ED component of National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey was analyzed from 2001 through 2010, comprising over 358,000 visits (representing an estimated 1.18 billion visits nationally). We selected ED visits with a reason for visit of syncope or fainting and calculated nationally representative weighted estimates for prevalence of such visits, and associated rates of advanced imaging utilization and admission. For admitted patients from 2005 to 2010, the most frequent hospital discharge diagnoses were tabulated. Results During the study period, there were over 3,500 actual ED visits (representing 11.9 million visits nationally) related to syncope, representing roughly 1% of all ED visits. Admission rates for syncope patients ranged from 27% to 35% and showed no significant downward trend (p=0.1). Advanced imaging rates increased from about 21% to 45% and showed a significant upward trend (p < 0.001). For admitted patients, the most common hospital discharge diagnosis was the symptomatic diagnosis of “syncope and collapse” (36.4%). Conclusions Despite substantial efforts by medical researchers and professional societies, resource utilization associated with ED visits for syncope appears to have actually increased. There have been no apparent improvements in diagnostic yield for admissions. Novel strategies may be needed to change practice patterns for such patients. PMID:25943042
Hosseininejad, Seyed Mohammad; Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Pashaei, Seyede Masoume; Goli Khatir, Iraj; Montazer, Seyed Hosein; Bozorgi, Farzad; Mahmoudi, Fahime
Introduction: Timeliness has been considered as a key domain in quality of emergency department (ED) care and delay in care providing is influential determinants of patient’s outcomes. The present study, aimed to evaluate the determinants of prolonged ED length of stay (LOS). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, using adopted version of the latest form for external evaluation and accreditation of EDs introduced by Iranian Ministry of Health, determinants of prolonged LOS were evaluated in the ED of an educational Hospital. Using SPSS 11, multivariate binary logistic regression was applied to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for determining factors associated with prolonged LOS. Results: 162 (10.2%) cases with prolonged LOS were detected. Based on univariate analysis, female gender (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.14-1.75, p = 0.001), older age (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.08, p < 0.0001), admission on evening shifts (OR: 4.0; 95% CI: 1.84-8.68, p < 0.001), triage level I (OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.21-2.57, p = 0.003), lack of insurance support (OR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.12-2.19, p = 0.010), higher number of ordered para-clinical tests (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.11-1.37, p = 0.016), and disposition time > 6 hours (OR, 0.13, p < 0.0001), were significant risk factors of prolonged LOS. Conclusion Older age, lack of insurance support, disposition time > 6 hours due to complexity of patients’ complaint, and the necessity of repeated para-clinical measures were the most important reasons for failed provision of timely services. From the view point of ED personnel, a small part of prolonged LOS in ED was concerned with defective ED workflow, while, the most important cause of such delays was the delayed response of the consultancy services. PMID:28286860
Carter, Drew; Sendziuk, Paul; Eliott, Jaklin A; Braunack-Mayer, Annette
Across the world, pain is under-treated in emergency departments (EDs). We canvass the literature testifying to this problem, the reasons why this problem is so important, and then some of the main hypotheses that have been advanced in explanation of the problem. We then argue for the plausibility of two new hypotheses: pain's under-treatment in the ED is due partly to (1) an epistemic preference for signs over symptoms on the part of some practitioners, and (2) some ED practices that themselves worsen pain by increasing patients' anxiety and fear. Our argument includes the following logic. Some ED practitioners depart from formal guidance in basing their acute pain assessments on observable features rather than on patient reports of pain. This is potentially due to an epistemic preference for signs over symptoms which aims to circumvent intentional and/or unintentional misrepresentation on the part of patients. However, conducting pain assessments in line with this epistemic preference contributes to the under-treatment of pain in at least three respects, which we detail. Moreover, it may do little to help the practitioner circumvent any intentional misrepresentation on the part of the patient, as we explain. Second, we examine at least four ED practices that may be contributing to the under-treatment of pain by increasing patient anxiety and fear, which can worsen pain. These practices include failing to provide orienting information and partially objectifying patients so as to problem-solve along lines pre-established by modern medical science. We conclude by touching on some potential solutions for ED practice.
Ham, Nathan J.; Blankenship, Dennis E.; Payton, Mark E.; Murray, Kelly A.
Longitudinal time-based emergency department (ED) performance measures were quantified 12 months before and 12 months after (March 2012–February 2014) implementation of a Meditech 6.0® electronic health record (EHR) at a single urban academic ED. Data assessed were length of stay from door to door, door to admission, door to bed, bed to provider, provider to disposition, and disposition to admission, as well as number of patients leaving against medical advice and number of patients leaving without being seen. Analysis of variance was used to compare levels before and after EHR implementation for each variable, with adjustments made for the number of admissions, transfers, and month. No difference was seen in monthly volume, admissions, or transfers. Implementation of an EHR resulted in a sustained increase in ED time metrics for mean length of stay and times from door to door, door to admission, door to bed, and provider to disposition. Decreased ED time metrics were seen in bed-to-provider and disposition-to-admit times. The number of patients who left against medical advice increased after implementation, but the number of patients who left without being seen was not significantly different. Thus, EHR implementation was associated with an increase in time with most performance metrics. Although general times trended back to near preimplementation baselines, most ED time metrics remained elevated beyond the study length of 12 months. Understanding the impact of EHR system implementation on the overall performance of an ED can help departments prepare for potential adverse effects of such systems on overall efficiency.
Kalb, Luther G.; Vasa, Roma A; Ballard, Elizabeth D.; Woods, Steven; Goldstein, Mitchell; Wilcox, Holly C.
Several reports suggest children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are more likely to be seen for injury-related ED visits; however, no nationally representative study has examined this question. Using data from the 2008 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, over a quarter of all visits among those with ASD were related to injury. In the…
Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Nicholas, David B.; Muskat, Barbara; Kilmer, Christopher; Newton, Amanda S.; Craig, William R.; Ratnapalan, Savithiri; Cohen-Silver, Justine; Greenblatt, Andrea; Roberts, Wendy; Sharon, Raphael
This study aimed to characterize the perspectives of health professionals who care for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the emergency department (ED) and to determine what strategies could optimize care. Ten physicians and twelve nurses were interviewed individually. Questions related to experiences, processes, clinical…
Magnuson, J A; Klockner, Rocke; Ladd-Wilson, Stephen; Zechnich, Andrew; Bangs, Christopher; Kohn, Melvin A
Electronic emergency department reporting provides the potential for enhancing local and state surveillance capabilities for a wide variety of syndromes and reportable conditions. The task of protecting data confidentiality and integrity while developing electronic data interchange between a hospital emergency department and a state public health department proved more complex than expected. This case study reports on the significant challenges that had to be resolved to accomplish this goal; these included application restrictions and incompatibilities, technical malfunctions, changing standards, and insufficient dedicated resources. One of the key administrative challenges was that of coordinating project security with enterprise security. The original project has evolved into an ongoing pilot, with the health department currently receiving secure data from the emergency department at four-hour intervals. Currently, planning is underway to add more emergency departments to the project.
Horwitz, Leora I.; Bradley, Elizabeth H.
Background The wait time to see a physician in US emergency departments (EDs) is increasing and may differentially affect patients with varied insurance status and racial/ethnic backgrounds. Methods Using a stratified random sampling of 151 999 visits, representing 539 million ED visits from 1997 to 2006, we examined trends in the percentage of patients seen within the triage target time by triage category (emergent, urgent, semiurgent, and nonurgent), payer type, and race/ethnicity. Results The percentage of patients seen within the triage target time declined a mean of 0.8% per year, from 80.0% in 1997 to 75.9% in 2006 (P<.001). The percentage of patients seen within the triage target time declined 2.3% per year for emergent patients (59.2% to 48.0%; P<.001) compared with 0.7% per year for semiurgent patients (90.6% to 84.7%; P<.001). In 2006, the adjusted odds of being seen within the triage target time were 30% lower than in 1997 (odds ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.89). The adjusted odds of being seen within the triage target time were 87% lower (odds ratio, 0.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.11-0.15) for emergent patients compared with semiurgent patients. Patients of each payment type experienced similar decreases in the percentage seen within the triage target over time (P for interaction=.24), as did patients of each racial/ethnic group (P=.05). Conclusions The percentage of patients in the ED who are seen by a physician within the time recommended at triage has been steadily declining and is at its lowest point in at least 10 years. Of all patients in the ED, the most emergent are the least likely to be seen within the triage target time. Patients of all racial/ethnic backgrounds and payer types have been similarly affected. PMID:19901137
Saini, Aman; Kaushik, Jaya Shankar; Arya, Vandana; Gathwala, Geeta
Context: Children with recurrent wheezing contribute to a significant burden of inpatient hospital admission in developing countries. However, many patients could be managed at home following a short observation period in emergency unit. Aim: This study aimed to determine the predictors of critical care admission in a population of children aged 6 months to 2 years attending pediatric emergency department (ED) for recurrent wheezing. Setting and Design: This is a case–control study conducted in pediatric ED of a tertiary care center in North India. Patients and Methods: Demographic and clinical details were recorded for children aged 6 months to 2 years who presented to ED for “recurrent wheezing” within 48 h of onset of symptoms. Those who were admitted to critical care unit were considered cases and those who were discharged within 6 h of stay at short observation units of ED were considered controls. Statistical Analysis: Logistic regression model was used to determine which of the various demographic and clinical factors best predicted the need for critical care admission. Results: The cases (n = 58) had significantly higher number of emergency visits in the preceding 1 month (P = 0. 018), had more episodes of wheezing in the last 3 months (P = 0.025), had higher respiratory rate (P < 0.001), and had higher clinical severity score (P < 0.001) when compared to control (n = 58) group. Logistic regression model revealed incomplete immunization status of children (P = 0.005) to be a significant risk factor that determine the need for critical care admission. Conclusion: The present cross-sectional study with limited sample size revealed incomplete immunization status of children to be a significant risk factor that determined the need for critical care admission among children below 2 years of age presenting to ED with recurrent wheezing. PMID:28243009
Pierce, Beth A; Gormley, Denise
A quality improvement (QI) project was completed early in 2015 to evaluate the split flow model of care delivery and a provider in triage model within a newly constructed emergency department. The QI project compared 2 emergency departments of similar volumes, one that splits the patient flow and employs a provider in triage model and the other that blends the patient flow and employs a traditional nurse triage model. A total of 68,603 patients were included in this project. The purpose of the split flow model is to create a second flow stream of patients through the emergency department, parallel to the regular acute/critical care flow stream, for patients with problems that are not complex. Specific patient outcomes that were evaluated for the purpose of this QI project were door to discharge or discharge length of stay (DLOS) for all ED patients. The provider in triage model enhances patient triage assessment, as well as patient flow within the emergency department, by allowing patients to be evaluated by an ED provider immediately at the point of triage when the patient first presents to the emergency department. The QI project demonstrated that the split flow model alone reduced DLOS for all ED patients, and when coupled with the provider in triage model, a greater reduction in DLOS, as well as an improvement in front-end throughput metrics, was realized.
Schnall, Rebecca; Stockwell, Melissa S; Castaño, Paula M; Higgins, Tracy; Westhoff, Carolyn; Santelli, John; Dayan, Peter S
Background Over 15 million adolescents use the emergency department (ED) each year in the United States. Adolescent females who use the ED for medical care have been found to be at high risk for unintended pregnancy. Given that adolescents represent the largest users of text messaging and are receptive to receiving text messages related to their sexual health, the ED visit represents an opportunity for intervention. Objective The aim of this qualitative study was to explore interest in and preferences for the content, frequency, and timing of an ED-based text message intervention to prevent pregnancy for adolescent females. Methods We conducted semistructured, open-ended interviews in one urban ED in the United States with adolescent females aged 14-19 years. Eligible subjects were adolescents who were sexually active in the past 3 months, presented to the ED for a reproductive health complaint, owned a mobile phone, and did not use effective contraception. Using an interview guide, enrollment continued until saturation of key themes. The investigators designed sample text messages using the Health Beliefs Model and participants viewed these on a mobile phone. The team recorded, transcribed, and coded interviews based on thematic analysis using the qualitative analysis software NVivo and Excel. Results Participants (n=14) were predominantly Hispanic (13/14; 93%), insured (13/14; 93%), ED users in the past year (12/14; 86%), and frequent text users (10/14; 71% had sent or received >30 texts per day). All were interested in receiving text messages from the ED about pregnancy prevention, favoring messages that were “brief,” “professional,” and “nonaccusatory.” Respondents favored texts with links to websites, repeated information regarding places to receive “confidential” care, and focused information on contraception options and misconceptions. Preferences for text message frequency varied from daily to monthly, with random hours of delivery to
Background Limited information is available about predictors of short-term outcomes in patients with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (eCOPD) attending an emergency department (ED). Such information could help stratify these patients and guide medical decision-making. The aim of this study was to develop a clinical prediction rule for short-term mortality during hospital admission or within a week after the index ED visit. Methods This was a prospective cohort study of patients with eCOPD attending the EDs of 16 participating hospitals. Recruitment started in June 2008 and ended in September 2010. Information on possible predictor variables was recorded during the time the patient was evaluated in the ED, at the time a decision was made to admit the patient to the hospital or discharge home, and during follow-up. Main short-term outcomes were death during hospital admission or within 1 week of discharge to home from the ED, as well as at death within 1 month of the index ED visit. Multivariate logistic regression models were developed in a derivation sample and validated in a validation sample. The score was compared with other published prediction rules for patients with stable COPD. Results In total, 2,487 patients were included in the study. Predictors of death during hospital admission, or within 1 week of discharge to home from the ED were patient age, baseline dyspnea, previous need for long-term home oxygen therapy or non-invasive mechanical ventilation, altered mental status, and use of inspiratory accessory muscles or paradoxical breathing upon ED arrival (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.85). Addition of arterial blood gas parameters (oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures (PO2 and PCO2)) and pH) did not improve the model. The same variables were predictors of death at 1 month (AUC = 0.85). Compared with other commonly used tools for predicting the severity of COPD in stable patients, our rule was significantly better
Johnson, Laurie H; Chambers, Patricia; Dexheimer, Judith W
Asthma is one of the most common chronic pediatric diseases. Patients with asthma often present to the emergency department for treatment for acute exacerbations. These patients may not have a primary care physician or primary care home, and thus are seeking care in the emergency department. Asthma care in the emergency department is multifaceted to treat asthma patients appropriately and provide quality care. National and international guidelines exist to help drive clinical care. Electronic and paper-based tools exist for both physicians and patients to help improve emergency, home, and preventive care. Treatment of patients with asthma should include the acute exacerbation, long-term management of controller medications, and controlling triggers in the home environment. We will address the current state of asthma research in emergency medicine in the US, and discuss some of the resources being used to help provide a medical home and improve care for patients who suffer from acute asthma exacerbations. PMID:27471415
Lin, Wei-Ching; Lin, Chien-Heng
The accurate diagnosis of pediatric acute abdominal pain is one of the most challenging tasks in the emergency department (ED) due to its unclear clinical presentation and non-specific findings in physical examinations, laboratory data, and plain radiographs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of abdominal multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) performed in the ED on pediatric patients presenting with acute abdominal pain. A retrospective chart review of children aged <18 years with acute abdominal pain who visited the emergency department and underwent MDCT between September 2004 and June 2007 was conducted. Patients with a history of trauma were excluded. A total of 156 patients with acute abdominal pain (85 males and 71 females, age 1-17 years; mean age 10.9 ± 4.6 years) who underwent abdominal MDCT in the pediatric ED during this 3-year period were enrolled in the study. One hundred and eighteen patients with suspected appendicitis underwent abdominal MDCT. Sixty four (54.2%) of them had appendicitis, which was proven by histopathology. The sensitivity of abdominal MDCT for appendicitis was found to be 98.5% and the specificity was 84.9%. In this study, the other two common causes of nontraumatic abdominal emergencies were gastrointestinal tract (GI) infections and ovarian cysts. The most common etiology of abdominal pain in children that requires imaging with abdominal MDCT is appendicitis. MDCT has become a preferred and invaluable imaging modality in evaluating uncertain cases of pediatric acute abdominal pain in ED, in particular for suspected appendicitis, neoplasms, and gastrointestinal abnormalities.
Maddineshat, Maryam; Rosenstein, Alan H; Akaberi, Arash; Tabatabaeichehr, Mahbubeh
Introduction: Disruptive behaviors cause many problems in the workplace, especially in the emergency department (ED).This study was conducted to assess the physician’s and nurse’s perspective toward disruptive behaviors in the emergency department. Methods: In this cross-sectional study a total of 45 physicians and 110 nurses working in the emergency department of five general hospitals in Bojnurd participated. Data were collected using a translated, changed, and validated questionnaire (25 item). The collected data were analyzed by SPSS ver.13 software. Results: Findings showed that physicians gave more importance to nurse-physician relationships in the ED when compared to nurses’ perspective (90% vs. 70%). In this study, 81% of physicians and 52% of nurses exhibited disruptive behaviors. According to the participants these behaviors could result in adverse outcomes, such as stress (97%), job dissatisfaction and can compromise patient safety (53%), quality of care (72%), and errors (70%). Conclusion: Disruptive behaviors could have a negative effects on relationships and collaboration among medical staffs, and on patients’ quality of care as well. It is essential to provide some practical strategies for prevention of these behaviors. PMID:27752490
Safdar, Basmah; D’Onofrio, Gail
Emergency departments (ED) in the United States see over eight million cases of chest pain annually. While a cardinal symptom of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), multiple emergent and non-emergent causes can attribute to chest pain. This case-based perspective describes the different sex-specific causes of angina seen in ED patients. Once coronary artery disease (CAD) is ruled out with standard protocols, microvascular dysfunction is perhaps the most prevalent but under-diagnosed cause of non-CAD related angina in ED patients. Additional causes include coronary artery spasm, coronary artery dissection, coronary artery endothelial dysfunction and myocardial bridging. Non-CAD related angina is associated with persistent chest pain causing poor function, quality of life, and recidivism. Clinicians should consider additional diagnostics to routinely screen for non-CAD related causes of angina in patients with recurrent chest pain. Future work is needed to better define the epidemiological, clinical, biological, and genetic correlates of microvascular dysfunction in these patients. PMID:27354848
Yersin, Corinne; Hemme, Denis; Gehri, Mario; Pittet, Anne; Rey-Bellet Gasser, Céline
In Switzerland, overcrowding in tertiary emergency departments is a frequent problem, resulting in lengthy waiting times, lower satisfaction on the part of families and a risk for patient's safety. The setting up of a nurse consultation in a university paediatric emergency centre has helped to improve the quality of care in this context.
Mayer, T A; Cates, R J; Mastorovich, M J; Royalty, D L
Customer service initiatives in healthcare have become a popular way of attempting to improve patient satisfaction. This study investigates the effect of clinically focused customer service training on patient satisfaction in the setting of a 62,000-visit emergency department and level I trauma center. Analysis of patient complaints, patient compliments, and a statistically verified patient-satisfaction survey indicate that (1) all 14 key quality characteristics identified in the survey increased dramatically in the study period; (2) patient complaints decreased by over 70 percent from 2.6 per 1,000 emergency department (ED) visits to 0.6 per 1,000 ED visits following customer service training; and (3) patient compliments increased more than 100 percent from 1.1 per 1,000 ED visits to 2.3 per 1,000 ED visits. The most dramatic improvement in the patient satisfaction survey came in ratings of skill of the emergency physician, likelihood of returning, skill of the emergency department nurse, and overall satisfaction. These results show that clinically focused customer service training improves patient satisfaction and ratings of physician and nurse skill. They also suggest that such training may offer a substantial competitive market advantage, as well as improve the patients' perception of quality and outcome.
Feng, Yen-Yi; Wu, I-Chin; Chen, Tzu-Li
The number of emergency cases or emergency room visits rapidly increases annually, thus leading to an imbalance in supply and demand and to the long-term overcrowding of hospital emergency departments (EDs). However, current solutions to increase medical resources and improve the handling of patient needs are either impractical or infeasible in the Taiwanese environment. Therefore, EDs must optimize resource allocation given limited medical resources to minimize the average length of stay of patients and medical resource waste costs. This study constructs a multi-objective mathematical model for medical resource allocation in EDs in accordance with emergency flow or procedure. The proposed mathematical model is complex and difficult to solve because its performance value is stochastic; furthermore, the model considers both objectives simultaneously. Thus, this study develops a multi-objective simulation optimization algorithm by integrating a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II) with multi-objective computing budget allocation (MOCBA) to address the challenges of multi-objective medical resource allocation. NSGA II is used to investigate plausible solutions for medical resource allocation, and MOCBA identifies effective sets of feasible Pareto (non-dominated) medical resource allocation solutions in addition to effectively allocating simulation or computation budgets. The discrete event simulation model of ED flow is inspired by a Taiwan hospital case and is constructed to estimate the expected performance values of each medical allocation solution as obtained through NSGA II. Finally, computational experiments are performed to verify the effectiveness and performance of the integrated NSGA II and MOCBA method, as well as to derive non-dominated medical resource allocation solutions from the algorithms.
Gunn, Martin L; Marin, Jennifer R; Mills, Angela M; Chong, Suzanne T; Froemming, Adam T; Johnson, Jamlik O; Kumaravel, Manickam; Sodickson, Aaron D
In May 2015, the Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Diagnostic imaging in the emergency department: a research agenda to optimize utilization" was held. The goal of the conference was to develop a high-priority research agenda regarding emergency diagnostic imaging on which to base future research. In addition to representatives from the Society of Academic Emergency Medicine, the multidisciplinary conference included members of several radiology organizations: American Society for Emergency Radiology, Radiological Society of North America, the American College of Radiology, and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. The specific aims of the conference were to (1) understand the current state of evidence regarding emergency department (ED) diagnostic imaging utilization and identify key opportunities, limitations, and gaps in knowledge; (2) develop a consensus-driven research agenda emphasizing priorities and opportunities for research in ED diagnostic imaging; and (3) explore specific funding mechanisms available to facilitate research in ED diagnostic imaging. Through a multistep consensus process, participants developed targeted research questions for future research in six content areas within emergency diagnostic imaging: clinical decision rules; use of administrative data; patient-centered outcomes research; training, education, and competency; knowledge translation and barriers to imaging optimization; and comparative effectiveness research in alternatives to traditional computed tomography use.
Background The population of ex-prisoners returning to their communities is large. Morbidity and mortality is increased during the period following release. Understanding utilization of emergency services by this population may inform interventions to reduce adverse outcomes. We examined Emergency Department utilization among a cohort of recently released prisoners. Methods We linked Rhode Island Department of Corrections records with electronic health record data from a large hospital system from 2007 to 2009 to analyze emergency department utilization for mental health disorders, substance use disorders and ambulatory care sensitive conditions by ex-prisoners in the year after release from prison in comparison to the general population, controlling for patient- and community-level factors. Results There were 333,369 total ED visits with 5,145 visits by a cohort of 1,434 ex-prisoners. In this group, 455 ex-prisoners had 3 or more visits within 1 year of release and 354 had a first ED visit within 1 month of release. ED visits by ex-prisoners were more likely to be made by men (85% vs. 48%, p < 0.001) and by blacks (26% vs. 16%, p < 0.001) compared to the Rhode Island general population. Ex-prisoners were more likely to have an ED visit for a mental health disorder (6% vs. 4%, p < 0.001) or substance use disorder (16%vs. 4%, p < 0.001). After controlling for patient- and community-level factors, ex-prisoner visits were significantly more likely to be for mental health disorders (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.27-1.61), substance use disorders (OR 1.93; 95% CI 1.77-2.11) and ambulatory care sensitive conditions (OR 1.09; 95% CI 1.00-1.18). Conclusions ED visits by ex-prisoners were significantly more likely due to three conditions optimally managed in outpatient settings. Future work should determine whether greater access to outpatient services after release from prison reduces ex-prisoners’ utilization of emergency services. PMID:24188513
Ciesielski, Gail; Clark, Nora
Emergency departments must answer the call of all patients at any time of the day. However, as the typical day progresses, bottlenecks may develop in the process of delivering care. Patient safety can be compromised. This article summarizes key current issues in emergency department safety. Factors that affect patient safety are numerous; however, the best intervention may be reducing patient length of stay. Increasing number of patients and aging populations add to the risk of injury when the patient's length of stay exceeds the accommodations and capabilities of traditional short-stay acute-care oriented emergency facilities.
Introduction In low- and middle-income countries, injuries are a leading cause of mortality in children. Much work has been done in the context of unintentional injuries but there is limited knowledge about intentional injuries among children. The objective of this paper was to understand the characteristics of children with intentional injuries presenting to emergency departments in Pakistan. Methods The data was from the Pakistan National Emergency Departments Surveillance (Pak-NEDS), conducted from November 2010 to March 2011 in seven major emergency departments of Pakistan. Data on 30,937 children under 18 years of age was collected. This paper reports frequency of intentional injuries and compares patient demographics, nature of injury, and discharge outcome for two categories of intentional injuries: assault and self-inflicted injuries. Results Intentional injuries presenting to the emergency departments (EDs) accounted for 8.2% (2551/30,937) amongst all other causes for under 18 years. The boy to girl ratio was 1:0.35. Intentional injuries included assault (n = 1679, 65.8%) and self-inflicted injuries (n = 872, 34.2%). Soft tissue injuries were most commonly seen in assault injuries in boys and girls but fractures were more common in self-inflicted injuries in both genders. Conclusion Intentional injury is one of the reasons for seeking emergency treatment amongst children and a contributor to morbidity in EDs of Pakistan. Moreover, such injuries may be underestimated due to lack of reporting and investigative resources. Early identification may be the first step leading to prevention. PMID:26692292
Background The utilization of ambulances in low- and middle-income countries is limited. The aim of this study was to ascertain frequency of ambulance use and characteristics of patients brought into emergency departments (EDs) through ambulance and non-ambulance modes of transportation. Methods The Pakistan National Emergency Departments Surveillance (Pak-NEDS) was a pilot active surveillance conducted in seven major tertiary-care EDs in six main cities of Pakistan between November 2010 and March 2011. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to investigate the factors associated with ambulance use. Results Out of 274,436 patients enrolled in Pak-NEDS, the mode of arrival to the ED was documented for 94. 9% (n = 260,378) patients, of which 4.1% (n = 10,546) came to EDs via ambulances. The mean age of patients in the ambulance group was significantly higher compared to the mean age of the non-ambulance group (38 ± 18.4 years versus 32.8 ± 14.9 years, p-value < 0.001). The most common presenting complaint in the ambulance group was head injury (12%) while among non-ambulance users it was fever (12%). Patients of all age groups were less likely to use an ambulance compared to those >45 years of age (p-value < 0.001) adjusted for gender, cities, hospital type, presenting complaint group and disposition. The adjusted odds ratio of utilizing ambulances for those with injuries was 3.5 times higher than those with non-injury complaints (p-value < 0.001). Patients brought to the ED by ambulance were 7.2 times more likely to die in the ED than non-ambulance patients after adjustment for other variables in the model. Conclusion Utilization of ambulances is very low in Pakistan. Ambulance use was found to be more among the elderly and those presenting with injuries. Patients presenting via ambulances were more likely to die in the ED. PMID:26689242
Holst, Jenelle A.; Perman, Sarah M.; Capp, Roberta; Haukoos, Jason S.; Ginde, Adit A.
Introduction Accurate field triage of critically injured patients to trauma centers is vital for improving survival. We sought to estimate the national degree of undertriage of trauma patients who die in emergency departments (EDs) by evaluating the frequency and characteristics associated with triage to non-trauma centers. Methods This was a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of adult ED trauma deaths in the 2010 National Emergency Department Sample (NEDS). The primary outcome was appropriate triage to a trauma center (Level I, II or III) or undertriage to a non-trauma center. We subsequently focused on urban areas given improved access to trauma centers. We evaluated the associations of patient demographics, hospital region and mechanism of injury with triage to a trauma versus non-trauma center using multivariable logistic regression. Results We analyzed 3,971 included visits, representing 18,464 adult ED trauma-related deaths nationally. Of all trauma deaths, nearly half (44.5%, 95% CI [43.0–46.0]) of patients were triaged to non-trauma centers. In a subgroup analysis, over a third of urban ED visits (35.6%, 95% CI [34.1–37.1]) and most rural ED visits (86.4%, 95% CI [81.5–90.1]) were triaged to non-trauma centers. In urban EDs, female patients were less likely to be triaged to trauma centers versus non-trauma centers (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.83, 95% CI [0.70–0.99]). Highest median household income zip codes (≥$67,000) were less likely to be triaged to trauma centers than lowest median income ($1–40,999) (OR 0.54, 95% CI [0.43–0.69]). Compared to motor vehicle trauma, firearm trauma had similar odds of being triaged to a trauma center (OR 0.90, 95% CI [0.71–1.14]); however, falls were less likely to be triaged to a trauma center (OR 0.50, 95 %CI [0.38–0.66]). Conclusion We found that nearly half of all trauma patients nationally and one-third of urban trauma patients, who died in the ED, were triaged to non-trauma centers, and thus
Friedman, Benjamin W.; Solorzano, Clemencia; Norton, Jennifer; Adewumni, Victoria; Campbell, Caron M.; Esses, David; Bijur, Polly E.; Solomon, Seymour; Lipton, Richard B.; Gallagher, E. John
Objectives Patients who use an emergency department (ED) for acute migraine headaches have higher migraine disability scores and lower socioeconomic status and are unlikely to have used a migraine-specific medication prior to presentation to the ED. The objective was to determine if a comprehensive migraine intervention, delivered just prior to ED discharge, could improve migraine impact scores 1 month after the ED visit. Methods This was a randomized controlled trial of a comprehensive migraine intervention versus typical care among patients who presented to an ED for management of acute migraine. At the time of discharge, for patients randomized to comprehensive care, the authors’ protocol reinforced their diagnosis, shared a migraine education presentation from the National Library of Medicine, provided them with six tablets of sumatriptan 100 mg and 14 tablets of naproxen 500 mg, and if they wished, provided them with an expedited free appointment to our institution's headache clinic. Patients randomized to typical care received the care their attending emergency physicians (EPs) felt was appropriate. The primary outcome was a between-group comparison of the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6) score, a validated headache assessment instrument, 1 month after ED discharge. Secondary outcomes included an assessment of satisfaction with headache care and frequency of use of migraine-specific medication within that 1-month period. Results Over a 19-month period, 50 migraine patients were enrolled. One-month follow-up was successfully obtained in 92% of patients. Baseline characteristics were comparable. One-month HIT-6 scores in the two groups were nearly identical (59 vs. 56, 95% confidence interval [CI] for difference of 3 = –5 to 11), as was dissatisfaction with overall headache care (17% vs. 18%, 95% CI for difference of 1% = –22% to 24%). Patients randomized to the comprehensive intervention were more likely to be using triptans or migraine-specific therapy (43
Lauks, Juliane; Mramor, Blaz; Baumgartl, Klaus; Maier, Heinrich; Nickel, Christian H.; Bingisser, Roland
Emergency Departments (ED) are trying to alleviate crowding using various interventions. We assessed the effect of an alternative model of care, the Medical Team Evaluation (MTE) concept, encompassing team triage, quick registration, redesign of triage rooms and electronic medical records (EMR) on door-to-doctor (waiting) time and ED length of stay (LOS). We conducted an observational, before-and-after study at an urban academic tertiary care centre. On July 17th 2014, MTE was initiated from 9:00 a.m. to 10 p.m., 7 days a week. A registered triage nurse was teamed with an additional senior ED physician. Data of the 5-month pre-MTE and the 5-month MTE period were analysed. A matched comparison of waiting times and ED LOS of discharged and admitted patients pertaining to various Emergency Severity Index (ESI) triage categories was performed based on propensity scores. With MTE, the median waiting times improved from 41.2 (24.8–66.6) to 10.2 (5.7–18.1) minutes (min; P < 0.01). Though being beneficial for all strata, the improvement was somewhat greater for discharged, than for admitted patients. With a reduction from 54.3 (34.2–84.7) to 10.5 (5.9–18.4) min (P < 0.01), in terms of waiting times, MTE was most advantageous for ESI4 patients. The overall median ED LOS increased for about 15 min (P < 0.01), increasing from 3.4 (2.1–5.3) to 3.7 (2.3–5.6) hours. A significant increase was observed for all the strata, except for ESI5 patients. Their median ED LOS dropped by 73% from 1.2 (0.8–1.8) to 0.3 (0.2–0.5) hours (P < 0.01). In the same period the total orders for diagnostic radiology increased by 1,178 (11%) from 10,924 to 12,102 orders, with more imaging tests being ordered for ESI 2, 3 and 4 patients. Despite improved waiting times a decrease of ED LOS was only seen in ESI level 5 patients, whereas in all the other strata ED LOS increased. We speculate that this was brought about by the tendency of triage physicians to order more diagnostic radiology
Carpenter, Christopher R.; Avidan, Michael S.; Wildes, Tanya; Stark, Susan; Fowler, Susan A.; Lo, Alexander X.
Background Falls are the leading cause of traumatic mortality in geriatric adults. Despite recent multispecialty guideline recommendations that advocate for proactive fall prevention protocols in the emergency department (ED), the ability of risk factors or risk stratification instruments to identify subsets of geriatric patients at increased risk for short-term falls is largely unexplored. Objectives This was a systematic review and meta-analysis of ED-based history, physical examination, and fall risk stratification instruments with the primary objective of providing a quantitative estimate for each risk factor’s accuracy to predict future falls. A secondary objective was to quantify ED fall risk assessment test and treatment thresholds using derived estimates of sensitivity and specificity. Methods A medical librarian and two emergency physicians (EPs) conducted a medical literature search of PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL, DARE, the Cochrane Registry, and Clinical Trials. Unpublished research was located by a hand search of emergency medicine (EM) research abstracts from national meetings. Inclusion criteria for original studies included ED-based assessment of pre-ED or post-ED fall risk in patients 65 years and older with sufficient detail to reproduce contingency tables for meta-analysis. Original study authors were contacted for additional details when necessary. The Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) was used to assess individual study quality for those studies that met inclusion criteria. When more than one qualitatively similar study assessed the same risk factor for falls at the same interval following an ED evaluation, then meta-analysis was performed using Meta-DiSc software. The primary outcomes were sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios for fall risk factors or risk stratification instruments. Secondary outcomes included estimates of test and treatment thresholds using the Pauker method based on accuracy
Wong, Ambrose H.; Wing, Lisa; Weiss, Brenda; Gang, Maureen
Introduction While treating potentially violent patients in the emergency department (ED), both patients and staff may be subject to unintentional injury. Emergency healthcare providers are at the greatest risk of experiencing physical and verbal assault from patients. Preliminary studies have shown that a team-based approach with targeted staff training has significant positive outcomes in mitigating violence in healthcare settings. Staff attitudes toward patient aggression have also been linked to workplace safety, but current literature suggests that providers experience fear and anxiety while caring for potentially violent patients. The objectives of the study were (1) to develop an interprofessional curriculum focusing on improving teamwork and staff attitudes toward patient violence using simulation-enhanced education for ED staff, and (2) to assess attitudes towards patient aggression both at pre- and post-curriculum implementation stages using a survey-based study design. Methods Formal roles and responsibilities for each member of the care team, including positioning during restraint placement, were predefined in conjunction with ED leadership. Emergency medicine residents, nurses and hospital police officers were assigned to interprofessional teams. The curriculum started with an introductory lecture discussing de-escalation techniques and restraint placement as well as core tenets of interprofessional collaboration. Next, we conducted two simulation scenarios using standardized participants (SPs) and structured debriefing. The study consisted of a survey-based design comparing pre- and post-intervention responses via a paired Student t-test to assess changes in staff attitudes. We used the validated Management of Aggression and Violence Attitude Scale (MAVAS) consisting of 30 Likert-scale questions grouped into four themed constructs. Results One hundred sixty-two ED staff members completed the course with >95% staff participation, generating a total of
Rosen, Tony; Bloemen, Elizabeth M.; LoFaso, Veronica M.; Clark, Sunday; Flomenbaum, Neal; Lachs, Mark S.
Background Elder abuse is under-recognized by Emergency Department (ED) providers, largely due to challenges distinguishing between abuse and accidental trauma. Objective To describe patterns and circumstances surrounding elder abuse-related and potentially abuse-related injuries in ED patients independently known to be physical elder abuse victims. Methods ED utilization of community-dwelling victims of physical elder abuse in New Haven, CT from 1981-1994 was analyzed previously. Cases were identified using Elderly Protective Services data matched to ED records. 66 ED visits were judged to have high probability of being related to elder abuse and 244 of indeterminate probability. We re-examined these visits to assess whether they occurred due to injury. We identified and analyzed in detail 31 injury-associated ED visits from 26 patients with high probability of being related to elder abuse and 108 visits from 57 patients with intermediate probability and accidental injury. Results Abuse-related injuries were most common on upper extremities (45% of visits) and lower extremities (32%), with injuries on head or neck noted in 13 visits (42%). Bruising was observed in 39% of visits, most commonly on upper extremities. 42% of purportedly accidental injuries had suspicious characteristics, with the most common suspicious circumstance being injury occurring >1 day prior to presentation and the most common suspicious injury pattern being maxillofacial injuries. Conclusion Victims of physical elder abuse commonly have injuries on upper extremities, head, and neck. Suspicious circumstances and injury patterns may be identified and are commonly present when victims of physical elder abuse present with purportedly accidental injuries. PMID:26810019
Neuman, Mark I.; Ting, Sarah A.; Meydani, Ahou; Mansbach, Jonathan M.; Camargo, Carlos A.
Objectives The Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) and American Thoracic Society (ATS) developed guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP); however, there are sparse data on actual rates of antibiotic use in the emergency department (ED) setting. Methods Data were obtained from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey for ED visits during 1993 through 2008 for adults with a diagnosis of pneumonia. Results During the study period there were an estimated 23,252,000 pneumonia visits, representing 1.8% of all ED visits. The visit rate for pneumonia during this 15-year period may have increased (P trend = 0.055). Overall, 66% of adult patients with a primary diagnosis of pneumonia had documentation of an antibiotic administered while in the ED. There was an increase in antibiotic administration for adults with pneumonia from 1993 through 2008 (49% to 80%; P trend < 0.001). Specifically, there was an increase in use of macrolides from 1993 to 2006 (20% to 30%, P trend < 0.001) and a marked increase in use of quinolones from 0% to 39% from 1993 through 2008 (P trend < 0.001). Penicillin and cephalosporin use remained stable. Use of an antibiotic consistent with 2007 IDSA/ATS guidelines increased from 22% (95% CI = 16% to 27%) of cases in 1993–1994, to 68% (95% CI = 63% to 73%) of cases in 2007–2008 (P trend < 0.001). Conclusions ED visit rates for pneumonia increased slightly from 1993 through 2008. Although antibiotic administration in the ED has increased for adults with community-acquired pneumonia, guideline-concordant antibiotics may not be consistently administered. PMID:22594360
Background Unscheduled return visits to the emergency department (ED) may reflect shortcomings in care. This study characterized ED return visits with respect to incidence, risk factors, reasons and post-ED disposition. We hypothesized that risk factors for unscheduled return and reasons for returning would differ from previous studies, due to differences in health care systems. Methods All unscheduled return visits occurring within 1 week and related to the initial ED visit were selected. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine independent factors associated with unscheduled return, using patient information available at the initial visit. Reasons for returning unscheduled were categorized into illness-, patient- or physician-related. Post-ED disposition was compared between patients with unscheduled return visits and the patients who did not return. Results Five percent (n = 2,492) of total ED visits (n = 49,341) were unscheduled return visits. Patients with an urgent triage level, patients presenting during the night shift, with a wound or local infection, abdominal pain or urinary problems were more likely to return unscheduled. Reasons to revisit unscheduled were mostly illness-related (49%) or patient-related (41%). Admission rates for returning patients (16%) were the same as for the patients who did not return (17%). Conclusions Apart from abdominal complaints, risk factors for unscheduled return differ from previous studies. Short-term follow-up at the outpatient clinic or general practitioner for patients with urgent triage levels and suffering from wounds or local infections, abdominal pain or urinary problem might prevent unscheduled return. PMID:25045407
Choi, Namkee G.; Marti, C. Nate Nathan; DiNitto, Diana M.; Choi, Bryan Y.
Introduction Late middle-aged and older adults’ share of emergency department (ED) visits is increasing more than other age groups. ED visits by individuals with substance-related problems are also increasing. This paper was intended to identify subgroups of individuals aged 50+ by their risk for ED visits by examining their health/mental health status and alcohol use patterns. Methods Data came from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey’s Sample Adult file (n=15,713). Following descriptive analysis of sample characteristics by alcohol use patterns, latent class analysis (LCA) modeling was fit using alcohol use pattern (lifetime abstainers, ex-drinkers, current infrequent/light/moderate drinkers, and current heavy drinkers), chronic health and mental health status, and past-year ED visits as indicators. Results LCA identified a four-class model. All members of Class 1 (35% of the sample; lowest-risk group) were infrequent/light/moderate drinkers and exhibited the lowest probabilities of chronic health/mental health problems; Class 2 (21%; low-risk group) consisted entirely of lifetime abstainers and, despite being the oldest group, exhibited low probabilities of health/mental health problems; Class 3 (37%; moderate-risk group) was evenly divided between ex-drinkers and heavy drinkers; and Class 4 (7%; high-risk group) included all four groups of drinkers but more ex-drinkers. In addition, Class 4 had the highest probabilities of chronic health/mental problems, unhealthy behaviors, and repeat ED visits, with the highest proportion of Blacks and the lowest proportions of college graduates and employed persons, indicating significant roles of these risk factors. Conclusion Alcohol nonuse/use (and quantity of use) and chronic health conditions are significant contributors to varying levels of ED visit risk. Clinicians need to help heavy-drinking older adults reduce unhealthy alcohol consumption and help both heavy drinkers and ex-drinkers improve chronic
Self, Wesley H.; Speroff, Theodore; Grijalva, Carlos G.; McNaughton, Candace D.; Ashburn, Jacki; Liu, Dandan; Arbogast, Patrick G.; Russ, Stephan; Storrow, Alan B.; Talbot, Thomas R.
Objectives Blood culture contamination is a common problem in the emergency department (ED) that leads to unnecessary patient morbidity and health care costs. The study objective was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a quality improvement (QI) intervention for reducing blood culture contamination in an ED. Methods The authors developed a QI intervention to reduce blood culture contamination in the ED and then evaluated its effectiveness in a prospective interrupted times series study. The QI intervention involved changing the technique of blood culture specimen collection from the traditional clean procedure, to a new sterile procedure, with standardized use of sterile gloves and a new materials kit containing a 2% chlorhexidine skin antisepsis device, a sterile fenestrated drape, a sterile needle, and a procedural checklist. The intervention was implemented in a university-affiliated ED and its effect on blood culture contamination evaluated by comparing the biweekly percentages of blood cultures contaminated during a 48-week baseline period (clean technique), and 48-week intervention period (sterile technique), using segmented regression analysis with adjustment for secular trends and first-order autocorrelation. The goal was to achieve and maintain a contamination rate below 3%. Results During the baseline period, 321 out of 7,389 (4.3%) cultures were contaminated, compared to 111 of 6,590 (1.7%) during the intervention period (p < 0.001). In the segmented regression model, the intervention was associated with an immediate 2.9% (95% CI = 2.2% to 3.2%) absolute reduction in contamination. The contamination rate was maintained below 3% during each biweekly interval throughout the intervention period. Conclusions A QI assessment of ED blood culture contamination led to development of a targeted intervention to convert the process of blood culture collection from a clean to a fully sterile procedure. Implementation of this intervention led to an immediate
Bekmezian, Arpi; Fee, Christopher; Weber, Ellen
Objective Poor adherence to NIH Asthma Guidelines may result in unnecessary admissions for children presenting to the emergency department (ED) with exacerbations. We determine the effect of implementing an evidence-based ED clinical pathway on corticosteroid and bronchodilator administration and imaging utilization, and the subsequent effect on hospital admissions in a US ED. Methods Prospective, interventional study of pediatric (≤21 years) visits to an academic ED between 2011 and 2013 with moderate-severe asthma exacerbations. A multidisciplinary team designed a one-page clinical pathway based on NIH guidelines. Nurses, respiratory therapists, and physicians attended educational sessions prior to pathway implementation. Adjusting for demographics, acuity, and ED volume, we compared timing and appropriateness of corticosteroid and bronchodilator administration, and chest radiograph (CXR) utilization with historical controls from 2006–2011. Subsequent hospital admission rates were also compared. Results 379 post-intervention visits were compared with 870 controls. Corticosteroids were more likely to be administered during post-intervention visits (96% vs. 78%, adjusted OR 6.35; 95%CI 3.17–12.73). Post-intervention, median time to corticosteroid administration was 45 minutes faster (RR 0.74; 95%CI 0.67–0.81) and more patients received corticosteroids within 1 hour of arrival (45% vs 18%, OR 3.5; 95%CI 2.50–4.90). More patients received >1 bronchodilator dose within 1 hour (36% vs 24%, OR 1.65; 95%CI 1.23–2.21) and fewer received CXRs (27% vs 42%, OR 0.7; 95%CI 0.52–0.94). There were fewer admissions post-intervention (13% vs. 21%, OR 0.53; 95%CI 0.37–0.76). Conclusion A clinical pathway is associated with improved adherence to NIH guidelines and, subsequently, fewer hospital admissions for pediatric ED patients with asthma exacerbations. PMID:25985707
Gholipour, Changiz; Rad, Bahram Samadi; Vahdati, Samad Shams; Ghaffarzad, Amir; Masoud, Armita
BACKGROUND: Trauma is considered as a worldwide problem despite socio-economic development. Motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) are the most important cause of trauma. Trauma related deaths are mostly preventable. This study aimed to investigate the causes and prevention of death in trauma patients. METHODS: This retrospective, descriptive-analytic study assessed 100 trauma patients referred to our emergency department (ED) from January 2013 to Januanry 2015. The included patients were those with trauma died after arrival at our ED. Age, sex, cause of trauma, clinical causes of death, causes of death defined by autopsy, way of transfer to the ED, time of ambulance arrival at the scene of trauma, and time elapsed to enter the ED from the scene of trauma were studied. RESULTS: In the 100 patients, 21 (21%) patients were female and 79 (79%) male. Forty-three patients were older than 60 years. Trauma was largely due to pedestrian accidents in 31% of the patients, and 33% had a hypo-volemic shock. About 80% of deaths were due to intra-cranial hemorrhage (ICH) or intra-ventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and spinal injuries were not preventable. Autopsy revealed that 28% of the patients suffered from internal injuries. Autopsy revealed that 19% of the deaths were not preventable and 81% were considered preventable. In our patients, 76 were transferred to the hospital by emergency medicine services (EMS). Analysis of time for ambulance arrival to the scene and frequency of death revealed that 52.2% of the deaths occurred between 11 and 15 minutes. Analysis of time for admission to the ED from the scene of trauma showed that 74.6% deaths occurred between 6 and 10 minutes. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of hospital preventable deaths is about 80%, a high mortality rate, which denotes a lack of proper diagnosis and treatment. The time for arrival of EMS at the scene of trauma is longer than that in other countries. PMID:27313809
Ng, Chip-Jin; Liao, Pei-Ju; Chang, Yu-Che; Kuan, Jen-Tze; Chen, Jih-Chang; Hsu, Kuang-Hung
Abstract Nonurgent emergency department (ED) patients are a controversial issue in the era of ED overcrowding. However, a substantial number of post-ED hospitalizations were found, which prompted for investigation and strategy management. The objective of this study is to identify risk factors for predicting the subsequent hospitalization of nonurgent emergency patients. This was a retrospective study of a database of adult nontrauma ED visits in a medical center for a period of 12 months from January 2013 to December 2013. Patient triages as either Taiwan Triage and Acuity Scale (TTAS) level 4 or 5 were considered “nonurgent.” Basic demographic data, primary and secondary diagnoses, clinical parameters including blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, and chief complaint category in TTAS were analyzed to determine if correlation exists between potential predictors and hospitalization in nonurgent patients. A total of 16,499 nonurgent patients were included for study. The overall hospitalization rate was 12.47 % (2058/16,499). In the multiple logistic regression model, patients with characteristics of males (odds ratio, OR = 1.37), age more than 65 years old (OR = 1.56), arrival by ambulance (OR = 2.40), heart rate more than 100/min (OR = 1.47), fever (OR = 2.73), and presented with skin swelling/redness (OR = 4.64) were predictors for hospitalization. The area under receiver-operator calibration curve (AUROC) for the prediction model was 0.70. Nonurgent patients might still be admitted for further care especially in male, the elderly, with more secondary diagnoses, abnormal vital signs, and presented with dermatologic complaints. Using the TTAS acuity level to identify patients for diversion away from the ED is unsafe and will lead to inappropriate refusal of care for many patients requiring hospital treatment. PMID:27368040
Pathan, Sameer A.; Bhutta, Zain A.; Moinudheen, Jibin; Jenkins, Dominic; Silva, Ashwin D.; Sharma, Yogdutt; Saleh, Warda A.; Khudabakhsh, Zeenat; Irfan, Furqan B.; Thomas, Stephen H.
Background: Standard Emergency Department (ED) operations goals include minimization of the time interval (tMD) between patients' initial ED presentation and initial physician evaluation. This study assessed factors known (or suspected) to influence tMD with a two-step goal. The first step was generation of a multivariate model identifying parameters associated with prolongation of tMD at a single study center. The second step was the use of a study center-specific multivariate tMD model as a basis for predictive marginal probability analysis; the marginal model allowed for prediction of the degree of ED operations benefit that would be affected with specific ED operations improvements. Methods: The study was conducted using one month (May 2015) of data obtained from an ED administrative database (EDAD) in an urban academic tertiary ED with an annual census of approximately 500,000; during the study month, the ED saw 39,593 cases. The EDAD data were used to generate a multivariate linear regression model assessing the various demographic and operational covariates' effects on the dependent variable tMD. Predictive marginal probability analysis was used to calculate the relative contributions of key covariates as well as demonstrate the likely tMD impact on modifying those covariates with operational improvements. Analyses were conducted with Stata 14MP, with significance defined at p < 0.05 and confidence intervals (CIs) reported at the 95% level. Results: In an acceptable linear regression model that accounted for just over half of the overall variance in tMD (adjusted r 2 0.51), important contributors to tMD included shift census (p = 0.008), shift time of day (p = 0.002), and physician coverage n (p = 0.004). These strong associations remained even after adjusting for each other and other covariates. Marginal predictive probability analysis was used to predict the overall tMD impact (improvement from 50 to 43 minutes, p < 0.001) of consistent staffing
Background Emergency department (ED) visit and hospital admissions (HA) data have been an indispensible resource for assessing acute morbidity impacts of air pollution. ED visits and HAs are types of health care visits with similarities, but also potentially important differences. Little previous information is available regarding the impact of health care visit type on observed acute air pollution-health associations from studies conducted for the same location, time period, outcome definitions and model specifications. Methods As part of a broader study of air pollution and health in St. Louis, individual-level ED and HA data were obtained for a 6.5 year period for acute care hospitals in the eight Missouri counties of the St. Louis metropolitan area. Patient demographic characteristics and diagnostic code distributions were compared for four visit types including ED visits, HAs, HAs that came through the ED, and non-elective HAs. Time-series analyses of the relationship between daily ambient ozone and PM2.5 and selected cardiorespiratory outcomes were conducted for each visit type. Results Our results indicate that, compared with ED patients, HA patients tended to be older, had evidence of greater severity for some outcomes, and had a different mix of specific outcomes. Consideration of ‘HA through ED’ appeared to more effectively select acute visits than consideration of ‘non-elective HA’. While outcomes with the strongest observed temporal associations with air pollutants tended to show strong associations for all visit types, we found some differences in observed associations for ED visits and HAs. For example, risk ratios for the respiratory disease-ozone association were 1.020 for ED visits and 1.004 for ‘HA through ED’; risk ratios for the asthma/wheeze-ozone association were 1.069 for ED visits and 1.106 for ‘HA through ED’. Several factors (e.g. age) were identified that may be responsible, in part, for the differences in observed
Lucaroni, Francesca; Gilardi, Francesco; Caredda, Emanuele; Pesaresi, Alessia; Coscia, Massimo; Orlando, Stefano; Brandi, Antonella; Giovagnoli, Germano; Di Lecce, Vito N.; Visconti, Giuseppe; Palombi, Leonardo
Introduction The elderly, who suffer from multiple chronic diseases, represent a substantial proportion of Emergency Department (ED) frequent users, thus contributing to ED overcrowding, although they could benefit from other health care facilities, if those were available. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize hospital visits of older patients (age 65 or greater) to the ED of a university teaching hospital in Rome from the 1st of January to the 31st of December 2014, in order to identify clinical and social characteristics potentially associated with “elderly frequent users”. Material and Methods A retrospective study was performed during the calendar year 2014 (1st January 2014 – 31st December 2014) analyzing all ED admissions to the University Hospital of Rome Tor Vergata. Variables collected included age, triage code, arrival data, discharge diagnosis, and visit outcome. We performed a risk analysis using univariate binary logistic regression models. Results A total number of 38,016 patients accessed the ED, generating 46,820 accesses during the study period, with an average of 1.23 accesses for patient. The elderly population represented a quarter of the total ED population and had an increased risk of frequent use (OR 1.5: CI 1.4–1.7) and hospitalization (OR 3.8: CI 3.7–4). Moreover, they showed a greater diagnostic complexity, as demonstrated by the higher incidence of yellow and red priority codes compared to other ED populations (OR 3.1: CI 2.9–3.2). Discussion Older patients presented clinical and social characteristics related to the definition of “elderly frail frequent users”. The fact that a larger number of hospitalizations occurred in such patients is indirect evidence of frailty in this specific population, suggesting that hospital admissions may be an inappropriate response to frailty, especially when continued care is not established. Conclusion Enhancement of continuity of care, establishment of a tracking system
Dexheimer, Judith W; Talbot, Thomas R.; Ye, Fei; Shyr, Yu; Jones, Ian; Gregg, William M; Aronsky, Dominik
Background Pneumococcal vaccination is an effective strategy to prevent invasive pneumococcal disease in the elderly. Emergency Department (ED) visits present an underutilized opportunity to increase vaccination rates; however, designing a sustainable vaccination program in an ED is challenging. We examined whether an information technology supported approach would provide a feasible and sustainable method to increase vaccination rates in an adult ED. Methods During a 1-year period we prospectively evaluated a team-oriented, workflow-embedded reminder system that integrated four different information systems. The computerized triage application screened all patients 65 years and older for pneumococcal vaccine eligibility with information from the electronic patient record. For eligible patients the computerized provider order entry system reminded clinicians to place a vaccination order, which was passed to the order tracking application. Documentation of vaccine administration was then added to the longitudinal electronic patient record. The primary outcome was the vaccine administration rate in the ED. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals, representing the overall relative risks of ED workload related variables associated with vaccination rate. Results Among 3,371 patients 65 years old and older screened at triage 1,309 (38.8%) were up-to-date with pneumococcal vaccination and 2,062 (61.2%) were eligible for vaccination. Of the eligible patients, 621 (30.1%) consented to receive the vaccination during their ED visit. Physicians received prompts for 428 (68.9%) patients. When prompted, physicians declined to order the vaccine in 192 (30.9%) patients, while 222 (10.8%) of eligible patients actually received the vaccine. The computerized reminder system increased vaccination rate from a baseline of 38.8% to 45.4%. Vaccination during the ED visit was associated younger age (OR: 0.972, CI: 0
Ezenkwele, Ugo A; Sites, Frank D; Shofer, Frances S; Pritchett, Ellen N; Hollander, Judd E
This study was conducted to determine whether electronic mail (e-mail) increases contact rates after patients are discharged from the emergency department (ED). Following discharge, patients were randomized to be contacted by telephone or e-mail. The main outcome was success of contact. Secondary outcome was the median time of response. There were 1561 patients initially screened. Of these, 444 had e-mail and were included in the study. Half were contacted by telephone and the rest via e-mail. Our telephone contact rate was 58% (129/222) after two calls in a 48-h period and our e-mail contact was 41% (90/222). The telephone was nearly two times better than e-mail. The median time of response was 48 h for e-mail and 18 h for telephone. It is concluded that the telephone is a better modality of contact than e-mail for patients discharged from the ED.
Lareau, Craig R.; Daniels, Alan H.; Vopat, Bryan G.; Kane, Patrick M.
Unstable ankle fractures and impacted tibial pilon fractures often benefit from provisional external fixation as a temporizing measure prior to definitive fixation. Benefits of external fixation include improved articular alignment, decreased articular impaction, and soft tissue rest. Uniplanar external fixator placement in the Emergency Department (ED ex-fix) is a reliable and safe technique for achieving ankle reduction and stability while awaiting definitive fixation. This procedure involves placing transverse proximal tibial and calcaneal traction pins and connecting the pins with two external fixator rods. This technique is particularly useful in austere environments or when the operating room is not immediately available. Additionally, this bedside intervention prevents the patient from requiring general anesthesia and may be a cost-effective strategy for decreasing valuable operating time. The ED ex-fix is an especially valuable procedure in busy trauma centers and during mass casualty events, in which resources may be limited. PMID:25709258
Horsky, Jan; Suh, Edward H; Sayan, Osman; Patel, Vimla
Handoffs are known to increase the risk of medical error and adverse events. Few electronic tools can support this process effectively, however. Our objective was to describe the relationship between clinical complexity, diagnostic uncertainty, fit with illness script and the content of case presentations by physicians. We observed the handoff of care for150 patients during eleven shift changes at a large urban emergency department (ED). Results indicate that as uncertainty about diagnosis and perceived illness script increased, more descriptive detail was conveyed to the incoming physicians. Physicians were concerned primarily with creating a shared mental model of a patient's clinical state and with describing the expected path to disposition rather than simply passing on data and findings. Electronic tools for ED handoffs should allow adjustment of structure and content to capture complexity and uncertainty appropriately without requiring extra effort for more routine cases that better fit to more standard narratives.
Choi, Ji-Young; Ko, Eun Ah; Kwon, Ki Tae; Lee, Shinwon; Kang, Choel In; Chung, Doo-Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae-Hoon; Ko, Kwan Soo
A total of 114 Acinetobacter sp. isolates were collected from patients in the emergency departments (EDs) of two Korean hospitals. Most isolates belonged to the Acinetobacter baumannii complex (105 isolates, 92.1 %). Imipenem resistance was found in 39 isolates (34.2 %) of the Acinetobacter sp. isolates, and 6 colistin-resistant isolates were also identified. Species distribution and antimicrobial-resistance rates were different between the two hospitals. In addition, two main clones were identified in the imipenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates from hospital B, but very diverse and novel genotypes were found in those from hospital A. Many Acinetobacter sp. isolates, including the imipenem-resistant A. baumannii, are considered to be associated with the community. The evidence of high antimicrobial resistance and different features in these Acinetobacter sp. isolates between the two EDs suggests the need for continuous testing to monitor changes in epidemiology.
Vaca, Federico; Winn, Diane; Anderson, Craig; Kim, Doug; Arcila, Mauricio
The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of utilizing a computerized alcohol screening and intervention (CASI) kiosk in an emergency department (ED). An interactive English and Spanish audiographical computer program, developed for used on a mobile computer cart, was administered to 5103 patients. Patients who screened at risk (19%) also received a fully computer-guided brief negotiated interview (BNI) and a printed personal alcohol reduction plan. A higher percentage of younger patients, and males (31% versus 16% females), screened at risk or dependent. Patient surveys indicated CASI was easy to use and over 75% did not prefer a medical professional over the computer. The ED-based bilingual computerized alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment required little time to administer, was acceptable to patients, identified at-risk and dependent drinkers, and was able to provide personalized feedback and brief intervention.
Heidari, Leila; Winquist, Andrea; Klein, Mitchel; O’Lenick, Cassandra; Grundstein, Andrew; Ebelt Sarnat, Stefanie
Identification of populations susceptible to heat effects is critical for targeted prevention and more accurate risk assessment. Fluid and electrolyte imbalance (FEI) may provide an objective indicator of heat morbidity. Data on daily ambient temperature and FEI emergency department (ED) visits were collected in Atlanta, Georgia, USA during 1993–2012. Associations of warm-season same-day temperatures and FEI ED visits were estimated using Poisson generalized linear models. Analyses explored associations between FEI ED visits and various temperature metrics (maximum, minimum, average, and diurnal change in ambient temperature, apparent temperature, and heat index) modeled using linear, quadratic, and cubic terms to allow for non-linear associations. Effect modification by potential determinants of heat susceptibility (sex; race; comorbid congestive heart failure, kidney disease, and diabetes; and neighborhood poverty and education levels) was assessed via stratification. Higher warm-season ambient temperature was significantly associated with FEI ED visits, regardless of temperature metric used. Stratified analyses suggested heat-related risks for all populations, but particularly for males. This work highlights the utility of FEI as an indicator of heat morbidity, the health threat posed by warm-season temperatures, and the importance of considering susceptible populations in heat-health research. PMID:27706089
Szyszkowicz, Mieczysław; Kousha, Termeh; Kingsbury, Mila; Colman, Ian
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between ambient air pollution and emergency department (ED) visits for depression. METHODS Health data were retrieved from the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System. ED visits for depression were retrieved from the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10), Tenth revision codes; ICD-10: F32 (mild depressive episode) and ICD-10: F33 (recurrent depressive disorder). A case-crossover design was employed for this study. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios. RESULTS For females, exposure to ozone was associated with increased risk of an ED visit for depression between 1 and 7 days after exposure, for males, between 1 and 5, and 8 days after exposure, with odds ratios ranging between 1.02 and 1.03. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that, as hypothesized, there is a positive association between exposure to air pollution and ED visits for depression. PMID:27597809
Redfern, Regina O.; Langlotz, Curtis P.; Lowe, Robert A.; Horii, Steven C.; Abbuhl, Stephanie B.; Kundel, Harold L.
To evaluate a conventional radiology image management system, by investigating information accuracy, and information delivery. To discuss the customization of a picture archival and communication system (PACS), integrated radiology information system (RIS) and hospital information system (HIS) to a high volume emergency department (ED). Materials and Methods: Two data collection periods were completed. After the first data collection period, a change in work rules was implemented to improve the quality of data in the image headers. Data from the RIS, the ED information system, and the HIS as well as observed time motion data were collected for patients admitted to the ED. Data accuracy, patient waiting times, and radiology exam information delivery were compared. Results: The percentage of examinations scheduled in the RIS by the technologists increased from 0% (0 of 213) during the first period to 14% (44 of 317) during the second (p less than 0.001). The percentage of images missing identification numbers decreased from 36% (98 of 272) during the first data collection period to 10% (56 of 562) during the second period (p less than 0.001). Conclusions: Radiologic services in a high-volume ED, requiring rapid service, present important challenges to a PACS system. Strategies can be implemented to improve accuracy and completeness of the data in PACS image headers in such an environment.
Moschella, Phillip C.; Hart, Kimberly W.; Ruffner, Andrew H.; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Wayne, D. Beth; Sperling, Matthew I.; Trott, Alexander T.; Fichtenbaum, Carl J.
Objectives. We estimated the seroprevalence of both acute and chronic HIV infection by using a random sample of emergency department (ED) patients from a region of the United States with low-to-moderate HIV prevalence. Methods. This cross-sectional seroprevalence study consecutively enrolled patients aged 18 to 64 years within randomly selected sampling blocks in a Midwestern urban ED in a region of lower HIV prevalence in 2008 to 2009. Participants were compensated for providing a blood sample and health information. After de-identification, we assayed samples for HIV antibody and nucleic acid. Results. There were 926 participants who consented and enrolled. Overall, prevalence of undiagnosed HIV was 0.76% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30%, 1.56%). Three participants (0.32%; 95% CI = 0.09%, 0.86%) were nucleic acid–positive but antibody-negative and 4 (0.43%; 95% CI = 0.15%, 1.02%) were antibody-positive. Conclusions. Even when the absolute prevalence is low, a considerable proportion of undetected HIV cases in an ED population are acute. Identification of acute HIV in ED settings should receive increased priority. PMID:25033145
Phelan, Michael P; Hustey, Fredric M; Glauser, Jonathan M; Bena, James
Confirmation of endotracheal tube (ETT) position is an essential part of emergency department (ED) airway care. The study team evaluated the effect of a multifaceted quality improvement initiative on improving confirmation documentation rates. Rates of documentation of appropriate methods of ETT position confirmation were better for patients undergoing ETT placement in the study site ED than for those arriving already intubated (103/127 [81.1%] vs 19/71 [26.8%]; relative risk [RR] = 3.03; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.04 to 4.49). Overall rates of documentation of appropriate methods of ETT position confirmation were higher after the intervention (557/758 [73.5%] vs 122/198 [61.6%]; RR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.34), with a greater increase among the group presenting to the ED with an ETT already placed (116/259 [44.8%] vs 19/71 [26.8%]; RR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.11 to 2.51) compared with those intubated in the study site ED (103/127 [81.1%] vs 441/499 [88.4%]; RR = 0.92; 95% CI = 0.8389 to 1.0039).
Quirke, M; Saunders, J; O'Sullivan, R; Milenkovski, H; Wakai, A
To characterise the Emergency Department (ED) prevalence of cellulitis, factors predicting oral antibiotic therapy and the utility of the Clinical Resource Efficiency Support Team (CREST) guideline in predicting patient management in the ED setting, a prospective, cross-sectional study of consecutive adult patients presenting to 3 Irish EDs was performed. The overall prevalence of cellulitis was 12 per 1,000 ED visits. Of 59 patients enrolled, 45.8% were discharged. Predictors of treatment with oral antibiotics were: CREST, Class 1 allocation (odds ratio (OR) 6.81, 95% Cl =1.5-30.1, p=0.012), patient self-referral (OR= 6.2, 95% Cl 1.9- 20.0, p=0.03) and symptom duration longer than 48 hours (OR 1.2, 95% Cl = 1.0-1.5,p=0.049). In conflict with guideline recommendation, 43% of patients in CREST Class 1 received IV therapy. Treatment with oral antibiotics was predicted by CREST Class 1 allocation, self-referral, symptom duration of more than 48 hours and absence of pre-EO antibiotic therapy.
Heidari, Leila; Winquist, Andrea; Klein, Mitchel; O'Lenick, Cassandra; Grundstein, Andrew; Ebelt Sarnat, Stefanie
Identification of populations susceptible to heat effects is critical for targeted prevention and more accurate risk assessment. Fluid and electrolyte imbalance (FEI) may provide an objective indicator of heat morbidity. Data on daily ambient temperature and FEI emergency department (ED) visits were collected in Atlanta, Georgia, USA during 1993-2012. Associations of warm-season same-day temperatures and FEI ED visits were estimated using Poisson generalized linear models. Analyses explored associations between FEI ED visits and various temperature metrics (maximum, minimum, average, and diurnal change in ambient temperature, apparent temperature, and heat index) modeled using linear, quadratic, and cubic terms to allow for non-linear associations. Effect modification by potential determinants of heat susceptibility (sex; race; comorbid congestive heart failure, kidney disease, and diabetes; and neighborhood poverty and education levels) was assessed via stratification. Higher warm-season ambient temperature was significantly associated with FEI ED visits, regardless of temperature metric used. Stratified analyses suggested heat-related risks for all populations, but particularly for males. This work highlights the utility of FEI as an indicator of heat morbidity, the health threat posed by warm-season temperatures, and the importance of considering susceptible populations in heat-health research.
Sikka, Neal; Carlin, Katrina N; Pines, Jesse; Pirri, Michael; Strauss, Ryan; Rahimi, Faisil
There are a significant number of emergency department (ED) visits for lacerations each year. When individuals experience skin, soft tissue, or laceration symptoms, the decision to go to the ED is not always easy on the basis of the level of severity. For such cases, it may be feasible to use a mobile phone camera to submit images of their wound to a remote medical provider who can review and help guide their care choice decisions. The authors aimed to assess patient attitudes toward the use of mobile phone technology for laceration management. Patients presenting to an urban ED for initial care and follow-up visits for lacerations were prospectively enrolled. A total of 194 patients were enrolled over 8 months. Enrolled patients answered a series of questions about their injury and a survey on attitudes about the acceptability of making management decisions using mobile phone images only. A majority of those surveyed agreed that it was acceptable to send a mobile phone picture to a physician for a recommendation and diagnosis. Patients also reported few concerns regarding privacy and security and believe that this technology could be cost effective and convenient. In this study, the majority of patients had favorable opinions of using mobile phones for laceration care. Mobile phone camera images (a) may provide a useful modality for assessment of some acute wound care needs and (b) may decrease ED visits for a high-volume complaint such as acute wounds.
Kimes, Daniel; Levine, Elissa; Timmins, Sidey; Weiss, Sheila R.; Bollinger, Mary E.; Blaisdell, Carol
Asthma is a chronic disease that can result in exacerbations leading to urgent care in emergency departments (EDs) and hospitals. We examined seasonal and temporal trends in pediatric asthma ED (1997-1999) and hospital (1986-1999) admission data so as to identify periods of increased risk of urgent care by age group, gender, and race. All pediatric ED and hospital admission data for Maryland residents occurring within the state of Maryland were evaluated. Distinct peaks in pediatric ED and hospital asthma admissions occurred each year during the winter-spring and autumn seasons. Although the number and timing of these peaks were consistent across age and racial groups, the magnitude of the peaks differed by age and race. The same number, timing, and relative magnitude of the major peaks in asthma admissions occurred statewide, implying that the variables affecting these seasonal patterns of acute asthma exacerbations occur statewide. Similar gross seasonal trends are observed worldwide. Although several environmental, infectious, and psychosocial factors have been linked with increases in asthma exacerbations among children, thus far they have not explained these seasonal patterns of admissions. The striking temporal patterns of pediatric asthma admissions within Maryland, as described here, provide valuable information in the search for causes.
Shahrami, Ali; Rahmati, Farhad; Kariman, Hamid; Hashemi, Behrooz; Rahmati, Majid; Baratloo, Alireza; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Mehdi; Safari, Saeed
Introduction: The balance between revenue and cost of an organization/system is essential to maintain its survival and quality of services. Emergency departments (ED) are one of the most important parts of health care delivery system. Financial discipline of EDs, by increasing the efficiency and profitability, can directly affect the quality of care and subsequently patient satisfaction. Accordingly, the present study attempts to investigate failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) method in identifying the problems leading to the loss of ED revenue and offer solutions to help fix these problems. Methods: This prospective cohort study investigated the financial records of ED patients and evaluated the effective errors in reducing the revenue in ED of Imam Hossein hospital, Tehran, Iran, from October 2007 to November 2009. The whole department was divided into one main system and six subsystems, based on FMEA. The study was divided into two phases. In the first phase, the problems leading to the loss of revenue in each subsystem were identified and weighted into four groups using risk priority number (RPN), and the solutions for fixing them were planned. Then, in the second phase, discovered defects in the first phase were fixed according to their priority. Finally, the impact of each solution was compared before and after intervention using the repeated measure ANOVA test. Results: 100 financial records of ED patients were evaluated during the first phase of the study. The average of ED revenue in the six months of the first phase was 73.1±3.65 thousand US dollars/month. 12 types of errors were detected in the predefined subsystems. ED revenue rose from 73.1 to 153.1, 207.06, 240, and 320 thousand US dollars/month after solving first, second, third, and fourth priority problems, respectively (337.75% increase in two years) (p<0.001). 111.0% increase in the ED revenue after solving of first priority problems revealed that they were extremely indispensable in
McKinney, Christy M.; Lee, Helen H.; Melbye, Molly L.; Rue, Tessa C.
Background Visits to emergency departments (EDs) for dental complaints are on the rise, yet reliance on EDs for dental care is far from ideal. ED toothache visits represent opportunities to improve access to professional dental care. Methods This research focuses on 20–29 year-olds, who account for more ED toothache visits than other age groups. We analyzed publicly available ED visits data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). We assessed trends in ED toothache visit rates compared with back pain and all-cause ED visits during the past decade. We used 2009–2010 NHAMCS to characterize the more recent magnitude, relative frequency, and independent risk factors for ED toothache visits. Statistical analyses accounted for the complex sampling design. Results The average annual increase in ED visit rates among 20–29 year-olds during 2001–2010 was 6.1% for toothache; 0.3% for back pain; and 0.8% for all-causes ED visits. In 2009–2010, 20–29 year-olds made an estimated 1.27 million ED visits for toothaches and accounted for 42% of all ED toothache visits. Toothache was the fifth most common reason for any ED visit and third most common for uninsured ED visits in 20–29 year-olds. Independent risk factors for ED toothache visits were being uninsured or Medicaid-insured. Conclusions Younger adults increasingly rely on EDs for toothaches—likely because of barriers to accessing professional dental care. Expanding dental coverage and access to affordable dental care could increase options for timely dental care and decrease ED use for dental complaints. PMID:25925521
Neeki, Michael M.; Dong, Fanglong; Avera, Leigh; Than, Tan; Borger, Rodney; Powell, Joe; Vaezazizi, Reza; Pitts, Richard
Introduction Alternative destination transportation by emergency medical services (EMS) is a subject of hot debate between those favoring all patients being evaluated by an emergency physician (EP) and those recognizing the need to reduce emergency department (ED) crowding. This study aimed to determine whether paramedics could accurately assess a patient’s acuity level to determine the need to transport to an ED. Methods We performed a prospective double-blinded analysis of responses recorded by paramedics and EPs of arriving patients’ acuity level in a large Level II trauma center between April 2015 and November 2015. Under-triage was defined as lower acuity assessed by paramedics but higher acuity by EPs. Over-triage was defined as higher acuity assessed by paramedics but lower acuity by EPs. The degree of agreement between the paramedics and EPs’ evaluations of patient’s acuity level was compared using Chi-square test. Results We included a total of 503 patients in the final analysis. For paramedics, 2 51 (49.9%) patients were assessed to be emergent, 178 (35.4%) assessed as urgent, and 74 (14.7%) assessed as non-emergent/non-urgent. In comparison, the EPs assessed 296 (58.9%) patients as emergent, 148 (29.4%) assessed as urgent, and 59 (11.7%) assessed as non-emergent/non-urgent. Paramedics agreed with EPs regarding the acuity level assessment on 71.8% of the cases. The overall under- and over-triage were 19.3% and 8.9%, respectively. A moderate Kappa=0.5174 indicated moderate inter-rater agreement between paramedics’ and EPs’ assessment on the same cohort of patients. Conclusion There is a significant difference in paramedic and physician assessment of patients into emergent, urgent, or non-emergent/non-urgent categories. The field triage of a patient to an alternative destination by paramedics under their current scope of practice and training cannot be supported. PMID:27833674
Yip, Amelia; Leduc, Matthew; Teo, Vincent; Timmons, Matthew; Schull, Michael J
The objective was to develop and validate a method to link routinely captured electronic data for the measurement of emergency department (ED) quality indicators. Electronic ED data were linked to calculate time to antibiotics and time to electrocardiogram (ECG) for pneumonia and chest pain patients, respectively; validation was by comparison with chart data. Linked electronic data correctly identified 40/40 pneumonia and 65/65 chest pain patients. The median difference in time to antibiotics calculated from linked electronic data versus chart data was 6 minutes (standard deviation [SD] = 14.0); for time to ECG it was 0 minutes (SD = 70). The percentage of ED patients meeting target time to antibiotics was 47% with electronic data versus 44% with charts; for time to ECG, 8% met target time with electronic data versus 11% with charts. A simple computer algorithm for linking routine ED electronic data for quality-of-care measurement was validated.
Ellison, Jacqueline; Walley, Alexander Y; Feldman, James A; Bernstein, Edward; Mitchell, Patricia M; Koppelman, Elisa A; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn
The national rise in opioid overdose deaths signifies a need to integrate overdose prevention within healthcare delivery settings. The emergency department (ED) is an opportune location for such interventions. To effectively integrate prevention services, the target population must be clearly defined. We used ICD-9 discharge codes to establish and apply overdose risk categories to ED patients seen from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2014 at an urban safety-net hospital in Massachusetts with the goal of informing ED-based naloxone rescue kit distribution programs. Of 96,419 patients, 4,468 (4.6%) were at increased risk of opioid overdose, defined by prior opioid overdose, misuse, or polysubstance misuse. A small proportion of those at risk were prescribed opioids on a separate occasion. Use of risk categories defined by ICD-9 codes identified a notable proportion of ED patients at risk for overdose, and provides a systematic means to prioritize and direct clinical overdose prevention efforts.
Ginde, Adit A.; Clark, Sunday
Background Since 2001, Massachusetts state law dictates that emergency department (ED) patients with limited English proficiency have the right to a professional interpreter. Methods one year later, for two 24-h periods, we interviewed adult patients presenting to four Boston EDs. We assessed language barriers and compared this need with the observed use and type of interpreter during the ED visit. Results We interviewed 530 patients (70% of eligible) and estimated that an interpreter was needed for 60 (11%; 95% confidence interval, 7–12%) patients. The primary interpreter for these clinical encounters was a physician (30%), friend or family member age ≥18 years (22%), hospital interpreter services (15%), younger family member (11%), or other hospital staff (17%). Conclusions We found that 11% of ED patients had significant language barriers, but use of professional medical interpreters remained low. One year after passage of legislation mandating access, use of professional medical interpreters remained inadequate. PMID:18810638
Rao, Akhil Sanjay; Adam, Terrence J.; Gensinger, Raymond; Westra, Bonnie L.
The purpose of this study was to understand the factors which promoted the demand for iPads by physicians in two Emergency departments (ED) prior to a system wide implementation of an electronic medical record (EMR). A grounded theory design was employed and 14 semi-structured interviews conducted with ED physicians. Analysis of the interview transcripts was completed using Atlas.ti qualitative software, which revealed that physicians’ perceptions of iPad use in the ED stemmed from their personal use of iPads along with three perceived ease of use factors. Physicians perceived that improved patient physician interaction, improved workflow and structural iPad benefits promoted their demand. Physicians perceived the structural benefits of iPads would improve patient physician interaction and improve workflow in the ED. As interest in handheld devices such as iPads increases, these findings could direct and encourage other iPad implementations at other hospital EDs’. PMID:23304348
Markovic, Marija; Mathis, A. Scott; Ghin, Hoytin Lee; Gardiner, Michelle; Fahim, Germin
Purpose: To compare the medication history error rate of the emergency department (ED) pharmacy technician with that of nursing staff and to describe the workflow environment. Methods: Fifty medication histories performed by an ED nurse followed by the pharmacy technician were evaluated for discrepancies (RN-PT group). A separate 50 medication histories performed by the pharmacy technician and observed with necessary intervention by the ED pharmacist were evaluated for discrepancies (PT-RPh group). Discrepancies were totaled and categorized by type of error and therapeutic category of the medication. The workflow description was obtained by observation and staff interview. Results: A total of 474 medications in the RN-PT group and 521 in the PT-RPh group were evaluated. Nurses made at least one error in all 50 medication histories (100%), compared to 18 medication histories for the pharmacy technician (36%). In the RN-PT group, 408 medications had at least one error, corresponding to an accuracy rate of 14% for nurses. In the PT-RPh group, 30 medications had an error, corresponding to an accuracy rate of 94.4% for the pharmacy technician (P < 0.0001). The most common error made by nurses was a missing medication (n = 109), while the most common error for the pharmacy technician was a wrong medication frequency (n = 19). The most common drug class with documented errors for ED nurses was cardiovascular medications (n = 100), while the pharmacy technician made the most errors in gastrointestinal medications (n = 11). Conclusion: Medication histories obtained by the pharmacy technician were significantly more accurate than those obtained by nurses in the emergency department. PMID:28090164
Ethical issues in the response to Ebola virus disease in United States emergency departments: a position paper of the American College of Emergency Physicians, the Emergency Nurses Association, and the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
Venkat, Arvind; Asher, Shellie L; Wolf, Lisa; Geiderman, Joel M; Marco, Catherine A; McGreevy, Jolion; Derse, Arthur R; Otten, Edward J; Jesus, John E; Kreitzer, Natalie P; Escalante, Monica; Levine, Adam C
The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa has presented a significant public health crisis to the international health community and challenged U.S. emergency departments (EDs) to prepare for patients with a disease of exceeding rarity in developed nations. With the presentation of patients with Ebola to U.S. acute care facilities, ethical questions have been raised in both the press and medical literature as to how U.S. EDs, emergency physicians (EPs), emergency nurses, and other stakeholders in the health care system should approach the current epidemic and its potential for spread in the domestic environment. To address these concerns, the American College of Emergency Physicians, the Emergency Nurses Association, and the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine developed this joint position paper to provide guidance to U.S. EPs, emergency nurses, and other stakeholders in the health care system on how to approach the ethical dilemmas posed by the outbreak of EVD. This paper will address areas of immediate and potential ethical concern to U.S. EDs in how they approach preparation for and management of potential patients with EVD.
Marin, Jennifer R; Mills, Angela M
The 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference, "Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: A Research Agenda to Optimize Utilization" was held on May 12, 2015, with the goal of developing a high-priority research agenda on which to base future research. The specific aims of the conference were to (1) understand the current state of evidence regarding emergency department (ED) diagnostic imaging use and identify key opportunities, limitations, and gaps in knowledge; (2) develop a consensus-driven research agenda emphasizing priorities and opportunities for research in ED diagnostic imaging; and (3) explore specific funding mechanisms available to facilitate research in ED diagnostic imaging. Over a 2-year period, the executive committee and other experts in the field convened regularly to identify specific areas in need of future research. Six content areas within emergency diagnostic imaging were identified before the conference and served as the breakout groups on which consensus was achieved: clinical decision rules; use of administrative data; patient-centered outcomes research; training, education, and competency; knowledge translation and barriers to imaging optimization; and comparative effectiveness research in alternatives to traditional computed tomography use. The executive committee invited key stakeholders to assist with the planning and to participate in the consensus conference to generate a multidisciplinary agenda. There were a total of 164 individuals involved in the conference and spanned various specialties, including general emergency medicine, pediatric emergency medicine, radiology, surgery, medical physics, and the decision sciences.
Arias, Sarah A.; Miller, Ivan; Camargo, Carlos A.; Sullivan, Ashley F.; Goldstein, Amy B.; Allen, Michael H.; Manton, Anne P.; Boudreaux, Edwin D.
Objective The main objective is to identify which patient characteristics have the strongest association with suicide outcomes during the 12-months after the index emergency department (ED) visit. Methods Data were analyzed from the first two phases of the Emergency Department Safety Assessment and Follow-up Evaluation (ED-SAFE). The ED-SAFE study, a quasi-experimental, interrupted time series design, involved participation from eight general medical EDs across the United States. Participants included adults presenting to the ED with active suicidal ideation or an attempt in the last week. Data collection included baseline interview; 6- and 12-month chart reviews; and 6-, 12-, 24-, 36-, and 52-week telephone follow-up assessments. Regression analyses were conducted. Results Among 874 participants, the median age was 37 years (interquartile range 27–47) with 56% female (n=488), 74% white (n=649), and 13% Hispanic (n=113). At baseline, 577 (66%) had suicidal ideation only while 297 (34%) had a suicide attempt in the past week. Data sufficient to determine outcomes were available for 782 (90%). In the 12-months after the index ED visit, 195 (25%) had documentation of at least one suicide attempt or suicide. High school education or less, an ED visit in the preceding 6 months, prior non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), current alcohol misuse, and intent or plan were predictive of future suicidal behavior. Conclusions and Relevance Continuing to build an understanding of the factors associated with future suicide behaviors for this population will help guide design and implementation of improved suicide screening and interventions in the ED and allocation of scarce resources. PMID:26620285
Clark, Lindsey N; Benda, Natalie C; Hegde, Sudeep; McGeorge, Nicolette M; Guarrera-Schick, Theresa K; Hettinger, A Zachary; LaVergne, David T; Perry, Shawna J; Wears, Robert L; Fairbanks, Rollin J; Bisantz, Ann M
This article presents an evaluation of novel display concepts for an emergency department information system (EDIS) designed using cognitive systems engineering methods. EDISs assist emergency medicine staff with tracking patient care and ED resource allocation. Participants performed patient planning and orientation tasks using the EDIS displays and rated the display's ability to support various cognitive performance objectives along with the usability, usefulness, and predicted frequency of use for 18 system components. Mean ratings were positive for cognitive performance support objectives, usability, usefulness, and frequency of use, demonstrating the successful application of design methods to create useful and usable EDIS concepts that provide cognitive support for emergency medicine staff. Nurse and provider roles had significantly different perceptions of the usability and usefulness of certain EDIS components, suggesting that they have different information needs while working.
Shaikh, Sanober B.; Jerrard, David A.; Witting, Michael D.; Winters, Michael E.; Brodeur, Michael N.
Introduction: Our goal was to evaluate patients’ threshold for waiting in an emergency department (ED) waiting room before leaving without being seen (LWBS). We analyzed whether willingness to wait was influenced by perceived illness severity, age, race, triage acuity level, or insurance status. Methods: We conducted this survey-based study from March to July 2010 at an urban academic medical center. After triage, patients were given a multiple-choice questionnaire, designed to ascertain how long they would wait for medical care. We collected data including age, gender, race, insurance status, and triage acuity level. We looked at the association between willingness to wait and these variables, using stratified analysis and logistic regression. Results: Of the 375 patients who were approached, 340 (91%) participated. One hundred seventy-one (51%) were willing to wait up to 2 hours before leaving, 58 (17%) would wait 2 to 8 hours, and 110 (32%) would wait indefinitely. No association was found between willingness to wait and race, gender, insurance status, or perceived symptom severity. Patients willing to wait >2 hours tended to be older than 25, have higher acuity, and prefer the study site ED. Conclusion: Many patients have a defined, limited period that they are willing to wait for emergency care. In our study, 50% of patients were willing to wait up to 2 hours before leaving the ED without being seen. This result suggests that efforts to reduce the percentage of patients who LWBS must factor in time limits. PMID:23359833
Derlet, Robert W; McNamara, Robert M; Kazzi, Amin Antoine; Richards, John R
We report the case of a 32-year-old male recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes treated at an urban university emergency department (ED) crowded to 250% over capacity. His initial symptoms of shortness of breath and feeling ill for several days were evaluated with chest radiograph, electrocardiogram (EKG), and laboratory studies, which suggested mild diabetic ketoacidosis. His medical care in the ED was conducted in a crowded hallway. After correction of his metabolic abnormalities he felt improved and was discharged with arrangements made for outpatient follow-up. Two days later he returned in cardiac arrest, and resuscitation efforts failed. The autopsy was significant for multiple acute and chronic pulmonary emboli but no coronary artery disease. The hospital settled the case for $1 million and allocated major responsibility to the treating emergency physician (EP). As a result the state medical board named the EP in a disciplinary action, claiming negligence because the EKG had not been personally interpreted by that physician. A formal hearing was conducted with the EP's medical license placed in jeopardy. This case illustrates the risk to EPs who treat patients in crowded hallways, where it is difficult to provide the highest level of care. This case also demonstrates the failure of hospital administration to accept responsibility and provide resources to the ED to ensure patient safety.
Pulte, Dianne; Lovett, Paris B; Axelrod, David; Crawford, Albert; McAna, John; Powell, Rhea
Sickle cell disease is characterized by intermittent painful crises often requiring treatment in the emergency department (ED). Past examinations of time-to-provider (TTP) in the ED for patients with sickle cell disease demonstrated that these patients may have longer TTP than other patients. Here, we examine TTP for patients presenting for emergency care at a single institution, comparing patients with sickle cell disease to both the general population and to those with other painful conditions, with examination of both institutional and patient factors that might affect wait times. Our data demonstrated that at our institution patients with sickle cell disease have a slightly longer average TTP compared to the general ED population (+16 min.) and to patients with other painful conditions (+4 min.) However, when confounding factors were considered, there was no longer a significant difference between TTP of patients with sickle cell disease and the general population nor between patients with sickle cell disease and those with other painful conditions. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that gender, race, age, high utilizer status, fast track use, time of presentation, acuity and insurance type, were all independently associated with TTP, with acuity, time of presentation and use of fast track having the greatest influence. We concluded that the longer TTP observed in patients with sickle cell disease can at least partially be explained by institutional factors such as the use of fast track protocols. Further work to reduce TTP for sickle cell disease and other patients is needed to optimize care.
Pati, Debajyoti; Harvey, Thomas E; Pati, Sipra
The objective of this study was to explore and identify physical design correlates of safety and efficiency in emergency department (ED) operations. This study adopted an exploratory, multimeasure approach to (1) examine the interactions between ED operations and physical design at 4 sites and (2) identify domains of physical design decision-making that potentially influence efficiency and safety. Multidisciplinary gaming and semistructured interviews were conducted with stakeholders at each site. Study data suggest that 16 domains of physical design decisions influence safety, efficiency, or both. These include (1) entrance and patient waiting, (2) traffic management, (3) subwaiting or internal waiting areas, (4) triage, (5) examination/treatment area configuration, (6) examination/treatment area centralization versus decentralization, (7) examination/treatment room standardization, (8) adequate space, (9) nurse work space, (10) physician work space, (11) adjacencies and access, (12) equipment room, (13) psych room, (14) staff de-stressing room, (15) hallway width, and (16) results waiting area. Safety and efficiency from a physical environment perspective in ED design are mutually reinforcing concepts--enhancing efficiency bears positive implications for safety. Furthermore, safety and security emerged as correlated concepts, with security issues bearing implications for safety, thereby suggesting important associations between safety, security, and efficiency.
Long, Judith A.; Wall, Stephen P.; Carr, Brendan G.; Satchell, Samantha N.; Braithwaite, R. Scott; Elbel, Brian
Objectives. We sought to improve public health surveillance by using a geographic analysis of emergency department (ED) visits to determine local chronic disease prevalence. Methods. Using an all-payer administrative database, we determined the proportion of unique ED patients with diabetes, hypertension, or asthma. We compared these rates to those determined by the New York City Community Health Survey. For diabetes prevalence, we also analyzed the fidelity of longitudinal estimates using logistic regression and determined disease burden within census tracts using geocoded addresses. Results. We identified 4.4 million unique New York City adults visiting an ED between 2009 and 2012. When we compared our emergency sample to survey data, rates of neighborhood diabetes, hypertension, and asthma prevalence were similar (correlation coefficient = 0.86, 0.88, and 0.77, respectively). In addition, our method demonstrated less year-to-year scatter and identified significant variation of disease burden within neighborhoods among census tracts. Conclusions. Our method for determining chronic disease prevalence correlates with a validated health survey and may have higher reliability over time and greater granularity at a local level. Our findings can improve public health surveillance by identifying local variation of disease prevalence. PMID:26180983
House, Darlene R; Cheptinga, Philip; Rusyniak, Daniel E
Objective. Mobile phones have been successfully used for Emergency Department (ED) patient follow-up in developed countries. Mobile phones are widely available in developing countries and may offer a similar potential for follow-up and continued care of ED patients in low and middle-income countries. The goal of this study was to determine the percentage of families with mobile phones presenting to a pediatric ED in western Kenya and rate of response to a follow-up phone call after discharge. Methods. A prospective, cross-sectional observational study of children presenting to the emergency department of a government referral hospital in Eldoret, Kenya was performed. Documentation of mobile phone access, including phone number, was recorded. If families had access, consent was obtained and families were contacted 7 days after discharge for follow-up. Results. Of 788 families, 704 (89.3%) had mobile phone access. Of those families discharged from the ED, successful follow-up was made in 83.6% of cases. Conclusions. Mobile phones are an available technology for follow-up of patients discharged from a pediatric emergency department in resource-limited western Kenya.
Hsu, Robert T; Crawford, William W; Klaustermeyer, William B
Emergency hospital utilization rates for asthma remain high despite advances in asthma controller medications and the presence of widely accepted asthma treatment guidelines. To explore this phenomenon, we analyzed administrative data to determine characteristics of patients seen in the emergency department (ED) for asthma. Complete pharmacy and diagnostic coding records were obtained from consecutive adults (aged 19-56 years) treated for asthma in the ED of a closed-network health maintenance organization between April and July of 2002. Subjects were stratified into asthma severity categories (persistent or non-persistent) based on the National Committee for Quality Assurance 2006 Health Plan and Employer Data and Information Set (HEDIS) criteria for persistent asthma. Eighty-one unique patients made a total of 89 ED visits for asthma during the study period. Of the 89 total ED visits for asthma, 44 (49%) occurred in patients that did not meet HEDIS criteria for persistent asthma. Of the 81 unique patients making asthma-related ED visits, 41 (51%) did not meet HEDIS criteria for persistent asthma. Over one-half (51%) of this nonpersistent population were not given either asthma reliever or asthma controller medications during the 12-month period before their index ED visit. Over the 24-month period before their index ED visit, 37% of nonpersistent patients were dispensed neither asthma reliever nor controller medications. Patients that do not meet HEDIS criteria for persistent asthma account for a substantial percentage of asthma-related ED visits. These patients have a history of low use of asthma medications before their ED visit.
Tamás, T László; Garai, Tibor; Tompos, Tamás; Szirmai, Ágnes
According to international statistics, the first examination of 25% of patients with vertigo is carried out in Emergency Departments. The most important task of the examining physician is to diagnose life threatening pathologic processes. One of the most difficult otoneurological diagnostic challange in Emergency Departments is to differentiate between dangerous posterior scale stroke presenting with isolated vertigo and the benign vestibular neuritis.These two disorders can be safely differentiated using fast, non-invasive, evidence based bedside tests which have been introduced in the past few years. 35% of stroke cases mimicking vestibular neuritis (pseudoneuritis) are misdiagnosed at the Emergency Department, and 40% of these cases develop complications. During the first 48 hours, sensitivity for stroke of the new test that is based on the malfunction of the oculomotor system is better than the diffusion-weighted cranial magnetic resonance imaging. Using special test glasses each component of the new test can be made objective and repeatable.
Mears, Simon C; Pantle, Hardin A; Bessman, Edward S; Lifchez, Scott D
Access to musculoskeletal consultation in the emergency department (ED) is a nationwide problem. In addition, consultation from a subspecialist may be delayed or may not be available, which can slow down the ED flow and reduce patient satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to review the 1-year results of a change in the authors' institutional practice to reduce subspecialty consultation for select musculoskeletal problems while still ensuring adequate patient follow-up in orthopedic or plastic surgery clinics for patients not seen by these services in the ED. The authors hypothesized that select injuries could be safely managed in the ED by using an electronic system to ensure appropriate follow-up care. Using Kaizen methodology, a multidisciplinary group (including ED staff, orthopedics, plastic surgery, pediatrics, nursing, radiology, therapy, and administration) met to improve care for select musculoskeletal injuries. A system was agreed on in which ED providers managed select musculoskeletal injuries without subspecialist consultation. Follow-up was organized using an electronic system, which facilitated communication between the ED staff and the secretarial staff of the subspecialist departments. Over a 1-year period, 150 patients were treated using this system. Charts and radiographs were reviewed for missed injuries. Radiographic review revealed 2 missed injuries. One patient had additional back pain and a lumbar spine fracture was found during the subspecialist follow-up visit; it was treated nonoperatively. Another patient appeared to have scapholunate widening on the injury radiograph that was not appreciated in the ED. Of the 150 patients, 51 were seen in follow-up by a subspecialist at the authors' institution. An electronic system to organize follow-up with a subspecialist allowed the ED providers to deliver safe and effective care for simple musculoskeletal injuries.
Colt, H G; Solot, J A
To compare the opinions of patients and physicians regarding physician dress and demeanor in the emergency department, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 190 ED patients and 129 medical specialists, family practitioners, surgeons, and emergency physicians in a community hospital. Seventy-three percent of physicians and 43% of patients thought that physical appearance influenced patient opinion of medical care. Forty-nine percent of patients believed emergency physicians should wear white coats, but only 18% disliked scrub suits. Patients were more tolerant of casual dress than were physicians. Both groups disliked excessive jewelry, prominent ruffles or ribbons, long fingernails, blue jeans, and sandals. Opinions and practices of emergency physicians were similar to those of other medical specialists. Most physicians (96%) addressed patients by surname or title, but 43% of patients preferred being called by their first names. The age, gender, income, and education of patients did not influence how they wished to be addressed. Larger studies are needed to assess the influence of age, sex, race, and depth of feeling regarding first-name address and physician attire in the ED.
Viswanathan, Kartik; Rosen, Tony; Mulcare, Mary R.; Clark, Sunday; Hayes, Jaime; Lachs, Mark S.; Flomenbaum, Neal
BACKGROUND Indwelling Urinary Catheters (IUCs) are placed frequently in older adults in the emergency department (ED). While often a critical intervention, IUCs carry significant risks, particularly for geriatric patients, including infection, delirium, and falls. In addition, once placed, IUCs are rarely removed in the ED and may remain for an extended period after transfer of care, leading to poor outcomes. The purpose of this research was to examine the current knowledge, attitudes, and practice of ED nurses and other providers regarding IUC placement and management in older adults. METHODS We surveyed ED providers including nurses, attending physicians, Emergency Medicine (EM) residents, nurse practitioners (NPs), and physician assistants (PAs) at a large, urban, academic medical center. We developed comprehensive written questionnaires designed using items from previously validated instruments and questions created specifically for this study. In addition, we assessed providers' management of 25 unique clinical scenarios, each representing an established appropriate or inappropriate indication for IUC placement. RESULTS 127 ED providers participated: 43 nurses, 21 attending physicians, 47 residents, and 17 NP/PAs. 91% of nurses and 88% of other providers reported comfort with appropriate indications for IUC placement. Despite this, in the clinical vignettes nurses correctly identified the appropriate approach for IUC placement in only 40% of cases and other providers in only 37%. Reported practices were most divergent from accepted standards in delirium, with 3% of nurses and 1% of other providers appropriately avoiding IUC placement. Practice varied widely between individual providers, with the nurse participants reporting appropriate practice in 16%–64% of clinical scenarios and other providers in 8%–68%. Few nurses or other providers reported reassessing their patients for IUC removal at transfer to the hospital upstairs (28% of nurses and 7% of other
Travers, Debbie A; Haas, Stephanie W
Information about the chief complaint (CC), also known as the patient's reason for seeking emergency care, is critical for patient prioritization for treatment and determination of patient flow through the emergency department (ED). Triage nurses document the CC at the start of the ED visit, and the data are increasingly available in electronic form. Despite the clinical and operational significance of the CC to the ED, there is no standard CC terminology. We propose the construction of concept-oriented nursing terminologies from the actual language used by experts. We use text analysis to extract CC concepts from triage nurses' natural language entries. Our methodology for building the nursing terminology utilizes natural language processing techniques and the Unified Medical Language System.
Julián-Jiménez, Agustín; Candel-González, Francisco Javier; González Del Castillo, Juan
Infectious processes account for 10% of patient seen in the emergency department. To administer antibiotics early, and before any other therapeutic-diagnostic decisions (complementary tests, microbiological samples, intensity of hemodynamic support, need for admission, etc.) have direct repercussions on the survival of patients with severe bacterial infections (bacteremia, severe sepsis or septic shock). In this context, the emergency department represents a critical level where the suspicion of infection and it diagnosis is made and treatment is started, and the progression and prognosis will be determined by the speed of this action. However, the clinical manifestations of infectious diseases are often non-specific and variable which makes early recognition of these patients and situations difficult. Inflammation and infection biomarkers have been around for years as helpful tools for improving emergency medical diagnoses and management of infection in the emergency department. The aim of this review is to summarize the published scientific evidence, in order to clarify the existing controversies, comparing the usefulness of the major biomarkers of inflammation and infection. It will alas suggest recommendations for their use in order to improve diagnosis, prognostic evaluation and management of infected patients in the emergency department.
Rintoul, Yvonne; Wynaden, Dianne; McGowan, Sunita
Incidents of aggression are frequent occurrences in hospitals, particularly the emergency department. Aggression creates instability in the environment, impacts on patient care outcomes and leads to increased levels of stress in staff. Regular exposure to aggression in the workplace can have detrimental effects on health professionals' ongoing quality of life. The emergency department is a gateway to care and is heavily populated 24h a day. Therefore, it is essential that all health professionals are confident and well prepared to manage aggression. Based upon a review of the literature this paper outlines the causes of aggression and provides an interdisciplinary action plan for intervening with aggressive patients in the emergency department. The importance of interdisciplinary ownership and the well planned management of aggression are outlined. When well managed, the impact of aggression can be limited. Stability in the emergency department ensures that health professionals can be responsive to the community's needs for emergency care. This leads to the provision of effective and timely care and a stable work environment for all health professionals.
Boulet, Marie-Claude; Dami, Fabrice; Hugli, Olivier; Renard, Delphine; Foucault, Eliane; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas
Demographic evolution results in a growing use of emergency department by elderly patients. They require special care to avoid any further degradation of cognitive and functional abilities already compromised by the disease or injury that led them to hospital in the first place. Through a clinical case, we list the risks related to the care of these particular patients in the emergency department. Early recognition of those risks and careful management of these patients' specific needs can significantly contribute to reduce lengths of stay, an important outcome from both the individual patient's and society's perspective.
Di Sabato, Francesco; Giacovazzo, Mario
Although cluster headache (CH) is considered one of the most distinctive and painful primary headache disorders in clinical practice because of the brevity of each attack, its management is not always ergonomic or possible in the Emergency Department. In case of a previously competent diagnosis, the Emergency Department's team should send the patient to a headache centre where specialists in the management of CH can handle the pathology in the best way. In our headache centre we treat patients with CH attacks with a hyperbaric chamber, confirming the effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen in CH patients.
Sinreich, David; Jabali, Ola
Starting from the last decade of the twentieth century, most hospital Emergency Department (ED) budgets did not keep up with the demand for ED services made by growing populations and aging societies. Since labor consumes over 50% of the total monies invested in EDs and other healthcare systems, any downsizing, streamlining and reorganization plan needs to first address staffing issues such as determining the correct size of the workforce and its work shift scheduling. In this context, it is very important to remember that downsizing certainly does not mean a general cut-across-the-board. This study shows that a selective downsizing process in which each resource is treated separately (increasing the work capacity of some resources is also possible), based on its unique contribution to the overall ED operational performance, can approximately maintain current ED operational measures in terms patient length of stay (LOS) despite an overall reduction in staff hours. A linear optimization model (S-model) and a heuristic iterative simulation based algorithm (SWSSA) are used in this study for scheduling the resources' work shifts, one resource at a time. The algorithm was tested using data that was gathered from five general hospital EDs. By leveling the workload of the different resources in the ED, SWSSA was able to achieve LOS values within -19 to 4% of the original values despite a reduction of 8-17.5% in physicians' work hours and a reduction of 13-47% in the nurses' work hours.
Hudon, Catherine; Sanche, Steven; Haggerty, Jeannie L.
Objective A small number of patients frequently using the emergency department (ED) account for a disproportionate amount of the total ED workload and are considered using this service inappropriately. The aim of this study was to identify prospectively personal characteristics and experience of organizational and relational dimensions of primary care that predict frequent use of ED. Methods This study was conducted among parallel cohorts of the general population and primary care patients (N = 1,769). The measures were at baseline (T1), 12 (T2) and 24 months (T3): self-administered questionnaire on current health, health behaviours and primary care experience in the previous year. Use of medical services was confirmed using administrative databases. Mixed effect logistic regression modeling identified characteristics predicting frequent ED utilization. Results A higher likelihood of frequent ED utilization was predicted by lower socioeconomic status, higher disease burden, lower perceived organizational accessibility, higher number of reported healthcare coordination problems and not having a complete annual check-up, above and beyond adjustment for all independent variables. Conclusions Personal characteristics such as low socioeconomic status and high disease burden as well as experience of organizational dimensions of primary care such as low accessibility, high healthcare coordination problems and low comprehensiveness of care are prospectively associated with frequent ED utilization. Interventions developed to prevent inappropriate ED visits, such as case management for example, should tailor low socioeconomic status and patients with high disease burden and should aim to improve experience of primary care regarding accessibility, coordination and comprehensiveness. PMID:27299525
Hausfater, Pierre; Amin, Devendra; Amin, Adina; Haubitz, Sebastian; Conca, Antoinette; Reutlinger, Barbara; Canavaggio, Pauline; Sauvin, Gabrielle; Bernard, Maguy; Huber, Andreas; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp
Introduction In overcrowded emergency department (ED) care, short time to start effective antibiotic treatment has been evidenced to improve infection-related clinical outcomes. Our objective was to study factors associated with delays in initial ED care within an international prospective medical ED patient population presenting with acute infections. Methods We report data from an international prospective observational cohort study including patients with a main diagnosis of infection from three tertiary care hospitals in Switzerland, France and the United States (US). We studied predictors for delays in starting antibiotic treatment by using multivariate regression analyses. Results Overall, 544 medical ED patients with a main diagnosis of acute infection and antibiotic treatment were included, mainly pneumonia (n = 218; 40.1%), urinary tract (n = 141; 25.9%), and gastrointestinal infections (n = 58; 10.7%). The overall median time to start antibiotic therapy was 214 minutes (95% CI: 199, 228), with a median length of ED stay (ED LOS) of 322 minutes (95% CI: 308, 335). We found large variations of time to start antibiotic treatment depending on hospital centre and type of infection. The diagnosis of a gastrointestinal infection was the most significant predictor for delay in antibiotic treatment (+119 minutes compared to patients with pneumonia; 95% CI: 58, 181; p<0.001). Conclusions We found high variations in hospital ED performance in regard to start antibiotic treatment. The implementation of measures to reduce treatment times has the potential to improve patient care. PMID:27171476
Cunradi, Carol B.; Mair, Christina; Ponicki, William; Remer, Lillian
Background Previous research has identified risk factors for intimate partner violence (IPV) severity, injury, and Emergency Department (ED) visits. These risk factors have been shown at both the individual level (heavy drinking and other substance use on the part of one or both partners) and the neighborhood level (residence in an area characterized by poverty and social disadvantage). Alcohol outlet density has been linked with assaultive violence in community settings, but has not been analyzed in relation to IPV-related ED visits. This study examined the effects of outlet densities on IPV-related ED visits throughout California between July 2005 and December 2008. Methods Half-yearly counts of ED visits related to IPV (E-code 967.3) were computed for each zip code from patient-level public datasets. Alcohol outlet density measures, calculated separately for bars, off-premise outlets, and restaurants, were derived from California Alcohol Beverage Control records. Census-based neighborhood demographic characteristics previously shown to be related to health disparities and IPV (percent Black, percent Hispanic, percent below 150% of poverty line, percent unemployed) were included in models. This study used Bayesian space-time models that allow longitudinal analysis at the zip code level despite frequent boundary redefinitions. These spatial misalignment models control for spatial variation in geographic unit definitions over time and account for spatial autocorrelation using conditional autoregressive (CAR) priors. The model incorporated data from between 1,686 (2005) and 1,693 (2008) zip codes across California for 7 half-year time periods from 2005 through 2008 (n = 11,836). Results Density of bars was positively associated with IPV-related ED visits. Density of off-premise outlets was negatively associated with IPV-related ED visits; this association was weaker and smaller than the bar association. There was no association between density of restaurants and IPV
Background Increase in waiting time often results in patients leaving the emergency department (ED) without being seen, ultimately decreasing patient satisfaction. We surveyed low-acuity patients in the ED waiting room to understand their preferences and expectations. Methods An IRB approved, 42-item survey was administered to 400 adult patients waiting in the ED waiting room for >15 min from April to August 2010. Demographics, visit reasons, triage and waiting room facility preferences were collected. Results The mean age of patients was 38.9 years (SD = 14.8), and 52.5% were females. About 53.8% of patients were employed, 79.4% had access to a primary care physician (PCP), and 17% did not have any medical insurance. The most common complaint was pain. A total of 44.4% respondents reported that they believed their problems were urgent and required immediate attention, prompting them to come to the ED, while 14.6% reported that they could not get a timely PCP appointment, and 42.9% were actually referred by their PCP to come to the ED. About 57.7% of patients considered leaving the ED if the waiting times were too long. The mean acceptable waiting time before leaving ED was 221 min (SD = 194; median 180 min, IQR 120–270). A total of 39.1% survey respondents reported being most comfortable being triaged by a physician. Respondents were least comfortable being triaged by residents. On analyzing waiting room expectations for the survey respondents, we found that 70% of the subjects wanted a better estimate of waiting time and 43.5% wanted better information on reasons for the long wait. Conclusion Contrary to popular belief, at our ED a large proportion of low-acuity patients has a PCP and is medically insured. Providing patients with appropriate reasons for the wait, an accurate estimate of waiting time and creating separate areas to examine minor illness/injuries would increase patient satisfaction within our population subset. PMID:24083339
Johnson, Tiffani J.; Hickey, Robert W.; Switzer, Galen E.; Miller, Elizabeth; Winger, Daniel G.; Nguyen, Margaret; Saladino, Richard A.; Hausmann, Leslie R. M.
Objectives The emergency department (ED) is characterized by stressors (e.g. fatigue, stress, time-pressure, and complex decision-making) that can pose challenges to delivering high quality, equitable care. Although it has been suggested that characteristics of the ED may exacerbate reliance on cognitive heuristics, no research has directly investigated whether stressors in the ED impact physician racial bias, a common heuristic. We seek to determine if physicians have different levels of implicit racial bias post-ED shift versus pre-shift, and to examine associations between demographics and cognitive stressors with bias. Methods This repeated measures study of resident physicians in a pediatric ED used electronic pre- and post-shift assessments of implicit racial bias, demographics, and cognitive stressors. Implicit bias was measured using the Race Implicit Association Test (IAT). Linear regression models compared differences in IAT scores pre- to post-shift, and determined associations between participant demographics and cognitive stressors with post-shift IAT and pre- to post-shift difference scores. Results Participants (n=91) displayed moderate pro-white/anti-black bias on pre-shift (M=0.50, SD=0.34, d=1.48) and post-shift (M=0.55, SD=0.39, d=1.40) IAT scores. Overall, IAT scores did not differ pre-shift to post-shift (mean increase=0.05, 95% CI −0.02,0.14, d=0.13). Sub-analyses revealed increased pre- to post-shift bias among participants working when the ED was more overcrowded (mean increase=0.09, 95% CI 0.01,0.17, d=0.24) and among those caring for >10 patients (mean increase=0.17, 95% CI 0.05,0.27, d=0.47). Residents’ demographics (including specialty), fatigue, busyness, stressfulness, and number of shifts were not associated with post-shift IAT or difference scores. In multivariable models, ED overcrowding was associated with greater post-shift bias (coefficient=0.11 per 1 unit of NEDOCS score, SE=0.05, 95% CI 0.00,0.21). Conclusions While
Khursheed, Munawar; Fayyaz, Jabeen; Jamil, Ahsan
The history of triage started from the French battle field for prioritizing patients. Emergency triage was started in early 1950's in USA in order to treat the sickest first. It has now become an integral component of all emergency departments (ED). The basic aim of triage is not only to sort out patients according to the criticality of their illness, but it also serves to streamline the patient flow. This will ultimately enable the ED physician to provide right management at the right time to the right patient in the available resources. In turn has a positive impact in reducing the ED overcrowding. The history of triage at AKUH-ED dated back in 2000. In the beginning physicians and nurse both were assigned to triage desk where they use to sort out the patient according to presenting complaints. At that time the documentation was manual with locally developed triage priorities. With the expansion of ED in 2008, responsibility of triage was shifted to nursing services. Triage policy was established and implemented. Specific triage protocols were developed for guidance and uniformity of care. Manual recording system was replaced by computerized triage data entry software. Enabling the department to monitor patient quality care indicators like total number of patients triaged, triage category, lag time reports and left without being seen by physicians.
squares and fixed effects techniques to determine the effect of ED access on mortality rates . In particular, we examine two measures of ED access...distance and mortality rates . However, for diversion hours, we find it counterintuitive that increasing diversion hours reduces mortality rates . Further study will need to be done to verify this finding....diversion trends, (2) effect of ED staffing, capacity and financial characteristics on ED diversion hours and (3) effect of changes in ED access on mortality
Lalezarzadeh, Fariborz; Wisniewski, Paul; Huynh, Katie; Loza, Maria; Gnanadev, Dev
Hypotension is a trauma activation criterion validated by multiple studies. However, field systolic blood pressures (SBP) are still met with skepticism. How significant is the role of prehospital (PH) and emergency department (ED) SBP in the patient's overall condition? A review of the trauma registry over a 5-year period was conducted. PH SBPs were stratified into four categories: severe (SBP 80 mmHg or less), moderate (81-100 mmHg), mild hypotension (101-120 mmHg), and normotension (greater than 120 mmHg). These four groups were further subcategorized into the patients who were hypotensive, SBP 90 mmHg or less in the ED, versus those that were not (SBP greater than 90 mmHg). Data for 6964 patients were analyzed. Patients with PH SBP of 80 mmHg or less compared with patients who had PH SBP of greater than 80 mmHg had higher mortality (OR, 9; 95% CI, 6.45-12.84). Patients with both PH SBP 80 mmHg or less and ED SBP 90 mmHg or less had the highest risk of mortality (50%) and highest need for emergent operative intervention (54%). PH and ED hypotension is a strong predictor of in-hospital mortality and need for emergent surgical intervention in trauma patients. Field or ED blood pressures should serve as a significant marker of the patient's condition.
Weiss, Jonathan A.; Slusarczyk, Maggie; Lunsky, Yona
Many individuals with intellectual disabilities who live with their families experience mental health problems and ensuing psychiatric emergencies. During periods of crisis, families may require additional services, including going to the emergency department (ED). The goal of this study was to elucidate demographic, clinical, and crisis features…
Kerber, Kevin A.; Burke, James F.; Skolarus, Lesli E.; Meurer, William J.; Callaghan, Brian C.; Brown, Devin L.; Lisabeth, Lynda D.; McLaughlin, Thomas J.; Fendrick, A. Mark; Morgenstern, Lewis B.
Objective A common cause of dizziness, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), is effectively diagnosed and cured with the Dix-Hallpike test (DHT) and the canalith repositioning maneuver (CRM). We aimed to describe the use of these processes in Emergency Departments (ED), to assess for trends in use over time, and to determine provider level variability in use. Design Prospective population-based surveillance study Setting EDs in Nueces County, Texas, January 15, 2008 to January 14, 2011 Subjects and Methods Adult patients discharged from EDs with dizziness, vertigo, or imbalance documented at triage. Clinical information was abstracted from source documents. A hierarchical logistic regression model adjusting for patient and provider characteristics was used to estimate trends in DHT use and provider level variability. Results 3,522 visits for dizziness were identified. A DHT was documented in 137 visits (3.9%). A CRM was documented in 8 visits (0.2%). Among patients diagnosed with BPPV, a DHT was documented in only 21.8% (34 of 156) and a CRM in 3.9% (6 of 156). In the hierarchical model (c statistic = 0.93), DHT was less likely to be used over time (odds ratio, 0.97, 95% CI [0.95, 0.99]) and the provider level explained 50% (ICC, 0.50) of the variance in the probability of DHT use. Conclusion BPPV is seldom examined for, and when diagnosed, infrequently treated in this ED population. DHT use is decreasing over time, and varies substantially by provider. Implementation research focused on BPPV care may be an opportunity to optimize management in ED dizziness presentations. PMID:23264119
Chiu, I-Min; Syue, Yuan-Jhen; Kung, Chia-Te; Cheng, Fu-Jen; Lee, Chien-Hung; Lin, Yan-Ren; Li, Chao-Jui
Abstract To investigate the influence of resident seniority on supervised clinical practice in the emergency department (ED). This was a retrospective, 1-year cohort study conducted in 5 EDs within Taiwan largest healthcare system. All adult nontrauma visits presenting to the EDs during the day shift between July 1, 2011 and June 30, 2012 were included in the analysis. Visits were divided into supervised (ie, treated by resident under attending physician's supervision) and attending-alone. Supervised visits were further categorized by resident seniority (junior, intermediate, and senior). The decision-making time (door-to-order and door-to-disposition time), patient dispositions (eg, ED observation and hospital admission), and diagnostic tool use (laboratory examination or computed tomography [CT]) were selected as clinical performance indicators. The differences in clinical performance were determined between supervised visits (ie, resident-seniority groups) and attending-alone visits. Junior residents were found to have longer median door-to-order and door-to-disposition time than were the other residents for urgent and nonurgent patients. Furthermore, compared with attending-alone visits, supervised visits with junior residents had a greater odds of ED observation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.1; 95% CI, 1.07–1.20), while supervised visits with all 3 resident-seniority groups had significantly greater odds of laboratory examinations (junior: aOR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.03–1.16; intermediate: aOR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.04–1.15; and senior: aOR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.05–1.15). As resident seniority increases, less time is needed for decision making in supervised visits. However, compared to attending-alone visits, supervised visits still resulted in greater use of laboratory examinations and delayed patient disposition. PMID:28121953
Bayoumi, Imaan; Dolovich, Lisa; Hutchison, Brian; Holbrook, Anne
Abstract Objective To identify medications that have a high risk of adverse drug effects (ADEs) among seniors, using data from publicly available administrative databases. Design Cross-sectional study using the Discharge Abstracts Database (DAD) (which contains data on acute care institutions in all provinces and territories except Quebec), the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS) (which contains data on emergency department [ED] visits in Ontario), and the IMS Brogan database Canadian CompuScript. Setting Canada. Participants Adults 65 years of age and older with diagnostic codes for drugs, medicaments, and biologic substances causing adverse effects in therapeutic use. Main outcome measures Adverse drug events from 2006 to 2008 associated with hospitalizations and ED visits among adults 65 years of age and older were identified by the DAD and the NACRS. The medications most frequently prescribed by primary care providers in 2008 were identified using data from Canadian CompuScript. Results From 2006 to 2008, the DAD identified 92 141 ADEs among older adults, and the NACRS identified 23 845 ADEs among older adults in Ontario EDs, which represented 2.9% of inpatients and 0.8% of ED patients (21.5% of whom were admitted to hospital). Drugs implicated in the DAD ADEs included anticoagulants (15.4%), antineoplastic agents (10.6%), opioids (9.2%), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (6.5%); drugs included in the ADEs of ED visits were anti-infective agents (15.9%), anticoagulants (14.2%), antineoplastic agents (9.6%), and opioids (7.3%). Conclusion Among older adults, the drug classes most often associated with causing harm in the hospital setting and occurring out of proportion to the frequency prescribed were anticoagulants, opioids, antibiotics, and cardiovascular drugs. Thus, these drug classes should be the focus of quality improvement efforts in primary care. PMID:24733341
Betz, Marian E.; Sullivan, Ashley F.; Manton, Anne P.; Espinola, Janice A.; Miller, Ivan; Camargo, Carlos A.; Boudreaux, Edwin D.
Background We sought to examine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of emergency department (ED) providers concerning suicidal patient care and to identify characteristics associated with screening for suicidal ideation (SI). Methods 631 providers at eight EDs completed a voluntary, anonymous survey (79% response rate). Results The median participant age was 35 (interquartile range: 30-44) years and 57% were female. Half (48%) were nurses and half were attending (22%) or resident (30%) physicians. More expressed confidence in SI screening skills (81-91%) than in skills to assess risk severity (64-70%), counsel patients (46-56%) or create safety plans (23-40%), with some differences between providers. Few thought mental health provider staffing was almost always sufficient (6-20%) or that suicidal patient treatment was almost always a top ED priority (15-21%). More nurses (37%, 95%Confidence Interval [CI] 31-42%) than physicians (7%, 95%CI 4-10%) reported screening most or all patients for SI; this difference persisted after multivariable adjustment. In multivariable analysis, other factors associated with screening most or all patients for SI were self-confidence in skills, (OR 1.60, 95%CI 1.17-2.18), feeling that suicidal patient care was a top ED priority (OR 1.73, 95%CI 1.11-2.69) and 5+ post-graduate years of clinical experience (OR 2.06, 95%CI 1.03-4.13). Conclusions ED providers reported confidence in suicide screening skills but gaps in further assessment, counseling or referral skills. Efforts to promote better identification of suicidal patients should be accompanied by a commensurate effort to improve risk assessment and management skills, along with improved access to mental health specialists. PMID:23426881
Choo, Esther K.; McGregor, Alyson J.; Mello, Michael J.; Baird, Janette
Background The impact of gender and violence on brief interventions (BIs) for alcohol use in the emergency department (ED) has not been studied. Our objective was to examine the effectiveness of alcohol BIs in an ED population stratified by gender and violence. Methods This was a secondary analysis of datasets pooled from three ED-based randomized controlled studies of alcohol BIs. AUDIT-C was the primary outcome measure; secondary outcomes were binge drinking and achievement of NIAAA safe drinking levels. We conducted univariate comparisons and developed generalized linear models (GLM) for the primary outcome and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models for secondary outcomes to examine the intervention effect on the whole study group, gender-stratified subgroups, and gender- and violence-stratified subgroups. Results Of 1219 participants enrolled, 30% were female; 31% of women and 42% of men reported violence involvement at baseline. In univariate analysis, no differences in outcomes were found between intervention and control groups for any subgroup. However, in multivariable models, men demonstrated an intervention effect for likelihood of safe drinking limits. Stratifying further by violence, only men without violence involvement demonstrated a positive intervention effect for safe drinking limits. There was no evidence of an intervention effect on women. Conclusions Analyzing the overall effect of ED-based BI may mask its ability to improve alcohol-related outcomes in a subset of the population. Alternatively, interventions may need to be significantly improved in subsets of the ED population, e.g., in women and in men with involvement in violence. PMID:22818512
Ryoo, Hyeon-Ju; Choo, Esther K.
Introduction Visits to the emergency department (ED) for use of illicit drugs and opioids have increased in the past decade. In the ED, little is known about how gender may play a role in drug-related visits and referrals to treatment. This study performs gender-based comparison analyses of drug-related ED visits nationwide. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis with data collected from 2004 to 2011 by the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN). All data were coded to capture major drug categories and opioids. We used logistic regression models to find associations between gender and odds of referral to treatment programs. A second set of models were controlled for patient “seeking detox,” or patient explicitly requesting for detox referral. Results Of the 27.9 million ED visits related to drug use in the DAWN database, visits by men were 2.69 times more likely to involve illicit drugs than visits by women (95% CI [2.56, 2.80]). Men were more likely than women to be referred to detox programs for any illicit drugs (OR 1.12, 95% CI [1.02–1.22]), for each of the major illicit drugs (e.g., cocaine: OR 1.27, 95% CI [1.15–1.40]), and for prescription opioids (OR 1.30, 95% CI [1.17–1.43]). This significant association prevailed after controlling for “seeking detox.” Conclusion Women are less likely to receive referrals to detox programs than men when presenting to the ED regardless of whether they are “seeking detox.” Future research may help determine the cause for this gender-based difference and its significance for healthcare costs and health outcomes. PMID:27330662
Glass, Allison S.; Bagga, Herman S.; Tasian, Gregory E.; Fisher, Patrick B.; McCulloch, Charles E.; Blaschko, Sarah D.; McAninch, Jack W.; Breyer, Benjamin N.
OBJECTIVE To describe the demographics and mechanism of genitourinary (GU) injuries related to pubic hair grooming in patients who present to U.S. emergency departments (EDs). MATERIALS AND METHODS The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System contains prospectively collected data from patients who present to EDs with consumer product-related injuries. The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System is a stratified probability sample, validated to provide national estimates of all patients who present to U.S. EDs with an injury. We reviewed the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System to identify incidents of GU injury related to pubic hair grooming for 2002–2010. The variables reviewed included age, race, gender, injury type, location (organ) of injury, hospital disposition, and grooming product. RESULTS From 2002 to 2010, an observed 335 actual ED visits for GU injury related to grooming products provided an estimated 11,704 incidents (95% confidence interval 8430–15,004). The number of incidents increased fivefold during that period, amounting to an estimated increase of 247 incidents annually (95% confidence interval 110–384, P = .001). Of the cohort, 56.7% were women. The mean age was 30.8 years (95% confidence interval 28.8–32.9). Shaving razors were implicated in 83% of the injuries. Laceration was the most common type of injury (36.6%). The most common site of injury was the external female genitalia (36.0%). Most injuries (97.3%) were treated within the ED, with subsequent patient discharge. CONCLUSION Most GU injuries that result from the use of grooming products are minor and involve the use of razors. The demographics of patients with GU injuries from grooming products largely paralleled observations about cultural grooming trends in the United States. PMID:23040729
Brooks, Brian L; Daya, Hussain; Khan, Samna; Carlson, Helen L; Mikrogianakis, Angelo; Barlow, Karen M
Cognitive abilities can be acutely disrupted in children and adolescents who sustain a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), with the potential that these disruptions may be predictive of recovery. The objective of this study was to determine if cognitive abilities in the emergency department (ED) can differentiate and predict poor symptom recovery following a pediatric mTBI. Participants included 77 male and female youth with a mTBI (mean age=13.6; SD=2.6). All participants completed computerized cognitive testing (four subtests from the CNS Vital Signs) when they presented to the ED. Symptom measurement occurred in the ED (for pre-injury), at 7-10 days, 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months post-mTBI using the post-concussion symptom inventory (PCSI). Recovery was determined using reliable change scores for symptom ratings from 28 orthopedic injury controls (mean age=13.9 years; SD=2.1). Significantly worse Reaction Time scores (i.e., rapid information processing) in the ED were found in those who remained symptomatic at 1 month. Performances on the Reaction Time and Cognitive Flexibility domain scores were predictive of symptom outcome at 1 month for youth (above and beyond sex and baseline symptom burden). Youth with low scores on Reaction Time and/or Cognitive Flexibility were nearly 15 times (95% CI=1.8-323.5) more likely to remain symptomatic at 1 month post-mTBI. No significant group differences were found at 7-10 days, 2 months, or 3 months post-injury. Rapid computerized cognitive testing in the ED following a mTBI may help clinicians predict which youth may or may not remain symptomatic at follow-up.
Spencer, Sandra; Nypaver, MIchele; Hebert, Katherine; Benner, Christopher; Stanley, Rachel; Cohen, Daniel; Rogers, Alexander; Goldstick, Jason; Mahajan, Prashant
Children with cancer and fever are at high risk for sepsis related death. Rapid antibiotic delivery (< 60 minutes) has been shown to reduce mortality. We compared patient outcomes and describe interventions from three separate quality improvement (QI) projects conducted in three United States (US) tertiary care pediatric emergency departments (EDs) with the shared aim to reduce time to antibiotic (TTA) to < 60 minutes in febrile pediatric oncology patients (Temperature > 38.0 C). A secondary objective was to identify interventions amenable to translation to other centers. We conducted a post project analysis of prospectively collected observational data from children < 18 years visiting these EDs during independently conducted QI projects. Comparisons were made pre to post intervention periods within each institution. All interventions were derived independently using QI methods by each institution. Successful as well as unsuccessful interventions were described and common interventions adopted by all sites identified. A total of 1032 ED patient visits were identified from the three projects. Improvement in median TTA delivery (min) pre to post intervention(s) was 118.5–57.0 at site 1, 163.0–97.5 at site 2, and 188.0–111.5 at site 3 (p<.001 all sites). The eight common interventions were 1) Triage application of topical anesthetic 2) Rapid room placement & triage 3) Resuscitation room placement of ill appearing children 4) Close proximity to central line equipment 5) Antibiotic administration before laboratory analyses 6) Consensus clinical practice guideline establishment 7) Family pre-ED education for fever and 8) Staff project updates. This core set of eight low cost, high yield QI interventions were developed independently by the three ED's which led to substantial reduction in time to antibiotic delivery in children with cancer presenting with fever. These interventions may inform future QI initiatives in other settings caring for febrile pediatric
Jung, Hyemin; Do, Young Kyung; Kim, Yoon; Ro, Junsoo
Objectives: This study aimed to test our hypothesis that a raise in the emergency fee implemented on March 1, 2013 has increased the proportion of patients with emergent symptoms by discouraging non-urgent emergency department visits. Methods: We conducted an analysis of 728 736 patients registered in the National Emergency Department Information System who visited level 1 and level 2 emergency medical institutes in the two-month time period from February 1, 2013, one month before the raise in the emergency fee, to March 31, 2013, one month after the raise. A difference-in-difference method was used to estimate the net effects of a raise in the emergency fee on the probability that an emergency visit is for urgent conditions. Results: The percentage of emergency department visits in urgent or equivalent patients increased by 2.4% points, from 74.2% before to 76.6% after the policy implementation. In a group of patients transferred using public transport or ambulance, who were assumed to be least conscious of cost, the change in the proportion of urgent patients was not statistically significant. On the other hand, the probability that a group of patients directly presenting to the emergency department by private transport, assumed to be most conscious of cost, showed a 2.4% point increase in urgent conditions (p<0.001). This trend appeared to be consistent across the level 1 and level 2 emergency medical institutes. Conclusions: A raise in the emergency fee implemented on March 1, 2013 increased the proportion of urgent patients in the total emergency visits by reducing emergency department visits by non-urgent patients. PMID:25475198
Green, Adam; Bowman-Burns, Carley; Cumberbatch, Gary
Rupture of a splenic artery aneurysm is a rare but life-threatening presentation to the emergency department. This case demonstrates the importance of swift resuscitation and the benefit of bedside imaging in a highly unstable patient. The definitive management of this condition in patients who are refractory to resuscitative attempts is immediate surgery with the diagnosis often only confirmed at laparotomy. PMID:23761509
Support is often mentioned as a goal of nursing care . The purpose of this study was to identify nursing behaviors that Emergency Department patients...physical nursing care , information- giving, and attitude of the nurse important to feeling supported. Results of the open-ended questions revealed that...the attitude of the nurse, prompt treatment, and physical nursing care were important.
Nee, P; Cartlidge, D; Morton, R
This paper describes the results of a survey in 1990 which examined the practice of general anaesthesia in Accident and Emergency Departments. Data were obtained concerning the anaesthetics induced during the previous year, specifically the number of procedures undertaken, the equipment, the facilities and the personnel involved, including any complications. These findings are discussed in relation to recommendations for minimum standards in anaesthetic practice.
van Egmond, Pim W; van de Rest, Hendrik J M; Nolte, Peter A
A 31-year-old woman came to the Emergency Department with a painful ankle 2 days after a fall off a horse. On the day of the accident, she was misdiagnosed with a lateral ankle sprain. A lateral X-ray of the ankle showed a positive 'V-sign', which is pathognomonic for a fracture of the lateral process of the talus.
Dismuke, Clara, E.; Kunz, F. Michael, Jr.
Since Grossman's seminal paper in 1972, there have been a number of studies concerning the effect of education on health and health care demand. Though several studies have distinguished between preventive and curative care, no study has investigated the effects of general education on the utilization of unnecessary emergency department use. We…
Tong, Tiffany; Chignell, Mark; Tierney, Mary C.; Lee, Jacques S.
Introduction: Cognitive screening in settings such as emergency departments (ED) is frequently carried out using paper-and-pencil tests that require administration by trained staff. These assessments often compete with other clinical duties and thus may not be routinely administered in these busy settings. Literature has shown that the presence of cognitive impairments such as dementia and delirium are often missed in older ED patients. Failure to recognize delirium can have devastating consequences including increased mortality (Kakuma et al., 2003). Given the demands on emergency staff, an automated cognitive test to screen for delirium onset could be a valuable tool to support delirium prevention and management. In earlier research we examined the concurrent validity of a serious game, and carried out an initial assessment of its potential as a delirium screening tool (Tong et al., 2016). In this paper, we examine the test-retest reliability of the game, as it is an important criterion in a cognitive test for detecting risk of delirium onset. Objective: To demonstrate the test-retest reliability of the screening tool over time in a clinical sample of older emergency patients. A secondary objective is to assess whether there are practice effects that might make game performance unstable over repeated presentations. Materials and Methods: Adults over the age of 70 were recruited from a hospital ED. Each patient played our serious game in an initial session soon after they arrived in the ED, and in follow up sessions conducted at 8-h intervals (for each participant there were up to five follow up sessions, depending on how long the person stayed in the ED). Results: A total of 114 adults (61 females, 53 males) between the ages of 70 and 104 years (M = 81 years, SD = 7) participated in our study after screening out delirious patients. We observed a test-retest reliability of the serious game (as assessed by correlation r-values) between 0.5 and 0.8 across adjacent
Tong, Tiffany; Chignell, Mark; Tierney, Mary C; Lee, Jacques S
Introduction: Cognitive screening in settings such as emergency departments (ED) is frequently carried out using paper-and-pencil tests that require administration by trained staff. These assessments often compete with other clinical duties and thus may not be routinely administered in these busy settings. Literature has shown that the presence of cognitive impairments such as dementia and delirium are often missed in older ED patients. Failure to recognize delirium can have devastating consequences including increased mortality (Kakuma et al., 2003). Given the demands on emergency staff, an automated cognitive test to screen for delirium onset could be a valuable tool to support delirium prevention and management. In earlier research we examined the concurrent validity of a serious game, and carried out an initial assessment of its potential as a delirium screening tool (Tong et al., 2016). In this paper, we examine the test-retest reliability of the game, as it is an important criterion in a cognitive test for detecting risk of delirium onset. Objective: To demonstrate the test-retest reliability of the screening tool over time in a clinical sample of older emergency patients. A secondary objective is to assess whether there are practice effects that might make game performance unstable over repeated presentations. Materials and Methods: Adults over the age of 70 were recruited from a hospital ED. Each patient played our serious game in an initial session soon after they arrived in the ED, and in follow up sessions conducted at 8-h intervals (for each participant there were up to five follow up sessions, depending on how long the person stayed in the ED). Results: A total of 114 adults (61 females, 53 males) between the ages of 70 and 104 years (M = 81 years, SD = 7) participated in our study after screening out delirious patients. We observed a test-retest reliability of the serious game (as assessed by correlation r-values) between 0.5 and 0.8 across adjacent
Hughes, H E; Morbey, R; Hughes, T C; Locker, T E; Shannon, T; Carmichael, C; Murray, V; Ibbotson, S; Catchpole, M; McCloskey, B; Smith, G; Elliot, A J
This report describes the development of novel syndromic cold weather public health surveillance indicators for use in monitoring the impact of extreme cold weather on attendances at EDs, using data from the 2010-11 and 2011-12 winters. A number of new surveillance indicators were created specifically for the identification and monitoring of cold weather related ED attendances, using the diagnosis codes provided for each attendance in the Emergency Department Syndromic Surveillance System (EDSSS), the first national syndromic surveillance system of its kind in the UK. Using daily weather data for the local area, a time series analysis to test the sensitivity of each indicator to cold weather was undertaken. Diagnosis codes relating to a health outcome with a potential direct link to cold weather were identified and assigned to a number of 'cold weather surveillance indicators'. The time series analyses indicated strong correlations between low temperatures and cold indicators in nearly every case. The strongest fit with temperature was cold related fractures in females, and that of snowfall was cold related fractures in both sexes. Though currently limited to a small number of sentinel EDs, the EDSSS has the ability to give near real-time detail on the magnitude of the impact of weather events. EDSSS cold weather surveillance fits well with the aims of the Cold Weather Plan for England, providing information on those particularly vulnerable to cold related health outcomes severe enough to require emergency care. This timely information aids those responding to and managing the effects on human health, both within the EDs themselves and in the community as a whole.
Schilling, Ulf Martin
It was shown that physicians working at the Swedish emergency department (ED) are unaware of the costs for investigations performed. This study evaluated the possible impact of price lists on the overall laboratory and radiology costs at the ED of a Swedish university hospital. Price lists including the most common laboratory analyses and radiological investigations at the ED were created. The lists were distributed to all internal medicine physicians by e-mail and exposed above their working stations continually. No lists were provided for the orthopaedic control group. The average costs for laboratory and radiological investigations during the months of June and July 2007 and 2008 were calculated. Neither clinical nor admission procedures were changed. The physicians were blinded towards the study. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student's t-test. A total of 1442 orthopaedic and 1585 medical patients were attended to in 2007. In 2008, 1467 orthopaedic and 1637 medical patients required emergency service. The average costs per patient were 980.27 SKR (98€)/999.41 SKR (100€, +1.95%) for orthopaedic and 1081.36 SKR (108€)/877.3 SKR (88€, -18.8%) for medical patients. Laboratory costs decreased by 9% in orthopaedic and 21.4% in medical patients. Radiology costs changed +5.4% in orthopaedic and -20.59% in medical patients. The distribution and promotion of price lists as a tool at the ED to heighten cost awareness resulted in a major decrease in the investigation costs. A significant decrease in radiological costs could be observed. It can be concluded that price lists are an effective tool to cut costs in public healthcare.
Richardson, Joseph B; St Vil, Christopher; Cooper, Carnell
This paper examines an alternative solution for collecting reliable police shooting data. One alternative is the collection of police shooting data from hospital trauma units, specifically hospital-based violence intervention programs. These programs are situated in Level I trauma units in many major cities in USA. While the intent of these programs is to reduce the risk factors associated with trauma recidivism among victims of violent injury, they also collect reliable data on the number of individuals treated for gunshot wounds. While most trauma units do a great job collecting data on mode of injury, many do not collect data on the circumstances surrounding the injury, particularly police-involved shootings. Research protocol on firearm-related injury conducted in emergency departments typically does not allow researchers to interview victims of violent injury who are under arrest. Most victims of nonfatal police-involved shootings are under arrest at the time they are treated by the ED for their injury. Research protocol on victims of violent injury often excludes individuals under arrest; they fall under the exclusion criteria when recruiting potential participants for research on violence. Researchers working in hospital emergency departments are prohibited from recruited individuals under arrests. The trauma staff, particularly ED physicians and nurses, are in a strategic position to collect this kind of data. Thus, this paper examines how trauma units can serve as an alternative in the reliable collection of police shooting data.