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  1. Disparities in potentially avoidable emergency department (ED) care: ED visits for ambulatory care sensitive conditions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Pamela Jo; Ghildayal, Neha; Ward, Andrew C; Westgard, Bjorn C; Boland, Lori L; Hokanson, Jon S

    2012-12-01

    Hospital care for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) is potentially avoidable and often viewed as an indicator of suboptimal primary care. However, potentially preventable encounters with the health care system also occur in emergency department (ED) settings. We examined ED visits to identify subpopulations with disproportionate use of EDs for ACSC care. We analyzed data from the 2007-2009 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey for 78,114 ED visits by adults aged 18 and older. Outcomes were ACSC visits determined from the primary ED diagnosis. We constructed analytic groups aligned with Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's priority populations. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of all-cause, acute, and chronic ACSC visits. We used Stata SE survey techniques to account for the complex survey design. Overall, 8.4% of ED visits were for ACSC, representing over 8 million potentially avoidable ED visits annually. ACSC visits were more likely to result in hospitalization than non-ACSC visits (34.4% vs. 14.0%, P<0.001). Multivariate models revealed significant disparities in ACSC visits to the ED by race/ethnicity, insurance status, age group, and socioeconomic status, although patterns differed for acute and chronic ACSC. Disproportionately higher use of EDs for ACSC care exists for many priority populations and across a broader range of priority populations than previously documented. These differences constitute disparities in potentially avoidable ED visits for ACSC. To avoid exacerbating disparities, health policy efforts to minimize economic inefficiencies in health care delivery by limiting ED visits for ACSC should first address their determinants.

  2. Understanding non-emergency patients admitted to hospitals through the emergency department for efficient ED functions.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jee-In; Chang, Hyejung

    2010-05-01

    ED overcrowding and inefficient flow are closely related to the presence of non-emergency patients. This study aims to examine the characteristics of the non-emergency patients admitted to hospitals through the emergency department by comparison with emergency ED patients and inpatients admitted through outpatient departments, in terms of patient demographics and health care utilization and outcomes. This study used an exploratory descriptive design. The retrospective data of 280,104 patients from 38 hospitals were analyzed. chi(2) Tests and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine significant differences among the 3 patient groups. Among the patients admitted through the emergency department, 13.1% were non-emergency patients. These non-emergency ED patients showed different health care utilization characteristics: 42.8% had 4 or more diagnoses, 90.3% had 5 or more laboratory tests, and 89.4% had radiology tests. After we controlled for patient characteristics and health care utilization variables, mortality risk of emergency ED patients was 2-fold higher than that of non-emergency ED patients and standard inpatients (odds ratio, 2.1), but the referral rate to other facilities on discharge was the highest in non-emergency ED patients compared with standard inpatients (odds ratio, 3.3). Non-emergency patients admitted to hospitals through the emergency department showed special needs for health care services: care continuity, improved access, and fast tracking for acute care hospital-level treatment. Health care policies and strategies are suggested for efficient ED functions. Copyright 2010. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  3. The attitudes and awareness of emergency department (ED) physicians towards the management of common dentofacial emergencies.

    PubMed

    Trivedy, Chetan; Kodate, Naonori; Ross, Alastair; Al-Rawi, Harrith; Jaiganesh, Thiagarajan; Harris, Tim; Anderson, Janet E

    2012-04-01

    Dentofacial emergencies are a common presentation to the emergency department (ED) but there is little recent data on physicians' knowledge, confidence and attitudes in handling these cases. A questionnaire was administered to 103 ED physicians. The sample was primarily drawn from London hospitals as well a smaller contribution from around the UK and included physicians with a range of experience and at different grades. The majority of the 102 participants (76.5%) did not receive any formal training in managing dentofacial emergencies. The percentage of participants who were happy to manage common dentofacial emergencies is as follows: dental trauma (20.4%); major facial trauma (39.8%); interpreting facial X-rays (68.0%); and facial suturing (85.4%). When questioned 12.1% of the participants felt that ED physicians should be responsible for managing dental emergencies compared to 22.4% who felt that ED physicians should manage maxillofacial emergencies. Only 3.9% of the participants would opt to be treated by an ED doctor in the event of them presenting to the ED with a dental injury. The remaining 72.5% would prefer to be seen by a maxillofacial surgeon, 23.5% by a dentist and none of the participants opted to be seen by the emergency nurse practitioner. ED physicians do not feel confident in managing some dentofacial emergencies. This may be attributed to a lack of training in this area as well as exposure to these types of emergencies. There is a need for greater awareness, validated guidelines and training resources for ED physicians to treat dentofacial emergencies as well more research in this field of emergency medicine. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. The ED on line: computerization of the pediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Endom, E E; Myers, J H; Shook, J E

    1996-08-01

    Computers are becoming an increasingly important tool in the management of emergency departments across the United States. Many emergency physicians are unfamiliar with computer systems and are uncomfortable with the idea of implementing computer technology into their departments. This article summarizes the benefits of computerized patient tracking systems and outlines the process by which such a program can be selected and incorporated into an emergency center.

  5. ED-HOME: Improving educator confidence and patient education in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Nicole M; Porter, Joanne E; Beauchamp, Alison

    2016-08-01

    Barriers to effective patient communication in the emergency department (ED) are well recognised; time, resources and staff and consumer expectations. This project aimed to improve the quality of health education provided in the ED by increasing nurses' confidence as educators. By providing a staff information package including the introduction of a new structured education tool; ED-HOME, and by assessing the confidence and self-efficacy of the nurses in the process, we hoped to determine if an improvement in practice and confidence was achieved. A quantitative, pre and post-test questionnaire comparison study was undertaken before and after a four week implementation period. The project examined the attitudes and practices of registered emergency nurses and was conducted in one metropolitan emergency department. Results indicated that nurse confidence and self-efficacy improved by using the new structured ED-HOME format and both staff satisfaction and education competence increased. Participants positively responded to the new tool and recommended future use in the ED. This project demonstrates that if emergency nurses feel more confident with their educating practices and by using a structured format, patients will benefit from better quality patient education provided in the ED. Copyright © 2016 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhanced Mental Health Interventions in the Emergency Department: Suicide and Suicide Attempt Prevention in the ED

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jennifer L.; Asarnow, Joan R.

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death in adolescents, and often youths with suicidal behavior or ideation present to the emergency department (ED) for care. Many suicidal youths do not receive mental health care after discharge from the ED, and interventions are needed to enhance linkage to outpatient intervention. This paper describes the Family Intervention for Suicide Prevention (FISP). Designed for use in emergency settings, the FISP is a family-based cognitive-behavior therapy session designed to increase motivation for follow-up treatment, support, coping, and safety, augmented by care linkage telephone contacts after discharge. In a randomized trial of the intervention, the FISP was shown to significantly increase the likelihood of youths receiving outpatient treatment, including psychotherapy and combined medication and psychotherapy. The FISP is a brief, focused, efficacious treatment that can be delivered in the ED to improve the probability of follow-up treatment for suicidal youths. PMID:25904825

  7. Communication and Influencing for ED Professionals: A training programme developed in the emergency department for the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Rixon, Andrew; Rixon, Sascha; Addae-Bosomprah, Hansel; Ding, Mingshuang; Bell, Anthony

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study is to develop and pilot a communication and influencing skills training programme that meets ED health professionals' needs at an urban district hospital. Qualitative methods within a participatory action research framework were utilised. An interdisciplinary team guided the programme's design and development. A training needs analysis saw team meetings, interviews, focus groups and observations conducted across the ED. Thematic analysis of the data identified health professionals' communication and influencing challenges. The training needs analysis informed the training programme curriculum's development. The pilot programme involved an interdisciplinary group of seven health professionals across 5 × 2 h sessions over 3 months, followed by a post-training survey. Five themes of communication and influencing challenges were identified: participating in effective handovers, involving patients in bedside handovers, effectively communicating with interdepartmental colleagues, asking ED colleagues to do tasks and understanding ED colleagues' roles, expectations and assumptions. Based on these challenges, the formulated RESPECT model (which stands for Relationships, Expectations, Styles, Partnerships, Enquiry, Coaching and Teamwork) informed the training curriculum. The peer coaching model used in the training programme was highly regarded by participants. Communication and Influencing for ED Professionals™ (Babel Fish Group Pty Ltd, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) addresses a gap for communication programmes developed in the ED for the ED. Future research will evaluate the programme's impact in this ED. © 2016 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  8. National targets, process transformation and local consequences in an NHS emergency department (ED): a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the attempt to reduce waiting times in emergency departments, various national health services have used benchmarking and the optimisation of patient flows. The aim of this study was to examine staff attitudes and experience of providing emergency care following the introduction of a 4 hour wait target, focusing on clinical, organisational and spatial issues. Methods A qualitative research design was used and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 clinical, managerial and administrative staff members working in an inner-city emergency department. A thematic analysis method was employed and NVivo 8 qualitative data analysis software was used to code and manage the emerging themes. Results The wait target came to regulate the individual and collective timescales of healthcare work. It has compartmentalised the previous unitary network of emergency department clinicians and their workspace. It has also speeded up clinical performance and patient throughput. It has disturbed professional hierarchies and facilitated the development of new professional roles. A new clinical information system complemented these reconfigurations by supporting advanced patient tracking, better awareness of time, and continuous, real-time management of emergency department staff. The interviewees had concerns that this target-oriented way of working forces them to have a less personal relationship with their patients. Conclusions The imposition of a wait-target in response to a perceived “crisis” of patients’ dissatisfaction led to the development of a new and sophisticated way of working in the emergency department, but with deep and unintended consequences. We show that there is a dynamic interrelation of the social and the technical in the complex environment of the ED. While the 4 hour wait target raised the profile of the emergency department in the hospital, the added pressure on clinicians has caused some concerns over the future of their

  9. National targets, process transformation and local consequences in an NHS emergency department (ED): a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Vezyridis, Paraskevas; Timmons, Stephen

    2014-06-13

    In the attempt to reduce waiting times in emergency departments, various national health services have used benchmarking and the optimisation of patient flows. The aim of this study was to examine staff attitudes and experience of providing emergency care following the introduction of a 4 hour wait target, focusing on clinical, organisational and spatial issues. A qualitative research design was used and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 clinical, managerial and administrative staff members working in an inner-city emergency department. A thematic analysis method was employed and NVivo 8 qualitative data analysis software was used to code and manage the emerging themes. The wait target came to regulate the individual and collective timescales of healthcare work. It has compartmentalised the previous unitary network of emergency department clinicians and their workspace. It has also speeded up clinical performance and patient throughput. It has disturbed professional hierarchies and facilitated the development of new professional roles. A new clinical information system complemented these reconfigurations by supporting advanced patient tracking, better awareness of time, and continuous, real-time management of emergency department staff. The interviewees had concerns that this target-oriented way of working forces them to have a less personal relationship with their patients. The imposition of a wait-target in response to a perceived "crisis" of patients' dissatisfaction led to the development of a new and sophisticated way of working in the emergency department, but with deep and unintended consequences. We show that there is a dynamic interrelation of the social and the technical in the complex environment of the ED. While the 4 hour wait target raised the profile of the emergency department in the hospital, the added pressure on clinicians has caused some concerns over the future of their relationships with their patients and colleagues. To

  10. Promoting an obesity education program among minority patients in a single urban pediatric Emergency Department (ED).

    PubMed

    Haber, Jordana J; Atti, Sukshant; Gerber, Linda M; Waseem, Muhammad

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of the Emergency Department (ED) as a place for obesity education and to evaluate its impact on patient's lifestyle modification. In this study, children between 8 and 18 years of age, who presented to the ED for non-urgent reasons in a single urban hospital, were enrolled. Parents' perception of their child's diet and exercise were assessed prior to the intervention. Both parents and children attended a brief audio-visual presentation that provided educational information on age-appropriate diet and exercise. Following the intervention, the participants were asked about their impressions regarding the ED as a place to receive obesity education and whether they plan to make any changes in diet and exercise. One hundred children and their parents participated in this study. Of these, 76 were Latino and 21 were African-Americans. The mean age was 14 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 25.6. Following the intervention, 21 (100 %) of the African-American parents and 73 (98.6 %) of the Latino parents felt that the ED should provide obesity education. Eighteen (85.7 %) of the African-American parents and 72 (97.3 %) of the Latino parents planned to make changes in their child's diet and exercise. Among the children, 21 (100 %) of African-American participants and 76 (100 %) of Latino participants reported that they found the audio-visual useful. Seventeen (81.0 %) of the African-American children and 73 (96.1 %) of Latino children stated learning new information from the intervention program. This study suggests the ED may have a role in primary health promotion and obesity prevention. An ED-based intervention may be used to provide education about obesity prevention and has the potential to impact life style modifications, including diet and exercise.

  11. Suicide Prevention in an Emergency Department Population: The ED-SAFE Study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ivan W; Camargo, Carlos A; Arias, Sarah A; Sullivan, Ashley F; Allen, Michael H; Goldstein, Amy B; Manton, Anne P; Espinola, Janice A; Jones, Richard; Hasegawa, Kohei; Boudreaux, Edwin D

    2017-06-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of deaths in the United States. Although the emergency department (ED) is an opportune setting for initiating suicide prevention efforts, ED-initiated suicide prevention interventions remain underdeveloped. To determine whether an ED-initiated intervention reduces subsequent suicidal behavior. This multicenter study of 8 EDs in the United States enrolled adults with a recent suicide attempt or ideation and was composed of 3 sequential phases: (1) a treatment as usual (TAU) phase from August 2010 to December 2011, (2) a universal screening (screening) phase from September 2011 to December 2012, and (3) a universal screening plus intervention (intervention) phase from July 2012 to November 2013. Screening consisted of universal suicide risk screening. The intervention phase consisted of universal screening plus an intervention, which included secondary suicide risk screening by the ED physician, discharge resources, and post-ED telephone calls focused on reducing suicide risk. The primary outcome was suicide attempts (nonfatal and fatal) over the 52-week follow-up period. The proportion and total number of attempts were analyzed. A total of 1376 participants were recruited, including 769 females (55.9%) with a median (interquartile range) age of 37 (26-47) years. A total of 288 participants (20.9%) made at least 1 suicide attempt, and there were 548 total suicide attempts among participants. There were no significant differences in risk reduction between the TAU and screening phases (23% vs 22%, respectively). However, compared with the TAU phase, patients in the intervention phase showed a 5% absolute reduction in suicide attempt risk (23% vs 18%), with a relative risk reduction of 20%. Participants in the intervention phase had 30% fewer total suicide attempts than participants in the TAU phase. Negative binomial regression analysis indicated that the participants in the intervention phase had significantly fewer total suicide attempts

  12. Brief Intervention for Drug Users Presenting in Emergency Departments (NIDA CTN Protocol 0047: SMART-ED)

    PubMed Central

    Bogenschutz, Michael P.; Donovan, Dennis M.; Mandler, Raul N.; Perl, Harold I.; Forcehimes, Alyssa A.; Crandall, Cameron; Lindblad, Robert; Oden, Neal L.; Sharma, Gaurav; Metsch, Lisa; Lyons, Michael S.; McCormack, Ryan; Konstantopoulos, Wendy Macias; Douaihy, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Medical treatment settings such as Emergency Departments (EDs) present important opportunities to address problematic substance use. Currently, EDs do not typically intervene beyond acute medical stabilization. OBJECTIVE To contrast the effects of a brief intervention with telephone boosters (BI-B) to those of screening, assessment, and referral to treatment (SAR) and minimal screening only (MSO) among drug-using ED patients. DESIGN Between October 2010 and February 2012, 1285 patients were randomized to MSO (n = 431), SAR (n = 427), or BI-B (n = 427). Follow-up assessments were conducted at 3, 6, and 12 months by blinded interviewers. SETTING EDs of six academic hospitals in the U.S. PARTICIPANTS Participants were adult ED patients scoring ≥ 3 on the 10-item Drug Abuse Screening Test (indicating moderate to severe problems related to drug use) and currently using drugs. INTERVENTIONS Following screening, MSO participants received only an informational pamphlet. SAR participants received assessment plus referral to addiction treatment if indicated. BI-B participants received assessment and referral as in SAR, plus a manual-guided counseling session based on motivational interviewing principles and up to 2 “booster” sessions by telephone during the month following the ED visit. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Outcomes evaluated at follow-up visits included self-reported days using the patient-defined primary problem drug, days using any drug, days of heavy drinking, and drug use based on analysis of hair samples. RESULTS Follow-up rates were 88%, 86%, and 81% at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. There were no significant differences between groups in self-reported days using the primary drug, days using any drug, or heavy drinking days at 3, 6, or 12 months. At the 3-month follow-up, participants in the SAR group had a higher rate of hair samples positive for their primary drug of abuse (265/280, 95%) than did participants in the MSO group (253/287, 88

  13. Why Do Cancer Patients Die in the Emergency Department? An Analysis of 283 Deaths in NC EDs

    PubMed Central

    Leak, Ashley; Mayer, Deborah K.; Wyss, Annah; Travers, Debbie; Waller, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) visits are made by cancer patients for symptom management, treatment effects, oncologic emergencies, or end of life care. While most patients prefer to die at home, many die in health care institutions. The purpose of this study is to describe visit characteristics of cancer patients who died in the ED and their most common chief complaints using 2008 ED visit data from the North Carolina Disease Event Tracking and Epidemiologic Collection Tool (NC DETECT). Of the 37,760 cancer-related ED visits, 283 resulted in death. For lung cancer patients, 104 died in the ED with 70.9% dying on their first ED visit. Research on factors precipitating ED visits by cancer patients is needed to address end of life care needs. PMID:22556288

  14. Why do cancer patients die in the emergency department?: an analysis of 283 deaths in NC EDs.

    PubMed

    Leak, Ashley; Mayer, Deborah K; Wyss, Annah; Travers, Debbie; Waller, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Emergency department (ED) visits are made by cancer patients for symptom management, treatment effects, oncologic emergencies, or end of life care. While most patients prefer to die at home, many die in health care institutions. The purpose of this study is to describe visit characteristics of cancer patients who died in the ED and their most common chief complaints using 2008 ED visit data from the North Carolina Disease Event Tracking and Epidemiologic Collection Tool (NC DETECT). Of the 37,760 cancer-related ED visits, 283 resulted in death. For lung cancer patients, 104 died in the ED with 70.9% dying on their first ED visit. Research on factors precipitating ED visits by cancer patients is needed to address end of life care needs.

  15. The Pediatric Asthma Control and Communication Instrument for the Emergency Department (PACCI-ED) improves physician assessment of asthma morbidity in pediatric emergency department patients.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Elizabeth M; Laskowski-Kos, Ursula; Wu, Dominic; Gutierrez, Julia; Bilderback, Andrew; Okelo, Sande O; Garro, Aris

    2014-03-01

    To determine whether the Pediatric Asthma Control and Communication Instrument for the Emergency Department (PACCI-ED), a 12-item questionnaire, can help ED attendings accurately assess a patient's asthma control and morbidity. This was a randomized-controlled trial performed at an urban pediatric ED of children aged 1-17 years presenting with an asthma exacerbation. Parents answered PACCI-ED questions about their children's asthma. Attendings were randomized to view responses to the PACCI-ED (intervention group) or to be blinded to the completed PACCI-ED (control group). The two groups were compared on their empirical clinical assessment of: (1) chronic asthma control categories, (2) asthma trajectory (stable, worsening or improving), (3) patient adherence to controller medications, and (4) burden of disease for the patient's family. The validated PACCI algorithm was used as the criterion standard for these four outcomes. Accuracy of clinical assessment was compared between intervention and control groups using chi-squared tests and an intention-to-treat approach. Seventeen ED attendings were enrolled in the study and 77 children visits were included in the analysis. There were no significant differences between the intervention and the control groups for child's gender, age, race, and asthma characteristics. Intervention group attendings were more accurate than control group attendings in assessing the category of chronic asthma control (43% versus 19%; p = 0.03), disease trajectory (72% versus 45%; p = 0.02), and the disease burden for families (74% versus 35%; p = 0.001) over the past 12 months. There was a trend towards more accuracy of intervention versus control attendings for estimating patient adherence to controller medications (72% versus 48%; p = 0.06). The PACCI-ED improves the assessment of asthma control, trajectory, and burden by ED attendings, and may help assessment of asthma medication adherence and prior asthma exacerbations. The

  16. New Zealand's emergency department target - did it reduce ED length of stay, and if so, how and when?

    PubMed

    Tenbensel, Tim; Chalmers, Linda; Jones, Peter; Appleton-Dyer, Sarah; Walton, Lisa; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2017-09-26

    In 2009, the New Zealand government introduced a hospital emergency department (ED) target - 95% of patients seen, treated or discharged within 6 h - in order to alleviate crowding in public hospital EDs. While these targets were largely met by 2012, research suggests that such targets can be met without corresponding overall reductions in ED length-of-stay (LOS). Our research explores whether the NZ ED time target actually reduced ED LOS, and if so, how and when. We adopted a mixed-methods approach with integration of data sources. After selecting four hospitals as case study sites, we collected all ED utilisation data for the period 2006 to 2012. ED LOS data was derived in two forms-reported ED LOS, and total ED LOS - which included time spent in short-stay units. This data was used to identify changes in the length of ED stay, and describe the timing of these changes to these indicators. Sixty-eight semi-structured interviews and two surveys of hospital clinicians and managers were conducted between 2011 and 2013. This data was then explored to identify factors that could account for ED LOS changes and their timing. Reported ED LOS reduced in all sites after the introduction of the target, and continued to reduce in 2011 and 2012. However, total ED LOS only decreased from 2008 to 2010, and did not reduce further in any hospital. Increased use of short-stay units largely accounted for these differences. Interview and survey data showed changes to improve patient flow were introduced in the early implementation period, whereas increased ED resources, better information systems to monitor target performance, and leadership and social marketing strategies mainly took throughout 2011 and 2012 when total ED LOS was not reducing. While the ED target clearly stimulated improvements in patient flow, our analysis also questions the value of ED targets as a long term approach. Increased use of short-stay units suggests that the target became less effective in 'standing

  17. Unplanned 3-day re-attendance rate at Emergency Department (ED) and hospital's bed occupancy rate (BOR).

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Heng, Bee Hoon; Tay, Seow Yian; Tan, Kelvin Brian

    2015-12-01

    Unplanned re-attendance at the Emergency Department (ED) is often monitored as a quality indicator of the care accorded to patients during their index ED visit. High bed occupancy rate (BOR) has been considered as a matter of reduced patient comfort and privacy. Most hospitals in Singapore operate under BORs above 85 %. This study aims to explore factors associated with the unplanned 3-day ED re-attendance rate and, in particular, if higher BOR is associated with higher 3-day unplanned ED re-attendance rate. This was a multicenter retrospective study using time series data. Three acute tertiary hospitals were selected from all six adult public hospitals in Singapore based on data availability. Daily data from year 2008 to 2013 were collected from the study hospitals' information systems. These included: ED visit date, day of week, month, year, public holiday, daily hospital BOR, daily bed waiting time (BWT) at ED (both median and 95th percentile), daily ED admission rate, and 3-day ED re-attendance rate. The primary outcome of the study was unplanned 3-day ED re-attendance rate from all reasons. Both univariate analysis and generalized linear regression were respectively applied to study the crude and adjusted association between the unplanned 3-day ED re-attendance rate and its potential associated factors. All analyses were conducted using SPSS 18 (PASW 18, IBM). The average age of patients who visited ED was 35 years old (SD = 2), 37 years old (SD = 2), and 40 years old (SD = 2) in hospitals A, B, and C respectively. The average 3-day unplanned ED re-attendance rate was 4.9 % (SE = 0.47 %) in hospital A, 3.9 % (SE = 0.35 %) in hospital B, and 4.4 % (SE = 0.30 %) in hospital C. After controlling for other covariates, the unplanned 3-day ED re-attendance rates were significantly associated with hospital, time trend, day of week, daily average BOR, and ED admission rate. Strong day-of-week effect on early ED re-attendance rate was

  18. Making Improvements in the ED: Does ED Busyness Affect Time to Antibiotics in Febrile Pediatric Oncology Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department?

    PubMed

    Benner, Christopher A; Mora, Erika; Mueller, Emily; Seagull, F Jacob; Walkovich, Kelly; Johnson, Kaleena; Halverson, Schuyler; Rothman, Ed; Hucks, George; Younger, John G; Nypaver, Michele M

    2016-10-04

    Febrile neutropenic pediatric patients are at heightened risk for serious bacterial infections, and rapid antibiotic administration (in <60 minutes) improves survival. Our objectives were to reduce the time-to-antibiotic (TTA) administration and to evaluate the effect of overall emergency department (ED) busyness on TTA. This study was a quality improvement initiative with retrospective chart review to reduce TTA in febrile children with underlying diagnosis of cancer or hematologic immunodeficiency who visited the pediatric ED. A multidisciplinary clinical practice guideline (CPG) was implemented to improve TTA. The CPG's main focus was delivery of antibiotics before availability of laboratory data. We collected data on TTA during baseline and intervention periods. Concurrent patient arrivals to the ED per hour served as a proxy of busyness. Time to antibiotic was compared with the number of concurrent arrivals per hour. Analyses included scatter plot and regression analysis. There were 253 visits from October 1, 2010 to March 30, 2012. Median TTA administration dropped from 207 to 89 minutes (P < 0.001). Eight months after completing all intervention periods, the median had dropped again to 44 minutes with 70% of patients receiving antibiotics within 60 minutes of ED arrival. There was no correlation between concurrent patient arrivals and TTA administration during the historical or intervention periods. Implementation of a CPG and process improvements significantly reduced median TTA administration. Total patient arrivals per hour as a proxy of ED crowding did not affect TTA administration. Our data suggest that positive improvements in clinical care can be successful despite fluctuations in ED patient volume.

  19. DESIGN OF NIDA CTN PROTOCOL 0047: SCREENING, MOTIVATIONAL ASSESSMENT, REFERRAL, AND TREATMENT IN EMERGENCY DEPARTMENTS (SMART-ED)

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Dennis M.; Adinoff, Bryon; Crandall, Cameron; Forcehimes, Alyssa A.; Lindblad, Robert; Mandler, Raul N.; Oden, Neal; Perl, Harold I.; Walker, Robrina

    2011-01-01

    Background Medical settings such as emergency departments (EDs) present an opportunity to identify and provide services for individuals with substance use problems who might otherwise never receive any form of assessment, referral, or intervention. Although Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) models have been extensively studied and are considered effective for individuals with alcohol problems presenting in emergency departments and other medical settings, the efficacy of such interventions has not been established for drug users presenting in EDs. Objectives This paper describes the design of a NIDA Clinical Trials Network protocol testing the efficacy of an SBIRT model in medical EDs, highlighting considerations that that are pertinent to the design of other studies targeting substance use behaviors in medical treatment settings. Methods The protocol is described, and critical design decisions are discussed. Results Design challenges included defining treatment conditions, study population, and site characteristics; developing the screening process; choosing the primary outcome; balancing brevity and comprehensiveness of assessment; and selecting the strategy for statistical analysis. Conclusion Many of the issues arising in the design of this study will be relevant to future studies of interventions for addictions in medical settings. Scientific Significance Optimal trial design is critical to determining how best to integrate substance abuse interventions into medical care. PMID:21854285

  20. Self-referring patients at the emergency department: appropriateness of ED use and motives for self-referral

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nearly all Dutch citizens have a general practitioner (GP), acting as a gatekeeper to secondary care. Some patients bypass the GP and present to the emergency department (ED). To make best use of existing emergency care, Dutch health policy makers and insurance companies have proposed the integration of EDs and GP cooperatives (GPCs) into one facility. In this study, we examined ED use and assessed the characteristics of self-referrals and non-self-referrals, their need for hospital emergency care and self-referrals' motives for presenting at the ED. Methods A descriptive cohort study was conducted in a Dutch level 1 trauma centre. Differences in patient characteristics, time of presentation and need for hospital emergency care were analysed using χ2 tests and t tests. A patient was considered to need hospital emergency care when he/she was admitted to the hospital, had an extremity fracture and/or when diagnostic tests were performed. Main determinants of self-referral were identified via logistic regression. Results Of the 5,003 consecutive ED patients registering within the 5-week study period, 3,028 (60.5%) were self-referrals. Thirty-nine percent of the self-referrals had urgent acuity levels, as opposed to 65% of the non-self-referrals. Self-referrals more often suffered from injuries (49 vs. 20%). One third of the self-referrals presented during office hours. Of all self-referrals, 51% needed hospital emergency care. Younger age; non-urgent acuity level; chest pain, ear, nose or throat problems; and injuries were independent predictors for self-referral. Most cited motives for self-referring were ‘accessibility and convenience’ and perceived ‘medical necessity’. Conclusions A substantial part of the self-referrals needed hospital emergency care. The 49% self-referrals who were eligible for GP care presented during out-of-hours as well as during office hours. This calls for an integrative approach to this health care problem. PMID:25097670

  1. Design of NIDA CTN Protocol 0047: screening, motivational assessment, referral, and treatment in emergency departments (SMART-ED).

    PubMed

    Bogenschutz, Michael P; Donovan, Dennis M; Adinoff, Bryon; Crandall, Cameron; Forcehimes, Alyssa A; Lindblad, Robert; Mandler, Raul N; Oden, Neal L; Perl, Harold I; Walker, Robrina

    2011-09-01

    Medical settings such as emergency departments (EDs) present an opportunity to identify and provide services for individuals with substance use problems who might otherwise never receive any form of assessment, referral, or intervention. Although screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment models have been extensively studied and are considered effective for individuals with alcohol problems presenting in EDs and other medical settings, the efficacy of such interventions has not been established for drug users presenting in EDs. This article describes the design of a NIDA Clinical Trials Network protocol testing the efficacy of an screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment model in medical EDs, highlighting considerations that are pertinent to the design of other studies targeting substance use behaviors in medical treatment settings. The protocol is described, and critical design decisions are discussed. Design challenges included defining treatment conditions, study population, and site characteristics; developing the screening process; choosing the primary outcome; balancing brevity and comprehensiveness of assessment; and selecting the strategy for statistical analysis. Many of the issues arising in the design of this study will be relevant to future studies of interventions for addictions in medical settings. Optimal trial design is critical to determining how best to integrate substance abuse interventions into medical care.

  2. Prognostic value of early warning scores in the emergency department (ED) and acute medical unit (AMU): A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Nannan Panday, R S; Minderhoud, T C; Alam, N; Nanayakkara, P W B

    2017-10-06

    A wide array of early warning scores (EWS) have been developed and are used in different settings to detect which patients are at risk of deterioration. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of studies conducted on the value of EWS on predicting intensive care (ICU) admission and mortality in the emergency department (ED) and acute medical unit (AMU). A literature search was conducted in the bibliographic databases PubMed and EMBASE, from inception to April 2017. Two reviewers independently screened all potentially relevant titles and abstracts for eligibility. 42 studies were included. 36 studies reported on mortality as an endpoint, 13 reported ICU admission and 9 reported the composite outcome of mortality and ICU admission. For mortality prediction National Early Warning Score (NEWS) was the most accurate score in the general ED population and in those with respiratory distress, Mortality in Emergency Department Sepsis score (MEDS) had the best accuracy in patients with an infection or sepsis. ICU admission was best predicted with NEWS, however in patients with an infection or sepsis Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) yielded better results for this outcome. MEWS and NEWS generally had favourable results in the ED and AMU for all endpoints. Many studies have been performed on ED and AMU populations using heterogeneous prognostic scores. However, future studies should concentrate on a simple and easy to use prognostic score such as NEWS with the aim of introducing this throughout the (pre-hospital and hospital) acute care chain. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Solving the worldwide emergency department crowding problem - what can we learn from an Israeli ED?

    PubMed

    Pines, Jesse M; Bernstein, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    ED crowding is a prevalent and important issue facing hospitals in Israel and around the world, including North and South America, Europe, Australia, Asia and Africa. ED crowding is associated with poorer quality of care and poorer health outcomes, along with extended waits for care. Crowding is caused by a periodic mismatch between the supply of ED and hospital resources and the demand for patient care. In a recent article in the Israel Journal of Health Policy Research, Bashkin et al. present an Ishikawa diagram describing several factors related to longer length of stay (LOS), and higher levels of ED crowding, including management, process, environmental, human factors, and resource issues. Several solutions exist to reduce ED crowding, which involve addressing several of the issues identified by Bashkin et al. This includes reducing the demand for and variation in care, and better matching the supply of resources to demands in care in real time. However, what is needed to reduce crowding is an institutional imperative from senior leadership, implemented by engaged ED and hospital leadership with multi-disciplinary cross-unit collaboration, sufficient resources to implement effective interventions, access to data, and a sustained commitment over time. This may move the culture of a hospital to facilitate improved flow within and across units and ultimately improve quality and safety over the long-term.

  4. Feasibility of nonmydriatic ocular fundus photography in the emergency department: Phase I of the FOTO-ED study.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Beau B; Lamirel, Cédric; Biousse, Valérie; Ward, Antionette; Heilpern, Katherine L; Newman, Nancy J; Wright, David W

    2011-09-01

    Examination of the ocular fundus is imperative in many acute medical and neurologic conditions, but direct ophthalmoscopy by nonophthalmologists is underutilized, poorly performed, and difficult without pharmacologic pupillary dilation. The objective was to examine the feasibility of nonmydriatic fundus photography as a clinical alternative to direct ophthalmoscopy by emergency physicians (EPs). Adult patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with headache, acute focal neurologic deficit, diastolic blood pressure ≥ 120 mm Hg, or acute visual change had ocular fundus photographs taken by nurse practitioners using a nonmydriatic fundus camera. Photographs were reviewed by a neuroophthalmologist within 24 hours for findings relevant to acute ED patient care. Nurse practitioners and patients rated ease, comfort, and speed of nonmydriatic fundus photography on a 10-point Likert scale (10 best). Timing of visit and photography were recorded by automated electronic systems. A total of 350 patients were enrolled. There were 1,734 photographs taken during 230 nurse practitioner shifts. Eighty-three percent of the 350 patients had at least one eye with a high-quality photograph, while only 3% of patients had no photographs of diagnostic value. Mean ratings were ≥ 8.7 (standard deviation [SD] ≤ 1.9) for all measures. The median photography session lasted 1.9 minutes (interquartile range [IQR] = 1.3 to 2.9 minutes), typically accounting for less that 0.5% of the patient's total ED visit. Nonmydriatic fundus photography taken by nurse practitioners is a feasible alternative to direct ophthalmoscopy in the ED. It is performed well by nonphysician staff, is well-received by staff and patients, and requires a trivial amount of time to perform. © 2011 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  5. An introduction to the Emergency Department Adult Clinical Escalation protocol: ED-ACE.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, Eoin; Geary, Una; Wakai, Abel; O'Sullivan, Ronan; Browne, John; McAuliffe, Eilish; Ward, Marie; McDaid, Fiona; Deasy, Conor

    2017-09-01

    This study demonstrates how a participatory action research approach was used to address the challenge of the early and effective detection of the deteriorating patient in the ED setting. The approach enabled a systematic approach to patient monitoring and escalation of care to be developed to address the wide-ranging spectrum of undifferentiated presentations and the phases of ED care from triage to patient admission. This paper presents a longitudinal patient monitoring system, which aims to provide monitoring and escalation of care, where necessary, of adult patients from triage to admission to hospital in a manner that is feasible in the unique ED environment. An action research approach was taken to designing a longitudinal patient monitoring system appropriate for the ED. While the first draft protocol for post-triage monitoring and escalation was designed by a core research group, six clinical sites were included in iterative cycles of planning, action, reviewing and further planning. Reasons for refining the system at each site were collated and the protocol was adjusted accordingly before commencing the process at the next site. The ED Adult Clinical Escalation longitudinal patient monitoring system (ED-ACE) evolved through iterative cycles of design and testing to include: (1) a monitoring chart for adult patients; (2) a standardised approach to the monitoring and reassessment of patients after triage until they are assessed by a clinician; (3) the ISBAR (I=Identify, S=Situation, B=Background, A=Assessment, R=Recommendation) tool for interprofessional communication relating to clinical escalation; (4) a template for prescribing a patient-specific monitoring plan to be used by treating clinicians to guide patient monitoring from the time the patient is assessed until when they leave the ED and (5) a protocol for clinical escalation prompted by single physiological triggers and clinical concern. This tool offers a link in the 'Chain of Prevention' between

  6. Feasibility of Non-Mydriatic Ocular Fundus Photography in the Emergency Department: Phase I of the FOTO-ED Study

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Beau B.; Lamirel, Cédric; Biousse, Valérie; Ward, Antionette; Heilpern, Katherine L.; Newman, Nancy J.; Wright, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Examination of the ocular fundus is imperative in many acute medical and neurologic conditions, but direct ophthalmoscopy by non-ophthalmologists is underutilized, poorly performed, and difficult without pharmacologic pupillary dilation. The objective was to examine the feasibility of non-mydriatic fundus photography as a clinical alternative to direct ophthalmoscopy by emergency physicians (EPs). Methods Adult patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with headache, acute focal neurologic deficit, diastolic blood pressure ≥ 120 mmHg, or acute visual change had ocular fundus photographs taken by nurse practitioners using a non-mydriatic fundus camera. Photographs were reviewed by a neuro-ophthalmologist within 24 hours for findings relevant to acute ED patient care. Nurse practitioners and patients rated ease, comfort, and speed of non-mydriatic fundus photography on a 10-point Likert scale (10 best). Timing of visit and photography were recorded by automated electronic systems. Results Three hundred fifty patients were enrolled. There were 1,734 photographs taken during 230 nurse practitioner shifts. Eighty-three percent of the 350 patients had at least one eye with a high quality photograph, while only 3% of patients had no photographs of diagnostic value. Mean ratings were ≥ 8.7 (standard deviation [SD] ≤ 1.9) for all measures. The median photography session lasted 1.9 minutes (interquartile range [IQR] 1.3 to 2.9 minutes), typically accounting for less that 0.5% of the patient’s total ED visit. Conclusions Non-mydriatic fundus photography taken by nurse practitioners is a feasible alternative to direct ophthalmoscopy in the ED. It is performed well by non-physician staff, is well-received by staff and patients, and requires a trivial amount of time to perform. PMID:21906202

  7. An Evidence-Based Alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) Curriculum for Emergency Department (ED) Providers Improves Skills and Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Emergency Departments (EDs) offer an opportunity to improve the care of patients with at-risk and dependent drinking by teaching staff to screen, perform brief intervention and refer to treatment (SBIRT). We describe here the implementation at 14 Academic EDs of a structured SBIRT curriculum to determine if this learning experience…

  8. Quality of nonmydriatic digital fundus photography obtained by nurse practitioners in the emergency department: the FOTO-ED study.

    PubMed

    Lamirel, Cédric; Bruce, Beau B; Wright, David W; Delaney, Kevin P; Newman, Nancy J; Biousse, Valérie

    2012-03-01

    Nonmydriatic fundus photography by non-ophthalmic-trained personnel has recently been shown to be a potential alternative to direct ophthalmoscopy in the emergency department (ED). We evaluated the reliability of a novel quality rating scale and applied this scale to nonmydriatic fundus photographs taken during routine ED patient encounters to determine factors associated with diminished photograph quality. Prospective, cross-sectional study. We included 350 patients enrolled in the Fundus photography versus Ophthalmoscopy Trials Outcomes in the Emergency Department study who were photographed by nurse practitioners after <30 minutes of training followed by supervision. Photographs of both eyes were graded for quality on 2 occasions by 2 neuro-ophthalmologists. Four regions were independently evaluated for quality: Optic disc, macula, and superior and inferior vascular arcades. Quality as a function of the number of photographs taken was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Mixed effects ordinal logistic regression was used to evaluate for predictors of image quality while accounting for the repeated measures design. Overall photographic quality (1-5 scale; 5 best). We evaluated 1734 photographs. Inter- and intraobserver agreements between neuro-ophthalmologists were very good (weighted kappa, 0.84-0.87). Quality of the optic disc area was better than those of other retinal areas (P<0.002). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that if a high-quality photograph of an eye was not obtained by the third attempt, it was unlikely that one would be obtained at all. A 10-second increase in the interphotograph interval before a total of 40 seconds increased the odds of a 1-unit higher quality rating by 1.81 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.68-1.98), and a 10-year increase in age decreased the odds by 0.76 times (95% CI, 0.69-0.85). Black patients had 0.42 times (95% CI, 0.28-0.63) the odds of a 1-unit higher quality rating compared with whites. Our 5-point scale is a reliable

  9. Factors affecting communication in emergency departments: doctors and nurses' perceptions of communication in a trilingual ED in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Pun, Jack K H; Matthiessen, Christian M I M; Murray, Kristen A; Slade, Diana

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates clinicians' views of clinician-patient and clinician-clinician communication, including key factors that prevent clinicians from achieving successful communication in a large, high-pressured trilingual Emergency Department (ED) in Hong Kong. Researchers interviewed 28 doctors and nurses in the ED. The research employed a qualitative ethnographic approach. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, translated into English and coded using the Nvivo software. The researchers examined issues in both clinician-patient and clinician-clinician communication. Through thematic analyses, they identified the factors that impede communication most significantly, as well as the relationship between these factors. This research highlights the significant communication issues and patterns in Hong Kong EDs. The clinician interviews revealed that communication in EDs is complex, nuanced and fragile. The data revealed three types of communication issues: (1) the experiential parameter (i.e. processes and procedures), (2) the interpersonal parameter (i.e. clinicians' engagements with patients and other clinicians) and (3) contextual factors (i.e. time pressures, etc.). Within each of these areas, the specific problems were the following: compromises in knowledge transfer at key points of transition (e.g. triage, handover), inconsistencies in medical record keeping, serious pressures on clinicians (e.g. poor clinician-patient ratio and long working hours for clinicians) and a lack of focus on interpersonal skills. These communication problems (experiential, interpersonal and contextual) are intertwined, creating a complex yet weak communication structure that compromises patient safety, as well as patient and clinician satisfaction. The researchers argue that hospitals should develop and implement best-practice policies and educational programmes for clinicians that focus on the following: (1) understanding the primary causes of communication problems in

  10. Expected and actual adverse drug-drug interactions in elderly patients accessing the emergency department: data from the ANCESTRAL-ED study.

    PubMed

    Marino, A; Capogrosso-Sansone, A; Tuccori, M; Bini, G; Calsolaro, V; Mantarro, S; Convertino, I; Pasqualetti, G; Orsitto, E; Santini, M; Monzani, F; Blandizzi, C

    2016-12-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the frequency and describing the adverse drug-drug interactions (DDIs) recorded among elderly patients accessing the emergency department (ED). Patients aged ≥65 years, accessing the ED of Pisa University Hospital (Italy) from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2015 within the ANCESTRAL-ED program, were included in this study. 'Expected' DDIs were assessed using Thomson Micromedex®. Each ED admission (discharge diagnosis) consistent with the signs and symptoms of an expected DDI for each patient was classified as an 'actual' DDI. Throughout the study period, 3473 patients (3812 ED admissions, 58% females, mean age: 80.3) were recorded. The total number of expected DDIs was 12,578 (67 contraindicated; 3334 major; 8878 moderate; 299 minor) detected in 2147 (62%) patients. Overall 464 expected DDIs were found to be consistent with the ED admission in 194 patients (representing 9% of patients with expected DDIs). More than one half of elderly patients admitted to ED presented at least one expected DDI at the time of ED presentation. However, 9% of the expected DDIs were identified as actual DDIs, based on the consistency of the expected event with the ED discharge diagnosis.

  11. There Are Sex Differences in the Demographics and Risk Profiles of Emergency Department (ED) Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Flutter, but no Apparent Differences in ED Management or Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Scheuermeyer, Frank Xavier; Mackay, Martha; Christenson, Jim; Grafstein, Eric; Pourvali, Reza; Heslop, Claire; MacPhee, Jan; Ward, John; Heilbron, Brett; McGrath, Lorraine; Humphries, Karin

    2015-09-01

    In non-emergency department (ED) settings, women with atrial fibrillation and flutter (AFF) have different presentations, treatments, and outcomes than men: they are older, less likely to be treated with rhythm control strategies or appropriate anticoagulation, and more likely to have strokes. This has not been investigated in ED patients. Records from consecutive ED patients from January 1 to December 31, 2009, with electrocardiogram-proven AFF at two urban hospitals were collected. Review of administrative and clinical data identified patient demographics, clinical characteristics, comorbidities, and ED treatments. The regional ED database was queried to determine 30-day and 1-year follow-up visits, and the provincial vital statistics database was referenced to obtain 30-day and 1-year mortality; all outcomes were stratified by sex. The primary outcome, which reflected overall appropriateness of ED care, was the proportion of patients who were discharged home at their index ED visits, who then had unscheduled 30-day ED revisits. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of eligible patients who underwent acute rhythm control strategies and the proportion of high-risk patients who had previously inadequately anticoagulation strategies corrected by the emergency physician. Additional outcomes included the ED length of stay (LOS) and 30-day and 1-year rates of stroke and death. A total of 1,112 records were reviewed: 470 women (42.3%) and 642 men. Women were a median 8 years (interquartile range = 3 to 13 years) older than men, had higher rates of cardiovascular comorbidities, and were more likely to present with atypical symptoms such as weakness or dyspnea. On their index ED visits, 50.2% of women and 41.3% of men were admitted. At 30 days, 39 of 234 (16.7%) women and 55 of 377 (14.6%) men who were discharged at their index ED visits had made revisits, for a risk difference of 2.1% (95% confidence interval = -3.9% to 8.5%). There were no apparent sex differences

  12. An evidence based alcohol screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT) curriculum for emergency department (ED) providers improves skills and utilization.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Edward; Bernstein, Judith; Feldman, James; Fernandez, William; Hagan, Melissa; Mitchell, Patricia; Safi, Clara; Woolard, Robert; Mello, Mike; Baird, Janette; Lee, Christina; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Broderick, Kerry; Laperrier, Kathryn A; Kellermann, Arthur; Wald, Marlena M; Taylor, Robert E; Walton, Kim; Grant-Ervin, Michelle; Rollinson, Denise; Edwards, David; Chan, Theodore; Davis, Dan; Buchanan Marshall, Jean; Aseltine, Robert; James, Amy; Schilling, Elizabeth; Abu-Hasaballah, Khamis; Baumann, Brigitte M; Boudreaux, Edwin D; Maio, Ronald F; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Murrell, Teresa; Doezema, David; Anglin, Deirdre; Eliassen, Adriana; Martin, Marcus; Pines, Jesse; Buchanan, Leslie; Turner, James; D'Onofrio, Gail; Degutis, Linda C; Owens, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Emergency Departments (EDs) offer an opportunity to improve the care of patients with at-risk and dependent drinking by teaching staff to screen, perform brief intervention and refer to treatment (SBIRT). We describe here the implementation at 14 Academic EDs of a structured SBIRT curriculum to determine if this learning experience improves provider beliefs and practices. ED faculty, residents, nurses, physician extenders, social workers, and Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) were surveyed prior to participating in either a two hour interactive workshops with case simulations, or a web-based program (www.ed.bmc.org/sbirt). A pre-post repeated measures design assessed changes in provider beliefs and practices at three and 12 months post-exposure. Among 402 ED providers, 74% reported < 10 hours of prior professional alcohol-related education and 78% had < 2 hours exposure in the previous year. At 3-month follow-up, scores for self-reported confidence in ability, responsibility to intervene, and actual utilization of SBIRT skills all improved significantly over baseline. Gains decreased somewhat at 12 months, but remained above baseline. Length of time in practice was positively associated with SBIRT utilization, controlling for gender, race and type of profession. Persistent barriers included time limitations and lack of referral resources. ED providers respond favorably to SBIRT. Changes in utilization were substantial at three months post-exposure to a standardized curriculum, but less apparent after 12 months. Booster sessions, trained assistants and infrastructure supports may be needed to sustain changes over the longer term.

  13. Development and Validation of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Measures of Potentially Preventable Emergency Department (ED) Visits: The ED Prevention Quality Indicators for General Health Conditions.

    PubMed

    Davies, Sheryl; Schultz, Ellen; Raven, Maria; Wang, Nancy Ewen; Stocks, Carol L; Delgado, Mucio Kit; McDonald, Kathryn M

    2017-10-01

    To develop and validate rates of potentially preventable emergency department (ED) visits as indicators of community health. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project 2008-2010 State Inpatient Databases and State Emergency Department Databases. Empirical analyses and structured panel reviews. Panels of 14-17 clinicians and end users evaluated a set of ED Prevention Quality Indicators (PQIs) using a Modified Delphi process. Empirical analyses included assessing variation in ED PQI rates across counties and sensitivity of those rates to county-level poverty, uninsurance, and density of primary care physicians (PCPs). ED PQI rates varied widely across U.S. communities. Indicator rates were significantly associated with county-level poverty, median income, Medicaid insurance, and levels of uninsurance. A few indicators were significantly associated with PCP density, with higher rates in areas with greater density. A clinical and an end-user panel separately rated the indicators as having strong face validity for most uses evaluated. The ED PQIs have undergone initial validation as indicators of community health with potential for use in public reporting, population health improvement, and research. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  14. Emergency department (ED) utilization and outcome of oldest old men presenting with geriatric syndromes in a veterans care home in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ming-Yueh; Chou, Shang-Lin; Tzeng, Yuann-Meei; Chen, Liang-Kung; Yen, David Hung-Tsang; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Huang, Chun-I; Tu, Ming-Shium; Lee, Chen-Hsen

    2009-12-01

    The first presentation of elderly people in the emergency department (ED) is commonly nonspecific and atypical, often in the form of geriatric syndromes, i.e. falls, immobility, incontinence, or deteriorating mental function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the management and outcomes of institutionalized elderly people who initially presented with geriatric syndrome (GS) in the ED. A retrospective chart review of Banciao Veterans Care Home residents who visited the ED of a tertiary medical center was done. Demographic data including age, sex, modes of arrival, category of triage, time of visit, main presenting symptoms, principal diagnosis, medical expenditures, and clinical outcomes were recorded. From January to December, 2006, 629 ED visits (mean age, 82.1+/-5.3 years, all male) were retrieved. The overall prevalence of GS was 23.8%. When GS subjects were admitted, they were more likely to be transferred to step-down community hospitals for post-acute care (OR = 2.63; 95% CI: 1.36-5.08, p = 0.004). GS was common in institutionalized elderly people calling for ED services, and GS subjects were more likely to be transferred to step-down community hospitals after hospitalization. Comprehensive geriatric assessments may be of value for institutionalized elderly patients visiting the ED.

  15. Practice characteristics of Emergency Department extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (eCPR) programs in the United States: The current state of the art of Emergency Department extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ED ECMO).

    PubMed

    Tonna, Joseph E; Johnson, Nicholas J; Greenwood, John; Gaieski, David F; Shinar, Zachary; Bellezo, Joseph M; Becker, Lance; Shah, Atman P; Youngquist, Scott T; Mallin, Michael P; Fair, James Franklin; Gunnerson, Kyle J; Weng, Cindy; McKellar, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    To characterize the current scope and practices of centers performing extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (eCPR) on the undifferentiated patient with cardiac arrest in the emergency department. We contacted all US centers in January 2016 that had submitted adult eCPR cases to the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) registry and surveyed them, querying for programs that had performed eCPR in the Emergency Department (ED ECMO). Our objective was to characterize the following domains of ED ECMO practice: program characteristics, patient selection, devices and techniques, and personnel. Among 99 centers queried, 70 responded. Among these, 36 centers performed ED ECMO. Nearly 93% of programs are based at academic/teaching hospitals. 65% of programs are less than 5 years old, and 60% of programs perform ≤3 cases per year. Most programs (90%) had inpatient eCPR or salvage ECMO programs prior to starting ED ECMO programs. The majority of programs do not have formal inclusion and exclusion criteria. Most programs preferentially obtain vascular access via the percutaneous route (70%) and many (40%) use mechanical CPR during cannulation. The most commonly used console is the Maquet Rotaflow(®). Cannulation is most often performed by cardiothoracic (CT) surgery, and nearly all programs (>85%) involve CT surgeons, perfusionists, and pharmacists. Over a third of centers that submitted adult eCPR cases to ELSO have performed ED ECMO. These programs are largely based at academic hospitals, new, and have low volumes. They do not have many formal inclusion or exclusion criteria, and devices and techniques are variable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An Evidence-Based Alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) Curriculum for Emergency Department (ED) Providers Improves Skills and Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Edward; Bernstein, Judith; Feldman, James; Fernandez, William; Hagan, Melissa; Mitchell, Patricia; Safi, Clara; Woolard, Robert; Mello, Mike; Baird, Janette; Lee, Cristina; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Broderick, Kerry; LaPerrier, Kathryn A.; Kellermann, Arthur; Wald, Marlena M.; Taylor, Robert E.; Walton, Kim; Grant-Ervin, Michelle; Rollinson, Denise; Edwards, David; Chan, Theodore; Davis, Dan; Marshall, Jean Buchanan; Aseltine, Robert; James, Amy; Abu-Hasaballah, Khamis; Schilling, Elizabeth; Baumann, Brigitte M.; Boudreaux, Edwin D.; Maio, Ronald; Cunningham, Rebecca; Murrell, Teresa; Doezema, David; Bauer, Michael J.; Anglin, Deirdre; Eliassen, Adriana; Martin, Marcus; Pines, Jesse; Buchanan, Leslie; Turner, James; D'Onofrio, Gail; Degutis, Linda C.; Owens, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Emergency Departments (EDs) offer an opportunity to improve the care of patients with at-risk and dependent drinking by teaching staff to screen, perform brief intervention and refer to treatment (SBIRT). We describe here the implementation at 14 Academic EDs of a structured SBIRT curriculum to determine if this learning experience improves provider beliefs and practices. Methods ED faculty, residents, nurses, physician extenders, social workers, and Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) were surveyed prior to participating in either a two hour interactive workshops with case simulations, or a web-based program (www.ed.bmc.org/sbirt). A pre-post repeated measures design assessed changes in provider beliefs and practices at three and 12 months post-exposure. Results Among 402 ED providers, 74% reported < 10 hours of prior professional alcohol-related education and 78% had < 2 hours exposure in the previous year. At 3-month follow-up, scores for self-reported confidence in ability, responsibility to intervene, and actual utilization of SBIRT skills all improved significantly over baseline. Gains decreased somewhat at 12 months, but remained above baseline. Length of time in practice was positively associated with SBIRT utilization, controlling for gender, race and type of profession. Persistent barriers included time limitations and lack of referral resources. Conclusions ED providers respond favorably to SBIRT. Changes in utilization were substantial at three months post-exposure to a standardized curriculum, but less apparent after 12 months. Booster sessions, trained assistants and infrastructure supports may be needed to sustain changes over the longer term. PMID:18077305

  17. Preventing avoidable incidents leading to a presentation to the emergency department (ED) by older adults with cognitive impairment: protocol for a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Provencher, Véronique; Généreux, Mélissa; Gagnon-Roy, Mireille; Veillette, Nathalie; Egan, Mary; Sirois, Marie-Josée; Lacasse, Francis; Rose, Kathy; Stocco, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Older adults with cognitive impairment represent a large portion (21–42%) of people (65+) who consult at an emergency department (ED). Because this sub-group is at higher risk for hospitalisation and mortality following an ED visit, awareness about ‘avoidable’ incidents should be increased in order to prevent presentations to the ED due to such incidents. This study aims to synthetise the actual knowledge related to ‘avoidable’ incidents (ie, traumatic injuries, poisoning and other consequences of external causes) (WHO, 2016) leading to ED presentations in older people with cognitive impairment. Methodology and analysis A scoping review will be performed. Scientific and grey literature (1996–2016) will be searched using a combination of key words pertaining to avoidable incidents, ED presentations, older adults and cognitive impairment. A variety of databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Ageline, SCOPUS, ProQuest Dissertations/theses, EBM Reviews, Healthstar), online library catalogues, governmental websites and published statistics will be examined. Included sources will pertain to community-dwelling older adults presenting to the ED as a result of an avoidable incident, with the main focus on those with cognitive impairment. Data (eg, type, frequency, severity, circumstances of incidents, preventive measures) will be extracted and analysed using a thematic chart and content analysis. Discussion and dissemination This scoping review will provide a picture of the actual knowledge on the subject and identify knowledge gaps in existing literature to be filled by future primary researches. Findings will help stakeholders to develop programmes in order to promote safe and healthy environments and behaviours aimed at reducing avoidable incidents in seniors, especially those with cognitive impairment. PMID:26873049

  18. Systematic review: Is Metoclopramide more effective than Sumatriptan in relieving pain from migraine in adults in the Emergency Department (ED) setting?

    PubMed

    Barleycorn, Donna

    2016-07-01

    Migraine headache is a common disorder; patients attending Emergency Departments (ED) for migraine symptoms internationally account for 1-3% of total ED annual attendances. A systematic review was undertaken of reports comparing the effectiveness of metoclopramide intravenously (IV) with that of sumatriptan subcutaneously (SC), in an ED setting, for the immediate relief of migraine and their measurable effects in relieving pain intensity. Findings of two identified comparable reports confirm the individual efficacy of the study drugs in pain relief. However, whilst one report concludes that there is no statistical or significant clinical advantage for one drug over the other, the other report suggests that metoclopramide has a distinct advantage. One study is well structured methodologically, but the other has significant risk of bias. The analysis of the chosen studies demonstrates the need for rigorous study design and robust reporting requirements to obviate this risk. Further studies are required to explore comparable effect. Implications for clinical practice from the report outcomes indicate the individual effectiveness of both study drugs in providing pain relief for migraine in the Emergency setting, but not the comparable efficacy of one drug over the other. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Diagnostic accuracy and use of non-mydriatic ocular fundus photography by emergency department physicians: Phase II of the FOTO-ED study

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Beau B.; Thulasi, Praneetha; Fraser, Clare L.; Keadey, Matthew T.; Ward, Antoinette; Heilpern, Katherine L.; Wright, David W.; Newman, Nancy J.; Biousse, Valérie

    2013-01-01

    Objective During the first phase of the FOTO-ED Study, 13% (44/350;95%CI:9–17%) of patients had an ocular fundus finding, such as papilledema, relevant to their emergency department (ED) management found by non-mydriatic ocular fundus photography reviewed by neuro-opthalmologists. All of these findings were missed by ED physicians (EPs), who only examined 14% of enrolled patients by direct ophthalmoscopy. In the present study, we evaluated the sensitivity of non-mydriatic ocular fundus photography, an alternative to direct ophthalmoscopy, for relevant findings when photographs were made available for use by EPs during routine clinical care. Methods 354 patients presenting to our ED with headache, focal neurologic deficit, visual change, or diastolic blood pressure ≥120 mmHg had non-mydriatic fundus photography obtained (Kowa nonmyd-alpha-D). Photographs were placed on the electronic medical record for EPs review. Identification of relevant findings on photographs by EPs was compared to a reference standard of neuro-ophthalmologist review. Results EPs reviewed photographs of 239 patients (68%). 35 patients (10%;95%CI:7–13%) had relevant findings identified by neuro-ophthalmologist review (6 disc edema, 6 grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy, 7 isolated hemorrhages, 15 optic disc pallor, and 1 retinal vascular occlusion). EPs identified 16/35 relevant findings (sensitivity:46%;95%CI:29–63%), and also identified 289/319 normal findings (specificity:96%; 95%CI:87–94%). EPs reported that photographs were helpful for 125 patients (35%). Conclusions EPs used non-mydriatic fundus photographs more frequently than they perform direct ophthalmoscopy, and their detection of relevant abnormalities improved. Ocular fundus photography often assisted ED care even when normal. Non-mydriatic ocular fundus photography offers a promising alternative to direct ophthalmoscopy. PMID:23433654

  20. Pain management trend of vaso-occulsive crisis (VOC) at a community hospital emergency department (ED) for patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Susumu; Khan, Isra'a; Mushtaq, Rao; Sanikommu, Srinivasa Reddy; Mbeumo, Carline; LaChance, Jenny; Roebuck, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Pain management at the emergency department (ED) for vaso-occulsive crisis (VOC) for patients with sickle cell disease has not been optimum, with a long delay in giving the initial analgesic. We conducted a retrospective survey over a 7-year period to determine our ED's timing in giving pain medication to patients with VOC as a quality improvement project. We compared different periods, children vs adults, and the influence of gender in the analgesic administration timing. This is a retrospective chart review of three different periods: (1) years 2007-2008, (2) years 2011-2012, and (3) year 2013. We extracted relevant information from ED records. Data were analyzed using Student t test, chi-square analysis, and the Kruskal-Wallis test. There was a progressive improvement in the time interval to the 1st analgesic over these three periods. Children received analgesics more quickly than adults in all periods. Male adult patients received pain medication faster than female adult patients, although initial pain scores were higher in female than in male patients. Progressively fewer pediatric patients utilized ED over these three periods, but no difference for adult patients was observed. The proportion of pediatric patients admitted to the hospital increased with each period. The progressive decrease in both the number of patients and the number of visits to the ED by children suggested that the collective number of VOC in children has decreased, possibly secondary to the dissemination of hydroxyurea use. We failed to observe the same trend in adult patients. The need for IV access, and ordering laboratory tests or imaging studies tends to delay analgesic administration. Delay in administration of the first analgesic was more pronounced for female adult patients than male adult patients in spite of their higher pain score. Health care providers working in ED should make conscious efforts to respect pain in women as well as pain in men. Though not proven from this study

  1. Quality of non-mydriatic digital fundus photography obtained by nurse practitioners in the emergency department: the FOTO-ED study

    PubMed Central

    Lamirel, Cédric; Bruce, Beau B.; Wright, David W.; Delaney, Kevin P.; Newman, Nancy J.; Biousse, Valérie

    2011-01-01

    Objective Non-mydriatic fundus photography by non-ophthalmic trained personnel has recently been shown to be a potential alternative to direct ophthalmoscopy in the emergency department (ED). We evaluated the reliability of a novel quality rating scale and applied this scale to non-mydriatic fundus photographs taken during routine ED patient encounters to determine factors associated with diminished photograph quality. Design Prospective, cross-sectional Participants 350 patients enrolled in the Fundus photography vs. Ophthalmoscopy Trials Outcomes in the Emergency Department (FOTO-ED) study were photographed by nurse practitioners after <30 minutes of training followed by supervision. Methods Photographs of both eyes were graded for quality on two occasions by two neuro-ophthalmologists. Four regions were independently evaluated for quality: optic disc, macula, superior and inferior vascular arcades. Quality as a function of the number of photographs taken was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Mixed effects ordinal logistic regression was used to evaluate for predictors of image quality while accounting for the repeated measures design. Main Outcome Measure Overall photographic quality (1–5 scale, 5 best). Results We evaluated 1734 photographs. Inter- and intra-observer agreements between neuro-ophthalmologists were very good (weighted kappa:0.84–0.87). Quality of the optic disc area was better than those of other retinal areas (p<0.002). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that if a high-quality photograph of an eye was not obtained by the third attempt it was unlikely that one would be obtained at all. A 10 second increase in the inter-photograph interval before a total of forty seconds increased the odds of a one unit higher quality rating by 1.81 times (95%CI: 1.68–1.98), and a ten year increase in age decreased the odds by 0.76 times (95%CI: 0.69–0.85). Black patients had 0.42 times (95%CI: 0.28–0.63) the odds of a one unit higher quality rating compared

  2. Emergency departments in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Thijssen, Wendy A M H; Giesen, Paul H J; Wensing, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Emergency medicine in The Netherlands is faced with an increasing interest by politicians and stakeholders in health care. This is due to crowding, increasing costs, criticism of the quality of emergency care, restructuring of out-of-hours services in primary care and the introduction of a training programme for emergency physicians in 2000. A comprehensive search was conducted of published research, policy reports and updated Dutch websites on acute care. Publications were included in this review if these referred to emergency care, including emergency departments (ED), general practitioner (GP) cooperatives and emergency medical services in The Netherlands and were written in English or Dutch. The literature search identified 14 eligible papers. The manual search identified 11 additional papers. Seven reports and two PhD theses were also included. Given the lack of relevant empirical research the review was liberal in its inclusion, but the analysis focused on research when available. ED in The Netherlands are in different stages of development. However, it is obvious that the presence of emergency physicians is increasing and more ED will be staffed by emergency physicians. Although this seems an important step, it does not necessarily imply a good position of the emergency physician in the ED. What the characteristics of the future patient of the Dutch ED will be is dependent on the development of different ED levels of care and GP cooperatives. The lack of empirical research also points out the need for research on quality of care in Dutch ED.

  3. Emergency department point-of-care ultrasound in out-of-hospital and in-ED cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Gaspari, Romolo; Weekes, Anthony; Adhikari, Srikar; Noble, Vicki E; Nomura, Jason T; Theodoro, Daniel; Woo, Michael; Atkinson, Paul; Blehar, David; Brown, Samuel M; Caffery, Terrell; Douglass, Emily; Fraser, Jacqueline; Haines, Christine; Lam, Samuel; Lanspa, Michael; Lewis, Margaret; Liebmann, Otto; Limkakeng, Alexander; Lopez, Fernando; Platz, Elke; Mendoza, Michelle; Minnigan, Hal; Moore, Christopher; Novik, Joseph; Rang, Louise; Scruggs, Will; Raio, Christopher

    2016-12-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound has been suggested to improve outcomes from advanced cardiac life support (ACLS), but no large studies have explored how it should be incorporated into ACLS. Our aim was to determine whether cardiac activity on ultrasound during ACLS is associated with improved survival. We conducted a non-randomized, prospective, protocol-driven observational study at 20 hospitals across United States and Canada. Patients presenting with out-of-hospital arrest or in-ED arrest with pulseless electrical activity or asystole were included. An ultrasound was performed at the beginning and end of ACLS. The primary outcome was survival to hospital admission. Secondary outcomes included survival to hospital discharge and return of spontaneous circulation. 793 patients were enrolled, 208 (26.2%) survived the initial resuscitation, 114 (14.4%) survived to hospital admission, and 13 (1.6%) survived to hospital discharge. Cardiac activity on US was the variable most associated with survival at all time points. On multivariate regression modeling, cardiac activity was associated with increased survival to hospital admission (OR 3.6, 2.2-5.9) and hospital discharge (OR 5.7, 1.5-21.9). No cardiac activity on US was associated with non-survival, but 0.6% (95% CI 0.3-2.3) survived to discharge. Ultrasound identified findings that responded to non-ACLS interventions. Patients with pericardial effusion and pericardiocentesis demonstrated higher survival rates (15.4%) compared to all others (1.3%). Cardiac activity on ultrasound was the variable most associated with survival following cardiac arrest. Ultrasound during cardiac arrest identifies interventions outside of the standard ACLS algorithm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Emergency Department Sickle Cell Assessment of Needs and Strengths (ED-SCANS), a focus group and decision support tool development project.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Paula; Reddin, Christopher; Thornton, Victoria L; Todd, Knox H; Wun, Ted; Lyons, John S

    2010-08-01

    A decision support tool may guide emergency clinicians in recognizing assessment, analgesic and overall management, and health service delivery needs for patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) in the emergency department (ED). We aimed to identify data and process elements important in making decisions regarding evaluation and management of adult patients in the ED with painful episodes of SCD. Qualitative methods using a series of focus groups and grounded theory were used. Eligible participants included adult clients with SCD and emergency physicians and nurses with a minimum of 1 year of experience providing care to patients with SCD in the ED. Patients were recruited in conjunction with annual SCD meetings, and providers included clinicians who were and were not affiliated with sickle cell centers. Groups were conducted until saturation was reached and included a total of two patient groups, three physician groups, and two nurse groups. Focus groups were held in New York, Durham, Chicago, New Orleans, and Denver. Clinician participants were asked the following three questions to guide the discussion: 1) what information would be important to know about patients with SCD in the ED setting to effectively care for them and help you identify patient analgesic, treatment, and referral needs? 2) What treatment decisions would you make with this information? and 3) What characteristics would a decision support tool need to have to make it meaningful and useful? Client participants were asked the same questions with rewording to reflect what they believed providers should know to provide the best care and what they should do with the information. All focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed. The constant comparative method was used to analyze the data. Two coders independently coded participant responses and identified focal themes based on the key questions. An investigator and assistant independently reviewed the transcripts and met until the final coding

  5. Return to the ED and hospitalisation following minor injuries among older persons treated in the emergency department: predictors among independent seniors within 6 months

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jacques; Sirois, Marie-Josee; Moore, Lynne; Perry, Jeffrey; Daoust, Raoul; Griffith, Lauren; Worster, Andrew; Lang, Eddy; Emond, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Background: minor traumatic injuries among independent older people have received little attention to date, but increasingly the impact of such injuries is being recognised. Objectives: we assessed the frequency and predictors of acute health care use, defined as return to the emergency department (ED) or hospitalisation. Study design: national multicentre prospective observational study. Setting: eight Canadian teaching EDs between April 2009 and April 2013. Participants: a total of 1,568 patients aged 65–100 years, independent in basic activities of daily living, discharged from ED following a minor traumatic injury. Methods: trained assessors measured baseline data including demographics, functional status, cognition, comorbidities, frailty and injury severity. We then conducted follow-up telephone interviews at 6 months to assess subsequent acute health care use. We used log-binomial regression analyses to identify predictors of acute health care use, and reported relative risks and 95% CIs. Results: participants' mean age was 77.0, 66.4% female, and their injuries included contusions (43.5%), lacerations (25.1%) and fractures (25.4%). The cumulative rate of acute health care use by 6 months post-injury was 21.5% (95% CI: 19.0–24.3%). The strongest predictors of acute health care use within 6 months were cognitive impairment, RR = 1.6 (95% IC: 1.2–2.1) and the mechanism of injury including pedestrian struck or recreational injuries, RR = 1.6 (95% CI 1.2–2.2). Conclusions: among independent community living older persons with a minor injury, cognitive impairment and mechanism of injury were independent risk factors for acute healthcare use. Future studies should look at whether tailored discharge planning can reduce the need for acute health care use. PMID:25944869

  6. Effects of emergency department expansion on emergency department patient flow.

    PubMed

    Mumma, Bryn E; McCue, James Y; Li, Chin-Shang; Holmes, James F

    2014-05-01

    Emergency department (ED) crowding is an increasing problem associated with adverse patient outcomes. ED expansion is one method advocated to reduce ED crowding. The objective of this analysis was to determine the effect of ED expansion on measures of ED crowding. This was a retrospective study using administrative data from two 11-month periods before and after the expansion of an ED from 33 to 53 adult beds in an academic medical center. ED volume, staffing, and hospital admission and occupancy data were obtained either from the electronic health record (EHR) or from administrative records. The primary outcome was the rate of patients who left without being treated (LWBT), and the secondary outcome was total ED boarding time for admitted patients. A multivariable robust linear regression model was used to determine whether ED expansion was associated with the outcome measures. The mean (±SD) daily adult volume was 128 (±14) patients before expansion and 145 (±17) patients after. The percentage of patients who LWBT was unchanged: 9.0% before expansion versus 8.3% after expansion (difference = 0.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.16% to 1.4%). Total ED boarding time increased from 160 to 180 hours/day (difference = 20 hours, 95% CI = 8 to 32 hours). After daily ED volume, low-acuity area volume, daily wait time, daily boarding hours, and nurse staffing were adjusted for, the percentage of patients who LWBT was not independently associated with ED expansion (p = 0.053). After ED admissions, ED intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, elective surgical admissions, hospital occupancy rate, ICU occupancy rate, and number of operational ICU beds were adjusted for, the increase in ED boarding hours was independently associated with the ED expansion (p = 0.005). An increase in ED bed capacity was associated with no significant change in the percentage of patients who LWBT, but had an unintended consequence of an increase in ED boarding hours. ED expansion alone does

  7. Study design to examine the potential role of assessment reactivity in the Screening, Motivational Assessment, Referral, and Treatment in Emergency Departments (SMART-ED) protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) approaches to reducing hazardous alcohol and illicit drug use have been assessed in a variety of health care settings, including primary care, trauma centers, and emergency departments. A major methodological concern in these trials, however, is “assessment reactivity,” the hypothesized impact of intensive research assessments to reduce alcohol and drug use and thus mask the purported efficacy of the interventions under scrutiny. Thus, it has been recommended that prospective research designs take assessment reactivity into account. The present article describes the design of the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network protocol, Screening, Motivational Assessment, Referral, and Treatment in Emergency Departments (SMART-ED), which addresses the potential bias of assessment reactivity. Methods/design The protocol employs a 3-arm design. Following an initial brief screening, individuals identified as positive cases are consented, asked to provide demographic and locator information, and randomly assigned to one of the three conditions: minimal screening only, screening + assessment, or screening + assessment + brief intervention. In a two-stage process, the randomization procedure first reveals whether or not the participant will be in the minimal-screening-only condition. Participants in the other two groups receive a more extensive baseline assessment before it is revealed whether they have been randomized to also receive a brief intervention. Comparing the screening only and screening + assessment conditions will allow determination of the incremental effect of assessment reactivity. Discussion Assessment reactivity is a potential source of bias that may reduce and/or lead to an underestimation of the purported effectiveness of brief interventions. From a methodological perspective, it needs to be accounted for in research designs. The SMART-ED design

  8. [Psychiatric care in emergency departments].

    PubMed

    Puffer, E; Messer, T; Pajonk, F-G B

    2012-03-01

    Psychiatric emergency situations (PES) are frequent in emergency departments (EDs). There are, however, only few investigations that focus on the prevalence of these patients or on diagnostic and therapeutic standards. These PESs in EDs should be treated according to standards comparable to medically disabled patients. Thus it is necessary to learn more about the diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities in EDs, about the procedures and the decision-making process whether these patients are transferred to further outpatient or inpatient treatment. A survey was conducted in EDs throughout Germany and 1,073 were contacted and asked to participate. The questionnaire consisted of questions concerning the size of the ED and of the hospital (e.g. number of patients and physicians), the prevalence of psychiatric disorders, the diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities, standard procedures for dealing with PES and the method of care in six typical case reports. A total of 74 EDs participated (76% interdisciplinary EDs) with an average of 22,827 ± 12,303 patients per year in the ED. Psychiatry as a medical discipline was integrated into 10 EDs (14%) and psychiatric competence could be activated in 84% of EDs. Participating EDs reported prevalence rates of 15% mentally disordered patients and 9% of patients who required psychiatric diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Of the patients 2% presented after suicide attempts and 3% were considered to be aggressive. Approximately 50% of all PESs were related to substance abuse disorders. An average of 2.5 ± 4.2 (range 0-25) members of the medical and nursing staff were injured during a 1-year period by violent patients. Legal actions against the will of patients were initiated in 81% of EDs. Standardized diagnostic screening instruments or self-rating questionnaires were used in only four EDs. As standard procedures for the diagnostic work-up of psychiatric patients (medical clearance) physical examination, measurement of heart

  9. Advertising emergency department wait times.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Scott G

    2013-03-01

    Advertising emergency department (ED) wait times has become a common practice in the United States. Proponents of this practice state that it is a powerful marketing strategy that can help steer patients to the ED. Opponents worry about the risk to the public health that arises from a patient with an emergent condition self-triaging to a further hospital, problems with inaccuracy and lack of standard definition of the reported time, and directing lower acuity patients to the higher cost ED setting instead to primary care. Three sample cases demonstrating the pitfalls of advertising ED wait times are discussed. Given the lack of rigorous evidence supporting the practice and potential adverse effects to the public health, caution about its use is advised.

  10. Advertising Emergency Department Wait Times

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Scott G.

    2013-01-01

    Advertising emergency department (ED) wait times has become a common practice in the United States. Proponents of this practice state that it is a powerful marketing strategy that can help steer patients to the ED. Opponents worry about the risk to the public health that arises from a patient with an emergent condition self-triaging to a further hospital, problems with inaccuracy and lack of standard definition of the reported time, and directing lower acuity patients to the higher cost ED setting instead to primary care. Three sample cases demonstrating the pitfalls of advertising ED wait times are discussed. Given the lack of rigorous evidence supporting the practice and potential adverse effects to the public health, caution about its use is advised. PMID:23599836

  11. Emergency department overcrowding – implications for paediatric emergency medicine

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) overcrowding has been an international phenomenon for more than 10 years. It is important to understand that ED overcrowding is a measure of health system efficiency and is not strictly related to ED volumes or capacity. ED overcrowding is defined as a situation in which the demand for emergency services exceeds the ability of physicians and nurses to provide quality care within a reasonable time. The major factor resulting in ED overcrowding is the presence of admitted patients in the ED for prolonged periods of time, not a high volume of low-acuity patients. While limited data are available for paediatric EDs, winter respiratory illnesses set the stage for ED overcrowding, which are epidemic in adult or general EDs. Prehospital-, ED- and hospital-related factors are described in the present article, and these may help prevent or manage this important patient safety problem. PMID:19030415

  12. Emergency Department Crowding and Outcomes After Emergency Department Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Gabayan, Gelareh Z.; Derose, Stephen F.; Chiu, Vicki Y.; Yiu, Sau C.; Sarkisian, Catherine A.; Jones, Jason P.; Sun, Benjamin C.

    2015-01-01

    Study objective We assess whether a panel of emergency department (ED) crowding measures, including 2 reported by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), is associated with inpatient admission and death within 7 days of ED discharge. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of ED discharges, using data from an integrated health system for 2008 to 2010. We assessed patient transit-level (n=3) and ED system-level (n=6) measures of crowding, using multivariable logistic regression models. The outcome measures were inpatient admission or death within 7 days of ED discharge. We defined a clinically important association by assessing the relative risk ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) difference and also compared risks at the 99th percentile and median value of each measure. Results The study cohort contained a total of 625,096 visits to 12 EDs. There were 16,957 (2.7%) admissions and 328 (0.05%) deaths within 7 days. Only 2 measures, both of which were patient transit measures, were associated with the outcome. Compared with a median evaluation time of 2.2 hours, the evaluation time of 10.8 hours (99th percentile) was associated with a relative risk of 3.9 (95% CI 3.7 to 4.1) of an admission. Compared with a median ED length of stay (a CMS measure) of 2.8 hours, the 99th percentile ED length of stay of 11.6 hours was associated with a relative risk of 3.5 (95% CI 3.3 to 3.7) of admission. No system measure of ED crowding was associated with outcomes. Conclusion Our findings suggest that ED length of stay is a proxy for unmeasured differences in case mix and challenge the validity of the CMS metric as a safety measure for discharged patients. PMID:26003004

  13. Application of the emergency department census model.

    PubMed

    Bellow, Aaron A; Flottemesch, Thomas J; Gillespie, Gordon L

    2012-01-01

    As health care systems across the United States continue to grapple with emergency department (ED) crowding and identify mechanisms to improve ED throughput, quantification of intradepartmental efficiency and workload is required to provide much-needed objective measures to assist in the continuing development, implementation, and evaluation of these strategic initiatives. In an attempt to establish a straightforward measure of ED efficiency in relation to daily census and ED crowding, T. J. Flottemesch (2006) developed the ED Census Model. The purpose of this study was to apply the ED Census Model in a Southwestern U.S. community hospital setting. This application of the ED Census Model yielded 3 components: the ED Census Component, the ED Throughput Component, and the ED Efficiency Threshold Component. The components provide information necessary for understanding the impact of patient arrivals and departures on the underlying workflow processes that determine throughput.

  14. Leprosy in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Hoffner, R J; Esekogwu, V; Mallon, W K

    2000-04-01

    Los Angeles County-University of Southern California Medical Center, like many large urban hospitals, has a large immigrant population from regions of the world where leprosy is endemic. Emergency physicians (EPs) in these settings can expect to encounter leprosy patients. This study reviewed the emergency department (ED) course of patients with confirmed leprosy in an attempt to describe the most common presenting patterns so that future cases can be more easily recognized. This was a retrospective chart review of all patients followed in the Hansen's disease clinic. Demographics, leprosy type, clinical presentations to the ED, and medications were recorded. Of the total number of patients (415), most were of Mexican (52%), Filipino (15%), Vietnamese (14%), and Chinese (5%) origin. Leprosy was classified as lepromatous (56%), borderline (40%), and tuberculoid (4%). There were a total of 118 ED visits by 74 patients. The mean age was 46 years, with 51% male and 49% female. Dermatologic (68%), neurologic (23%), and ophthalmologic (9%) complaints were the most common reasons for ED presentation related to leprosy. The EP did not elicit a history of leprosy in 34% of those patients followed in the leprosy clinic. The ED diagnosis of leprosy was made in 3 of 15 (20%) undiagnosed cases. Of the 63 patients prescribed medications in the leprosy clinic at the time of their ED visits, 22 (35%) ED charts did not report leprosy drugs. Patients with leprosy present to U.S. EDs, and new cases can be identified. Early recognition is important given leprosy's devastating consequences, major drug side effects of medications used for treatment, and improved prognosis with multidrug therapy. A history of leprosy and associated medications are often not documented in the ED chart, which may reflect a continued fear of stigmatization among these patients.

  15. Improving emergency department patient flow.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Paul Richard Edwin

    2016-06-01

    Emergency departments (ED) face significant challenges in delivering high quality and timely patient care on an ever-present background of increasing patient numbers and limited hospital resources. A mismatch between patient demand and the ED's capacity to deliver care often leads to poor patient flow and departmental crowding. These are associated with reduction in the quality of the care delivered and poor patient outcomes. A literature review was performed to identify evidence-based strategies to reduce the amount of time patients spend in the ED in order to improve patient flow and reduce crowding in the ED. The use of doctor triage, rapid assessment, streaming and the co-location of a primary care clinician in the ED have all been shown to improve patient flow. In addition, when used effectively point of care testing has been shown to reduce patient time in the ED. Patient flow and departmental crowding can be improved by implementing new patterns of working and introducing new technologies such as point of care testing in the ED.

  16. Improving emergency department patient flow

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Paul Richard Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Emergency departments (ED) face significant challenges in delivering high quality and timely patient care on an ever-present background of increasing patient numbers and limited hospital resources. A mismatch between patient demand and the ED’s capacity to deliver care often leads to poor patient flow and departmental crowding. These are associated with reduction in the quality of the care delivered and poor patient outcomes. A literature review was performed to identify evidence-based strategies to reduce the amount of time patients spend in the ED in order to improve patient flow and reduce crowding in the ED. The use of doctor triage, rapid assessment, streaming and the co-location of a primary care clinician in the ED have all been shown to improve patient flow. In addition, when used effectively point of care testing has been shown to reduce patient time in the ED. Patient flow and departmental crowding can be improved by implementing new patterns of working and introducing new technologies such as point of care testing in the ED. PMID:27752619

  17. National study of emergency department observation services.

    PubMed

    Wiler, Jennifer L; Ross, Michael A; Ginde, Adit A

    2011-09-01

    The objective was to describe patient and facility characteristics of emergency department (ED) observation services in the United States. The authors analyzed the 2007 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). Characteristics of EDs with observation units (OUs) were compared to those without, and patients with a disposition of ED observation were compared to those with a "short-stay" (<48 hour) hospital admission. Results are descriptive and without formal statistical comparisons for this observational analysis. An estimated 1,746 U.S. EDs (36%) reported having OUs, of which 56% are administratively managed by ED staff. Fifty-two percent of hospitals with ED-managed OUs are in an urban location, and 89% report ED boarding, compared to 29 and 65% of those that do not have an OU. The admission rate is 38% at those with ED-managed OUs and 15% at those without OUs. Of the 15.1% of all ED patients who are kept in the hospital following an ED visit, one-quarter are kept for either a short-stay admission (1.8%) or an ED observation admission (2.1%). Most (82%) ED observation patients were discharged from the ED. ED observation patients were similar to short-stay admission patients in terms of age (median = 52 years for both, interquartile range = 36 to 70 years), self-pay (12% vs. 10%), ambulance arrival (37% vs. 36%), urgent/emergent triage acuity (77% vs. 74%), use of ≥1 ED medication (64% vs.76%), and the most common primary chief complaints and primary diagnoses. Over one-third of U.S. EDs have an OU. Short-stay admission patients have similar characteristics as ED observation patients and may represent an opportunity for the growth of OUs. © 2011 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  18. Pediatric emergency department analgesic practice.

    PubMed

    Friedland, L R; Pancioli, A M; Duncan, K M

    1997-04-01

    To review recent acute pain management care issues in a pediatric emergency department (ED) in order to identify opportunities for a performance improvement program. Descriptive, retrospective chart review. Urban pediatric hospital ED. Between January 1 and December 31, 1994 consecutive patients identified by ED chart review with the following three acute painful conditions were included; sickle cell vasoocclusive crisis (VOC) not complicated by fever or neurologic symptoms, isolated lower extremity long bone fractures < 12 hours old that did not require a reduction, and second degree burns < 12 hours old. Data collection concluded when between 50 and 55 episodes of each painful condition were identified. ED analgesic administration, initial analgesic dose, initial time elapsed to analgesic administration, notation of pain relief, and home analgesic instruction. Recommended analgesic starting doses were chosen from the 1992 Agency for Health Care Policy and Research Clinical Practice Guidelines. None. ED analgesic use for VOC was 100%, for fracture was 31%, and for burn was 26%. A recommended starting analgesic dose was given to 78% with VOC, 69% with fracture, and 79% with burn. Mean time to initial analgesic for VOC was 52 minutes, for fracture was 86 minutes, and for burn was 29 minutes. In those given analgesics, notation of pain relief for fracture was 19% and for burn was 29%, this improved for VOC where it was 88%. Home analgesic instruction for VOC was 100%, for fracture was 74%, and for burn was 27%. These data from 1994 document suboptimal analgesic use and home analgesic instruction for children in our ED with burns and fractures. Other opportunities in our ED for acute pain management improvement include optimizing initial analgesic doses, shortening the time elapsed to initial analgesic administration, and documenting the response to pain management.

  19. [Improving emergency department organisation].

    PubMed

    Yordanov, Youri; Beltramini, Alexandra; Debuc, Erwan; Pateron, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Emergency departments use has been constantly increasing over the world. Overcrowding is defined as a situation which compromises patient safety because of delayed cares. This situation is often reached. Emergency departments have to continuously improve their organization to be able to ensure the same quality of care to a higher number of patients. Thus a good organization is essential: it doesn't always avoid overcrowding. The rest of the hospital has to be involved in this process to ensure efficiency. We examine the various interventions and procedures that can be found in medical literature for improving patients flow and management in emergency departments.

  20. [Emergency departments--2016 update].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, M; Brokmann, J C; Gräff, I; Kumle, B; Wilke, P; Gries, A

    2016-04-01

    Acute medical care in hospital emergency departments has experienced rapid development in recent years and gained increasing importance not only from a professional medical point of view but also from an economic and health policy perspective. The present article therefore provides an update on the situation of emergency departments in Germany. Care in emergency departments is provided with an increasing tendency to patients of all ages presenting with varying primary symptoms, complaints, illnesses and injury patterns. In the process, patients reach the emergency department by various routes and structural provision. Cross-sectional communication and cooperation, prioritization and organization of emergency management and especially medical staff qualifications increasingly play a decisive role in this process. The range of necessary knowledge and skills far exceeds the scope of prehospital medical emergency care and the working environment differs substantially. In addition to existing structural and economic problems, the latest developments, as well as future proposals for the design of in-hospital emergency medical care in interdisciplinary emergency departments are described.

  1. Fire Department Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.; Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.

    1997-09-01

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services.

  2. Emergency departments: better safe than sorry?

    PubMed

    Atenstaedt, Robert; Evans, Kelly

    2015-07-01

    Emergency departments (EDs) in the UK are under increasing pressure, partly because people use them inappropriately for non-urgent conditions. As part of NHS Wales Choose Well campaign, Betsi Cadwaladr University Health Board, based in Bangor, Gwynedd, commissioned research into public perceptions of EDs and alternative urgent care services. This article reports on the findings, one of which is that parents tend to choose EDs as the default option when their children are unwell. The article also asks how public trust in other NHS services can be built so that demand on EDs can be reduced.

  3. Rethinking emergency department visits.

    PubMed

    Resar, Roger K; Griffin, Frances A

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to date have been unable to reverse the trend of increased emergency department utilization. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement has developed a framework for reducing avoidable emergency department visits on the basis of the formation of local coalitions. These coalitions include interested partners approaching improvement by integrating community resources and nonmedical solutions. Targeted patient populations are identified via homogeneous characteristics. Open-ended interview questions are used to identify possible community and nonmedical solutions to complement medical strategies. This article describes the framework and process of testing. If validated, this approach will have significant policy implications.

  4. Emergency department coding and billing.

    PubMed

    Edelberg, Caral

    2004-02-01

    ED coding and billing are challenging additions to the responsibilities of emergency physicians. Assurances that each is performed in the most efficient and accurate manner possible is an essential component of today's emergency medicine practice. Minimizing the risk for submitting fraudulent claims is critical, because it assures the efficient and timely billing of all ED services. For the practice to thrive, each is necessary.

  5. Health information technology in US emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Pallin, Daniel J; Sullivan, Ashley F; Kaushal, Rainu; Camargo, Carlos A

    2010-04-01

    Information technology may improve patient safety, and is a focus of health care reform. A minority of emergency departments (EDs) in Massachusetts, and in academic EDs throughout the US, have electronic health records. Assess health information technology adoption in a nationwide sample of EDs. We surveyed 69 US EDs, asking site investigators about the availability of health information technology in 2005-2006. Using multiple linear regression, we compared adoption of technology by ED type (emergency medicine residency affiliation, annual census, US region) to assess generalizability of the findings. Sixty-eight EDs (99%) provided information about health information technology; 75% were affiliated with an emergency medicine residency, and all were urban. Most respondents had applications that simply relay information from one place to another, including patient tracking (74%); ordering tests (laboratory 57%, others 62%); and displaying prior visit notes (79%), ECGs (92%), laboratory (97%), and radiology (99%) results. A minority had more-advanced applications, which seek to modify human behavior, including medication ordering (38%), allergy warnings (19%), and medication cross-reaction warnings (13%), and a few used bar coding (20%). There were no significant differences in technology adoption by ED type. This and prior studies suggest that some applications-particularly those relevant to modifying clinician behavior-are not widespread in US EDs, while others are. The reasons for this are unknown, but might include expense and unintended consequences. The fact that the emergency medicine community has not rushed to adopt certain applications presents challenges and opportunities.

  6. Emergency Department Rotational Patient Assignment.

    PubMed

    Traub, Stephen J; Stewart, Christopher F; Didehban, Roshanak; Bartley, Adam C; Saghafian, Soroush; Smith, Vernon D; Silvers, Scott M; LeCheminant, Ryan; Lipinski, Christopher A

    2016-02-01

    We compare emergency department (ED) operational metrics obtained in the first year of a rotational patient assignment system (in which patients are assigned to physicians automatically according to an algorithm) with those obtained in the last year of a traditional physician self-assignment system (in which physicians assigned themselves to patients at physician discretion). This was a pre-post retrospective study of patients at a single ED with no financial incentives for physician productivity. Metrics of interest were length of stay; arrival-to-provider time; rates of left before being seen, left subsequent to being seen, early returns (within 72 hours), and early returns with admission; and complaint ratio. We analyzed 23,514 visits in the last year of physician self-assignment and 24,112 visits in the first year of rotational patient assignment. Rotational patient assignment was associated with the following improvements (percentage change): median length of stay 232 to 207 minutes (11%), median arrival to provider time 39 to 22 minutes (44%), left before being seen 0.73% to 0.36% (51%), and complaint ratio 9.0/1,000 to 5.4/1,000 (40%). There were no changes in left subsequent to being seen, early returns, or early returns with admission. In a single facility, the transition from physician self-assignment to rotational patient assignment was associated with improvement in a broad array of ED operational metrics. Rotational patient assignment may be a useful strategy in ED front-end process redesign. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cyclist Injuries Treated in Emergency Department (ED): Consequences and Costs in South-eastern Finland in an Area of 100 000 Inhabitants

    PubMed Central

    Airaksinen, Noora; Lüthje, Peter; Nurmi-Lüthje, Ilona

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, data of bicycle crashes leading to medical attendance in acute hospital or to death which occurred between June 1st 2004 and May 31st 2006 were analyzed. The final results consisted of injury data and patient records obtained from Kuusankoski Regional Hospital and from the road accident investigation teams. The total number of cases was 216. The severity of the injuries was classified according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (2005). The majority of the bicycle crashes considered occurred when the injured was alone, without another party. Crashes were often alcohol-related (31%). Over one third of all cyclists’ injuries were head injuries. Only 13% of the injured cyclists wore a helmet. 15% of those who wore a helmet sustained a head injury and, correspondingly, 43% of those who did not. Two bicyclists died. The number of bicycle crashes in the hospital data was at least fourfold compared to the number found in the official police statistics. Systematic collection of data on bicycle crashes in hospital emergency departments should be advanced in order to gain reliable information for prevention. PMID:21050609

  8. Cyclist Injuries Treated in Emergency Department (ED): Consequences and Costs in South-eastern Finland in an Area of 100 000 Inhabitants.

    PubMed

    Airaksinen, Noora; Lüthje, Peter; Nurmi-Lüthje, Ilona

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, data of bicycle crashes leading to medical attendance in acute hospital or to death which occurred between June 1(st) 2004 and May 31(st) 2006 were analyzed. The final results consisted of injury data and patient records obtained from Kuusankoski Regional Hospital and from the road accident investigation teams. The total number of cases was 216. The severity of the injuries was classified according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (2005). The majority of the bicycle crashes considered occurred when the injured was alone, without another party. Crashes were often alcohol-related (31%). Over one third of all cyclists' injuries were head injuries. Only 13% of the injured cyclists wore a helmet. 15% of those who wore a helmet sustained a head injury and, correspondingly, 43% of those who did not. Two bicyclists died. The number of bicycle crashes in the hospital data was at least fourfold compared to the number found in the official police statistics. Systematic collection of data on bicycle crashes in hospital emergency departments should be advanced in order to gain reliable information for prevention.

  9. Profiling nursing resources in Australian emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Morphet, Julia; Kent, Bridie; Plummer, Virginia; Considine, Julie

    2016-02-01

    Emergency nurses have a key role in managing the large numbers of patients that attend Australian emergency departments (EDs) annually, and require adequate educational preparation to deliver safe and quality patient care. This paper provides a detailed profile of nursing resources in Australian EDs, including ED locations, annual patient attendances, nurse staffing including level of education, and educational resources. Data were collected via online surveys of emergency Nurse Unit Managers and Nurse Educators and the MyHospitals website. Data were analysed by hospital peer group and state or territory. Comparisons were made using the Kruskal-Wallis Test and Spearman Rank Order Correlation. In 2011-2012, there were a median of 36,274 patient attendances to each of the 118 EDs sampled (IQR 28,279-46,288). Most of the nurses working in EDs were Registered Nurses (95.2%). Organisations provided educational resources including Clinical Nurse Educators (80.6%), learning packages (86%) and facilitation of postgraduate study (98%), but resources, both human and educational varied substantially between states and territories. One-third of emergency nurses held a relevant postgraduate qualification (30%). There are important variations in the emergency nursing resources available between Australian states and territories. The high percentage of RNs in Australian EDs is a positive finding, however strategies to increase the percentage of nurses with relevant postgraduate qualifications are required. Copyright © 2016 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Emergency department management of shoulder dystocia.

    PubMed

    Del Portal, Daniel A; Horn, Amanda E; Vilke, Gary M; Chan, Theodore C; Ufberg, Jacob W

    2014-03-01

    Precipitous obstetric deliveries can occur outside of the labor and delivery suite, often in the emergency department (ED). Shoulder dystocia is an obstetric emergency with significant risk of adverse outcome. To review multiple techniques for managing a shoulder dystocia in the ED. We review various techniques and approaches for achieving delivery in the setting of shoulder dystocia. These include common maneuvers, controversial interventions, and interventions of last resort. Emergency physicians should be familiar with multiple techniques for managing a shoulder dystocia to reduce the chances of fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. RESPECT-ED: Rates of Pulmonary Emboli (PE) and Sub-Segmental PE with Modern Computed Tomographic Pulmonary Angiograms in Emergency Departments: A Multi-Center Observational Study Finds Significant Yield Variation, Uncorrelated with Use or Small PE Rates

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Kevin; Joseph, Anthony; Read, Catherine; Blecher, Gabriel; Furyk, Jeremy; Bharat, Chrianna; Velusamy, Karthik; Munro, Andrew; Baker, Kylie; Kinnear, Frances; Mukherjee, Ahses; Watkins, Gina; Buntine, Paul; Livesay, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Overuse of CT Pulmonary Angiograms (CTPA) for diagnosing pulmonary embolism (PE), particularly in Emergency Departments (ED), is considered problematic. Marked variations in positive CTPA rates are reported, with American 4–10% yields driving most concerns. Higher resolution CTPA may increase sub-segmental PE (SSPE) diagnoses, which may be up to 40% false positive. Excessive use and false positives could increase harm vs. benefit. These issues have not been systematically examined outside America. Aims To describe current yield variation and CTPA utilisation in Australasian ED, exploring potential factors correlated with variation. Methods A retrospective multi-centre review of consecutive ED-ordered CTPA using standard radiology reports. ED CTPA report data were inputted onto preformatted data-sheets. The primary outcome was site level yield, analysed both intra-site and against a nominated 15.3% yield. Factors potentially associated with yield were assessed for correlation. Results Fourteen radiology departments (15 ED) provided 7077 CTPA data (94% ≥64-slice CT); PE were reported in 1028 (yield 14.6% (95%CI 13.8–15.4%; range 9.3–25.3%; site variation p <0.0001) with four sites significantly below and one above the 15.3% target. Admissions, CTPA usage, PE diagnosis rates and size of PE were uncorrelated with yield. Large PE (≥lobar) were 55% (CI: 52.1–58.2%) and SSPE 8.8% (CI: 7.1–10.5%) of positive scans. CTPA usage (0.2–1.5% adult attendances) was correlated (p<0.006) with PE diagnosis but not SSPE: large PE proportions. Discussion/ Conclusions We found significant intra-site CTPA yield variation within Australasia. Yield was not clearly correlated with CTPA usage or increased small PE rates. Both SSPE and large PE rates were similar to higher yield historical cohorts. CTPA use was considerably below USA 2.5–3% rates. Higher CTPA utilisation was positively correlated with PE diagnoses, but without evidence of increased proportions

  12. Emergency department triage revisited.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Gerard; Jelinek, George A; Scott, Deborah; Gerdtz, Marie Frances

    2010-02-01

    Triage is a process that is critical to the effective management of modern emergency departments. Triage systems aim, not only to ensure clinical justice for the patient, but also to provide an effective tool for departmental organisation, monitoring and evaluation. Over the last 20 years, triage systems have been standardised in a number of countries and efforts made to ensure consistency of application. However, the ongoing crowding of emergency departments resulting from access block and increased demand has led to calls for a review of systems of triage. In addition, international variance in triage systems limits the capacity for benchmarking. The aim of this paper is to provide a critical review of the literature pertaining to emergency department triage in order to inform the direction for future research. While education, guidelines and algorithms have been shown to reduce triage variation, there remains significant inconsistency in triage assessment arising from the diversity of factors determining the urgency of any individual patient. It is timely to accept this diversity, what is agreed, and what may be agreeable. It is time to develop and test an International Triage Scale (ITS) which is supported by an international collaborative approach towards a triage research agenda. This agenda would seek to further develop application and moderating tools and to utilise the scales for international benchmarking and research programmes.

  13. Emergency Department Overcrowding and Ambulance Turnaround Time.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu Jin; Shin, Sang Do; Lee, Eui Jung; Cho, Jin Seong; Cha, Won Chul

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe overcrowding in regional emergency departments in Seoul, Korea and evaluate the effect of crowdedness on ambulance turnaround time. This study was conducted between January 2010 and December 2010. Patients who were transported by 119-responding ambulances to 28 emergency centers within Seoul were eligible for enrollment. Overcrowding was defined as the average occupancy rate, which was equal to the average number of patients staying in an emergency department (ED) for 4 hours divided by the number of beds in the ED. After selecting groups for final analysis, multi-level regression modeling (MLM) was performed with random-effects for EDs, to evaluate associations between occupancy rate and turnaround time. Between January 2010 and December 2010, 163,659 patients transported to 28 EDs were enrolled. The median occupancy rate was 0.42 (range: 0.10-1.94; interquartile range (IQR): 0.20-0.76). Overcrowded EDs were more likely to have older patients, those with normal mentality, and non-trauma patients. Overcrowded EDs were more likely to have longer turnaround intervals and traveling distances. The MLM analysis showed that an increase of 1% in occupancy rate was associated with 0.02-minute decrease in turnaround interval (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.03). In subgroup analyses limited to EDs with occupancy rates over 100%, we also observed a 0.03 minute decrease in turnaround interval per 1% increase in occupancy rate (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.05). In this study, we found wide variation in emergency department crowding in a metropolitan Korean city. Our data indicate that ED overcrowding is negatively associated with turnaround interval with very small practical significance.

  14. Geriatric Homelessness: Association with Emergency Department Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Hategan, Ana; Tisi, Daniel; Abdurrahman, Mariam; Bourgeois, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Homeless adults frequently use emergency departments (EDs), yet previous studies investigating ED utilization by the older segment received little attention. This study sought to characterize older homeless adults who utilized local urban EDs. Methods ED encounters at three hospitals in Hamilton (Ont.) were analyzed, and demographic and clinical characteristics of the older homeless (age > 50) vs. younger counterparts (age ≤ 50) were compared during a 24-month period. Results Of all adults, 1,330 were homeless, of whom 66% were above age 50. Older homeless adults sought less acute care within 30 days from an index visit compared with their younger counterparts. Non-acute illnesses constituted only 18% of triaged cases. Older homeless women with access to a primary care physician (PCP) were 3.3 times more likely to return to ED within 30 days, whereas older homeless men (irrespective of PCP access) were less likely to return to ED. Conclusions Despite high homeless patient acuity, a lesser number of ED visits with increasing age remains concerning because of previously reported high morbidity and mortality rates. Access to primary care may not be enough to reduce ED utilization. Further research is needed to evaluate acute care interventions and their effectiveness in ED, and to identify homeless patients requiring more targeted services. PMID:28050223

  15. The emergency department occupancy rate: a simple measure of emergency department crowding?

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Melissa L; Aronsky, Dominik; Jones, Ian D; Miner, James R; Band, Roger A; Baren, Jill M; Desmond, Jeffrey S; Baumlin, Kevin M; Ding, Ru; Shesser, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We examine the validity of the emergency department (ED) occupancy rate as a measure of crowding by comparing it to the Emergency Department Work Index Score (EDWIN), a previously validated scale. A multicenter validation study was conducted according to ED visit data from 6 academic EDs for a 3-month period in 2005. Hourly ED occupancy rate (ie, total number of patients in ED divided by total number of licensed beds) and EDWIN scores were calculated. The correlation between the scales was determined and their validity evaluated by their ability to discriminate between hours when 1 or more patients left without being seen and hours when the ED was on ambulance diversion, using area under the curve (AUC) statistics estimated from the bootstrap method. We calculated the ED occupancy rate and EDWIN for 2,208 consecutive hours at each of the 6 EDs. The overall correlation between the 2 scales was 0.58 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56 to 0.60). The ED occupancy rate (AUC=0.73; 95% CI 0.65 to 0.80) and the EDWIN (AUC=0.65; 95% CI 0.58 to 0.72) did not differ significantly in correctly identifying hours when patients left without being seen. The ED occupancy rate (AUC=0.78; 95% CI 0.75 to 0.80) and the EDWIN (AUC=0.70; 95% CI 0.59 to 0.81) performed similarly for ED diversion hours. The ED occupancy rate and the EDWIN classified leaving without being seen and ambulance diversion hours with moderate accuracy. Although the ED occupancy rate is not ideal, its simplicity makes real-time assessment of crowding feasible for more EDs nationwide.

  16. Factors Associated with Emergency Department Use among the Rural Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Lin; Shah, Manish N.; Veazie, Peter J.; Friedman, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Context: Emergency Department (ED) use among the rural elderly may present a different pattern from the urban elderly, thus requiring different policy initiatives. However, ED use among the rural elderly has seldom been studied and is little understood. Purpose: To characterize factors associated with having any versus no ED use among the rural…

  17. Factors Associated with Emergency Department Use among the Rural Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Lin; Shah, Manish N.; Veazie, Peter J.; Friedman, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Context: Emergency Department (ED) use among the rural elderly may present a different pattern from the urban elderly, thus requiring different policy initiatives. However, ED use among the rural elderly has seldom been studied and is little understood. Purpose: To characterize factors associated with having any versus no ED use among the rural…

  18. Predictors of Emergency Department Utilization Among Children in Vulnerable Families.

    PubMed

    Flood, Colin; Sheehan, Karen; Crandall, Marie

    2016-03-08

    Preventable visits to the emergency department (ED) are estimated to represent as much as 56% of overall annual ED utilization and contribute to the high cost of health care in the United States. There are more than 25 million annual pediatric ED visits.

  19. Applicability of the modified Emergency Department Work Index (mEDWIN) at a Dutch emergency department.

    PubMed

    Brouns, Steffie H A; van der Schuit, Klara C H; Stassen, Patricia M; Lambooij, Suze L E; Dieleman, Jeanne; Vanderfeesten, Irene T P; Haak, Harm R

    2017-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) crowding leads to prolonged emergency department length of stay (ED-LOS) and adverse patient outcomes. No uniform definition of ED crowding exists. Several scores have been developed to quantify ED crowding; the best known is the Emergency Department Work Index (EDWIN). Research on the EDWIN is often applied to limited settings and conducted over a short period of time. To explore whether the EDWIN as a measure can track occupancy at a Dutch ED over the course of one year and to identify fluctuations in ED occupancy per hour, day, and month. Secondary objective is to investigate the discriminatory value of the EDWIN in detecting crowding, as compared with the occupancy rate and prolonged ED-LOS. A retrospective cohort study of all ED visits during the period from September 2010 to August 2011 was performed in one hospital in the Netherlands. The EDWIN incorporates the number of patients per triage level, physicians, treatment beds and admitted patients to quantify ED crowding. The EDWIN was adjusted to emergency care in the Netherlands: modified EDWIN (mEDWIN). ED crowding was defined as the 75th percentile of mEDWIN per hour, which was ≥0.28. In total, 28,220 ED visits were included in the analysis. The median mEDWIN per hour was 0.15 (Interquartile range (IQR) 0.05-0.28); median mEDWIN per patient was 0.25 (IQR 0.15-0.39). The EDWIN was higher on Wednesday (0.16) than on other days (0.14-0.16, p<0.001), and a peak in both mEDWIN (0.30-0.33) and ED crowding (52.9-63.4%) was found between 13:00-18:00 h. A comparison of the mEDWIN with the occupancy rate revealed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.86 (95%CI 0.85-0.87). The AUC of mEDWIN compared with a prolonged ED-LOS (≥4 hours) was 0.50 (95%CI 0.40-0.60). The mEDWIN was applicable at a Dutch ED. The mEDWIN was able to identify fluctuations in ED occupancy. In addition, the mEDWIN had high discriminatory power for identification of a busy ED, when compared with the occupancy rate.

  20. Applicability of the modified Emergency Department Work Index (mEDWIN) at a Dutch emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Brouns, Steffie H. A.; Lambooij, Suze L. E.; Dieleman, Jeanne; Vanderfeesten, Irene T. P.; Haak, Harm R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Emergency department (ED) crowding leads to prolonged emergency department length of stay (ED-LOS) and adverse patient outcomes. No uniform definition of ED crowding exists. Several scores have been developed to quantify ED crowding; the best known is the Emergency Department Work Index (EDWIN). Research on the EDWIN is often applied to limited settings and conducted over a short period of time. Objectives To explore whether the EDWIN as a measure can track occupancy at a Dutch ED over the course of one year and to identify fluctuations in ED occupancy per hour, day, and month. Secondary objective is to investigate the discriminatory value of the EDWIN in detecting crowding, as compared with the occupancy rate and prolonged ED-LOS. Methods A retrospective cohort study of all ED visits during the period from September 2010 to August 2011 was performed in one hospital in the Netherlands. The EDWIN incorporates the number of patients per triage level, physicians, treatment beds and admitted patients to quantify ED crowding. The EDWIN was adjusted to emergency care in the Netherlands: modified EDWIN (mEDWIN). ED crowding was defined as the 75th percentile of mEDWIN per hour, which was ≥0.28. Results In total, 28,220 ED visits were included in the analysis. The median mEDWIN per hour was 0.15 (Interquartile range (IQR) 0.05–0.28); median mEDWIN per patient was 0.25 (IQR 0.15–0.39). The EDWIN was higher on Wednesday (0.16) than on other days (0.14–0.16, p<0.001), and a peak in both mEDWIN (0.30–0.33) and ED crowding (52.9–63.4%) was found between 13:00–18:00 h. A comparison of the mEDWIN with the occupancy rate revealed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.86 (95%CI 0.85–0.87). The AUC of mEDWIN compared with a prolonged ED-LOS (≥4 hours) was 0.50 (95%CI 0.40–0.60). Conclusion The mEDWIN was applicable at a Dutch ED. The mEDWIN was able to identify fluctuations in ED occupancy. In addition, the mEDWIN had high discriminatory power for

  1. Perceptions of participating emergency nurses regarding an ED seasonal influenza vaccination program.

    PubMed

    Venkat, Arvind; Hunter, Roger; Hegde, Gajanan G; Chan-Tompkins, Noreen H; Chuirazzi, David M; Szczesiul, Jillian M

    2012-01-01

    Numerous professional organizations have recommended that emergency departments provide influenza vaccine to patients. However, no study has reported on the perceptions of participating emergency nurses regarding ED influenza vaccination programs. We conducted an anonymous Web-based survey to assess the post-participation perceptions of emergency nurses regarding an ED influenza vaccination protocol. The vaccination protocol occurred at an urban, academic emergency department and was designed to be performed by emergency nurses without added staffing resources by using ED Electronic Medical Record technology. Data from the Web-based survey were analyzed using descriptive statistics and χ(2) analysis to assess significant associations of where emergency nurses believed the protocol was time inefficient. The ED influenza vaccination protocol was in effect from October 1-25, 2009, with 3091 eligible ED visits and 613 patients receiving ED seasonal influenza vaccination. Fifty-eight of 59 participating emergency nurses (98%) responded to the survey. Significant findings were that 59% of responding emergency nurses found the protocol too time consuming and believed it was inappropriate in the ED setting. Responding emergency nurses reported that protocol efficiency could be improved by adding staff, simplifying screening and vaccination documentation requirements, and improving vaccine supply and stocking procedures in the emergency department. A majority of surveyed emergency nurses who had participated in an ED influenza vaccination program reported that the protocol was too time consuming and inappropriate for the ED setting. Surveyed emergency nurses expressed the opinion that such protocols required added staff, simplified patient consent/vaccination documentation requirements, and improved vaccine supply and stocking processes. Copyright © 2012 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The impact of emergency department observation units on United States emergency department admission rates.

    PubMed

    Capp, Roberta; Sun, Benjamin; Boatright, Dowin; Gross, Cary

    2015-11-01

    Prior studies suggesting that the presence of emergency department (ED) observation units decrease overall ED hospital admissions have been either single-center studies or based on model simulations. The objective of this preliminary national study is to determine if the presence of ED observation units is associated with hospitals having lower ED admission rates. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional analysis using the 2010 National Hospital Ambulatory Care Survey and estimated ED risk-standardized hospital admission rates (RSHAR) for each center. The following were excluded from the study: ages <18 years, leaving prior to completion of ED visit, died in the ED, transferred to another facility, and missing disposition. Hospitals with less than 30 ED visits or unknown observation unit status were also excluded. We used linear regression analysis to determine the association between ED RSHAR and presence of observation units. There were 24,232 ED visits in 315 hospitals in the United States. Of these, 82 (20.6%) hospitals had an ED observation unit. The average ED risk-standardized hospital admission rates for hospitals with observation units and without hospital observation units were 13.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.3-16.0) and 16.0% (95% CI: 14.1-17.7), respectively. The difference of 2.3% was not statistically significant. In this preliminary study, we did not find an association between the presence of observation units and ED hospital admission rates. Further studies with larger sample sizes should be performed to further evaluate the impact of ED observation units on ED hospital admission rates. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  3. Reinforcement of emergency department reduces acute admissions to medical department.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Mansoor Ahmed; Ertner, Gideon; Hansen-Schwartz, Jacob

    2016-12-01

    The medical decision capacity of emergency departments (ED) may rest within the department itself or depend on external consultation. The stepwise development of the ED at Zealand University Hospital, Køge, was used to analyse the influence of medical organisation in the ED on the hospital admission pattern. Data were recorded for the month of September of 2009, 2012 and 2014. These periods corresponded to the establishment of the department in 2009 and the 2012-period before organisational change was initiated in 2013, with a substantial increase in the number of senior physicians directly in charge of clinical decisions and the establishment of a limited bedding capacity. In 2014, the changes had been fully implemented. We analysed the number of patients admitted and their length of stay (LOS) in the ED and in the Department of Internal Medicine (DoM). The 30-day readmission and mortality rates were used as quality indicators. A total of 1,106, 1,354 and 1,470 patients were admitted to the ED in 2009, 2012 and 2014, respectively. In 2009 and 2012, 42% of the patients were admitted to the DoM. In 2014, only 22% were admitted. The mean LOS for long-term admission at the DoM increased by 1.4 days from 2009 to 2014. Readmission and mortality rates did not change in three periods analysed. Independent medical decision capacity and bed resources in the ED effectively change hospital logistics and reduce the number of admissions without negatively affecting patient safety in terms of readmission or short-term mortality. none. not relevant.

  4. Headache in an Italian pediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Scagni, Paola; Pagliero, Rosaura

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess epidemiology, diagnostic work-up, treatment and follow-up of children presenting to emergency department (ED) with headache. Records of visits for non-traumatic headache to the ED of a pediatric hospital over a period of 12 months were retrospectively reviewed. Headache center charts were analyzed one year after. Five-hundred and fifty patients (1% of all ED visits) were included. Spectrum of diagnoses was: primary headache (56.7%), with 9.6% of migraine; secondary headache (42%); unclassified headache (1.3%). Viral illnesses accounted for 90.5% of secondary headaches. A serious disorder was found in 4% of patients. Forty-four patients (8%) underwent neuroimaging studies, with 25% of abnormal findings. Only 223 patients (40.5%) received pharmacological treatment. On discharge, 212 patients (38.5%) were referred to headache center and 114 (20.7% of all patients) attended it. ED diagnosis was confirmed in 74.6% of cases. Most of ED repeated visits (82.6%) occurred in patients not referred to headache center at discharge from first ED visit. The most frequent diagnosis was primary headache; viral illnesses represented the majority of secondary headaches. Underlying serious disorders were associated with neurological signs, limiting the need of diagnostic investigations. Well structured prospective studies are needed to evaluate appropriate diagnostic tools, as well as correct therapeutic approach of pediatric headache in emergency. Collaboration with headache center might limit repeated visits and provide a correct diagnostic definition.

  5. Exploring strategies to improve emergency department intake.

    PubMed

    Welch, Shari; Savitz, Lucy

    2012-07-01

    The emergency department (ED) is the point of entry for nearly two-thirds of patients admitted to the average United States (US) hospital. Due to unacceptable waits, 3% of patients will leave the ED without being seen by a physician. To study intake processes and identify new strategies for improving patient intake. A year-long learning collaborative was created to study innovations involving the intake of ED patients. The collaborative focused on the collection of successful innovations for ED intake for an "improvement competition." Using a qualitative scoring system, finalists were selected and their innovations were presented to the members of the collaborative at an Association for Health Research Quality-funded conference. Thirty-five departments/organizations submitted abstracts for consideration involving intake innovations, and 15 were selected for presentation at the conference. The innovations were presented to ED leaders, researchers, and policymakers. Innovations were organized into three groups: physical plant changes, technological innovations, and process/flow changes. The results of the work of a learning collaborative focused on ED intake are summarized here as a qualitative review of new intake strategies. Early iterations of these new and unpublished innovations, occurring mostly in non-academic settings, are presented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Inappropiate visits to emergency department of a general hospital].

    PubMed

    Gómez, J O; Ramalle-Gómar, E; Arias, A V; Azpiazu, J I; Blas, L B; Villa, C G

    2000-09-30

    The proportion of inadequate attendances at emergency department (ED) is 20-80%. The suitability of attendances at ED was evaluated using an Hospital Emergency Suitability Protocol, which was validated. 37.9% of attendances were inappropriate and they are more frequent in children. Patients who were referred by a doctor, with trauma or surgical consulted more adequately. The suitability of attendances at ED are related with illness.

  7. Utility of Procalcitonin (PCT) and Mid regional pro-Adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) in risk stratification of critically ill febrile patients in Emergency Department (ED). A comparison with APACHE II score

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic value of MR-proADM and PCT levels in febrile patients in the ED in comparison with a disease severity index score, the APACHE II score. We also evaluated the ability of MR-proADM and PCT to predict hospitalization. Methods This was an observational, multicentric study. We enrolled 128 patients referred to the ED with high fever and a suspicion of severe infection such as sepsis, lower respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal infections, soft tissue infections, central nervous system infections, or osteomyelitis. The APACHE II score was calculated for each patient. Results MR-proADM median values in controls were 0.5 nmol/l as compared with 0.85 nmol/l in patients (P < 0.0001), while PCT values in controls were 0.06 ng/ml versus 0.56 ng/ml in patients (P < 0.0001). In all patients there was a statistically significant stepwise increase in MR-proADM levels in accordance with PCT values (P < 0.0001). MR-proADM and PCT levels were significantly increased in accordance with the Apache II quartiles (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0012 respectively). In the respiratory infections, urinary infections, and sepsis-septic shock groups we found a correlation between the Apache II and MR-proADM respectively and MR-proADM and PCT respectively. We evaluated the ability of MR-proADM and PCT to predict hospitalization in patients admitted to our emergency departments complaining of fever. MR-proADM alone had an AUC of 0.694, while PCT alone had an AUC of 0.763. The combined use of PCT and MR-proADM instead showed an AUC of 0.79. Conclusions The present study highlights the way in which MR-proADM and PCT may be helpful to the febrile patient’s care in the ED. Our data support the prognostic role of MR-proADM and PCT in that setting, as demonstrated by the correlation with the APACHE II score. The combined use of the two biomarkers can predict a subsequent

  8. Current State of Antimicrobial Stewardship in Children's Hospital Emergency Departments.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Rakesh D; Newland, Jason G; Gerber, Jeffrey S; Hersh, Adam L; May, Larissa; Perman, Sarah M; Kuppermann, Nathan; Dayan, Peter S

    2017-04-01

    BACKGROUND Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) effectively optimize antibiotic use for inpatients; however, the extent of emergency department (ED) involvement in ASPs has not been described. OBJECTIVE To determine current ED involvement in children's hospital ASPs and to assess beliefs and preferred methods of implementation for ED-based ASPs. METHODS A cross-sectional survey of 37 children's hospitals participating in the Sharing Antimicrobial Resistance Practices collaboration was conducted. Surveys were distributed to ASP leaders and ED medical directors at each institution. Items assessed included beliefs regarding ED antibiotic prescribing, ED prescribing resources, ASP methods used in the ED such as clinical decision support and clinical care guidelines, ED participation in ASP activities, and preferred methods for ED-based ASP implementation. RESULTS A total of 36 ASP leaders (97.3%) and 32 ED directors (86.5%) responded; the overall response rate was 91.9%. Most ASP leaders (97.8%) and ED directors (93.7%) agreed that creation of ED-based ASPs was necessary. ED resources for antibiotic prescribing were obtained via the Internet or electronic health records (EHRs) for 29 hospitals (81.3%). The main ASP activities for the ED included production of antibiograms (77.8%) and creation of clinical care guidelines for pneumonia (83.3%). The ED was represented on 3 hospital ASP committees (8.3%). No hospital ASPs actively monitored outpatient ED prescribing. Most ASP leaders (77.8%) and ED directors (81.3%) preferred implementation of ED-based ASPs using clinical decision support integrated into the EHR. CONCLUSIONS Although ED involvement in ASPs is limited, both ASP and ED leaders believe that ED-based ASPs are necessary. Many children's hospitals have the capability to implement ED-based ASPs via the preferred method: EHR clinical decision support. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:469-475.

  9. Psychiatric emergencies in children and adolescents: an Emergency Department audit.

    PubMed

    Starling, Jean; Bridgland, Kim; Rose, Donna

    2006-12-01

    To describe a cohort of children presenting to a paediatric emergency department with mental health problems. An Emergency Department (ED) computerized record system and hospital records were used to obtain data on children who presented to a paediatric ED with mental health problems. There were 291 presentations of 231 children in a 10-month period, about one per day. They were a small (0.8%) but complicated part of the ED workload. Most were first presentations and came voluntarily to ED. There were a wide variety of presenting symptoms including self-harm, suicide attempts, behavioural disorders and medical disorders with associated psychological problems. Acute psychosis was rare. Many children with mental health problems were seen for the first time in ED. With the growing awareness of mental health problems in this age group, it is likely that such presentations will increase. Paediatric and psychiatry services have an opportunity to work together to provide early intervention services for what is potentially a very accessible population.

  10. Methamphetamine abuse and emergency department utilization.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, J R; Bretz, S W; Johnson, E B; Turnipseed, S D; Brofeldt, B T; Derlet, R W

    1999-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MAP) abuse continues to increase worldwide, based on morbidity, mortality, drug treatment, and epidemiologic studies and surveys. MAP abuse has become a significant health care, environmental, and law enforcement problem. Acute intoxication often results in agitation, violence, and death. Chronic use may lead to infection, heart failure, malnutrition, and permanent psychiatric illness. MAP users frequently use the emergency department (ED) for their medical care. Over a 6-month period we studied the demographics, type, and frequency of medical and traumatic problems in 461 MAP patients presenting to our ED, which serves an area noted for high levels of MAP production and consumption. Comparison was made to the general ED population to assess use patterns. MAP patients were most commonly Caucasian males who lacked health insurance. Compared to other ED patients during this time, MAP patients used ambulance transport more and were more likely to be admitted to the hospital. There was a significant association between trauma and MAP use in this patient population. Our data suggest MAP users utilize prehospital and hospital resources at levels higher than the average ED population. Based on current trends, we can expect more ED visits by MAP users in the future. PMID:10344172

  11. Preventing 'exit block' in emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Cairney, Kevin; Clancy, Elaine

    2014-11-01

    Overcrowding due to poor patient flow increases risk for more than 500,000 patients a year ( College of Emergency Medicine (CEM) 2014 ) and is linked to increased mortality ( Geelhoed and de Klerk 2012 ). CEM ( 2014 ) has called for urgent action to address 'exit block' in UK emergency departments (EDs). In October last year, Croydon Health Services NHS Trust designed and implemented a site practitioner early warning system (SPEWS) to alert staff to capacity and flow pressures in the ED, and to initiate escalation to a nurse-led, protocol-driven response. Under pressurised and time-critical conditions, SPEWS ensures rigour and conformity in exchanges between clinical emergency care staff and managers. The result is closer collaboration between clinicians and managers, optimised patient flow and mitigated risk from exit block.

  12. Job satisfaction among emergency department staff.

    PubMed

    Suárez, M; Asenjo, M; Sánchez, M

    2017-02-01

    To compare job satisfaction among nurses, physicians and administrative staff in an emergency department (ED). To analyse the relationship of job satisfaction with demographic and professional characteristics of these personnel. We performed a descriptive, cross-sectional study in an ED in Barcelona (Spain). Job satisfaction was evaluated by means of the Font-Roja questionnaire. Multivariate analysis determined relationship between the overall job satisfaction and the variables collected. Fifty-two nurses, 22 physicians and 30 administrative staff were included. Administrative staff were significantly more satisfied than physicians and nurses: 3.42±0.32 vs. 2.87±0.42 and 3.06±0.36, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed the following variables to be associated with job satisfaction: rotation among the different ED acuity levels (OR: 2.34; 95%CI: 0.93-5.89) and being an administrative staff (OR: 0.27; 95%CI: 0.09-0.80). Nurses and physicians reported greater stress and work pressure than administrative staff and described a worse physical working environment. Interpersonal relationships obtained the highest score among the three groups of professionals. Job satisfaction of nurses and physicians in an ED is lower than that of administrative staff with the former perceiving greater stress and work pressure. Conversely, interpersonal relationships are identified as strength. Being nurse or physician and not rotating among the different ED acuity levels increase dissatisfaction. Copyright © 2016 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Emergency department visit classification using the NYU algorithm.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Sabina Ohri; Sabik, Lindsay

    2014-04-01

    Reliable measures of emergency department (ED) use are important for studying ED utilization and access to care. We assessed the association of emergent classification of an ED visit based on the New York University ED Algorithm (EDA) with hospital mortality and hospital admission. Using diagnosis codes, we applied the EDA to classify ED visits into emergent, intermediate, and nonemergent categories and studied associations of emergent status with hospital mortality and hospital admissions. We used a nationally representative sample of patients with visits to hospital-based EDs from repeated cross sections of the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2006 to 2009. We performed survey-weighted logistic regression analyses, adjusting for year and patient demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, to estimate the association of emergent ED visits with the probability of hospital mortality or hospital admission. The EDA measure of emergent visits was significantly and positively associated with mortality (odds ratio [OR]: 3.79, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.50-5.75) and hospital admission (OR: 5.28, 95% CI, 4.93-5.66). This analysis assessed the NYU algorithm in measuring emergent and nonemergent ED use in the general population. Emergent classification based on the algorithm was strongly and significantly positively associated with hospitalization and death in a nationally representative population. The algorithm can be useful in studying ED utilization and evaluating policies that aim to change it.

  14. Volume-related differences in emergency department performance.

    PubMed

    Welch, Shari J; Augustine, James J; Dong, Li; Savitz, Lucy A; Snow, Gregory; James, Brent C

    2012-09-01

    Emergency departments (EDs) are an important source of care for a large segment of the population of the United States. In 2009 there were more than 136 million visits to the ED each year, and more than half of hospital admissions begin in the ED. Measurement and monitoring of emergency department performance has been prompted by The Joint Commission's patient flow standards. A study was conducted to attempt to correlate ED volume and other operating characteristics with performance on metrics. A retrospective analysis of the Emergency Department Benchmarking Alliance annual ED survey data for the most recent year for which data were available (2009) was performed to explore observed patterns in ED performance relative to size and operating characteristics. The survey was based on 14.6 million ED visits in 358 hospitals across the United States, with an ED size representation (sampling) approximating that of the Emergency Medicine Network (EM Net). Larger EDs (with higher annual volumes) had longer lengths of stay (p < .0001), higher left without being seen rates (p < .0001), and longer door-to-physician times (p < .0001), all suggesting poorer operational performance. Operating characteristics indicative of higher acuity were associated with worsened performance on metrics and lower acuity characteristics with improved performance. ED volume, which also correlates with many operating characteristics, is the strongest predictor of operational performance on metrics and can be used to categorize EDs for comparative analysis. Operating characteristics indicative of acuity also influence performance. The findings suggest that ED performance measures should take ED volume, acuity, and other characteristics into account and that these features have important implications for ED design, operations, and policy decisions.

  15. Emergency Department Presentations following Tropical Cyclone Yasi.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Peter; Franklin, Richard Charles; Lawlor, Jenine; Mitchell, Rob; Watt, Kerrianne; Furyk, Jeremy; Small, Niall; Lovegrove, Leone; Leggat, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Emergency departments see an increase in cases during cyclones. The aim of this study is to describe patient presentations to the Emergency Department (ED) of a tertiary level hospital (Townsville) following a tropical cyclone (Yasi). Specific areas of focus include changes in: patient demographics (age and gender), triage categories, and classification of diseases. Data were extracted from the Townsville Hospitals ED information system (EDIS) for three periods in 2009, 2010 and 2011 to coincide with formation of Cyclone Yasi (31 January 2011) to six days after Yasi crossed the coast line (8 February 2012). The analysis explored the changes in ICD10-AM 4-character classification and presented at the Chapter level. There was a marked increase in the number of patients attending the ED during Yasi, particularly those aged over 65 years with a maximum daily attendance of 372 patients on 4 Feb 2011. The most marked increases were in: Triage categories--4 and 5; and ICD categories--diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (L00-L99), and factors influencing health care status (Z00-Z99). The most common diagnostic presentation across all years was injury (S00-T98). There was an increase in presentations to the ED of TTH, which peaked in the first 24-48 hours following the cyclone and returned to normal over a five-day period. The changes in presentations were mostly an amplification of normal attendance patterns with some altered areas of activity. Injury patterns are similar to overseas experience.

  16. [Headache in a pediatric emergency department].

    PubMed

    Palmieri, A; Mangini, S; Salvati, P; Celle, M E; Di Pietro, P

    2008-01-01

    Headache, a very frequent symptom in pediatrics, can severely affect the child and his family's life quality, representing an important reason of access to a Pediatric Emergency Department. From a clinical point of view, it is useful to subdivide headaches in primary and secondary ones. As far as the primary ones are concerned, the common migraine without aura is recognised as the most frequent in the child, while the most recurrent among the second ones are due to infective processes, and they represent 57% of the patients admitted to ED for headache with acute onset. We analyzed data collected from June 2000 to December 2006, at the Pediatric Emergency Department of Institute "G. Gaslini" Genoa, concerning the admissions of patients with headache, with particular attention to the necessity of coming up with a clinical and diagnostical path. During the study, there have been 228.255 admissions, 2.214 of which with a diagnosis of discharge from ED of headache (55% males, 45% females). After triage, 14,3% has been evaluated as white code, 74,3% as green one, 10,8% as yellow one and 0,6% as red code. Final outcome of these patients has been hospitalization for 38%, OBI for 8%, home or ambulatory control for 54%. The accesses to ED for headache are increasing. Better information of the family is needed, with coordination among territorial structures and clinic management in ED.

  17. Who pays? How reimbursement impacts the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Downey, Lavonne; Zun, Leslie S; Burke, Trena; Jefferson, Tangula

    2014-01-01

    Nationwide from 1996 to 2004, the overall proportion of Emergency Department (ED) reimbursement ratios for outpatient ED visits decreased from 57% to 42%. The continued falling of ED reimbursement ratios, which is the share of ED charges that are ultimately paid, is an indicator of the financial pressures facing the ED. Once the healthcare reforms are put in place what will the impact be on reimbursement rates of overburdened and underfunded emergency departments. The purpose of this study is to examine if there is a declining disparity in payment rates for ED care based on payment sources in a safety net ED provider. Findings of this study could indicate how the healthcare reforms might impact these types of ED reimbursement ratios in the upcoming years. This was a retrospective study that examined randomly selected charts of all ED visits charts from May 2002 to May 2008 at a level one adult and pediatric emergency trauma center with 45,000 annual visits. This study was IRB approved. A regression model was used to predict if there was a relationship between amount received and types of insurance payers within the ED. A significant relationship was found between types of insurance (payers) as the independent variable, and the dependent variables of charges (p = .00), payments (p = .00), amount of adjustments (p= .00), and balance remaining after 90 days (p = .00). Who pays for the ED services does impact the ED's bottom line. The privately funded patients will provide an ED with a higher reimbursement ratio per year as compared to those patients who are publicly or self pay. This explains why EDs that provide care for 40% or more publicly or self pay patients have seen a decline in reimbursement ratios. Healthcare reform has the potential to change and possibly improve safety net ED rate of reimbursement depending on how private, public and self pay patients pay for ED services.

  18. Medication errors recovered by emergency department pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Jeffrey M; Churchill, William; Erickson, Abbie; Munz, Kristin; Schuur, Jeremiah D; Salzberg, Claudia A; Lewinski, Daniel; Shane, Rita; Aazami, Roshanak; Patka, John; Jaggers, Rondell; Steffenhagen, Aaron; Rough, Steve; Bates, David W

    2010-06-01

    We assess the impact of emergency department (ED) pharmacists on reducing potentially harmful medication errors. We conducted this observational study in 4 academic EDs. Trained pharmacy residents observed a convenience sample of ED pharmacists' activities. The primary outcome was medication errors recovered by pharmacists, including errors intercepted before reaching the patient (near miss or potential adverse drug event), caught after reaching the patient but before causing harm (mitigated adverse drug event), or caught after some harm but before further or worsening harm (ameliorated adverse drug event). Pairs of physician and pharmacist reviewers confirmed recovered medication errors and assessed their potential for harm. Observers were unblinded and clinical outcomes were not evaluated. We conducted 226 observation sessions spanning 787 hours and observed pharmacists reviewing 17,320 medications ordered or administered to 6,471 patients. We identified 504 recovered medication errors, or 7.8 per 100 patients and 2.9 per 100 medications. Most of the recovered medication errors were intercepted potential adverse drug events (90.3%), with fewer mitigated adverse drug events (3.9%) and ameliorated adverse drug events (0.2%). The potential severities of the recovered errors were most often serious (47.8%) or significant (36.2%). The most common medication classes associated with recovered medication errors were antimicrobial agents (32.1%), central nervous system agents (16.2%), and anticoagulant and thrombolytic agents (14.1%). The most common error types were dosing errors, drug omission, and wrong frequency errors. ED pharmacists can identify and prevent potentially harmful medication errors. Controlled trials are necessary to determine the net costs and benefits of ED pharmacist staffing on safety, quality, and costs, especially important considerations for smaller EDs and pharmacy departments. Copyright (c) 2009 American College of Emergency Physicians

  19. Infection Prevention in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Stephen Y.; Theodoro, Daniel L.; Schuur, Jeremiah D.; Marschall, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Infection prevention remains a major challenge in emergency care. Acutely ill and injured patients seeking evaluation and treatment in the emergency department (ED) not only have the potential to spread communicable infectious diseases to healthcare personnel and other patients, but are vulnerable to acquiring new infections associated with the care they receive. This article will evaluate these risks and review the existing literature for infection prevention practices in the ED, ranging from hand hygiene, standard and transmission-based precautions, healthcare personnel vaccination, and environmental controls to strategies for preventing healthcare-associated infections. We will conclude by examining what can be done to optimize infection prevention in the ED and identify gaps in knowledge where further research is needed. Successful implementation of evidence-based practices coupled with innovation of novel approaches and technologies tailored specifically to the complex and dynamic environment of the ED are the keys to raising the standard for infection prevention and patient safety in emergency care. PMID:24721718

  20. Pediatric migraine: abortive management in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, David C; Spiro, David M; Meckler, Garth D

    2014-02-01

    Studies suggest that headache accounts for approximately 1% of pediatric emergency department (ED) visits. ED physicians must distinguish between primary headaches, such as a tension or migraine, and secondary headaches caused by systemic disease including neoplasm, infection, or intracranial hemorrhage. A recent study found that 40% of children presenting to the ED with headache were diagnosed with a primary headache, and 75% of these were migraine. Once the diagnosis of migraine has been made, the ED physician is faced with the challenge of determining appropriate abortive treatment. This review summarizes the most recent literature on pediatric migraine with an emphasis on diagnosis and abortive treatment in the ED. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  1. Marketing and public relations in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Mayer, T A; Tilson, W; Hemingway, J

    1987-02-01

    This article outlines the elements of successful ED marketing, as well as providing definitions for terms used within the marketing process. In today's competition and rapidly changing environment, marketing and public relations are tools that every ED Medical Director may want to consider. Because the marketing process requires a great deal of time and effort, as well as a high degree of intellectual honesty, it should never be entered into without a strong commitment. However, marketing the ED can be among the most productive, stimulating, and gratifying experiences for the ED Medical Director, the emergency department physicians, and all ED service personnel.

  2. Rural Emergency Department Staffing and Participation in Emergency Certification and Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Michelle M.; Wholey, Douglas; Moscovice, Ira S.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The practice of emergency medicine presents many challenges in rural areas. Purpose: We describe how rural hospitals nationally are staffing their Emergency Departments (EDs) and explore the participation of rural ED physicians and other health care professionals in selected certification and training programs that teach skills needed to…

  3. Rural Emergency Department Staffing and Participation in Emergency Certification and Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Michelle M.; Wholey, Douglas; Moscovice, Ira S.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The practice of emergency medicine presents many challenges in rural areas. Purpose: We describe how rural hospitals nationally are staffing their Emergency Departments (EDs) and explore the participation of rural ED physicians and other health care professionals in selected certification and training programs that teach skills needed to…

  4. Estimating Uncompensated Care Charges at Rural Hospital Emergency Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Kevin J.; Moore, Charity G.; Probst, Janice C.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Rural hospitals face multiple financial burdens. Due to federal law, emergency departments (ED) provide a gateway for uninsured and self-pay patients to gain access to treatment. It is unknown how much uncompensated care in rural hospitals is due to ED visits. Purpose: To develop a national estimate of uncompensated care from patients…

  5. Development and Testing of Emergency Department Patient Transfer Communication Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingner, Jill; Moscovice, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Communication problems are a major contributing factor to adverse events in hospitals. The contextual environment in small rural hospitals increases the importance of emergency department (ED) patient transfer communication quality. This study addresses the communication problems through the development and testing of ED quality…

  6. Development and Testing of Emergency Department Patient Transfer Communication Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingner, Jill; Moscovice, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Communication problems are a major contributing factor to adverse events in hospitals. The contextual environment in small rural hospitals increases the importance of emergency department (ED) patient transfer communication quality. This study addresses the communication problems through the development and testing of ED quality…

  7. Forecasting emergency department visits using internet data.

    PubMed

    Ekström, Andreas; Kurland, Lisa; Farrokhnia, Nasim; Castrén, Maaret; Nordberg, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Using Internet data to forecast emergency department (ED) visits might enable a model that reflects behavioral trends and thereby be a valid tool for health care providers with which to allocate resources and prevent crowding. The aim of this study is to investigate whether Web site visits to a regional medical Web site, the Stockholm Health Care Guide, a proxy for the general public's concern of their health, could be used to predict the ED attendance for the coming day. In a retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study, a model for forecasting the daily number of ED visits was derived and validated. The model was derived through regression analysis, using visits to the Stockholm Health Care Guide Web site between 6 pm and midnight and day of the week as independent variables. Web site visits were measured with Google Analytics. The number of visits to the ED within the region was retrieved from the Stockholm County Council administrative database. All types of ED visits (including adult, pediatric, and gynecologic) were included. The period of August 13, 2011, to August 12, 2012, was used as a training set for the model. The hourly variation of visits was analyzed for both Web site and the ED visits to determine the interval of hours to be used for the prediction. The model was validated with mean absolute percentage error for August 13, 2012, to October 31, 2012. The correlation between the number of Web site visits between 6 pm and midnight and ED visits the coming day was significant (r=0.77; P<.001). The best forecasting results for ED visits were achieved for the entire county, with a mean absolute percentage error of 4.8%. The result for the individual hospitals ranged between mean absolute percentage error 5.2% and 13.1%. Web site visits may be used in this fashion to predict attendance to the ED. The model works both for the entire region and for individual hospitals. The possibility of using Internet data to predict ED visits is promising

  8. Using LEAN to improve a segment of emergency department flow.

    PubMed

    Vose, Courtney; Reichard, Christine; Pool, Susan; Snyder, Megan; Burmeister, David

    2014-11-01

    Emergency department (ED) overcrowding is an organizational concern. This article describes how Toyota LEAN methods were used as a performance improvement framework to address ED overcrowding. This initiative also impacted "bolus of patients" or "batching" concerns, which occur when inpatient units receive an influx of patients from EDs and other areas at the same time. In addition to decreased incidence of overcrowding, the organization realized increased interprofessional collaboration.

  9. Medical identity theft in the emergency department: awareness is crucial.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Michelino

    2014-11-01

    Medical identity theft in the emergency department (ED) can harm numerous individuals, and many frontline healthcare providers are unaware of this growing concern. The two cases described began as typical ED encounters until red flags were discovered upon validating the patient's identity. Educating all healthcare personnel within and outside the ED regarding the subtle signs of medical identity theft and implementing institutional policies to identify these criminals will discourage further fraudulent behavior.

  10. Emergency Department Use among Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vohra, Rini; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional analyses using Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (2006-2011) was conducted to examine the trends, type of ED visits, and mean total ED charges for adults aged 22-64 years with and without ASD (matched 1:3). Around 0.4% ED visits (n = 25,527) were associated with any ASD and rates of such visits more than doubled from 2006 to…

  11. Emergency Department Use among Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vohra, Rini; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional analyses using Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (2006-2011) was conducted to examine the trends, type of ED visits, and mean total ED charges for adults aged 22-64 years with and without ASD (matched 1:3). Around 0.4% ED visits (n = 25,527) were associated with any ASD and rates of such visits more than doubled from 2006 to…

  12. A National Survey of Emergency Department Triage in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Göransson, Katarina; Ehrenberg, Anna; Ehnfors, Margareta

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the organisation of and knowledge about triage work in Swedish emergency departments (ED) as a first step to understanding what is necessary for decision support in ED triage systems in Sweden. A national survey using telephone interviews for data collection was used. Results showed great variety in how work regarding ED triage is organised and performed. The variety occurs in several areas including education, personnel performing triage, facilities available and scales used. PMID:14728356

  13. Medical Identity Theft in the Emergency Department: Awareness is Crucial

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Michelino

    2014-01-01

    Medical Identity theft in the emergency department (ED) can harm numerous individuals, and many frontline healthcare providers are unaware of this growing concern. The two cases described began as typical ED encounters until red flags were discovered upon validating the patient’s identity. Educating all healthcare personnel within and outside the ED regarding the subtle signs of medical identity theft and implementing institutional policies to identify these criminals will discourage further fraudulent behavior. PMID:25493150

  14. Epiploic appendagitis: the emergency department presentation.

    PubMed

    Legome, Eric L; Belton, Austin L; Murray, Robert E; Rao, Pat M; Novelline, Robert A

    2002-01-01

    We performed a structured retrospective chart review to describe clinical characteristics of Emergency Department (ED) patients diagnosed by history, physical examination, and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan with epiploic appendagitis (EA). EA is a disease caused by inflammation of the appendix epiploica, subserosal adipose tissue along the colon. It may mimic surgical causes of acute abdominal pain, but is treated conservatively with pain management. There were 19 patients diagnosed with EA, with follow-up performed on 85%. All had focal, nonmigratory symptoms. Common findings included left lower quadrant pain and guarding, and a normal temperature and white cell count. No patient required operation. This preliminary work characterizes some common clinical features of ED patients diagnosed with EA. As use of emergency CT scan for abdominal pain increases, clinicians will encounter this more often. These features should also prompt the clinician to consider CT scan in patients with similar signs and symptoms. Accurate diagnosis may avoid unnecessary surgery.

  15. Emergency department presentation of pediatric stroke.

    PubMed

    Calder, Kirsten; Kokorowski, Paul; Tran, Tuyet; Henderson, Sean

    2003-10-01

    Pediatric stroke is not a common occurrence. When compared with adults, the pediatric population has a much more diverse group of risk factors, and while numerous rare congenital disorders are possible, most known etiologies are cardiac, vascular, or hematologic. The emergency department (ED) presentation of pediatric stroke does not differ greatly from that of adults, although posterior circulation ischemia is less common, and neurologic findings may be more difficult to recognize. ED treatment is also largely the same, with an attention to resuscitation and avoidance of hypoxia, hypotension, hyperthermia, and changes in blood sugar. Use of specialized agents such as aspirin and heparin should be considered in certain cases. It is important for the emergency physician to recognize acute neurologic events in pediatric patients to minimize complications.

  16. Emergency Department Crowding Disparity: a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated national differences in emergency department (ED) crowding to identify factors significantly associated with crowding in institutes and communities across Korea. This was a cross-sectional nationwide observational study using data abstracted from the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS). We calculated mean occupancy rates to quantify ED crowding status and divided EDs into three groups according to their occupancy rates (cutoffs: 0.5 and 1.0). Factors potentially related to ED crowding were collected from the NEDIS. We performed a multivariate regression analysis to identify variables significantly associated with ED crowding. A total of 120 EDs were included in the final analysis. Of these, 73 were categorized as 'low crowded' (LC, occupancy rate < 0.50), 37 as 'middle crowded' (MC, 0.50 ≤ occupancy rate < 1.00), 10 EDs as 'high crowded' (HC, 1.00 ≤ occupancy rate). The mean ED occupancy rate varied widely, from 0.06 to 2.33. The median value was 0.39 with interquartile ranges (IQRs) from 0.20 to 0.71. Multivariate analysis revealed that after adjustment, ED crowding was significantly associated with the number of visits, percentage of patients referred, number of nurses, and ED disposition. This nationwide study observed significant variety in ED crowding. Several input, throughput, and output factors were associated with crowding. PMID:27478347

  17. Emergency department crowding affects triage processes.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, M Christien; Meester, Barbara E A M; van der Linden, Naomi

    2016-11-01

    During emergency department (ED) crowding there is an imbalance between the need for emergency care and available resources. We assessed the impact of crowding on the triage process. A 1-year health records review of 49,539 patient visits was performed. Data extracted included: occupancy ratio, ED occupancy, demographics, length of stay (LOS), time to triage, triage score, years working as a triage nurse, and triage destination. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analyses. During crowding, target times to triage elapsed more often than during non-crowding (49.7% vs. 24.9%, P <0.001), and more patients were not triaged (2.2% vs. 1.6%, P <0.001). A higher ED occupancy was associated with longer waiting times for triage and longer LOS (P <0.001). There were 12,627 (25.5%) patients redirected to the general practitioner cooperative (GPC). No association between level of crowdedness and number of patients who were redirected to the GPC was found (P = 0.122). Redirection to the GPC occurred significantly more often when the triage nurse had more years working as a triage nurse (P <0.001). At this hospital, crowding affects the triage process, leading to longer waiting times to triage and longer ED LOS. Crowding did not influence triage destination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Emergency department performance measures updates: proceedings of the 2014 emergency department benchmarking alliance consensus summit.

    PubMed

    Wiler, Jennifer L; Welch, Shari; Pines, Jesse; Schuur, Jeremiah; Jouriles, Nick; Stone-Griffith, Suzanne

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to review and update key definitions and metrics for emergency department (ED) performance and operations. Forty-five emergency medicine leaders convened for the Third Performance Measures and Benchmarking Summit held in Las Vegas, February 21-22, 2014. Prior to arrival, attendees were assigned to workgroups to review, revise, and update the definitions and vocabulary being used to communicate about ED performance and operations. They were provided with the prior definitions of those consensus summits that were published in 2006 and 2010. Other published definitions from key stakeholders in emergency medicine and health care were also reviewed and circulated. At the summit, key terminology and metrics were discussed and debated. Workgroups communicated online, via teleconference, and finally in a face-to-face meeting to reach consensus regarding their recommendations. Recommendations were then posted and open to a 30-day comment period. Participants then reanalyzed the recommendations, and modifications were made based on consensus. A comprehensive dictionary of ED terminology related to ED performance and operation was developed. This article includes definitions of operating characteristics and internal and external factors relevant to the stratification and categorization of EDs. Time stamps, time intervals, and measures of utilization were defined. Definitions of processes and staffing measures are also presented. Definitions were harmonized with performance measures put forth by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) for consistency. Standardized definitions are necessary to improve the comparability of EDs nationally for operations research and practice. More importantly, clear precise definitions describing ED operations are needed for incentive-based pay-for-performance models like those developed by CMS. This document provides a common language for front-line practitioners, managers, health policymakers, and researchers.

  19. Characteristics and capabilities of emergency departments in Abuja, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Wen, Leana S; Oshiomogho, John I; Eluwa, George I; Steptoe, Anne P; Sullivan, Ashley F; Camargo, Carlos A

    2012-10-01

    Emergency departments (ED) are the basic unit of international emergency medicine, but often differ in fundamental features. This study sought to describe and characterise ED in the capital city of Nigeria, Abuja. All ED open 24 h/day 7 days/week to the general public were surveyed using the national ED inventories survey instrument (http://www.emnet-nedi.org). ED staff were asked about ED characteristics with reference to calendar year 2008. Twenty-four ED participated (83% response). All were located in hospitals, which ranged in size from six to 250 beds. The majority (92% CI 73% to 100%) had a contiguous layout with medical and surgical care provided in one area. All ED saw both adults and children, with a median of 1500 annual visits (IQR 648-2328). Almost half of respondents (46%; CI 26% to 67%) thought their ED operated under capacity, none thought that their ED was over capacity. Only 4% of ED surveyed had dedicated CT scanners, 25% had cardiac monitoring and none had negative-pressure rooms. There was wide variation in the types of emergencies that were identified as being treatable 24 h/day 7 days/week; these appeared to correlate with ED consultant availability. Although ED location and layout in Abuja do not differ greatly from that in a typical US city, ED utilisation was lower and fewer resources and capabilities were available. The lack of technological and human resources raise questions about what critical technologies are needed in resource-limited settings, and whether Nigeria should consider training emergency medicine physicians to meet its workforce needs.

  20. Improving handoffs in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Dickson S; Kelly, John J; Beach, Christopher; Berkeley, Ross P; Bitterman, Robert A; Broida, Robert I; Dalsey, William C; Farley, Heather L; Fuller, Drew C; Garvey, David J; Klauer, Kevin M; McCullough, Lynne B; Patterson, Emily S; Pham, Julius C; Phelan, Michael P; Pines, Jesse M; Schenkel, Stephen M; Tomolo, Anne; Turbiak, Thomas W; Vozenilek, John A; Wears, Robert L; White, Marjorie L

    2010-02-01

    Patient handoffs at shift change are a ubiquitous and potentially hazardous process in emergency care. As crowding and lengthy evaluations become the standard for an increasing proportion of emergency departments (EDs), the number of patients handed off will likely increase. It is critical now more than ever before to ensure that handoffs supply valid and useful shared understandings between providers at transitions of care. The purpose of this article is to provide the most up-to-date evidence and collective thinking about the process and safety of handoffs between physicians in the ED. It offers perspectives from other disciplines, provides a conceptual framework for handoffs, and categorizes models of existing practices. Legal and risk management issues are also addressed. A proposal for the development of handoff quality measures is outlined. Practical strategies are suggested to improve ED handoffs. Finally, a research agenda is proposed to provide a roadmap to future work that may increase knowledge in this area. Copyright (c) 2009 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical Pharmacy Services in Canadian Emergency Departments: A National Survey.

    PubMed

    Wanbon, Richard; Lyder, Catherine; Villeneuve, Eric; Shalansky, Stephen; Manuel, Leslie; Harding, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Providing clinical pharmacy services in emergency departments (EDs) is important because adverse drug events commonly occur before, during, and after ED encounters. Survey studies in the United States have indicated a relatively low presence of clinical pharmacy services in the ED setting, but a descriptive survey specific to Canada has not yet been performed. To describe the current status of pharmacy services in Canadian EDs and potential barriers to implementing pharmacy services in this setting. All Canadian hospitals with an ED and at least 50 acute care beds were contacted to identify the presence of dedicated ED pharmacy services (defined as at least 0.5 full-time equivalent [FTE] position). Three different electronic surveys were then distributed by e-mail to ED pharmacy team members (if available), pharmacy managers (at hospitals without an ED pharmacy team), and ED managers (all hospitals). The surveys were completed between July and September 2013. Of the 243 hospitals identified, 95 (39%) had at least 0.5 FTE clinical pharmacy services in the ED (based on initial telephone screening). Of the 60 ED pharmacy teams that responded to the survey, 56 had pharmacists (27 of which also had ED pharmacy technicians) and 4 had pharmacy technicians (without pharmacists). Forty-four (79%) of the 56 ED pharmacist services had been established within the preceding 10 years. Order clarification, troubleshooting, medication reconciliation, and assessment of renal dosing were the services most commonly provided. The large majority of pharmacy managers and ED managers identified the need for ED pharmacy services where such services do not yet exist. Inadequate funding, competing priorities, and lack of training were the most commonly reported barriers to providing this service. Although the establishment of ward-based pharmacy services in Canadian EDs has increased over the past 10 years, lack of funding and a lack of ED training for pharmacists were reported as

  2. Clinical Pharmacy Services in Canadian Emergency Departments: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wanbon, Richard; Lyder, Catherine; Villeneuve, Eric; Shalansky, Stephen; Manuel, Leslie; Harding, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Providing clinical pharmacy services in emergency departments (EDs) is important because adverse drug events commonly occur before, during, and after ED encounters. Survey studies in the United States have indicated a relatively low presence of clinical pharmacy services in the ED setting, but a descriptive survey specific to Canada has not yet been performed. Objectives: To describe the current status of pharmacy services in Canadian EDs and potential barriers to implementing pharmacy services in this setting. Methods: All Canadian hospitals with an ED and at least 50 acute care beds were contacted to identify the presence of dedicated ED pharmacy services (defined as at least 0.5 full-time equivalent [FTE] position). Three different electronic surveys were then distributed by e-mail to ED pharmacy team members (if available), pharmacy managers (at hospitals without an ED pharmacy team), and ED managers (all hospitals). The surveys were completed between July and September 2013. Results: Of the 243 hospitals identified, 95 (39%) had at least 0.5 FTE clinical pharmacy services in the ED (based on initial telephone screening). Of the 60 ED pharmacy teams that responded to the survey, 56 had pharmacists (27 of which also had ED pharmacy technicians) and 4 had pharmacy technicians (without pharmacists). Forty-four (79%) of the 56 ED pharmacist services had been established within the preceding 10 years. Order clarification, troubleshooting, medication reconciliation, and assessment of renal dosing were the services most commonly provided. The large majority of pharmacy managers and ED managers identified the need for ED pharmacy services where such services do not yet exist. Inadequate funding, competing priorities, and lack of training were the most commonly reported barriers to providing this service. Conclusions: Although the establishment of ward-based pharmacy services in Canadian EDs has increased over the past 10 years, lack of funding and a lack of

  3. Ultrasonography in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Whitson, Micah R; Mayo, Paul H

    2016-08-15

    Point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS) is a useful imaging technique for the emergency medicine (EM) physician. Because of its growing use in EM, this article will summarize the historical development, the scope of practice, and some evidence supporting the current applications of POCUS in the adult emergency department. Bedside ultrasonography in the emergency department shares clinical applications with critical care ultrasonography, including goal-directed echocardiography, echocardiography during cardiac arrest, thoracic ultrasonography, evaluation for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, screening abdominal ultrasonography, ultrasonography in trauma, and guidance of procedures with ultrasonography. Some applications of POCUS unique to the emergency department include abdominal ultrasonography of the right upper quadrant and appendix, obstetric, testicular, soft tissue/musculoskeletal, and ocular ultrasonography. Ultrasonography has become an integral part of EM over the past two decades, and it is an important skill which positively influences patient outcomes.

  4. Ballistic injuries in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Bruner, David; Gustafson, Corey G; Visintainer, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    According to 2007 data, gunshot wounds from homicides, suicides, and accidents caused 31,000 deaths in the United States, with even higher numbers of serious, nonfatal injuries. In recent years, new evidence on effective treatment of patients with gunshot wounds has come from military settings and is being adapted for civilian emergency departments (EDs). Effective, evidence-based management of ballistic injuries in the ED is vital. This issue reviews the physics of ballistics as it relates to the tracts and patterns of tissue injury caused by different types of firearms and missiles, and it takes a regional approach to reviewing the current evidence for managing gunshot wounds to the head, neck, thorax, abdomen, genitourinary (GU) system, extremities, and soft tissues. Current guidelines as well as new research and evidence regarding fluid resuscitation, airway management, evaluation strategies, drug therapies, and documentation are discussed.

  5. Assessing the Physical Environment of Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Goodarzi, Hassan; Javadzadeh, Hamidreza; Hassanpour, Kasra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emergency Department (ED) is considered to be the heart of a hospital. Based on many studies, a well-organized physical environment can enhance efficacy. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of physical environment in EDs on efficacy. Materials and Methods: This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted via the faculty members of the ED and residents of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected using a predefined questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Results: Sixty-two participants, including 21 females and 41 males, completed the questionnaires. The mean age of the participants was 37 years (SD: 8.42). The mean work experience was 8 years (SD: 4.52) and all the studied variables varied within a range of 3.3 - 4.2. Time indices had the highest mean among variables followed by capacity, work space, treatment units, critical care units and, triage indices, respectively. Conclusions: In general, time indices including length of patient stay in the ED and space capacity, emphasizing the need to address these shortcomings. PMID:26839860

  6. Frequent users of the pediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Seguin, Jade; Osmanlliu, Esli; Zhang, Xun; Clavel, Virginie; Eisman, Harley; Rodrigues, Robert; Oskoui, Maryam

    2017-04-06

    Emergency department (ED) crowding is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Its etiology is multifactorial, and frequent ED use (defined as more or equal to five visits per year) is a major contributor to high patient volumes. Our primary objective is to characterize the frequent user population. Our secondary objective is to examine risk factors for frequent emergency use. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pediatric emergency department (PED) visits at the Montreal Children's Hospital using the Système Informatique Urgence (SIURGE), electronic medical record database. We analysed the relation between patient's characteristics and the number of PED visits over a 1-year period following the index visit. Patients totalling 52,088 accounted for 94,155 visits. Of those, 2,474 (4.7%) patients had five and more recurrent visits and accounted for 16.6% (15,612 visits) of the total PED visits. Lower level of acuity at index visit (odds ratio [OR] 0.85) was associated with a lower number of recurrent visits. Lower socioeconomic status (social deprivation index OR 1.09, material deprivation index OR 1.08) was associated with a higher number of recurrent visits. Asthma (OR 1.57); infectious ear, nose, and sinus disorders (OR 1.33); and other respiratory disorders (OR 1.56) were independently associated with a higher incidence of a recurrent visit within the year following the first visit. Our study is the first Canadian study to assess risk factors of frequent pediatric emergency use. The identified risk factors and diagnoses highlight the need for future evidence-based, targeted innovative research evaluating strategies to minimize ED crowding, to improve health outcomes and to improve patient satisfaction.

  7. Emergency Department Length of Stay: Accuracy of Patient Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Brendan T.; Marco, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Managing a patient’s expectations in the emergency department (ED) environment is challenging. Previous studies have identified several factors associated with ED patient satisfaction. Lengthy wait times have shown to be associated with dissatisfaction with ED care. Understanding that patients are inaccurate at their estimation of wait time, which could lead to lower satisfaction, provides administrators possible points of intervention to help improve accuracy of estimation and possibly satisfaction with the ED. This study was undertaken to examine the accuracy of patient estimates of time periods in an ED and identify factors associated with accuracy. Method In this prospective convenience sample survey at UTMC ED, we collected data between March and July 2012. Outcome measures included duration of each phase of ED care and patient estimates of these time periods. Results Among 309 participants, the majority underestimated the total length of stay (LOS) in the ED (median difference −7 minutes (IQR −29-12)). There was significant variability in ED LOS (median 155 minutes (IQR 75–240)). No significant associations were identified between accuracy of time estimates and gender, age, race, or insurance status. Participants with longer ED LOS demonstrated lower patient satisfaction scores (p<0.001). Conclusion Patients demonstrated inaccurate time estimates of ED treatment times, including total LOS. Patients with longer ED LOS had lower patient satisfaction scores. PMID:24672606

  8. Support for Emergency Department Screening for Intimate Partner Violence Depends on Perceived Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witting, Michael D.; Furuno, Jon P.; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Krugman, Scott D.; Perisse, Andre R. S.; Limcangco, Rhona

    2006-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) screening for intimate partner violence (IPV) faces logistic difficulties and has uncertain efficacy. We surveyed 146 ED visitors and 108 ED care providers to compare their support for ED IPV screening in three hypothetical scenarios of varying IPV risk. Visitor support for screening was 5 times higher for the high-risk…

  9. Support for Emergency Department Screening for Intimate Partner Violence Depends on Perceived Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witting, Michael D.; Furuno, Jon P.; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Krugman, Scott D.; Perisse, Andre R. S.; Limcangco, Rhona

    2006-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) screening for intimate partner violence (IPV) faces logistic difficulties and has uncertain efficacy. We surveyed 146 ED visitors and 108 ED care providers to compare their support for ED IPV screening in three hypothetical scenarios of varying IPV risk. Visitor support for screening was 5 times higher for the high-risk…

  10. Emergency Department Presentations following Tropical Cyclone Yasi

    PubMed Central

    Aitken, Peter; Franklin, Richard Charles; Lawlor, Jenine; Mitchell, Rob; Watt, Kerrianne; Furyk, Jeremy; Small, Niall; Lovegrove, Leone; Leggat, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Emergency departments see an increase in cases during cyclones. The aim of this study is to describe patient presentations to the Emergency Department (ED) of a tertiary level hospital (Townsville) following a tropical cyclone (Yasi). Specific areas of focus include changes in: patient demographics (age and gender), triage categories, and classification of diseases. Methods Data were extracted from the Townsville Hospitals ED information system (EDIS) for three periods in 2009, 2010 and 2011 to coincide with formation of Cyclone Yasi (31 January 2011) to six days after Yasi crossed the coast line (8 February 2012). The analysis explored the changes in ICD10-AM 4-character classification and presented at the Chapter level. Results There was a marked increase in the number of patients attending the ED during Yasi, particularly those aged over 65 years with a maximum daily attendance of 372 patients on 4 Feb 2011. The most marked increases were in: Triage categories - 4 and 5; and ICD categories - diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (L00-L99), and factors influencing health care status (Z00-Z99). The most common diagnostic presentation across all years was injury (S00-T98). Discussion There was an increase in presentations to the ED of TTH, which peaked in the first 24 – 48 hours following the cyclone and returned to normal over a five-day period. The changes in presentations were mostly an amplification of normal attendance patterns with some altered areas of activity. Injury patterns are similar to overseas experience. PMID:26111010

  11. ED patients: how nonurgent are they? Systematic review of the emergency medicine literature.

    PubMed

    Durand, Anne-Claire; Gentile, Stéphanie; Devictor, Bénédicte; Palazzolo, Sylvie; Vignally, Pascal; Gerbeaux, Patrick; Sambuc, Roland

    2011-03-01

    Nonurgent visits to emergency departments (ED) are a controversial issue; they have been negatively associated with crowding and costs. We have conducted a critical review of the literature regarding methods for categorizing ED visits into urgent or nonurgent and analyzed the proportions of nonurgent ED visits. We found 51 methods of categorization. Seventeen categorizations conducted prospectively in triage areas were based on somatic complaint and/or vital sign collection. Categorizations conducted retrospectively (n = 34) were based on the diagnosis, the results of tests obtained during the ED visit, and hospital admission. The proportions of nonurgent ED visits varied considerably: 4.8% to 90%, with a median of 32%. Comparisons of methods of categorization in the same population showed variability in levels of agreement. Our review has highlighted the lack of reliability and reproducibility. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hyponatremia in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Lee, C T; Guo, H R; Chen, J B

    2000-05-01

    Hyponatremia is a clinical manifestation of a wide variety of diseases, some of which have high mortality rates. To assess the prevalence, cause, and prognosis of hyponatremia encountered in the emergency department, we conducted a prospective study at a major hospital in southern Taiwan. We included all adult internal medicine patients treated in the emergency department during a 2-month period. Hyponatremia was defined as a serum sodium level below 134 mEq/L, and cases patients were followed till being discharged. Among the 3,784 patients included, 166 case patients were identified. Most (65%) case patients were hypovolemic, and the overall mortality rate was 17.9%. The mortality rate increased as the sodium level decreased, but was not related to gender, age, cause, or serum potassium level. When 21 hyperglycemic patients whose serum sodium levels went beyond 134 mEq/L after the adjustment for blood sugar levels were excluded, the prevalence of true hyponatremia was 3.83%. The most common underlying diseases were those of the gastrointestinal system. It is concluded that hyponatremia is a common condition encountered in the emergency department. The mortality is correlated with the serum sodium level, and adjustment of the level is required in hyperglycemic patients to make a correct diagnosis. Unlike the cases in some other clinical settings, almost all cases of hyponatremia encountered in the emergency department were not iatrogenic and had recognizable underlying diseases. Therefore, more effort is generally required to identify the cause of hyponatremia cases in the emergency department.

  13. Palliative Care in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Mierendorf, Susanne M; Gidvani, Vinita

    2014-01-01

    The Emergency Department (ED) is the place where people most frequently seek urgent care. For patients living with chronic disease or malignancy who may be in a crisis, this visit may be pivotal in determining the patients’ trajectory. There is a large movement in education of emergency medicine physicians, hospitalists, and intensivists from acute aggressive interventions to patient-goal assessment, recognizing last stages of life and prioritizing symptom management. Although the ED is not considered an ideal place to begin palliative care, hospital-based physicians may assist in eliciting the patient’s goals of care and discussing prognosis and disease trajectory. This may help shift to noncurative treatment. This article will summarize the following: identification of patients who may need palliation, discussing prognosis, eliciting goals of care and directives, symptom management in the ED, and making plans for further care. These efforts have been shown to improve outcomes and to decrease length of stay and cost. The focus of this article is relieving “patient” symptoms and family distress, honoring the patient’s goals of care, and assisting in transition to a noncurative approach and placement where this may be accomplished. PMID:24694318

  14. Managing alcohol related aggression in the emergency department (Part I).

    PubMed

    Ferns, Terry; Cork, Alison

    2008-01-01

    Internationally, violence in the emergency department (ED) is of a constant concern to emergency practitioners. Frequently, both original research papers and anecdotal reports emphasise the phenomenon of alcohol related aggression in the ED. In this first paper, we highlight the literatures discussion of alcohol related violence in the emergency department and the potential psychological effects of alcohol intoxication. In the second we offer personal and organisational strategies clinical nursing staff may consider appropriate to minimise the risk of assault when caring for service users projecting alcohol related aggression.

  15. Better communication in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Burley, Duncan

    2011-05-01

    The emergency nurse practitioner (ENP) role has evolved since the 1980s, when it was introduced into emergency departments (EDs) in the UK (Tye 1997). Nowadays, ENPs see, treat and refer or discharge patients autonomously. They also document patient histories and are expected to communicate effectively with patients who have complex needs. The role has expanded for several reasons, including the need to reduce doctors' working hours, but mainly to make more flexible use of services. Meanwhile, as ED attendances increase (Thompson et aL 2010), ENPs are placed under increasing pressure and may be forced to spend less time with patients than was expected of them when the ENP role was originally devised. This can affect patient history taking and communication, and may lead to poorer patient outcomes and satisfaction. This article concerns a literature review undertaken by the author to identify and overcome the limitations to effective history taking and communication among ENPs. It also highlights good practice in the management of emergency and urgent-care patients with complex needs. There is little primary research on history taking and communication pressures in emergency care but, after a systematic literature search of the British Nursing Index, CINAHL and Medline databases, the author identified eight research articles on the subject. Three themes emerged from the review: interruptions, overload and barriers. According to the review findings, interruptions occur more often in EDs than in primary care settings, and senior doctors and senior nurses are interrupted more often than other staff. These interruptions can increase information overload, leading to medical errors and adverse clinical outcomes. The main barrier to effective history taking is a failure to understand patients who have poor command of the English language. The author's recommendations for practice include increasing the number of staff and training them in managing pressure, communicating

  16. Trends in the Incidence of Hypertensive Emergencies in US Emergency Departments From 2006 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Janke, Alexander T; McNaughton, Candace D; Brody, Aaron M; Welch, Robert D; Levy, Phillip D

    2016-12-05

    The incidence of hypertensive emergency in US emergency departments (ED) is not well established. This study is a descriptive epidemiological analysis of nationally representative ED visit-level data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample for 2006-2013. Nationwide Emergency Department Sample is a publicly available database maintained by the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. An ED visit was considered to be a hypertensive emergency if it met all the following criteria: diagnosis of acute hypertension, at least 1 diagnosis indicating acute target organ damage, and qualifying disposition (admission to the hospital, death, or transfer to another facility). The incidence of adult ED visits for acute hypertension increased monotonically in the period from 2006 through 2013, from 170 340 (1820 per million adult ED visits overall) to 496 894 (4610 per million). Hypertensive emergency was rare overall, accounting for 63 406 visits (677 per million adult ED visits overall) in 2006 to 176 769 visits (1670 per million) in 2013. Among adult ED visits that had any diagnosis of hypertension, hypertensive emergency accounted for 3309 per million in 2006 and 6178 per million in 2013. The estimated number of visits for hypertensive emergency and the rate per million adult ED visits has more than doubled from 2006 to 2013. However, hypertensive emergencies are rare overall, occurring in about 2 in 1000 adult ED visits overall, and 6 in 1000 adult ED visits carrying any diagnosis of hypertension in 2013. This figure is far lower than what has been sometimes cited in previous literature. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  17. Comparing Utilization and Costs of Care in Freestanding Emergency Departments, Hospital Emergency Departments, and Urgent Care Centers.

    PubMed

    Ho, Vivian; Metcalfe, Leanne; Dark, Cedric; Vu, Lan; Weber, Ellerie; Shelton, George; Underwood, Howard R

    2017-02-15

    We compare utilization, price per visit, and the types of care delivered across freestanding emergency departments (EDs), hospital-based EDs, and urgent care centers in Texas. We analyzed insurance claims processed by Blue Cross Blue Shield of Texas from 2012 to 2015 for patient visits to freestanding EDs, hospital-based EDs, or urgent care centers in 16 Texas metropolitan statistical areas containing 84.1% of the state's population. We calculated the aggregate number of visits, average price per visit, proportion of price attributable to facility and physician services, and proportion of price billed to Blue Cross Blue Shield of Texas versus out of pocket, by facility type. Prices for the top 20 diagnoses and procedures by facility type are compared. Texans use hospital-based EDs and urgent care centers much more than freestanding EDs, but freestanding ED utilization increased 236% between 2012 and 2015. The average price per visit was lower for freestanding EDs versus hospital-based EDs in 2012 ($1,431 versus $1,842), but prices in 2015 were comparable ($2,199 versus $2,259). Prices for urgent care centers were only $164 and $168 in 2012 and 2015. Out-of-pocket liability for consumers for all these facilities increased slightly from 2012 to 2015. There was 75% overlap in the 20 most common diagnoses at freestanding EDs versus urgent care centers and 60% overlap for hospital-based EDs and urgent care centers. However, prices for patients with the same diagnosis were on average almost 10 times higher at freestanding and hospital-based EDs relative to urgent care centers. Utilization of freestanding EDs is rapidly expanding in Texas. Higher prices at freestanding and hospital-based EDs relative to urgent care centers, despite substantial overlap in services delivered, imply potential inefficient use of emergency facilities. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The invisible trauma patient: emergency department discharges.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Patrick M; Schwab, C William; Kauder, Donald R; Dabrowski, G Paul; Gracias, Vicente; Gupta, Rajan; Pryor, John P; Braslow, Benjamin M; Kim, Patrick; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2005-04-01

    As the malpractice and financial environment has changed, injured patients evaluated by the trauma team and discharged from the emergency department (ED) are now commonplace. The evaluation, care, and disposition of this population has become a significant workload component but is not reported to accrediting organizations and is relatively invisible to hospital administrators. Our objective was to quantify and begin to qualify the evolving picture of the trauma ED discharge population as a work component of trauma service function in an urban, Level I trauma center with an aeromedical program. Trauma registry (contacts, mechanism, transport, injuries, and disposition) and hospital databases (ED closure, occupancy rates) were queried for a 5-year period (1999-2003). Trend analysis provided statistical comparisons for questions of interest. During the 5-year study period, the total number of trauma contacts rose by 18.1% (2,220 in 1999 vs. 2,622 in 2003; trend p < 0.05). This increase in total contacts was not a manifestation of an increase in admissions (1,672 in 1999 vs. 1,544 in 2003) but rather a reflection of a marked increase in patients seen primarily by the trauma team and discharged from the ED (473 in 1999 vs. 1,000 in 2003; trend p < 0.05). These ED discharge patients were increasingly transported by helicopter (12.3% in 1999 vs. 29.2% in 2003; trend p < 0.05) and less frequently from urban areas (57.1% in 1999 vs. 48.1% in 2003; trend p < 0.05) over the course of the study period. Average injury severity of this group increased over the study period (Injury Severity Score of 2.7 +/- 0.1 in 1999 vs. 3.3 +/- 0.1 in 2003; trend p < 0.05). ED length of stay for this group increased 19.8% over the study period (trend p < 0.05), averaging nearly 5 hours in 2003. The total number, relative percentage, and injury severity of patients evaluated by the trauma team and discharged from the ED has significantly increased over the last 5 years, representing nearly 5

  19. Information management in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Todd B

    2004-02-01

    Information system planning for the ED is complex and new to emergency medicine, despite being used in other industries for many years. It has been estimated that less than 15% of EDs have comprehensive EDIS currently in place. The manner in which administration is approached in large part determines the success in obtaining appropriate institutional support for an EDIS. Active physician and nurse involvement is essential in the process if the new system is to be accepted at the user level. In the ED, large volumes of information are collected, collated,interpreted, and acted on immediately. Effective information management therefore is key to the successful operation of any ED. Although computerized information systems have tremendous potential for improving information management, such systems are often underused or implemented in such a way that they increase the workload on caregivers and staff. This is counter productive and should be avoided. In developing and implementing EDIS one should be careful not to automate poorly designed manual processes. Examples are ED tracking systems that require staff to manually relocate patients in the system. This task probably is completed only when the ED volume is low and "worked around" when the department is busy. Information from such a system is, therefore, flawed; at best useless and at worst counter productive. Alternatively, systems are available that can track patients automatically through the ED by way of infrared sensors similar to those used in baggage-tracking systems that have been in place in airports for years. In the automated (computerized) ED, we must have zero-fault-tolerant,enterprise-wide, hospital information networked systems that prevent unnecessary duplication of tasks, assist in tracking and entering data, and ultimately help analyze the information on a minute-to-minute basis. Such systems only reach their potential when they are fully integrated, including legacy systems, rather than stand

  20. Urgent Care Transfers to an Academic Pediatric Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Jennifer L; Clingenpeel, Joel M; Perkins, Amy M; Eason, Margaret K

    2017-10-02

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that a significant percentage of urgent care center to pediatric ED transfers can be discharged home without emergency department (ED) resource utilization. A retrospective chart review was completed for a 6-month period on all patients transferred from urgent care centers. A data collection tool focusing on demographics, diagnoses, reason for transfer, ED resource utilization, ED disposition, and 72-hour ED return was used. Each encounter was classified as "urgent" or "nonurgent" based on resource utilization criteria. Descriptive statistics were reported for demographics, encounter data, and 72-hour ED return stratified by nonurgent versus urgent classification. Two-sample t, χ, and Fisher exact tests were used to assess differences in characteristics between the nonurgent and urgent groups. One hundred nine patients met inclusion criteria. Of these, 93 (85%) were discharged from the ED. Twenty nine (27%) of the transferred patients were discharged without ED resource utilization. Seventy-two-hour return was noted for only 1 patient who was again discharged at the subsequent encounter. A large proportion of patients transferred from urgent care centers were directly discharged from the ED without any ED resource utilization. Eliminating or reducing such transfers has the potential to limit the amount of nonurgent ED visits, thus producing cost savings and better patient care.

  1. Death of a child in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Patricia; Barata, Isabel; Snow, Sally

    2014-07-01

    The death of a child in the emergency department (ED) is one of the most challenging problems facing ED clinicians. This revised technical report and accompanying policy statement reaffirm principles of patient- and family-centered care. Recent literature is examined regarding family presence, termination of resuscitation, bereavement responsibilities of ED clinicians, support of child fatality review efforts, and other issues inherent in caring for the patient, family, and staff when a child dies in the ED. Appendices are provided that offer an approach to bereavement activities in the ED, carrying out forensic responsibilities while providing compassionate care, communicating the news of the death of a child in the acute setting, providing a closing ritual at the time of terminating resuscitation efforts, and managing the child with a terminal condition who presents near death in the ED. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Medical Observation Units and Emergency Department Collaboration: Improving Patient Throughput.

    PubMed

    Gabele, Danielle; Bugais, Charlene; Laguna, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify whether observation status patients placed in a dedicated unit would decompress the emergency department (ED) more than observation patients who were admitted to other available beds. An urban quaternary hospital has a high volume of patients with average daily census of 95% capacity. A medical observation unit (MOU) was created to improve patient throughput. In phase 1, the MOU charge nurse reviewed the ED patients to be admitted and selected appropriate patients based on unit inclusion criteria. In phase 2, the MOU charge nurse did rounds with the ED charge nurse once per shift. MOU observation patients demonstrated a 53-minute (16%) reduction in average overall ED length of stay compared with observation patients admitted to other units. Inclusion criteria, a rounding checklist, and engagement of MOU and ED nurses helped the MOU and ED with patient throughput.

  3. Death of a child in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Patricia J; Barata, Isabel A; Snow, Sally K

    2014-07-01

    The death of a child in the emergency department (ED) is one of the most challenging problems facing ED clinicians. This revised technical report and accompanying policy statement reaffirm principles of patient- and family-centered care. Recent literature is examined regarding family presence, termination of resuscitation, bereavement responsibilities of ED clinicians, support of child fatality review efforts, and other issues inherent in caring for the patient, family, and staff when a child dies in the ED. Appendices are provided that offer an approach to bereavement activities in the ED, carrying out forensic responsibilities while providing compassionate care, communicating the news of the death of a child in the acute setting, providing a closing ritual at the time of terminating resuscitation efforts, and managing the child with a terminal condition who presents near death in the ED.

  4. Emergency Department Use Among Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD).

    PubMed

    Vohra, Rini; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2016-04-01

    A cross-sectional analyses using Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (2006-2011) was conducted to examine the trends, type of ED visits, and mean total ED charges for adults aged 22-64 years with and without ASD (matched 1:3). Around 0.4% ED visits (n = 25,527) were associated with any ASD and rates of such visits more than doubled from 2006 to 2011 (2549-6087 per 100,000 admissions). Adults with ASD visited ED for: primary psychiatric disorder (15%ASD vs. 4.2%noASD), primary non-psychiatric disorder (16%ASD vs. 14%noASD), and any injury (24%ASD vs. 28%noASD). Mean total ED charges for adults with ASD were 2.3 times higher than for adults without ASD. Findings emphasize the need to examine the extent of frequent ED use in this population.

  5. Emergency Department Use among Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    PubMed Central

    Vohra, Rini; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional analyses using Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (2006-2011) was conducted to examine the trends, type of ED visits, and mean total ED charges for adults aged 22-64 years with and without ASD (matched 1:3). Around 0.4% ED visits (n = 25,527) were associated with any ASD and rates of such visits more than doubled from 2006 to 2011 (2,549 to 6,087 per 100,000 admissions). Adults with ASD visited ED for: primary psychiatric disorder (15%ASD vs. 4.2%noASD), primary non-psychiatric disorder (16%ASD vs. 14%noASD), and any injury (24%ASD vs. 28%noASD). Mean total ED charges for adults with ASD were 2.3 times higher than adults without ASD. Findings emphasize the need to examine the extent of frequent ED use in this population. PMID:26762115

  6. Death of a child in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Patricia; Barata, Isabel; Snow, Sally

    2014-07-01

    The death of a child in the emergency department (ED) is one of the most challenging problems facing ED clinicians. This revised technical report and accompanying policy statement reaffirm principles of patient- and family-centered care. Recent literature is examined regarding family presence, termination of resuscitation, bereavement responsibilities of ED clinicians, support of child fatality review efforts, and other issues inherent in caring for the patient, family, and staff when a child dies in the ED. Appendices are provided that offer an approach to bereavement activities in the ED, carrying out forensic responsibilities while providing compassionate care, communicating the news of the death of a child in the acute setting, providing a closing ritual at the time of terminating resuscitation efforts, and managing the child with a terminal condition who presents near death in the ED.

  7. Catatonia in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Jaimes-Albornoz, Walter; Serra-Mestres, Jordi

    2012-11-01

    Disturbances of the level of awareness are a frequent motive of attendance to emergency departments where the initial assessment and management will determine the direction of their outcome. The syndrome of catatonia must be taken into consideration and although it is normally associated with psychiatric diagnoses, it is also very often found in a great variety of neurological and medical conditions. Due to the clinical complexity of catatonia, there are still difficulties in its correct identification and initial management, something that leads to diagnostic delays and increased morbidity and mortality. In this article, a review of the literature on catatonia is presented with the aim of assisting emergency department doctors (and clinicians assessing patients in emergency situations) in considering this condition in the differential diagnosis of stupor due to its high frequency of association with organic pathology.

  8. Headache in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, L B; Huber, J C; Luna-Gonzales, H; Saldin, K R; Grotta, J C; Shaw, S G; Knudson, L; Frankowski, R F

    2001-06-01

    To perform an observational study of the demographics, clinical factors, and therapeutic efficacy in patients presenting to the emergency department with a chief complaint of headache. Acute headache presentations to the emergency department are a therapeutic dilemma for physicians. Patients presenting with nontraumatic headache to the emergency department of Hermann Hospital in Houston, Texas, during a 16-month period were prospectively ascertained by active and passive surveillance. The medical record was abstracted. Demographic and clinical information are presented with descriptive statistics. Relative benefit of individual therapies are compared with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals). Of the 38 730 patients who were prospectively screened, 455 presented with a chief complaint of headache. Seventy-six percent were women, and the mean age was 37 years. Non-Hispanic whites were more likely diagnosed with migraine compared with Hispanics or African Americans (P<.001). Three percent had subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurologist follow-up was ordered in 10%. The median time in the emergency department was 265 minutes. With the initial treatment, 44% resolved, 47% improved, and 9% had no change; none worsened. In comparison with all other therapies used, there was a trend suggesting the superiority of antiemetics (odds ratio, 2.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.81 to 8.61). Acetaminophen was less helpful (odds ratio, 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.10 to 0.70). When comparing specific agents to therapies which could be used at home, antiemetics led to headache resolution most often (odds ratio, 3.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.40 to 7.22); ketorolac showed a similar trend (odds ratio, 2.05; 95% confidence interval, 0.86 to 4.89). Headache in the emergency department is a phenomena of young women who spend a long time waiting and receive many tests. A variety of therapies are used. Antiemetics may be especially useful for headache resolution.

  9. Hurricane Andrew and a pediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Quinn, B; Baker, R; Pratt, J

    1994-04-01

    To determine the effect of Hurricane Andrew on a pediatric emergency department. A retrospective analysis of ED visits through the use of computerized records and chart review. A children's hospital in South Florida. All patients presenting to the ED during the control week and the two study weeks after the hurricane. Census, diagnoses, admission rate, and patient geographic origin and age. During week 1, there was an average daily increase of 40.7% in patient volume (P < .01) and a 3.3% decrease in the admission rate (P < .01). The increased census was due mainly to local patients, rather than those from the most devastated areas. More patients were seen with open wounds, gastroenteritis, and impetigo (all, P < .05); more were more than 18 years old (P < .05). By the second week, both census and admission rate returned to normal; cases of cellulitis (P < .05) and open wounds (P < .001) were increased. Although not statistically significant, a higher percentage of hydrocarbon and/or bleach ingestions was seen for both weeks. Following a hurricane, personnel in a pediatric ED can expect to see an increased census, with more diagnoses of open wounds, gastroenteritis, and skin infections. They may also see hydrocarbon and bleach ingestions. Alerting parents to the potential for injury and accidental poisoning in their children after a hurricane may help prevent the reported morbidity.

  10. Medication Reconciliation Practices in Canadian Emergency Departments: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wanbon, Richard; Lyder, Catherine; Villeneuve, Eric; Shalansky, Stephen; Manuel, Leslie; Harding, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: As of 2015, Accreditation Canada’s Qmentum program expects emergency departments (EDs) to initiate medication reconciliation for 2 groups of patients: (1) those with a decision to admit and (2) those without a decision to admit who meet the criteria of a risk-based, health care organization–defined selection process. Pharmacist-led best possible medication histories (BPMHs) obtained in the ED are considered more complete and accurate than BPMHs obtained by other ED providers, with pharmacy technicians obtaining BPMHs as effectively as do pharmacists. A current assessment of the role of pharmacy in BPMH processes in Canadian EDs is lacking. Objectives: To identify and describe BPMH and medication reconciliation practices in Canadian EDs, including those performed by members of the ED pharmacy team. Methods: All Canadian hospitals with an ED and at least 50 acute care beds were contacted to identify the presence of dedicated ED pharmacy services (defined as at least a 0.5 full-time equivalent position). Different electronic surveys were then distributed to ED pharmacy team members (where available) and ED managers (all hospitals). Results: Survey responses were obtained from 60 (63%) of 95 ED pharmacy teams and 128 (53%) of 243 ED managers. Only 38 (30%) of the 128 ED managers believed that their current BPMH processes were adequate to obtain a BPMH for all admissions. Fifty-nine (98%) of the ED pharmacy personnel reported obtaining BPMHs (most commonly 6–10 per day), with priority given to admitted patients. Only 14 (23%) of the 60 ED pharmacy teams reported that their EDs had adequate staffing to comply with Accreditation Canada’s requirements for obtaining BPMHs. This result is supported by the 104 (81%) out of 128 ED managers who reported that additional ED staffing would be needed to comply with the requirements. Numerous ED managers identified the need to expand ED pharmacy services and improve information technology support. Conclusions

  11. Medication Reconciliation Practices in Canadian Emergency Departments: A National Survey.

    PubMed

    Wanbon, Richard; Lyder, Catherine; Villeneuve, Eric; Shalansky, Stephen; Manuel, Leslie; Harding, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    As of 2015, Accreditation Canada's Qmentum program expects emergency departments (EDs) to initiate medication reconciliation for 2 groups of patients: (1) those with a decision to admit and (2) those without a decision to admit who meet the criteria of a risk-based, health care organization-defined selection process. Pharmacist-led best possible medication histories (BPMHs) obtained in the ED are considered more complete and accurate than BPMHs obtained by other ED providers, with pharmacy technicians obtaining BPMHs as effectively as do pharmacists. A current assessment of the role of pharmacy in BPMH processes in Canadian EDs is lacking. To identify and describe BPMH and medication reconciliation practices in Canadian EDs, including those performed by members of the ED pharmacy team. All Canadian hospitals with an ED and at least 50 acute care beds were contacted to identify the presence of dedicated ED pharmacy services (defined as at least a 0.5 full-time equivalent position). Different electronic surveys were then distributed to ED pharmacy team members (where available) and ED managers (all hospitals). Survey responses were obtained from 60 (63%) of 95 ED pharmacy teams and 128 (53%) of 243 ED managers. Only 38 (30%) of the 128 ED managers believed that their current BPMH processes were adequate to obtain a BPMH for all admissions. Fifty-nine (98%) of the ED pharmacy personnel reported obtaining BPMHs (most commonly 6-10 per day), with priority given to admitted patients. Only 14 (23%) of the 60 ED pharmacy teams reported that their EDs had adequate staffing to comply with Accreditation Canada's requirements for obtaining BPMHs. This result is supported by the 104 (81%) out of 128 ED managers who reported that additional ED staffing would be needed to comply with the requirements. Numerous ED managers identified the need to expand ED pharmacy services and improve information technology support. BPMH processes in Canadian EDs were variable and inadequately

  12. Emergency department utilization and subsequent prescription drug overdose death

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Joanne E.; DiMaggio, Charles J.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Doyle, John J.; Richardson, Lynne D.; Li, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Prescription drug overdose (PDO) deaths are a critical public health problem in the United States. This study aims to assess the association between emergency department (ED) utilization patterns in a cohort of ED patients and the risk of subsequent unintentional PDO mortality. Methods Using data from the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System for 2006–2010, a nested case-control design was used to examine the relationship between ED utilization patterns in New York State residents of age 18–64 years and subsequent PDO death. Results The study sample consisted of 2732 case patients who died of PDO and 2732 control ED patients who were selected through incidence density sampling. With adjustment for demographic characteristics, and diagnoses of pain, substance abuse, and psychiatric disorders, the estimated odds ratios of PDO death relative to one ED visit or less in the previous year were 4.90 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.50–5.34) for those with two ED visits, 16.61 (95% CI: 14.72–18.75) for those with three ED visits, and 48.24 (95% CI: 43.23–53.83) for those with four ED visits or more. Conclusions Frequency of ED visits is strongly associated with the risk of subsequent PDO death. Intervention programs targeting frequent ED users are warranted to reduce PDO mortality. PMID:25935710

  13. Health Information Technology Adoption in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Selck, Frederic W; Decker, Sandra L

    2016-02-01

    To describe the trend in health information technology (IT) systems adoption in hospital emergency departments (EDs) and its effect on ED efficiency and resource use. 2007-2010 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey - ED Component. We assessed changes in the percent of visits to EDs with health IT capability and the estimated effect on waiting time to see a provider, visit length, and resource use. The percent of ED visits that took place in an ED with at least a basic health IT or an advanced IT system increased from 25.2 and 3.1 percent in 2007 to 69.1 and 30.6 percent in 2010, respectively (p < .05). Controlling for ED fixed effects, waiting times were reduced by 6.0 minutes in advanced IT-equipped EDs (p < .05), and the number of tests ordered increased by 9 percent (p < .01). In models using a 1-year lag, advanced systems also showed an increase in the number of medications and images ordered per visit. Almost a third of visits now occur in EDs with advanced IT capability. While advanced IT adoption may decrease wait times, resource use during ED visits may also increase depending on how long the system has been in place. We were not able to determine if these changes indicated more appropriate care. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  14. Sickle cell disease patients' perceptions of emergency department pain management.

    PubMed

    Porter, Jerlym; Feinglass, Joe; Artz, Nicole; Hafner, John; Tanabe, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) experience painful crises that often require admission to the emergency department (ED) for pain management. Factors such as ED overcrowding and negative perception and stigmatization of SCD may impact patients' perceptions of the quality of pain management in the ED. Data from a multisite prospective cohort study was assessed to determine whether demographic (age and sex), clinical (time to administration of initial analgesia, number of analgesic doses, discharge disposition, and clinical site), or interpersonal factors (separately measured perceptions of being treated with trust and respect by ED triage nurses, nurses, and physicians) were associated with patient ratings of their pain management in the ED. Patients were adults with SCD seen at 3 EDs (2 urban and 1 rural). Demographic and clinical information was derived from medical record review; interpersonal and ED pain management ratings were derived from interviews conducted 1 week post ED visit. A total of 209 interviews by 98 patients were analyzed. Results indicated significant differences among the ED sites on the demographic, clinical, and interpersonal factors. Overall, patients reported being treated with trust and respect by ED clinicians. Adjusted logistic regression analyses indicated that ED clinical site 1 (odds ratio [OR], 10.42; 95% confidence interval [Cl], 1.44-7.36) and being treated with trust and respect by the ED physician (OR, 25.53; 95% CI, 2.07-314.96) predicted good ED pain management ratings. Interpersonal health care experiences may be an important indicator of patient satisfaction and quality of care received by patients with SCD in the ED.

  15. Competing Values of Emergency Department Performance: Balancing Multiple Stakeholder Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Tregunno, Deborah; Ross Baker, G; Barnsley, Jan; Murray, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Objective To describe the performance interests of multiple stakeholders associated with the management and delivery of emergency department (ED) care, and to develop a performance framework and set of indicators that reflect these interests. Study Setting Stakeholders (1,100 physicians, nurses, managers, home care providers, and prehospital care personnel) with responsibility for ED patients in hospitals in the Canadian province of Ontario. Study Design Sixty-two percent of stakeholders responded to a mail survey regarding the importance of 104 potential ED performance indicators. Descriptive and inferential statistics are used to explore the interests of each stakeholder group and to compare interests across the five groups. Principal Findings Emergency department stakeholders are primarily interested in indicators that focus on their role and capacity to provide care. Key differences exist between hospital and nonhospital stakeholders. Physicians mean ratings of the importance on ED performance measures were lower than mean ratings in the other stakeholder groups. Conclusions Emergency department performance interests are not homogeneous across stakeholder groups, and evaluating performance from the perspective of any one stakeholder group will result in unbalanced assessments. Community-based stakeholders, a group frequently excluded from commenting on ED performance, provide important insights into ED performance related to the external environment and the broader continuum of care. PMID:15230927

  16. Managing alcohol related aggression in the emergency department (Part II).

    PubMed

    Cork, Alison; Ferns, Terry

    2008-04-01

    Violence in the emergency department (ED) is a global problem. In our first paper, we highlighted the potential psychological effects of alcohol intoxication, the literatures discussion of alcohol related violence in the emergency department and the importance of developing positive nurse/service user relationships. In this second paper, we discuss personal and organisational strategies clinical nursing staff may consider appropriate to minimise the risk of assault when caring for service users projecting alcohol related aggression.

  17. National Differences in Regional Emergency Department Boarding Times: Are US Emergency Departments Prepared for a Public Health Emergency?

    PubMed

    Love, Jennifer S; Karp, David; Delgado, M Kit; Margolis, Gregg; Wiebe, Douglas J; Carr, Brendan G

    2016-08-01

    Boarding admitted patients decreases emergency department (ED) capacity to accommodate daily patient surge. Boarding in regional hospitals may decrease the ability to meet community needs during a public health emergency. This study examined differences in regional patient boarding times across the United States and in regions at risk for public health emergencies. A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was performed by using 2012 ED visit data from the American Hospital Association (AHA) database and 2012 hospital ED boarding data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Hospital Compare database. Hospitals were grouped into hospital referral regions (HRRs). The primary outcome was mean ED boarding time per HRR. Spatial hot spot analysis examined boarding time spatial clustering. A total of 3317 of 4671 (71%) hospitals were included in the study cohort. A total of 45 high-boarding-time HRRs clustered along the East/West coasts and 67 low-boarding-time HRRs clustered in the Midwest/Northern Plains regions. A total of 86% of HRRs at risk for a terrorist event had high boarding times and 36% of HRRs with frequent natural disasters had high boarding times. Urban, coastal areas have the longest boarding times and are clustered with other high-boarding-time HRRs. Longer boarding times suggest a heightened level of vulnerability and a need to enhance surge capacity because these regions have difficulty meeting daily emergency care demands and are at increased risk for disasters. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:576-582).

  18. Optimizing emergency department front-end operations.

    PubMed

    Wiler, Jennifer L; Gentle, Christopher; Halfpenny, James M; Heins, Alan; Mehrotra, Abhi; Mikhail, Michael G; Fite, Diana

    2010-02-01

    As administrators evaluate potential approaches to improve cost, quality, and throughput efficiencies in the emergency department (ED), "front-end" operations become an important area of focus. Interventions such as immediate bedding, bedside registration, advanced triage (triage-based care) protocols, physician/practitioner at triage, dedicated "fast track" service line, tracking systems and whiteboards, wireless communication devices, kiosk self check-in, and personal health record technology ("smart cards") have been offered as potential solutions to streamline the front-end processing of ED patients, which becomes crucial during periods of full capacity, crowding, and surges. Although each of these operational improvement strategies has been described in the lay literature, various reports exist in the academic literature about their effect on front-end operations. In this report, we present a review of the current body of academic literature, with the goal of identifying select high-impact front-end operational improvement solutions. Copyright (c) 2009 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Successful implementation of strategies to transform Emergency Department transfusion practice.

    PubMed

    Reed, Matthew J; Kelly, Sarah-Louise; Beckwith, Hannah; Innes, Catherine J; Manson, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Blood component transfusion is an important and lifesaving Emergency Department (ED) procedure. It is not however risk-free and careful consideration of its clinical benefit for each individual patient is therefore essential. In 2008, we audited the patterns of blood component usage in 2007 within our ED. This work revealed that whilst 3209 units of blood component were ordered only 39.5% were transfused, and 9.5% were unaccounted for. This was the first and only published detailed look at ED blood transfusion practices. We had to address our poor traceability (i.e. unaccounted for units), our high blood usage, and our ordering of units which were then not transfused as this can lead to wastage. Firstly, better links between the ED and the Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service (SNBTS) were established. A set of improvement measures were then implemented including better ED medical and nursing staff education, monthly traceability reports sent to the ED clinical management teams, the introduction of an ED transfusion guideline, moving our blood fridge into the resuscitation room, having a named ED transfusion consultant and ED transfusion link nurse, ED consultant representation on the Hospital Transfusion Group and finally increasing awareness of ED emergency transfusion with a rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) research programme. In 2012, we re-audited our practice looking at our blood component usage in 2011. There was a 64% reduction in blood component ordering (3209 vs. 1034 units), a 39% reduction in blood component transfusion (1131 vs. 687 units), a 68% increase in the proportion of ordered units that were transfused and a 96% reduction in unaccounted units (289 vs. 9 units) between 2007 and 2011. In attempting to cost the savings resulting from our changes we showed that SNBTS spent £306,437 less in 2011 compared to 2007 on handling and issuing ED transfusion requests. Our improvements are immediately generalizable across the UK and the potential

  20. Successful implementation of strategies to transform Emergency Department transfusion practice.

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Matthew J; Kelly, Sarah-Louise; Beckwith, Hannah; Innes, Catherine J; Manson, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Blood component transfusion is an important and lifesaving Emergency Department (ED) procedure. It is not however risk-free and careful consideration of its clinical benefit for each individual patient is therefore essential. In 2008, we audited the patterns of blood component usage in 2007 within our ED. This work revealed that whilst 3209 units of blood component were ordered only 39.5% were transfused, and 9.5% were unaccounted for. This was the first and only published detailed look at ED blood transfusion practices. We had to address our poor traceability (i.e. unaccounted for units), our high blood usage, and our ordering of units which were then not transfused as this can lead to wastage. Firstly, better links between the ED and the Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service (SNBTS) were established. A set of improvement measures were then implemented including better ED medical and nursing staff education, monthly traceability reports sent to the ED clinical management teams, the introduction of an ED transfusion guideline, moving our blood fridge into the resuscitation room, having a named ED transfusion consultant and ED transfusion link nurse, ED consultant representation on the Hospital Transfusion Group and finally increasing awareness of ED emergency transfusion with a rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) research programme. In 2012, we re-audited our practice looking at our blood component usage in 2011. There was a 64% reduction in blood component ordering (3209 vs. 1034 units), a 39% reduction in blood component transfusion (1131 vs. 687 units), a 68% increase in the proportion of ordered units that were transfused and a 96% reduction in unaccounted units (289 vs. 9 units) between 2007 and 2011. In attempting to cost the savings resulting from our changes we showed that SNBTS spent £306,437 less in 2011 compared to 2007 on handling and issuing ED transfusion requests. Our improvements are immediately generalizable across the UK and the potential

  1. Physician satisfaction and emergency department laboratory test turnaround time.

    PubMed

    Steindel, S J; Howanitz, P J

    2001-07-01

    To determine the length of time for the components of the emergency department (ED) turnaround time (TAT) study in 1998 and to ascertain physician satisfaction concerning laboratory services to the ED. Using forms supplied by the College of American Pathologists Q-Probes program, participants conducted a self-directed study of ED TAT over a 4-week period. Data requested included various times of day associated with the ordering, specimen collection, laboratory receipt, and result-reporting stages of stat ED TATs for potassium and hemoglobin. Additionally, practice-related questions associated with the laboratory were asked. Participating laboratories also provided a physician satisfaction survey for up to 4 physicians who were users of ED services. Results of both the TAT study and the physician satisfaction survey were returned by mail. Participants were drawn from the 952 hospital laboratories enrolled in the 1998 College of American Pathologists Q-Probes study on ED TAT. The main outcome measures included the components of the ED TAT process, factors associated with decreases in ED TAT, and the results of the physician satisfaction survey. Six hundred ninety hospital laboratories (72.4% response rate) returned data on up to 18 230 hemoglobin and 18 259 potassium specimens. Half of these laboratories responded that 90% of potassium tests were ordered and reported in 69 minutes or less, whereas the TAT for 90% of hemoglobin results was 55 minutes or less. Comparison of the components of TAT for both potassium and hemoglobin with similar studies done in 1990 and 1993 showed no change. Factors found to statistically contribute to faster TATs for both tests were laboratory control of specimen handling and rapid transport time. When whole blood specimens were used for potassium determination, TAT improved. Emergency department physicians chose the study-defined lower satisfaction categories of Often, Sometimes, Rarely, and Never for the questions concerning the

  2. Delirium in the older emergency department patient: a quiet epidemic.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin H; Wilson, Amanda; Ely, E Wesley

    2010-08-01

    Delirium is defined as an acute change in cognition that cannot be better accounted for by a preexisting or evolving dementia. This form of organ dysfunction commonly occurs in older patients in the emergency department (ED) and is associated with a multitude of adverse patient outcomes. Consequently, delirium should be routinely screened for in older ED patients. Once delirium is diagnosed, the ED evaluation should focus on searching for the underlying cause. Infection is one of the most common precipitants of delirium, but multiple causes may exist concurrently. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Geography and travel distance impact emergency department visits.

    PubMed

    Henneman, Philip L; Garb, Jane L; Capraro, Geoffrey A; Li, Haiping; Smithline, Howard A; Wait, Richard B

    2011-03-01

    Little has been written about the geographic basis of emergency department (ED) visits. The objective of this study is to describe the impact of geography on ED visits. A retrospective analysis was conducted of ED visits during a 1-year period at a single institution using spatial interaction analysis that models the pattern of flow between a series of origins (census block groups) and a destination (ED). Patients were assigned to census block groups based upon their verified home address. The study hospital is the only Level I trauma, pediatric, and tertiary referral center in the area. There are 11 other hospitals with EDs within a 40-mile radius. Each patient visit within this radius, including repeat visits, was included. Patients with an invalid home address, a post office box address, or those who lived outside a 40-mile radius were excluded. ED visits per 100 population were calculated for each census block group. There were 98,584 (95%) visits by 63,524 patients that met study inclusion criteria. Visit rates decreased with increasing distance from the ED (p < 0.0001). Nineteen percent of patients lived within 2 miles, 48% within 4 miles, and 92% within 12 miles of the ED. The Connecticut border, 7 miles south of the ED (p < 0.0001), the Connecticut River, 1 mile west of the ED (p < 0.0001), and the presence of a competing ED within 1 mile (p < 0.0001) negatively impacted block group ED visit rates. Travel distance was related to the percentage of visits that were high acuity (p < 0.0001), daytime (p < 0.01), or resulted in admission (p < 0.0001). Geography and travel distance significantly impact ED visits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Emergency department visits attributable to asthma in North Carolina, 2008.

    PubMed

    Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Travers, Debbie; Psek, Wayne; Weinberger, Morris; Yeatts, Karin; Liao, Winston; Lippmann, Steven J; Njord, Levi; Waller, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a prevalent, morbid, and costly chronic condition that may result in preventable exacerbations requiring emergency department (ED) care. In North Carolina we have limited information about the frequency and characteristics of asthma-related ED visits. We estimated statewide population-based asthma-related ED visit rates in North Carolina, both overall and by age, sex, geography, insurance, and season. There were 86,700 asthma-related ED visits in North Carolina in 2008, representing 2.1% of all ED visits in the state. Substantial geographic variation existed, with rates ranging from 1.3 visits per 1,000 population in Ashe County to 21.0 visits per 1,000 population in Pasquotank County. Rates by age, sex, and month were consistent with the findings of other studies. Of asthma ED visits, 4.8% were preceded by another asthma visit to the same ED within 14 days. The proportion of patients who made at least 1 additional asthma visit to the same ED within 365 days was 23.5%; 11.6% of asthma ED patients met at least 1 criterion for being at high risk of hospitalization or death. We lacked data on ED visits for asthma outside North Carolina, information about the accuracy of asthma diagnosis in the ED, patient identifiers that would allow linking across EDs, data on race or ethnicity, and data on urgent care utilization. We have characterized the burden of asthma in EDs across North Carolina, by county and among key subpopulations. These data can be used to target and evaluate local and statewide asthma-control policy efforts.

  5. Rate, characteristics, and factors associated with high emergency department utilization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with high emergency department (ED) utilization account for a disproportionate number of ED visits. The existing research on high ED utilization has raised doubts about the homogeneity of the frequent ED user. Attention to differences among the subgroups of frequent visitors (FV) and highly frequent visitors (HFV) is necessary in order to plan more effective interventions. In the Netherlands, the incidence of high ED utilization is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the well-documented international high ED utilization also exists in the Netherlands and if so, to characterize these patients. Therefore, we assessed the proportion of FV and HFV; compared age, sex, and visit outcomes between patients with high ED utilization and patients with single ED visits; and explored the factors associated with high ED utilization. Methods A 1-year retrospective descriptive correlational study was performed in two Dutch EDs, using thresholds of 7 to 17 visits for frequent ED use, and greater than or equal to 18 visits for highly frequent ED use. Results FV and HFV (together accounting for 0.5% of total ED patients) attended the ED 2,338 times (3.3% of the total number of ED visits). FV and HFV were equally likely to be male or female, were less likely to be self-referred, and they suffered from urgent complaints more often compared to patients with single visits. FV were significantly older than patients with single visits and more often admitted than patients with single visits. Several chief complaints were indicative for frequent and highly frequent ED use, such as shortness of breath and a psychiatric disorder. Conclusions Based on this study, high ED utilization in the Netherlands seems to be less a problem than outlined in international literature. No major differences were found between FV and HFV, they presented with the same, often serious, problems. Our study supports the notion that most patients with high ED utilization visit

  6. Emergency Department Utilization by Older Adults: a Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Lesley P.; Ackroyd-Stolarz, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    Background Emergency Departments (EDs) are playing an increasingly important role in the care of older adults. Characterizing ED usage will facilitate the planning for care delivery more suited to the complex health needs of this population. Methods In this retrospective cross-sectional study, administrative and clinical data were extracted from four study sites. Visits for patients aged 65 years or older were characterized using standard descriptive statistics. Results We analyzed 34,454 ED visits by older adults, accounting for 21.8% of the total ED visits for our study time period. Overall, 74.2% of patient visits were triaged as urgent or emergent. Almost half (49.8%) of visits involved diagnostic imaging, 62.1% involved lab work, and 30.8% involved consultation with hospital services. The most common ED diagnoses were symptom- or injury-related (25.0%, 17.1%. respectively). Length of stay increased with age group (Mann-Whitney U; p < .0001), as did the proportion of visits involving diagnostic testing and consultation (χ2; p < .0001). Approximately 20% of older adults in our study population were admitted to hospital following their ED visit. Conclusions Older adults have distinct patterns of ED use. ED resource use intensity increases with age. These patterns may be used to target future interventions involving alternative care for older adults. PMID:25452824

  7. Emergency Department Stay Associated Delirium in Older Patients*

    PubMed Central

    Émond, Marcel; Grenier, David; Morin, Jacques; Eagles, Debra; Boucher, Valérie; Le Sage, Natalie; Mercier, Éric; Voyer, Philippe; Lee, Jacques S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Caring for older patients can be challenging in the Emergency Department (ED). A > 12 hr ED stay could lead to incident episodes of delirium in those patients. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and impacts of ED-stay associated delirium. Methods A historical cohort of patients who presented to a Canadian ED in 2009 and 2011 was randomly constituted. Included patients were aged ≥ 65 years old, admitted to any hospital ward, non-delirious upon arrival and had at least a 12-hour ED stay. Delirium was detected using a modified chart-based Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) tool. Hospital length of stay (LOS) was log-transformed and linear regression assessed differences between groups. Adjustments were made for age and comorbidity profile. Results 200 records were reviewed, 55.5% were female, median age was 78.9 yrs (SD:7.3). 36(18%) patients experienced ED-stay associated delirium. Nearly 50% of episodes started in the ED and within 36 hours of arrival. Comorbidity profile was similar between the positive CAM group and the negative CAM group. Mean adjusted hospital LOS were 20.5 days and 11.9 days respectively (p<.03). Conclusions 1 older adult out of 5 became delirious after a 12 hr ED stay. Since delirium increases hospital LOS by more than a week, better screening and implementation of preventing measures for delirium could reduce LOS and overcrowding in the ED. PMID:28396704

  8. Quality measurement in the emergency department: past and future.

    PubMed

    Schuur, Jeremiah D; Hsia, Renee Y; Burstin, Helen; Schull, Michael J; Pines, Jesse M

    2013-12-01

    As the United States seeks to improve the value of health care, there is an urgent need to develop quality measurement for emergency departments (EDs). EDs provide 130 million patient visits per year and are involved in half of all hospital admissions. Efforts to measure ED quality are in their infancy, focusing on a small set of conditions and timeliness measures, such as waiting times and length-of-stay. We review the history of ED quality measurement, identify policy levers for implementing performance measures, and propose a measurement agenda. Initial priorities include measures of effective care for serious conditions that are commonly seen in EDs, such as trauma; measures of efficient use of resources, such as high-cost imaging and hospital admission; and measures of diagnostic accuracy. More research is needed to support the development of measures of care coordination and regionalization and the episode cost of ED care. Policy makers can advance quality improvement in ED care by asking ED researchers and organizations to accelerate the development of quality measures of ED care and incorporating the measures into programs that publicly report on quality of care and incentive-based payment systems.

  9. How Familiar are Clinician Teammates in the Emergency Department?

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, P. Daniel; Pfeiffer, Anthony J.; Lave, Judith R.; Weaver, Matthew D.; Abebe, Kaleab; Krackhardt, David; Arnold, Robert M.; Yealy, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Lack of familiarity between teammates is linked to worsened safety in high-risk settings. The Emergency Department (ED) is a high-risk health care setting where unfamiliar teams are created by diversity in clinician shift schedules and flexibility in clinician movement across the department. We sought to characterize familiarity between clinician teammates in one urban teaching hospital Emergency Department (ED) over a 22-week study period. Methods We used a retrospective study design of shift-scheduling data to calculate the mean weekly hours of familiarity between teammates at the dyadic level, and the proportion of clinicians with a minimum of 2-hours, 5-hours, 10-hours, and 20-hours of familiarity at any given hour during the study period. Results Mean weekly hours of familiarity between ED clinician dyads was 2 hours (SD 1.5). At any given hour over the study period, the proportion of clinicians with a minimum of 2, 5, 10, or 20-hours of familiarity was 80%, 51%, 27%, and 0.8%, respectively. Conclusions In our study, few clinicians could be described as having a high level of familiarity with teammates. The limited familiarity between ED clinicians identified in this study may be a natural feature of ED care delivery in academic settings. We provide a template for measurement of ED team familiarity. PMID:24351519

  10. Pediatric Ingestions: Emergency Department Management.

    PubMed

    Tarango Md, Stacy M; Liu Md, Deborah R

    2016-04-01

    Pediatric ingestions present a common challenge for emergency clinicians. Each year, more than 50,000 children aged less than 5 years present to emergency departments with concern for unintentional medication exposure, and nearly half of all calls to poison centers are for children aged less than 6 years. Ingestion of magnetic objects and button batteries has also become an increasing source of morbidity and mortality. Although fatal pediatric ingestions are rare, the prescription medications most responsible for injury and fatality in children include opioids, sedative/hypnotics, and cardiovascular drugs. Evidence regarding the evaluation and management of common pediatric ingestions is comprised largely of case reports and retrospective studies. This issue provides a review of these studies as well as consensus guidelines addressing the initial resuscitation, diagnosis, and treatment of common pediatric ingestions. Also discussed are current recommendations for decontamination, administration of antidotes for specific toxins, and management of ingested foreign bodies.

  11. Disparities in asthma hospitalizations among children seen in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Lakota K; Deshpande, Sandy; Vezina, Melissa

    2007-12-01

    We examined the race/ethnicity variation in the risk of hospitalization among children seen in the emergency department (ED) for asthma. ED and hospitalization records for children 1 to 19 years of age in New Jersey for 2004 and 2005 were linked. The dataset identified 47,548 ED and hospitalizations among 37,216 children. ED and hospitalization rates indicated persistent disparities in pediatric asthma. ED admission rates were similar across race/ethnic groups, suggesting similar management of pediatric asthma patients once they are seen in the ED. Integrating existing ED and hospitalization records will enhance asthma surveillance and the targeting of interventions to reduce race/ethnicity disparities.

  12. Anorectal examination in emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Summers, Anthony

    2013-04-01

    Many patients present to emergency departments with anorectal problems, such as haemorrhoids, anal fissure and pruritis ani. Often, patients with such problems are embarrassed about them or fearful about their potential diagnoses, so practitioners must approach history taking and examination sensitively. They should also have a good understanding of the anatomy of the anorectal area, and be able to recognise the signs and symptoms of relevant conditions. This article provides an overview of the anatomy and physiology of the anorectal area, explains how to undertake anorectal examinations, and describes the signs and symptoms of some common conditions.

  13. Epidemiology of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Utilization in Four Indian Emergency Departments.

    PubMed

    Wijesekera, Olindi; Reed, Amanda; Chastain, Parker S; Biggs, Shauna; Clark, Elizabeth G; Kole, Tamorish; Chakrapani, Anoop T; Ashish, Nandy; Rajhans, Prasad; Breaud, Alan H; Jacquet, Gabrielle A

    2016-12-01

    Introduction Without a universal Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system in India, data on the epidemiology of patients who utilize EMS are limited. This retrospective chart review aimed to quantify and describe the burden of disease and patient demographics of patients who arrived by EMS to four Indian emergency departments (EDs) in order to inform a national EMS curriculum.

  14. Effect of a brief emergency medicine education course on emergency department work intensity of family physicians.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt, Samuel; Schultz, Susan E; Leaver, Chad; Stukel, Thérèse A; Schull, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Recently, many Canadian emergency departments (EDs) have struggled with physician staffing shortages. In 2006, the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care funded a brief "emergency medicine primer" (EMP) course for family physicians to upgrade or refresh skills, with the goal of increasing their ED work intensity. We sought to determine the effect of the EMP on the ED work intensity of family physicians. A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted of the ED work of 239 family physicians in the 2 years before and after a minimum of 6 months and up to 2 years from completing an EMP course in 2006 to 2008 compared to non-EMP physicians. ED work intensity was defined as the number of ED shifts per month and the number of ED patients seen per month. We conducted two analyses: a before and after comparison of all EMP physicians and a matched cohort analysis matching each EMP physician to four non-EMP physicians on sex, year of medical school graduation, rurality, and pre-EMP ED work intensity. Postcourse, EMP physicians worked 0.5 more ED shifts per month (13% increase, p  =  0.027). Compared to their matched controls, EMP physicians worked 0.7 more shifts per month (13% increase, p  =  0.0032) and saw 15 more patients per month (17% increase, p  =  0.0008) compared to matched non-EMP physicians. The greatest increases were among EMP physicians who were younger, were urban, had previous ED experience, or worked in a high-volume ED. The effect of the EMP course was negligible for physicians with no previous ED experience or working in rural areas. The EMP course is associated with modest increases in ED work intensity among some family physicians, in particular younger physicians in urban areas. No increase was seen among physicians without previous ED experience or working in rural areas.

  15. The Effect of Utilization Review on Emergency Department Operations.

    PubMed

    Desai, Shoma; Gruber, Phillip F; Eiting, Erick; Seabury, Seth A; Mack, Wendy J; Voyageur, Christian; Vasquez, Veronica; Kim, Hyung T; Terp, Sophie

    2017-05-27

    Increasingly, hospitals are using utilization review software to reduce hospital admissions in an effort to contain costs. Such practices have the potential to increase the number of unsafe discharges, particularly in public safety-net hospitals. Utilization review software tools are not well studied with regard to their effect on emergency department (ED) operations. We study the effect of prospectively used admission decision support on ED operations. In 2012, Los Angeles County + University of Southern California Medical Center implemented prospective use of computerized admission criteria. After implementation, only ED patients meeting primary review (diagnosis-based criteria) or secondary review (medical necessity as determined by an on-site emergency physician) were assigned inpatient beds. Data were extracted from electronic medical records from September 2011 through December 2013. Outcomes included operational metrics, 30-day ED revisits, and 30-day admission rates. Excluding a 6-month implementation period, monthly summary metrics were compared pre- and postimplementation with nonparametric and negative binomial regression methods. All adult ED visits, excluding incarcerated and purely behavioral health visits, were analyzed. The primary outcomes were disposition rates. Secondary outcomes were 30-day ED revisits, 30-day admission rate among return visitors to the ED, and estimated cost. Analysis of 245,662 ED encounters was performed. The inpatient admission rate decreased from 14.2% to 12.8%. Increases in discharge rate (82.4% to 83.4%) and ED observation unit utilization (2.5% to 3.4%) were found. Thirty-day revisits increased (20.4% to 24.4%), although the 30-day admission rate decreased (3.2% to 2.8%). Estimated cost savings totaled $193.17 per ED visit. The prospective application of utilization review software in the ED led to a decrease in the admission rate. This was tempered by a concomitant increase in ED observation unit utilization and 30-day

  16. Rural-Urban Disparities in Child Abuse Management Resources in the Emergency Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Esther K.; Spiro, David M.; Lowe, Robert A.; Newgard, Craig D.; Hall, Michael Kennedy; McConnell, Kenneth John

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize differences in child abuse management resources between urban and rural emergency departments (EDs). Methods: We surveyed ED directors and nurse managers at hospitals in Oregon to gain information about available abuse-related resources. Chi-square analysis was used to test differences between urban and rural EDs.…

  17. Rural-Urban Disparities in Child Abuse Management Resources in the Emergency Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Esther K.; Spiro, David M.; Lowe, Robert A.; Newgard, Craig D.; Hall, Michael Kennedy; McConnell, Kenneth John

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize differences in child abuse management resources between urban and rural emergency departments (EDs). Methods: We surveyed ED directors and nurse managers at hospitals in Oregon to gain information about available abuse-related resources. Chi-square analysis was used to test differences between urban and rural EDs.…

  18. Emergency Department Use by Nursing Home Residents: Effect of Severity of Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Caroline E.; Newcomer, Robert; Blegen, Mary; Miller, Bruce; Harrington, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the 1-year prevalence and risk of emergency department (ED) use and ambulatory care-sensitive (ACS) ED use by nursing home (NH) residents with different levels of severity of cognitive impairment (CI). Design and Methods: We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate the effect of CI severity on the odds of any ED visit…

  19. Opening School-Based Health Centers in a Rural Setting: Effects on Emergency Department Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Katherine E.; Monie, Daphne; Scribani, Melissa B.; Krupa, Nicole L.; Jenkins, Paul; Leinhart, August; Kjolhede, Chris L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of urban school-based health centers (SBHCs) have shown that SBHCs decrease emergency department (ED) utilization. This study seeks to evaluate the effect of SBHCs on ED utilization in a rural setting. Methods: This retrospective, controlled, quasi-experimental study used an ED patient data set from the Bassett…

  20. Opening School-Based Health Centers in a Rural Setting: Effects on Emergency Department Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Katherine E.; Monie, Daphne; Scribani, Melissa B.; Krupa, Nicole L.; Jenkins, Paul; Leinhart, August; Kjolhede, Chris L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of urban school-based health centers (SBHCs) have shown that SBHCs decrease emergency department (ED) utilization. This study seeks to evaluate the effect of SBHCs on ED utilization in a rural setting. Methods: This retrospective, controlled, quasi-experimental study used an ED patient data set from the Bassett…

  1. Emergency Department Use by Nursing Home Residents: Effect of Severity of Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Caroline E.; Newcomer, Robert; Blegen, Mary; Miller, Bruce; Harrington, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the 1-year prevalence and risk of emergency department (ED) use and ambulatory care-sensitive (ACS) ED use by nursing home (NH) residents with different levels of severity of cognitive impairment (CI). Design and Methods: We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate the effect of CI severity on the odds of any ED visit…

  2. Should diagnosis codes from emergency department data be used for case selection for emergency department key performance indicators?

    PubMed

    Howell, Stuart C; Wills, Rachael A; Johnston, Trisha C

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the suitability of emergency department (ED) discharge diagnosis for identifying patient cohorts included in the definitions of key performance indicators (KPIs) that are used to evaluate ED performance. Hospital inpatient episodes of care with a principal diagnosis that corresponded to an ED-defined KPI were extracted from the Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection (QHAPDC) for the year 2010-2011. The data were then linked to the corresponding ED patient record and the diagnoses applied in the two settings were compared. The asthma and injury cohorts produced favourable results with respect to matching the QHAPDC principal diagnosis with the ED discharge diagnosis. The results were generally modest when the QHAPDC principal diagnosis was upper respiratory tract infection, poisoning and toxic effects or a mental health diagnosis, and were quite poor for influenza. There is substantial variation in the capture of patient cohorts using discharge diagnosis as recorded on Queensland Hospital Emergency Department data. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? There are several existing KPIs that are defined according to the diagnosis recorded on ED data collections. However, there have been concerns over the quality of ED diagnosis in Queensland and other jurisdictions, and the value of these data in identifying patient cohorts for the purpose of assessing ED performance remains uncertain. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? This paper identifies diagnosis codes that are suitable for use in capturing the patient cohorts that are used to evaluate ED performance, as well as those codes that may be of limited value. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS? The limitations of diagnosis codes within ED data should be understood by those seeking to use these data items for healthcare planning and management or for research into healthcare quality and outcomes.

  3. A Systematic Review of Emergency Department Use Among Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lash, Rebecca S.; Bell, Janice F.; Reed, Sarah C.; Poghosyan, Hermine; Rodgers, James; Kim, Katherine K.; Bold, Richard J.; Joseph, Jill G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent reports call for reductions in costly and potentially avoidable services such as emergency department (ED) visits. Providing high-quality and safe care for oncology patients remains challenging for ED providers given the diversity of patients seeking care and the unpredictable clinical environment. While ED use by oncology patients is appropriate for acute health concerns, some ED visits may be preventable with well-coordinated care and adequate symptom management. Objective The aim of this study was to summarize available evidence regarding the incidence, predictors of, and reasons for ED visits among oncology patients. Methods Keyword/MeSH term searches were conducted using 4 online databases. Inclusion criteria were publication date between April 1, 2003, and December 5, 2014; sample size of 50 or more; and report of the incidence or predictors of ED use among oncology patients. Results The 15 studies that met criteria varied in study aim, design, and time frames for calculating ED utilization rates. The incidence of ED visits among oncology patients ranged from 1% to 83%. The 30-day standardized visit rate incidence ranged from 1% to 12%. Collectively, the studies lack population-based estimates for all cancers combined. Conclusions The studies included in this review suggest that rates of ED use among cancer patients exceed those of the general population. However, the extent of ED use by oncology patients and the reasons for ED visits remain understudied. Implications for Practice Nurses are involved in the treatment of cancer, patient education, and symptom management. Nurses are well positioned to develop patient-centered treatment and care coordination plans to improve quality of care and reduce ED visits. PMID:26925998

  4. Cost analysis of emergency department.

    PubMed

    Cremonesi, P; Di Bella, E; Montefiori, M

    2010-12-01

    This paper is intended to examine both clinical and economic data concerning the activity of an emergency department of an Italian primary Hospital. Real data referring to arrivals, waiting times, service times, severity (according to triage classification) of patients' condition collected along the whole 2009 are matched up with the relevant accounting and economic information concerning the costs faced. A new methodological approach is implemented in order to identify a "standard production cost" and its variability. We believe that this kind of analysis well fits the federalizing process that Italy is experiencing. In fact the federal reform is driving our Country toward a decentralized provision and funding of local public services. The health care services are "fundamental" under the provisions of the law that in turn implies that a standard cost has to be defined for its funding. The standard cost (as it is defined by the law) relies on the concepts of appropriateness and efficiency in the production of the health care service, assuming a standard quality level as target. The identification and measurement of health care costs is therefore a crucial task propaedeutic to health services economic evaluation. Various guidelines with different amount of details have been set up for costing methods which, however, are defined in simplified frameworks and using fictious data. This study is a first attempt to proceed in the direction of a precise definition of the costs inherent to the emergency department activity.

  5. The prehospital and hospital costs of emergency care for frequent ED patients.

    PubMed

    Solberg, Robert G; Edwards, Brandy L; Chidester, Jeffrey P; Perina, Debra G; Brady, William J; Williams, Michael D

    2016-03-01

    Frequent emergency department (ED) use has been identified as a cause of ED overcrowding and increasing health care costs. Studies have examined the expense of frequent patients (FPs) to hospitals but have not added the cost Emergency Medical Services (EMS) to estimate the total cost of this pattern of care. Data on 2012 ED visits to a rural Level I Trauma Center and public safety net hospital were collected through a deidentified patient database. Transport data and 2012 Medicare Reimbursement Schedules were used to estimate the cost of EMS transport. Health information, outcomes, and costs were compared to find differences between the FP and non-FP group. This study identified 1242 FPs who visited the ED 5 or more times in 2012. Frequent patients comprised 3.25% of ED patients but accounted for 17% of ED visits and 13.7% of hospital costs. Frequent patients had higher rates of chronic disease, severity scores, and mortality. Frequent patients arrived more often via ambulance and accounted for 32% of total transports at an estimated cost of $2.5-$3.2 million. Hospital costs attributable to FPs were $29.1 million, bringing the total cost of emergency care to $31.6-$32.3 million, approximately $25,000 per patient. This study demonstrates that the inclusion of a prehospital cost estimate adds approximately 10% to the cost of care for the FP population. In addition to improving care for a sick population of patients, programs that reduce frequent EMS and ED use have the potential to produce a favorable cost benefit to communities and health systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Collegiate-Based Emergency Medical Service: Impact on Alcohol-Related Emergency Department Transports at a Small Liberal Arts College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Joshua B.; Olson, Mark H.; Kelly, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the impact of a collegiate-based emergency medical service (CBEMS) on the frequency of emergency department (ED) transports. Participants: Students transported to the ED for acute alcohol intoxication during the Fall 2008 and the Fall 2009 semesters (N = 50). Methods: The frequency of students receiving…

  7. Childhood injuries seen at an emergency department.

    PubMed

    Rehmani, Rifat

    2008-03-01

    To determine the relative frequency and pattern of injuries in children less than 15 years of age. We conducted a retrospective study of all children aged 15 and below seen with injuries and poisoning in an Emergency Department (ED) during 2000 and 2001, and reviewed their records. Patterns of injury among all children were examined by location of occurrence, circumstances, anatomy and mechanism of injury, injury type, and patient disposition. Atotal of 1412 children were seen in an ED with injuries and poisoning, with a mean of 7.5 +/- 3.2 years. Boys experienced significantly higher rates than girls. Most injuries occurred at home. Playing was the leading context of injury in both genders. The most common mechanisms of injury were falls (44.5%), road traffic injuries (14.0%), and foreign body ingestion/ inhalations (10%). In children up to the age of 5, head and face, while in older children, extremities were more frequently involved. Eighty seven patients (6.2%) were admitted to the hospital, and six patients died (0.42%). A large proportion of falls, along with low proportion of road traffic injuries and foreign body ingestion/ inhalations, is characteristics of childhood injury profile in our country.

  8. Occupational Burns Treated in Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Reichard, Audrey A.; Konda, Srinivas; Jackson, Larry L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite reported declines, occupational burn injuries remain a workplace safety concern. More severe burns may result in costly medical treatment and long-term physical and psychological consequences. Methods We used the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System—Occupational Supplement to produce national estimates of burns treated in emergency departments (EDs). We analyzed data trends from 1999 to 2008 and provided detailed descriptions of 2008 data. Results From 1999 to 2008 there were 1,132,000 (95% CI: ±192,300) nonfatal occupational burns treated in EDs. Burn numbers and rates declined approximately 40% over the 10 years. In 2008, men and younger workers 15–24 years old had the highest rates. Scalds and thermal burns accounted for more than 60% of burns. Accommodation and food service, manufacturing, and construction industries had the largest number of burns. Conclusions Despite declining burn rates, emphasis is needed on reducing burn hazards to young food service workers and using job specific hazard analyses to prevent burns. PMID:25678457

  9. Occupational burns treated in emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Reichard, Audrey A; Konda, Srinivas; Jackson, Larry L

    2015-03-01

    Despite reported declines, occupational burn injuries remain a workplace safety concern. More severe burns may result in costly medical treatment and long-term physical and psychological consequences. We used the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-Occupational Supplement to produce national estimates of burns treated in emergency departments (EDs). We analyzed data trends from 1999 to 2008 and provided detailed descriptions of 2008 data. From 1999 to 2008 there were 1,132,000 (95% CI: ±192,300) nonfatal occupational burns treated in EDs. Burn numbers and rates declined approximately 40% over the 10 years. In 2008, men and younger workers 15-24 years old had the highest rates. Scalds and thermal burns accounted for more than 60% of burns. Accommodation and food service, manufacturing, and construction industries had the largest number of burns. Despite declining burn rates, emphasis is needed on reducing burn hazards to young food service workers and using job specific hazard analyses to prevent burns. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A "Patch" to the NYU Emergency Department Visit Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Kenton J; Allen, Lindsay; Melanson, Taylor A; Pitts, Stephen R

    2017-08-01

    To document erosion in the New York University Emergency Department (ED) visit algorithm's capability to classify ED visits and to provide a "patch" to the algorithm. The Nationwide Emergency Department Sample. We used bivariate models to assess whether the percentage of visits unclassifiable by the algorithm increased due to annual changes to ICD-9 diagnosis codes. We updated the algorithm with ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes added since 2001. The percentage of unclassifiable visits increased from 11.2 percent in 2006 to 15.5 percent in 2012 (p < .01), because of new diagnosis codes. Our update improves the classification rate by 43 percent in 2012 (p < .01). Our patch significantly improves the precision and usefulness of the most commonly used ED visit classification system in health services research. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  11. Time series modelling and forecasting of emergency department overcrowding.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Farid; Harrou, Fouzi; Chaabane, Sondès; Tahon, Christian

    2014-09-01

    Efficient management of patient flow (demand) in emergency departments (EDs) has become an urgent issue for many hospital administrations. Today, more and more attention is being paid to hospital management systems to optimally manage patient flow and to improve management strategies, efficiency and safety in such establishments. To this end, EDs require significant human and material resources, but unfortunately these are limited. Within such a framework, the ability to accurately forecast demand in emergency departments has considerable implications for hospitals to improve resource allocation and strategic planning. The aim of this study was to develop models for forecasting daily attendances at the hospital emergency department in Lille, France. The study demonstrates how time-series analysis can be used to forecast, at least in the short term, demand for emergency services in a hospital emergency department. The forecasts were based on daily patient attendances at the paediatric emergency department in Lille regional hospital centre, France, from January 2012 to December 2012. An autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) method was applied separately to each of the two GEMSA categories and total patient attendances. Time-series analysis was shown to provide a useful, readily available tool for forecasting emergency department demand.

  12. Impact of Resident Physicians on Emergency Department Throughput

    PubMed Central

    McGarry, Jonathon; Krall, Scott P.; McLaughlin, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate the impact of adding emergency medicine residents to a medium-size urban hospital by comparing emergency department (ED) admission rate, total census, length of stay (LOS), and proportion of patients who left without being seen (LWBS). Methods: Using the student t-test, the study compared commonly used ED metrics for a mid-sized urban hospital (annual census 43,000) for the four-month period prior to (March-June 2006) and after (March-June 2007) residents began providing 24-hour coverage at the institution. Results: There was no significant difference in the number of patients seen (NPS) in the two time periods, 14,471 and 14,699 patients respectively (p=0.507). Analysis of the NPS and LWBS was not statistically significant. The percentage of patients who LWBS decreased with the presence of residents (6.5% to 5.8%, p=0.531), and the overall ED LOS was similar (210 min vs. 219 min, p=0.56). Admission rate data demonstrated that residents had a similar admission rate (17.5% vs. 18%, p =0.332). Conclusion: ED flow depends on a number of variables with complex interactions. When comparing two similar time periods in consecutive years, the presence of resident physicians in the ED had no effect on the number of patients seen, patient LOS in the ED, or LWBS, thus supporting the conclusion that residents did not adversely affect the patient flow within the ED. PMID:21079704

  13. Current status of computed radiography in emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Huda, W; Smith, D A; Staab, E V

    1997-11-01

    This study reports the findings of a computed radiography (CR) imaging experience questionnaire sent to 35 emergency departments (ED) in North America. A total of 25 responses to the questionnaire were received corresponding to a return rate of 71%. The median daily workload was 71 patient examinations and the average number of films per patient examination for the 21 facilities was 3.0 +/- 0.8. A total of 91% of respondents printed to film all ED trauma images obtained with CR with only one ED claiming to be filmless. CR in the ED was easy to use and had significant benefits of reducing examination repeat rates, permitting a prompt availability of radiographic images, improving image quality, providing improved operational efficiency, and eliminating lost films. Major limitations of CR were deemed to be limited viewing stations, CR costs, and inefficient patient ID entry. Radiology departments were very happy with the introduction of CR into the ED setting with approximately half being highly satisfied and half somewhat satisfied. The degree of satisfaction by ED personnel was similar with about half being highly satisfied, 40% somewhat satisfied, and the remainder neutral. The fact that not a single respondent was in any way dissatisfied shows that CR can play a useful role in the ED setting.

  14. Evaluating the Relationship between Productivity and Quality in Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Bastian, Nathaniel D.; Riordan, John P.

    2017-01-01

    Background In the United States, emergency departments (EDs) are constantly pressured to improve operational efficiency and quality in order to gain financial benefits and maintain a positive reputation. Objectives The first objective is to evaluate how efficiently EDs transform their input resources into quality outputs. The second objective is to investigate the relationship between the efficiency and quality performance of EDs and the factors affecting this relationship. Methods Using two data sources, we develop a data envelopment analysis (DEA) model to evaluate the relative efficiency of EDs. Based on the DEA result, we performed multinomial logistic regression to investigate the relationship between ED efficiency and quality performance. Results The DEA results indicated that the main source of inefficiencies was working hours of technicians. The multinomial logistic regression result indicated that the number of electrocardiograms and X-ray procedures conducted in the ED and the length of stay were significantly associated with the trade-offs between relative efficiency and quality. Structural ED characteristics did not influence the relationship between efficiency and quality. Conclusions Depending on the structural and operational characteristics of EDs, different factors can affect the relationship between efficiency and quality.

  15. Frequency and nature of reported incidents during Emergency Department care.

    PubMed

    Considine, Julie; Mitchell, Belinda; Stergiou, Helen E

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine reported incidents affecting Emergency Department (ED) episodes of care. A retrospective audit of ED patients was carried out in an urban district hospital in Melbourne, Australia from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2008. The main outcome measure was presence or absence of reported patient-related incident(s) during ED care. There were 984 patient-related incidents (n=984) during 2008.The most common incidents were related to patient behaviour (66.4%), patient management (10.1%) and medications (6.5%). Patients whose ED care involved reported incident(s) were older, had higher triage categories, longer length of ED stay and were more likely to need hospital admission or leave at their own risk. Eighteen per cent of reported incidents occurred in patients aged 65 years and over. Incidents affecting older patients were more likely to be related to breach of skin integrity, patient management, diagnosis and patient identification, and less likely to involve patient behaviour. Reported incident(s) occurred in 0.47% of ED episodes of care. Differences in personal and clinical characteristics of patients whose ED care involved reported incident(s) highlights the need for better understanding of incidents occurring in the ED in order to improve systems for high-risk patients.

  16. A national assessment of pediatric readiness of emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Gausche-Hill, Marianne; Ely, Michael; Schmuhl, Patricia; Telford, Russell; Remick, Katherine E; Edgerton, Elizabeth A; Olson, Lenora M

    2015-06-01

    Previous assessments of readiness of emergency departments (EDs) have not been comprehensive and have shown relatively poor pediatric readiness, with a reported weighted pediatric readiness score (WPRS) of 55. To assess US EDs for pediatric readiness based on compliance with the 2009 guidelines for care of children in EDs; to evaluate the effect of physician/nurse pediatric emergency care coordinators (PECCs) on pediatric readiness; and to identify gaps for future quality initiatives by a national coalition. Web-based assessment of US EDs (excluding specialty hospitals and hospitals without an ED open 24 hours per day, 7 days per week) for pediatric readiness. All 5017 ED nurse managers were sent a 55-question web-based assessment. Assessments were administered from January 1 through August 23, 2013. Data were analyzed from September 12, 2013, through January 11, 2015. A modified Delphi process generated a WPRS. An adjusted WPRS was calculated excluding the points received for the presence of physician and nurse PECCs. Of the 5017 EDs contacted, 4149 (82.7%) responded, representing 24 million annual pediatric ED visits. Among the EDs entered in the analysis, 69.4% had low or medium pediatric volume and treated less than 14 children per day. The median WPRS was 68.9 (interquartile range [IQR] 56.1-83.6). The median WPRS increased by pediatric patient volume, from 61.4 (IQR, 49.5-73.6) for low-pediatric-volume EDs compared with 89.8 (IQR, 74.7-97.2) for high-pediatric-volume EDs (P < .001). The median percentage of recommended pediatric equipment available was 91% (IQR, 81%-98%). The presence of physician and nurse PECCs was associated with a higher adjusted median WPRS (82.2 [IQR, 69.7-92.5]) compared with no PECC (66.5 [IQR, 56.0-76.9]) across all pediatric volume categories (P < .001). The presence of PECCs increased the likelihood of having all the recommended components, including a pediatric quality improvement process (adjusted relative risk, 4.11 [95% CI, 3

  17. Nonemergent Patients in the Emergency Department: An Ethnographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Mirhaghi, Amir; Heydari, Abbas; Ebrahimi, Mohsen; Noghani Dokht Bahmani, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Background Triage in the interactive atmosphere of the emergency department (ED) has been described as complex and challenging. Nonemergent ED visits have been accompanied by ethical and legal conflicts. Objectives The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of ED nurses’ practice regarding triage of nonemergent patients. Patients and Methods Focused micro-ethnography based on Spradley’s developmental research sequence (DRS) was used. This study was conducted in an emergency department. Data was collected through complete participant observations along with formal and informal interviews, and then analyzed using DRS. Results Nine key informants were interviewed formally. Four main categories emerged from the nurses’ culture: nonemergent patient as an uninvited guest, nonemergent patient as an elephant in a dark room, nonemergent patient as an aggressive client, and being nonemergency unless at risk of death. Conclusions Providing care in the emergency department is significantly affected by nonemergent patients, as the emergency department is a place for critically ill patients thus awareness training program is recommended. PMID:28180119

  18. Managing hypopituitarism in emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Jeanette

    2015-10-01

    Healthcare professionals manage patients with a vast range of conditions, but often specialise and acquire expertise in specific disease processes. Emergency and pre-hospital clinicians care for patients with various conditions for short periods of time, so have less opportunity to become familiar with more unusual conditions, yet it is vital that they have some knowledge and understanding of these. Patients with rare conditions can present at emergency departments with common complaints, but the effect of their original diagnosis on the presenting complaint may be overlooked or underestimated. This article uses a case study to describe the experience of one patient who presented with vomiting, but who also had hypopituitarism and therefore required specific management she did not at first receive. The article describes hypopituitarism and the initial management of patients with this condition who become unwell, and discusses how the trust responded to the patient's complaint to improve patient safety and care. It has been written with the full participation and consent of the patient and her husband.

  19. Appropriate use of red blood cell transfusion in emergency departments: a study in five emergency departments

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Manuel Quintana; Borobia, Alberto M.; García Erce, José A.; Maroun-Eid, Charbel; Fabra, Sara; Carcas, Antonio; Frías, Jesus; Muñoz, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Background Transfusion of blood components continues to be an important therapeutic resource into the 21st century. Between 5 and 58% of transfusions carried out are estimated to be unnecessary. According to several studies, at least 20% of packed red blood cell transfusions (RBCT) are administered in hospital emergency departments (ED), but few data are available about the appropriateness of RBCT in this setting. This multicentre, cross-sectional observational study aims to assess the appropriateness of RBCT indications and transfused volumes in patients who attend ED. Materials and methods The study cohort is made up of consecutive consenting adult patients (≥18 years old) who received RBCT in ED over a 3-month period and for whom relevant clinical data were collected and analysed. Results Data from 908 RBCT episodes (2±1 units per transfused patient) were analysed. RBCT was considered appropriate in 21.4% (n=195), with significant differences according to RBCT indication (p<0.001), hospital level (p<0.001) and prescribing physician (p=0.002). Pre-transfusion haemoglobin level (Hb) negatively correlated with RBCT appropriateness (r=–0.616; p<0.01). Only 72.4% of appropriate RBCT had a post-transfusion Hb assessment (n=516). Of these, 45% were considered to be over-transfused (n=232), with significant differences according to RBCT indication (p=0.012) and prescribing physician (p=0.047). Overall, 584/1,433 (41%) of evaluable RBC units were unnecessarily transfused. Discussion The appropriateness of RBCT in ED is similar to other hospital departments, but the rate of over-transfusion was high. These data support the need for a reassessment after transfusion of each RBC unit before further units are prescribed. In view of these results, we recommend that physicians should be made more aware of the need to prescribe RBCT appropriately in order to reduce over-transfusion. PMID:27416566

  20. Emergency department crowding in The Netherlands: managers’ experiences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In The Netherlands, the state of emergency department (ED) crowding is unknown. Anecdotal evidence suggests that current ED patients experience a longer length of stay (LOS) compared to some years ago, which is indicative of ED crowding. However, no multicenter studies have been performed to quantify LOS and assess crowding at Dutch EDs. We performed this study to describe the current state of emergency departments in The Netherlands regarding patients’ length of stay and ED nurse managers’ experiences of crowding. Methods A survey was sent to all 94 ED nurse managers in The Netherlands with questions regarding the type of facility, annual ED census, and patients’ LOS. Additional questions included whether crowding was ever a problem at the particular ED, how often it occurred, which time periods had the worst episodes of crowding, and what measures the particular ED had undertaken to improve patient flow. Results Surveys were collected from 63 EDs (67%). Mean annual ED visits were 24,936 (SD ± 9,840); mean LOS for discharged patients was 119 (SD ± 40) min and mean LOS for admitted patients 146 (SD ± 49) min. Consultation delays, laboratory and radiology delays, and hospital bed shortages for patients needing admission were the most cited reasons for crowding. Admitted patients had a longer LOS because of delays in obtaining inpatient beds. Thirty-nine of 57 respondents (68%) reported that crowding occurred several times a week or even daily, mostly between 12:00 and 20:00. Measures taken by hospitals to manage crowding included placing patients in hallways and using fasttrack with treatment of patients by trained nurse practitioners. Conclusions Despite a relatively short LOS, frequent crowding appears to be a nationwide problem according to Dutch ED nurse managers, with 68% of them reporting that crowding occurred several times a week or even daily. Consultations delays, laboratory and radiology delays, and hospital bed shortage

  1. An inventory of VHA emergency departments' resources and processes for caring for women.

    PubMed

    Cordasco, Kristina M; Zephyrin, Laurie C; Kessler, Chad S; Mallard, Meri; Canelo, Ismelda; Rubenstein, Lisa V; Yano, Elizabeth M

    2013-07-01

    More women are using Veterans' Health Administration (VHA) Emergency Departments (EDs), yet VHA ED capacities to meet the needs of women are unknown. We assessed VHA ED resources and processes for conditions specific to, or more common in, women Veterans. Cross-sectional questionnaire of the census of VHA ED directors Resources and processes in place for gynecologic, obstetric, sexual assault and mental health care, as well as patient privacy features, stratified by ED characteristics. All 120 VHA EDs completed the questionnaire. Approximately nine out of ten EDs reported having gynecologic examination tables within their EDs, 24/7 access to specula, and Gonorrhea/Chlamydia DNA probes. All EDs reported 24/7 access to pregnancy testing. Fewer than two-fifths of EDs reported having radiologist review of pelvic ultrasound images available 24/7; one-third reported having emergent consultations from gynecologists available 24/7. Written transfer policies specific to gynecologic and obstetric emergencies were reported as available in fewer than half of EDs. Most EDs reported having emergency contraception 24/7; however, only approximately half reported having Rho(D) Immunoglobulin available 24/7. Templated triage notes and standing orders relevant to gynecologic conditions were reported as uncommon. Consistent with VHA policy, most EDs reported obtaining care for victims of sexual assault by transferring them to another institution. Most EDs reported having some access to private medical and mental health rooms. Resources and processes were found to be more available in EDs with more encounters by women, more ED staffed beds, and that were located in more complex facilities in metropolitan areas. Although most VHA EDs have resources and processes needed for delivering emergency care to women Veterans, some gaps exist. Studies in non-VA EDs are required for comparison. Creative solutions are needed to ensure that women presenting to VHA EDs receive efficient, timely, and

  2. Emergency department overcrowding in the United States: an emerging threat to patient safety and public health.

    PubMed

    Trzeciak, S; Rivers, E P

    2003-09-01

    Numerous reports have questioned the ability of United States emergency departments to handle the increasing demand for emergency services. Emergency department (ED) overcrowding is widespread in US cities and has reportedly reached crisis proportions. The purpose of this review is to describe how ED overcrowding threatens patient safety and public health, and to explore the complex causes and potential solutions for the overcrowding crisis. A review of the literature from 1990 to 2002 identified by a search of the Medline database was performed. Additional sources were selected from the references of the articles identified. There were four key findings. (1) The ED is a vital component of America's health care "safety net". (2) Overcrowding in ED treatment areas threatens public health by compromising patient safety and jeopardising the reliability of the entire US emergency care system. (3) Although the causes of ED overcrowding are complex, the main cause is inadequate inpatient capacity for a patient population with an increasing severity of illness. (4) Potential solutions for ED overcrowding will require multidisciplinary system-wide support.

  3. Mass-casualty, terrorist bombings: implications for emergency department and hospital emergency response (Part II).

    PubMed

    Halpern, Pinchas; Tsai, Ming-Che; Arnold, Jeffrey L; Stok, Edita; Ersoy, Gurkan

    2003-01-01

    This article reviews the implications of mass-casualty, terrorist bombings for emergency department (ED) and hospital emergency responses. Several practical issues are considered, including the performance of a preliminary needs assessment, the mobilization of human and material resources, the use of personal protective equipment, the organization and performance of triage, the management of explosion-specific injuries, the organization of patient flow through the ED, and the efficient determination of patient disposition. As long as terrorists use explosions to achieve their goals, mass-casualty, terrorist bombings remain a required focus for hospital emergency planning and preparedness.

  4. A prospective registry of emergency department patients admitted with infection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with infections account for a significant proportion of Emergency Department (ED) workload, with many hospital patients admitted with severe sepsis initially investigated and resuscitated in the ED. The aim of this registry is to systematically collect quality observational clinical and microbiological data regarding emergency patients admitted with infection, in order to explore in detail the microbiological profile of these patients, and to provide the foundation for a significant programme of prospective observational studies and further clinical research. Methods/design ED patients admitted with infection will be identified through daily review of the computerised database of ED admissions, and clinical information such as site of infection, physiological status in the ED, and components of management abstracted from patients' charts. This information will be supplemented by further data regarding results of investigations, microbiological isolates, and length of stay (LOS) from hospital electronic databases. Outcome measures will be hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) LOS, and mortality endpoints derived from a national death registry. Discussion This database will provide substantial insights into the characteristics, microbiological profile, and outcomes of emergency patients admitted with infections. It will become the nidus for a programme of research into compliance with evidence-based guidelines, optimisation of empiric antimicrobial regimens, validation of clinical decision rules and identification of outcome determinants. The detailed observational data obtained will provide a solid baseline to inform the design of further controlled trials planned to optimise treatment and outcomes for emergency patients admitted with infections. PMID:21269438

  5. Individual-Level and Socio-Structural Characteristics of Violence: An Emergency Department Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Douglas J.; Hassett-Walker, Constance

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a data collection system to provide information about assault-related injuries within Newark, New Jersey. In 2001, Emergency Department (ED) staff at the six hospitals providing emergency medical care within the city collected data on all assault-related ED visits. Individual-level (n = 1,204) and…

  6. The hospital emergency department as a social welfare institution.

    PubMed

    Gordon, J A

    1999-03-01

    In an era of social welfare reform marked by the erosion of a societal safety net, few institutions remain that can guarantee assistance to those most in need. The hospital emergency department is perhaps the only local institution where professional help is mandated by law, with guaranteed availability for all persons, all the time, regardless of the problem. Although the ED serves as a true social safety net, its potential as a social welfare institution generally goes underestimated, hampering its full development as an effective societal resource. More of the disadvantaged may pass through the ED than through any other community institution, making it a logical site not only for the treatment of acute illness, but also for the identification of basic social needs and the extension of existing community resources. By helping more fully incorporate the ED into the total care of its community, emergency physicians can become leaders in the design and implementation of integrated sociomedical systems of care.

  7. Safety and efficiency of emergency department interrogation of cardiac devices

    PubMed Central

    Neuenschwander, James F.; Peacock, W. Frank; Migeed, Madgy; Hunter, Sara A.; Daughtery, John C.; McCleese, Ian C.; Hiestand, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Patients with implanted cardiac devices may wait extended periods for interrogation in emergency departments (EDs). Our purpose was to determine if device interrogation could be done safely and faster by ED staff. Methods Prospective randomized, standard therapy controlled, trial of ED staff device interrogation vs. standard process (SP), with 30-day follow-up. Eligibility criteria: ED presentation with a self-report of a potential device related complaint, with signed informed consent. SP interrogation was by company representative or hospital employee. Results Of 60 patients, 42 (70%) were male, all were white, with a median (interquartile range) age of 71 (64 to 82) years. No patient was lost to follow up. Of all patients, 32 (53%) were enrolled during business hours. The overall median (interquartile range) ED vs. SP time to interrogation was 98.5 (40 to 260) vs. 166.5 (64 to 412) minutes (P=0.013). While ED and SP interrogation times were similar during business hours, 102 (59 to 138) vs. 105 (64 to 172) minutes (P=0.62), ED interrogation times were shorter vs. SP during non-business hours; 97 (60 to 126) vs. 225 (144 to 412) minutes, P=0.002, respectively. There was no difference in ED length of stay between the ED and SP interrogation, 249 (153 to 390) vs. 246 (143 to 333) minutes (P=0.71), regardless of time of presentation. No patient in any cohort suffered an unplanned medical contact or post-discharge adverse device related event. Conclusion ED staff cardiac device interrogations are faster, and with similar 30-day outcomes, as compared to SP. PMID:28168230

  8. Modelling seasonal variations in presentations at a paediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Takase, Miyuki; Carlin, John

    2012-09-01

    Overcrowding is a phenomenon commonly observed at emergency departments (EDs) in many hospitals, and negatively impacts patients, healthcare professionals and organisations. Health care organisations are expected to act proactively to cope with a high patient volume by understanding and predicting the patterns of ED presentations. The aim of this study was, therefore, to identify the patterns of patient flow at a paediatric ED in order to assist the management of EDs. Data for ED presentations were collected from the Royal Children's Hospital in Melbourne, Australia, with the time-frame of July 2003 to June 2008. A linear regression analysis with trigonometric functions was used to identify the pattern of patient flow at the ED. The results showed that a logarithm of the daily average ED presentations was increasing exponentially (as explained by 0.004t + 0.00005t2 with t representing time, p<0.001). The model also indicated that there was a yearly oscillation in the frequency of ED presentations, in which lower frequencies were observed in summer and higher frequencies during winter (as explained by -0.046 sin(2(pi)t/12)-0.083 cos(2(pi)t/12), p<0.001). In addition, the variation of the oscillations was increasing over time (as explained by -0.002t*sin(2(pi)t/12)-0.001t*cos(2(pi)t/12), p<0.05). The identified regression model explained a total of 96% of the variance in the pattern of ED presentations. This model can be used to understand the trend of the current patient flow as well as to predict the future flow at the ED. Such an understanding will assist health care managers to prepare resources and environment more effectively to cope with overcrowding.

  9. Racial differences in Emergency Department visits for seizures.

    PubMed

    Fantaneanu, Tadeu A; Hurwitz, Shelley; van Meurs, Katherine; Llewellyn, Nichelle; O'Laughlin, Kelli N; Dworetzky, Barbara A

    2016-08-01

    Seizures are a common reason for visiting the Emergency Department (ED). There is a growing body of literature highlighting disparities in seizure care related to race and ethnicity. Our goal was to identify racial and clinical characteristics of patients presenting to the ED with seizures and to determine factors associated with repeat ED visits for seizure. This was a retrospective study evaluating patients presenting with seizure as the primary reason for their ED visit between 01/01/2008 and 12/31/2008. Clinical data were collected from the electronic medical record (EMR) and compared between black and white patients and between patients with single and repeat ED seizure visits. Statistically significant variables were introduced in a logistic regression analysis with repeat ED visits as outcome. Of 38, 879 ED visits, 559 recorded 'seizure' as the primary reason for the visit. Compared to white patients (N=266), black patients (N=102) were more likely to have non-private insurance (p=0.005), less likely to have evidence of regular ambulatory care (p=0.02) and were more likely to have multiple visits within the calendar year (p=0.005). Black patient visits were more likely to have missed or ran out of antiepileptic drugs (AED) as the precipitant for their ED visit (p<0.001). Clinical factors differed between black and white patients presenting to the ED for seizure care. Black patients were more likely to have multiple seizure visits to the ED when compared to white patients. This may suggest a disparity in access to care related to race between these two groups. Copyright © 2016 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Methamphetamine-related emergency department utilization and cost.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Robert G; Cloutier, Robert; McConnell, K John

    2008-01-01

    To quantify the frequency, cost, and characteristics associated with emergency department (ED) visits that are related to methamphetamine use. This was a prospective observational study. The authors performed a training program for ED clinicians on the acute and chronic effects of methamphetamine and the signs of methamphetamine abuse. A standardized two question survey was administered to clinicians concerning the relationship between the ED visit and the patient's methamphetamine use. The survey was embedded in the patient tracking system and was required for all ED patients before disposition. Survey results were merged with administrative data on demographics, diagnosis, disposition, and charges. Univariate analyses were used to determine patient characteristics associated with methamphetamine-related ED visits. The authors examined 15,038 ED visits over a 20-week period from February 2006 to June 2006. There were a total of 353 methamphetamine-related visits, for an average of 17.65 visits per week (2.4% of all visits). Hospital charges for methamphetamine-related ED visits averaged $133,181 per week, for an estimated total of $6.9 M in annual charges. Methamphetamine-related ED patients were more likely to be male (odds ratio [OR] 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30 to 2.01), white (OR 1.8, 95% CI = 1.38 to 2.29), and uninsured (OR 3.2, 95% CI = 2.21 to 4.69). The top four medical conditions associated with methamphetamine-related visits were mental health (18.7%), trauma (18.4%), skin infections (11.1%), and dental diagnoses (9.6%). Methamphetamine abuse accounts for a modest but substantial proportion of ED utilization and hospital cost. Methamphetamine-related ED visits are most commonly related to mental illness, trauma, skin, and dental-related problems.

  11. Criminal correlates of injury-related emergency department recidivism.

    PubMed

    Claassen, Cynthia A; Larkin, Gregory Luke; Hodges, Gayle; Field, Craig

    2007-02-01

    To investigate criminal and high-risk lifestyle factors that predict emergency department (ED) recidivism, a longitudinal (8-year) cohort study of ED trauma patients was conducted. Study patients provided risk and lifestyle behavior information via semi-structured interview. ED revisit and re-injury rates for 1995-2003 were acquired through hospital record review. Lifetime criminal arrest data were obtained for each study subject via record linkage from PublicData.com, an internet-based service. The 8-year ED re-visit rate was 47% (75/161), but revisits were more often medical than injury-related (30% vs. 17%, respectively). Over half (58%) of all injured ED patients had a documented arrest history, and arrests were significantly more common in those who came back to the ED for repeat trauma vs. those who did not revisit the ED (70.4% vs. 55.9%, respectively; p < 0.05). In this sample, 21% (34/161) had been convicted of 97 property-related crimes, 26% (42/161) of 109 violence-related crimes, 23% (37/161) of 98 drug-related offenses, and 17.4% (28/161) of 89 other non-traffic-related crimes. ED recidivism for trauma care was associated with multiple substance abuse behaviors and drug-related arrests. Significant risk factors for ED recidivism seem to be high-risk substance-abuse-related behaviors and criminal activity, constituting important targets for effective ED-based intervention, referral, and follow-up.

  12. Security Implications of Physical Design Attributes in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Pati, Debajyoti; Pati, Sipra; Harvey, Thomas E

    2016-07-01

    Security, a subset of safety, is equally important in the efficient delivery of patient care. The emergency department (ED) is susceptible to violence creating concerns for the safety and security of patients, staff, and visitors and for the safe and efficient delivery of care. Although there is an implicit and growing recognition of the role of the physical environment, interventions typically have been at the microlevel. The objective of this study was to identify physical design attributes that potentially influence safety and efficiency of ED operations. An exploratory, qualitative research design was adopted to examine the efficiency and safety correlates of ED physical design attributes. The study comprised a multimeasure approach involving multidisciplinary gaming, semistructured interviews, and touring interviews of frontline staff in four EDs at three hospital systems across three states. Five macro physical design attributes (issues that need to be addressed at the design stage and expensive to rectify once built) emerged from the data as factors substantially associated with security issues. They are design issues pertaining to (a) the entry zone, (b) traffic management, (c) patient room clustering, (d) centralization versus decentralization, and (e) provisions for special populations. Data from this study suggest that ED security concerns are generally associated with three sources: (a) gang-related violence, (b) dissatisfied patients, and (c) behavioral health patients. Study data show that physical design has an important role in addressing the above-mentioned concerns. Implications for ED design are outlined in the article. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Patient Preference for Physician Gender in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Nolen, Haley A.; Moore, Justin Xavier; Rodgers, Joel B.; Wang, Henry E.; Walter, Lauren A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite historical gender bias against female physicians, few studies have investigated patients’ physician gender preference in the emergency department (ED) setting. We sought to determine if there is an association between ED patient demographics and physician gender preference. We surveyed patients presenting to an ED to determine association between patient demographics and patient physician gender preference for five ED situations: 1) ‘routine’ visit, 2) emergency visit, 3) ‘sensitive’ medical visit, 4) minor surgical/‘procedural’ visit, and 5) ‘bad news’ delivery. A total of 200 ED patients were surveyed. The majority of ED patients reported no physician gender preference for ‘routine’ visits (89.5 percent), ‘emergent’ visits (89 percent), ‘sensitive’ medical visits (59 percent), ‘procedural’ visits (89 percent) or when receiving ‘bad news’ (82 percent). In the setting of ‘routine’ visits and ‘sensitive’ medical visits, there was a propensity for same-sex physician preference. PMID:27354840

  14. Effect of Hurricane Sandy on Long Island Emergency Departments Visits.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun; Schwartz, Rebecca M; Hirsch, Jerrold; Silverman, Robert; Liu, Bian; Taioli, Emanuela

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of Hurricane Sandy on Long Island mental health emergency department (ED) visits and to determine whether these visits varied according to patient demographics or geographic area and intensity of the impact. Individual-level de-identified data were extracted from the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System from New York State ED visits from October 1 to December 2012 for residents of Nassau and Suffolk counties in Long Island. The dates of the ED visits were grouped into 4 periods: (1) pre-Sandy, October 1-28; (2) during Sandy, October 29; (3) post-Sandy I, October 30 to November 1; and (4) post-Sandy II, November 2-30. A total of 126,337 ED visits were recorded among 23 EDs. A significant drop in volume was observed on October 29; 399 more ED visits for physical health diagnoses were identified in the post-Sandy I period than in the pre-Sandy period. "Diseases of the respiratory system" was the only diagnosis group that showed a positive trend in the post-Sandy I period compared with the pre-Sandy period (increase of 4%). No significant changes in mental health visits were observed after Sandy landfall. This analysis suggests that the critical temporal window during which ED resources should be increased is in the immediate aftermath of a hurricane. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:344-350).

  15. [Impact of the elderly patient in the emergency department].

    PubMed

    Bermúdez Menéndez de la Granda, Manuel; Guzmán Gutiérrez, German; Fernández Fernández, María; Solano Jaurrieta, Juan José

    2017-09-07

    The aging of the population, chronic diseases, and non-urgent visits to the Emergency departments (ED) are considered the reasons for the increase of the demand of care. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of the older population in the ED, when compared to a younger population. An observational, descriptive and retrospective study including an analysis of the 92,627 patients that attended the ED in Hospitals from Health Area IV belonging to the Principality of Asturias Health Services during 2009. The analysis included the number of visits, degree of urgency when arriving at the ED, length of stay (LOS), destination after ED assessment, demand of care per time of day, laboratory tests, and radiology, complaints, and social services consultation. A comparison was made between the data of patients over and below 70 years of age. At total of 28,965 (31.27%) patients were over 70 years of age, with a frequency rate in the ED of 52.29% (25.70% in those less than 70 years). Patients over 70 years had a higher priority attention through the Manchester triage scale, receiving more laboratory tests, with a higher LOS. They also had a higher probability of being seen by social services, of being admitted, and death. Older patients consult the ED with more justifiable reasons than the younger adult population. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Chlorine and its impact on an emergency department.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Adeline; Ponampalam, R; Leong, Mark; Han, Lim Swee

    2007-01-01

    An incident involving the release of chlorine gas from the pump room at a local swimming pool resulted in 54 patients seeking treatment in the emergency departments (EDs) of two local, tertiary-level hospitals in Singapore. The hospital hazardous materials (HAZMAT) disaster plan was activated. This report describes how one of the EDs organized in response to the disaster. Of the 54 people seeking treatment, 36 were treated in the ED at the Singapore General Hospital. The patients were decontaminated at shower facilities prior to entering the ED. The ED was reorganized to cope with existing patients, as well as the large influx of patients from the event site. A protocol was established in coordination with the local drug and poison information center to manage the patients who suffered from chlorine inhalation. Most patients were observed in the ED and subsequently discharged. Outpatient review appointments were scheduled. Acute respiratory symptoms were the most common symptoms., Four children and four adults were admitted to the hospital, and the other patients were discharged from the ED after observation. All of the chest x-rays were normal on the day of the chlorine inhalation. There were no mortalities or significant morbidities, even up to six months after the incident. Although this chlorine HAZMAT incident did not cause severe injuries, and only a limited number of persons required admission to the hospital, some valuable lessons were learned.

  17. Network analysis of team communication in a busy emergency department

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Emergency Department (ED) is consistently described as a high-risk environment for patients and clinicians that demands colleagues quickly work together as a cohesive group. Communication between nurses, physicians, and other ED clinicians is complex and difficult to track. A clear understanding of communications in the ED is lacking, which has a potentially negative impact on the design and effectiveness of interventions to improve communications. We sought to use Social Network Analysis (SNA) to characterize communication between clinicians in the ED. Methods Over three-months, we surveyed to solicit the communication relationships between clinicians at one urban academic ED across all shifts. We abstracted survey responses into matrices, calculated three standard SNA measures (network density, network centralization, and in-degree centrality), and presented findings stratified by night/day shift and over time. Results We received surveys from 82% of eligible participants and identified wide variation in the magnitude of communication cohesion (density) and concentration of communication between clinicians (centralization) by day/night shift and over time. We also identified variation in in-degree centrality (a measure of power/influence) by day/night shift and over time. Conclusions We show that SNA measurement techniques provide a comprehensive view of ED communication patterns. Our use of SNA revealed that frequency of communication as a measure of interdependencies between ED clinicians varies by day/night shift and over time. PMID:23521890

  18. Developing an emergency department crowding dashboard: A design science approach.

    PubMed

    Martin, Niels; Bergs, Jochen; Eerdekens, Dorien; Depaire, Benoît; Verelst, Sandra

    2017-08-30

    As an emergency department (ED) is a complex adaptive system, the analysis of continuously gathered data is valuable to gain insight in the real-time patient flow. To support the analysis and management of ED operations, relevant data should be provided in an intuitive way. Within this context, this paper outlines the development of a dashboard which provides real-time information regarding ED crowding. The research project underlying this paper follows the principles of design science research, which involves the development and study of artifacts which aim to solve a generic problem. To determine the crowding indicators that are desired in the dashboard, a modified Delphi study is used. The dashboard is implemented using the open source Shinydashboard package in R. A dashboard is developed containing the desired crowding indicators, together with general patient flow characteristics. It is demonstrated using a dataset of a Flemish ED and fulfills the requirements which are defined a priori. The developed dashboard provides real-time information on ED crowding. This information enables ED staff to judge whether corrective actions are required in an effort to avoid the adverse effects of ED crowding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Emergency department security programs, community crime, and employee assaults.

    PubMed

    Blando, James D; McGreevy, Katharine; O'Hagan, Emily; Worthington, Karen; Valiante, David; Nocera, Maryalice; Casteel, Carri; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2012-03-01

    Violence against health care workers is a serious occupational health hazard, especially for emergency department (ED) employees. A significant degree of variability in security programs among hospital EDs is present in part due to the absence of federal legislation requiring baseline security features. Nationally, only voluntary guidelines from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for the protection of health care workers exist. The purpose of this study was to examine ED security programs and employee assault rates among EDs with different financial resources, size, and background community crime rates. This cross-sectional survey was conducted among large and small hospitals located in communities with low or high rates of community crime. Hospital financial data were collected through the state health department, and employee assault data were abstracted from hospital OSHA logs. Comparisons were made using a chi-squared or Wilcoxon test. Small hospitals located in towns with low community crime rates implemented the fewest security program features despite having the second highest rate of assault-related OSHA-recordable injuries among ED employees (0.66 per 100,000 staff hours). Due to the highly stressful workplace characteristics of EDs, the risk of employee assault is universal among all hospital sizes in all types of communities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Improving Suicide Risk Screening and Detection in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Boudreaux, Edwin D; Camargo, Carlos A; Arias, Sarah A; Sullivan, Ashley F; Allen, Michael H; Goldstein, Amy B; Manton, Anne P; Espinola, Janice A; Miller, Ivan W

    2016-04-01

    The Emergency Department Safety Assessment and Follow-up Evaluation Screening Outcome Evaluation examined whether universal suicide risk screening is feasible and effective at improving suicide risk detection in the emergency department (ED). A three-phase interrupted time series design was used: Treatment as Usual (Phase 1), Universal Screening (Phase 2), and Universal Screening + Intervention (Phase 3). Eight EDs from seven states participated from 2009 through 2014. Data collection spanned peak hours and 7 days of the week. Chart reviews established if screening for intentional self-harm ideation/behavior (screening) was documented in the medical record and whether the individual endorsed intentional self-harm ideation/behavior (detection). Patient interviews determined if the documented intentional self-harm was suicidal. In Phase 2, universal suicide risk screening was implemented during routine care. In Phase 3, improvements were made to increase screening rates and fidelity. Chi-square tests and generalized estimating equations were calculated. Data were analyzed in 2014. Across the three phases (N=236,791 ED visit records), documented screenings rose from 26% (Phase 1) to 84% (Phase 3) (χ(2) [2, n=236,789]=71,000, p<0.001). Detection rose from 2.9% to 5.7% (χ(2) [2, n=236,789]=902, p<0.001). The majority of detected intentional self-harm was confirmed as recent suicidal ideation or behavior by patient interview. Universal suicide risk screening in the ED was feasible and led to a nearly twofold increase in risk detection. If these findings remain true when scaled, the public health impact could be tremendous, because identification of risk is the first and necessary step for preventing suicide. Emergency Department Safety Assessmentand Follow-up Evaluation (ED-SAFE) ClinicalTrials.gov: (NCT01150994). https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01150994?term=ED-SAFE&rank=1. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc

  1. Emergency Department Utilization in the Texas Medicaid Emergency Waiver Following Hurricane Katrina

    PubMed Central

    Quast, Troy; Mortensen, Karoline

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the enrollment and emergency department (ED) utilization in TexKat, the Texas Medicaid emergency waiver implemented following Hurricane Katrina. Data Sources Individual-level enrollment and utilization data from the 2005 Medicaid Analytic Extract. Study Design Descriptive analysis is performed on variables that describe enrollment levels, the demographic characteristics of enrollees, and the most common diagnoses in ED visits. A Poisson regression model is also employed to quantify the factors related to an enrollee's probability of having an ED visit and the average number of ED visits. Principal Findings There were 44,246 individuals enrolled in TexKat in 2005. Roughly 13% of these enrollees had at least one ED visit during the sample period, with one quarter of these individuals having more than one visit. Across all enrollees the most common diagnosis was "other upper respiratory infection," but there were significant differences in diagnosis patterns across racial/ethnic groups. The regression analysis suggests little difference in ED utilization across genders, but significant contrasts across racial/ethnic and age groups. Conclusions As very little is known about Medicaid emergency waivers, our analysis may provide important information to policymakers who have to react quickly following a disaster. Our findings may help providers estimate potential increases in ED utilization and prepare for relatively common diagnoses. Furthermore, the analysis across racial/ethnic groups may help government officials identify important areas for outreach among vulnerable populations. PMID:24800134

  2. Emergency department utilization in the Texas Medicaid emergency waiver following Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Quast, Troy; Mortensen, Karoline

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the enrollment and emergency department (ED) utilization in TexKat, the Texas Medicaid emergency waiver implemented following Hurricane Katrina. Individual-level enrollment and utilization data from the 2005 Medicaid Analytic Extract. Descriptive analysis is performed on variables that describe enrollment levels, the demographic characteristics of enrollees, and the most common diagnoses in ED visits. A Poisson regression model is also employed to quantify the factors related to an enrollee's probability of having an ED visit and the average number of ED visits. There were 44,246 individuals enrolled in TexKat in 2005. Roughly 13% of these enrollees had at least one ED visit during the sample period, with one quarter of these individuals having more than one visit. Across all enrollees the most common diagnosis was "other upper respiratory infection," but there were significant differences in diagnosis patterns across racial/ethnic groups. The regression analysis suggests little difference in ED utilization across genders, but significant contrasts across racial/ethnic and age groups. As very little is known about Medicaid emergency waivers, our analysis may provide important information to policymakers who have to react quickly following a disaster. Our findings may help providers estimate potential increases in ED utilization and prepare for relatively common diagnoses. Furthermore, the analysis across racial/ethnic groups may help government officials identify important areas for outreach among vulnerable populations.

  3. State of Emergency Medicine in Switzerland: a national profile of emergency departments in 2006

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Emergency departments (EDs) are an essential component of any developed health care system. There is, however, no national description of EDs in Switzerland. Our objective was to establish the number and location of EDs, patient visits and flow, medical staff and organization, and capabilities in 2006, as a benchmark before emergency medicine became a subspecialty in Switzerland. Methods In 2007, we started to create an inventory of all hospital-based EDs with a preliminary list from the Swiss Society of Emergency and Rescue Medicine that was improved with input from ED physicians nationwide. EDs were eligible if they offered acute care 24 h per day, 7 days per week. Our goal was to have 2006 data from at least 80% of all EDs. The survey was initiated in 2007 and the 80% threshold reached in 2012. Results In 2006, Switzerland had a total of 138 hospital-based EDs. The number of ED visits was 1.475 million visits or 20 visits per 100 inhabitants. The median number of visits was 8,806 per year; 25% of EDs admitted 5,000 patients or less, 31% 5,001-10,000 patients, 26% 10,001-20,000 patients, and 17% >20,000 patients per year. Crowding was reported by 84% of EDs with >20,000 visits/year. Residents with limited experience provided care for 77% of visits. Imaging was not immediately available for all patients: standard X-ray within 15 min (70%), non-contrast head CT scan within 15 min (38%), and focused sonography for trauma (70%); 67% of EDs had an intensive care unit within the hospital, and 87% had an operating room always available. Conclusions Swiss EDs were significant providers of health care in 2006. Crowding, physicians with limited experience, and the heterogeneity of emergency care capabilities were likely threats to the ubiquitous and consistent delivery of quality emergency care, particularly for time-sensitive conditions. Our survey establishes a benchmark to better understand future improvements in Swiss emergency care. PMID:23842482

  4. Impact of a new senior emergency department on emergency department recidivism, rate of hospital admission, and hospital length of stay.

    PubMed

    Keyes, Daniel C; Singal, Bonita; Kropf, Charles W; Fisk, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Senior (geriatric) emergency departments (EDs) are an emerging phenomenon across the United States, designed to provide greater comfort for elders, screening for common morbidities, and selective contact with social workers. We hypothesize that the senior ED will reduce recidivism, rate of admission, and hospital length of stay. This was a pre/postintervention observational study of seniors (≥65 years) before and after opening of a new senior ED in a large community hospital. Older nonseniors treated during the same periods were included to detect temporal trend bias. Outcomes included admission to the hospital, hospital length of stay, and ED return visits. Cox proportional hazards models, controlling for patient age, sex, triage level, insurance type, admission on the index visit, and hospital length of stay, were used to test association with time to return within 30 and 180 days. Multivariable regression modeling was used to determine whether the intervention was associated with admission on the index visit, and hospital length of stay. There was no significant difference in time to return within 30 days (HR=1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95 to 1.23), 180 days (HR=0.99; 95% CI 0.91 to 1.08), or average hospital length of stay. Risk of being admitted on the index visit was lower for seniors treated in the senior ED compared with the regular ED (Relative Risk=0.93; 95% CI 0.89 to 0.98). A new senior ED was not associated with reduced ED recidivism or hospital length of stay, but was associated with decreased rate of admission. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Perceived incivility during emergency department phone consultations.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Amith L; Vaghasiya, Milan; Boddy, Rachel; Byth, Karen; Unwin, Danielle

    2016-06-01

    Perceived incivility during ED medical phone consultations is poorly researched. We aimed to determine frequency and factors influencing perceived incivility during ED phone consultations. We conducted a prospective self-reported survey of 40 consecutive phone consultations for 21 ED volunteer doctors. Consultations were classified based on the aim of consultation and deemed as 'positive', 'neutral' or 'negative' based on the perceptions of the consulting doctor. Training levels, time bands and specialty data were collected for both consulting and consulted parties. Fifty-seven of 714 included consultations (7.98%, 95% CI 6.2-10.2%) were reported as negative by ED medical staff. Factors associated with significant incidence of negative grading of consultation involved requests for investigations (19.3% vs 5.3%, P < 0.01), consultations with specialist trainees postgraduate year > 4 (9.1% vs 3.8%, P < 0.01) and those involving radiology specialty (18% vs 5.32%, P < 0.01). The risk was lower when the consulted professional was a specialist medical practitioner as compared to specialist trainee (4.1% vs 9.4%, P = 0.02). Multiple logistical modelling suggests that female (adjusted OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1-5.2) medical staff are more likely to report perceived incivility during ED phone consultations. Perceived incivility occurs infrequently during ED phone consultations. ED female medical staff are at an increased risk of perceived incivility during phone consultations with non-ED medical professionals. Health organisations should actively pursue programmes to investigate the occurrence of incivility during healthcare consultations and implement programmes to mitigate the risk of developing a negative workplace culture. © 2016 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  6. Impact of Ramadan on emergency department visits and on medical emergencies.

    PubMed

    Al Assaad, Reem G; Bachir, Rana; El Sayed, Mazen J

    2017-07-12

    Fasting during Ramadan is important to Muslims. This study describes changes in emergency department (ED) visits and in frequencies of emergency conditions and impact on clinical outcomes during Ramadan in a tertiary care center in Beirut, Lebanon. Patients presenting to ED during Ramadan 1 month before and 1 month after Ramadan over a 3-year period with specific conditions (acute coronary syndrome, stroke, seizure, diabetes, renal colic, headache or hypertension) were included. Clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, ED volume, diagnoses, and outcomes were examined during two periods (Ramadan vs. non-Ramadan). Multiple logistic regressions were performed to identify the impact of Ramadan on ED bounce-back and mortality at ED discharge. A total of 3536 patients were included. The daily average ED volume was higher during non-Ramadan months (145.65±22.14) compared with Ramadan (128.85±14.52). The average ED length of stay was higher during Ramadan (5.42±14.86 vs. 3.96±4.29 h; P=0.006). Frequencies and admission rates for the selected diseases were comparable during the two periods, except for patients with acute coronary syndrome or stroke who had lower admission rates during Ramadan.ED bounce-back rates and mortality at ED discharge were higher during Ramadan (odds=1.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.74 and odds ratio=2.88, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-8.27, respectively). EDs might experience a decreased in volumes, higher length of stay, and potentially worse outcomes during Ramadan. Changes in the frequencies of ED visits related to common conditions are not expected. Prospective studies documenting fasting status would clarify further the impact of Ramadan.

  7. Opioid-related Policies in New England Emergency Departments.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Scott G; Raja, Ali S; Bittner, Jane C; Curtis, Kevin M; Weimersheimer, Peter; Hasegawa, Kohei; Espinola, Janice A; Camargo, Carlos A

    2016-09-01

    The opioid abuse and overdose epidemic in the United States has led to the need for new practice policies to guide clinicians. We describe implementation of opioid-related policies in emergency departments (EDs) in New England to gauge progress and determine where further work is needed. This study analyzed data from the 2015 National Emergency Department Inventory-New England survey. The survey queried directors of every ED (n = 195) in the six New England states to determine the implementation of five specific policies related to opioid management. ED characteristics (e.g., annual visits, location, and admission rates) were also obtained and a multivariable analysis was conducted to identify ED characteristics independently associated with the number of opioid-related policies implemented. Overall, 169 EDs (87%) responded, with a >80% response rate in each state. Implementation of opioid-related policies varied as follows: 1) use of a screening tool for patients with suspected prescription opioid abuse potential (n = 30, 18%), 2) access state prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) before prescribing opioids (n = 132, 78%), 3) notify the primary opioid prescriber when prescribing opioids for ED patients with chronic pain (n = 69, 41%), 4) refer patients with opioid abuse to recovery resources (n = 117, 70%), and 5) prescribe naloxone to patients at risk of opioid overdose after ED discharge (n = 19, 12%). EDs located in metropolitan areas and with at least one attending physician on duty 24/7 were less likely to implement opioid policies (incident rate ratio [IRR] = 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.48-0.89; and IRR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.6-1.0, respectively) while EDs with ≥15% hospitalization rate that used electronic computerized medication ordering and those in Rhode Island were more likely to implement opioid policies (IRR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.03-1.48; IRR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.19-3.22; and IRR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.08-1.56, respectively). The implementation

  8. Pediatric Emergency Department Return: A Literature Review of Risk Factors and Interventions.

    PubMed

    Tran, Quincy Khoi; Bayram, Jamil D; Boonyasai, Romsai T; Case, Meredith A; Connor, Christine; Doggett, David; Fawole, Oluwakemi A; Ijagbemi, O Mayowa; Levin, Scott; Wu, Albert W; Pham, Julius Cuong

    2016-08-01

    Children discharged from emergency departments (EDs) are often at risk for ED return. The objective was to identify risk factors and interventions to mitigate or prevent ED return among this patient population. Structured literature review of PubMed and clinicaltrials.gov was conducted to identify relevant studies. Inclusion criteria were studies evaluating ED returns by identifying risk factors and interventions in the pediatric population. Emergency department return was defined as returning to the ED within 1 year after initial visit. Abstract and full text articles were reviewed, and data were abstracted by 2 independent authors. A total of 963 articles were screened and yielded 42 potential relevant articles involving pediatric population. After full text review, a total of 12 articles were included in the final analysis (6 on risk factors and 6 on interventions). Risk factors for pediatric ED return included behavioral/psychiatric problems, younger age, acuity of illness, medical history of asthma, and social factors. Interventions included computer-generated instructions, postdischarge telephone coaching, ED-made appointments, case management, and home environment intervention. Emergency department-made appointments and postdischarge telephone coaching plus monetary incentive improved outpatient follow-up rate but not ED return. Home environment assessment coupled with case management reduced ED returns specifically among asthma patients. Several patient and visit characteristics can help predict children at risk for ED return. Although some interventions are successful at improving postdischarge follow-up, most did not reduce ED returns.

  9. Emergency Department Crowding and Decreased Quality of Pain Care

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ula; Richardson, Lynne; Livote, Elayne; Harris, Ben; Spencer, Natasha; Morrison, R. Sean

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of emergency department (ED) crowding factors with the quality of pain care. Methods This was a retrospective observational study of all adult patients (≥18 years) with conditions warranting pain care seen at an academic, urban tertiary care ED from July 1 to July 31, 2005, and December 1 to December 31, 2005. Patients were included if they presented with a chief complaint of pain and a final ED diagnosis of a painful condition. Predictor ED crowding variables studied were: 1) census, 2) number of admitted patients waiting for inpatient beds (boarders), and 3) number of boarders divided by ED census (boarding burden). The outcomes of interest were process of pain care measures: documentation of clinician pain assessment, medications ordered, and times of activities (e.g., arrival, assessment, ordering of medications). Results A total of 1,068 patient visits were reviewed. Fewer patients received analgesic medication during periods of high census (>50th percentile) (Parameter estimate = −0.47 [95% CI = −0.80 to −0.07]). There was a direct correlation with total ED census and increased: time to pain assessment (Spearman r = 0.33, p < 0.0001), time to analgesic medication ordering (r = 0.22, p < 0.0001), and time to analgesic medication administration (r = 0.25, p < 0.0001). There were significant delays (>1-hour) for pain assessment and the ordering and administration of analgesic medication during periods of high ED census and number of boarders, but not with boarding burden. Conclusions ED crowding as measured by patient volume negatively impacts patient care. Greater numbers of patients in the ED, whether as total census or number of boarders, were associated with worse pain care. PMID:18945239

  10. Impact of the emergency department streaming decision on patients' outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, S W; Horwood, C; Li, J Y; Hakendorf, P H; Teubner, D J O; Thompson, C H

    2015-12-01

    Streaming occurs in emergency department (ED) to reduce crowding, but misallocation of patients may impact patients' outcome. The study aims to determine the outcomes of patients misallocated by the ED process of streaming into likely admission or discharge. This is a retrospective cohort study, at an Australian, urban, tertiary referral hospital's ED between January 2010 and March 2012, using propensity score matching for comparison. Total and partitioned ED lengths of stay, inpatient length of stay, in-hospital mortality and 7- and 28-day unplanned readmission rate were compared between patients who were streamed to be admitted against those streamed to be discharged. Total ED length of stay did not differ significantly for admitted patients if allocated to the wrong stream (median 7.6 h, interquartile range 5.7-10.6, cf. 7.5 h, 5.3-11.2; P = 0.34). The median inpatient length of stay was shorter for those initially misallocated to the discharge stream (1.8 days, 1.1-3.0, cf. 2.4 days, 1.4-3.9; P < 0.001). In-hospital mortality and 7- and 28-day readmission rates were not adversely affected by misallocation. When considering patients eventually discharged from the ED, those allocated to the wrong stream stayed in the ED longer than those appropriately allocated (5.2 h, 3.7-7.3, cf. 4.6 h, 3.3-6.4; P < 0.001). There were no significant adverse consequences for an admitted patient initially misallocated by an ED admission/discharge streaming process. Patients' discharge from the ED was slower if they had been allocated to the admission stream. Streaming carries few risks for patients misallocated by such a process. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  11. National estimates of sexual violence treated in emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Saltzman, Linda E; Basile, Kathleen C; Mahendra, Reshma R; Steenkamp, Malinda; Ingram, Eben; Ikeda, Robin

    2007-02-01

    There is little information about sexual violence cases treated in emergency departments (EDs). This study describes ED visits associated with sexual violence and considers the associated health care burden. A descriptive analysis was conducted using nationally representative data on nonfatal injury-related ED visits identified in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) as sexual violence. To better understand these NEISS-AIP data, additional information about ED management of cases was collected, and additional information was collected from NEISS-AIP coders to determine the percentage of hospitals serving as designated examination facilities for sexual assault. Of all assault visits to the ED, 4.2% were sexual assault related, which represents an estimated 143,647 ED visits for sexual assault in 2001 to 2002. The majority of sexual assault-related visits involved female and young patients. Nearly half of ED visits for sexual violence had missing perpetrator data. Additional data from hospitals revealed that in 77.8% of the 54 sexual assault cases, someone with specific training completed the examination, and the majority of the hospitals in this study serve as designated examination facilities for sexual assault. Given the dearth of national data on sexual violence cases presented at US EDs, the data presented in this article are useful to understand the impact of sexual violence on the health care system at a national level. More complete documentation of sexual assault-related cases in EDs is needed to get a better estimate of the problem in future studies.

  12. PEarly Postoperative Emergency Department Care of Abdominal Transplant Recipients1

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Lisa M.; Schmidt, Kathryn A.; Richards, Christopher T.; Lapin, Brittany; Abecassis, Michael M.; Holl, Jane L.; Adams, James; Ladner, Daniela P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research on post-transplant care has predominantly focused on predictors of readmission with little attention to emergency department (ED) visits. The goal of this study was to describe early postoperative ED care of transplant recipients. Methods A secondary database analysis of adult patients who underwent abdominal organ transplantation between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2013 and sought ED care within one year post-transplantation was conducted. Survival was compared using the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to adjust for pertinent covariates. Results A total of 1,900 abdominal organ transplants were performed during the study period. Of these, 37% (N=711) transplant recipients sought care in the ED (1,343 total visits) with 1.89 mean ED visits per recipient. Of recipients seen in the ED, 58% received a kidney transplant and 28% received a liver transplant, with 45% of recipients presenting within the first 60 postoperative days. The most common chief complaints were gastroenterological (17%) and abnormal laboratory values or vital signs (17%). In total, 74% of recipients were readmitted and 50% of admitted patients were discharged in less than 24 hours. Transplant recipients with ED visits had lower 3-year graft (81% vs. 87%; p<0.001) and patient (89% vs. 93%; p=0.002) survival. Conclusion Transplant recipients have a high frequency of ED visits in the first post-transplantation year and high rates of subsequent hospital admission. Further investigation is needed to understand what drives recipient presentation to the ED and create care models that achieve the best outcomes. PMID:26050012

  13. Critical pediatric equipment availability in Canadian hospital emergency departments.

    PubMed

    McGillivray, D; Nijssen-Jordan, C; Kramer, M S; Yang, H; Platt, R

    2001-04-01

    Of all child visits to emergency departments, 1% to 5% involve critically ill children who require cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Numerous versions of pediatric equipment lists for EDs have been published. Despite these efforts, many EDs remain unprepared for pediatric emergencies. The objectives of this study were to assess the availability of pediatric resuscitation equipment items in Canadian hospital EDs and to identify risk factors for the unavailability of these items. Using the updated database of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP), a questionnaire survey was sent to 737 Canadian hospital EDs with a maximum of 3 mailings to nonresponders. On-site visits to a selected subset of hospital EDs were completed to validate the results obtained by the mailed questionnaire. The response rate was 88.3% (650/737). Results showed the following overall equipment unavailability: intraosseous needle, 15.9%; pediatric drug dose guidelines, 6.6%; infant blood pressure cuff, 14.8%; pediatric defibrillator paddles, 10.5%; infant warming device, 59.4%; infant bag-valve-mask device, 3.5%; infant laryngoscope blade, 3.5%; 3-mm endotracheal tube, 2.5%; and pediatric pulse oximeter, 18.0%. Low percentage of pediatric visits, lack of an on-call pediatrician for the ED, and lack of a pediatric advanced life support-trained physician on staff were independently associated with equipment unavailability. This study demonstrated that essential pediatric resuscitation equipment is unavailable in a disturbingly high number of EDs across Canada and has identified several determinants of this unavailability.

  14. Hypertensive Emergencies in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Adebayo, Omoyemi; Rogers, Robert L

    2015-08-01

    Hypertension affects approximately one-third of Americans. An additional 30% are unaware that they harbor the disease. Significantly increased blood pressure constitutes a hypertensive emergency that could lead to end-organ damage. When organs such as the brain, heart, or kidney are affected, an intervention that will lower the blood pressure in several hours is indicated. Several pharmacologic options are available for treatment, with intravenous antihypertensive therapy being the cornerstone, but there is no standard of care. Careful consideration of each patient's specific complaint, history, and physical examination guides the emergency physician through the treatment algorithm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Screening for Suicidal Ideation and Attempts among Emergency Department Medical Patients: Instrument and Results from the Psychiatric Emergency Research Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Michael H.; Abar, Beau W.; McCormick, Mark; Barnes, Donna H.; Haukoos, Jason; Garmel, Gus M.; Boudreaux, Edwin D.

    2013-01-01

    Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal 15 calls for organizations "to identify patients at risk for suicide." Overt suicidal behavior accounts for 0.6% of emergency department (ED) visits, but incidental suicidal ideation is found in 3%-11.6%. This is the first multicenter study of suicide screening in EDs. Of 2,243 patients in…

  16. Screening for Suicidal Ideation and Attempts among Emergency Department Medical Patients: Instrument and Results from the Psychiatric Emergency Research Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Michael H.; Abar, Beau W.; McCormick, Mark; Barnes, Donna H.; Haukoos, Jason; Garmel, Gus M.; Boudreaux, Edwin D.

    2013-01-01

    Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal 15 calls for organizations "to identify patients at risk for suicide." Overt suicidal behavior accounts for 0.6% of emergency department (ED) visits, but incidental suicidal ideation is found in 3%-11.6%. This is the first multicenter study of suicide screening in EDs. Of 2,243 patients in…

  17. The Peregrinating Psychiatric Patient in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Scott A.; Pasic, Jagoda

    2016-01-01

    Many emergency department (ED) psychiatric patients present after traveling. Although such travel, or peregrination, has long been associated with factitious disorder, other diagnoses are more common among travelers, including psychotic disorders, personality disorders, and substance abuse. Travelers’ intense psychopathology, disrupted social networks, lack of collateral informants, and unawareness of local resources complicate treatment. These patients can consume disproportionate time and resources from emergency providers. We review the literature on the emergency psychiatric treatment of peregrinating patients and use case examples to illustrate common presentations and treatment strategies. Difficulties in studying this population and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:27625725

  18. Emergency Department Revisits for Patients with Kidney Stones in California

    PubMed Central

    Scales, Charles D.; Lin, Li; Saigal, Christopher S.; Bennett, Carol J.; Ponce, Ninez A.; Mangione, Carol M.; Litwin, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Kidney stones affect nearly one in 11 persons in the United States, and among those experiencing symptoms, emergency care is common. In this population, little is known about the incidence of and factors associated with repeat emergency department (ED) visits. The objective was to identify associations between potentially mutable factors and the risk of an ED revisit for patients with kidney stones in a large, all-payer cohort. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of all patients in California initially treated and released from EDs for kidney stones between February 2008 and November 2009. A multivariable regression model was created to identify associations between patient-level characteristics, area health care resources, processes of care, and the risk of repeat ED visits. The primary outcome was a second ED visit within 30 days of the initial discharge from emergent care. Results Among 128,564 patients discharged from emergent care, 13,684 (11%) had at least one additional emergent visit for treatment of their kidney stone. In these patients, nearly one in three required hospitalization or an urgent temporizing procedure at the second visit. On multivariable analysis, the risk of an ED revisit was associated with insurance status (e.g., Medicaid vs. private insurance, OR 1.52, 95% CI = 1.43 to 1.61; P < 0.001). Greater access to urologic care was associated with lower odds of an ED revisit (highest quartile OR 0.88, 95% CI = 0.80 to 0.97; P < 0.01, vs. lowest quartile). In exploratory models, performance of a complete blood count was associated with a decreased odds of revisit (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.75 to 0.97; P = 0.02). Conclusions Repeat high-acuity care affects one in nine patients discharged from initial emergent evaluations for kidney stones. Access to urologic care and processes of care are associated with lower risk of repeat emergent encounters. Efforts are indicated to identify preventable causes of ED revisits for kidney stone

  19. Emergency Department utilization among Deaf American Sign Language users.

    PubMed

    McKee, Michael M; Winters, Paul C; Sen, Ananda; Zazove, Philip; Fiscella, Kevin

    2015-10-01

    Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users comprise a linguistic minority population with poor health care access due to communication barriers and low health literacy. Potentially, these health care barriers could increase Emergency Department (ED) use. To compare ED use between deaf and non-deaf patients. A retrospective cohort from medical records. The sample was derived from 400 randomly selected charts (200 deaf ASL users and 200 hearing English speakers) from an outpatient primary care health center with a high volume of deaf patients. Abstracted data included patient demographics, insurance, health behavior, and ED use in the past 36 months. Deaf patients were more likely to be never smokers and be insured through Medicaid. In an adjusted analysis, deaf individuals were significantly more likely to use the ED (odds ratio [OR], 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-3.51) over the prior 36 months. Deaf American Sign Language users appear to be at greater odds for elevated ED utilization when compared to the general hearing population. Efforts to further understand the drivers for increased ED utilization among deaf ASL users are much needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Missed opportunity: patients who leave emergency departments without being seen.

    PubMed

    Baibergenova, Akerke; Leeb, Kira; Jokovic, Aleksandra; Gushue, Sharon

    2006-05-01

    The rate of patients who visit emergency departments (EDs) but leave before being evaluated and treated is an important indicator of ED performance. This study examines patient- and hospital-level characteristics that may increase the risk of patients leaving EDs before being seen. The data are from the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System, an administrative database, and represent 4.3 million patient visits made to 163 Ontario EDs between April 2003 and March 2004. Among these data, the proportion that left without being seen (LWBS) was 3.1% (136,805). The rate of LWBS was highest among patients aged 15 to 35 years, those with less acute conditions and facilities that handle the highest volume of patients. Facility rates were positively correlated with facility median ED length of stay, annual facility volume and percentage of inpatient admissions. Understanding patient and facility characteristics that increase rates of LWBS may inform the process of developing measures to ensure timely access to ED care for all who seek it.

  1. Which Dermatological Conditions Present to an Emergency Department in Australia?

    PubMed Central

    Weiland, Tracey J.; Chong, Alvin H.; Jelinek, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives. There is minimal data available on the types of dermatological conditions which present to tertiary emergency departments (ED). We analysed demographic and clinical features of dermatological presentations to an Australian adult ED. Methods. The St. Vincent's Hospital Melbourne (SVHM) ED database was searched for dermatological presentations between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2011 by keywords and ICD-10 diagnosis codes. The lists were merged, and the ICD-10 codes were grouped into 55 categories for analysis. Demographic and clinical data for these presentations were then analysed. Results. 123 345 people presented to SVHM ED during the 3-year period. 4817 (3.9%) presented for a primarily dermatological complaint. The most common conditions by ICD-10 diagnosis code were cellulitis (n = 1741, 36.1%), allergy with skin involvement (n = 939, 19.5%), boils/furuncles/pilonidal sinuses (n = 526, 11.1%), eczema/dermatitis (n = 274, 5.7%), and varicella zoster infection (n = 161, 3.3%). Conclusion. The burden of dermatological disease presenting to ED is small but not insignificant. This information may assist in designing dermatological curricula for hospital clinicians and specialty training organisations as well as informing the allocation of dermatological resources to ED. PMID:24800080

  2. Posttraumatic stress symptomatology among emergency department workers following workplace aggression.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Gordon Lee; Bresler, Scott; Gates, Donna M; Succop, Paul

    2013-06-01

    Workplace aggression has the potential to adversely affect the psychological health of emergency department (ED) workers. The purpose of this study was to compare posttraumatic stress symptomatology based on verbal and verbal plus physical aggression. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used with a convenience sample (n = 208) of ED workers who completed a three-component survey. Descriptive statistics were computed to compare traumatic stress scores based on type of aggression. Two-way analysis of variance statistics were computed to determine if scores differed on the demographic variables. Fewer than half of the ED workers reported traumatic stress symptomatology; however, workplace aggression has the potential to adversely affect the mental health of ED workers. Occupational health nurses can establish or maintain a nurturing and protective environment open to discussing the personal thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of ED workers related to their experiences of workplace aggression. This open and more positive work environment may aid in reducing the negative impact of posttraumatic stress symptoms among those ED workers who have been victimized. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Emergency Department patient perceptions of privacy and confidentiality.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Jon C; Sabin, Brad R

    2003-10-01

    The study objective was to determine if Emergency Department (ED) patients experience breaches of privacy and confidentiality during their ED stay and to determine if the type of room in which the patient is placed affects privacy. We surveyed a convenience sample of ED patients at the conclusion of their ED stay regarding their privacy and confidentiality. Overall, 36% of patients overheard conversations with similar frequencies in walled and curtained rooms. The location of conversations overheard varied depending on the type of patient room, as curtained rooms allowed conversations from adjacent rooms to be overheard and walled rooms allowed more conversations from the hallway or nursing station to be overheard. Patients felt more comfortable giving their history and having physical examinations performed in walled vs. curtained rooms. Inappropriate or unprofessional comments by staff were heard by 1.6% of patients. Health care providers in the ED need to be aware of breaches in confidentiality and privacy, as our patients deserve respect of their privacy and confidentiality during their ED visit.

  4. The relationship between emergency department volume and patient complexity.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Barry; Zuckerman, Batya; Durakovic, Milazim; Demissie, Seleshi

    2017-08-17

    Forecasting emergency department (ED) visits is a well-studied topic. The importance of understanding the complexity of patients along with the days and times of varying patient volumes is critical for planning medical and ancillary staffing. Though multiple studies stratify their results based on severity of disease, severity was determined by triage status. The goal of this study was to utilize a novel method to evaluate the correlation between daily emergency department patient complexity, based on Current Procedure Terminology (CPT) code, and day of the week. This was a retrospective study of subjects presenting to the ED between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2015. We identified the correlation between subjects with each CPT code who were evaluated on a specific day of the week and evaluated the day before, the day of and the day after a legal holiday. During the study period 312,550 (48%) male and 336,348 (52%) female subjects were identified. No correlation between daily ED patient complexity, based on CPT code, and day of the week (p=0.75) or any legal holidays were identified. Individual significant differences were noted among day of the week and particular CPT code as well as legal holiday and particular CPT code with no appreciable trend or pattern. There was no correlation between daily ED patient complexity based on CPT code and day of the week or daily ED patient acuity and legal holiday. In light of these data, emergency department staffing and resource allocation patterns may need to be revisited. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Screening adolescents in the emergency department for weapon carriage.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Rebecca M; Resko, Stella M; Harrison, Stephanie Roahen; Zimmerman, Marc; Stanley, Rachel; Chermack, Stephen T; Walton, Maureen A

    2010-02-01

    The objective was to describe the prevalence and correlates of past-year weapon involvement among adolescents seeking care in an inner-city emergency department (ED). This cross-sectional study administered a computerized survey to all eligible adolescents (age 14-18 years), 7 days a week, who were seeking care over an 18-month period at an inner-city Level 1 ED. Validated measures were administered, including measures of demographics, sexual activity, substance use, injury, violent behavior, weapon carriage, and/or weapon use. Zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression models were used to identify correlates of the occurrence and past-year frequency of these weapons variables. Adolescents (n = 2069, 86% response rate) completed the computerized survey. Fifty-five percent were female; 56.5% were African American. In the past year, 20% of adolescents reported knife or razor carriage, 7% reported gun carriage, and 6% pulled a knife or gun on someone. Although gun carriage was more frequent among males, females were as likely to carry a knife or pull a weapon in the past year. One-fifth of all adolescents seeking care in this inner-city ED have carried a weapon. Understanding weapon carriage among teens seeking ED care is a critical first step to future ED-based injury prevention initiatives. (c) 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  6. What do health savings accounts mean for the emergency department?

    PubMed

    McConnell, K John

    2005-12-01

    The insurance market is evolving, with increased emphasis on plans with high deductibles and a large degree of coinsurance. This article serves as an introduction to the defining characteristics of consumer-driven health care plans and their associated health savings accounts. We discuss the most recent evidence on the adoption of these plans and their effects on use and reimbursement. Compared to many specialties, the emergency department (ED) may be insulated from extensive shopping and price negotiation, because visits to the ED are often for urgent and time-sensitive conditions. However, ED utilization patterns may change if cost-conscious health savings account holders forgo other necessary medical care, or if they seek out substitutes to the ED for less urgent problems. In the long run, the ED may feel the impact of changes that stem from 2 areas: the ability of health savings accounts to control the increase in health care costs, and the potential of health savings accounts to replace or undermine more comprehensive health insurance plans. We note areas that emergency physicians should monitor as health savings accounts become more prominent.

  7. Diagnosis of Elder Abuse in U.S. Emergency Departments.

    PubMed

    Evans, Christopher S; Hunold, Katherine M; Rosen, Tony; Platts-Mills, Timothy F

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the proportion of visits to U.S. emergency departments (EDs) in which a diagnosis of elder abuse is reached using two nationally representative datasets. Retrospective cross-sectional analysis. U.S. ED visits recorded in the 2012 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) or the 2011 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). All ED visits of individuals aged 60 and older. The primary outcome was elder abuse defined according to International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes. The proportion of visits with elder abuse was estimated using survey weights. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to identify demographic characteristics and common ED diagnoses associated with elder abuse. In 2012, NEDS contained information on 6,723,667 ED visits of older adults, representing an estimated 29,056,673 ED visits. Elder abuse was diagnosed in an estimated 3,846 visits, corresponding to a weighted diagnosis period prevalence of elder abuse in U.S. EDs of 0.013% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.012-0.015%). Neglect and physical abuse were the most common types diagnosed, accounting for 32.9% and 32.2% of cases, respectively. Multivariable analysis showed greater weighted odds of elder abuse diagnosis in women (odds ratio (OR) = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.68-2.26) and individuals with contusions (OR = 2.91, 95% CI = 2.36-3.57), urinary tract infection (OR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.84-2.65), and septicemia (OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.44-2.55). In the 2011 NHAMCS dataset, no cases of elder abuse were recorded for the 5,965 older adult ED visits. The proportion of U.S. ED visits by older adults receiving a diagnosis of elder abuse is at least two orders of magnitude lower than the estimated prevalence in the population. Efforts to improve the identification of elder abuse in EDs may be warranted. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  8. The Impact of Psychiatric Patient Boarding in Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Nicks, B. A.; Manthey, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Studies have demonstrated the adverse effects of emergency department (ED) boarding. This study examines the impact of resource utilization, throughput, and financial impact for psychiatric patients awaiting inpatient placement. Methods. The authors retrospectively studied all psychiatric and non-psychiatric adult admissions in an Academic Medical Center ED (>68,000 adult visits) from January 2007-2008. The main outcomes were ED length of stay (LOS) and associated reimbursement. Results. 1,438 patients were consulted to psychiatry with 505 (35.1%) requiring inpatient psychiatric care management. The mean psychiatric patient age was 42.5 years (SD 13.1 years), with 2.7 times more women than men. ED LOS was significantly longer for psychiatric admissions (1089 min, CI (1039–1140) versus 340 min, CI (304–375); P < 0.001) when compared to non-psychiatric admissions. The financial impact of psychiatric boarding accounted for a direct loss of ($1,198) compared to non-psychiatric admissions. Factoring the loss of bed turnover for waiting patients and opportunity cost due to loss of those patients, psychiatric patient boarding cost the department $2,264 per patient. Conclusions. Psychiatric patients awaiting inpatient placement remain in the ED 3.2 times longer than non-psychiatric patients, preventing 2.2 bed turnovers (additional patients) per psychiatric patient, and decreasing financial revenue. PMID:22888437

  9. A comparison of perspectives on costs in emergency care among emergency department patients and residents

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Stefanie K.; Wen, Leana S.; Pines, Jesse M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Costs of care are increasingly important in healthcare policy and, more recently, in clinical care in the emergency department (ED). We compare ED resident and patient perspectives surrounding costs in emergency care. METHODS: We conducted a mixed methods study using surveys and qualitative interviews at a single, academic ED in the United States. The two study populations were a convenience sample of adult ED patients (>17 years of age) and ED residents training at the same institution. Participants answered open- and closed-ended questions on costs, medical decision making, cost-related compliance, and communication about costs. Closed-ended data were tabulated and described using standard statistics while open-ended responses were analyzed using grounded theory. RESULTS: Thirty ED patients and 24 ED residents participated in the study. Both patients and residents generally did not have knowledge of medical costs. Patients were comfortable discussing costs while residents were less comfortable. Residents agreed that doctors should consider costs when making medical decisions whereas patients somewhat disagreed. Additionally, residents generally took costs into consideration during clinical decision-making, yet nearly all residents agreed that they had too little education on costs. CONCLUSION: There were several notable differences in ED patient and resident perspectives on costs in this U.S. sample. While patients somewhat disagree that cost should factor into decision making, generally they are comfortable discussing costs yet report having insufficient knowledge of what care costs. Conversely, ED residents view costs as important and agree that cost should factor into decision making but lack education on what emergency care costs. PMID:28123619

  10. Towards a Case-Mix Information System for the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Rogerson, Charles L.

    1984-01-01

    The introduction of DRG-based payment for inpatient care will bring increased attention to the fiscal performance of each department in the hospital. The emergency department is an important cost and revenue center and also generates a large number of admissions. DRG's do not now extend to emergency care, but DRG payment for inpatient care may have indirect effects on the ED, creating incentives for cost-containment measures in the ED. Such measures will require a better understanding of patient mix and resource use in the ED. A case-mix information system for the ED is described which satisfied two goals: (1) the creation of a database linking diagnosis to resource use and time for the study of a case-mix classification system for the ED; (2) the generation of case-mix-oriented reports to allow the development and evaluation of measures to improve the cost-effectiveness of emergency department care.

  11. Rapid sequence intubation in the emergency department: 5 year trends.

    PubMed

    Simpson, J; Munro, P T; Graham, C A

    2006-01-01

    Airway management is a core aspect of emergency medicine. The technique of rapid sequence intubation (RSI) creates continuing debate between anaesthetists and emergency physicians in the UK, although similar complication rates for emergency department (ED) RSI have been shown for both specialties. This study examined prospectively collected data on every ED RSI performed in a university hospital in Glasgow over 5 years. Data were prospectively recorded for every attempted RSI in the ED on a dedicated form (as used in previous studies) between January 1999 and December 2003. Immediate complications were specifically sought in the questionnaire, as was the immediate destination on leaving the ED. The chi2 test was used for categorical data. On average, 51 ED RSI were performed annually (range 42-60). Emergency physician RSI for trauma increased from 32% (7/22) in 1999 to 75% (21/28) in 2003 (chi2 = 9.32, df = 1, p = 0.002) and for non-trauma from 62% (18/29) in 1999 to 79% (23/29) in 2003 (chi2 = 2.08, df = 1, p = 0.15). Complication rates for emergency physician RSI decreased from 43% (3/7) to 14% (3/21) for trauma (chi2 = 2.55, df = 1, p = 0.11) and from 28% (5/18) to 4% (1/23) for non-trauma (chi2 = 4.44, df = 1, p = 0.035). This compares with mean complication rates for anaesthetists for trauma of 17% and for non-trauma of 22%. Incidence of hypotension decreased in all groups; however, oxygen desaturation is now the most common complication. The rate of ED RSI prior to computed tomography (CT) scans increased in both the trauma (79% v 42%; chi2 = 7.42, df = 1, p = 0.0065) and non-trauma (48% v 17%; chi2 = 5.85, df = 1, p = 0.016) groups. Emergency physician performed ED RSI is increasingly common but is not associated with overall higher numbers of RSIs being performed in the ED. Effective pre-oxygenation should be emphasised during training.

  12. Why do patients choose to attend a private emergency department?

    PubMed

    Shearer, Freya M; Bailey, Paul M; Hicks, Brontie L; Harvey, Brooke V; Monterosso, Leanne; Ross-Adjie, Gail; Rogers, Ian R

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the reasons patients decide to attend a particular acute care service, and their expectations of that service, is important in providing optimal patient care. The present study aimed to determine factors influencing patient decisions to attend a private Australian ED, an issue that has not been previously addressed in the literature. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews with ED patients, purposively sampled to broadly reflect the departmental caseload and casemix. The two primary questions asked were: 'Why did you choose to come to this emergency department?' and 'What are your general expectations of this emergency department visit?'. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and then analysed using manifest and then latent content analysis techniques. All patients approached (n = 30) agreed to interview. Four key themes were identified: prior experience of the hospital, convenient location of the hospital, anticipated high-quality care and anticipated short wait times. Patients chose to use the private ED because of prior experience, proximity, and an expectation they would be seen promptly and be provided with competent care. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  13. Emergency Department Observation Units and the Older Patient

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Mark G.; Hawley, Miles P.; Caterino, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis An increasing number of emergency departments (EDs) are providing extended care and monitoring of patients in ED observation units (EDOUs). EDOUs can be particularly useful for older adults both as an alternative to hospitalization in appropriately selected patients and as a means to risk-stratify older adults with unclear presentations. They can also provide a period of therapeutic intervention and reassessment for older patients in whom the appropriateness and safety of immediate outpatient care is unclear. They offer the opportunity for more comprehensive evaluation of many characteristics of particular importance to the care of older adults which cannot be accomplished during a short ED stay. The manuscript first discusses the general characteristics of EDOUs. Next, it reviews appropriate entry and exclusion criteria for older adults in EDOU including specific focus on several of the most common observation unit protocols, focusing on their relevance to older adults. Finally, it briefly discusses regulatory implications of observation status for patients with Medicare. PMID:23177601

  14. Process-Improvement Cost Model for the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Dyas, Sheila R; Greenfield, Eric; Messimer, Sherri; Thotakura, Swati; Gholston, Sampson; Doughty, Tracy; Hays, Mary; Ivey, Richard; Spalding, Joseph; Phillips, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present a simplified, activity-based costing approach for hospital emergency departments (EDs) to use with Lean Six Sigma cost-benefit analyses. The cost model complexity is reduced by removing diagnostic and condition-specific costs, thereby revealing the underlying process activities' cost inefficiencies. Examples are provided for evaluating the cost savings from reducing discharge delays and the cost impact of keeping patients in the ED (boarding) after the decision to admit has been made. The process-improvement cost model provides a needed tool in selecting, prioritizing, and validating Lean process-improvement projects in the ED and other areas of patient care that involve multiple dissimilar diagnoses.

  15. Predicting asthma-related emergency department visits using big data.

    PubMed

    Ram, Sudha; Zhang, Wenli; Williams, Max; Pengetnze, Yolande

    2015-07-01

    Asthma is one of the most prevalent and costly chronic conditions in the United States, which cannot be cured. However, accurate and timely surveillance data could allow for timely and targeted interventions at the community or individual level. Current national asthma disease surveillance systems can have data availability lags of up to two weeks. Rapid progress has been made in gathering nontraditional, digital information to perform disease surveillance. We introduce a novel method of using multiple data sources for predicting the number of asthma-related emergency department (ED) visits in a specific area. Twitter data, Google search interests, and environmental sensor data were collected for this purpose. Our preliminary findings show that our model can predict the number of asthma ED visits based on near-real-time environmental and social media data with approximately 70% precision. The results can be helpful for public health surveillance, ED preparedness, and targeted patient interventions.

  16. Emergency department use by nursing home residents: effect of severity of cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Caroline E; Newcomer, Robert; Blegen, Mary; Miller, Bruce; Harrington, Charlene

    2012-06-01

    To examine the 1-year prevalence and risk of emergency department (ED) use and ambulatory care-sensitive (ACS) ED use by nursing home (NH) residents with different levels of severity of cognitive impairment (CI). We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate the effect of CI severity on the odds of any ED visit and any ACS ED visit in a 2006 national random sample of NH residents, controlling for predisposing, enabling, and need characteristics. Of 132,753 NH residents, 62% had at least one ED visit and approximately 24% had at least one ACS ED visit in 2006. The probability of any ED visit or any ACS ED visit varied with the severity of resident CI. Residents with mild CI had up to 15% higher odds of any ED or any ACS ED visit and those with more moderate CI had 9% higher odds of an ACS ED visit compared with those without CI. The probability of any ED visit was negatively associated with advanced dementia (adjusted odds ratio = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.55-0.65). Earlier identification of persons with mild CI may facilitate patient, family, and staff education, as well as advanced care planning to reduce ACS ED visits. Both ACS ED use and hospitalizations, adjusted for case mix, should be used as quality indicators to help ensure greater accountability for high-quality NH care and more appropriate utilization of ED resources.

  17. Telehealth-Enabled Emergency Medical Services Program Reduces Ambulance Transport to Urban Emergency Departments.

    PubMed

    Langabeer, James R; Gonzalez, Michael; Alqusairi, Diaa; Champagne-Langabeer, Tiffany; Jackson, Adria; Mikhail, Jennifer; Persse, David

    2016-11-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) agencies transport a significant majority of patients with low acuity and non-emergent conditions to local emergency departments (ED), affecting the entire emergency care system's capacity and performance. Opportunities exist for alternative models that integrate technology, telehealth, and more appropriately aligned patient navigation. While a limited number of programs have evolved recently, no empirical evidence exists for their efficacy. This research describes the development and comparative effectiveness of one large urban program. The Houston Fire Department initiated the Emergency Telehealth and Navigation (ETHAN) program in 2014. ETHAN combines telehealth, social services, and alternative transportation to navigate primary care-related patients away from the ED where possible. Using a case-control study design, we describe the program and compare differences in effectiveness measures relative to the control group. During the first 12 months, 5,570 patients participated in the telehealth-enabled program, which were compared against the same size control group. We found a 56% absolute reduction in ambulance transports to the ED with the intervention compared to the control group (18% vs. 74%, P<.001). EMS productivity (median time from EMS notification to unit back in service) was 44 minutes faster for the ETHAN group (39 vs. 83 minutes, median). There were no statistically significant differences in mortality or patient satisfaction. We found that mobile technology-driven delivery models are effective at reducing unnecessary ED ambulance transports and increasing EMS unit productivity. This provides support for broader EMS mobile integrated health programs in other regions.

  18. Sentinel visits in emergency department patients with diabetes mellitus as a warning sign for hyperglycemic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Yan, Justin W; Gushulak, Katherine M; Columbus, Melanie P; Hamelin, Alexandra L; Wells, George A; Stiell, Ian G

    2017-07-25

    Patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus may have a sentinel emergency department (ED) visit for a precipitating condition prior to presenting for a hyperglycemic emergency, such as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS). This study's objective was to describe the epidemiology and outcomes of patients with a sentinel ED visit prior to their hyperglycemic emergency visit. This was a 1-year health records review of patients≥18 years old presenting to one of four tertiary care EDs with a discharge diagnosis of hyperglycemia, DKA, or HHS. Trained research personnel collected data on patient characteristics, management, disposition, and determined whether patients came to the ED within the 14 days prior to their hyperglycemia visit. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. Of 833 visits for hyperglycemia, 142 (17.0%; 95% CI: 14.5% to 19.6%) had a sentinel ED presentation within the preceding 14 days. Mean (SD) age was 50.5 (19.0) years and 54.4% were male; 104 (73.2%) were discharged from this initial visit, and 98/104 (94.2%) were discharged either without their glucose checked or with an elevated blood glucose (>11.0 mmol/L). Of the sentinel visits, 93 (65.5%) were for hyperglycemia and 22 (15.5%) for infection. Upon returning to the ED, 61/142 (43.0%) were admitted for severe hyperglycemia, DKA, or HHS. In this unique ED-based study, diabetic patients with a sentinel ED visit often returned and required subsequent admission for hyperglycemia. Clinicians should be vigilant in checking blood glucose and provide clear discharge instructions for follow-up and glucose management to prevent further hyperglycemic emergencies from occurring.

  19. Emergency department response to SARS, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Kung; Wu, Hong-Dar Isaac; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Cheng, Yi-Chang

    2005-07-01

    How emergency departments of different levels and types cope with a large-scale contagious infectious disease is unclear. We retrospectively analyzed the response of 100 emergency departments regarding use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and implementation of infection control measures (ICMs) during the severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak in Taiwan. Emergency department workers in large hospitals were more severely affected by the epidemic. Large hospitals or public hospitals were more likely to use respirators. Small hospitals implemented more restrictive ICMs. Most emergency departments provided PPE (80%) and implemented ICMs (66%) at late stages of the outbreak. Instructions to use PPE or ICMs more frequently originated by emergency department administrators. The difficulty of implementing ICMs was significantly negatively correlated with their effectiveness. Because ability to prepare for and respond to emerging infectious diseases varies among hospitals, grouping infectious patients in a centralized location in an early stage of infection may reduce the extent of epidemics.

  20. A Survey of Workplace Violence Across 65 U.S. Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Kansagra, Susan M.; Rao, Sowmya R.; Sullivan, Ashley F.; Gordon, James A.; Magid, David J.; Kaushal, Rainu; Camargo, Carlos A.; Blumenthal, David

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Workplace violence is a concerning issue. Healthcare workers represent a significant portion of the victims, especially those who work in the emergency department (ED). The objective of this study was to examine ED workplace violence and staff perceptions of physical safety. Methods Data were obtained from the National Emergency Department Safety Study (NEDSS), which surveyed staff across 69 U.S. EDs including physicians, residents, nurses, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants. The authors also conducted surveys of key informants (one from each site) including ED chairs, medical directors, nurse managers, and administrators. The main outcome measures included physical attacks against staff, frequency of guns or knives in the ED, and staff perceptions of physical safety. Results A total of 5,695 staff surveys were distributed, and 3,518 surveys from 65 sites were included in the final analysis. One-fourth of surveyed ED staff reported feeling safe sometimes, rarely, or never. Key informants at the sampled EDs reported a total of 3,461 physical attacks (median of 11 attacks per ED) over the 5-year period. Key informants at 20% of EDs reported that guns or knives were brought to the ED on a daily or weekly basis. In multivariate analysis, nurses were less likely to feel safe “most of the time” or “always” when compared to other surveyed staff. Conclusions This study showed that violence and weapons in the ED are common, and nurses were less likely to feel safe than other ED staff. PMID:18976337

  1. Lean Thinking in emergency departments: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Holden, Richard J

    2011-03-01

    Emergency departments (EDs) face problems with crowding, delays, cost containment, and patient safety. To address these and other problems, EDs increasingly implement an approach called Lean thinking. This study critically reviewed 18 articles describing the implementation of Lean in 15 EDs in the United States, Australia, and Canada. An analytic framework based on human factors engineering and occupational research generated 6 core questions about the effects of Lean on ED work structures and processes, patient care, and employees, as well as the factors on which Lean's success is contingent. The review revealed numerous ED process changes, often involving separate patient streams, accompanied by structural changes such as new technologies, communication systems, staffing changes, and the reorganization of physical space. Patient care usually improved after implementation of Lean, with many EDs reporting decreases in length of stay, waiting times, and proportion of patients leaving the ED without being seen. Few null or negative patient care effects were reported, and studies typically did not report patient quality or safety outcomes beyond patient satisfaction. The effects of Lean on employees were rarely discussed or measured systematically, but there were some indications of positive effects on employees and organizational culture. Success factors included employee involvement, management support, and preparedness for change. Despite some methodological, practical, and theoretic concerns, Lean appears to offer significant improvement opportunities. Many questions remain about Lean's effects on patient health and employees and how Lean can be best implemented in health care. Copyright © 2010 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Unanticipated death after discharge home from the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Sklar, David P; Crandall, Cameron S; Loeliger, Eric; Edmunds, Kathleen; Paul, Ian; Helitzer, Deborah L

    2007-06-01

    We measured the frequency of unanticipated death among patients discharged from the emergency department (ED) and reviewed these cases for patterns of potential preventable medical error. This was a retrospective cohort of ED patients who were discharged to home from an urban tertiary-care facility after their evaluation, with subsequent case review. Subjects were aged 10 years and older, representing 387,334 visits among 186,859 individuals, February 1994 through November 2004. The main outcome was mortality. Deaths were assessed for relatedness to the last ED visit, whether the death was expected, and whether there was possible medical error. Deaths that were unexpected and related to the ED visit were analyzed using grounded theory to identify common themes among these cases. Error cases were identified as a subset of this group. We identified and reviewed 117 patients, or 30.2 deaths within 7 days of discharge per 100,000 ED discharges home (95% confidence interval [CI] 25.2 to 36.2 deaths). Of the 117 cases, 58 (50%) were unexpected but related to the ED visit and 35 (60%) of these had a possible error. For the unexpected, related group, there were 15.0 deaths within 7 days per 100,000 discharges home (95% CI 11.6 to 19.4 deaths); for the possible error group, there were 9.0 (95% CI 6.5 to 12.6 deaths). Four themes repeatedly emerged: atypical presentation of an unusual problem, chronic disease with decompensation, abnormal vital signs, and mental disability or psychiatric problem or substance abuse that may have made it less likely that the patient would return for worsening symptoms. Monitoring of death records can identify unanticipated deaths after health care encounters. Further hypothesis-driven research is needed to identify, prevent, or mitigate problems in care and reduce the rate of death after ED visit.

  3. Epidemiologic analysis of an urban, public emergency department's frequent users.

    PubMed

    Mandelberg, J H; Kuhn, R E; Kohn, M A

    2000-06-01

    To determine how the demographic, clinical, and utilization characteristics of emergency department (ED) frequent users differ from those of other ED patients. A cross-sectional and retrospective cohort study was performed using a database of all 348,858 visits to the San Francisco General Hospital ED during a five-year period (July 1, 1993, to June 30, 1998). A "frequent user" visited the ED five or more times in a 12-month period. Frequent users constituted 3.9% of ED patients but accounted for 20.5% of ED visits. The relative risk (RR) of frequent use was high among patients who were homeless (RR = 4.5), African American (RR = 1.8), and Medi-Cal sponsored (RR = 2.1). Frequent users were more likely to be seen for alcohol withdrawal (RR = 4.4), alcohol dependence (RR = 3.4), and alcohol intoxication (RR = 2.4). Frequent users were also more likely to visit for exacerbations of chronic conditions, including sickle cell anemia (RR = 8.0), renal failure (RR = 3.6), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (RR = 3.3). They were less likely to visit for all forms of trauma (RR = 0.43). Survival analysis showed that only 38% of frequent users for one year remained frequent users the next year. However, 56% of frequent users for two consecutive years remained frequent users in the third year. Frequent use of the ED reflects the urban social problems of homelessness, poverty, alcohol abuse, and chronic illness. Frequent use of the ED shows a high rate of decline from one year to the next. This rate of decline slows after the first year and suggests the existence of a smaller group of chronic frequent users.

  4. Patient satisfaction as a function of emergency department previsit expectations.

    PubMed

    Toma, Ghazwan; Triner, Wayne; McNutt, Louise-Ann

    2009-09-01

    This study measures the effect of meeting emergency department (ED) patients' expectations for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on patient satisfaction. This was a cross-sectional study of consecutive patients during block enrollment periods surveyed at the beginning and end of their ED visits. On arrival patients or their surrogates were surveyed about the specific interventions they expected during their visit. After completion of ED care, they were surveyed about their level of satisfaction with the entire encounter, assessment of their provider's interpersonal skills, impression of time spent waiting in the ED, and perceived waiting time. Satisfaction was assessed with categorical responses. The degree of concordance of interventions expected and interventions provided was analyzed to determine their effect on overall ED visit satisfaction. Nine hundred eighty-seven patients presented during enrollment periods, 821 met inclusion criteria, and complete data were collected on 504 patient encounters. Twenty-nine percent had no previsit expectations of diagnostic or therapeutic interventions, 24% had a single reported expectation, 47% had multiple intervention expectations. After adjusting for potential confounders, we could not demonstrate a relationship between fulfillment of expectations and satisfaction. We did find a very strong relationship between highly ranked provider interpersonal skills and ED satisfaction (probability ratio of being "very satisfied" 8.6; 95% confidence interval 4.7 to 15.6). Other factors associated with high ED encounter satisfaction were adequate explanations for waiting times and perception of total time in the ED. Overall satisfaction was strongly correlated with patient's assessment of the physician's interpersonal skills and was not correlated with whether the physician had met expectations about diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.

  5. Appropriateness of emergency department use in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease: a quality improvement opportunity.

    PubMed

    Hoffenberg, Edward J; Park, K T; Dykes, Dana M; Fridge, Jacqueline; Kappelman, Michael D; Leibowitz, Ian H; Tsou, V Marc; Colletti, Richard B

    2014-09-01

    We sought to characterize emergency department (ED) encounters for pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to identify areas for prevention. Retrospective chart review of 5 consecutive ED encounters at 7 centers was performed. Of 35 unique encounters by 32 patients, 3 main factors contributed to ED utilization: disease severity or course, day or time of care, and physician instruction. Of the ED encounters, approximately one-fifth were judged medically unnecessary, and one-half avoidable in a more optimal health care system. ED visits by pediatric patients with IBD may be reduced in a more optimal health care system.

  6. State Regulation Of Freestanding Emergency Departments Varies Widely, Affecting Location, Growth, And Services Provided.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Catherine; Lindor, Rachel A; Baker, Olesya; Cutler, David; Schuur, Jeremiah D

    2016-10-01

    Freestanding emergency departments (EDs), which offer emergency medical care at sites separate from hospitals, are a rapidly growing alternative to traditional hospital-based EDs. We evaluated state regulations of freestanding EDs and describe their effect on the EDs' location, staffing, and services. As of December 2015, thirty-two states collectively had 400 freestanding EDs. Twenty-one states had regulations that allowed freestanding EDs, and twenty-nine states did not have regulations that applied specifically to such EDs (one state had hospital regulations that precluded them). State policies regarding freestanding EDs varied widely, with no standard requirements for location, staffing patterns, or clinical capabilities. States requiring freestanding EDs to have a certificate of need had fewer of such EDs per capita than states without such a requirement. For patients to better understand the capabilities and costs of freestanding EDs and to be able to choose the most appropriate site of emergency care, consistent state regulation of freestanding EDs is needed.

  7. Hospital Determinants of Emergency Department Left Without Being Seen Rates

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Renee Y.; Asch, Steven M.; Weiss, Robert E.; Zingmond, David; Liang, Li-Jung; Han, Weijuan; McCreath, Heather; Sun, Benjamin C.

    2011-01-01

    Study objective The proportion of patients who leave without being seen in the emergency department (ED) is an outcome-oriented measure of impaired access to emergency care and represents the failure of an emergency care delivery system to meet its goals of providing care to those most in need. Little is known about variation in the amount of left without being seen or about hospital-level determinants. Such knowledge is necessary to target hospital-level interventions to improve access to emergency care. We seek to determine whether hospital-level socioeconomic status case mix or hospital structural characteristics are predictive of ED left without being seen rates. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of all acute-care, nonfederal hospitals in California that operated an ED in 2007, using data from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development database and the US census. Our outcome of interest was whether a visit to a given hospital ED resulted in left without being seen. The proportion of left without being seen was measured by the number of left without being seen cases out of the total number of visits. Results We studied 9.2 million ED visits to 262 hospitals in California. The percentage of left without being seen varied greatly over hospitals, ranging from 0% to 20.3%, with a median percentage of 2.6%. In multivariable analyses adjusting for hospital-level socioeconomic status case mix, visitors to EDs with a higher proportion of low-income and poorly insured patients experienced a higher risk of left without being seen. We found that the odds of an ED visit resulting in left without being seen increased by a factor of 1.15 for each 10-percentage-point increase in poorly insured patients, and odds of left without being seen decreased by a factor of 0.86 for each $10,000 increase in household income. When hospital structural characteristics were added to the model, county ownership, trauma center designation, and teaching

  8. Important historical efforts at emergency department categorization in the United States and implications for regionalization.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Abhishek; Sklar, David P; Tayal, Vivek S; Kocher, Keith E; Handel, Daniel A; Myles Riner, R

    2010-12-01

    This article is drawn from a report created for the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) Emergency Department (ED) Categorization Task Force and also reflects the proceedings of a breakout session, "Beyond ED Categorization-Matching Networks to Patient Needs," at the 2010 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference, "Beyond Regionalization: Integrated Networks of Emergency Care." The authors describe a brief history of the significant national and state efforts at categorization and suggest reasons why many of these efforts failed to persevere or gain wider implementation. The history of efforts to categorize hospital (and ED) emergency services demonstrates recognition of the potential benefits of categorization, but reflects repeated failures to implement full categorization systems or limited excursions into categorization through licensing of EDs or designation of receiving and referral facilities. An understanding of the history of hospital and ED categorization could better inform current efforts to develop categorization schemes and processes.

  9. Emergency Department data for bioterrorism surveillance: electronic data availability, timeliness, sources and standards.

    PubMed

    Travers, Debbie A; Waller, Anna; Haas, Stephanie W; Lober, William B; Beard, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    Emergency Department (ED) data are a key component of bioterrorism surveillance systems. Little research has been done to examine differences in ED data capture and entry across hospitals, regions and states. The purpose of this study was to describe the current state of ED data for use in bioterrorism surveillance in 2 regions of the country. We found that chief complaint (CC) data are available electronically in 54% of the North Carolina EDs surveyed, and in 100% of the Seattle area EDs. Over half of all EDs reported that CCs are recorded in free text form. Though all EDs have electronic diagnosis data, less than half report that diagnoses are coded within 24 hours of the ED visit.

  10. Emergency department and 'Google flu trends' data as syndromic surveillance indicators for seasonal influenza.

    PubMed

    Thompson, L H; Malik, M T; Gumel, A; Strome, T; Mahmud, S M

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated syndromic indicators of influenza disease activity developed using emergency department (ED) data - total ED visits attributed to influenza-like illness (ILI) ('ED ILI volume') and percentage of visits attributed to ILI ('ED ILI percent') - and Google flu trends (GFT) data (ILI cases/100 000 physician visits). Congruity and correlation among these indicators and between these indicators and weekly count of laboratory-confirmed influenza in Manitoba was assessed graphically using linear regression models. Both ED and GFT data performed well as syndromic indicators of influenza activity, and were highly correlated with each other in real time. The strongest correlations between virological data and ED ILI volume and ED ILI percent, respectively, were 0·77 and 0·71. The strongest correlation of GFT was 0·74. Seasonal influenza activity may be effectively monitored using ED and GFT data.

  11. Increased emergency department use by adolescents and young adults with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Dooley-Hash, Suzanne; Lipson, Sarah K; Walton, Maureen A; Cunningham, Rebecca M

    2013-05-01

    This study describes patterns of emergency department (ED) utilization by patients who screen positive for eating disorders. ED patients aged 14-20 years (n = 1,920) completed a computerized questionnaire. The analyses compared the rates of ED use between patients who screened positive for an eating disorder and those who did not and examined the reasons for ED use amongst patients with eating disorders. ED patients who screened positive for eating disorders were significantly more likely to have previously visited the ED and, on average, utilized the ED at a rate 1.6 times higher than patients who screen negative for eating disorders. The most common chief complaints among patients who screen positive for eating disorders were abdominal pain and other gastrointestinal-related problems. Patients with eating disorders utilize the ED more frequently than those without and commonly present for complaints seemingly unrelated to their eating disorder. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Emergency Department Data for Bioterrorism Surveillance: Electronic Data Availability, Timeliness, Sources and Standards

    PubMed Central

    Travers, Debbie A.; Waller, Anna; Haas, Stephanie W.; Lober, William B.; Beard, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    Emergency Department (ED) data are a key component of bioterrorism surveillance systems. Little research has been done to examine differences in ED data capture and entry across hospitals, regions and states. The purpose of this study was to describe the current state of ED data for use in bioterrorism surveillance in 2 regions of the country. We found that chief complaint (CC) data are available electronically in 54% of the North Carolina EDs surveyed, and in 100% of the Seattle area EDs. Over half of all EDs reported that CCs are recorded in free text form. Though all EDs have electronic diagnosis data, less than half report that diagnoses are coded within 24 hours of the ED visit. PMID:14728256

  13. Diagnostic Coding of Abuse Related Fractures at Two Children's Emergency Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somji, Zeeshanefatema; Plint, Amy; McGahern, Candice; Al-Saleh, Ahmed; Boutis, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Pediatric fractures suspicious for abuse are often evaluated in emergency departments (ED), although corresponding diagnostic coding for possible abuse may be lacking. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to determine the proportion of fracture cases investigated in the ED for abuse that had corresponding International…

  14. Presence of a Community Health Center and Uninsured Emergency Department Visit Rates in Rural Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, George; Baltrus, Peter; Ye, Jiali; Daniels, Elvan; Quarshie, Alexander; Boumbulian, Paul; Strothers, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Context: Community health centers (CHCs) provide essential access to a primary care medical home for the uninsured, especially in rural communities with no other primary care safety net. CHCs could potentially reduce uninsured emergency department (ED) visits in rural communities. Purpose: We compared uninsured ED visit rates between rural…

  15. Diagnostic Coding of Abuse Related Fractures at Two Children's Emergency Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somji, Zeeshanefatema; Plint, Amy; McGahern, Candice; Al-Saleh, Ahmed; Boutis, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Pediatric fractures suspicious for abuse are often evaluated in emergency departments (ED), although corresponding diagnostic coding for possible abuse may be lacking. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to determine the proportion of fracture cases investigated in the ED for abuse that had corresponding International…

  16. Standardized Screening and Assessment of Older Emergency Department Patients: A Survey of Implementation in Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCusker, Jane; Verdon, Josee; Veillette, Nathalie; Berg, Katherine; Emond, Tina; Belzile, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Cost-effective methods have been developed to help busy emergency department (ED) staff cope with the growing number of older patients, including quick screening and assessment tools to identify those at high risk and note their specific needs. This survey, from a sample of key informants from all EDs (n=111) in the province of Quebec…

  17. Presence of a Community Health Center and Uninsured Emergency Department Visit Rates in Rural Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, George; Baltrus, Peter; Ye, Jiali; Daniels, Elvan; Quarshie, Alexander; Boumbulian, Paul; Strothers, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Context: Community health centers (CHCs) provide essential access to a primary care medical home for the uninsured, especially in rural communities with no other primary care safety net. CHCs could potentially reduce uninsured emergency department (ED) visits in rural communities. Purpose: We compared uninsured ED visit rates between rural…

  18. Project Integrate: Translating Screening and Brief Interventions for Alcohol Problems to a Community Hospital Emergency Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Michael J.; Baird, Janette; Nirenberg, Ted D.; Smith, Jennifer C.; Woolard, Robert H.; Dinwoodie, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Screening and brief intervention (SBI) for alcohol problems in the emergency department (ED) is effective. The objective of this study was to examine the translation of SBI into a busy community ED environment. The authors assessed key stakeholders views of SBI delivery model, then utilized feedback to adapt model. Adoption of SBI was recorded,…

  19. Safety and Efficacy of Antihypertensive Prescription at Emergency Department Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Aaron; Rahman, Tahsin; Reed, Brian; Millis, Scott; Ference, Brian; Flack, John M.; Levy, Phillip D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Poor blood pressure (BP) control is a primary risk factor for target organ damage in the heart, brain, and kidney. Uncontrolled hypertension is common among emergency department (ED) patients, particularly in underresourced settings, but it is unclear what role ED providers should play in the management of chronic antihypertensive therapy. Objectives The objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of prescribing antihypertensive therapy from the ED. Methods This was a retrospective study of data pooled from two prospective, longitudinal, randomized controlled trials, both of which enrolled ED patients with asymptomatic hypertension. Antihypertensives were prescribed at emergency physician discretion, and this was not related to randomization arm. Demographic data, BP at screening and randomization visit, and data on adverse effects potentially related to antihypertensive therapy were compiled. Means were compared using Student’s t-tests, and proportions were compared using chi-square tests. The effect of antihypertensive therapy on BP control was further analyzed using multivariable regression modeling controlling for age, race, sex, hypertension history, study cohort, and ED BP. Results Data were abstracted for 217 subjects. The median interval from ED visit to randomization was 12 days. Seventy-six subjects (35%) received one or more prescriptions for antihypertensive therapy. Age, sex, race, hypertension history, and mean duration of hypertension were equivalent between groups. Although mean ED BP was higher among those who received prescriptions, the mean systolic BP (sBP) reduction from ED to randomization was significantly greater (difference = 19 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval = 12 to 26 mm Hg). No patient in either group had an sBP less than 100 mm Hg at randomization. On multiple regression modeling, randomization sBP reduction was independently associated with antihypertensive prescription (p = 0.001). The incidence of adverse effects

  20. Forecasting daily patient volumes in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Jones, Spencer S; Thomas, Alun; Evans, R Scott; Welch, Shari J; Haug, Peter J; Snow, Gregory L

    2008-02-01

    Shifts in the supply of and demand for emergency department (ED) resources make the efficient allocation of ED resources increasingly important. Forecasting is a vital activity that guides decision-making in many areas of economic, industrial, and scientific planning, but has gained little traction in the health care industry. There are few studies that explore the use of forecasting methods to predict patient volumes in the ED. The goals of this study are to explore and evaluate the use of several statistical forecasting methods to predict daily ED patient volumes at three diverse hospital EDs and to compare the accuracy of these methods to the accuracy of a previously proposed forecasting method. Daily patient arrivals at three hospital EDs were collected for the period January 1, 2005, through March 31, 2007. The authors evaluated the use of seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average, time series regression, exponential smoothing, and artificial neural network models to forecast daily patient volumes at each facility. Forecasts were made for horizons ranging from 1 to 30 days in advance. The forecast accuracy achieved by the various forecasting methods was compared to the forecast accuracy achieved when using a benchmark forecasting method already available in the emergency medicine literature. All time series methods considered in this analysis provided improved in-sample model goodness of fit. However, post-sample analysis revealed that time series regression models that augment linear regression models by accounting for serial autocorrelation offered only small improvements in terms of post-sample forecast accuracy, relative to multiple linear regression models, while seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average, exponential smoothing, and artificial neural network forecasting models did not provide consistently accurate forecasts of daily ED volumes. This study confirms the widely held belief that daily demand for ED services is characterized by

  1. Rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia in UK emergency departments: a national census.

    PubMed

    Benger, Jonathan; Hopkinson, Sarah

    2011-03-01

    Rapid sequence induction of anaesthesia and tracheal intubation (RSI) is an integral part of modern emergency care. Previously, emergency department (ED) RSI has been provided by anaesthetists, but UK emergency physicians are increasingly developing this skill. We undertook a 2-week census of ED RSI to establish a baseline of current practice. All 115 UK College of Emergency Medicine airway leads were contacted and asked to return anonymised data on every drug-assisted intubation occurring in their ED during a 2-week period in September 2008. The number of RSIs and also the total number of ED attendances during the same period were requested. Complete data were returned from 64 EDs (56%). The total number of patients undergoing RSI was 218, with an incidence of 0.12%, or approximately one in every 800 ED attendances. Anaesthetic staff undertook 80% of ED RSIs, predominantly senior anaesthetic trainees of specialist trainee year 3 (ST3) or above. During normal office hours 74% of these anaesthetic trainees were supervised during the procedure, with a significant fall in supervision rates to 15% outside normal office hours (p<0.00001 on χ(2) testing). The 0.12% incidence of ED RSI is consistent with previous studies, as is the finding that only 20% are performed by emergency physicians. The relative infrequency of ED RSI and increasing pool of staff has important implications for training and skills maintenance. Despite the acknowledged difficulty of this technique, nearly half of all ED RSIs are done by unsupervised trainees.

  2. Informed Consent Documentation for Lumbar Puncture in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Hannah Elise; Keenly, Lisa D.; Vinson, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Informed consent is a required process for procedures performed in the emergency department (ED), though it is not clear how often or adequately it is obtained by emergency physicians. Incomplete performance and documentation of informed consent can lead to patient complaints, medico-legal risk, and inadequate education for the patient/guardian about the procedure. We undertook this study to quantify the incidence of informed consent documentation in the ED setting for lumbar puncture (LP) and to compare rates between pediatric (<18 years) and adult patients. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed the ED electronic health records (EHR) for all patients who underwent successful LPs in 3 EDs between April 2010 and June 2012. Specific elements of informed consent documentation were reviewed. These elements included the presence of general ED and LP-specific consent forms, signatures of patient/guardian, witness, and physician, documentation of purpose, risks, benefits, alternatives, and explanation of the LP. We also reviewed the use of educational material about the LP and LP-specific discharge information. Results: Our cohort included 937 patients; 179 (19.1%) were pediatric. A signed general ED consent form was present in the EHR for 809 (86%) patients. A consent form for the LP was present for 524 (56%) patients, with signatures from 519 (99%) patients/guardians, 327 (62%) witnesses, and 349 (67%) physicians. Documentation rates in the EHR were as follows: purpose (698; 74%), risks (742; 79%), benefits (605; 65%), alternatives (635; 68%), and explanation for the LP (57; 6%). Educational material about the LP was not documented as having been given to any of the patients and LP-specific discharge information was documented as given to 21 (2%) patients. No significant differences were observed in the documentation of informed consent elements between pediatric and adult patients. Conclusion: General ED consent was obtained in the vast

  3. Experience of morning reports in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Sabbagh, C; Chaddad, M; El Rassy, E

    2015-07-01

    Morning report in the emergency medicine departments is an emerging teaching modality in the medicine curriculum. Our institution, Hotel-Dieu de France hospital, a multidisciplinary tertiary care university hospital affiliated to the Saint Joseph University of Medical Sciences, is the only hospital in Middle East to hold morning reports in the emergency department (ED). We evaluate the usefulness of the morning report as a pedagogic tool as it assesses the content, quality of the discussions, professionalism, leadership, participation and duration of the morning report. The particularity of this paper is that it takes into consideration the interns' input often under-recognised in the studies. An anonymous questionnaire was diffused to the residents and interns that rotated in the ED during the previous year. It consisted of seven multiple-choice questions to evaluate the quality of the presentations, targeted discussions, ethics and professionalism, evidence-based medicine, clinical reasoning, relation of cases to discussions and implication of the ED physician. Overall, of the 63 patients who answered the survey, 65.1% were satisfied by the content. The majority considered the quality of the discussions acceptable and the leadership and participation satisfactory, professionalism was judged poor. Both residents and interns were satisfied of the teaching point of the morning reports. The only fail back observed was professionalism and pathophysiological discussions that require to be added to the sessions, whereas clinical management, teaching points, leadership and time management were completely satisfactory.

  4. Dispensing medications at the hospital upon discharge from an emergency department.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Loren G; Manzi, Shannon; Shaw, Kathy N; Ackerman, Alice D; Chun, Thomas H; Conners, Gregory P; Dudley, Nanette C; Fein, Joel A; Fuchs, Susan M; Moore, Brian R; Selbst, Steven M; Wright, Joseph L

    2012-02-01

    Although most health care services can and should be provided by their medical home, children will be referred or require visits to the emergency department (ED) for emergent clinical conditions or injuries. Continuation of medical care after discharge from an ED is dependent on parents or caregivers' understanding of and compliance with follow-up instructions and on adherence to medication recommendations. ED visits often occur at times when the majority of pharmacies are not open and caregivers are concerned with getting their ill or injured child directly home. Approximately one-third of patients fail to obtain priority medications from a pharmacy after discharge from an ED. The option of judiciously dispensing ED discharge medications from the ED's outpatient pharmacy within the facility is a major convenience that overcomes this obstacle, improving the likelihood of medication adherence. Emergency care encounters should be routinely followed up with primary care provider medical homes to ensure complete and comprehensive care.

  5. Web-Based Predictive Analytics to Improve Patient Flow in the Emergency Department

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckler, David L.

    2012-01-01

    The Emergency Department (ED) simulation project was established to demonstrate how requirements-driven analysis and process simulation can help improve the quality of patient care for the Veterans Health Administration's (VHA) Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMC). This project developed a web-based simulation prototype of patient flow in EDs, validated the performance of the simulation against operational data, and documented IT requirements for the ED simulation.

  6. Treatment for acute asthma in the Emergency Department: practical aspects.

    PubMed

    Urso, D L

    2010-03-01

    This article describes the management of acute asthma exacerbation in the Emergency Department (ED). An asthma exacerbation can be defined as clinical worsening of disease or an asymptomatic decrease in peak flows. Acute exacerbations of asthma may represent reactions to airway irritants or failures of chronic treatment. Hospitalizations and ED visits account for a large proportion of the health-care cost burden of asthma. The assessment of an asthma exacerbation constitutes a process with two different dimensions: to determine the severity of attack, and to evaluate the response to treatment. The principal goals of managing an asthma acute exacerbation may be summarized as maintenance of adequate arterial oxygen saturation with supplemental oxygen, relief of airflow obstruction with repetitive administration of short acting beta-2 agonists (SABA), and treatment of airway inflammation with systemic corticosteroids (CS) to prevent future relapses. SABA, oxygen, and CS form the basis of management of acute asthma exacerbation but a role is emerging for anthicolinergics.

  7. Emergency department visits by adults for psychiatric medication adverse events.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Lee M; Daubresse, Matthew; Chang, Hsien-Yen; Alexander, G Caleb; Budnitz, Daniel S

    2014-09-01

    In 2011, an estimated 26.8 million US adults used prescription medications for mental illness. To estimate the numbers and rates of adverse drug event (ADE) emergency department (ED) visits involving psychiatric medications among US adults between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2011. Descriptive analyses of active, nationally representative surveillance of ADE ED visits using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-Cooperative Adverse Drug Event Surveillance system and of drug prescribing during outpatient visits using the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. Medical records from national probability samples of ED and outpatient visits by adults 19 years or older were reviewed and analyzed. Antidepressants, antipsychotics, lithium salts, sedatives and anxiolytics, and stimulants. National estimates of ADE ED visits resulting from therapeutic psychiatric medication use and of psychiatric medication ADE ED visits per 10,000 outpatient visits at which psychiatric medications were prescribed. From 2009 through 2011, there were an estimated 89,094 (95% CI, 68,641-109,548) psychiatric medication ADE ED visits annually, with 19.3% (95% CI, 16.3%-22.2%) resulting in hospitalization and 49.4% (95% CI, 46.5%-52.4%) involving patients aged 19 to 44 years. Sedatives and anxiolytics, antidepressants, antipsychotics, lithium salts, and stimulants were implicated in an estimated 30,707 (95% CI, 23,406-38,008), 25,377 (95% CI, 19,051-31,704), 21,578 (95% CI, 16,599-26,557), 3620 (95% CI, 2311-4928), and 2779 (95% CI, 1764-3794) respective ADE ED visits annually. Antipsychotics and lithium salts were implicated in 11.7 (95% CI, 10.1-13.2) and 16.4 (95% CI, 13.0-19.9) ADE ED visits per 10,000 outpatient prescription visits, respectively, compared with 3.6 (95% CI, 3.2-4.1) for sedatives and anxiolytics, 2.9 (95% CI, 2.3-3.5) for stimulants, and 2.4 (95% CI, 2.1-2.7) for antidepressants. The commonly used

  8. Infectious Disease-related Emergency Department Visits Among Children in the US.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Kohei; Tsugawa, Yusuke; Cohen, Ari; Camargo, Carlos A

    2015-07-01

    Although most research on infectious diseases (IDs) has focused on hospitalizations, this provides an incomplete picture of healthcare utilization. We describe the burden and epidemiologic features of ID-related emergency department (ED) visits among U.S. children. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, a nationally representative sample of ED patients. We identified children who presented to the ED with a primary diagnosis of ID. Outcome measures were ID-related ED visits, hospitalizations through the ED and ED charges. During 2011, we identified 1,914,509 ID-related ED visits among U.S. children, corresponding to a weighted estimate of 8,524,357 ED visits. This accounted for 28% of all ED visits by children. The frequency of ID-related ED visits was 10,290 visits per 100,000 children. The most common diagnoses were upper respiratory infection (41%), otitis media (18%) and lower respiratory infection (14%). Overall, 62% of ID-related ED visits were made by children with Medicaid; 35% were by those in the lowest income quartile. Among the ID-related ED visits, 424,725 (5%) resulted in hospitalization, with 513 hospitalizations per 100,000 children. The most common reason for hospitalization was lower respiratory infection, which accounted for 40% of all ID-related hospitalizations from the ED. Median charge per ED visit was $718, with total annual charges of $9.6 billion. The public health burden of IDs, as measured by ED visits, subsequent hospitalizations and associated charges, was substantial. We also found that children with markers of lower socioeconomic status comprised a disproportionately high proportion of ID-related ED visits.

  9. Teams under pressure in the emergency department: an interview study.

    PubMed

    Flowerdew, Lynsey; Brown, Ruth; Russ, Stephanie; Vincent, Charles; Woloshynowych, Maria

    2012-12-01

    To identify key stressors for emergency department (ED) staff, investigate positive and negative behaviours associated with working under pressure and consider interventions that may improve how the ED team functions. This was a qualitative study involving semistructured interviews. Data were collected from staff working in the ED of a London teaching hospital. A purposive sampling method was employed to recruit staff from a variety of grades and included both doctors and nurses. 22 staff members took part in the study. The most frequently mentioned stressors included the '4-hour' target, excess workload, staff shortages and lack of teamwork, both within the ED and with inpatient staff. Leadership and teamwork were found to be mediating factors between objective stress (eg, workload and staffing) and the subjective experience. Participants described the impact of high pressure on communication practices, departmental overview and the management of staff and patients. The study also revealed high levels of misunderstanding between senior and junior staff. Suggested interventions related to leadership and teamwork training, advertising staff breaks, efforts to help staff remain calm under pressure and addressing team motivation. This study highlights the variety of stressors that ED staff are subject to and considers a number of cost-efficient interventions. Medical education needs to expand to include training in leadership and other 'non-technical' skills in addition to traditional clinical skills.

  10. Systematic review of emergency department crowding: causes, effects, and solutions.

    PubMed

    Hoot, Nathan R; Aronsky, Dominik

    2008-08-01

    Emergency department (ED) crowding represents an international crisis that may affect the quality and access of health care. We conducted a comprehensive PubMed search to identify articles that (1) studied causes, effects, or solutions of ED crowding; (2) described data collection and analysis methodology; (3) occurred in a general ED setting; and (4) focused on everyday crowding. Two independent reviewers identified the relevant articles by consensus. We applied a 5-level quality assessment tool to grade the methodology of each study. From 4,271 abstracts and 188 full-text articles, the reviewers identified 93 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. A total of 33 articles studied causes, 27 articles studied effects, and 40 articles studied solutions of ED crowding. Commonly studied causes of crowding included nonurgent visits, "frequent-flyer" patients, influenza season, inadequate staffing, inpatient boarding, and hospital bed shortages. Commonly studied effects of crowding included patient mortality, transport delays, treatment delays, ambulance diversion, patient elopement, and financial effect. Commonly studied solutions of crowding included additional personnel, observation units, hospital bed access, nonurgent referrals, ambulance diversion, destination control, crowding measures, and queuing theory. The results illustrated the complex, multifaceted characteristics of the ED crowding problem. Additional high-quality studies may provide valuable contributions toward better understanding and alleviating the daily crisis. This structured overview of the literature may help to identify future directions for the crowding research agenda.

  11. Variation in Physician Practice Styles within and across Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Van Parys, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Despite the significant responsibility that physicians have in healthcare delivery, we know surprisingly little about why physician practice styles vary within or across institutions. Estimating variation in physician practice styles is complicated by the fact that patients are rarely randomly assigned to physicians. This paper uses the quasi-random assignment of patients to physicians in emergency departments (EDs) to show how physicians vary in their treatment of patients with minor injuries. The results reveal a considerable degree of variation in practice styles within EDs; physicians at the 75th percentile of the spending distribution spend 20% more than physicians at the 25th percentile. Observable physician characteristics do not explain much of the variation across physicians, but there is a significant degree of sorting between physicians and EDs over time, with high-cost physicians sorting into high-cost EDs as they gain experience. The results may shed light on why some EDs remain persistently higher-cost than others. PMID:27517464

  12. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Drug Use among Emergency Department Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sanjuan, Pilar M.; Rice, Samara L.; Witkiewitz, Katie; Mandler, Raul N.; Crandall, Cameron; Bogenschutz, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use among emergency department (ED) patients is high and many of these patients have unrecognized and unmet substance use treatment needs. Identification of patients in the ED with problem substance use is not routine at this time. Methods We examined screening data, including standardized measures of ATOD use (HSI, AUDIT-C, DAST-10), from 14,866 ED patients in six hospitals across the United States. We expected younger age, male gender, higher triage acuity, and other substance use severity (ATOD) to be associated both with use versus abstinence and with severity of each substance use type. We used negative binomial hurdle models to examine the association between covariates and (1) substance use versus abstinence (logistic submodel) and with (2) severity among those who used substances (count submodel). Results Rates of use and problem use in our sample were similar to or higher than other ED samples. Younger patients and males were more likely to use ATOD, but the association of age and gender with severity varied across substances. Triage level was a poor predictor of substance use severity. Alcohol, tobacco, and drug use were significantly associated with using other substances and severity of other substance use. Conclusion Better understanding of the demographic correlates of ATOD use and severity and the patterns of comorbidity among classes of substance can inform the design of optimal screening and brief intervention procedures addressing ATOD use among ED patients. Tobacco may be an especially useful predictor. PMID:24594289

  13. Monthly variation of United States pediatric headache emergency department visits.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Sita; Ginde, Adit A; Grubenhoff, Joseph A; Kempe, Allison; Hershey, Andrew D; Powers, Scott W

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this article is to determine the monthly variation of emergency department (ED) visits for pediatric headache. We hypothesized youth have increased headache-related ED visits in the months associated with school attendance. Using a United States representative sample of ED visits in the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 1997 to 2009, we estimated number of visits associated with ICD-9 codes related to headache, migraine, status migrainosus, or tension-type headache in 5- to 18-year-olds. Age-stratified multivariate models are presented for month of visit (July as reference). There was a national estimate of 250,000 ED visits annually related to headache (2.1% of total visits) in 5- to 18-year-olds. In 5- to 11-year-olds, the adjusted rate of headache-related visits was lower in April (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.20, 0.88). In 12- to 18-year-olds, there were higher rates in January (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.16, 3.14) and September (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.06, 2.55). In adolescents we found higher ED utilization in January and September, the same months associated with school return from vacation for a majority of children nationally. No significant reduction in the summer suggests that school itself is not the issue, but rather changes in daily lifestyle and transitions.

  14. Emergency medicine and psychiatry agreement on diagnosis and disposition of emergency department patients with behavioral emergencies.

    PubMed

    Douglass, Amy M; Luo, John; Baraff, Larry J

    2011-04-01

    The objective was to determine the level of agreement between emergency physicians (EPs) and consulting psychiatrists in their diagnosis and disposition of emergency department (ED) patients with behavioral emergencies. The authors conducted a prospective study at a university teaching hospital ED with an annual census of approximately 45,000 patients. During study hours, each time a psychiatric consultation was requested, the emergency medicine (EM) and consulting psychiatry residents were asked to fill out similar short questionnaires concerning their diagnoses and disposition decisions after they consulted with their attending physicians. EM and psychiatry residents were blinded to the other's assessment of the patient. Residents were asked about their evaluation of patients regarding: 1) psychiatric assessments, 2) if the patients presented a danger to themselves or others or were gravely disabled, and 3) the need for emergency psychiatric hospitalization. A total of 408 resident physician pairs were enrolled in the study. Patients ranged in age from 5 to 92 years, with a median age of 31 years; 50% were female. The most common psychiatric assessments, as evaluated by either EPs, consulting psychiatrists, or both, were mood disorder (66%), suicidality (57%), drug/alcohol abuse (26%), and psychosis (25%). Seventy-three percent were admitted for acute psychiatric hospitalization. Agreement between EPs and psychiatrists was 67% for presence of mood disorder, 82% for suicidality, 82% for drug/alcohol abuse, 85% for psychosis, and 85% for grave disability. There was 67% agreement regarding patient eligibility for involuntary psychiatric hold. EPs felt confident enough to make disposition decisions 87% of the time; for these patients there was 76% agreement with consulting psychiatrists about the final disposition decision. The 67% agreement between EPs and consulting psychiatrists regarding need for involuntary hold, and 76% agreement regarding final disposition

  15. Ratios and nurse staffing: the vexed case of emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Wise, Sarah; Fry, Margaret; Duffield, Christine; Roche, Michael; Buchanan, John

    2015-02-01

    Within Australia nursing unions are pursuing mandated nurse-patient ratios to safeguard patient outcomes and protect their members in healthcare systems where demand perpetually exceeds supply. Establishing ratios for an emergency department is more contentious than for hospital wards. The study's aim was to estimate average staffing levels, skill mix and patient presentations in all New South Wales (NSW) Emergency Departments (EDs). The design was a retrospective historical census audit. Nurse rosters and patient presentation data were collected for three randomly selected census days in May 2010. Twenty-six valid responses out of 44 were returned. A ratio of the number of beds per nurse was calculated as well as skill mix and bed occupancy. The average beds per nurse ratios found were 3.8 (morning shift), 3.6 (evening), and 5.1 (night). However, ratios as high as 8.4 (morning), 7.3 (evening) and 16.0 (night) were identified on particular shifts. Overall a rich skill mix was found with an average of 90% of nursing hours being provided by Registered Nurses. The average daily bed occupancy of 4 patients per bed was similar across ED levels. The study adds to the limited literature on ED staffing and demonstrates the utility in the simplicity of ratios in flagging potential staffing problems. The audit revealed wide variation in staffing levels which was not always linked to patient activity. Of particular concern were the regional EDs (Level 5) which have the capacity to deal with all types of emergencies but where ratios as high as 7 beds per nurse were found during the day. Ratios cannot be used to determine the optimal staffing levels in every clinical situation; their purpose is to force an increase in nursing supply and to prevent individual units from becoming understaffed. Copyright © 2014 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Emergency department transfers and transfer relationships in United States hospitals.

    PubMed

    Kindermann, Dana R; Mutter, Ryan L; Houchens, Robert L; Barrett, Marguerite L; Pines, Jesse M

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to describe transfers out of hospital-based emergency departments (EDs) in the United States and to identify different characteristics of sending and receiving hospitals, travel distance during transfer, disposition on arrival to the second hospital, and median number of transfer partners among sending hospitals. Emergency department records were linked at transferring hospitals to ED and inpatient records at receiving hospitals in nine U.S. states using the 2010 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Emergency Department Databases and State Inpatient Databases, the American Hospital Association Annual Survey, and the Trauma Information Exchange Program. Using the Clinical Classification Software (CCS) to categorize conditions, the 50 disease categories with the highest transfer rates were studied, and these were then placed into nine clinical groups. Records were included where both sending and receiving records were available; these data were tabulated to describe ED transfer patterns, hospital-to-hospital distances, final patient disposition, and number of transfer partners. A total of 97,021 ED transfer encounters were included in the analysis from the 50 highest transfer rate disease categories. Among these, transfer rates ranged from 1% to 13%. Circulatory conditions made up about half of all transfers. Receiving hospitals were more likely to be nonprofit, teaching, trauma, and urban and have more beds with greater specialty coverage and more advanced diagnostic and therapeutic resources. The median transfer distance was 23 miles, with 25% traveling more than 40 to 50 miles. About 8% of transferred encounters were discharged from the second ED, but that varied from 0.6% to 53% across the 50 conditions. Sending hospitals had a median of seven transfer partners across all conditions and between one and four per clinical group. Among high-transfer conditions in U.S. EDs, patients are often transferred great distances, more

  17. The International Federation for Emergency Medicine framework for quality and safety in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Lecky, Fiona; Benger, Jonathan; Mason, Suzanne; Cameron, Peter; Walsh, Chris

    2014-11-01

    All emergency departments (EDs) have an obligation to deliver care that is demonstrably safe and of the highest possible quality. Emergency medicine is a unique and rapidly developing specialty, which forms the hub of the emergency care system and strives to provide a consistent and effective service 24 h a day, 7 days a week. The International Federation of Emergency Medicine, representing more than 70 countries, has prepared a document to define a framework for quality and safety in the ED. Following a consensus conference and with subsequent development, a series of quality indicators have been proposed. These are tabulated in the form of measures designed to answer nine quality questions presented according to the domains of structure, process and outcome. There is an urgent need to improve the evidence base to determine which quality indicators have the potential to successfully improve clinical outcomes, staff and patient experience in a cost-efficient manner--with lessons for implementation.

  18. Adding more beds to the emergency department or reducing admitted patient boarding times: which has a more significant influence on emergency department congestion?

    PubMed

    Khare, Rahul K; Powell, Emilie S; Reinhardt, Gilles; Lucenti, Martin

    2009-05-01

    We evaluate a computer simulation model designed to assess the effect on emergency department (ED) length of stay of varying the number of ED beds or altering the interval of admitted patient departure from the ED. We created a computer simulation model (Med Model) based on institutional data and augmented by expert estimates and assumptions. We evaluated simulations of increasing the number of ED beds, increasing the admitted patient departure and increasing ED census, analyzing potential effects on overall ED length of stay. Multiple sensitivity analyses tested the robustness of the results to changes in model assumptions and institutional data. With a constant ED departure rate at the base case and increasing ED beds, there is an increase in mean length of stay from 240 to 247 minutes (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.8 to 12.6 minutes). When keeping the number of beds constant at the base case and increasing the rate at which admitted patients depart the ED to their inpatient bed, the mean overall ED length of stay decreases from 240 to 218 minutes (95% CI 16.8 to 26.2 minutes). With a 15% increase in daily census, the trends are similar to the base case results. The sensitivity analyses reveal that despite a wide range of inputs, there are no differences from the base case. Our computer simulation modeled that improving the rate at which admitted patients depart the ED produced an improvement in overall ED length of stay, whereas increasing the number of ED beds did not.

  19. Documentation of HEART score discordance between emergency physician and cardiologist evaluations of ED patients with chest pain.

    PubMed

    Wu, W Kelly; Yiadom, Maame Yaa A B; Collins, Sean P; Self, Wesley H; Monahan, Ken

    2017-01-01

    A triage cardiology program, in which cardiologists provide consultation to the Emergency Department (ED), may safely reduce admissions. For patients with chest pain, the HEART Pathway may obviate the need for cardiology involvement, unless there is a difference between ED and cardiology assessments. Therefore, in a cohort concurrently evaluated by both specialties, we analyzed discordance between ED and cardiology HEART scores. We performed a single-center, cross-sectional, retrospective study of adults presenting to the ED with chest pain who had a documented bedside evaluation by a triage cardiologist. Separate ED and cardiology HEART scores were computed based on documentation by the respective physicians. Discrepancies in HEART score between ED physicians and cardiologists were quantified using Cohen κ coefficient. Thirty-three patients underwent concurrent ED physician and cardiologist evaluation. Twenty-three patients (70%) had discordant HEART scores (κ = 0.13; 95% confidence interval, -0.02 to 0.32). Discrepancies in the description of patients' chest pain were the most common source of discordance and were present in more than 50% of cases. HEART scores calculated by ED physicians tended to overestimate the scores calculated by cardiologists. When categorized into low-risk or high-risk by the HEART Pathway, more than 25% of patients were classified as high risk by the ED physician, but low risk by the cardiologist. There is substantial discordance in HEART scores between ED physicians and cardiologists. A triage cardiology system may help refine risk stratification of patients presenting to the ED with chest pain, even when the HEART Pathway tool is used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An observational study of emergency department intern activities.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia Ni; Weiland, Tracey J; Taylor, David M; Dent, Andrew W

    2008-05-05

    To describe how intern time is spent, and the frequency of activities performed by interns during emergency department (ED) rotations. Prospective observational study of 42 ED interns from three Melbourne city teaching hospitals during 5 months in 2006. Direct observations were made by a single researcher for 390.8 hours, sampling all days of the week and all hours of the day. Proportion of time spent on tasks and number of procedures performed or observed by interns. Direct patient-related tasks accounted for 86.6% of total intern time, including 43.9% spent on liaising and documentation, 17.5% obtaining patient histories, 9.3% on physical examinations, 5.6% on procedures, 4.8% ordering or interpreting investigations, 3.0% on handover and 4.9% on other clinical activities. Intern time spent on non-clinical activities included 4.2% on breaks, 3.7% on downtime, 1.7% on education, and 1.3% on teaching others. Adjusted for an 8-week term, the ED intern would take 253 patient histories, consult more senior ED staff on 683 occasions, perform 237 intravenous cannulations/phlebotomies, 39 arterial punctures, 12 wound repairs and apply 16 plasters. They would perform chest compressions under supervision on seven occasions, observe defibrillation twice and intubation once, but may not see a thoracostomy. The ED exposes interns to a broad range of activities. With the anticipated increase in intern numbers, dilution of the emergency medicine experience may occur, and requirements for supervision may increase. Substitution of ED rotations may deprive interns of a valuable learning experience.

  1. Emergency department digital radiology: moving from photos to pixels.

    PubMed

    White, Faber A; Zwemer, Frank L; Beach, Christopher; Westesson, Per-Lennart; Fairbanks, Rollin J; Scialdone, Gary

    2004-11-01

    Emergency department (ED) patient care relies heavily on radiologic imaging. As advances in technologic innovation continue to present opportunities to streamline and simplify the delivery of care, emergency medicine (EM) practitioners face the challenge of transitioning from a system of primarily film-based radiography to one that utilizes digitized images. The move to digital radiology can result in enhanced quality of patient care, reduction of errors, and increased ED efficiency; however, making this transition will necessarily involve changes in EM practice. As the technology evolves, digital radiology will gradually become ingrained into everyday practice because of these and other notable benefits; however, EM practitioners will need to overcome several challenges to make the transition smoothly and consider the potential impacts that this change will have on ED workflow. The authors discuss the benefits, challenges, and other operational considerations involved with the ED implementation of digital radiology and close by presenting guiding principles for current and future users. Despite the unresolved issues, digital radiology will mature as a technology and improve EM practice, making it one of the great information technology advances in EM.

  2. Paediatric emergency department anaphylaxis: different patterns from adults

    PubMed Central

    Braganza, S C; Acworth, J P; Mckinnon, D R L; Peake, J E; Brown, A F T

    2006-01-01

    Background and Aims Data on acute paediatric anaphylaxis presentations to the emergency department (ED) are limited. All allergic presentations to one Australian paediatric ED were studied to determine epidemiological, clinical, and outcome data. Methods Retrospective, case based study of patients under 16 years attending one metropolitan, paediatric teaching hospital ED in Australia over three years. The medical records of patients presenting with generalised allergic reactions and anaphylaxis satisfying relevant ICD‐9‐CM diagnostic codes were studied. The incidence, age, sex ratio, co‐morbidities, likely aetiology, clinical features, management, and disposal were determined. Results A total of 526 children with generalised allergic reactions, and 57 with anaphylaxis were included in the study. This represented incidences of 9.3:1000 ED presentations for generalised allergic reactions and 1:1000 for anaphylaxis. There were no fatalities. In anaphylaxis cases, a cause was recognised in 68.4%. Cutaneous features were present in 82.5%. A past history of asthma was reported in 36.8%. Adrenaline was used in 39.3% of severe anaphylaxis cases. The ED alone definitively cared for 97.8% of all patients. Follow up was inadequate in cases of anaphylaxis. Conclusions This is the first reported incidence figure for paediatric anaphylaxis ED presentations in Australia, and is less than that reported in adults in the same local population. However, the incidence of generalised allergic reactions of 9.3:1000 was greater than in the adults. Virtually all paediatric allergic cases may be managed in the ED alone, provided that the importance of specialist follow up, particularly for severe anaphylaxis, is recognised. PMID:16308410

  3. Emergency department team communication with the patient: the patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Danielle M; Ellison, Emily P; Venkatesh, Arjun K; Engel, Kirsten G; Cameron, Kenzie A; Makoul, Gregory; Adams, James G

    2013-08-01

    Effective communication is important for the delivery of quality care. The Emergency Department (ED) environment poses significant challenges to effective communication. The objective of this study was to determine patients' perceptions of their ED team's communication skills. This was a cross-sectional study in an urban, academic ED. Patients completed the Communication Assessment Tool for Teams (CAT-T) survey upon ED exit. The CAT-T was adapted from the psychometrically validated Communication Assessment Tool (CAT) to measure patient perceptions of communication with a medical team. The 14 core CAT-T items are associated with a 5-point scale (5 = excellent); results are reported as the percent of participants who responded "excellent." Responses were analyzed for differences based on age, sex, race, and operational metrics (wait time, ED daily census). There were 346 patients identified; the final sample for analysis was 226 patients (53.5% female, 48.2% Caucasian), representing a response rate of 65.3%. The scores on CAT-T items (reported as % "excellent") ranged from 50.0% to 76.1%. The highest-scoring items were "let me talk without interruptions" (76.1%), "talked in terms I could understand" (75.2%), and "treated me with respect" (74.3%). The lowest-scoring item was "encouraged me to ask questions" (50.0%). No differences were noted based on patient sex, race, age, wait time, or daily census of the ED. The patients in this study perceived that the ED teams were respectful and allowed them to talk without interruptions; however, lower ratings were given for items related to actively engaging the patient in decision-making and asking questions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Incidence of emergency department visits and complications after abortion.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Ushma D; Desai, Sheila; Zlidar, Vera; Weitz, Tracy A; Grossman, Daniel; Anderson, Patricia; Taylor, Diana

    2015-01-01

    To conduct a retrospective observational cohort study to estimate the abortion complication rate, including those diagnosed or treated at emergency departments (EDs). Using 2009-2010 abortion data among women covered by the fee-for-service California Medicaid program and all subsequent health care for 6 weeks after having an abortion, we analyzed reasons for ED visits and estimated the abortion-related complication rate and the adjusted relative risk. Complications were defined as receiving an abortion-related diagnosis or treatment at any source of care within 6 weeks after an abortion. Major complications were defined as requiring hospital admission, surgery, or blood transfusion. A total of 54,911 abortions among 50,273 fee-for-service Medi-Cal beneficiaries were identified. Among all abortions, 1 of 16 (6.4%, n=3,531) was followed by an ED visit within 6 weeks but only 1 of 115 (0.87%, n=478) resulted in an ED visit for an abortion-related complication. Approximately 1 of 5,491 (0.03%, n=15) involved ambulance transfers to EDs on the day of the abortion. The major complication rate was 0.23% (n=126, 1/436): 0.31% (n=35) for medication abortion, 0.16% (n=57) for first-trimester aspiration abortion, and 0.41% (n=34) for second-trimester or later procedures. The total abortion-related complication rate including all sources of care including EDs and the original abortion facility was 2.1% (n=1,156): 5.2% (n=588) for medication abortion, 1.3% (n=438) for first-trimester aspiration abortion, and 1.5% (n=130) for second-trimester or later procedures. Abortion complication rates are comparable to previously published rates even when ED visits are included and there is no loss to follow-up. II.

  5. Variation in Charges for Emergency Department Visits Across California

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Renee Y; Antwi, Yaa Akosa

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have shown that charges for inpatient and clinic procedures vary substantially; however, there is scant data on variation in charges for emergency department (ED) visits. Outpatient ED visits are typically billed using CPT-coded levels to standardize the intensity of services received, providing an ideal element on which to evaluate charge variation. Thus, we sought to analyze the variation in charges for each level of ED visits, and examine whether hospital and market-level factors could help predict these charges. Methods Using 2011 charge data provided by every non-federal California hospital to the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, we analyzed the variability in charges for each level of ED visits and used linear regression to assess whether hospital and market characteristics could explain the variation in charges. Results Charges for each ED visit level varied widely; for example, charges for a level 4 visit ranged from $275 to $6,662. Government hospitals charged significantly less than non-profit hospitals, while hospitals that paid higher wages, served higher proportions of Medicare and Medicaid patients, and were located in areas with high costs of living charged more. Overall our models explained only 30–41% of the between-hospital variation in charges for each level of ED visits. Conclusions Our findings of extensive charge variation in ED visits add to the literature in demonstrating the lack of systematic charge setting in the U.S. healthcare system. These widely varying charges affect the hospital bills of millions of uninsured patients and insured patients seeking care out-of-network, and continue to play a role in many aspects of healthcare financing. PMID:24888673

  6. Behavioral problems of seniors in an emergency department.

    PubMed

    Erel, Meira; Shapira, Ziva; Volicer, Ladislav

    2013-07-01

    Behavioral disorders are frequent in seniors with cognitive impairments. The ailment responsible for presentation to the Emergency Department (ED), in combination with preexisting conditions, can bring about a temporary cognitive disturbance or worsen an existing cognitive disturbance, thus increasing the frequency of behavioral disorders. The purpose of this research was to investigate whether there is any connection between pain, cognitive impairment, time in the ED, presence or absence of a supportive escort, and behavioral disorders exhibited by a senior. The study sample consisted of 140 seniors aged 69 years and older who visited the ED. Data collected included personal data, presence or absence of an escort, length of stay in the ED, and formal reproducible evaluation of cognition, behavior, and pain. Behavioral disorders were found to be present in 18% of the total sample and in 25% of the group of seniors who suffered from cognitive impairment. The presence of cognitive impairment was found to increase by almost sevenfold the risk of a behavioral disorder. Presence of severe pain increased the risk of a behavioral disorder even more (odds ratio 63). Seniors with cognitive impairment who spent a longer-than-average time period in the ED exhibited behavioral disorders that were more severe than disorders in seniors without cognitive impairment. There was no moderating effect on behavioral disturbances by the presence of a supportive escort observed. The findings of this study suggest that the risk of behavioral disorders in seniors attending the ED may be predicted by screening them for cognitive impairment and pain, and by monitoring the time period they are in the ED. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Weapons Retrieved After the Implementation of Emergency Department Metal Detection.

    PubMed

    Malka, S Terez; Chisholm, Robin; Doehring, Marla; Chisholm, Carey

    2015-09-01

    Several high-profile violent incidents have occurred within emergency departments (EDs). There are no recent studies reporting the effectiveness of ED metal detection. Our aim was to assess the effect of metal detection on ED weapons retrieval. In September 2011, a metal detector was installed at the entrance of an urban, high-volume teaching hospital ED. The security company recorded retrieved firearms, knives, chemical sprays, and other weapons. We performed qualitative analysis of weapons retrieval data for a 26-month period. A total of 5877 weapons were retrieved, an average of 218 per month: 268 firearms, 4842 knives, 512 chemical sprays, and 275 other weapons, such as brass knuckles, stun guns, and box cutters. The number of retrieved guns decreased from 2012 to 2013 (from 182 to 47), despite an increase in metal detection hours from 8 h per day to 16 h per day. The number of retrieved knives, chemical sprays, and other weapons increased. Recovered knives increased from 2062 in 2012 to 2222 in 2013, chemical sprays increased from 170 to 305, and other weapons increased from 51 to 201. A large number of weapons were retrieved after the initiation of metal detection in the ED entrance. Increasing hours of metal detection increased the number of retrieved knives, chemical sprays, and other weapons. Retrieved firearms decreased after increasing metal detection hours. Metal detection in the ED entrance is effective in reducing entrance of weapons into the ED. Metal detectors may offer additional benefit in reducing attempts to enter with firearms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Emergency department triage: an ethical analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Emergency departments across the globe follow a triage system in order to cope with overcrowding. The intention behind triage is to improve the emergency care and to prioritize cases in terms of clinical urgency. Discussion In emergency department triage, medical care might lead to adverse consequences like delay in providing care, compromise in privacy and confidentiality, poor physician-patient communication, failing to provide the necessary care altogether, or even having to decide whose life to save when not everyone can be saved. These consequences challenge the ethical quality of emergency care. This article provides an ethical analysis of "routine" emergency department triage. The four principles of biomedical ethics - viz. respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice provide the starting point and help us to identify the ethical challenges of emergency department triage. However, they do not offer a comprehensive ethical view. To address the ethical issues of emergency department triage from a more comprehensive ethical view, the care ethics perspective offers additional insights. Summary We integrate the results from the analysis using four principles of biomedical ethics into care ethics perspective on triage and propose an integrated clinically and ethically based framework of emergency department triage planning, as seen from a comprehensive ethics perspective that incorporates both the principles-based and care-oriented approach. PMID:21982119

  9. The level of agreement regarding patient disposition between emergency physicians and consultants in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Mitsunaga; Yamanaka, Katsuo; Kitagawa, Yoshimi

    2013-07-08

    Consultation is a common and important aspect of emergency medicine practice. We examined the frequency of consultations, the level of agreement and factors of disagreement with regard to the disposition of patients who visited two emergency departments (EDs) of tertiary care hospitals in Japan. We analyzed 3,503 consecutive patients who visited two EDs in Japan during a 3-month period. The initial diagnosis in the ED, the presence of consultation, and the patient disposition following the ED visit were recorded. At least one consultation was requested in 34.7% of the patients (1,215/3,503), and 88% of these patients were admitted to the hospital (1,063/1,215). Consultants and emergency physicians (EPs) agreed on patient disposition 95% of the time (1,153/1,215), with κ = 0.76 (95% CI 0.70-0.82). Opinions about disposition were discordant in 5% of the patients consulted upon. In 63% of those cases, patients were not diagnosed in the ED. Consultants and EPs agreed on patient disposition in most cases. In more than half of the cases in which disagreements arose between EPs and consultants, the EPs were not able to reach an initial diagnosis. Further studies are needed to examine the association between disagreements in disposition and adverse outcomes.

  10. The financial consequences of lost demand and reducing boarding in hospital emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Pines, Jesse M; Batt, Robert J; Hilton, Joshua A; Terwiesch, Christian

    2011-10-01

    Some have suggested that emergency department (ED) boarding is prevalent because it maximizes revenue as hospitals prioritize non-ED admissions, which reimburse higher than ED admissions. We explore the revenue implications to the overall hospital of reducing boarding in the ED. We quantified the revenue effect of reducing boarding-the balance of higher ED demand and the reduction of non-ED admissions-using financial modeling informed by regression analysis and discrete-event simulation with data from 1 inner-city teaching hospital during 2 years (118,000 ED visits, 22% ED admission rate, 7% left without being seen rate, 36,000 non-ED admissions). Various inpatient bed management policies for reducing non-ED admissions were tested. Non-ED admissions generated more revenue than ED admissions ($4,118 versus $2,268 per inpatient day). A 1-hour reduction in ED boarding time would result in $9,693 to $13,298 of additional daily revenue from capturing left without being seen and diverted ambulance patients. To accommodate this demand, we found that simulated management policies in which non-ED admissions are reduced without consideration to hospital capacity (ie, static policies) mostly did not result in higher revenue. Many dynamic policies requiring cancellation of various proportions of non-ED admissions when the hospital reaches specific trigger points increased revenue. The optimal strategies tested resulted in an estimated $2.7 million and $3.6 in net revenue per year, depending on whether left without being seen patients were assumed to be outpatients or mirrored ambulatory admission rates, respectively. Dynamic inpatient bed management in inner-city teaching hospitals in which non-ED admissions are occasionally reduced to ensure that EDs have reduced boarding times is a financially attractive strategy. Copyright © 2010 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Headache in the pediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D W

    2001-03-01

    Headache is one of the most common presenting complaints to emergency departments. Although the overwhelming majority of these headaches are benign and self-limited, headache can be the initial symptom of life-threatening disorders. It is therefore essential for physicians to have a rational approach to the evaluation of a child or adolescent who presents to the emergency department with headache. The purpose of this article is to review the causes, evaluation, and appropriate investigations for nontraumatic headache in the pediatric emergency department.

  12. Managing Law Enforcement Presence in the Emergency Department: Highlighting the Need for New Policy Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Tahouni, Morsal R; Liscord, Emory; Mowafi, Hani

    2015-10-01

    The Emergency Department (ED) is the portal of entry to the health care system for a large percentage of patients. This is especially true for victims and perpetrators of interpersonal violence. Frequently, law enforcement personnel (LEP) accompany patients to the ED or seek access to patients during their ED stay or subsequent hospitalization. The time-sensitive nature of both emergency care and criminal investigation motivates both health care personnel and LEP, and can lead to potential conflicts of interest regarding access to patients in the ED. We hope to examine the relationship among patients, providers, and LEP in the ED, and the potential impact these interactions have on patient care. This article presents a review of the relevant literature and policy consideration as well as provides guidance on the development of such policies for EDs. Hospitals, EDs, and trauma resuscitation rooms are highly regulated environments, but LEP largely fall outside the ethical and institutional guidelines of health care institutions. Many potential areas of conflict exist when LEP are present in the ED that can have detrimental effects on patient care, provider liability, and LEP efficacy. Patients' perceptions of collaboration between ED personnel and LEP can compromise emergency patient care. There is a need for hospital policies to govern interactions among patients, emergency health care providers, and LEP in the ED. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Care organization at French pediatric emergency department].

    PubMed

    Gras-Le Guen, Christèle; Vrignaud, Bénédicte; Levieux, Karine

    2015-05-01

    The number of children admitted to paediatric emergencies is increasing steadily, and is responsible for an altered quality in the patients' reception and some major perturbations in the care organization. In this context, the primary care physicians play a major role in explaining their patients "how to use" the paediatric emergency department (priority in case of vital emergency, periods with lot of admissions and increased waiting time ...). Everything must be done to find an altemative to the pediatric emergency department passage by facilitating communication between caregivers and for example by offering semi urgent consultations possibility.

  14. The effect of tropical cyclones (typhoons) on emergency department visits.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Hao; Hou, Sen-Kuang; Shih, Frank Fuh-Yuan; Su, Syi

    2013-09-01

    Case reports have indicated that a tropical cyclone may increase Emergency Department (ED) visits significantly. To examine emergency health care demands across a series of tropical cyclones, and to build a predictive model to analyze a cyclone's potential effect. This was an observational non-concurrent prospective study performed in Taiwan. Twenty hospitals were included. The number of daily ED visits in each hospital was our primary end point, and data were retrieved from the database provided by the National Health Insurance Research Database. Our study examined the period from 2000 to 2008. A total of 22 tropical cyclones (typhoons) that had passed over eastern Taiwan and covered the area under study were included. Multiple linear regression time-series models were employed to estimate the effects of "days since typhoon landfall" and various characteristics of the typhoons on the end point of daily ED visits to each hospital. The final multiple linear regression time-series model showed that the number of daily ED visits increased in areas where a strong typhoon had landed directly, with the increase being evident during the first 2 days since landfall. Our model also indicated that the three most important variables to predict a change in the pattern of daily ED visits were intensity of typhoon, simultaneous heavy rain, and direct landfall. During tropical cyclones, emergency services were under increased demand in selected time periods and areas. Health care authorities should collect information to build local models to optimize their resources allocation in preparation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Anaphylaxis management in the pediatric emergency department: opportunities for improvement.

    PubMed

    Russell, Scott; Monroe, Kathy; Losek, Joseph D

    2010-02-01

    To determine the rate, immediate treatment, and outpatient management for anaphylaxis in patients receiving care in a pediatric emergency department (ED). This is a retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study of patients (21 years or younger) who received care for anaphylaxis for a 5-year period in the ED of the Children's Hospital of Alabama in Birmingham, AL, which has an annual census of 55,000. The diagnostic criteria for anaphylaxis were symptoms and/or signs involving 2 or more organ systems (dermatologic, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular), hypotension for age, 1 organ system involvement with admission to the hospital, and/or dermatologic system involvement treated with intramuscular epinephrine. There were 124 patient visits by 103 patients (4.5 events/10,000 ED patient visits) who met the diagnostic criteria for anaphylaxis. This included 114 (92%) patients who had involvement of two or more organ systems. There were 66 (64%) males and 33 (27%) patient visits that resulted in hospitalization. The most common organ system involvement was dermatologic in 121 (98%), followed by respiratory in 101 (81%), gastrointestinal in 33 (27%), and cardiovascular in 11 (9%). Medical interventions include 69 patients treated with intramuscular epinephrine (56%; either in pre-hospital setting and/or during ED visit), 97 patients treated with corticosteroids (79%), 114 patients treated with H1 and/or H2 antihistamine (93%), 15 patients treated with intravenous fluid bolus (12%), and 37 patients treated with albuterol nebulization (30%). Food was the most common inciting allergen (in 45 or 36% of patients). Among the foods that were listed as causing reactions were peanuts, shellfish, milk, ice cream, fruit, nuts, and fried chicken. Compared with ED care-only patients, the hospitalized patients had a significantly greater rate of cardiovascular system involvement and of receiving more ED interventions. Of 91 ED care-only patients, autoinjection

  16. An exploration of emergency nurses' perceptions, attitudes and experience of teamwork in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Grover, Elise; Porter, Joanne E; Morphet, Julia

    2017-05-01

    Teamwork may assist with increased levels of efficiency and safety of patient care in the emergency department (ED), with emergency nurses playing an indispensable role in this process. A descriptive, exploratory approach was used, drawing on principles from phenomenology and symbolic interactionism. Convenience, purposive sampling was used in a major metropolitan ED. Semi structured interviews were conducted, audio recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Three major themes emerged from the data. The first theme 'when teamwork works' supported the notion that emergency nurses perceived teamwork as a positive and effective construct in four key areas; resuscitation, simulation training, patient outcomes and staff satisfaction. The second theme 'team support' revealed that back up behaviour and leadership were critical elements of team effectiveness within the study setting. The third theme 'no time for teamwork' centred around periods when teamwork practices failed due to various contributing factors including inadequate resources and skill mix. Outcomes of effective teamwork were valued by emergency nurses. Teamwork is about performance, and requires a certain skill set not necessarily naturally possessed among emergency nurses. Building a resilient team inclusive of strong leadership and communication skills is essential to being able to withstand the challenging demands of the ED. Copyright © 2017 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Self Inflicted Injuries among Children in United States – Estimates from a Nationwide Emergency Department Sample

    PubMed Central

    Sulyman, Naseem; Kim, Min Kyeong; Rampa, Sankeerth; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Nalliah, Romesh P.; Allareddy, Veerajalandhar

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objectives of the current study are to provide nationally representative estimates of hospital based emergency department visits (ED) attributed to self inflicted injuries and attempted suicides among children in United States; and to identify potential methods of such intentional self inflicted injuries and attempted suicides. Methods The Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (year 2007) was used. All ED visits occurring among children (aged ≤18 years) with an External Cause of Injury for any of self inflicted injuries were selected. Outcomes examined include hospital ED charges and hospitalization charges. All estimates were projected to national levels. Results 77,420 visits to hospital based emergency departments were attributed to self inflicted injuries among children (26,045 males and 51,370 females). The average age of the ED visits was 15.7 years. 134 patients died in ED’s (106 males and 28 females) and 93 died in hospitals following in-patient admission (75 males and 18 females). A greater proportion of male ED visits were discharged routinely as opposed to female ED visits (51.1% versus 44%). A greater proportion of male ED visits also died in the emergency departments compared to female visits (0.4% versus 0.05%). 17,965 ED visits necessitated admission into same hospital. The mean charge for each ED visit was $1,874. Self inflicted injuries by poisoning were the most frequently reported sources accounting for close to 70% of all ED visits. Conclusions Females comprise a greater proportion of ED visits attributed to self inflicted injuries. 227 children died either in the ED’s or in hospitals. The current study results highlight the burden associated with such injuries among children. PMID:23875006

  18. Developing a programme of patient 'streaming' in an emergency department.

    PubMed

    Smith, Bryan; Burscough, Sheila

    2015-05-01

    Orthopaedic and musculoskeletal injuries are commonly identified in the emergency department (ED). Whilst much orthopaedic trauma literature focuses on fractures of the proximal femur, raising key issues such as length of stay and timely discharge, the start of the patients' journey is just as important in ensuring an appropriate assessment and a smooth transition through each stage of care. In the UK targets have been set for proximal hip fractured patients to attend theatre within 48 hours of admission, if fit. Appraising such patients expediently on initial point of contact in the ED has demonstrated that a number of factors can impinge and delay the patients' progress. This said a large number of other orthopaedic and musculoskeletal self presenting patients rely on the same appropriate transition to suitable medical assistance. The emergency department triage system has been used in the UK in its latest format since 2001, yet elderly patients with painful Colles fractures find they wait for specialist attention in a linear queue, possibly over extended lengths of time. This short paper explores how 'streaming' patients in one local ED has improved waiting/treatment times, and identified the fact that in some months (December 2012), 1 in 3 attendees present with a musculoskeletal problem. Using audit data collected over the last four years the benefits of 'streaming' patients is evident.

  19. Emergency department patient presentations during the 2009 heatwaves in Adelaide.

    PubMed

    Mayner, Lidia; Arbon, Paul; Usher, Kim

    2010-01-01

    While the full impact of climate change is uncertain, it has been widely documented to be responsible for the extreme weather conditions which are experienced in many places around the world. High temperatures during summer are the expected norm for the population living in Adelaide South Australia (SA) and if temperatures reach and remain in the upper thirties centigrade they can be expected to meet the Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology definition of a "heatwave". A number of studies have shown that there is a direct link between the increase in mortality and morbidity among emergency department (ED) patient presentations and periods of extreme heat. Heatwave conditions affect individuals with particular health problems such as cardiovascular, renal or mental health which results in an increase in the patient presentations to the emergency department (ED). This paper describes the findings from the initial phase of a long-term research project investigating the effects of heatwave exposure on particular health conditions with respect to patient presentations (ICD-10 categories) to ED's in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia. The initial results from one public hospital during two heatwave periods experienced in 2009 are presented in this paper. The heat wave events were compared to non-heat wave periods before and after each heat wave. Demographic information as well as diagnostic descriptors are also presented.

  20. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation of pregnant women in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Lavecchia, Melissa; Abenhaim, Haim A

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to determine the prognostic value of pregnancy in women receiving CPR in the emergency department (ED). We conducted a population-based, matched cohort study using the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) from 2006 to 2010. A cohort of pregnant women receiving CPR in the ED was compared to an age-matched cohort of non-pregnant women at a 1:10 ratio. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for variables of interest and survival. Among 8162 women requiring CPR in the ED, we identified 157 pregnant women. Pregnancy was associated with better overall survival of 36.9% compared to 25.9% in non-pregnant women, OR 1.89 (1.32-2.70), p < 0.01. Traumatic injury was identified as a significant predictor of outcome in pregnancy. In non-trauma patients, pregnant women had significantly better odds of surviving CPR than non-pregnant women, OR 2.10 (1.41-3.13), p < 0.01. In cases of trauma, no significant difference was observed between groups. Although further studies are needed, CPR in pregnancy is associated with a better prognosis compared to non-pregnant women, with trauma status being a key factor predicting outcome in the pregnant patient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Time delay to surgery for appendicitis: no difference between surgical assessment unit and emergency department.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Helen; Qvist, Niels; Pedersen, Birthe D; Mogensen, Christian B

    2017-08-01

    In Denmark, emergency departments (EDs) are replacing acute surgical and medical units. The aim of this study was to compare the trajectory of patients undergoing surgery on the suspicion of appendicitis in a surgical assessment unit (SAU) and EDs with an observation unit, respectively. The primary outcome measure was the time from hospital arrival-to-decision for surgery. A comparative retrospective study with a cross-sectional design and a before-and-after design was carried out during January 2011 to December 2012 at a SAU and an ED at a university hospital (U-SAU and U-ED) and at an ED at a regional hospital (R-ED). Data included time of arrival, decision for surgery, surgery and discharge, and number of blood tests. In total, 250 patients were included. Time to decision for surgery was 4.50, 4.95, and 4.63 h (P=0.58) in the U-SAU, R-ED, and U-ED, respectively. Time from decision for surgery to start of surgery was 4.60, 3.29, and 4.12 h in the U-SAU, R-ED, and U-ED, respectively. The difference was significant between the U-SAU and R-ED (P=0.05) and between R-ED and U-ED (P=0.03). Time from surgery to discharge from the hospital was 17.88, 19.28, and 15.13 h in the U-SAU, R-ED, and U-ED, respectively. The difference was significant between the EDs (P=0.02). Significantly more blood tests were performed in the EDs than in the U-SAU. The introduction of EDs with observation units did not influence time to decision for surgery, but more blood tests were performed.

  2. Epidemiology of Otologic Diagnoses in United States Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Kozin, Elliott D.; Sethi, Rosh K.V.; Remenschneider, Aaron K.; Kaplan, Alyson; del Portal, Daniel A.; Gray, Stacey T.; Shrime, Mark G.; Lee, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Otologic complaints may place a significant burden on emergency departments (EDs) in the United States; however, few studies have comprehensively examined this discrete patient population. We aim to identify utilization of EDs by patients with primary otologic complaints. Study Design Retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) from 2009 through 2011. Methods The NEDS database was queried for patient encounters with a primary otologic diagnosis based on ICD9 codes (380–389). Weighted estimates for demographic, diagnostic characteristics, SES, and trends over time were extracted. Predictors of mortality and admission were determined by multivariable logistic regression. Results A weighted total of 8,611,282 visits between 2009 and 2011 were attributed to otologic diagnoses, representing 2.21% of all ED visits. Stratified by patient age, otologic diagnoses encompassed 1.01% and 6.79% of all adult and pediatric ED visits, respectively. The majority of patients were treated and released (98.17%). The average age of patients presenting with an otologic complaint was 17.9 years (Standard Error [SE] = 0.23). Overall, 62.7% of patients that presented with an otologic complaint were 0–17 years old. The most common diagnoses among all age groups included otitis media NOS (60.6%), infected otitis externa NOS (11.8%), and otalgia NOS (6.8%). Conclusions We provide a comprehensive overview of otologic complaints that are an overlooked diagnostic category in public health research. NEDS data demonstrates significant number of visits related to otologic complaints, especially in the pediatric population, that are non-emergent. PMID:25702897

  3. Scheduling prioritized patients in emergency department laboratories.

    PubMed

    Azadeh, A; Hosseinabadi Farahani, M; Torabzadeh, S; Baghersad, M

    2014-11-01

    This research focuses on scheduling patients in emergency department laboratories according to the priority of patients' treatments, determined by the triage factor. The objective is to minimize the total waiting time of patients in the emergency department laboratories with emphasis on patients with severe conditions. The problem is formulated as a flexible open shop scheduling problem and a mixed integer linear programming model is proposed. A genetic algorithm (GA) is developed for solving the problem. Then, the response surface methodology is applied for tuning the GA parameters. The algorithm is tested on a set of real data from an emergency department. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly improve the efficiency of the emergency department by reducing the total waiting time of prioritized patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rethinking our pressure-packed emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Haugh, Richard

    2003-06-01

    With overcrowding the single-most difficult issue now confronting emergency departments, innovative hospitals are experimenting with everything from new technology to redeploying staff to redesigning processes and work areas.

  5. The emergency department "carousel": an ethnographically-derived model of the dynamics of patient flow.

    PubMed

    Nugus, Peter; Forero, Roberto; McCarthy, Sally; McDonnell, Geoff; Travaglia, Joanne; Hilman, Ken; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) overcrowding reduces efficiency and increases the risk of medical error leading to adverse events. Technical solutions and models have done little to redress this. A full year's worth of ethnographic observations of patient flow were undertaken, which involved making hand-written field-notes of the communication and activities of emergency clinicians (doctors and nurses), in two EDs in Sydney, Australia. Observations were complemented by semi-structured interviews. We applied thematic analysis to account for the verbal communication and activity of emergency clinicians in moving patients through the ED. The theoretical model that emerged from the data analysis is the ED "carousel". Emergency clinicians co-construct a moving carousel which we conceptualise visually, and which accounts for the collective agency of ED staff, identified in the findings. The carousel model uniquely integrates diagnosis, treatment and transfer of individual patients with the intellectual labour of leading and coordinating the department. The latter involves managing staff skill mix and the allocation of patients to particular ED sub-departments. The model extends traditional patient flow representations and underlines the importance of valuing ethnographic methods in health services research, in order to foster organisational learning, and generate creative practical and policy alternatives that may, for example, reduce or ameliorate access block and ED overcrowding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Serendipitous findings from an Illinois ED nursing educational survey reflect a crisis in emergency nursing.

    PubMed

    Keough, Vicki A; Schlomer, Rita S; Bollenberg, Barbara W

    2003-02-01

    A survey conducted by the Research Council Of Illinois ENA was intended to assess educational needs, but it revealed some very important serendipitous findings. This survey gave a voice to the frustrations of emergency nurses. A 31-question survey was distributed to 900 Illinois ENA members requesting information about their educational needs. The last question, which formed the basis of this report, asked respondents to list the 3 biggest challenges they face on a daily basis. In addition to the information regarding educational offerings, the survey revealed that ED nurses were overburdened and frustrated in their jobs. Specifically, the nurses identified 7 areas of greatest concern: (1) insufficient and inexperienced staff; (2) increased responsibilities; (3) lack of administrative support; (4) lack of rewards or incentives to stay; (5) low morale among staff; (6) difficulty balancing work and family; and (7) increasing violence in the emergency department. The first step toward addressing a growing crisis in emergency nursing is to listen to the voices of emergency nurses themselves and let their frustrations be heard. The spontaneous comments of emergency nurses point to serious, pervasive, systemic problems in emergency nursing. Such problems will not be solved by "quick fixes" such as sign on bonuses, but rather by listening carefully to the concerns of experienced nurses.

  7. Rising pressure: hospital emergency departments as barometers of the health care system.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Ann S; Gerland, Anneliese M; Pham, Hoangmai H; Berenson, Robert A

    2005-11-01

    Pressures--ranging from persuading specialists to provide on-call coverage to dealing with growing numbers of patients with serious mental illness--are building in already-crowded hospital emergency departments (EDs) across the country, according to findings from the Center for Studying Health System Change's (HSC) 2005 site visits to 12 nationally representative communities. As the number of ED visits rises significantly faster than population growth, many hospitals are expanding emergency department capacity. At the same time, hospitals face an ongoing nursing shortage, contributing to tight inpatient capacity that in turn hinders admitting ED patients. In their role as hospitals' "front door" for attracting insured inpatient admissions, emergency departments also increasingly are expected to help hospitals compete for insured patients while still meeting obligations to provide emergency care to all-comers under federal law. Failure to address these growing pressures may compromise access to emergency care for patients and spur already rapidly rising health care costs.

  8. Management of angioedema without urticaria in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Maria; Prieto-García, Alicia; Sala-Cunill, Anna

    2014-12-01

    Angioedema refers to a localized, transient swelling of the deep skin layers or the upper respiratory or gastrointestinal mucosa. It develops as a result of mainly two different vasoactive peptides, histamine or bradykinin. Pathophysiology, as well as treatment, is different in each case; nevertheless, the resulting signs and symptoms may be similar and difficult to distinguish. Angioedema may occur at any location. When the affected area involves the upper respiratory tract, both forms of angioedema can lead to an imminent upper airway obstruction and a life-threatening emergency. Emergency physicians must have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology underlying this process. Angioedema evaluation in the emergency department (ED) should aim to distinguish between histamine- and bradykinin-induced angioedema, in order to provide appropriate treatment to patients. However, diagnostic methods are not available at the ED setting, neither to confirm one mechanism or the other, nor to identify a cause. For this reason, the management of angioedema should rely on clinical data depending on the particular features of the episode and the patient in each case. The history-taking should be addressed to identify a possible etiology or triggering agent, recording complete information for an ulterior diagnostic study in the outpatient clinic. It is mandatory quickly to recognize and treat a potential life-threatening upper airway obstruction or anaphylaxis. This review focuses on the underlying mechanisms and management of histamine- and bradykinin-induced angioedema at the emergency department and provides an update on the currently available treatments.

  9. Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder in Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Untara; Qamar, Iqra; Jafry, Farhana; Hassan, Mudasar; Shagufta, Shanila; Odhejo, Yassar Islamail; Ahmed, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients, when in crisis, are frequent visitors of emergency departments (EDs). When these patients exhibit symptoms such as aggressiveness, impulsivity, intense anxiety, severe depression, self-harm, and suicidal attempts or gestures, diagnosis, and treatment of the BPD becomes challenging for ED doctors. This review will, therefore, outline advice to physicians and health-care providers who face this challenging patient population in the EDs. Crisis intervention should be the first objective of clinicians when dealing with BPD in the emergency. For the patients with agitation, symptom-specific pharmacotherapy is usually recommended, while for non-agitated patients, short but intensive psychotherapy especially dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) has a positive effect. Although various psychotherapies, either alone or integrated, are preferred modes of treatment for this group of patients, the effects of psychotherapies on BPD outcomes are small to medium. Proper risk management along with developing a positive attitude and empathy toward these patients will help them in normalizing in an emergency setting after which treatment course can be decided. PMID:28824467

  10. [Questionnaire for the utilization of the Emergency Department : Department implications for the patient survey].

    PubMed

    Frick, J; Möckel, M; Schmiedhofer, M; Searle, J; Erdmann, B; Erhart, M; Slagman, A

    2017-09-12

    For several years, Emergency Departments (ED) in Germany have observed increasing patient numbers, resulting in ED crowding. This leads to the question of whether patients with nonurgent conditions could also receive adequate treatment in primary care. Our objective was to develop a quantitative questionnaire to investigate in a larger patient group the reasons for this and to describe the implications for a patient survey in the ED. The development of the questionnaire was based on a literature search and the results of the qualitative EPICS-2 study. Two pretest surveys were conducted in three EDs at the Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. We included patients aged ≥ 18 years with outpatient treatment and the categories blue (nonurgent), green (standard), or yellow (urgent) according to the Manchester Triage System (MTS). In total, 189 patients were recruited in two surveys (pretest 1: n = 89, pretest 2 n = 100). The final questionnaire includes 24 items, which were evaluated and adapted during both pretests. The items evaluate basic clinical characteristics, reasons for choosing the ED, prior contacts in primary care, utilization of primary care after-hours services as well as sociodemographic characteristics. Data from the hospital information system were used to link the survey data with clinical characteristics. The questionnaire is based on reasons for ED utilization. We recommend the written, self-applied questionnaire for patient surveys with plausibility checks conducted by staff. It is necessary to consider the heterogenic study surroundings in the ED, which requires a lot of flexibility during data collection.

  11. Emergency airway management in Australian and New Zealand emergency departments: A multicentre descriptive study of 3710 emergency intubations.

    PubMed

    Alkhouri, Hatem; Vassiliadis, John; Murray, Matthew; Mackenzie, John; Tzannes, Alex; McCarthy, Sally; Fogg, Toby

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the practice of endotracheal intubation across a range of Australasian EDs. We established a multicentre airway registry (The Australian and New Zealand Emergency Department Airway Registry [ANZEDAR]) prospectively capturing intubations from 43 Australian and New Zealand EDs over 24 months using the ANZEDAR form. Information recorded included patient demographics, intubation indications, predicted difficulty, rapid sequence induction and endotracheal intubation preparation technique, induction drugs, airway adjuncts and complications. Factors associated with first attempt success were explored. Of the 3710 intubations captured, 3533 were in adults (95.2%), 2835 (76.4%) for medical and 810 (21.8%) for trauma indications. Overall, 3127 (84.3%) patients were successfully intubated at the first attempt; the majority by ED doctors (2654 [72.1%]). A total of 10 surgical airways were performed, all of which were successful cricothyroidotomies. Propofol, thiopentone or ketamine were used with similar frequency for induction, and suxamethonium was the most often used muscle relaxant. Adverse events were reported in 964 (26%), the majority involving desaturation or hypotension. Australasian ED doctors, predominantly specialist emergency physicians or trainees, perform the majority of ED intubations using rapid sequence induction as their preferred technique mainly for medical indications. First attempt success rate was not different between different types of EDs, and is comparable published international data. Complications are not infrequent, and are comparable to other published series. Monitoring and reporting of ED intubation practice will enable continued improvements in the safety of this high-risk procedure. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  12. Optimal older adult emergency care: introducing multidisciplinary geriatric emergency department guidelines from the American College of Emergency Physicians, American Geriatrics Society, Emergency Nurses Association, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Christopher R; Bromley, Marilyn; Caterino, Jeffrey M; Chun, Audrey; Gerson, Lowell W; Greenspan, Jason; Hwang, Ula; John, David P; Lyons, William L; Platts-Mills, Timothy F; Mortensen, Betty; Ragsdale, Luna; Rosenberg, Mark; Wilber, Scott

    2014-07-01

    In the United States and around the world, effective, efficient, and reliable strategies to provide emergency care to aging adults is challenging crowded emergency departments (EDs) and strained healthcare systems. In response, geriatric emergency medicine clinicians, educators, and researchers collaborated with the American College of Emergency Physicians, American Geriatrics Society, Emergency Nurses Association, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine to develop guidelines intended to improve ED geriatric care by enhancing expertise, educational, and quality improvement expectations, equipment, policies, and protocols. These Geriatric Emergency Department Guidelines represent the first formal society-led attempt to characterize the essential attributes of the geriatric ED and received formal approval from the boards of directors of each of the four societies in 2013 and 2014. This article is intended to introduce emergency medicine and geriatric healthcare providers to the guidelines while providing recommendations for continued refinement of these proposals through educational dissemination, formal effectiveness evaluations, cost-effectiveness studies, and eventually institutional credentialing.

  13. Exploring the views of emergency department staff on the use of videoconferencing for mental health emergencies in southwestern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Pangka, Kyle R; Chandrasena, Ranjith; Wijeratne, Nishardi; Mann, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Patients presenting to a rural emergency department (ED) with mental health symptoms have difficulty accessing services of mental health professionals [1,2]. Videoconferencing (VC) has been found to improve patient access to health services that require specialist care in rural EDs [3,4,5]. Although previous studies highlight the benefit of using VC for patients presenting with mental health emergencies, no study has investigated the current views and use of VC for mental health emergencies in EDs in Southwestern Ontario [3,5,6]. To explore the views of ED staff regarding the use of VC in mental health emergencies, structured telephone interviews were conducted with representatives from EDs in the Erie St. Clair and Southwest Local Health Integration Networks (LHIN). Participants noted that using VC for mental health emergencies may improve patient experience and benefit crisis response teams. VC was perceived by some participants as a means to expedite the direct assessment of a patient presenting with a mental health emergency by a mental health specialist. However several participants stated that using VC for mental health emergencies strains ED resources. Lack of use and difficulty accessing a psychiatrist were identified as potential barriers to implementing the use of VC for mental health emergencies.

  14. Transdisciplinary care in the emergency department: A qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Innes, Kelli; Crawford, Kimberley; Jones, Tamsin; Blight, Renee; Trenham, Catherine; Williams, Allison; Griffiths, D; Morphet, Julia

    2016-03-01

    In response to increasing demands some emergency departments have introduced transdisciplinary care coordination teams. Such teams comprise staff from multiple disciplines who are trained to perform roles outside their usual scope of practice. This study aimed to critically evaluate the patient, carer and ED staff perceptions of the transdisciplinary model of care in an emergency department in a Melbourne metropolitan hospital. The evaluation of the transdisciplinary team involved interviews with patients and carers who have received the transdisciplinary team services, and focus groups with emergency nursing and transdisciplinary team staff. Analysis of the data revealed that the transdisciplinary model provided an essential service, where staff members were capable of delivering care across all disciplines. The ability to perform comprehensive patient assessments ensured safe discharge, with follow-up services in place. The existence of this team was seen to free up time for the emergency nursing staff, enabling them to see other patients, and improving department efficiency while providing quality care and increasing staff satisfaction. This study identified several important factors which contributed to the success of the transdisciplinary team, which was well integrated into the larger emergency department team.

  15. Focused Ultrasound in the Emergency Department for Patients with Acute Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Frances M; Rutz, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The emergency department (ED) plays a key role in the initial diagnosis and management of acute heart failure (AHF). Despite the advent of novel biomarkers and traditional methods of assessment, such as history, examination, and chest X-ray, diagnosis of the dyspnoeic ED patient is, at times, very challenging. Focused cardiac and pulmonary ultrasound has emerged as a valid, facile and efficient method to aid in the initial diagnosis and management of AHF. PMID:28785437

  16. Kaizen: a method of process improvement in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Gregory H; McCoin, Nicole Streiff; Lescallette, Richard; Russ, Stephan; Slovis, Corey M

    2009-12-01

    Recent position statements from health care organizations have placed a strong emphasis on continuous quality improvement (CQI). CQI finds many of its roots in kaizen, which emphasizes small, low-cost, low-risk improvements. Based on the successful Kaizen Programs at organizations such as Toyota, the authors thought the emergency department (ED) would be an ideal environment to benefit from such a program. The authors sought to create a CQI program using a suggestion-based model that did not require a large time commitment, was easy to implement, and had the potential to empower all physicians in the department. It would not take the place of other improvement efforts, but instead augment them. The hypothesis was that such a program would foster sustainable engagement of emergency physicians in system improvement efforts and lead to a continuous stream of low-cost implementable system improvement interventions. A CQI program was created for the physician staff of the Department of Emergency Medicine at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, focusing on a suggestion-based model using kaizen philosophy. Lectures teaching kaizen philosophy were presented. Over the past 4 years, a methodology was developed utilizing a Web-based application, the Kaizen Tracker, which aids in the submission and implementation of suggestions that are called kaizen initiatives (KIs). The characteristics of the KIs submitted, details regarding resident and faculty participation, and the effectiveness of the Kaizen Tracker were retrospectively reviewed. There were 169, 105, and 101 KIs placed in the postimplementation calendar years 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively. Seventy-six percent of KIs submitted thus far have identified a "process problem." Fifty-three percent of KIs submitted have led to operational changes within the ED. Ninety-three percent of the resident physicians entered at least one KI, and 73% of these residents submitted more than one KI. Sixty-nine percent of the

  17. Emergency department syndromic surveillance providing early warning of seasonal respiratory activity in England.

    PubMed

    Hughes, H E; Morbey, R; Hughes, T C; Locker, T E; Pebody, R; Green, H K; Ellis, J; Smith, G E; Elliot, A J

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal respiratory infections place an increased burden on health services annually. We used a sentinel emergency department syndromic surveillance system to understand the factors driving respiratory attendances at emergency departments (EDs) in England. Trends in different respiratory indicators were observed to peak at different points during winter, with further variation observed in the distribution of attendances by age. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed acute respiratory infection and bronchitis/bronchiolitis ED attendances in patients aged 1-4 years were particularly sensitive indicators for increasing respiratory syncytial virus activity. Using near real-time surveillance of respiratory ED attendances may provide early warning of increased winter pressures in EDs, particularly driven by seasonal pathogens. This surveillance may provide additional intelligence about different categories of attendance, highlighting pressures in particular age groups, thereby aiding planning and preparation to respond to acute changes in EDs, and thus the health service in general.

  18. Characteristics of patients who return to the emergency department within 72 hours in one community hospital.

    PubMed

    White, Debra; Kaplan, Louise; Eddy, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This study identifies characteristics of patients who return to the emergency department (ED) within 72 hr after an initial visit. An exploratory quantitative descriptive study was conducted to identify characteristics of patients with unscheduled 72 hr ED returns. The sample consisted of all patients with 72 hr ED return visits for the month of January 2009 at the study facility. Data were collected from electronic patient records utilizing the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey instrument modified to eliminate patient identifiers. There were 169 individuals who had at least one 72 hr return visit to the ED for a total of 393 initial and return ED visits. The most common diagnoses were for gastrointestinal complaints. Over a third of the patients who returned had chronic health conditions. There were more emergency department return visits in individuals who lacked access to primary care.

  19. The Relationship Between Emergency Department Crowding and Patient Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Eileen J.; Pouch, Stephanie M.; Larson, Elaine L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Emergency department (ED) crowding is a significant patient safety concern associated with poor quality of care. The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the relationship between ED crowding and patient outcomes. Design We searched the Medline search engine and relevant emergency medicine and nursing journals for studies published in the past decade that pertained to ED crowding and the following patient outcome measures: mortality, morbidity, patient satisfaction, and leaving the ED without being seen. All articles were appraised for study quality. Findings A total of 196 abstracts were screened and 11 articles met inclusion criteria. Three of the eleven studies reported a significant positive relationship between ED crowding and mortality either among patients admitted to the hospital or discharged home. Five studies reported that ED crowding is associated with higher rates of patients leaving the ED without being seen. Measures of ED crowding varied across studies. Conclusions ED crowding is a major patient safety concern associated with poor patient outcomes. Interventions and policies are needed to address this significant problem. Clinical Relevance This review details the negative patient outcomes associated with ED crowding. Study results are relevant to medical professionals and those that seek care in the ED. PMID:24354886

  20. Literature-based recommendations for suicide assessment in the emergency department: a review.

    PubMed

    Ronquillo, Linda; Minassian, Arpi; Vilke, Gary M; Wilson, Michael P

    2012-11-01

    Suicidal ideation and attempted suicide are important presenting complaints in the Emergency Department (ED). The Joint Commission established a National Patient Safety Goal that requires screening for suicidal ideation to identify patients at risk for suicide. Given the emphasis on screening for suicidal ideation in the general hospital and ED, it is important for Emergency Physicians to be able to understand and perform suicide risk assessment. A review of literature was conducted using PubMed to determine important elements of suicide assessment in adults, ages 18 years and over, in the ED. Four typical ED cases are presented and the assessment of suicide risk in each case is discussed. The goal of an ED evaluation is to appropriately determine which patients are at lowest suicide risk, and which patients are at higher or indeterminate risk such that psychiatry consultation is warranted while the patient is in the ED. Emergency clinicians should estimate this risk by taking into account baseline risk factors, such as previous suicide attempts, as well as acute risk factors, such as the presence of a suicide plan. Although a brief screening of suicide risk in the ED does not have the sensitivity to accurately determine which patients are at highest risk of suicide after leaving the ED, patients at lowest risk may be identified. In these low-risk patients, psychiatric holds and real-time psychiatric consultation while in the ED may not be needed, facilitating more expeditious dispositions from the ED. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison Between Emergency Department and Inpatient Nurses’ Perceptions of Boarding of Admitted Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pulliam, Bryce C.; Liao, Mark Y.; Geissler, Theodore M.; Richards, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The boarding of admitted patients in the emergency department (ED) is a major cause of crowding and access block. One solution is boarding admitted patients in inpatient ward (W) hallways. This study queried and compared ED and W nurses’ opinions toward ED and W boarding. It also assessed their preferred boarding location if they were patients. Methods: A survey administered to a convenience sample of ED and W nurses was performed in a 631-bed academic medical center (30,000 admissions/year) with a 68-bed ED (70,000 visits/ year). We identified nurses as ED or W, and if W, whether they had previously worked in the ED. The nurses were asked if there were any circumstances where admitted patients should be boarded in ED or W hallways. They were also asked their preferred location if they were admitted as a patient. Six clinical scenarios were then presented, and the nurses’ opinions on boarding based on each scenario were queried. Results: Ninety nurses completed the survey, with a response rate of 60%; 35 (39%) were current ED nurses (cED), 40 (44%) had previously worked in the ED (pED). For all nurses surveyed 46 (52%) believed admitted patients should board in the ED. Overall, 52 (58%) were opposed to W boarding, with 20% of cED versus 83% of current W (cW) nurses (P < 0.0001), and 28% of pED versus 85% of nurses never having worked in the ED (nED) were opposed (P < 0.001). If admitted as patients themselves, 43 (54%) of all nurses preferred W boarding, with 82% of cED versus 33% of cW nurses (P < 0.0001) and 74% of pED versus 34% nED nurses (P = 0.0007). The most commonly cited reasons for opposition to hallway boarding were lack of monitoring and patient privacy. For the 6 clinical scenarios, significant differences in opinion regarding W boarding existed in all but 2 cases: a patient with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease but requiring oxygen, and an intubated, unstable sepsis patient. Conclusion: Inpatient nurses and those who have

  2. Opioid Prescribing in a Cross Section of US Emergency Departments.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Jason A; Nelson, Lewis S; Perrone, Jeanmarie; Weiner, Scott G

    2015-09-01

    Opioid pain reliever prescribing at emergency department (ED) discharge has increased in the past decade but specific prescription details are lacking. Previous ED opioid pain reliever prescribing estimates relied on national survey extrapolation or prescription databases. The main goal of this study is to use a research consortium to analyze the characteristics of patients and opioid prescriptions, using a national sample of ED patients. We also aim to examine the indications for opioid pain reliever prescribing, characteristics of opioids prescribed both in the ED and at discharge, and characteristics of patients who received opioid pain relievers compared with those who did not. This observational, multicenter, retrospective, cohort study assessed opioid pain reliever prescribing to consecutive patients presenting to the consortium EDs during 1 week in October 2012. The consortium study sites consisted of 19 EDs representing 1.4 million annual visits, varied geographically, and were predominantly academic centers. Medical records of all patients aged 18 to 90 years and discharged with an opioid pain reliever (excluding tramadol) were individually abstracted by standardized chart review by investigators for detailed analysis. Descriptive statistics were generated. During the study week, 27,516 patient visits were evaluated in the consortium EDs; 19,321 patients (70.2%) were discharged and 3,284 (11.9% of all patients and 17.0% of discharged patients) received an opioid pain reliever prescription. For patients prescribed an opioid pain reliever, mean age was 41 years (SD 14 years) and 1,694 (51.6%) were women. Mean initial pain score was 7.7 (SD 2.4). The most common diagnoses associated with opioid pain reliever prescribing were back pain (10.2%), abdominal pain (10.1%), and extremity fracture (7.1%) or sprain (6.5%). The most common opioid pain relievers prescribed were oxycodone (52.3%), hydrocodone (40.9%), and codeine (4.8%). Greater than 99% of pain

  3. Physicians' assessment of pediatric returns to the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Easter, Joshua S; Bachur, Richard

    2013-03-01

    Return visits to the Emergency Department (ED) requiring admission are frequently reviewed for the purpose of quality improvement. Treating physicians typically perform this review, but it is unclear if they accurately identify the reasons for the returns. To assess the characteristics of pediatric return visits to the ED, and the ability of treating physicians to identify the root causes for these return visits. This retrospective cohort study reviewed all returns within 96 h of an initial visit over a 2-year period at a tertiary care pediatric ED. Baseline characteristics were determined from review of patients' charts. The treating physicians, the primary author, and independent reviewers identified the root cause for the returns. There were 97,374 patients that presented to the ED during the study, and 1091 (1.1%) of these children returned to the ED and were admitted. Returns were most common among children aged<5 years, arriving between 3:00 p.m. and 11:00 p .m. via private transportation, with infectious diseases. The physician involved in the care of the patient attributed 3.1% of returns to potential deficiencies in medical management, whereas the independent reviewers attributed 13% to potential deficiencies. Both returns and the subset of returns due to potential deficiencies in management are more common than previously estimated, rendering review of returns a valuable quality improvement tool. However, EDs should not rely exclusively on the treating physicians to identify the reason for returns, as they seem to underestimate the frequency of returns due to potential deficiencies in medical management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Improving Pediatric Asthma Outcomes in a Community Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Walls, Theresa A; Hughes, Naomi T; Mullan, Paul C; Chamberlain, James M; Brown, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Asthma triggers >775 000 emergency department (ED) visits for children each year. Approximately 80% of these visits occur in community EDs. We performed this study to measure effects of partnership with a community ED on pediatric asthma care. For this quality improvement initiative, we implemented an evidence-based pediatric asthma guideline in a community ED. We included patients whose clinical impression in the medical decision section of the electronic health record contained the words asthma, bronchospasm, or wheezing. We reviewed charts of included patients 12 months before guideline implementation (August 2012-July 2013) and 19 months after guideline implementation (August 2013-February 2015). Process measures included the proportion of children who had an asthma score recorded, the proportion who received steroids, and time to steroid administration. The outcome measure was the proportion of children who needed transfer for additional care. In total, 724 patients were included, 289 during the baseline period and 435 after guideline implementation. Overall, 64% of patients were assigned an asthma score after guideline implementation. During the baseline period, 60% of patients received steroids during their ED visit, compared with 76% after guideline implementation (odds ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-3.0). After guideline implementation, the mean time to steroids decreased significantly, from 196 to 105 minutes (P < .001). Significantly fewer patients needed transfer after guideline implementation (10% compared with 14% during the baseline period) (odds ratio 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.99). Our study shows that partnership between a pediatric tertiary care center and a community ED is feasible and can improve pediatric asthma care. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Unmet Needs at the Time of Emergency Department Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Samuels-Kalow, Margaret; Rhodes, Karen; Uspal, Julie; Smith, A. Reyes; Hardy, Emily; Mollen, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Emergency department (ED) discharge requires conveying critical information in a time-limited and distracting setting. Limited health literacy may put patients at risk of incomplete comprehension, but the relationship between discharge communication needs and health literacy has not been well defined. The goal of this study was to characterize the variation in needs and preferences regarding the ED discharge process by health literacy, and identify novel ideas for process improvement from parents and patients. Methods This was an in-depth qualitative interview study in two EDs using asthma as a model system for health communication. Adult patients and parents of pediatric patients with an asthma exacerbation and planned discharge were enrolled using purposive sampling to balance across literacy groups at each site. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, coded independently by two team members, and analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. Interviews were conducted until thematic saturation was reached in both literacy groups at each site. Results In-depth interviews were completed with 51 participants: 20 adult patients and 31 pediatric parents. The majority of participants identified barriers related to ED providers, such as use of medical terminology; and systems of care, such as absence of protected time for discharge communication. Patients with limited health literacy, but not those with adequate literacy, identified conflicting information between health care sources as a barrier to successful ED discharge. Conclusions Participants across literacy groups and settings identified multiple actionable areas for improvement in the ED discharge process. These included the use of simplified/lay language, increased visual learning and demonstration, and the desire for complete information. Individuals with limited literacy may particularly benefit from increased attention to consistency. PMID:26683867

  6. Costs of Expanded Rapid HIV Testing in Four Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Eggman, Ashley A.; Leff, Jared A.; Braunlin, Megan; Felsen, Uriel R.; Fitzpatrick, Lisa; Telzak, Edward E.; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Branson, Bernard M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 065 trial sought to expand HIV screening of emergency department (ED) patients in Bronx, New York, and Washington, D.C. This study assessed the testing costs associated with different expansion processes and compared them with costs of a hypothetical optimized process. Methods Micro-costing studies were conducted in two participating EDs in each city that switched from point-of-care (POC) to rapid-result laboratory testing. In three EDs, laboratory HIV testing was only conducted for patients having blood drawn for clinical reasons; in the other ED, all HIV testing was conducted with laboratory testing. Costs were estimated through direct observation and interviews to document process flows, time estimates, and labor and materials costs. A hypothetical optimized process flow used minimum time estimates for each process step. National wage and fringe rates and local reagent costs were used to determine the average cost (excluding overhead) per completed nonreactive and reactive test in 2013 U.S. dollars. Results Laboratory HIV testing costs in the EDs ranged from $17.00 to $23.83 per completed nonreactive test, and POC testing costs ranged from $17.64 to $37.60; cost per completed reactive test ranged from $89.29 to $123.17. Costs of hypothetical optimized HIV testing with automated process steps were approximately 45% lower for nonreactive tests and 20% lower for reactive tests. The cost per ED visit to conduct expanded HIV testing in each hospital ranged from $1.21 to $3.96. Conclusion An optimized process could achieve additional cost savings but would require an investment in electronic system interfaces to further automate testing processes. PMID:26862232

  7. Impact of an Expeditor on Emergency Department Patient Throughput

    PubMed Central

    Handel, Daniel A.; Ma, O. John; Workman, Judi; Fu, Rongwei

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Our hypothesis was that an individual whose primary role was to assist with patient throughput would decrease emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS), elopements and ambulance diversion. The objective of this study was to measure how the use of an expeditor affected these throughput metrics. Methods: This pre-and post-intervention study analyzed ED patients ≥ 21-years-old between June 2008 and June 2009, at a level one trauma center in an academic medical center with an annual ED census of 40,000 patients. We created the expeditor position as our study intervention in December 2008, by modifying the job responsibilities of an existing paramedic position. An expeditor was on duty from 1PM–1AM daily. The pre-intervention period was June to November 2008, and the post-intervention period was January to June 2009. We used multivariable to assess the impact of the expeditor on throughput metrics after adjusting for confounding variables. Results: We included a total of 13,680 visits in the analysis. There was a significant decrease in LOS after expeditor implementation by 0.4 hours, despite an increased average daily census (109 vs. 121, p<0.001). The expeditor had no impact on elopements. The probability that the ED experienced complete ambulance diversion during a 24-hour period decreased from 55.2% to 16.0% (OR:0.17, 95%CI:0.05–0.67). Conclusion: The use of an expeditor was associated with a decreased LOS and ambulance diversion. These findings suggest that EDs may be able to improve patient flow by using expeditors. This tool is under the control of the ED and does not require larger buy-in, resources, or overall hospital changes. PMID:21691526

  8. Costs of Expanded Rapid HIV Testing in Four Emergency Departments.

    PubMed

    Schackman, Bruce R; Eggman, Ashley A; Leff, Jared A; Braunlin, Megan; Felsen, Uriel R; Fitzpatrick, Lisa; Telzak, Edward E; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Branson, Bernard M

    2016-01-01

    The HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 065 trial sought to expand HIV screening of emergency department (ED) patients in Bronx, New York, and Washington, D.C. This study assessed the testing costs associated with different expansion processes and compared them with costs of a hypothetical optimized process. Micro-costing studies were conducted in two participating EDs in each city that switched from point-of-care (POC) to rapid-result laboratory testing. In three EDs, laboratory HIV testing was only conducted for patients having blood drawn for clinical reasons; in the other ED, all HIV testing was conducted with laboratory testing. Costs were estimated through direct observation and interviews to document process flows, time estimates, and labor and materials costs. A hypothetical optimized process flow used minimum time estimates for each process step. National wage and fringe rates and local reagent costs were used to determine the average cost (excluding overhead) per completed nonreactive and reactive test in 2013 U.S. dollars. Laboratory HIV testing costs in the EDs ranged from $17.00 to $23.83 per completed nonreactive test, and POC testing costs ranged from $17.64 to $37.60; cost per completed reactive test ranged from $89.29 to $123.17. Costs of hypothetical optimized HIV testing with automated process steps were approximately 45% lower for nonreactive tests and 20% lower for reactive tests. The cost per ED visit to conduct expanded HIV testing in each hospital ranged from $1.21 to $3.96. An optimized process could achieve additional cost savings but would require an investment in electronic system interfaces to further automate testing processes.

  9. Predictors of admission after emergency department discharge in older adults.

    PubMed

    Gabayan, Gelareh Z; Sarkisian, Catherine A; Liang, Li-Jung; Sun, Benjamin C

    2015-01-01

    To identify predictors of hospital inpatient admission of older Medicare beneficiaries after discharge from the emergency department (ED). Retrospective cohort study. Nonfederal California hospitals (n = 284). Visits of Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older discharged from California EDs in 2007 (n = 505,315). Using the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development files, predictors of hospital inpatient admission within 7 days of ED discharge in older adults (≥65) with Medicare were evaluated. Hospital inpatient admissions within 7 days of ED discharge occurred in 23,340 (4.6%) visits and were associated with older age (70-74: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-1.17; 75-79: AOR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.13-1.23; ≥80: AOR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.35-1.46), skilled nursing facility use (AOR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.72-1.94), leaving the ED against medical advice (AOR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.67-1.98), and the following diagnoses with the highest odds of admission: end-stage renal disease (AOR = 3.83, 95% CI = 2.42-6.08), chronic renal disease (AOR = 3.19, 95% CI = 2.26-4.49), and congestive heart failure (AOR = 3.01, 95% CI = 2.59-3.50). Five percent of older Medicare beneficiaries have a hospital inpatient admission after discharge from the ED. Chronic conditions such as renal disease and heart failure were associated with the greatest odds of admission. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. Communication about opioid versus nonopioid analgesics in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Danielle M; Cameron, Kenzie A; Courtney, D Mark; Adams, James G; Engel, Kirsten G

    2015-01-01

    The Medication Communication Index (MCI) was used to compare counseling about opioids to nonopioid analgesics in the Emergency Department (ED) setting. Secondary analysis of prospectively collected audio recordings of ED patient visits. Urban, academic medical center (>85,000 annual patient visits). Patient participants aged >18 years with one of four low acuity diagnoses: ankle sprain, back pain, head injury, and laceration. ED clinician participants included resident and attending physicians, nursing staff, and ED technicians. The MCI is a five-point index that assigns points for communicating the following: medication name (1), purpose (1), duration (1), adverse effects (1), number of tablets (0.5), and frequency of use (0.5). Recording transcripts were scored with the MCI, and total scores were compared between drug classes. The 41 patients received 56 prescriptions (27 nonopioids, 29 opioids). Nonopioid median MCI score was 3 and opioid score was 4.5 (p=0.0008). Patients were counseled equally about name (nonopioid 100 percent, opioid 96.6 percent, p=0.34) and purpose (88.9 percent, 89.7 percent, p=0.93). However, patients receiving opioids were counseled more frequently about duration of use (nonopioid 40.7 percent, opioid 69.0 percent, p=0.03) and adverse effects (18.5 percent, 93.1 percent, p<0.001). In multivariable analysis, opioids (β=0.54, p=0.04), number of medications prescribed (β=-0.49, p=0.05), and time spent in the ED (β=0.007, p=0.006) were all predictors of total MCI score. The extent of counseling about analgesic medications in the ED differs by drug class. When counseling patients about all analgesic medications, providers should address not only medication name and purpose but also the less frequently covered topics of medication dosing, timing, and adverse effects.

  11. Hepatitis C Virus Screening and Emergency Department Length of Stay

    PubMed Central

    White, Douglas A. E.; Anderson, Erik S.; Pfeil, Sarah K.; Deering, Laura J.; Todorovic, Tamara; Trivedi, Tarak K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies demonstrate high rates of previously undiagnosed hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among patients screened in urban emergency departments (ED). Experts caution, however, that public health interventions, such as screening for infectious diseases, must not interfere with the primary mission of EDs to provide timely acute care. Increases in ED length of stay (LOS) have been associated with decreased quality of ED care. Objective In this study, we assess the influence of an integrated HCV screening protocol on ED LOS. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study analyzing timestamp data for all discharged patients over a 1-year period. The primary outcome compared the median LOS in minutes between patients who completed HCV screening and those who did not. Further analysis compared LOS for HCV screening by whether or not complete blood count (CBC) testing was conducted. Results Of 69,639 visits, 2,864 (4%) had HCV screening tests completed and 272 (9.5%) were antibody positive. The median LOS for visits that included HCV screening was greater than visits that did not include screening (151 versus 119 minutes, P < 0.001). Among the subset of visits in which CBC testing was conducted, there was no significant difference in median LOS between visits that also included HCV screening and those that did not (240 versus 242 minutes, P = 0.68). Conclusion Integrated HCV screening modestly prolongs ED LOS. However, among patients undergoing other blood tests, screening had no effect on LOS. Programs may consider routinely offering HCV screening to patients who are undergoing laboratory testing. PMID:27760176

  12. Managing mastitis in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Summers, Anthony

    2011-10-01

    Mastitis is a common clinical condition and, although not exclusive to lactating mothers, most patients with the condition seen by clinical staff fall into this group. Between 3 and 33 per cent of lactating mothers experience an episode of mastitis (Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine 2008, Jahanfar et al 2009). Most of these mothers receive treatment from their midwives or GPs, but some attend EDs and require treatment for, and education about, the condition from emergency care staff, including nurse practitioners (NPs). This article describes mastitis and the various treatment measures, and aims to improve NPs' ability and confidence in recognising and treating the condition.

  13. Temporal Trends in Emergency Department Visits for Bronchiolitis in the United States, 2006-2010

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Kohei; Tsugawa, Yusuke; Brown, David F.M.; Mansbach, Jonathan M.; Camargo, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    Background To examine temporal trends in emergency departments (ED) visits for bronchiolitis among US children between 2006 and 2010. Methods Serial, cross-sectional analysis of the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, a nationally-representative sample of ED patients. We used ICD-9-CM code 466.1 to identify children <2 years of age with bronchiolitis. Primary outcome measures were rate of bronchiolitis ED visits, hospital admission rate, and ED charges. Results Between 2006 and 2010, weighted national discharge data included 1,435,110 ED visits with bronchiolitis. There was a modest increase in the rate of bronchiolitis ED visits, from 35.6 to 36.3 per 1000 person-years (2% increase; Ptrend=0.008), due to increases in the ED visit rate among children from 12 months to 23 months (24% increase; Ptrend<0.001). By contrast, there was a significant decline in the ED visit rate among infants (4% decrease; Ptrend<0.001) Although unadjusted admission rate did not change between 2006 and 2010 (26% in both years), admission rate declined significantly after adjusting for potential patient- and ED-level confounders (adjusted OR for comparison of 2010 with 2006, 0.84; 95%CI, 0.76-0.93; P<0.001). Nationwide ED charges for bronchiolitis increased from $337 million to $389 million (16% increase; Ptrend<0.001), adjusted for inflation. This increase was driven by a rise in geometric mean of ED charges per case from $887 to $1059 (19% increase; Ptrend<0.001). Conclusions Between 2006 and 2010, we found a divergent temporal trend in the rate of bronchiolitis ED visits by age group. Despite a significant increase in associated ED charges, ED-associated hospital admission rates for bronchiolitis significantly decreased over this same period. PMID:23934206

  14. Temporal trends in emergency department visits for bronchiolitis in the United States, 2006 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Kohei; Tsugawa, Yusuke; Brown, David F M; Mansbach, Jonathan M; Camargo, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    To examine temporal trends in emergency departments (EDs) visits for bronchiolitis among US children between 2006 and 2010. Serial, cross-sectional analysis of the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, a nationally representative sample of ED patients. We used International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 466.1 to identify children <2 years of age with bronchiolitis. Primary outcome measures were rate of bronchiolitis ED visits, hospital admission rate and ED charges. Between 2006 and 2010, weighted national discharge data included 1,435,110 ED visits with bronchiolitis. There was a modest increase in the rate of bronchiolitis ED visits, from 35.6 to 36.3 per 1000 person-years (2% increase; Ptrend = 0.008), due to increases in the ED visit rate among children from 12 months to 23 months (24% increase;Ptrend < 0.001). By contrast, there was a significant decline in the ED visit rate among infants (4% decrease; Ptrend < 0.001). Although unadjusted admission rate did not change between 2006 and 2010 (26% in both years), admission rate declined significantly after adjusting for potential patient- and ED-level confounders (adjusted odds ratio for comparison of 2010 with 2006, 0.84; 95% confidence interval: 0.76-0.93; P < 0.001). Nationwide ED charges for bronchiolitis increased from $337 million to $389 million (16% increase; Ptrend < 0.001), adjusted for inflation. This increase was driven by a rise in geometric mean of ED charges per case from $887 to $1059 (19% increase; Ptrend < 0.001). Between 2006 and 2010, we found a divergent temporal trend in the rate of bronchiolitis ED visits by age group. Despite a significant increase in associated ED charges, ED-associated hospital admission rates for bronchiolitis significantly decreased over this same period.

  15. Emergency Department of a Rural Hospital in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Tara; Gaus, David; Herrera, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a paucity of data studying patients and complaints presenting to emergency departments (EDs) in low- and middle-income countries. The town of Pedro Vicente Maldonado (PVM) is located in the northwestern highlands of Ecuador. Hospital PVM (HPVM) is a rural teaching hospital providing family medicine residency training. These physicians provide around-the-clock acute medical care in HPVM’s ED. This study provides a first look at a functioning ED in rural Latin America by reviewing one year of ED visits to HPVM. Methods All ED visits between April 14, 2013, and April 13, 2014, were included and analyzed, totaling 1,239 patient visits. Data were collected from their electronic medical record and exported into a de-identified Excel® database where it was sorted and categorized. Variables included age, gender, mode of arrival, insurance type, month and day of the week of the service, chief complaint, laboratory and imaging requests, and disposition. We performed descriptive statistics, and where possible, comparisons using Student’s T or chi-square, as appropriate. Results Of the 1239 total ED visits, 48% were males and 52% females; 93% of the visits were ambulatory, and 7% came by ambulance. Sixty-three percent of the patients had social security insurance. The top three chief complaints were abdominal pain (25.5%), fever (15.1%) and trauma (10.8%). Healthcare providers requested labs on 71.3% of patients and imaging on 43.2%. The most frequently requested imaging studies were chest radiograph (14.9%), upper extremity radiograph (9.4%), and electrocardiogram (9.0%). There was no seasonal or day-of-week variability to number of ED patients. The chief complaint of human or animal bite made it more likely the patient would be admitted, and the chief complaint of traumatic injury made it more likely the patient would be transferred. Conclusion Analysis of patients presenting to a rural ED in Ecuador contributes to the global study of acute care in

  16. Emergency Department of a Rural Hospital in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tara; Gaus, David; Herrera, Diego

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data studying patients and complaints presenting to emergency departments (EDs) in low- and middle-income countries. The town of Pedro Vicente Maldonado (PVM) is located in the northwestern highlands of Ecuador. Hospital PVM (HPVM) is a rural teaching hospital providing family medicine residency training. These physicians provide around-the-clock acute medical care in HPVM's ED. This study provides a first look at a functioning ED in rural Latin America by reviewing one year of ED visits to HPVM. All ED visits between April 14, 2013, and April 13, 2014, were included and analyzed, totaling 1,239 patient visits. Data were collected from their electronic medical record and exported into a de-identified Excel® database where it was sorted and categorized. Variables included age, gender, mode of arrival, insurance type, month and day of the week of the service, chief complaint, laboratory and imaging requests, and disposition. We performed descriptive statistics, and where possible, comparisons using Student's T or chi-square, as appropriate. Of the 1239 total ED visits, 48% were males and 52% females; 93% of the visits were ambulatory, and 7% came by ambulance. Sixty-three percent of the patients had social security insurance. The top three chief complaints were abdominal pain (25.5%), fever (15.1%) and trauma (10.8%). Healthcare providers requested labs on 71.3% of patients and imaging on 43.2%. The most frequently requested imaging studies were chest radiograph (14.9%), upper extremity radiograph (9.4%), and electrocardiogram (9.0%). There was no seasonal or day-of-week variability to number of ED patients. The chief complaint of human or animal bite made it more likely the patient would be admitted, and the chief complaint of traumatic injury made it more likely the patient would be transferred. Analysis of patients presenting to a rural ED in Ecuador contributes to the global study of acute care in the developing world and also provides a

  17. Emergency contraception in emergency departments in Oregon, 2003.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Kenneth D; Demunter, Jodi K; Liu, Jihong

    2005-08-01

    We sought to learn about access to emergency contraception (EC) in Oregon emergency departments, both for women who are rape patients and for women who have had consensual unprotected sexual intercourse ("nonrape patients"). We interviewed emergency department staff in 54 of Oregon's 57 licensed emergency departments in February-March 2003 (response rate = 94.7%). Only 61.1% of Oregon emergency departments routinely offered EC to rape patients. Catholic hospitals were as likely as non-Catholic hospitals to routinely offer EC to rape patients. The hospitals most likely to routinely offer EC to rape patients had a written protocol for the care of rape patients that included offering EC (P = .02) and access to staff with specialized sexual assault training (P=.002). For nonrape patients, 46.3% of emergency departments discouraged the prescribing of EC. Catholic hospitals were significantly less likely than non-Catholic hospitals to provide access to EC for nonrape patients (P=.05). Oregon emergency departments do not routinely offer EC to women who have been raped or to women who have had consensual unprotected sexual intercourse.

  18. Tick bite and Lyme disease-related emergency department encounters in New Hampshire, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Daly, E R; Fredette, C; Mathewson, A A; Dufault, K; Swenson, D J; Chan, B P

    2017-04-22

    Lyme disease (LD) is a common tick-borne disease in New Hampshire (NH). While LD is a reportable condition and cases are counted for public health surveillance, many more people receive care for tick bites or diagnoses of LD than are reflected in surveillance data. NH's emergency department (ED) data system was queried for tick bite and LD-related encounters. Chief complaint text was queried for words related to LD or tick bites. International Classification of Diseases 9th Revision (ICD-9) codes were queried for the LD diagnosis code (088.81). Emergency department patient data were matched to reportable disease data to determine the proportion of ED patients reported to the health department as a suspected LD case. Data were analysed to calculate frequencies for key demographic and reporting characteristics. From 2010 to 2014, 13,615 tick bite or LD-related ED encounters were identified in NH, with most due to tick bites (76%). Of 3,256 patients with a LD-related ED encounter, 738 (23%) were reported to the health department as a suspected LD case. The geographic distribution of ED patients was similar to reported LD cases; however, the regions of the state that experienced higher rates of ED encounters were different than the regions that observed higher rates of reported LD cases. Seasonal distribution of ED encounters peaked earlier than reported LD cases with a second peak in the fall. While age and sex distribution was similar among ED patients and reported LD cases, the rates for children 5 years and younger and adults 65 years and older were greater for ED encounters. Patients frequently visit the ED to seek care for tick bites and suspected LD. Results of ED data analyses can be used to target education, in particular for ED providers and the public through timely distribution of evidence-based educational materials and training programmes. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. An Integrated Computerized Triage System in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Aronsky, Dominik; Jones, Ian; Raines, Bill; Hemphill, Robin; Mayberry, Scott R; Luther, Melissa A; Slusser, Ted

    2008-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) triage is a fast-paced process that prioritizes the allocation of limited health care resources to patients in greatest need. This paper describes the experiences with an integrated, computerized triage application. The system exchanges information with other information systems, including the ED patient tracking board, the longitudinal electronic medical record, the computerized provider order entry, and the medication reconciliation application. The application includes decision support capabilities such as assessing the patient’s acuity level, age-dependent alerts for vital signs, and clinical reminders. The browser-based system utilizes the institution’s controlled vocabulary, improves data completeness and quality, such as compliance with capturing required data elements and screening questions, initiates clinical processes, such as pneumococcal vaccination ordering, and reminders to start clinical pathways, issues alerts for clinical trial eligibility, and facilitates various reporting needs. The system has supported the triage documentation of >290,000 pediatric and adult patients. PMID:18999190

  20. The stethoscope in the Emergency Department: a vector of infection?

    PubMed

    Núñez, S; Moreno, A; Green, K; Villar, J

    2000-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine whether microorganisms can be isolated from the membranes of stethoscopes used by clinicians and nurses, and to analyse whether or not the degree of bacterial colonization could be reduced with different cleaning methods. We designed a transversal before-after study in which 122 stethoscopes were examined. Coagulase negative staphylococci (which are also potentially pathogenic microorganisms) were isolated together with 13 other potentially pathogenic microorganisms, including S. aureus, Acinetobacter sp. and Enterobacter agglomerans. The most effective antiseptic was propyl alcohol. Analysis of the cleaning habits of the Emergency Department (ED) staff, showed that 45% cleaned the stethoscope annually or never. The isolation of potentially pathogenic microorganisms suggests that the stethoscope must be considered as a potential vector of infection not only in the ED but also in other hospital wards and out-patient clinics.

  1. Identification and Management of Information Problems by Emergency Department Staff

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Alison R.; Reddy, Madhu C.

    2014-01-01

    Patient-care teams frequently encounter information problems during their daily activities. These information problems include wrong, outdated, conflicting, incomplete, or missing information. Information problems can negatively impact the patient-care workflow, lead to misunderstandings about patient information, and potentially lead to medical errors. Existing research focuses on understanding the cause of these information problems and the impact that they can have on the hospital’s workflow. However, there is limited research on how patient-care teams currently identify and manage information problems that they encounter during their work. Through qualitative observations and interviews in an emergency department (ED), we identified the types of information problems encountered by ED staff, and examined how they identified and managed the information problems. We also discuss the impact that these information problems can have on the patient-care teams, including the cascading effects of information problems on workflow and the ambiguous accountability for fixing information problems within collaborative teams. PMID:25954457

  2. Altered Mental Status in Older Emergency Department Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wilber, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Altered mental status is a common chief complaint among older emergency department (ED) patients. Acute changes in mental status are more concerning and are usually secondary to delirium, stupor, and coma. These forms of acute brain dysfunction are commonly precipitated by an underlying medical illness that can be potentially life-threatening and are associated with a multitude of adverse outcomes. Though stupor and coma are easily identifiable, the clinical presentation of delirium can be subtle and is often missed without actively screening for it. For patients with acute brain dysfunction, the ED evaluation should focus on searching for the underlying etiology. Infection is one of the most common precipitants of delirium, but multiple etiologies may exist concurrently. PMID:23177603

  3. Bullying and Suicide Risk among Pediatric Emergency Department Patients

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Ian H.; Horowitz, Lisa M.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Wharff, Elizabeth A.; Pao, Maryland; Teach, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the association between recent bullying victimization and risk of suicide among pediatric emergency department (ED) patients. Methods Patients presenting to one of three different urban pediatric EDs with either medical/surgical or psychiatric chief complaints completed structured interviews as part of a study to develop a suicide risk screening instrument, the Ask Suicide-Screening Questions (ASQ). Seventeen candidate items and the criterion reference Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (SIQ) were administered to patients ages 10 to 21 years. Bullying victimization was assessed by a single candidate item (“In the past few weeks, have you been bullied or picked on so much that you felt like you couldn't stand it anymore?”). Results A total of 524 patients completed the interview (34.4% psychiatric chief complaints; 56.9% female; 50.4% white, non-Hispanic; mean age 15.2±2.6 years). Sixty patients (11.5%) reported recent bullying victimization, and of these, 33 (55.0%) screened positive for suicide risk on the ASQ or the previously validated SIQ. After controlling for demographic and clinical variables, including a history of depression and drug use, the odds of screening positive for suicide risk were significantly greater in patients who reported recent bullying victimization (adjusted odds ratio=3.19, 95% CI=1.66-6.11). After stratification by chief complaint, this association persisted for medical/surgical patients but not for psychiatric patients. Conclusions Recent bullying victimization was associated with increased odds of screening positive for elevated suicide risk among pediatric emergency department patients presenting with medical/surgical complaints. Understanding this important correlate of suicide risk in pediatric emergency department patients may help inform ED-based suicide prevention interventions. PMID:26417959

  4. Pediatric psychiatric emergency department visits during a full moon.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Shyama; Maniaci, Vincenzo; Linares, Marc Yves-Rene; Lozano, Juan M

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to verify the hypothesis that the lunar cycle influences the number of pediatric psychiatric emergency department (ED) visits. Pediatric psychiatric ED visits between 2009 and 2011 were obtained retrospectively. Patients aged between 4 and 21 years presenting to Miami Children's Hospital ED with a primary psychiatric complaint were included in the study. Patients with a concomitant psychiatric problem and a secondary medical condition were excluded. The number of psychiatric visits was retrieved for the full moon dates, control dates as well as the day before and after the full moon when the moon appears full to the naked eye (full moon effect). A comparison was made using the 2-sample independent t test. Between 2009 and 2011, 36 dates were considered as the true full moon dates and 108 dates as the "full moon effect." A total of 559 patients were included in the study. The 2-sample independent t tests were performed between the actual full moon date and control dates, as well as between the "full moon effect" dates and control dates. Our results failed to show a statistical significance when comparing the number of pediatric psychiatric patients presenting to a children's hospital ED during a full moon and a non-full moon date. Our study's results are in agreement with those involving adult patients. The full moon does not affect psychiatric visits in a children's hospital.

  5. Implementation of Stroke Dysphagia Screening in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Stephanie K.; Anderson, Jane A.; Petersen, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of dysphagia is critical in stroke as it improves health care outcomes. Administering a swallowing screening tool (SST) in the emergency department (ED) appears most logical as it is the first point of patient contact. However, feasibility of an ED nurse-administered SST, particularly one involving trial water swallow administration, is unknown. The aims of this pilot study were to (1) implement an SST with a water swallow component in the ED and track nurses' adherence, (2) identify barriers and facilitators to administering the SST through interviews, and (3) develop and implement a process improvement plan to address barriers. Two hundred seventy-eight individuals with stroke symptoms were screened from October 2009 to June 2010. The percentage of patients screened increased from 22.6 in October 2009 to a high of 80.8 in March 2010, followed by a decrease to 61.9% in June (Cochran-Armitage test z = −5.1042,  P < 0.0001). The odds of being screened were 4.0 times higher after implementation compared to two months before implementation. Results suggest that it is feasible for ED nurses to administer an SST with a water swallow component. Findings should facilitate improved quality of care for patients with suspected stroke and improve multidisciplinary collaboration in swallowing screening. PMID:23533742

  6. Parental perceptions of clinical research in the pediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, Lucy E; Paulsen, Elizabeth L; Monuteaux, Michael C; Berry, Mark P; Neuman, Mark I

    2013-08-01

    There is a paucity of information about parental perceptions of clinical research in children, particularly in the emergency department (ED) setting. Parents accompanying their child to the ED completed a self-administered survey gauging perceptions of research and willingness to enroll a child in a clinical research study. Factor analysis was used to correlate survey responses into domains representing parents' feeling about participation in a research study. Logistic regression was used to assess the predictors of caregivers' amenability to research participation for their child. Three hundred eighty-eight parents were enrolled. Most subjects were willing to enroll their child in a study involving follow-up after ED care (87%) and collection of a urine or saliva sample (79% and 81%, respectively) and extant blood (69%). Fewer were amenable to studies that involve an investigational medication (26%) or additional phlebotomy (27%). Overall, more than 90% of parents felt that research was needed to help other children and was conducted in a way that is morally right, and 25% felt that research may compromise their child's confidentiality. Factor analyses yielded 3 factors that accounted for the variance across the survey questions. Patient and parent demographics, including the patient's triage acuity level, were not associated with willingness to participate in research. Most parents are amenable to having their child participate in a research study in the ED setting. Most parents share a sense of altruism that research is needed to help children, and this belief is predictive of willingness to participate in a research study.

  7. Paediatric pain management practice and policies across Alberta emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Ali, Samina; Chambers, Andrea L; Johnson, David W; Craig, William R; Newton, Amanda S; Vandermeer, Ben; Curtis, Sarah J

    2014-04-01

    Many children requiring acute care receive suboptimal analgesia. To describe paediatric pain management practices and policies in emergency departments (EDs) in Alberta. A descriptive survey was distributed to each of the EDs in Alberta. A response rate of 67% (72 of 108) was obtained. Seventy-one percent (42 of 59) of EDs reported the use of a pain tool, 29.3% (17 of 58) reported mandatory pain documentation and 16.7% (10 of 60) had nurse-initiated pain protocols. Topical anesthetics were reported to be used for intravenous line insertion by 70.4% of respondents (38 of 54) and for lumbar puncture (LP) by 30.8% (12 of 39). According to respondents, infiltrated anesthetic was used for LP by 69.2% (27 of 39) of respondents, and oral sucrose was used infrequently for urinary catheterization (one of 46 [2.2%]), intravenous line insertion (zero of 54 [0%]) and LP (one of 39 [2.6%]). Few Alberta EDs use policies and protocols to manage paediatric pain. Noninvasive methods to limit procedural pain are underutilized. Canadian paediatricians must advocate for improved analgesia to narrow this knowledge-to-practice gap.

  8. [Aggressions towards nurses in emergency departments: an international literature review].

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Lorenzo; Bambi, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Workplace violence is a widespread phenomenon in every kind of settings. Among these ones there are emergency departments (ED), that have distinctive features as like the large daily number of patients' presentations, and high emotional content or stressing situations related to the management of diagnostic-therapeutic priorities. We reviewed the medical and nursing literature to quantify the international widespread of aggressions towards nurses working in EDs, distinguish the typologies and the perpetrators, and identify the consequences on victims and healthcare organizations. Original papers were searched using Medline, CINHAL, and Medscape databases.  35 research articles met the inclusion criteria, but 6 were not retrieved. The rate of verbal abuses reported by ED nurses varies from 50% to 100% of those who were surveyed, while physical violence ranges between 16.7% and 72%. Patients and relatives are the main perpetrators, followed by doctors, and, only in lower percentages, by nurses colleagues. Alcohol, drugs abuse, and overcrowding in EDs are acknowledged as motivating factors for violent events. Under-reporting of aggressions is frequent up to the 80% of victims, and some papers report that nurses consider assaults as a normal part of their work. There is a direct relation between aggressions and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disturb syndrome. Moreover there is a sense of continuous fear in nurses, causing the likelihood of workplace leaving. Special educational courses seem to be effective in diminishing the number of aggressions and to adopt adequate adaptive behaviors. 

  9. Seasonal Variation in Emergency Department Visits Among Pediatric Headache Patients.

    PubMed

    Pakalnis, A; Heyer, G L

    2016-09-01

    To ascertain whether seasonal variation occurs in emergency department (ED) visits for headache among children and adolescents. A retrospective review was conducted using the electronic medical records of ED visits for headache at a tertiary children's hospital through calendar years 2010-2014. Using ICD-9 diagnostic codes for headache and migraine, the numbers of headache visits were determined and compared by season and during school months vs summer months. A total of 6572 headache visits occurred. Headache visits increased during the fall season (133 ± 27 visits per month) compared with other seasons (101 ± 19 visits per month), P ≤ .002, but did not differ when comparing school months (113 ± 25 visits per month) and summer months (100 ± 24 visits per month), P = .1. The corresponding increase in ED visits during the fall season coincides with the start of the school year. Academic stressors and the change in daily schedule may lead to more headaches and more ED headache visits among school-aged youth. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  10. Mammography promotion in the emergency department: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, Jennifer; Rayens, Mary K; Schoenberg, Nancy E

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study is to assess the need, desire, and applicability of a mammography promotion project in the emergency department (ED). A convenience sample from the ED of a public University hospital was surveyed to determine their mammography status, interest in a program to promote mammography, and barriers to mammography. The survey included demographics information, health care access, including health insurance and primary care provider, mammography status and date of mammogram, as well as a checklist of potential barriers. Participants were also asked whether they would be interested in mammography promotion in this setting. More than 15% of the 197 women surveyed had never received a mammogram, and more than half had not received 1 in the past year. The most common barriers to mammography were competing demands and money. Three quarters of the women said they would be interested in mammography promotion while waiting for care in the ED. This study provides promise that mammography promotion activities may be appropriately placed in the ED and provides a solid platform from which researchers and nurses may launch efforts to develop preventive health interventions in innovative public health care settings. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Pediatric emergency department census during major sporting events.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tommy Y; Barcega, Besh B; Denmark, T Kent

    2012-11-01

    Our study attempted to evaluate the effects of major sporting events on the census of a pediatric emergency department (ED) in the United States specifically related to the National Football League Super Bowl, National Basketball Association (NBA) Finals, and Major League Baseball World Series. We performed a retrospective data analysis of our pediatric ED census on the number of visits during major sporting events over a 5-year period. Data during the same period 1 week after the major sporting event were collected for comparison as the control. We evaluated the medians of 2-hour increments around the event start time. Subgroup analysis was performed for games involving the local sporting teams. Our results showed no significant difference in ED census during the sporting events, except in the post 6 to 8 hours of the NBA finals. Subgroup analysis of the Los Angeles Lakers showed the same significant findings in the post 6 to 8 hours of the NBA finals. No major difference in pediatric ED census is observed during the most major sporting events in the United States.

  12. Review of modeling approaches for emergency department patient flow and crowding research.

    PubMed

    Wiler, Jennifer L; Griffey, Richard T; Olsen, Tava

    2011-12-01

    Emergency department (ED) crowding is an international phenomenon that continues to challenge operational efficiency. Many statistical modeling approaches have been offered to describe, and at times predict, ED patient load and crowding. A number of formula-based equations, regression models, time-series analyses, queuing theory-based models, and discrete-event (or process) simulation (DES) models have been proposed. In this review, we compare and contrast these modeling methodologies, describe the fundamental assumptions each makes, and outline the potential applications and limitations for each with regard to usability in ED operations and in ED operations and crowding research.

  13. mHealth Tool for Alcohol Use Disorders Among Latinos in Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Abujarad, Fuad; Vaca, Federico E.

    2015-01-01

    Latino drinkers experience a disparate number of negative health and social consequences. Emergency Department Alcohol Screening Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (ED-SBIRT) is viable and effective at reducing harmful and hazardous drinking. However, barriers (e.g. readily available language translators, provider time burden, resources) to broad implementation remain and account for a major lag in adherence to national guidelines. We describe our approach to the design of a patient-centered bilingual Web-based mobile health ED-SBIRT App that could be integrated into a clinically complex ED environment and used regularly to provide ED-SBIRT for Spanish speaking patients. PMID:26844234

  14. "What about Bilingualism?" A Critical Reflection on the edTPA with Teachers of Emergent Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleyn, Tatyana; López, Dina; Makar, Carmina

    2015-01-01

    Amidst the debates surrounding teacher quality and preparation programs, the edTPA (education Teaching Performance Assessment) has emerged to assess future teachers through a portfolio-based certification process. This study offers the perspective of three faculty members who participated in an experimental configuration of edTPA implementation…

  15. "What about Bilingualism?" A Critical Reflection on the edTPA with Teachers of Emergent Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleyn, Tatyana; López, Dina; Makar, Carmina

    2015-01-01

    Amidst the debates surrounding teacher quality and preparation programs, the edTPA (education Teaching Performance Assessment) has emerged to assess future teachers through a portfolio-based certification process. This study offers the perspective of three faculty members who participated in an experimental configuration of edTPA implementation…

  16. Hyponatremia in older adults presenting to the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Joan M; Robinson, Marylou V

    2012-10-01

    Hyponatremia is a common disorder seen in the emergency department and is more prevalent in older adults than in other adult populations (Miller, 2009). Though often discovered by accident, through routine bloodwork, even mild hyponatremia has been shown to have potentially dangerous consequences for older adults, increasing their risks for falls, altered mental status, osteoporosis and fractures, and gastrointestinal disturbances (Soiza and Talbot, 2011). Optimal management of older adults with hyponatremia in the ED involves not only treatment of serum sodium levels and the immediate consequence of the disorder, but exploration and reversal of the causes of the hyponatremia to avoid recurrence. This case study illustrates the clinical presentation, complications and management of hyponatremia in the setting of the emergency department.

  17. Toxicological Emergencies in the Resuscitation Area of a Pediatric Emergency Department: A 12-Month Review.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Gillian A; Kerrey, Benjamin T; Mittiga, Matthew R; Rinderknecht, Andrea S; Yin, Shan

    2017-10-01

    Few studies of children with toxicological emergencies describe those undergoing acute resuscitation, and most describe exposures to single agents. We describe a 12-month sample of patients evaluated in the resuscitation area of a pediatric emergency department (ED) for a toxicological emergency. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients in a high-volume, academic pediatric ED. We identified patients evaluated in the ED resuscitation area for toxicological exposure and conducted structured chart reviews to collect relevant data. For all variables of interest, we calculated standard descriptive statistics. Of 2999 patients evaluated in the resuscitation area through 12 months (March 2009 to April 2010), we identified 80 (2.7%) whose primary ED diagnosis was toxicological. The mean age was 11.4 years. Eighty-six percent of patients were triaged to the resuscitation area for significantly altered mental status. The most frequent single exposures were ethanol (25%), clonidine (10%), and acetaminophen (5%). At least 1 laboratory test was performed for almost all patients (97%). Interventions performed in the resuscitation area included intravenous access placement (97%), activated charcoal (20%), naloxone (19%), and endotracheal intubation (12%). Eighty-two percent of patients were admitted to the hospital; 37% to the intensive care unit. No patients studied in this sample died and most received only supportive care. In a high-volume pediatric ED, toxicological emergencies requiring acute resuscitation were rare. Ethanol and clonidine were the most frequent single exposures. Most patients received diagnostic testing and were admitted. Further studies are needed to describe regional differences in pediatric toxicological emergencies.

  18. Diagnostic accuracy and use of nonmydriatic ocular fundus photography by emergency physicians: phase II of the FOTO-ED study.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Beau B; Thulasi, Praneetha; Fraser, Clare L; Keadey, Matthew T; Ward, Antoinette; Heilpern, Katherine L; Wright, David W; Newman, Nancy J; Biousse, Valérie

    2013-07-01

    During the first phase of the Fundus Photography vs Ophthalmoscopy Trial Outcomes in the Emergency Department study, 13% (44/350; 95% confidence interval [CI] 9% to 17%) of patients had an ocular fundus finding, such as papilledema, relevant to their emergency department (ED) management found by nonmydriatic ocular fundus photography reviewed by neuro-ophthalmologists. All of these findings were missed by emergency physicians, who examined only 14% of enrolled patients by direct ophthalmoscopy. In the present study, we evaluate the sensitivity of nonmydriatic ocular fundus photography, an alternative to direct ophthalmoscopy, for relevant findings when photographs are made available for use by emergency physicians during routine clinical care. Three hundred fifty-four patients presenting to our ED with headache, focal neurologic deficit, visual change, or diastolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 120 mm Hg had nonmydriatic fundus photography obtained (Kowa nonmydriatic α-D). Photographs were placed on the electronic medical record for emergency physician review. Identification of relevant findings on photographs by emergency physicians was compared with a reference standard of neuro-ophthalmologist review. Emergency physicians reviewed photographs of 239 patients (68%). Thirty-five patients (10%; 95% CI 7% to 13%) had relevant findings identified by neuro-ophthalmologist review (6 disc edema, 6 grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy, 7 isolated hemorrhages, 15 optic disc pallor, and 1 retinal vascular occlusion). Emergency physicians identified 16 of 35 relevant findings (sensitivity 46%; 95% CI 29% to 63%) and also identified 289 of 319 normal findings (specificity 91%; 95% CI 87% to 94%). Emergency physicians reported that photographs were helpful for 125 patients (35%). Emergency physicians used nonmydriatic fundus photographs more frequently than they performed direct ophthalmoscopy, and their detection of relevant abnormalities improved. Ocular fundus

  19. Emergency department evaluation of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Leetch, Aaron N; Woolridge, Dale

    2013-08-01

    Child abuse presents commonly to emergency departments. Emergency providers are confronted with medical, social, and legal dilemmas with each case. A solid understanding of the definitions and risk factors of victims and perpetrators aids in identifying abuse cases. Forensic examination should be performed only after the child is medically stable. Emergency providers are mandatory reporters of a reasonable suspicion of abuse. The role of the emergency provider is to identify abuse, facilitate a thorough investigation, treat medical needs, protect the patient, provide an unbiased medical consultation to law enforcement, and to provide an ethical testimony if called to court.

  20. Optimal older adult emergency care: introducing multidisciplinary geriatric emergency department guidelines from the American College of Emergency Physicians, American Geriatrics Society, Emergency Nurses Association, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Christopher R; Bromley, Marilyn; Caterino, Jeffrey M; Chun, Audrey; Gerson, Lowell W; Greenspan, Jason; Hwang, Ula; John, David P; Lyons, William L; Platts-Mills, Timothy F; Mortensen, Betty; Ragsdale, Luna; Rosenberg, Mark; Wilber, Scott

    2014-07-01

    In the United States and around the world, effective, efficient, and reliable strategies to provide emergency care to aging adults is challenging crowded emergency departments (EDs) and a strained health care system. In response, geriatric emergency medicine (EM) clinicians, educators, and researchers collaborated with the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), American Geriatrics Society (AGS), Emergency Nurses Association (ENA), and the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) to develop guidelines intended to improve ED geriatric care by enhancing expertise, educational, and quality improvement expectations; equipment; policies; and protocols. These "Geriatric Emergency Department Guidelines" represent the first formal society-led attempt to characterize the essential attribute of the geriatric ED and received formal approval from the boards of directors for each of the four societies in 2013 and 2014. This article is intended to introduce EM and geriatric health care providers to the guidelines, while providing proposals for educational dissemination, refinement via formal effectiveness evaluations and cost-effectiveness studies, and institutional credentialing.

  1. Benefits of Emergency Departments' Contribution to Stroke Prophylaxis in Atrial Fibrillation: The EMERG-AF Study (Emergency Department Stroke Prophylaxis and Guidelines Implementation in Atrial Fibrillation).

    PubMed

    Coll-Vinent, Blanca; Martín, Alfonso; Sánchez, Juan; Tamargo, Juan; Suero, Coral; Malagón, Francisco; Varona, Mercedes; Cancio, Manuel; Sánchez, Susana; Carbajosa, José; Ríos, José; Casanovas, Georgina; Ràfols, Carles; Del Arco, Carmen

    2017-05-01

    Long-term benefits of initiating stroke prophylaxis in the emergency department (ED) are unknown. We analyzed the long-term safety and benefits of ED prescription of anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation patients. Prospective, multicenter, observational cohort of consecutive atrial fibrillation patients was performed in 62 Spanish EDs. Clinical variables and thromboprophylaxis prescribed at discharge were collected at inclusion. Follow-up at 1 year post-discharge included data about thromboprophylaxis and its complications, major bleeding, and death; risk was assessed with univariate and bivariate logistic regression models. We enrolled 1162 patients, 1024 (88.1%) at high risk according to CHA2DS2-VASc score. At ED discharge, 935 patients (80.5%) were receiving anticoagulant therapy, de novo in 237 patients (55.2% of 429 not previously treated). At 1 year, 48 (4.1%) patients presented major bleeding events, and 151 (12.9%) had died. Anticoagulation first prescribed in the ED was not related to major bleeding (hazard ratio, 0.976; 95% confidence interval, 0.294-3.236) and was associated with a decrease in mortality (hazard ratio, 0.398; 95% confidence interval, 0.231-0.686). Adjusting by the main clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, concomitant antiplatelet treatment, or destination (discharge or admission) did not affect the results. Prescription of anticoagulation in the ED does not increase bleeding risk in atrial fibrillation patients at high risk of stroke and contributes to decreased mortality. © 2017 The Authors.

  2. Emergency Department Coverage by Primary Care Physicians in a Rural Practice-Based Research Network: Incentives, Confidence, and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Edward; Fagnan, Lyle J.; Mattek, Nora; Mahler, Jo; Lowe, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Context: In rural areas of the United States, emergency departments (EDs) are often staffed by primary care physicians, as contrasted to urban and suburban hospitals where ED coverage is usually provided by physicians who are residency-trained in emergency medicine. Purpose: This study examines the reasons and incentives for rural Oregon primary…

  3. Emergency Department Coverage by Primary Care Physicians in a Rural Practice-Based Research Network: Incentives, Confidence, and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Edward; Fagnan, Lyle J.; Mattek, Nora; Mahler, Jo; Lowe, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Context: In rural areas of the United States, emergency departments (EDs) are often staffed by primary care physicians, as contrasted to urban and suburban hospitals where ED coverage is usually provided by physicians who are residency-trained in emergency medicine. Purpose: This study examines the reasons and incentives for rural Oregon primary…

  4. Where Do Freestanding Emergency Departments Choose to Locate? A National Inventory and Geographic Analysis in Three States.

    PubMed

    Schuur, Jeremiah D; Baker, Olesya; Freshman, Jaclyn; Wilson, Michael; Cutler, David M

    2017-04-01

    We determine the number and location of freestanding emergency departments (EDs) across the United States and determine the population characteristics of areas where freestanding EDs are located. We conducted a systematic inventory of US freestanding EDs. For the 3 states with the highest number of freestanding EDs, we linked demographic, insurance, and health services data, using the 5-digit ZIP code corresponding to the freestanding ED's location. To create a comparison nonfreestanding ED group, we matched 187 freestanding EDs to 1,048 nonfreestanding ED ZIP codes on land and population within state. We compared differences in demographic, insurance, and health services factors between matched ZIP codes with and without freestanding EDs, using univariate regressions with weights. We identified 360 freestanding EDs located in 30 states; 54.2% of freestanding EDs were hospital satellites, 36.6% were independent, and 9.2% were not classifiable. The 3 states with the highest number of freestanding EDs accounted for 66% of all freestanding EDs: Texas (181), Ohio (34), and Colorado (24). Across all 3 states, freestanding EDs were located in ZIP codes that had higher incomes and a lower proportion of the population with Medicaid. In Texas and Ohio, freestanding EDs were located in ZIP codes with a higher proportion of the population with private insurance. In Texas, freestanding EDs were located in ZIP codes that had fewer Hispanics, had a greater number of hospital-based EDs and physician offices, and had more physician visits and medical spending per year than ZIP codes without a freestanding ED. In Ohio, freestanding EDs were located in ZIP codes with fewer hospital-based EDs. In Texas, Ohio, and Colorado, freestanding EDs were located in areas with a better payer mix. The location of freestanding EDs in relation to other health care facilities and use and spending on health care varied between states. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians

  5. Obesity screening in the pediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Lisa M; Nabors, Laura; Pelley, Terri J; Hampton, Rebecca R; Jacquez, Farrah; Mahabee-Gittens, E Melinda

    2012-06-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to examine parental perception of childhood obesity and race with measured body mass index (BMI), (2) to determine if parents are receptive to obesity screening in the pediatric emergency department and if receptivity varies by race or weight status, and (3) to determine eating habits that are predictors of obesity. This study is a cross-sectional study, with a convenience sample of 213 patients (aged 4-16 years accompanied by a parent/legal guardian to a pediatric emergency department). Weight and height were obtained, and parents were asked to complete a survey about perception of their child's weight, nutrition, and exercise habits. The current study found that parent perception of weight status was fairly accurate, and perception was predictive of BMI. Race, however, was not predictive of BMI. Parents were generally receptive of weight screening in the pediatric emergency department, and this did not vary as a function of weight status; however, receptivity did vary based on ethnicity, with African American parents being more receptive than white parents. Large portion sizes and the number of times a child eats fast food per week were found to be predictive of obesity. Greater than half of the children presenting to our pediatric emergency department were overweight or obese. Parents were generally accurate in their perception of their child's weight but were still receptive to obesity prevention and screening in the pediatric emergency department.

  6. Predicting the complicated neutropenic fever in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Moon, J M; Chun, B J

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify independent factors that can be used to predict whether febrile neutropenic patients who appear healthy at presentation will develop subsequent complications, using variables that are readily available in the emergency department (ED). Method: The medical records of 192 episodes in which the patients presented to the ED with neutropenic fever resulting from chemotherapy, with an alert mental state and haemodynamic stability were retrospectively reviewed. Endpoints examined were fever response to administered antibiotics, death or severe medical complications during hospitalisation. Results: Thirty-eight episodes of neutropenic fever with complicated outcomes were identified from among a total of 192 episodes. Three parameters emerged as independent factors for the prediction of neutropenic fever with complications in the multivariate regression analysis: platelet count (130−450 × 103 cells/mm3) <50 000 cells/mm3, serum C-reactive protein (CRP, 0.1–1 mg/dl) >10 mg/dl and pulmonary infiltration on chest x ray. Conclusions: Platelet count, CRP and pulmonary infiltration on chest x ray at presentation could be used to identify febrile neutropenic patients who will develop complications, and these factors may be useful in making treatment-related decisions in the ED. PMID:19850806

  7. Managing pediatric dental trauma in a hospital emergency department.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jonathan; Sheller, Barbara; Velan, Elizabeth; Caglar, Derya; Scott, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) examine types of dental trauma presenting to a hospital emergency department (ED); (2) describe the medical services provided to these patients; and (3) quantify time spent during ED encounters for dental trauma emergencies. Records of 265 patients who presented to the ED with dental trauma over a three-year period were reviewed. Demographics, injury types, triage acuity, pain scores, and dental/medical treatment and times were analyzed. Patient demographics and injury types were similar to previous studies. Eighty-two percent of patients received mid-level triage scores; 41 percent of patients had moderate to severe pain. The most frequently provided medical services were administration of analgesics and/or prescriptions (78 percent). The mean times were: 51 minutes waiting for a physician; 55 minutes with dentists; and 176 minutes total time. Higher triage acuity and pain levels resulted in significantly longer wait times for physician assessment. Dental evaluation, including treatment, averaged 32 percent of time spent at the hospital. A dental clinic is the most efficient venue for treating routine dental trauma. Patients in this study spent the majority of time waiting for physicians and receiving nondental services. Most patients required no medical intervention beyond prescriptions commonly used in dental practice.

  8. Telehealth-Enabled Emergency Medical Services Program Reduces Ambulance Transport to Urban Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Langabeer, James R.; Gonzalez, Michael; Alqusairi, Diaa; Champagne-Langabeer, Tiffany; Jackson, Adria; Mikhail, Jennifer; Persse, David

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Emergency medical services (EMS) agencies transport a significant majority of patients with low acuity and non-emergent conditions to local emergency departments (ED), affecting the entire emergency care system’s capacity and performance. Opportunities exist for alternative models that integrate technology, telehealth, and more appropriately aligned patient navigation. While a limited number of programs have evolved recently, no empirical evidence exists for their efficacy. This research describes the development and comparative effectiveness of one large urban program. Methods The Houston Fire Department initiated the Emergency Telehealth and Navigation (ETHAN) program in 2014. ETHAN combines telehealth, social services, and alternative transportation to navigate primary care-related patients away from the ED where possible. Using a case-control study design, we describe the program and compare differences in effectiveness measures relative to the control group. Results During the first 12 months, 5,570 patients participated in the telehealth-enabled program, which were compared against the same size control group. We found a 56% absolute reduction in ambulance transports to the ED with the intervention compared to the control group (18% vs. 74%, P<.001). EMS productivity (median time from EMS notification to unit back in service) was 44 minutes faster for the ETHAN group (39 vs. 83 minutes, median). There were no statistically significant differences in mortality or patient satisfaction. Conclusion We found that mobile technology-driven delivery models are effective at reducing unnecessary ED ambulance transports and increasing EMS unit productivity. This provides support for broader EMS mobile integrated health programs in other regions. PMID:27833678

  9. Public health and clinical impact of increasing emergency department-based HIV testing: perspectives from the 2007 conference of the National Emergency Department HIV Testing Consortium.

    PubMed

    Kecojevic, Aleksandar; Lindsell, Christopher J; Lyons, Michael S; Holtgrave, David; Torres, Gretchen; Heffelfinger, James; Brown, Jeremy; Couture, Eileen; Jung, Julianna; Connell, Samantha; Rothman, Richard E

    2011-07-01

    Understanding perceived benefits and disadvantages of HIV testing in emergency departments (EDs) is imperative to overcoming barriers to implementation. We codify those domains of public health and clinical care most affected by implementing HIV testing in EDs, as determined by expert opinion. Opinions were systematically collected from attendees of the 2007 National ED HIV Testing Consortium meeting. Structured evaluation of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis was conducted to assess the impact of ED-based HIV testing on public health. A modified Delphi method was used to assess the impact of ED-based HIV testing on clinical care from both individual patient and individual provider perspectives. Opinions were provided by 98 experts representing 42 academic and nonacademic institutions. Factors most frequently perceived to affect public health were (strengths) high volume of ED visits and high prevalence of HIV, (weaknesses) undue burden on EDs, (opportunities) reduction of HIV stigma, and (threats) lack of resources in EDs. Diagnostic testing and screening for HIV were considered to have a favorable impact on ED clinical care from both individual patient and individual provider perspectives; however, negative test results were not perceived to have any benefit from the provider's perspective. The need for HIV counseling in the ED was considered to have a negative impact on clinical care from the provider's perspective. Experts in ED-based HIV testing perceived expanded ED HIV testing to have beneficial impacts for both the public health and individual clinical care; however, limited resources were frequently cited as a possible impediment. Many issues must be resolved through further study, education, and policy changes if the full potential of HIV testing in EDs is to be realized. Copyright © 2011. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  10. Linking uninsured patients treated in the emergency department to primary care shows some promise in Maryland.

    PubMed

    Kim, Theresa Y; Mortensen, Karoline; Eldridge, Barbara

    2015-05-01

    Use of the emergency department (ED) has increased significantly over the past twenty years, especially among people who lack access to regular care, such as from a primary care provider. Not only are many ED visits avoidable, but receiving care through the ED also may disrupt continuity of care and result in increased overall health care costs. This article analyzes one of the twenty-nine local projects funded by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services: the Emergency Department-Primary Care Connect initiative of the Primary Care Coalition of Montgomery County, Maryland. The initiative linked low-income or uninsured patients with local safety-net primary care providers. In the period 2009-11, five participating hospital EDs referred 10,761 low-income uninsured ED patients to four local primary care clinics. The intervention did not significantly reduce overall subsequent ED visits, but there was a significant reduction in subsequent ED visits among the subpopulation with chronic physical or behavioral conditions if they had more than two visits to the same primary care clinic. Our findings suggest that expansion of safety-net clinics, combined with strategies to link high-need patients in the ED with these primary care providers, can reduce subsequent ED use.

  11. Analysis of patient flow in the emergency department and the effect of an extensive reorganisation

    PubMed Central

    Miro, O; Sanchez, M; Espinosa, G; Coll-Vinent, B; Bragulat, E; Milla, J; Wardrope, J

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the different internal factors influencing patient flow, effectiveness, and overcrowding in the emergency department (ED), as well as the effects of ED reorganisation on these indicators. Methods: The study compared measurements at regular intervals of three hours of patient arrivals and patient flow between two comparable periods (from 10 February to 2 March) of 1999 and 2000. In between, a structural and staff reorganisation of ED was undertaken. The main reason for each patient remaining in ED was recorded and allocated to one of four groups: (1) factors related to ED itself ; (2) factors related to ED-hospital interrelation; (3) factors related to hospital itself; and (4) factors related to neither ED nor hospital. The study measured the number of patients waiting to be seen and the waiting time to be seen as effectiveness markers, as well as the percentage of time that ED was overcrowded, as judged by numerical and functional criteria. Results: Effectiveness of ED was closely related with some ED related and hospital related factors. After the reorganisation, patients who remained in ED because of hospital related or non-ED-non-hospital related factors decreased. ED reorganisation reduced the number of patients waiting to be seen from 5.8 to 2.5 (p<0.001) and waiting time from 87 to 24 minutes (p<0.001). Before the reorganisation, 31% and 48% of the time was considered to be overcrowded in numerical and functional terms respectively. After the reorganisation, these figures were reduced to 8% and 15% respectively (p<0.001 for both). Conclusions: ED effectiveness and overcrowding are not only determined by external pressure, but also by internal factors. Measurement of patient flow across ED has proved useful in detecting these factors and in being used to plan an ED reorganisation. PMID:12642527

  12. Emergency department visits related to functional abdominal pain in the pediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Pant, Chaitanya; Deshpande, Abhishek; Sferra, Thomas J; Olyaee, Mojtaba

    2017-01-10

    To analyze visits to and admissions from the emergency department (ED) in children with a primary diagnosis of functional abdominal pain (FAP). This was a cross-sectional study using data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (HCUP-NEDS 2008-2012). FAP-related ED visits were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. The most frequent secondary diagnoses associated with FAP-related ED visits were also extracted. In 2012, a total of 796,665 children presented to the ED with a primary diagnosis of FAP. This correlated to a rate of 11.5 ED visits/1000 population. The highest incidence of ED visits was observed for children in the 10-14-year age group; median (IQR) age of 11 (8) years. In analyzing the temporal trends associated with FAP-related ED visits, we observed an increase in both the overall number of visits (14.0%) as well as the population-adjusted incidence (16.0%) during the period 2008-2012. This coincided with a decreasing trend in hospital admissions from the ED; from 1.4% in 2008 to 1.0% in 2012 (-28.5%). The overwhelming majority (96.7%) of patients with FAP who presented to the ED were treated and released. On multivariate analysis, the leading factor associated with an increased likelihood of admission from the ED was teaching hospital status (aOR 2.07; 95% CI 1.97 to 2.18). The secondary diagnosis most commonly associated with FAP-related ED visits was nausea and/or emesis (19.8%). Pediatric FAP-related ED visits increased significantly from the period 2008 to 2012. However, the incidence of hospital admissions from the ED declined during the same period.

  13. Self-reported pain relief interventions of patients before emergency department arrival.

    PubMed

    Tasdemir, Nurten; Celik, Sevim

    2016-09-01

    Pain is the most common reason for visiting the Emergency Department (ED), and pain management is an important aspect of emergency care. Pain management might begin before emergency department arrival, by a patient's self-administered medications or alternative therapies. This study aimed to determine Turkish patients' self-reported pain relief interventions before ED arrival. A prospective questionnaire survey was used for the study. A total of 150 adult ED patients from a teaching hospital ED in a two month period constituted the sample of the study. Of the patients surveyed, 62.7% had used medication and/or alternative therapies. Medication use was 30.1%, alternative therapy use was 21.3%, and use of both medication and alternative therapies before ED arrival was 11.3%. The rate of self-administered intervention for pain relief before ED arrival was high. ED nurses have to take these interventions into account while performing pain assessment. The information may help to achieve better pain management in the ED. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Training and competency in rapid sequence intubation: the perspective from a Scottish teaching hospital emergency department.

    PubMed

    Donald, C B

    2011-09-01

    Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) is an established core competency for emergency medicine trainees. The training and experience required to achieve competency is unclear. To illustrate the RSI training and experience attained as a specialist registrar in a Scottish teaching hospital emergency department (ED) and establish whether it is sufficient to progress to independent practice. Single centre observational study in the ED of Ninewells Hospital, Dundee. RSI data were collected over a 51-month period (April 2005-July 2009) specifically for: patient population; case-mix; operator; and pre-hospital RSI. Competency was assessed by a postal survey questionnaire. 329 RSIs were performed. Trauma was the most common reason for RSI, in 134 (41%) patients. Emergency physicians were the primary operator in 288 (88%) cases. ED registrars were the predominant operator in 206 (63%) RSI. ED registrars perform approximately 6.5 RSI/year. Pre-hospital RSI occurred in 45 (14%) patients. An ED registrar was the operator in 15 (33%) vs an ED consultant in 30 (66%). 12 (71%) of the 17 questionnaires were completed. All trainees (100%) were confident to perform RSI independently at the end of registrar training. 7 (60%) were confident to practice RSI in the pre-hospital environment. ED trainees in this department achieve a relatively broad experience and exposure to RSI. Trainees appear to be satisfied with the training they have obtained in order to continue with ED RSI as a new consultant. Additional training is likely to be necessary to confidently perform pre-hospital RSI.

  15. Israeli emergency department nurses' attitudes to an extension of their role and powers.

    PubMed

    Azuri, Pazit; Haron, Yafa; Riba, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the opinions of Israeli ED nurses as to (1) an expansion of their powers and autonomy in treating commonly presenting ED conditions, (2) whether nurses or physicians should be responsible for giving ED patients necessary information and (3) whether ED nurses should perform triage. The development of the new emergency nurse practitioner role has relieved the pressure on emergency departments, reduced patient waiting times and raised patient satisfaction. Israel has yet to introduce either this role or the triage approach into its emergency departments. This investigation was designed as a cross-sectional study by self-administered questionnaire. The researchers distributed a questionnaire they had developed and validated to 270 registered nurses working in 18 general hospital emergency departments. The responses were analysed by chi-square and t-tests and anova. Of respondents 60-90% agreed that they should be granted 10 out of a list of 12 new powers, and a large majority thought nurses should be responsible for performing triage. They wanted to increase the information they gave to patients, both on general ED functioning and on specific medically related matters. The contribution of this study is the positive response of a large representative sample of ED nurses to extending their powers. It will be necessary to establish postregistration training courses and draw up new regulations reshaping the delivery of emergency medicine. The study demonstrates that ED nurses are convinced that they need the authority to diagnose and treat commonly presenting ED conditions and perform triage and discharge in order for their department to optimally exploit the resources available to it. The study should promote the development of the emergency nurse practitioner role in Israel and so reduce patient waiting times. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Managing dental pain in the emergency department: dental disparities with practice implications.

    PubMed

    Dowling Evans, Dian; Gisness, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This column critiques the findings from a retrospective medical record review, "Doctor, my tooth hurts, the costs of incomplete dental care in the emergency room," by . The study was designed to examine characteristics of patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) with dental related problems and their associated costs of care. The study also looked at the frequency of dental related return visits speculated to represent ineffective ED treatment of underlying dental problems. We discuss the findings from this study in the context of growing concern about dental health disparities within the United States, including implications for advanced practice nurse management of dental related problems in the ED.

  17. Portrait of rural emergency departments in Québec and utilization of the provincial emergency department management Guide: cross sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Fleet, Richard; Poitras, Julien; Archambault, Patrick; Tounkara, Fatoumata Korika; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Ouimet, Mathieu; Gauthier, Josée; Dupuis, Gilles; Tanguay, Alain; Lévesque, Jean-Frédéric; Simard-Racine, Geneviève; Haggerty, Jeannie; Légaré, France

    2015-12-23

    Rural emergency departments (EDs) constitute crucial safety nets for the 20% of Canadians who live in rural areas. Pilot data suggests that the province of Québec appears to provide more comprehensive access to services than do other provinces. A difference that may be attributable to provincial policy/guidelines "the provincial ED management Guide". The aim of this study was to provide a detailed description of rural EDs in Québec and utilization of the provincial ED management Guide. We selected EDs offering 24/7 medical coverage, with hospitalization beds, located in rural or small towns. We collected data via telephone, paper, and online surveys with rural ED/hospital staff. Data were also collected from Québec's Ministry of Health databases and from Statistics Canada. We computed descriptive statistics, ANOVA and t-tests were used to examine the relationship between ED census, services and inter-facility transfer requirements. A total of 23 of Québec's 26 rural EDs (88%) consented to participate in the study. The mean annual ED visits was 18 813 (Standard Deviation = 6 151). Thirty one percent of ED physicians were recent graduates with fewer than 5 years of experience. Only 6 % had residency training or certification in emergency medicine. Teams have good local access (24/7) to diagnostic equipment such as CT scanner (74%), intensive unit care (78%) and general surgical services (78%), but limited access to other consultants. Sixty one percent of participants have reported good knowledge of the provincial ED management Guide, but only 23% of them have used the guidelines. Furthermore, more than 40% of EDs were more than 300 km from levels 1 to 2 trauma centers, and only 30% had air transport access. Rural EDs in Québec are staffed by relatively new graduates working as solo physicians in well-resourced and moderately busy (by rural standards) EDs. The provincial ED management Guide may have contributed to this model of service attribution. However, the

  18. Use of Cardiac Biomarker Testing in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Makam, Anil N.; Nguyen, Oanh K.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Cardiac biomarker testing is not routinely indicated in the emergency department (ED) because of low utility and potential downstream harms from false-positive results. However, current rates of testing are unknown. Objective To determine the use of cardiac biomarker testing overall, as well as stratified by disposition status and selected characteristics. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective study of ED visits by adults (≥18 years old) selected from the 2009 and 2010 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, a probability sample of ED visits in the United States. Exposures Selected patient, visit, and ED characteristics. Main Outcomes and Measures Receipt of cardiac biomarker testing during the ED visit. Results Of 44 448 ED visits, cardiac biomarkers were tested in 16.9% of visits, representing 28.6 million visits. Biomarker testing occurred in 8.2% of visits in the absence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS)-related symptoms, representing 8.5 million visits, almost one-third of all visits with biomarker testing. Among individuals subsequently hospitalized, cardiac biomarkers were tested in 47.0% of all visits. In this group, biomarkers were tested in 35.4% of visits despite the absence of ACS-related symptoms. Among all ED visits, the number of other tests or services performed was the strongest predictor of biomarker testing independent of symptoms of ACS. Compared with 0 to 5 other tests or services performed, more than 10 other tests or services performed was associated with 59.55 (95% CI, 39.23-90.40) times the odds of biomarker testing. The adjusted probabilities of biomarker testing if 0 to 5, 6 to 10, or more than 10 other tests or services performed were 6.3%, 34.3%, and 62.3%, respectively. Conclusions and Relevance Cardiac biomarker testing in the ED is common even among those without symptoms suggestive of ACS. Cardiac biomarker testing is also frequently used during visits with a high volume of other tests or services

  19. Prognostic factors in outcome of angioedema in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Felder, Sarah; Curtis, R Mason; Ball, Ian; Borici-Mazi, Rozita

    2014-01-01

    Angioedema is a transient, localized swelling caused by two distinct mechanisms, mediated by histamine and bradykinin, respectively, although a proportion of cases remain idiopathic. Studies that characterize undifferentiated angioedema presenting in emergency departments (EDs) are limited. This study investigates the presentation patterns of undifferentiated angioedema in the ED based on the presumed mechanism of swelling. Medical records from all ED visits to two tertiary care hospitals from July 2007 to March 2012 were electronically reviewed. Records with documented visible swelling on general inspection and/or fiberoptic laryngoscopy and a diagnostic code for anaphylactic shock, angioneurotic edema, allergy unspecified, defects in the complement system, or unspecified drug adverse effects were included. Demographic, clinical, and outcome data were collected via a standardized form. Data were analyzed descriptively, including frequencies and percentages for categorical data and means and SDs for continuous data. Predictors for admission were identified using multivariate logistic regression models. ED records from 527 visits for angioedema by 455 patients were included in the study. Annual rate of angioedema was 1 per 1000 ED visits. Urticaria was associated with peripheral (p = 0.008) and lip angioedema (p = 0.001), and the absence of urticaria correlated with tongue angioedema (p = 0.001) and trended toward correlation with pharyngeal angioedema (p = 0.056). Significant predictors of admission included nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced angioedema (odds ratio [OR], 15.3), epinephrine treatment (OR, 8.34), hypotension (OR, 15.7), multiple-site angioedema (OR, 4.25), and pharyngeal (OR, 1.23) and tongue angioedema (OR, 4.62). Concomitant urticaria was associated with a significant longer stay in the ED (p < 0.001). The presence of urticaria correlated with the location of angioedema, need for airway management, length of ED visit, and recurrence. A

  20. ST2 in Emergency Department Patients With Noncardiac Dyspnea

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Justin L.; Hicks, Caitlin W.; Engineer, Rakesh S.; Hart, Kimberly W.; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Peacock, William F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Serum levels of soluble ST2, a member of the interleukin-1 receptor family, predict mortality in emergency department (ED) patients with dyspnea secondary to acute heart failure and acute coronary syndrome. Elevated levels of ST2 have also been described in pulmonary disease, but it is unclear if these are associated with adverse outcomes. The hypothesis for this study was that elevated ST2 levels would be associated with 180-day mortality and 180-day return ED visits or hospital readmission in patients presenting to the ED with noncardiac causes of dyspnea. Methods: This prospective observational cohort study enrolled a convenience sample of patients presenting to a single academic tertiary care ED with a chief complaint of dyspnea. Exclusion criteria included dyspnea due to chest wall trauma, airway obstruction, and known cardiac etiology (new onset heart failure, prior heart failure with current brain natriuretic peptide > 500 pg/mL, presumed ischemic chest pain, elevated troponin, electrocardiogram changes indicating myocardial infarction or ischemia, heart transplant). ST2 levels were measured at ED presentation and compared between those with and without adverse outcomes. Staff were blinded to ST2 levels. Differences between groups were assessed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Of the 82 patients enrolled, 45 (55%) were female, 48 (59%) were African American, and 34 (42%) were hospitalized. The most frequent ED or hospital diagnosis was chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma, in 29 (35%) patients. At 180 days, 36 of 81 patients (44%) had return ED visits, 21 of 81 patients (26%) were readmitted, and five of 82 patients (6%) were deceased. Median ST2 level was 227 ng/mL in patients who died versus 32 ng/mL in those who survived (difference = 195 ng/mL, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 48 to 342 ng/mL, p = 0.006). Median ST2 level was 59 ng/mL in readmitted patients versus 31 ng/mL in nonreadmitted patients (difference = 28 ng

  1. Teamwork improvement in emergency trauma departments

    PubMed Central

    Khademian, Zahra; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Tabei, Seyed Ziaadin; Bolandparvaz, Shahram; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Abbasi, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Interprofessional teamwork is considered as the key to improve the quality of patient management in critical settings such as trauma emergency departments, but it is not fully conceptualized in these areas to guide practice. The aim of this article is to explore interprofessional teamwork and its improvement strategies in trauma emergency departments. Materials and Methods: Participants of this qualitative study consisted of 11 nurses and 6 supervisors recruited from the emergency departments of a newly established trauma center using purposive sampling. Data were generated using two focus group and six in-depth individual interviews, and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results: Interprofessional teamwork attributes and improvement strategies were emerged in three main themes related to team, context, and goal. These were categorized as the effective presence of team members, role definition in team framework, managerial and physical context, effective patient management, and overcoming competing goals Conclusions: Interprofessional teamwork in trauma emergency departments is explained as interdependence of team, context, and goal; so, it may be improved by strengthening these themes. The findings also provide a basis to evaluate, teach, and do research on teamwork. PMID:24403932

  2. Effect of cardiologist ECG review on emergency department practice.

    PubMed

    Todd, K H; Hoffman, J R; Morgan, M T

    1996-01-01

    To determine the effect of cardiology review of ECGs on emergency department practice. We carried out a prospective cohort study at an urban teaching ED. Our subjects were adult patients undergoing electrocardiography. We prospectively collected 1,000 consecutive ECGs and classified them by severity according to the following system: class 1, normal or minor abnormalities only; class 2, abnormalities with potential to alter case management; and class 3, potentially life-threatening abnormalities. Actual ECG readings by ED physicians (who had access to computerized interpretations at the time of treatment) were compared with those of staff cardiology quality-assurance reviewers; if they were not in agreement, an expert cardiology panel blindly chose the superior interpretation. Subsequently, an expert emergency physician panel reviewed discordant readings for discharged patients to determine the need for further action. Of 1,000 ECGs, the readings for 190 (19%) were significantly discordant. The expert cardiology panel preferred the ED reading in 72 cases (38%) and the staff cardiology reading in 118 (62%). In 30 other cases no ED reading was recorded in the medical record. Of the 148 cases in which the expert cardiology panel agreed with the cardiology reading or there was no ED reading, 102 patients were admitted and 46 discharged. Of the 46 discharges, 8 cardiology readings were categorized as class 1, leaving only 38 cases in which the staff cardiology reading might have affected the ED decision to discharge a patient. All of these readings were in class 2, with the exception of one unclassifiable diagnosis. There were no class 3 readings. On expert emergency physician panel review of these 38 ECGs and interpretations, only 8 (.8%, 95% confidence interval, .3% to 1.6%) were considered sufficiently important to warrant chart review. In actual practice, none of these cases was affected by the ECG quality-assurance (QA) process. Two of these patients died during

  3. Improving Emergency Department Triage Classification with Computerized Clinical Decision Support at a Pediatric Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunisch, Joseph Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Emergency Severity Index (ESI) is an emergency department (ED) triage classification system based on estimated patient-specific resource utilization. Rules for a computerized clinical decision support (CDS) system based on a patient's chief complaint were developed and tested using a stochastic model for predicting ESI scores.…

  4. Improving Emergency Department Triage Classification with Computerized Clinical Decision Support at a Pediatric Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunisch, Joseph Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Emergency Severity Index (ESI) is an emergency department (ED) triage classification system based on estimated patient-specific resource utilization. Rules for a computerized clinical decision support (CDS) system based on a patient's chief complaint were developed and tested using a stochastic model for predicting ESI scores.…

  5. The Effect of Older Age on EMS Use for Transportation to an Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Jones, Courtney M C; Wasserman, Erin B; Li, Timmy; Amidon, Ashley; Abbott, Marissa; Shah, Manish N

    2017-02-13

    Introduction Previous studies have found that older adults are more likely to use Emergency Medical Services (EMS) than younger adults, but the reasons for this remain understudied. Hypothesis/Problem This study aimed to determine if older age is associated with using EMS for transportation to an emergency department (ED) after controlling for confounding variables.

  6. Communicating life-threatening diagnoses to patients in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Takayesu, James Kimo; Hutson, H Range

    2004-06-01

    Disclosing a new, life-threatening diagnosis to a patient is difficult for the physician, the patient, and the family. The disclosure provokes a wide range of reactions from both the patient and family, to which the emergency physician must respond. This interaction is further complicated by the limited time the emergency physician can spend with the patient, the strained resources of a busy emergency department (ED), and, oftentimes, the inability to make a definitive diagnosis based on the ED workup and evaluation. We present a case seen recently in the ED in which a new, life-threatening illness requires disclosure. We offer guidelines for the emergency physician that emphasize patient- and family-centered disclosure of the worrisome diagnostic findings. Additionally, we discuss the essential roles of other allied health professionals in addressing the patient's nonmedical concerns (eg, health insurance, social issues) and in creating a smooth transition for the patient from the ED to further inpatient or outpatient care.

  7. The association of weather on pediatric emergency department visits in Changwon, Korea (2005-2014).

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae Jeong; Jin, Mi Hyeon; Lee, Jun Hwa

    2016-05-01

    It is widely believed that patients are less likely to visit hospitals during bad weather. We hypothesized that weather and emergency department (ED) visits are associated. Thus, we investigated the association between pediatric ED visits and weather, and sought to determine whether admissions to the ED are affected by meteorological factors. We retrospectively analyzed all 87,242 emergency visits to Samsung Changwon Hospital by pediatric patients under 19years of age from January 2005 to December 2014. ED visits were categorized by disease. We used Poisson regression and generalized linear model to examine the relationships between current weather and ED visits. Additionally a distributed lag non-linear model was used to investigate the effect of weather on ED visits. During this 10-year study period, the average temperature and diurnal temperature range (DTR) were 14.7°C and 8.2°C, respectively. There were 1,145days of rain or snow (31.4%) during the 3,652-day study period. The volume of ED visits decreased on days of rain or snow. Additionally ED visits increased 2days after rainy or snowy days. The volume of ED visits increased 1.013 times with every 1°C increase in DTR. The volume of ED visits by patients with trauma, digestive diseases, and respiratory diseases increased when DTR was over 10°C. As rainfall increased to over 25mm, the ward admission rate (23.8%, p=0.018) of ED patients increased significantly. The volume of ED visits decreased on days of rain or snow and the ED visits were increased 2days after rainy or snowy days. The volume of ED visits increased for every 1°C increase in DTR. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Hospital determinants of emergency department left without being seen rates.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Renee Y; Asch, Steven M; Weiss, Robert E; Zingmond, David; Liang, Li-Jung; Han, Weijuan; McCreath, Heather; Sun, Benjamin C

    2011-07-01

    The proportion of patients who leave without being seen in the emergency department (ED) is an outcome-oriented measure of impaired access to emergency care and represents the failure of an emergency care delivery system to meet its goals of providing care to those most in need. Little is known about variation in the amount of left without being seen or about hospital-level determinants. Such knowledge is necessary to target hospital-level interventions to improve access to emergency care. We seek to determine whether hospital-level socioeconomic status case mix or hospital structural characteristics are predictive of ED left without being seen rates. We performed a cross-sectional study of all acute-care, nonfederal hospitals in California that operated an ED in 2007, using data from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development database and the US census. Our outcome of interest was whether a visit to a given hospital ED resulted in left without being seen. The proportion of left without being seen was measured by the number of left without being seen cases out of the total number of visits. We studied 9.2 million ED visits to 262 hospitals in California. The percentage of left without being seen varied greatly over hospitals, ranging from 0% to 20.3%, with a median percentage of 2.6%. In multivariable analyses adjusting for hospital-level socioeconomic status case mix, visitors to EDs with a higher proportion of low-income and poorly insured patients experienced a higher risk of left without being seen. We found that the odds of an ED visit resulting in left without being seen increased by a factor of 1.15 for each 10-percentage-point increase in poorly insured patients, and odds of left without being seen decreased by a factor of 0.86 for each $10,000 increase in household income. When hospital structural characteristics were added to the model, county ownership, trauma center designation, and teaching program affiliation were positively

  9. Hypercalcemia in the emergency department: a missed opportunity.

    PubMed

    Royer, Anna Marie; Maclellan, Reid A; Stanley, J Daniel; Willingham, Trent B; Giles, W Heath

    2014-08-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is surgically correctable and frequently presents with mild hypercalcemia. The symptoms of hyperparathyroidism are nonspecific often leading to a delay in diagnosis until patients present with an acute condition. Literature suggests that up to 20 per cent of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) found to have hypercalcemia are ultimately diagnosed with hyperparathyroidism. We performed a retrospective review from 2012 to 2013 of patients with hypercalcemia in our ED and analyzed their characteristics. One hundred sixty-eight patients were identified with hypercalcemia. Patient medical history, chief complaint, review of symptoms, discharge disposition, and primary care physician (PCP) status were evaluated. Eighty-four per cent were classified as mild (10.8 to 11.9 mg/dL), 11 per cent as moderate (12 to 14 mg/dL), and five per cent as severe (greater than 14 mg/dL). A definitive diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism was identified in 3.5 per cent (six of 168). Documentation of hypercalcemia as a diagnosis was present in all patients in the severe and 78 per cent in the moderate categories. However, only 21 per cent of patients with mild hypercalcemia had documentation addressing this diagnosis. Of concern, 24 per cent (41 of 168) of patients were identified with mild hypercalcemia and discharged from the ED with no definitive plan based on lack of a PCP. Additionally, 81 per cent of these patients had symptoms referable to hypercalcemia. Mild hypercalcemia found during ED workup rarely requires immediate medical treatment. However, a significant number of those patients will have hyperparathyroidism amendable to surgical correction. Therefore, an appropriate mechanism for outpatient hypercalcemia workup should be integrated into the patient's ED discharge plan.

  10. The Effect of Anthrax Bioterrorism on Emergency Department Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Robert M.; Reeves, Jabari; Houston, Sherard; McClung, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Study Objective: From September through December 2001, 22 Americans were diagnosed with anthrax, prompting widespread national media attention and public concern over bioterrorism. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the threat of anthrax bioterrorism on patient presentation to a West Coast emergency department (ED). Methods: This survey was conducted at an urban county ED in Oakland, CA between December 15, 2001 and February 15, 2002. During random 8-hour blocks, all adult patients presenting for flu or upper respiratory infection (URI) symptoms were surveyed using a structured survey instrument that included standard visual numerical and Likert scales. Results: Eighty-nine patients were interviewed. Eleven patients (12%) reported potential exposure risk factors. Eighty percent of patients watched television, read the newspaper, or listened to the radio daily, and 83% of patients had heard about anthrax bioterrorism. Fifty-five percent received a chest x-ray, 10% received either throat or blood cultures, and 28% received antibiotics. Twenty-one percent of patients surveyed were admitted to the hospital. Most patients were minimally concerned that they may have contracted anthrax (mean=3.3±3.3 where 0=no concern and 10=extremely concerned). Patient concern about anthrax had little influence on their decision to visit the ED (mean=2.8±3.0 where 0=no influence and 10=greatly influenced). Had they experienced their same flu or URI symptoms one year prior to the anthrax outbreak, 91% of patients stated they would have sought medical attention. Conclusions: After considerable exposure to media reports about anthrax, most patients in this urban West Coast ED population were not concerned about anthrax infection. Fear of anthrax had little effect on decisions to come to the ED, and most would have sought medical help prior to the anthrax outbreak. PMID:20847852

  11. Improving Emergency Department flow through optimized bed utilization.

    PubMed

    Chartier, Lucas Brien; Simoes, Licinia; Kuipers, Meredith; McGovern, Barb

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, patient volumes in the emergency department (ED) have grown disproportionately compared to the increase in staffing and resources at the Toronto Western Hospital, an academic tertiary care centre in Toronto, Canada. The resultant congestion has spilled over to the ED waiting room, where medically undifferentiated and potentially unstable patients must wait until a bed becomes available. The aim of this quality improvement project was to decrease the 90th percentile of wait time between triage and bed assignment (time-to-bed) by half, from 120 to 60 minutes, for our highest acuity patients. We engaged key stakeholders to identify barriers and potential strategies to achieve optimal flow of patients into the ED. We first identified multiple flow-interrupting challenges, including operational bottlenecks and cultural issues. We then generated change ideas to address two main underlying causes of ED congestion: unnecessary patient utilization of ED beds and communication breakdown causing bed turnaround delays. We subsequently performed seven tests of change through sequential plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles. The most significant gains were made by improving communication strategies: small gains were achieved through the optimization of in-house digital information management systems, while significant improvements were achieved through the implementation of a low-tech direct contact mechanism (a two-way radio or walkie-talkie). In the post-intervention phase, time-to-bed for the 90th percentile of high-acuity patients decreased from 120 minutes to 66 minutes, with special cause variation showing a significant shift in the weekly measurements.

  12. Improving Emergency Department flow through optimized bed utilization

    PubMed Central

    Chartier, Lucas Brien; Simoes, Licinia; Kuipers, Meredith; McGovern, Barb

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, patient volumes in the emergency department (ED) have grown disproportionately compared to the increase in staffing and resources at the Toronto Western Hospital, an academic tertiary care centre in Toronto, Canada. The resultant congestion has spilled over to the ED waiting room, where medically undifferentiated and potentially unstable patients must wait until a bed becomes available. The aim of this quality improvement project was to decrease the 90th percentile of wait time between triage and bed assignment (time-to-bed) by half, from 120 to 60 minutes, for our highest acuity patients. We engaged key stakeholders to identify barriers and potential strategies to achieve optimal flow of patients into the ED. We first identified multiple flow-interrupting challenges, including operational bottlenecks and cultural issues. We then generated change ideas to address two main underlying causes of ED congestion: unnecessary patient utilization of ED beds and communication breakdown causing bed turnaround delays. We subsequently performed seven tests of change through sequential plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles. The most significant gains were made by improving communication strategies: small gains were achieved through the optimization of in-house digital information management systems, while significant improvements were achieved through the implementation of a low-tech direct contact mechanism (a two-way radio or walkie-talkie). In the post-intervention phase, time-to-bed for the 90th percentile of high-acuity patients decreased from 120 minutes to 66 minutes, with special cause variation showing a significant shift in the weekly measurements. PMID:27752312

  13. Alcohol, tobacco, and drug use among emergency department patients.

    PubMed

    Sanjuan, Pilar M; Rice, Samara L; Witkiewitz, Katie; Mandler, Raul N; Crandall, Cameron; Bogenschutz, Michael P

    2014-05-01

    The prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use among emergency department (ED) patients is high and many of these patients have unrecognized and unmet substance use treatment needs. Identification of patients in the ED with problem substance use is not routine at this time. We examined screening data, including standardized measures of ATOD use (HSI, AUDIT-C, DAST-10), from 14,866 ED patients in six hospitals across the United States. We expected younger age, male gender, higher triage acuity, and other substance use severity (ATOD) to be associated both with use versus abstinence and with severity of each substance use type. We used negative binomial hurdle models to examine the association between covariates and (1) substance use versus abstinence (logistic submodel) and with (2) severity among those who used substances (count submodel). Rates of use and problem use in our sample were similar to or higher than other ED samples. Younger patients and males were more likely to use ATOD, but the association of age and gender with severity varied across substances. Triage level was a poor predictor of substance use severity. Alcohol, tobacco, and drug use were significantly associated with using other substances and severity of other substance use. Better understanding of the demographic correlates of ATOD use and severity and the patterns of comorbidity among classes of substance can inform the design of optimal screening and brief intervention procedures addressing ATOD use among ED patients. Tobacco may be an especially useful predictor. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Functional illiteracy among emergency department patients: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Jolly, B T; Scott, J L; Feied, C F; Sanford, S M

    1993-03-01

    To determine the ability of emergency department patients to understand common written discharge instructions and the level of reading difficulty of standard discharge instructions. The study was performed in two parts. In part 1, subjects were asked to read one set of standard written discharge instructions. Then, with the instructions to refer to, subjects were asked to answer five questions about the instructions. A subject's level of success was correlated with age, sex, and highest level of education. In part 2, 47 sets of standard written discharge instructions from six different EDs were computer analyzed using five commonly used readability formulas. Results were reported as grade levels. The ED of a large inner-city university hospital. The subjects for part 1 were 400 adult ED patients who presented on randomly selected days. Part 1: A significant proportion of patients failed to answer correctly at least four of five questions. Patients educated beyond high school demonstrated higher levels of success than did those with less education. A trend was noted for younger subjects to perform better than older subjects. The answers to the three most frequently missed questions were contained within areas of difficult sentence structure or long paragraphs containing large amounts of information. Part 2: The average grade level required to understand instruction sheets ranged from 6.0 to 13.4. More difficult instruction sheets tended to contain numerous multi-syllabic words, long sentences, and difficult sentence structure. A significant proportion of ED patients have a demonstrable inability to understand common written instructions. ED instruction sheets are written at a level of difficulty that is out of the readable range for many patients. Health care providers should strive to simplify written materials and to develop new methods for instructing those for whom current written materials have no meaning.

  15. Patients' opinions about suicide screening in a pediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Elizabeth D; Bosk, Abigail; Snyder, Deborah; Pao, Maryland; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Wharff, Elizabeth A; Teach, Stephen J; Horowitz, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how children react to suicide screening in an emergency department (ED) can inform implementation strategies. This qualitative study describes pediatric patients' opinions regarding suicide screening in that setting. As part of a multisite instrument validation study, patients 10 to 21 years presenting with both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric complaints to an urban, tertiary care pediatric ED were recruited for suicide screening. Interviews with subjects included the question, "do you think ER nurses should ask kids about suicide/thoughts about hurting themselves...why/why not?" Responses were transcribed verbatim and uploaded into NVivo8.0 qualitative software for coding and content analysis. Of the 156 patients who participated in the study, 106 (68%) presented to the ED with nonpsychiatric complaints and 50 (32%) presented with psychiatric complaints. The patients' mean (SD) age was 14.6 (2.8) years (range, 10-21 years), and 56% of the sample was female. All patients answered the question of interest, and 149 (96%) of 156 patients supported the idea that nurses should ask youth about suicide in the ED. The 5 most frequently endorsed themes were as follows: (1) identification of youth at risk (31/156, 20%), (2) a desire to feel known and understood by clinicians (31/156, 20%), (3) connection of youth with help and resources (28/156, 18%), (4) prevention of suicidal behavior (25/156, 16%), and (5) lack of other individuals to speak with about these issues (19/156, 12%). Pediatric patients in the ED support suicide screening after being asked a number of suicide-related questions. Further work should evaluate the impact of suicide screening on referral practices and link screening efforts with evidence-based interventions.

  16. Bullying and Suicide Risk Among Pediatric Emergency Department Patients.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Ian H; Horowitz, Lisa M; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Wharff, Elizabeth A; Pao, Maryland; Teach, Stephen J

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to describe the association between recent bullying victimization and risk of suicide among pediatric emergency department (ED) patients. Patients presenting to 1 of 3 different urban pediatric EDs with either medical/surgical or psychiatric chief complaints completed structured interviews as part of a study to develop a suicide risk screening instrument, the Ask Suicide-Screening Questions. Seventeen candidate items and the criterion reference Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire were administered to patients ages 10 to 21 years. Bullying victimization was assessed by a single candidate item ("In the past few weeks, have you been bullied or picked on so much that you felt like you couldn't stand it anymore?"). A total of 524 patients completed the interview (34.4% psychiatric chief complaints; 56.9% female; 50.4% white, non-Hispanic; mean [SD] age, 15.2 [2.6] years). Sixty patients (11.5%) reported recent bullying victimization, and of these, 33 (55.0%) screened positive for suicide risk on the Ask Suicide-Screening Questions or the previously validated Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire. After controlling for demographic and clinical variables, including a history of depression and drug use, the odds of screening positive for suicide risk were significantly greater in patients who reported recent bullying victimization (adjusted odds ratio, 3.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.66-6.11). After stratification by chief complaint, this association persisted for medical/surgical patients but not for psychiatric patients. Recent bullying victimization was associated with increased odds of screening positive for elevated suicide risk among pediatric ED patients presenting with medical/surgical complaints. Understanding this important correlate of suicide risk in pediatric ED patients may help inform ED-based suicide prevention interventions.

  17. Patterns of Multiple Emergency Department Visits: Do Primary Care Physicians Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Maeng, Daniel D; Hao, Jing; Bulger, John B

    2017-01-01

    Context: Overutilization and overreliance on Emergency Departments (EDs) as a usual source of care can lead to unnecessarily high costs and undesirable consequences, such as a gap in care coordination and inadequate provision of preventive care. Objective: To identify factors associated with multiple ED visits by patients, in particular, the impact of primary care physicians (PCPs) on their patients’ multiple ED visit rates. Design: Geisinger Health Plan claims data among adult patients who averaged more than 1 ED visit within a 12-month period between 2013 and 2014 were obtained (N = 20,351). Main Outcome Measures: Rate of ED visits. Three linear regression models using patient characteristics and utilization patterns as covariates along with PCP fixed effects were estimated to explain the variation in the multiple ED visit rates. Results: Multiple ED visits were significantly associated with younger age (18–39 years), having Medicaid insurance, and greater comorbidity. Higher rates of physician office visits and inpatient admissions were also associated with higher rates of multiple ED visits. Accounting for PCP characteristics only marginally improved the explained variation (R2 increased from 0.14 to 0.16). Conclusions: Multiple ED visit patterns are likely driven by patients’ health conditions and care needs rather than by their PCPs. Multiple ED visits also appear to be complementary, rather than substitutionary, to PCP visits, suggesting that PCP-focused interventions aimed at reducing ED use are unlikely to have a major impact. PMID:28333606

  18. Shared Decision Making With Vulnerable Populations in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Castaneda-Guarderas, Ana; Glassberg, Jeffrey; Grudzen, Corita R; Ngai, Ka Ming; Samuels-Kalow, Margaret E; Shelton, Erica; Wall, Stephen P; Richardson, Lynne D

    2016-12-01

    The emergency department (ED) occupies a unique position within the healthcare system, serving as a safety net for vulnerable patients, regardless of their race, ethnicity, religion, country of origin, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, or medical diagnosis. Shared decision making (SDM) presents special challenges when used with vulnerable population groups. The differing circumstances, needs, and perspectives of vulnerable groups invoke issues of provider bias, disrespect, judgmental attitudes, and lack of cultural competence, as well as patient mistrust and the consequences of their social and economic disenfranchisement. A research agenda that includes community-engaged approaches, mixed-methods studies, and cost-effectiveness analyses is proposed to address the following questions: 1) What are the best processes/formats for SDM among racial, ethnic, cultural, religious, linguistic, social, or otherwise vulnerable groups who experience disadvantage in the healthcare system? 2) What organizational or systemic changes are needed to support SDM in the ED whenever appropriate? 3) What competencies are needed to enable emergency providers to consider patients' situation/context in an unbiased way? 4) How do we teach these competencies to students and residents? 5) How do we cultivate these competencies in practicing emergency physicians, nurses, and other clinical providers who lack them? The authors also identify the importance of using accurate, group-specific data to inform risk estimates for SDM decision aids for vulnerable populations and the need for increased ED-based care coordination and transitional care management capabilities to create additional care options that align with the needs and preferences of vulnerable populations. © 2016 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  19. Anaphylaxis in an urban Belgian emergency department: epidemiology and aetiology.

    PubMed

    Mostmans, Y; Blykers, M; Mols, P; Gutermuth, J; Grosber, M; Naeije, N

    2016-04-01

    Anaphylaxis is an emergency condition of which reliable epidemiological data are lacking. This study focusses on epidemiology and aetiology of anaphylactic reactions in an urban Belgian emergency department (ED). Patient data were collected from 04/2009 to 04/2013.During this period, emergency doctors completed a questionnaire for adult patients (>15 years) with anaphylaxis presenting at the ED. Inclusion criteria were based on the Sampson criteria of anaphylaxis. Data were analysed using a Microsoft Excel database. Anaphylaxis accounted for 0.04% of all emergency visits in this 4-year period. In both women and men, dyspnoea and urticaria were noted most frequently. 51.7% of cases were possibly elicited by foods, 46.1% by drugs and 3.4% by hymenoptera stings. Women more often reported allergic diseases in their personal history. 55.7% of patients, who had a history of allergy, reported a suspected food-related allergy, 24.6% a drug-related allergy and 8.2% a hymenoptera venom-related allergy. In 76.5% of patients who reported a history of food allergy, food was the presumed elicitor of anaphylaxis. For patients with history of drug allergy, 88.2% had a presumed drug anaphylaxis at the time of presentation at the ED. 81% of cases presented with grade 4 or 5 anaphylaxis. With increasing age, the severity of anaphylaxis increased. Higher tryptase levels correlated with a higher grade of anaphylaxis. In this Belgian urban population, foods and drugs were by far the most common suspected elicitors of anaphylaxis. Personal history of allergic diseases was present in more than half of the cases.

  20. Support for emergency department screening for intimate partner violence depends on perceived risk.

    PubMed

    Witting, Michael D; Furuno, Jon P; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Krugman, Scott D; Périssé, André R S; Limcangco, Rhona

    2006-05-01

    Emergency department (ED) screening for intimate partner violence (IPV) faces logistic difficulties and has uncertain efficacy. We surveyed 146 ED visitors and 108 ED care providers to compare their support for ED IPV screening in three hypothetical scenarios of varying IPV risk. Visitor support for screening was 5 times higher for the high-risk (86%) than for the low-risk (17%) scenario. Providers showed significantly more support for the need for ED IPV screening than visitors. Controlling for confounding by gender, race, experience with IPV, hospital, and marital status did not affect comparisons between groups. These responses indicate greater support for IPV screening in the ED for high-risk than for low-risk cases, particularly among visitors.

  1. Referrals to hospital emergency departments from residential aged care facilities: stuck in a time warp.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Beverly; Hawkins, Mary; Considine, Julie; Au, Catherine

    2013-10-01

    This research aimed to describe the number and type of residents admitted to emergency departments (EDs) over 2 years; and to explore nurses' perceptions of the reasons why residential aged care facility (RACF) residents are referred to EDs. The research objective was addressed in a retrospective exploratory study using data on admissions to EDs from RACFs (N = 3,094) at the participating organisation over a 2-year period, and interview data on seven RACF and four ED nurses' perceptions of the issues involved. Most residents presenting at EDs required urgent medical attention. Major themes identified by RACF and ED nurses included issues related to staff competency, availability of general practitioners, lack of equipment in RACFs, residents and family members requesting referrals, communication difficulties, and poor attitudes towards RACF staff. There is a need to use strategies to detect residents whose conditions are deteriorating and treat them promptly in RACFs.

  2. The Experiences and Perceptions of Street-Involved Youth Regarding Emergency Department Services.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, David B; Newton, Amanda S; Calhoun, Avery; Dong, Kathryn; deJong-Berg, Margaret A; Hamilton, Faye; Kilmer, Christopher; McLaughlin, Anne Marie; Shankar, Janki

    2016-05-01

    Street-involved (SI) youth comprise a substantial component of the urban homeless population. Despite being significant users of hospital emergency department (ED) services for acute and ongoing health needs, little is known about their experiences of ED care and the factors affecting their ED use. This study used a grounded theory and community-based approach to examine these issues. Focus groups and individual interviews were facilitated with 48 SI youth between ages 15 and 26 years, recruited in hospital or through community agencies serving SI youth in a major Western Canadian city. Results demonstrate that SI youth often perceived suboptimal care and experienced long waiting periods that led to many avoiding or prematurely exiting the ED. Service gaps appeared to have a negative bearing on their care and health outcomes. Findings invite a critical review of ED care processes, structures, and staff interactions in the aim of enhancing ED services to SI youth. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Declining payments for emergency department care, 1996-1998.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Alexander C; Tamayo-Sarver, Joshua H; Cydulka, Rita K; Baker, David W

    2003-03-01

    We describe recent trends in payments from different payer classes and assess their relative importance to the financial solvency of emergency departments. We used Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data from 1996 and 1998. The unit of analysis was the ED visit. Primary outcome measures were ED charges and payments. The independent variable of interest was payer class, and therefore, we limited our analysis to those either uninsured or covered by Medicare, Medicaid, or private insurance. From 1996 to 1998, a declining percentage of total charges were paid, from 60.3% to 53.0% (difference -7.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI] -11.3% to -3.5%). Although the percentage of total charges paid by Medicaid, Medicare, and the uninsured remained constant, the percentage of total charges paid by the privately insured declined from 75.1% to 63.4% (difference -11.7%; 95% CI -16.6% to -6.7%). Overall, adjusted mean ED charge increased from 695 dollars to 798 dollars (difference 103 dollars; 95% CI 61 dollars to 146 dollars). Two payer classes experienced statistically significant increases in adjusted mean charge: the uninsured, from 544 dollars to 740 dollars (difference 196 dollars; 95% CI 62 dollars to 330 dollars), and the privately insured, from 658 dollars to 813 dollars (difference 151 dollars; 95% CI 103 dollars to 199 dollars). Although the adjusted mean payment rate for the uninsured remained stable, the adjusted mean payment rate for the privately insured declined from 77.7% to 65.7% (difference -12.0%; 95% CI -13.4% to -10.7%). The ability of EDs to provide emergency care to all regardless of ability to pay is increasingly threatened by declining overall payment rates. Cost shifting to fund care for the uninsured is an increasingly untenable financing strategy.

  4. Plastic surgery telehealth consultation expedites Emergency Department treatment.

    PubMed

    Paik, Angie M; Granick, Mark S; Scott, Sandra

    2017-02-01

    Plastic surgery is a field that is particularly amenable to a telehealth milieu, as visual exam and radiographs guide proper diagnosis and management. The goals of this study were to evaluate telehealth feedback executed through an iPad app for plastic surgery-related consultations. A Quality Assurance/Quality Improvement (QA/QI) study was conducted over a 1-month period during which patients with hand injuries, facial injuries, or acute wounds presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) of a level-one trauma centre and university hospital were monitored. The study utilized a commercial iPad application through which up to four images and a brief history could be sent to a remote Plastic Surgery Educator (PSE) for evaluation. The PSE would respond with best practice information, references and videos to assist ED point-of-care providers. During the 1-month period of this study, there were 42 ED consultations for plastic surgical conditions. There was a highly significant difference in overall mean response time between consultants and PSEs (48.3 minutes vs. 8.9 minutes respectively, p < 0.001). The agreement between PSEs and consultants regarding patient assessment and care was 85.7% for in-person consultations and 100% for phone consultations. In four cases of telephone consultations, the ED providers placed splints incorrectly on hand-injured patients. Our results show that telehealth consultations to a remote plastic surgeon based on digital images and a brief history were able to produce timely and accurate responses in an emergency care facility. This design may have significant impact in rural areas, underserved populations, or regions abroad.

  5. Ontario's emergency department process improvement program: the experience of implementation.

    PubMed

    Rotteau, Leahora; Webster, Fiona; Salkeld, Erin; Hellings, Chelsea; Guttmann, Astrid; Vermeulen, Marian J; Bell, Robert S; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Rowe, Brian H; Nigam, Amit; Schull, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, Lean manufacturing principles have been applied to health care quality improvement efforts to improve wait times. In Ontario, an emergency department (ED) process improvement program based on Lean principles was introduced by the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care as part of a strategy to reduce ED length of stay (LOS) and to improve patient flow. This article aims to describe the hospital-based teams' experiences during the ED process improvement program implementation and the teams' perceptions of the key factors that influenced the program's success or failure. A qualitative evaluation was conducted based on semistructured interviews with hospital implementation team members, such as team leads, medical leads, and executive sponsors, at 10 purposively selected hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Sites were selected based, in part, on their changes in median ED LOS following the implementation period. A thematic framework approach as used for interviews, and a standard thematic coding framework was developed. Twenty-four interviews were coded and analyzed. The results are organized according to participants' experience and are grouped into four themes that were identified as significantly affecting the implementation experience: local contextual factors, relationship between improvement team and support players, staff engagement, and success and sustainability. The results demonstrate the importance of the context of implementation, establishing strong relationships and communication strategies, and preparing for implementation and sustainability prior to the start of the project. Several key factors were identified as important to the success of the program, such as preparing for implementation, ensuring strong executive support, creation of implementation teams based on the tasks and outcomes of the initiative, and using multiple communication strategies throughout the implementation process. Explicit incorporation of these factors into the

  6. Evaluating the effect of emergency residency training on productivity in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Henning, Daniel J; McGillicuddy, Daniel C; Sanchez, Leon D

    2013-09-01

    Resident productivity, defined as patients seen per unit time, is one measure that is used to assess the performance and educational progress of residents in the emergency department (ED). One published study suggested that emergency residency training (EM) does not improve productivity compared with that in other specialties, including internal medicine (IM). This study assesses how EM and IM trainees perform in the ED and illustrates how resident productivity changes through the academic year. A retrospective review of attending physicians and residents working 8-h shifts in the higher acuity zone of a large-volume, tertiary, academic health care center was performed for July 2009, October 2009, January 2010, and April 2010. The total number of patients seen primarily and admitted during each shift was recorded. ED volume was approximated by the number of patients seen by the attending physician, and acuity was approximated by admission rate. A mixed model regression assessed the impact of year and type of residency training (e.g., EM1, EM2, IM1, and IM2), ED volume, and acuity on resident productivity (number of patients per shift). The study was granted waiver of informed consent by our institutional review board. We reviewed 936 shifts. After adjusting for acuity and ED volume, the EM1 group had a significant increase in patients per shift over the year, from 6.11 in July to 10.3 in April (p < 0.001). No other group increased productivity significantly. The first EM training year leads to a significant change in productivity that separates EM from IM residents. This contradicts the previous assertion that non-EM residents have the same productivity as EM residents in the ED. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Waiting Times in Emergency Department After Using the Emergency Severity Index Triage Tool

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoodian, Farzad; Eqtesadi, Razie; Ghareghani, Atefe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hospital emergency departments (EDs) are as barometers of the health care system. Crowded EDs threaten delivery of timely care. Prolonged ED wait times reduce the quality of care and increase adverse and sometimes irreversible events. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the patients' waiting time at Namazi and Shahid Faghihi hospitals in Shiraz, Iran. Patients and Methods: This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in two phases from December 2012 to May 2013. First, the researcher attended the EDs of the two hospitals and recorded the information of 900 patients who entered the ED, including arrival time, level of triage, and time of first visit by physician. Then, among patients admitted to the ED units, 273 were followed and waiting times for the first physician order in the referral unit and the commencement of clinical interventions (defined as check time by the nurse) were recorded. Results: The median waiting time from arrival to first visit by physician for the 900 patients included in the study was 8 (5-14) minutes [median (interquartile range)]. For the patients admitted to referral units, waiting time was 84 (43-145) minutes for the physician order and 85 (45-147) minutes for the commencement of first clinical intervention; 75% of the patients in triage level I, 84.6% in triage level II, and 95.6% in triage level III were visited within the target time limit. Conclusions: Waiting time for commencement of clinical action in patients admitted to the EDs was considerably high for patients with higher priorities; so, rapid care of critically ill patients, identified during the triage process, should be emphasized. PMID:25738132

  8. Disparities in Emergency Department Wait Time Among Patients with Mental Health and Substance-Related Disorders.

    PubMed

    Opoku, Samuel T; Apenteng, Bettye A; Akowuah, Emmanuel A; Bhuyan, Soumitra

    2017-08-16

    This study examined disparities in emergency department (ED) wait time for patients with mental health and substance-related disorders (PwMHSDs), using data from the 2009-2011 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). Wait time was defined as the time between arrival at ED and being seen by an ED provider. Results from multivariable regression