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Sample records for emergency obstetric hysterectomy

  1. Emergency hysterectomy in obstetrics--a review of 117 cases.

    PubMed

    Al-Sibai, M H; Rahman, J; Rahman, M S; Butalack, F

    1987-08-01

    A series of 117 cases of emergency obstetric hysterectomy performed between 1976 and 1985 is reviewed. The indications included ruptured uterus (53.8%), intractable postpartum haemorrhage (20.5%), placenta accreta (7.7%), major degree of placenta praevia (7.7%), haemorrhage at Caesarean section (4.5%), couvelaire uterus (3.4%) and abdominal pregnancy (2.6%). Despite a general aversion to hysterectomy by the women in our society, these procedures were undertaken in a desperate attempt to save life. There were 6 (5.1%) maternal deaths, all due to the severity of the indication for the hysterectomy. Presence of an experienced obstetrician is important to make an early decision to operate before the patient's condition is extreme and to provide the technical skills required to minimize morbidity and mortality.

  2. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy in a tertiary obstetric center: nine years evaluation.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Oya; Tuğrul, Ahmet S; Yilmaz, Ertuğrul; Tosun, Özgür; Demirci, Elif; Eren, Yadigar S

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence, indications, risk factors, complications, and maternal morbidity and mortality associated with obstetric hysterectomy performed at the Zeynep Kamil Gynecologic and Pediatric Training and Research Hospital between January 2000 and January 2008. A retrospective study of patients requiring an emergency peripartum hysterectomy (EPH) over a 9-year period was conducted. Emergent peripartum hysterectomy was defined as an operation performed in cases whose bleeding was not prevented by other approaches for 24 h after delivery. Thirty-nine cases of emergency peripartum hysterectomy were performed. The incidence of emergency peripartum hysterectomy was 0.37 per 1000 deliveries. Thirty-four cases of hysterectomy were performed after cesarean section (CS). The main indication for EPH was placenta accreta (53.8%), followed by uterine atony (25.6%). There were six maternal deaths (15.4%). Severe maternal morbidity included: bladder injury (15.4%), relaparotomy (35.4%), and transfusion >10 unit's red blood cells (15.6%). Both previous CS and CS in the index pregnancy were associated with a significant increased risk of EPH. The number of previous CS was related to an increased risk of placenta accreta; the relative ratio increased from 3.6 for one previous CS to 37 for three or more previous CS. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy is significantly related to CS in index or previous pregnancy. Placenta accreta is the most common indication to perform peripartum hysterectomy. EPH is associated with a high incidence of maternal morbidity and mortality. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Morbidity and mortality associated with obstetric hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Najma Bano; Shaikh, Shabnam; Shaikh, Jan Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Obstetric hysterectomy still complicates a substantial number of pregnancies in third world countries and is a significant cause of obstetric morbidity and mortality. This study was carried out to evaluate in our setup the frequency of obstetric hysterectomy, its indication, risk factors, complication, morbidity, mortality and avoidable factors. A descriptive study of all patients who under went obstetric hysterectomy was conducted from 1st May, 2004 to 31st October, 2005 at Gynaecology and Obstetric Unit-II, III of Liaquat University of Medical and Health Science Hospital, Hyderabad. After collecting the data on pre-designed proforma the data was fed to SPSS in the form of frequency distribution tables and percentages were calculated. Statistical analysis of data was performed by using Chi-square test. The level of significance was taken as p<0.05. During the study time period there were total 6495 deliveries and 41 cases of obstetric hysterectomy were identified, giving a frequency of 0.63% or 1 in 158 deliveries. Most of patients were from rural areas (82.92%), un-booked 73.17%), uneducated (95%), lower socioeconomical class (92.69%), 25-29 years age (48.78%) multiparae (56.10%), have to travel a distance of <100 km to reach hospital and referred late (51%) by healthcare providers (doctors). Majority of hysterectomies were performed due to ruptured uteri (51.21%). There were 5 maternal and 26 perinatal deaths; all were due to severity of conditions necessitating hysterectomy. Incidence of obstetric hysterectomy in our woman is very high. The reason being many avoidable factors such as high parity, inadequate maternity and family planning services, lack of proper referral system, un-booked status, mismanaged labour, illiteracy on the part of woman herself, family and health care providers are not taken care of during pregnancy, labour and puerperium.

  4. Neonatal outcomes after the obstetric near-miss events uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta and emergency peripartum hysterectomy - prospective data from the 2009-2011 Finnish NOSS study.

    PubMed

    Jakobsson, Maija; Tapper, Anna-Maija; Palomäki, Outi; Ojala, Kati; Pallasmaa, Nanneli; Ordén, Maija-Riitta; Gissler, Mika

    2015-12-01

    Neonatal outcomes after the maternal obstetric near-miss complications of uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, and emergency peripartum hysterectomy were assessed. This case-control study was conducted as part of the Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study (NOSS). Data on 211 newborns from 197 deliveries in which an obstetric near-miss complication was involved, were collected prospectively from April 2009 to August 2011 from all Finnish delivery units via questionnaires. Missing cases were obtained from national health registers and confirmed by the clinics. Control populations consisted of all other children born during the same period of time in the Finnish Medical Birth Register (n = 147 551). The number of stillbirths in this cohort was high [n = 8, 3.8% vs. 0.3% among controls, odds ratio (OR) 12.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.32-24.9]. In addition, there were two neonatal deaths. The majority of cases (n = 8, 80%) were connected to uterine rupture. The risk of severe birth asphyxia diagnosis was increased compared with controls (n = 17, 8.1% vs. 0.1%, OR 137, 95% CI 82.7-226). A low umbilical artery pH (<7.05) was also observed among these neonates (28.8% vs. 1.0%, OR 28.7, 95% CI 21.5-38.2). Post-term pregnancies were relatively common among the uterine rupture cases. Adverse neonatal outcomes in the AIP and emergency peripartum hysterectomy cases were associated with preterm deliveries. The prospective data collected from clinicians, combined with the information gathered from national health registers, provided valuable insights into rare maternal near-miss cases. These complications also predisposed stillbirth and neonatal death. In this study, 75% of fetal losses were associated with uterine rupture. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Obstetric emergencies.

    PubMed

    Crochetière, Chantal

    2003-03-01

    Obstetric hemorrhage is still a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Prevention, early recognition, and prompt intervention are the keys to minimizing complications. Resuscitation can be inadequate because of under-estimation of blood loss and misleading maternal response. A young woman may maintain a normal blood pressure until sudden and catastrophic decompensation occurs. All members of the obstetric team should know how to manage hemorrhage because timing is of the essence. Good communication with the blood bank ensures timely release of appropriate blood products. A well-coordinated team is one of the most important elements in the care of a compromised fetus. If fetal anoxia is presumed, there is less than 10 minutes to permanent fetal brain damage. Antepartum anesthesia consultation should be encouraged in parturients with medical problems.

  6. Successful Embolization of an Ovarian Artery Pseudoaneurysm Complicating Obstetric Hysterectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Rathod, Krantikumar R Deshmukh, Hemant L; Asrani, Ashwin; Salvi, Vinita S; Prabhu, Santoshi

    2005-01-15

    Transcatheter arterial embolization is becoming the therapy of choice for controlling obstetric hemorrhage, affording the ability to control persistent bleeding from pelvic vessels while avoiding the morbidity of surgical exploration. The clinicians are left with little choice if pelvic hemorrhage continues after hysterectomy and ligation of anterior division of both internal iliac arteries. We present one such case of intractable post-obstetric hysterectomy hemorrhage in which an ovarian artery pseudoaneurysm was diagnosed angiographically and successfully embolized, highlighting the role of transcatheter embolization.

  7. [Obstetric hysterectomy in the General Hospital Dr. Aurelio Valdivieso: three-year review].

    PubMed

    Calvo-Aguilar, O; Vásquez-Martínez J; Hernández-Cuevas, P

    2016-02-01

    Post-cesarean hysterectomy is the most extensive procedure used during the postpartum stage. This is an indicator of quality substantially associated with extreme obstetric morbidity. To determine the incidence, indications, and complications associated with obstetric hysterectomy in a hospital, after three years to implement the program of prevention and management of massive obstetric hemorrhage. Observational, transversal, retrospective and descriptive study conducted from January 2011 to November 2013. We records patients who underwent obstetric hysterectomy, of any age and at any time during pregnancy were reviewed. The results are expressed as frequencies, percentages and central tendency measures. 38 patients were recorded with obstetric hysterectomy. We found prevalence of 18.4 per 10,000, and incidence per year of 1.7, 1.4 and 2.6 per 1,000 births for 2011, 2012 and 2013. The prevalence of post-cesarean hysterectomy was 63.05 per 10,000 while postpartum was 9.05 per 10,000 births. The only difference between scheduled and emergency surgery was operating time. The procedure is associated with anemia in postpartum 13 times and the main indications for the procedures were hypo/atony and placenta accrete. The prenatal diagnoses of placenta accrete and improvement in the use of blood products and surgical technique has eliminated maternal mortality by massive obstetric hemorrhage in the last three years at the General Hospital "Dr. Aurelio Valdivieso".

  8. Obstetric hysterectomy: trend and outcome in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Badejoko, O O; Awowole, I O; Ijarotimi, A O; Badejoko, B O; Loto, O M; Ogunniyi, S O

    2013-08-01

    Worldwide, the incidence of obstetric hysterectomy is expected to be on the decline due to improvements in obstetric care. This hospital-based 10-year review (2001-10) was performed to determine its incidence and outcome in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The trend was determined by comparing the current incidence with that from two previous studies from the same centre. There were 58 obstetric hysterectomies and 15,194 deliveries during the review period, giving a rate of 3.8/1,000 deliveries. A rising trend was observed in the obstetric hysterectomy rate in Ile-Ife over two decades (1990-2010). Uterine rupture was the commonest indication (60%). Postoperative complications such as sepsis, vesico-vaginal fistula and renal failure affected 34.5% of the patients. Maternal and fetal case fatality rates were 18.2% and 43.6%, respectively. The obstetric hysterectomy rate in Ile-Ife is high and the trend is rising. Universal access to skilled birth attendance is advocated to reduce uterine rupture and consequently obstetric hysterectomy.

  9. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy in a tertiary hospital in southern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abasiattai, Aniekan Monday; Umoiyoho, Aniefiok Jackson; Utuk, Ntiense Maurice; Inyang-Etoh, Emmanuel Columba; Asuquo, Otobong Peter

    2013-01-01

    Emergency peripartum hysterectomy, a maker of severe maternal morbidity and near miss mortality is an inevitable surgical intervention to save a woman's life when uncontrollable obstetric haemorrhage complicates delivery. This study was conducted in order to determine the incidence, types, indications and maternal complications of emergency peripartum hysterectomy at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Nigeria. The case records of all women who underwent emergency peripartum hysterectomy between 1(st) January 2004 and 31(st) December 2011 were studied. There were 12,298 deliveries during the study period and 28 emergency peripartum hysterectomies were performed resulting in a rate of 0.2% or 1 in 439 deliveries. The modal age group of the patients was 26-30 years (35.7%), majority were of low parity (64.4%), while 17.9% attained tertiary level education. Half of the patients (50.0%) were unbooked while 14.3% were antenatal clinic defaulters. Extensive uterine rupture (67.8%) was the most common indication for emergency hysterectomy distantly followed by uterine atony with uncontrollable haemorrhage (17.9%). Subtotal abdominal hysterectomy was performed in 92.8% of the cases. The case fatality rate was 14.3% while the perinatal mortality rate was 64.3%. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy is not uncommonly performed in our centre and extensive uterine rupture from prolonged obstructed labour is the most common indication. In addition, it is associated with significant maternal and perinatal mortality. There is need to enlighten women in our communities on the benefits of ANC and hospital delivery as well as the dangers of delivering without skilled attendance. Government should consider enacting legislation to discourage people or organisations who operate unlicensed maternity homes in our environment.

  10. Incidence of emergency peripartum hysterectomy in Ain-shams University Maternity Hospital, Egypt: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Allam, Ihab Serag; Gomaa, Ihab Adel; Fathi, Hisham Mohamed; Sukkar, Ghada Fathi Mahmoud

    2014-11-01

    To estimate the incidence of emergency peripartum hysterectomy over 6 years in Ain-shams University Maternity Hospital. Detailed chart review of all cases of emergency peripartum hysterectomy, 2003-2008, including previous obstetric history, details of the index pregnancy, indications for emergency peripartum hysterectomy, outcome of the hysterectomy and infant morbidity. The overall rate of emergency peripartum hysterectomy was 149 of 66,306 or 2.24 per 1,000 deliveries. The primary indications for hysterectomies were placenta accreta/increta 59 (39.6 %), uterine atony 37 (24.8 %), uterine rupture 35 (23.5 %) and placenta previa without accreta 18 (12.1 %). After hysterectomy, 115 (77 %) women were admitted to the intensive care unit. Women were discharged home after a mean 11.2 day length of stay. Using multifactorial logistic regression analysis, we found that woman's age, atonic uterus, placenta accreta/increta, previous cesarian section and ruptured uterus were independent predictors for peripartum hysterectomy Abnormal placentation was the main indication for peripartum hysterectomy. The risk factors for peripartum hysterectomy were morbid adherence of placentae in scared uteri, uterine atony and uterine rupture. The most important step in prevention of major postpartum hemorrhage is recognizing and assessing women's risk. The risk of peripartum hysterectomy seems to be significantly decreased by limiting the number of cesarean section deliveries, thus reducing the occurrence of abnormal placentation in the form of placenta accreta, increta or percreta.

  11. Emergency preparedness in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Haeri, Sina; Marcozzi, David

    2015-04-01

    During and after disasters, focus is directed toward meeting the immediate needs of the general population. As a result, the routine health care and the special needs of some vulnerable populations such as pregnant and postpartum women may be overlooked within a resource-limited setting. In the event of hazards such as natural disasters, manmade disasters, and terrorism, knowledge of emergency preparedness strategies is imperative for the pregnant woman and her family, obstetric providers, and hospitals. Individualized plans for the pregnant woman and her family should include knowledge of shelter in place, birth at home, and evacuation. Obstetric providers need to have a personal disaster plan in place that accounts for work responsibilities in case of an emergency and business continuity strategies to continue to provide care to their communities. Hospitals should have a comprehensive emergency preparedness program utilizing an "all hazards" approach to meet the needs of pregnant and postpartum women and other vulnerable populations during disasters. With lessons learned in recent tragedies such as Hurricane Katrina in mind, we hope this review will stimulate emergency preparedness discussions and actions among obstetric providers and attenuate adverse outcomes related to catastrophes in the future.

  12. Emergency postpartum hysterectomy for uncontrolled postpartum bleeding: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rossi, A Cristina; Lee, Richard H; Chmait, Ramen H

    2010-03-01

    To describe factors leading to and outcomes after emergency postpartum hysterectomy for uncontrolled postpartum hemorrhage. Searches were conducted up to August 2009 using the PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases, using the following medical subject heading and text words: "postpartum bleeding," "postpartum hysterectomy," "uterine atony," "cesarean hysterectomy," "placenta accreta," "increta," "percreta," and "placenta previa." Studies were reviewed if they included cases of emergency postpartum hysterectomy performed at the time or within 48 hours of delivery, described factors leading to uncontrolled postpartum hemorrhage, enrolled women who delivered after 24 weeks of gestation, and reported data as proportional rates in tables or text. Studies were excluded if they analyzed hysterectomy performed after 48 hours of delivery or electively for an associated gynecologic condition, enrolled a small sample size (fewer than 10 patients), were conducted in underdeveloped countries, reported data in graphs or percentages, or did not include the actual numbers of patients. Twenty-four articles that included 981 cases of emergency postpartum hysterectomy were retrieved. Study characteristics and quality were recorded for each study. Demographic maternal characteristics, previous uterine surgery, conservative procedures to prevent emergency postpartum hysterectomy, type of hysterectomy (total or subtotal), factors leading to emergency postpartum hysterectomy, and maternal morbidity and mortality related to emergency postpartum hysterectomy were abstracted, presented as proportional rates (percentage), and integrated with meta-analysis techniques. The maternal morbidity rate was 549 (56.0%) of 981, and 428 (44.0%) of 981 women required blood transfusion. The maternal mortality rate was 26 (2.6%) of 981 cases. The type of hysterectomy was specified in 601 (61.2%) of 981 cases of emergency postpartum hysterectomy (total hysterectomies, 314 of 601 [52

  13. Hysterectomy for benign disease: clinical practice guidelines from the French College of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

    PubMed

    Deffieux, Xavier; Rochambeau, Bertrand de; Chene, Gautier; Gauthier, Tristan; Huet, Samantha; Lamblin, Géry; Agostini, Aubert; Marcelli, Maxime; Golfier, François

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the study was to draw up French College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (CNGOF) clinical practice guidelines based on the best available evidence concerning hysterectomy for benign disease. Each recommendation for practice was allocated a grade, which depends on the level of evidence (clinical practice guidelines). Hysterectomy should be performed by a high-volume surgeon (>10 hysterectomy procedures per year) (gradeC). Stimulant laxatives taken as a rectal enema are not recommended prior to hysterectomy (gradeC). It is recommended to carry out vaginal disinfection using povidone-iodine solution prior to hysterectomy (grade B). Antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended during hysterectomy, regardless of the surgical approach (grade B). The vaginal or laparoscopic approach is recommended for hysterectomy for benign disease (grade B), even if the uterus is large and/or the patient is obese (gradeC). The choice between these two surgical approaches depends on other parameters, such as the surgeon's experience, the mode of anesthesia, and organizational constraints (duration of surgery and medical economic factors). Vaginal hysterectomy is not contraindicated in nulliparous women (gradeC) or in women with previous cesarean section (gradeC). No specific hemostatic technique is recommended with a view to avoiding urinary tract injury (gradeC). In the absence of ovarian disease and a personal or family history of breast/ovarian carcinoma, the ovaries should be preserved in pre-menopausal women (grade B). Subtotal hysterectomy is not recommended with a view to reducing the risk of peri- or postoperative complications (grade B). The application of these recommendations should minimize risks associated with hysterectomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effectiveness of a multidisciplinary, team-based approach to cesarean hysterectomy in modern obstetric practice.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Caitlin; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Munnur, Uma; Suresh, Maya S; Miller, Harold; Hawkins, Shannon M

    2017-04-01

    To examine the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary, team-based approach to management of cesarean hysterectomy. In a retrospective chart review, data were analyzed from a quality assurance database of hysterectomies performed after cesarean delivery at one institution in the USA. Patients were identified through billing codes for cesarean delivery, cross-referenced to codes for hysterectomy. Demographic, reproductive, and outcome data were compared before (2000-2005) and after (2011-2013) implementation of a multidisciplinary team-based protocol. Across the two study periods, 107 cesarean hysterectomies were identified (69 pre-implementation, 38 post-implementation). In univariate analysis, the post-implementation group had fewer days in surgical intensive care than did the pre-implementation group (0.21 ± 0.41 vs 1.04 ± 2.44 days; P=0.011), and a lower frequency of febrile morbidity (4 [11%] vs 22 [32%]; P=0.033]. In multivariate analysis with adjustment for potential confounders, the likelihood of postoperative febrile morbidity was higher during the pre-implementation than the post-implementation period (adjusted odds ratio 3.5, 95% confidence interval 1.09-13.65; P=0.048). Outcomes were improved after the multidisciplinary team-based approach to cesarean hysterectomy was implemented. Team-based approaches to care of women undergoing cesarean hysterectomy are important to improve outcomes. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  15. [Shoulder dystocia: an obstetrical emergency].

    PubMed

    Marques, Joana Borges; Reynolds, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Shoulder dystocia is one of the most feared obstetric emergencies due to related maternal and neonatal complications and therefore, the growing of medico-legal litigation that it entails. Although associated with risk factors such as fetal macrossomia, gestacional diabetes and instrumented delivery, the majority of cases are unpredictable. The lack of a consensus on shoulder dystocia diagnosis causes variations on its incidence and hampers a more comprehensive analysis. Management guidelines described for its resolution include several manoeuvres but the ideal sequence of procedures is not clearly defined in more severe cases. Hands-on and team training, through simulation-based techniques applied to medicine, seems to be a promising method to learn how to deal with shoulder dystocia having in mind a reduction in related maternal or neonatal morbidity and mortality. The main goal of this paper is to provide a comprehensive revision of shoulder dystocia highlighting its relevance as an obstetric emergency. A reflection on the management is presented emphasising the importance of simulation-based training.

  16. Hysterectomy

    MedlinePlus

    A hysterectomy is surgery to remove a woman's uterus or womb. The uterus is the place where a baby grows when a woman is pregnant. After a hysterectomy, you no longer have menstrual periods and can' ...

  17. Hysterectomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... which is called a laparoscopic vaginal hysterectomy). A robot-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy is performed with the help ... In general, it has not been shown that robot-assisted laparoscopy results in a better outcome than ...

  18. Hepatitis C in haemorrhagic obstetrical emergencies.

    PubMed

    Khaskheli, Meharunnisa; Baloch, Shahla; Farooq, Sumiya

    2014-03-01

    To determine the maternal health and fetal outcome in hepatitis C with obstetrical haemorrhagic emergencies. An observational study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Unit-I, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Hospital, Hyderabad, Sindh, from January 2009 to December 2010. All the women admitted during the study period with different obstetrical haemorrhagic emergencies were included. On virology screening, hepatitis C screening was done on all. The women with non-haemorrhagic obstetrical emergencies were excluded. Studied variables included demographic characteristics, the nature of obstetrical emergency, haemorrhagic conditions and maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The data was analyzed on SPSS version 20. More frequent obstetrical haemorrhagic emergencies were observed with hepatitis C positive in comparison with hepatitis C negative cases including post-partum haemorrhage in 292 (80.88%) and ante-partum haemorrhage in 69 (19.11%) cases. Associated morbidities seen were disseminated intravascular coagulation in 43 (11.91%) and shock in 29 (8.03%) cases with hepatitis C positive. Fetal still birth rate was 37 (10.24%) in hepatitis C positive cases. Frequency of maternal morbidity and mortality and perinatal mortality was high in obstetrical haemorrhagic emergencies with hepatitis C positive cases.

  19. Hysterectomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... try a surgery that involves smaller or fewer cuts than hysterectomy. The smaller cuts may help you heal faster with less scarring. ... tools into your pelvic area through very small cuts. This surgery can remove scar tissue or growths ...

  20. Hysterectomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hysterectomy is performed with the help of a robotic machine controlled by the surgeon. In general, it ... in a better outcome than laparoscopy performed without robotic assistance. What are the benefits and risks of ...

  1. Obstetric Emergencies: Shoulder Dystocia and Postpartum Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Dahlke, Joshua D; Bhalwal, Asha; Chauhan, Suneet P

    2017-06-01

    Shoulder dystocia and postpartum hemorrhage represent two of the most common emergencies faced in obstetric clinical practice, both requiring prompt recognition and management to avoid significant morbidity or mortality. Shoulder dystocia is an uncommon, unpredictable, and unpreventable obstetric emergency and can be managed with appropriate intervention. Postpartum hemorrhage occurs more commonly and carries significant risk of maternal morbidity. Institutional protocols and algorithms for the prevention and management of shoulder dystocia and postpartum hemorrhage have become mainstays for clinicians. The goal of this review is to summarize the diagnosis, incidence, risk factors, and management of shoulder dystocia and postpartum hemorrhage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy in a tertiary teaching hospital: a 14-year review.

    PubMed

    D'Arpe, Stella; Franceschetti, Silvia; Corosu, Roberto; Palaia, Innocenza; Di Donato, Violante; Perniola, Giorgia; Muzii, Ludovico; Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi

    2015-04-01

    To determine incidence, risk factors, indications, outcomes, and complications of emergency peripartum hysterectomy (EPH) performed in a tertiary teaching hospital and to compare the results with literature data. Retrospective study of 51 patients who underwent EPH at the Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Urology of the University of Rome Sapienza, from January 2000 to December 2013. Maternal characteristics of the index pregnancy and delivery, indications for EPH, operative and postoperative complications, maternal and neonatal outcome were acquired by the hospital records. Fisher's and Chi-square tests were performed for statistical analysis. There were 51 EPH out of 23,384 deliveries, for an incidence of 2.2 per 1,000 deliveries during the study period. Forty-nine EPHs were performed after caesarean delivery (CS) and two after vaginal delivery (p < 0.0001). The most common indications were abnormal placentation (49.0%), followed by uterine atony (41.2%), and uterine rupture (9.8%). Eighty percent of patients who underwent EPH with abnormal placentation had at least one previous CS (p < 0.01). Twenty-three patients (45.1%) underwent total hysterectomy, the most frequent indication being abnormal placentation (76%, p < 0.01). The remaining 28 patients underwent subtotal hysterectomy (54.9%), the most frequent indication being uterine atony (85.7%, p < 0.01). Maternal morbidity was 25.5% and mortality was 5.9%. Perinatal mortality was 3.9%. Abnormal placentation was the most common indication for EPH, requiring in most of the cases a total hysterectomy. Previous CS was a risk factor for abnormal placentation and in particular for pathological adherence of the placenta. EPH remains associated with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality.

  3. Developing protocols for obstetric emergencies.

    PubMed

    Roth, Cheryl K; Parfitt, Sheryl E; Hering, Sandra L; Dent, Sarah A

    2014-01-01

    There is potential for important steps to be missed in emergency situations, even in the presence of many health care team members. Developing a clear plan of response for common emergencies can ensure that no tasks are redundant or omitted, and can create a more controlled environment that promotes positive health outcomes. A multidisciplinary team was assembled in a large community hospital to create protocols that would help ensure optimum care and continuity of practice in cases of postpartum hemorrhage, shoulder dystocia, emergency cesarean surgical birth, eclamptic seizure and maternal code. Assignment of team roles and responsibilities led to the evolution of standardized protocols for each emergency situation.

  4. Peripartum hysterectomy and arterial embolization for major obstetric hemorrhage: a 2-year nationwide cohort study in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Joost J; Dijk, Pieter D; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence, case fatality rates, and risk factors of peripartum hysterectomy and arterial embolization for major obstetric hemorrhage. This was a 2-year prospective nationwide population-based cohort study. All pregnant women in the Netherlands during the same period acted as reference cohort (n = 371,021). We included 205 women; the overall incidence was 5.7 per 10,000 deliveries. Arterial embolization was performed in 114 women (incidence, 3.2 per 10,000; case fatality rate, 2.0%). Peripartum hysterectomy was performed in 108 women (incidence, 3.0 per 10,000; case fatality rate, 1.9%). Seventeen women underwent hysterectomy after failure of embolization. Cesarean delivery (relative risk, 6.6; 95% confidence interval, 5.0-8.7) and multiple pregnancy (relative risk, 6.6; 95% confidence interval, 4.2-10.4) were the most important risk factors in univariable analysis. The rate of obstetric hemorrhage that necessitates hysterectomy or arterial embolization in the Netherlands is 5.7 per 10,000 deliveries; fertility is preserved in 46% of women by successful arterial embolization. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An obstetric emergency called peripartum cardiomyopathy!

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Nissar

    2010-01-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare obstetric emergency affecting women in late pregnancy or up to five months of postpartum period. The etiology of PPCM is still not known. It has potentially devastating effects on mother and fetus if not treated early. The signs, symptoms and treatment of PPCM are similar to that of heart failure. Early diagnosis and proper management is the corner stone for better outcome of these patients. The only way to prevent PPCM is to avoid further pregnancies.

  6. Building team and technical competency for obstetric emergencies: the mobile obstetric emergencies simulator (MOES) system.

    PubMed

    Deering, Shad; Rosen, Michael A; Salas, Eduardo; King, Heidi B

    2009-01-01

    The infrequent and high-stakes nature of obstetric emergencies requires staff members to respond quickly and proficiently to a complex and high-stress situation, a situation they have likely had little opportunity to experience. This situation requires a systematic approach to preparing personnel to manage these situations. Therefore, this article seeks to contribute to the growing literature on training programs for obstetric emergencies by documenting the development and implementation of the Mobile Obstetric Emergencies Simulator (MOES) system. MOES is a comprehensive package of simulation technology, standardized curriculum, and instructional features that combines traditional classroom learning activities and simulation-based training on the actual labor and delivery (L&D) ward. Specifically, the MOES system leverages the TeamSTEPPS teamwork training being implemented throughout the US military healthcare system with opportunities to practice teamwork and technical skills using mannequin-based patient simulation embedded within L&D units. The primary goals of this article are twofold. First, this article explicitly identifies the unique training needs for preparing staff for obstetric emergencies through a comprehensive review and synthesis of the literature. Second, this article documents the approach taken in MOES to meet these needs.

  7. [Case of atonic bleeding managed by emergency total hysterectomy and mass blood transfusion right after the cesarean section].

    PubMed

    Etoh, Takashi; Fujimoto, Hidenori

    2012-10-01

    A 34-year-old woman, who had had atonic bleeding six years ago, had selective cesarean section under CSEA. On the operation, atonic bleeding occurred and persisted. Though we used uterine contracting agents (oxytocin, ergometrine), the bleeding volume exceeded 2,000 ml and the examination revealed Hb 5.9 g x dl(-1), Ht 19%. We decided to perform emergency hemostatic operation (total hysterectomy) under general anesthesia. During the emergency operation, total blood loss was 5,810 ml and total urine was 205 ml. We transfused packed red cell 16 units, FFP 10 units, and infused fluid 4,650 ml. After the operation, the examination revealed Hb 9.7 g x dl(-1), Ht 27.8%, Plt 7.0 x 10(4) x microl(-1) and obstetric DIC score 10. The patient was treated in ICU under intubation, with anti-DIC drug (ulinastatin 50,000 units). Next day, she was extubated and admitted to the maternity ward. She was discharged on the 7th postoperative day without any complications. In 2010, guideline for obstetric critical hemorrhage was published. The guideline recommends the importance of observing the perioperative change of vital sign (e. g. shock index) and obstetric DIC score. In the obstetric critical hemorrhage, we should take proper and prompt actions in accordance with this guideline.

  8. [Evolution of peripartal hysterectomy at our department - five years evaluations].

    PubMed

    Pálová, E; Maľová, A; Hammerová, L; Redecha, M

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency, indications, complications and risk factors associated with peripartum hysterectomy carried out at our clinical department between 1st January 2008 and 31th December 2012. Peripartum hysterectomy was defined as a hysterectomy performed less than 48 hours after delivery. Clinical characteristic and obstetric histories were retrospectively reviewed between 5 years. There were 20 emergency peripartum hysterectomies among 13 660 deliveries at our department. The overall rate of peripartum hysterectomy was 1,46 per 1000 deliveries. The primary indications for hysterectomy were uncontrolled bleeding caused by uterine hypotony (45%), followed by placenta praevia (25%). Other indications were placental abruption (15%), pelvic endometriosis (5%), placenta increta (5%) and uterus myomatosus (5 %). The incidence of peripartum hysterectomy increased 2-fold in cases of placental patology, and 17-fold in cases of uterine hypotony. Overall, 95% of hysterectomy patients required transfusions.

  9. [Simulation' benefits in obstetrical emergency: Which proof level?

    PubMed

    Raynal, P

    2016-10-01

    Simulation in obstetrical emergency is in expansion. The important economic and human cost in simulation needs a real evaluation about enhancement in technical and non-technical skills, maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. We present a literature review of the results published on the subject in shoulder dystocia, post-partum haemorrhage, eclampsia and cord prolaps with a selection of publications with high evidence level or positive impact of training on obstetrical emergencies. There are few publications with a positive impact of training on obstetrical emergencies. Some publications from 10years by the same obstetrical team for training and shoulder dystocia reveal a 75% reduction in brachial plexus injury after 4years of training, and 100% reduction in permanent injury after a decade of training. Only one publication is in accordance with a reduction of severe post-partum haemorrhage with training. For all obstetrical emergencies, crew resource management (communication, self-confidence…) and team training are improved.

  10. Uterine Artery Embolization: Exploring New Dimensions in Obstetric Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Seema; Singh, Abha; Raghunandan, Chitra; Gupta, Usha; Dutt, Seema

    2014-01-01

    The role of transcatheter arterial embolization in the management of obstetric emergencies is relatively new and not so commonly used. In the following series, the efficacy of this technique in situations such as scar site ectopic pregnancy, antepartum and postpartum obstetric hemorrhage, especially in the presence of coagulation derangement is presented. PMID:24936273

  11. Strengthening emergency obstetric care in Ayacucho, Peru.

    PubMed

    Kayongo, M; Esquiche, E; Luna, M R; Frias, G; Vega-Centeno, L; Bailey, P

    2006-03-01

    With support from the Averting Maternal Death and Disability (AMDD) Program, CARE began the FEMME Project in 2000 to increase access and utilization of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services for the approximately 48,000 pregnant women in the northern provinces of Ayacucho. The project targeted 5 facilities with a comprehensive package of interventions designed to improve capacity to provide quality EmOC services and to promote a human rights approach in health care. Key program activities included improvements in infrastructure, human resources capacity development, development of service standards and protocols, quality improvement activities, and promoting a rights-based approach to health. By the end of the project, northern Ayacucho had 6 functioning EmOC facilities: 3 comprehensive (including a non-FEMME project facility) and 3 basic. This exceeds the UN minimum recommendation of 5 EmOC facilities per 500,000 population. Other changes in the UN process indicators indicate an increase in quality and utilization of EmOC services. Met need for EmOC increased significantly from 30% in 2000 to a high of 84% in 2004. Case fatality rates declined and the number of maternal deaths in the entire region declined. CARE's work in Ayacucho made an impact on policies and programs related to EmOC throughout the region. Within CARE, project experiences have supported maternal health programs particularly in the Latin American/Caribbean region.

  12. Obstetric training in Emergency Medicine: a needs assessment.

    PubMed

    Janicki, Adam James; MacKuen, Courteney; Hauspurg, Alisse; Cohn, Jamieson

    2016-01-01

    Identification and management of obstetric emergencies is essential in emergency medicine (EM), but exposure to pregnant patients during EM residency training is frequently limited. To date, there is little data describing effective ways to teach residents this material. Current guidelines require completion of 2 weeks of obstetrics or 10 vaginal deliveries, but it is unclear whether this instills competency. We created a 15-item survey evaluating resident confidence and knowledge related to obstetric emergencies. To assess confidence, we asked residents about their exposure and comfort level regarding obstetric emergencies and eight common presentations and procedures. We assessed knowledge via multiple-choice questions addressing common obstetric presentations, pelvic ultrasound image, and cardiotocography interpretation. The survey was distributed to residency programs utilizing the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD) listserv. The survey was completed by 212 residents, representing 55 of 204 (27%) programs belonging to CORD and 11.2% of 1,896 eligible residents. Fifty-six percent felt they had adequate exposure to obstetric emergencies. The overall comfort level was 2.99 (1-5 scale) and comfort levels of specific presentations and procedures ranged from 2.58 to 3.97; all increased moderately with postgraduate year (PGY) level. Mean overall percentage of items answered correctly on the multiple-choice questions was 58% with no statistical difference by PGY level. Performance on individual questions did not differ by PGY level. The identification and management of obstetric emergencies is the cornerstone of EM. We found preliminary evidence of a concerning lack of resident comfort regarding obstetric conditions and knowledge deficits on core obstetrics topics. EM residents may benefit from educational interventions to increase exposure to these topics.

  13. [The emergence of obstetrical mechanism: From Lucy to Homo sapiens].

    PubMed

    Frémondière, P; Thollon, L; Marchal, F

    2017-03-01

    The evolutionary history of modern birth mechanism is now a renewed interest in obstetrical papers. The purpose of this work is to review the literature in paleo-obstetrical field. Our analysis focuses on paleo-obstetrical hypothesis, from 1960 to the present day, based on the reconstruction of fossil pelvis. Indeed, these pelvic reconstructions usually provide an opportunity to make an obstetrical assumption in our ancestors. In this analysis, we show that modern birth mechanism takes place during the emergence of our genus 2 million years ago. References are made to human specificities related to obstetrical mechanism: exclusive bipedalism, increase of brain size at birth, metabolic cost of the pregnancy and deep trophoblastic implantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Emergency obstetric surgery by non-physician clinicians in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Caetano; Mbaruku, Godfrey; Nzabuhakwa, Calist; Bergström, Staffan; McCord, Colin

    2011-08-01

    To calculate the met need for comprehensive emergency obstetric care (CEmOC) in 2 Tanzanian regions (Mwanza and Kigoma) and to document the contribution of non-physician clinicians (assistant medical officers [AMOs]) and medical officers (MOs) with regard to meeting the need for CEmOC. All hospitals in the 2 regions were visited to determine the proportion of major obstetric interventions performed by AMOs and MOs. All deliveries (n = 38 758) in these hospitals in 2003 were reviewed. The estimated met need for emergency obstetric care (EmOC) was calculated using UN process indicators, as was the contribution to that attainment by AMOs. Hospital case fatality rates were also determined. Estimated met need was 35% in Mwanza and 23% in Kigoma. AMOs operating independently performed most major obstetric surgery. Outside of the single university hospital, AMOs performed 85% of cesareans and high proportions of other obstetric surgeries. The case fatality rate was 2.0% in Mwanza and 1.2% in Kigoma. AMOs carried most of the burden of life-saving EmOC-particularly cesarean deliveries-in the regions investigated. Case fatality was close to the 1% target set by the UN process indicators, but met need was far below the goal of 100%. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Global patterns in availability of emergency obstetric care.

    PubMed

    Paxton, A; Bailey, P; Lobis, S; Fry, D

    2006-06-01

    This paper examines the availability of basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care (EmOC), interventions used to treat direct obstetric complications. Determining what interventions are provided in health facilities is the first priority in analyzing a country's capabilities to treat obstetric emergencies. There are eight key interventions, six constitute basic EmOC and all eight comprehensive EmOC. Based on data from 24 needs assessments, the following global patterns emerge: comprehensive EmOC facilities are usually available to meet the recommended minimum number for the size of the population, basic EmOC facilities are consistently not available in sufficient numbers, both in countries with high and moderate levels of maternal mortality, and the majority of facilities offering maternity services provide only some interventions indicating an unrealized potential. Upgrading maternities, health centers and hospitals to at least basic EmOC status would be a major contributing step towards maternal mortality reduction in resource-poor countries.

  16. Ambulance referral for emergency obstetric care in remote settings.

    PubMed

    Tsegaye, Ademe; Somigliana, Edgardo; Alemayehu, Tadesse; Calia, Federico; Maroli, Massimo; Barban, Paola; Manenti, Fabio; Putoto, Giovanni; Accorsi, Sandro

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the functionality of an ambulance service dedicated to emergency obstetric care (EmOC) that referred pregnant women to health centers for delivery assistance or to a hospital for the management of obstetric complications. A retrospective study investigated an ambulance referral system for EmOC in a rural area of Ethiopia between July 1 and December 31, 2013. The service was available 24h a day and was free of charge. Women requesting referral were transported to nearby health centers. Assistance was provided locally for uncomplicated deliveries. Women with obstetric complications were referred from health centers to a hospital. A total of 528 ambulance referrals were recorded. The majority of patients (314 [59.5%]) were transported from villages to health centers. The remaining individuals were brought to a hospital, having been referred from health centers (179 [33.9%]) or were referred directly from villages owing to hospital proximity (35 [6.6%]). Of the 179 patients referred to the hospital from health centers, 84 (46.9%) were diagnosed with major direct obstetric complications. No maternal deaths were recorded among patients using the ambulance service. The cost of the ambulance service was US$ 18.47 per referred patient. An ambulance service dedicated to EmOC that interconnected health centers and a hospital facilitated referrals and better utilized local resources. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy: experience of a major referral hospital in Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Danisman, N; Baser, E; Togrul, C; Kaymak, O; Tandogan, M; Gungor, T

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to report and discuss the incidence, clinical characteristics and outcomes of emergency peripartum hysterectomies (EPH) performed at a tertiary referral hospital in Ankara, Turkey. The labour and delivery unit database was retrospectively analysed for emergency peripartum hysterectomies (EPH) performed between January 2008 and January 2013, at the Zekai Tahir Burak Women's Health Training and Research Hospital. A total of 92,887 deliveries were accomplished within the study period. EPH was performed in 48 cases, and the incidence was 0.51 in 1,000. Abnormal placentation was the most common indication for EPH. Most common complications were blood product transfusion and postoperative fever. None of the cases resulted in maternal mortality. Serious maternal complication rates were relatively low in our study. In cases that are unresponsive to initial conservative measures, EPH should be performed without delay and a multidisciplinary team approach should be conducted whenever possible.

  18. Experience of Emergency Peripartum Hysterectomies at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Quetta, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Mahrukh; Kasi, Pashtoon Murtaza; Baloch, Shahnaz Naseer; Afghan, Abaseen Khan

    2011-01-01

    Emergency peripartum hysterectomy (EPH) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The purpose of our paper was to determine the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of EPH done at our institution; the largest tertiary care government hospital in the city of Quetta, Pakistan. During the study period there were 12,642 deliveries, out of which 46 women had undergone an EPH, translating into an incidence of ∼4 per 1,000 births. Disturbingly, 82.6% of these patients had received no antenatal care prior to their presentation. There were 4 (8.7%) maternal deaths and 31 (67.4%) perinatal deaths. The commonest indication noted was uterine rupture in 21 (45.7%) cases. Lack of antenatal care is indeed a modifiable factor that needs to be addressed to help reduce maternal and fetal morbidity/mortality not only from emergency hysterectomies but also from all other preventable causes. PMID:21977328

  19. The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study: a study of complete uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, peripartum hysterectomy, and severe blood loss at delivery.

    PubMed

    Colmorn, Lotte B; Petersen, Kathrine B; Jakobsson, Maija; Lindqvist, Pelle G; Klungsoyr, Kari; Källen, Karin; Bjarnadottir, Ragnheidur I; Tapper, Anna-Maija; Børdahl, Per E; Gottvall, Karin; Thurn, Lars; Gissler, Mika; Krebs, Lone; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2015-07-01

    To assess the rates and characteristics of women with complete uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, peripartum hysterectomy, and severe blood loss at delivery in the Nordic countries. Prospective, Nordic collaboration. The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study (NOSS) collected cases of severe obstetric complications in the Nordic countries from April 2009 to August 2012. Cases were reported by clinicians at the Nordic maternity units and retrieved from medical birth registers, hospital discharge registers, and transfusion databases by using International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision codes on diagnoses and the Nordic Medico-Statistical Committee Classification of Surgical Procedure codes. Rates of the studied complications and possible risk factors among parturients in the Nordic countries. The studied complications were reported in 1019 instances among 605 362 deliveries during the study period. The reported rate of severe blood loss at delivery was 11.6/10 000 deliveries, complete uterine rupture was 5.6/10 000 deliveries, abnormally invasive placenta was 4.6/10 000 deliveries, and peripartum hysterectomy was 3.5/10 000 deliveries. Of the women, 25% had two or more complications. Women with complications were more often >35 years old, overweight, with a higher parity, and a history of cesarean delivery compared with the total population. The studied obstetric complications are rare. Uniform definitions and valid reporting are essential for international comparisons. The main risk factors include previous cesarean section. The detailed information collected in the NOSS database provides a basis for epidemiologic studies, audits, and educational activities. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Design of a Serious Game for Handling Obstetrical Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Bot-Robin, Virginie; Libessart, Aurélien; Doucède, Guillaume; Cosson, Michel; Rubod, Chrystèle

    2016-01-01

    Background The emergence of new technologies in the obstetrical field should lead to the development of learning applications, specifically for obstetrical emergencies. Many childbirth simulations have been recently developed. However, to date none of them have been integrated into a serious game. Objective Our objective was to design a new type of immersive serious game, using virtual glasses to facilitate the learning of pregnancy and childbirth pathologies. We have elaborated a new game engine, placing the student in some maternity emergency situations and delivery room simulations. Methods A gynecologist initially wrote a scenario based on a real clinical situation. He also designed, along with an educational engineer, a tree diagram, which served as a guide for dialogues and actions. A game engine, especially developed for this case, enabled us to connect actions to the graphic universe (fully 3D modeled and based on photographic references). We used the Oculus Rift in order to immerse the player in virtual reality. Each action in the game was linked to a certain number of score points, which could either be positive or negative. Results Different pathological pregnancy situations have been targeted and are as follows: care of spontaneous miscarriage, threat of preterm birth, forceps operative delivery for fetal abnormal heart rate, and reduction of a shoulder dystocia. The first phase immerses the learner into an action scene, as a doctor. The second phase ask the student to make a diagnosis. Once the diagnosis is made, different treatments are suggested. Conclusions Our serious game offers a new perspective for obstetrical emergency management trainings and provides students with active learning by immersing them into an environment, which recreates all or part of the real obstetrical world of emergency. It is consistent with the latest recommendations, which clarify the importance of simulation in teaching and in ongoing professional development. PMID

  1. Design of a Serious Game for Handling Obstetrical Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Jean Dit Gautier, Estelle; Bot-Robin, Virginie; Libessart, Aurélien; Doucède, Guillaume; Cosson, Michel; Rubod, Chrystèle

    2016-12-21

    The emergence of new technologies in the obstetrical field should lead to the development of learning applications, specifically for obstetrical emergencies. Many childbirth simulations have been recently developed. However, to date none of them have been integrated into a serious game. Our objective was to design a new type of immersive serious game, using virtual glasses to facilitate the learning of pregnancy and childbirth pathologies. We have elaborated a new game engine, placing the student in some maternity emergency situations and delivery room simulations. A gynecologist initially wrote a scenario based on a real clinical situation. He also designed, along with an educational engineer, a tree diagram, which served as a guide for dialogues and actions. A game engine, especially developed for this case, enabled us to connect actions to the graphic universe (fully 3D modeled and based on photographic references). We used the Oculus Rift in order to immerse the player in virtual reality. Each action in the game was linked to a certain number of score points, which could either be positive or negative. Different pathological pregnancy situations have been targeted and are as follows: care of spontaneous miscarriage, threat of preterm birth, forceps operative delivery for fetal abnormal heart rate, and reduction of a shoulder dystocia. The first phase immerses the learner into an action scene, as a doctor. The second phase ask the student to make a diagnosis. Once the diagnosis is made, different treatments are suggested. Our serious game offers a new perspective for obstetrical emergency management trainings and provides students with active learning by immersing them into an environment, which recreates all or part of the real obstetrical world of emergency. It is consistent with the latest recommendations, which clarify the importance of simulation in teaching and in ongoing professional development.

  2. [Pyelovenous fistula revealed by repeated thromboembolic events after emergency peripartum hysterectomy].

    PubMed

    Sauvanaud, C; Boillot, B; Sergent, F; Long, J A; Pernod, G; Rambeaud, J J

    2014-04-01

    We report the case of a 51-year old woman presenting pyelovenous fistula revealed by recurrent and serious thromboembolic events after ureteral ligation during emergency peripartum hysterectomy. Imaging reported a complete left ureteral obstruction, a fistula between the upper calix and the left renal vein and a renal function preserved. Uretero-vesical reimplantation was performed. The patient was well doing after 12 months. The authors wonder if pyelovenous fistula is responsible for prothrombotic state and maintaining renal function.

  3. Multidisciplinary Obstetric Simulated Emergency Scenarios (MOSES): Promoting Patient Safety in Obstetrics with Teamwork-Focused Interprofessional Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeth, Della; Ayida, Gubby; Berridge, Emma Jane; Mackintosh, Nicola; Norris, Beverley; Sadler, Chris; Strachan, Alasdair

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: We describe an example of simulation-based interprofessional continuing education, the multidisciplinary obstetric simulated emergency scenarios (MOSES) course, which was designed to enhance nontechnical skills among obstetric teams and, hence, improve patient safety. Participants' perceptions of MOSES courses, their learning, and…

  4. Multidisciplinary Obstetric Simulated Emergency Scenarios (MOSES): Promoting Patient Safety in Obstetrics with Teamwork-Focused Interprofessional Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeth, Della; Ayida, Gubby; Berridge, Emma Jane; Mackintosh, Nicola; Norris, Beverley; Sadler, Chris; Strachan, Alasdair

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: We describe an example of simulation-based interprofessional continuing education, the multidisciplinary obstetric simulated emergency scenarios (MOSES) course, which was designed to enhance nontechnical skills among obstetric teams and, hence, improve patient safety. Participants' perceptions of MOSES courses, their learning, and…

  5. Challenges to the provision of emergency obstetric care in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Ameh, Charles A; Bishop, Sophie; Kongnyuy, Eugene; Grady, Kate; Van den Broek, Nynke

    2011-01-01

    To assess the availability of, and challenges to the provision of emergency obstetric care in order to raise awareness and assist policy-makers and development partners in making appropriate decisions to help pregnant women in Iraq. Descriptive and exploratory study based on self-administered questionnaires, an in-depth interview and a Focus Group Discussion. The setting was 19 major hospitals in 8 out of the 18 Governorates and the participants were 31 Iraqi doctors and 1 midwife. The outcome measures were availability of emergency obstetric care (EOC) in hospitals and challenges to the provision of EOC. Only 26.3% (5/19) of hospitals had been able to provide all the 8 signal functions of comprehensive emergency obstetric care in the previous 3 months. All the 19 hospitals provided parenteral antibiotics and uterine evacuation, 94.7% (18/19) were able to provide parenteral oxytocics and perform manual removal of retained placenta, magnesium sulphate for eclampsia was available in 47.4% (9/19) of hospitals, 42.1% (8/19) provided assisted vaginal delivery, 26.5% (5/19) provided blood transfusion and 89.5% (17/19) offered Caesarean section. The identified challenges for health care providers include difficulties travelling to work due to frequent checkpoints and insecurity, high level of insecurity for patients referred or admitted to hospitals, inadequate staffing due mainly to external migration and premature deaths as a result of the war, lack of drugs, supplies and equipment (including blood for transfusion), and falling standards of training and regulation. Most women and their families do not currently have access to comprehensive emergency obstetric care. Health care providers recommend reconstruction and strengthening of all components of the Iraqi health system which may only be achieved if security returns to the country.

  6. The cost of local, multi-professional obstetric emergencies training.

    PubMed

    Yau, Christopher W H; Pizzo, Elena; Morris, Steve; Odd, David E; Winter, Cathy; Draycott, Timothy J

    2016-10-01

    We aim to outline the annual cost of setting up and running a standard, local, multi-professional obstetric emergencies training course, PROMPT (PRactical Obstetric Multi-Professional Training), at Southmead Hospital, Bristol, UK - a unit caring for approximately 6500 births per year. A retrospective, micro-costing analysis was performed. Start-up costs included purchasing training mannequins and teaching props, printing of training materials and assembly of emergency boxes (real and training). The variable costs included administration time, room hire, additional printing and the cost of releasing all maternity staff in the unit, either as attendees or trainers. Potential, extra start-up costs for maternity units without established training were also included. The start-up costs were €5574 and the variable costs for 1 year were €143 232. The total cost of establishing and running training at Southmead for 1 year was €148 806. Releasing staff as attendees or trainers accounted for 89% of the total first year costs, and 92% of the variable costs. The cost of running training in a maternity unit with around 6500 births per year was approximately €23 000 per 1000 births for the first year and around €22 000 per 1000 births in subsequent years. The cost of local, multi-professional obstetric emergencies training is not cheap, with staff costs potentially representing over 90% of the total expenditure. It is therefore vital that organizations consider the clinical effectiveness of local training packages before implementing them, to ensure the optimal allocation of finite healthcare budgets. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. The impact of emergency obstetric care training in Somaliland, Somalia.

    PubMed

    Ameh, Charles; Adegoke, Adetoro; Hofman, Jan; Ismail, Fouzia M; Ahmed, Fatuma M; van den Broek, Nynke

    2012-06-01

    To provide and evaluate in-service training in "Life Saving Skills - Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care" in order to improve the availability of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in Somaliland. In total, 222 healthcare providers (HCPs) were trained between January 2007 and December 2009. A before-after study was conducted using quantitative and qualitative methods to evaluate trainee reaction and change in knowledge, skills, and behavior, in addition to functionality of healthcare facilities, during and immediately after training, and at 3 and 6 months post-training. The HCPs reacted positively to the training, with a significant improvement in 50% of knowledge and 100% of skills modules assessed. The HCPs reported improved confidence in providing EmOC. Basic and comprehensive EmOC healthcare facilities provided 100% of expected signal functions-compared with 43% and 56%, respectively, at baseline-with trained midwives performing skills usually performed by medical doctors. Lack of drugs, supplies, medical equipment, and supportive policy were identified as barriers that could contribute to nonuse of new skills and knowledge acquired. The training impacted positively on the availability and quality of EmOC and resulted in "up-skilling" of midwives. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Clinical study of perinatal hysterectomy between 2000-2011 in the clinic of obstetrics, gynecological diseases and oncological gynecology in Bydgoszcz].

    PubMed

    Jagielska, Iwona; Kazdepka-Ziemińska, Anita; Tyloch, Małgorzata; Papierski, Maciej; Zołniezewicz, Krzysztof; Grabiec, Marek; Szymański, Wiesław

    2014-03-01

    Perinatal hysterectomy (PH) is usually a life-saving procedure, which is performed after all conservative treatment options fail. The PH frequency rate ranges from 0.04 to 0.23%. The most frequent indications for this procedure include: abnormal placental implantation, placenta previa, uterine rupture and uterine atony Clinical study of perinatal hysterectomy cases taking into consideration the frequency indications, complications and risk factors related to this procedure. The study included 16 women who underwent perinatal hysterectomy at the Department and Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecological Diseases between 2000-2011. The following data were collected from medical records: course of pregnancy labor and puerperium. The profile of the study group was conducted in terms of: maternal age, parity gestation length, history of caesarean sections and gynecological operations. The following factors were studied: the termination of pregnancy, indications for caesarean section, hysterectomy-related complications and indications, neonatal birth weight and Apgar score. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistica 9.1 by StatSoft. Data are expressed as the arithmetic mean and standard deviation (SD). Sixteen perinatal hysterectomy procedures were performed, accounting for 0.066% of the overall number of labors. Average maternal age and pregnancy length were 31.6 years [SD+/-6.3] and 36.1 weeks of gestation [SD+/-3.4], respectively PH was more frequently performed among multiparous women (81.25%) and after caesarean sections (87.5%). Fetal asphyxia was the most frequent indication for caesarean section (35.7%). Fourteen percent of all indications accounted for the lack of consent from a pregnant woman to make an attempt at spontaneous vaginal delivery after previous c-section. Fifty percent of the women from the study group had a previous caesarean section, whereas 25% had more than one prior c-section. Between 2009-2011, as compared to previous years, the

  9. National Training Course. Emergency Medical Technician. Paramedic. Instructor's Lesson Plans. Module XI. Obstetric/Gynecologic Emergencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This instructor's lesson plan guide on obstetric/gynecologic emergencies is one of fifteen modules designed for use in the training of emergency medical technicians (paramedics). Six units of study are presented: (1) anatomy and physiology of the female reproductive system; (2) patient assessment; (3) pathophysiology and management of gynecologic…

  10. Prevalence, Indications, Risk Indicators, and Outcomes of Emergency Peripartum Hysterectomy Worldwide: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Thomas; Brobbel, Carolien; Dekkers, Olaf M; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M

    2016-12-01

    To compare prevalence, indications, risk indicators, and outcomes of emergency peripartum hysterectomy across income settings. PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Cochrane Library databases up to March 30, 2015. Studies including emergency peripartum hysterectomies performed within 6 weeks postpartum. Not eligible were comments, case reports, elective hysterectomies for associated gynecologic conditions, studies with fewer than 10 inclusions, and those reporting only percentages published in languages other than English or before 1980. Interstudy heterogeneity was assessed by χ test for heterogeneity; a random-effects model was applied whenever I exceeded 25%. One hundred twenty-eight studies were selected, including 7,858 women who underwent emergency peripartum hysterectomy, of whom 87% were multiparous. Hysterectomy complicated almost 1 per 1,000 deliveries (range 0.2-10.1). Prevalence differed between poorer (low and lower middle income) and richer (upper middle and high income) settings: 2.8 compared with 0.7 per 1,000 deliveries, respectively (relative risk 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.0-4.5). Most common indications were placental pathology (38%), uterine atony (27%), and uterine rupture (26%). Risk indicators included cesarean delivery in the current pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 11.38, 95% CI 9.28-13.97), previous cesarean delivery (OR 7.5, 95% CI 5.1-11.0), older age (mean difference 6.6 years between women in the case group and those in the control group, 95% CI 4.4-8.9), and higher parity (mean difference 1.4, 95% CI 0.7-2.2). Having attended antenatal care was protective (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.06-0.25). Only 3% had accessed arterial embolization to prevent hysterectomy. Average blood loss was 3.7 L. Mortality was 5.2 per 100 hysterectomies (reported range 0-59.1) and higher in poorer settings: 11.9 compared with 2.5 per 100 hysterectomies (relative risk 4.8, 95% CI 3.9-5.9). Emergency peripartum hysterectomy is associated with

  11. Finding Meaning in Life Following Emergency Postpartum Hysterectomy: What Doesn't Kill Us Makes Us Stronger.

    PubMed

    Elmir, Rakime

    2014-01-01

    Childbirth is generally perceived to be a triumphant and joyous moment in a woman's life. However, current research indicates that it can also be a time of fear, dread, and apprehension, particularly when the birth experience is traumatic. Some women attempt to seek the positives of their traumatic or unexpected childbirth experience to be able to cope with their experience. However, little attention is directed toward how women rebuild their lives and grow following traumatic birth experiences such as severe postpartum hemorrhage and emergency hysterectomy. Twenty-one Australian women, aged 24 to 57 years, who had experienced severe postpartum hemorrhage and emergency hysterectomy were interviewed in an in-depth qualitative study about their experiences. Thematic analysis revealed the major theme of moving forward and 4 subthemes: appreciating life and what you have; what really counts: learning and growing; accepting it: it's just the way it is; and reframing the experience: seeking the positives All of the women found meaning following their hysterectomy, which produced a positive perspective on their lives. The way that women find meaning and cope with the trauma of having a severe postpartum hemorrhage and emergency hysterectomy is significant to their ability to move forward and live life to the fullest. Midwives and other health care providers may be in a position to provide support for women in the aftermath of severe postpartum hemorrhage and emergency hysterectomy. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  12. Public private partnerships for emergency obstetric care: lessons from maharashtra.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Sarika; Randive, Bharat

    2011-01-01

    The National Rural Health Mission of India advocates public private partnerships (PPPs) to meet its "service guarantee" of Emergency obstetric care (EmOC) provision. The Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) has a provision of Rs. 1500 for contracting in obstetric specialists. The study aimed to understand the issues in the design and implementation of the PPPs for EmOC under the JSY in Maharashtra and how they affect the availability of EmOC services to women. A cross-sectional study using the rapid assessment approach was conducted in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra spanning 1-year duration ending in June 2009. Primary data were obtained through interviews with women, providers, and administrators at various levels. Data were analyzed thematically. The PPP scheme for EmOC is restricted to deliveries by Caesarean section.The administrators prefer subsidization of costs for services in private facilities to contracting in. There are no PPPs executed in the study district. This study identifies barriers to women in accessing the benefit and the difficulties faced by administrators in implementing the scheme. The PPPs for EmOC under the JSY have minimally influenced the out-of-pocket payments for EmOC. Infrastructural inadequacies and passive support of the implementers are major barriers to the implementation of contracting-in model of PPPs. Capacities in the public health system are inadequate to design and manage PPPs.

  13. Public Private Partnerships for Emergency Obstetric Care: Lessons from Maharashtra

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Sarika; Randive, Bharat

    2011-01-01

    Background: The National Rural Health Mission of India advocates public private partnerships (PPPs) to meet its “service guarantee” of Emergency obstetric care (EmOC) provision. The Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) has a provision of Rs. 1500 for contracting in obstetric specialists. Objectives: The study aimed to understand the issues in the design and implementation of the PPPs for EmOC under the JSY in Maharashtra and how they affect the availability of EmOC services to women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using the rapid assessment approach was conducted in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra spanning 1-year duration ending in June 2009. Primary data were obtained through interviews with women, providers, and administrators at various levels. Data were analyzed thematically. Results: The PPP scheme for EmOC is restricted to deliveries by Caesarean section.The administrators prefer subsidization of costs for services in private facilities to contracting in. There are no PPPs executed in the study district. This study identifies barriers to women in accessing the benefit and the difficulties faced by administrators in implementing the scheme. Conclusion: The PPPs for EmOC under the JSY have minimally influenced the out-of-pocket payments for EmOC. Infrastructural inadequacies and passive support of the implementers are major barriers to the implementation of contracting-in model of PPPs. Capacities in the public health system are inadequate to design and manage PPPs. PMID:21687376

  14. Between life and death: women's experiences of coming close to death, and surviving a severe postpartum haemorrhage and emergency hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Elmir, Rakime; Schmied, Virginia; Jackson, Debra; Wilkes, Lesley

    2012-04-01

    to describe women's experiences of having an emergency hysterectomy following a severe postpartum haemorrhage. a qualitative research approach was used to guide this study. Data were collected through semi-structured, tape recorded face to face, email internet and telephone interviews. three States in Australia: New South Wales, Victoria and Western Australia. twenty-one Australian women who experienced a severe post partum followed by an emergency hysterectomy participated in the study. The median age of participants at time of interview was 42 years and the median time since having the hysterectomy was four years. a process of inductive analysis revealed the major theme, 'between life and death' and three sub-themes, 'being close to death: bleeding and fear', 'having a hysterectomy: devastation and realisation' and 'reliving the trauma: flashbacks and memories'. formulating a plan of care for women identifiably at risk of PPH and ensuring appropriate follow-up counselling is made, is key to help reduce the emotional and psychological symptoms experienced by these women in the aftermath of severe postpartum haemorrhage and hysterectomy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Emergency obstetric care: Making the impossible possible through task shifting.

    PubMed

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Mathai, Matthews

    2015-10-01

    Task shifting-moving tasks to healthcare workers with a shorter training-for emergency obstetric care (EmOC) can potentially improve access to lifesaving interventions and thereby contribute to reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The present paper reviews studies on task shifting for the provision of EmOC. Most studies were performed in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia and focused primarily on task shifting for the performance of cesarean deliveries. Cesarean delivery rates increased following EmOC training without significant increase in adverse outcomes. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of task shifting in EmOC and the role of this approach in improving maternal and newborn health in the short and long term.

  16. Rural-Urban Inequity in Unmet Obstetric Needs and Functionality of Emergency Obstetric Care Services in a Zambian District

    PubMed Central

    Ng’anjo Phiri, Selia; Fylkesnes, Knut; Moland, Karen Marie; Byskov, Jens; Kiserud, Torvid

    2016-01-01

    Background Zambia has a high maternal mortality ratio, 398/100,000 live births. Few pregnant women access emergency obstetric care services to handle complications at childbirth. We aimed to assess the deficit in life-saving obstetric services in the rural and urban areas of Kapiri Mposhi district. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011 as part of the ‘Response to Accountable priority setting for Trust in health systems’ (REACT) project. Data on all childbirths that occurred in emergency obstetric care facilities in 2010 were obtained retrospectively. Sources of information included registers from maternity ward admission, delivery and operation theatre, and case records. Data included age, parity, mode of delivery, obstetric complications, and outcome of mother and the newborn. An approach using estimated major obstetric interventions expected but not done in health facilities was used to assess deficit of life-saving interventions in urban and rural areas. Results A total of 2114 urban and 1226 rural childbirths occurring in emergency obstetric care facilities (excluding abortions) were analysed. Facility childbirth constituted 81% of expected births in urban and 16% in rural areas. Based on the reference estimate that 1.4% of childbearing women were expected to need major obstetric intervention, unmet obstetric need was 77 of 106 women, thus 73% (95% CI 71–75%) in rural areas whereas urban areas had no deficit. Major obstetric interventions for absolute maternal indications were higher in urban 2.1% (95% CI 1.60–2.71%) than in rural areas 0.4% (95% CI 0.27–0.55%), with an urban to rural rate ratio of 5.5 (95% CI 3.55–8.76). Conclusions Women in rural areas had deficient obstetric care. The likelihood of under-going a life-saving intervention was 5.5 times higher for women in urban than rural areas. Targeting rural women with life-saving services could substantially reduce this inequity and preventable deaths. PMID:26824599

  17. Validating Obstetric Emergency Checklists using Simulation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Komal; Rivera-Chiauzzi, Enid Y; Lee, Colleen; Shepard, Cynthia; Bernstein, Peter S; Moore-Murray, Tanya; Smith, Heather; Nathan, Lisa; Walker, Katie; Chazotte, Cynthia; Goffman, Dena

    2016-10-01

    Background The World Health Organization's Surgical Safety Checklist has demonstrated significant reduction in surgical morbidity. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists District II Safe Motherhood Initiative (SMI) safety bundles include eclampsia and postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) checklists. Objective To determine whether use of the SMI checklists during simulated obstetric emergencies improved completion of critical actions and to elicit feedback to facilitate checklist revision. Study Design During this randomized controlled trial, teams were assigned to use a checklist during one of two emergencies: eclampsia and PPH. Raters scored teams on critical step completion. Feedback was elicited through structured debriefing. Results In total, 30 teams completed 60 scenarios. For eclampsia, trends toward higher completion were noted for blood pressure and airway management. For PPH, trends toward higher completion rates were noted for PPH stage assessment and fundal massage. Feedback resulted in substantial checklist revision. Participants were enthusiastic about using checklists in a clinical emergency. Conclusion Despite trends toward higher rates of completion of critical tasks, teams using checklists did not approach 100% task completion. Teams were interested in the application of checklists and provided feedback necessary to substantially revise the checklists. Intensive implementation planning and training in use of the revised checklists will result in improved patient outcomes.

  18. Barriers to emergency obstetric care services: accounts of survivors of life threatening obstetric complications in Malindi District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Echoka, Elizabeth; Makokha, Anselimo; Dubourg, Dominique; Kombe, Yeri; Nyandieka, Lillian; Byskov, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy-related mortality and morbidity in most low and middle income countries can be reduced through early recognition of complications, prompt access to care and appropriate medical interventions following obstetric emergencies. We used the three delays framework to explore barriers to emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services by women who experienced life threatening obstetric complications in Malindi District, Kenya. A facility-based qualitative study was conducted between November and December 2010. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 women who experienced obstetric "near miss" at the only public hospital with capacity to provide comprehensive EmOC services in the district. Findings indicate that pregnant women experienced delays in making decision to seek care and in reaching an appropriate care facility. The "first" delay was due to lack of birth preparedness, including failure to identify a health facility for delivery services regardless of antenatal care and to seek care promptly despite recognition of danger signs. The "second" delay was influenced by long distance and inconvenient transport to hospital. These two delays resulted in some women arriving at the hospital too late to save the life of the unborn baby. Delays in making the decision to seek care when obstetric complications occur, combined with delays in reaching the hospital, contribute to ineffective treatment upon arrival at the hospital. Interventions to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity must adequately consider the pre-hospital challenges faced by pregnant women in order to influence decision making towards addressing the three delays.

  19. Identifying obstetrical emergencies at Kintampo Municipal Hospital: a perspective from pregnant women and nursing midwives.

    PubMed

    Oiyemhonlan, Brenda; Udofia, Emilia; Punguyire, Damien

    2013-06-01

    A hospital based cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted at Kintampo Municipal Hospital in Northern Ghana, to identify obstetric emergencies and barriers to emergency care seeking; examine the perspective of midwives regarding their role in maternity care and management of obstetric emergencies, and explore women's knowledge and response to obstetric emergencies. Study subjects comprised of 2 emergency obstetric cases, 29 antenatal focus group discussants and 5 midwives at the maternity unit. Data was collected from 23rd March to 9th April, 2012 using in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and record reviews. The most common obstetric emergencies were hemorrhage, eclampsia and anemia. Potential obstetric complications were poorly understood by antenatal women and known barriers limited access to emergency obstetric care. Service challenges included insufficient staffing and well as inadequate equipment and physical space in the maternity ward. Local community efforts can address communication and service access gaps. Government intervention is required to address service provision gaps for improved maternity care in Kintampo.

  20. Delivering quality care: what can emergency gynaecology learn from acute obstetrics?

    PubMed

    Bika, O H; Edozien, L C

    2014-08-01

    Emergency obstetric care in the UK has been systematically developed over the years to high quality standards. More recently, advances have been made in the organisation and delivery of care for women presenting with acute gynaecological problems, but a lot remains to be done, and emergency gynaecology has a lot to learn from the evolution of its sister special interest area: acute obstetric care. This paper highlights areas such as consultant presence, risk management, patient flow pathways, out-of-hours care, clinical guidelines and protocols, education and training and facilities, where lessons from obstetrics are transferrable to emergency gynaecology.

  1. The cost of emergency obstetric care: concepts and issues.

    PubMed

    Desai, J

    2003-04-01

    Emergency obstetric care (EmOC), like any health intervention, requires resources, and resources are almost always limited. This forces decision makers to take into account the costs (and effectiveness) of EmOC provision and compare them with the costs (and effectiveness) of other health interventions. This is not inordinately complicated, but it does require paying attention to the fact that EmOC services require different types of inputs and are produced in facilities that also provide other health care services. This paper discusses the basic concepts underlying the costing of EmOC services, and the essential issues one must take into account while assessing the cost-effectiveness of EmOC interventions. A definition of EmOC provision cost is offered and then explained by progressively refining a simple measure of expenditures on all that is used to provide EmOC services. Thereupon the process of collecting cost data and calculating costs is outlined using a simple spreadsheet format, and issues related to the analysis of costs and cost-effectiveness are discussed.

  2. Implementation of emergency obstetric care training in Bangladesh: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Tajul; Haque, Yasmin Ali; Waxman, Rachel; Bhuiyan, Abdul Bayes

    2006-05-01

    The Women's Right to Life and Health project aimed to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh through provision of comprehensive emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in the country's district and sub-district hospitals. Human resources development was one of the project's major activities. This paper describes the project in 2000-2004 and lessons learned. Project documents, the training database, reports and training protocols were reviewed. Medical officers, nurses, facility managers and laboratory technicians received training in the country's eight medical college hospitals, using nationally accepted curricula. A 17-week competency-based training course for teams of medical officers and nurses was introduced in 2003. At baseline in 1999, only three sub-district hospitals were providing comprehensive EmOC and 33 basic EmOC, mostly due to lack of trained staff and necessary equipment. In 2004, 105 of the 120 sub-district hospitals had become functional for EmOC, 70 with comprehensive EmOC and 35 with basic EmOC, while 53 of 59 of the district hospitals were providing comprehensive EmOC compared to 35 in 1999. The scaling up of competency-based training, innovative incentives to retain trained staff, evidence-based protocols to standardise practice and improve quality of care and the continuing involvement of key stakeholders, especially trainers, will all be needed to reach training targets in future.

  3. Emergency obstetric care in Punjab, Pakistan: improvement needed.

    PubMed

    Ali, Moazzam; Ahmed, Khawaja Masuood; Kuroiwa, Chushi

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes an approach to maternal mortality reduction in Pakistan that uses UN emergency obstetric care (EmOC) process indicators to examine if public health care centres in Pakistan's Punjab province comply with minimum recommendations for basic and comprehensive services. In a cross sectional study in September 2003, through random sampling at area and health-facility levels from 30% of districts in Punjab province (n = 11/34 districts), all public health facilities providing EmOC were included (n = 120). Facility data were used for analysis. No district in Punjab met the minimum standards laid down by the UN for providing EmOC services. The number of facilities providing basic and comprehensive EmOC services fell far short of recommended levels. Only 4.7% of women with complications attended hospitals. Caesarean section was carried out in only 0.4% of births. The case fatality rate was hard to accurately calculate due to poor record keeping and data quality. The study may be taken as a baseline for developing and improving the standards of services in Punjab province. It is vital to upgrade existing basic EmOC facilities and to ensure that staff skills be improved, facilities be better equipped in critical areas, and record keeping be improved. Hence to reduce maternal mortality, facilities for EmOC must exist, be accessible, offer quality services, and be utilized by patients with complications.

  4. Emergency obstetric care: how do we stand in Malawi?

    PubMed

    Leigh, Bailah; Mwale, Theresa Gloria; Lazaro, Dorothy; Lunguzi, Juliana

    2008-04-01

    To assess the availability, accessibility, utilization, and quality of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services in Malawi. A complete enumeration was made of all hospitals and a 25% random sample of all health centers, in all districts of Malawi. Enumerators (nurses and midwives) collected data by reviewing facility registers and records, observations, and interviews with health workers to determine extent of utilization of services. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were also held with key informants to identify barriers to utilization of services and explore participants' perceptions of quality of care. Almost twice the minimum number of recommended comprehensive EmOC facilities exist (1.8 facilities per 500,000 population), but only 2% of the recommended number of basic EmOC facilities. Met need was only 18.5%; cesarean delivery rate was less than 3%. The case fatality rate was 3.4% indicating poor quality of care, attributable partly to absence of skilled birth attendants and motivated staff, and the frequent shortage of drugs and medical supplies. Malawi needs to improve the provision of quality EmOC services by implementing evidence-based strategies for the reduction of maternal mortality. Consequently, the Malawi Road Map for accelerating improvement was developed through multidonor and multisector collaboration with the Reproductive Health Unit of the Ministry of Health. This Road Map is now being implemented in all districts of Malawi.

  5. Barriers to emergency obstetric care services: accounts of survivors of life threatening obstetric complications in Malindi District, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Echoka, Elizabeth; Makokha, Anselimo; Dubourg, Dominique; Kombe, Yeri; Nyandieka, Lillian; Byskov, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy-related mortality and morbidity in most low and middle income countries can be reduced through early recognition of complications, prompt access to care and appropriate medical interventions following obstetric emergencies. We used the three delays framework to explore barriers to emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services by women who experienced life threatening obstetric complications in Malindi District, Kenya. Methods A facility-based qualitative study was conducted between November and December 2010. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 women who experienced obstetric “near miss” at the only public hospital with capacity to provide comprehensive EmOC services in the district. Resuls Findings indicate that pregnant women experienced delays in making decision to seek care and in reaching an appropriate care facility. The “first” delay was due to lack of birth preparedness, including failure to identify a health facility for delivery services regardless of antenatal care and to seek care promptly despite recognition of danger signs. The “second” delay was influenced by long distance and inconvenient transport to hospital. These two delays resulted in some women arriving at the hospital too late to save the life of the unborn baby. Conclusion Delays in making the decision to seek care when obstetric complications occur, combined with delays in reaching the hospital, contribute to ineffective treatment upon arrival at the hospital. Interventions to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity must adequately consider the pre-hospital challenges faced by pregnant women in order to influence decision making towards addressing the three delays. PMID:24643142

  6. Effects of changes in copayment for obstetric emergency room visits on the utilization of obstetric emergency rooms.

    PubMed

    Raz, Iris; Novack, Lena; Yitshak-Sade, Maayan; Shahar, Yemima; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Sergienko, Ruslan; Warshawsky-Livne, Lora

    2015-10-01

    In view of the growing proportion of "non-urgent" admissions to obstetric emergency rooms (OERs) and recent changes in copayment policies for OER visits in Israel, we assessed factors contributing to OER overcrowding. The changes investigated were (a) exemption from copayment for women with birth contractions, (b) allowing phone referrals to the OER and (c) exemption from copayment during primary care clinic closing hours. We analyzed data of a large tertiary hospital with 37 deliveries per day. Counts of women discharged to home from the OER were an indicator of "non-urgent" visits. The annual number of non-urgent visits increased at a higher rate (3.4%) than the natural increase in deliveries (2.1%). Exemption from copayment for visits during non-working hours of primary care clinics was associated with increases in OER admissions (IRR=1.22) and in non-urgent OER visits (IRR=1.54). Younger and first-time mothers with medically unjustified complaints were more likely to be discharged to home. We showed that the changes in the policy for OER copayment meant to attract new clients to the HMO had an independent impact on OER utilization, and hence, added to the workload of medical personnel. The change in HMO policy regulating OER availability requires rigorous assessment of possible health system implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Using emergency obstetric drills in maternity units as a performance improvement tool.

    PubMed

    Osman, Hibah; Campbell, Oona M R; Nassar, Anwar H

    2009-03-01

    Obstetric drills are being used increasingly to test, improve, and maintain knowledge and skills related to obstetric emergencies as a means to improve proficiency and efficiency of practitioners. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and usefulness of conducting drills to evaluate the response to obstetric emergencies using a holistic approach that tested the hospital system. A prospective trial was conducted at three hospitals (two tertiary referral centers and one small community hospital) in Beirut, Lebanon. Two different emergency obstetric drills at two points in time were conducted between April and May 2006 either in the emergency room or on the labor floor. The drills included medical and paramedical staff, a female actor (simulating a pregnant woman), a research assistant (acting as her companion), and a physician trained in obstetrics (the drill leader). Responses were recorded and critically analyzed. Although overall quality of care was within standards of care, problems were identified related to hospital policies, supplies and equipment, communication, and clinical management. Some technical problems related to administration of the drills were identified. Most drill participants appreciated the exercise and found it beneficial. Obstetric drills provide a useful tool to identify and address deficiencies in the hospital system. This finding could have implications on improving quality of care provided to obstetric patients.

  8. Measuring access to emergency obstetric care in rural Zambia.

    PubMed

    Levine, Adam C; Marsh, Regan H; Nelson, Sara W; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Burke, Thomas F

    2008-06-01

    Global health experts identify emergency obstetric care (EmOC) as the most important intervention to improve maternal survival in low- and middle-income countries. In Zambia, 1 in 27 women will die of maternal causes, yet the level of availability of EmOC is not known at the provincial level. Our goal was to develop a tool to measure the availability of EmOC in rural Zambia in order to estimate pregnant women's access to this life-saving intervention. We created an instrument for determining the availability of EmOC based on the supplies and medicines in stock at health facilities as well as the skill level of health workers. We then surveyed a random sample of 35 health centres in the Central Province of Zambia using our novel instrument. We graded health centres based on their ability to provide the six basic functions of EmOC: administering parenteral antibiotics, administering parenteral oxytocics, administering parenteral anticonvulsants, performing manual removal of the placenta, removing retained products of conception and performing assisted vaginal delivery. Of the 29 health centres providing delivery care, 65% (19) were graded as level 1 or 2, 28% (8) as level 3 or 4 and 7% (2) as level 5. No health centre received a grade of level 6. The availability of EmOC in the Central Province of Zambia is extremely limited; the majority of health centres provide only one or two basic functions of EmOC, and no health centres perform all six functions. Our grading system allows for inter- and intra-country comparisons by providing a systematic process for monitoring access to EmOC in rural, low-income countries similar to Zambia.

  9. The state of routine and emergency obstetric and neonatal care in Southern Province, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Owens, Lauren; Semrau, Katherine; Mbewe, Reuben; Musokotwane, Kebby; Grogan, Caroline; Maine, Deborah; Hamer, Davidson H

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the capacity of health facilities in Southern Province, Zambia, to perform routine obstetric care and emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC). Surveys were completed at 90 health centers and 10 hospitals between September 1, 2011, and February 28, 2012. An expanded set of signal functions for routine care and EmONC was used to assess the facilities' capacity to provide obstetric and neonatal care. Interviews were completed with 172 health workers. Comprehensive EmONC was available in only six of 10 hospitals; the remaining four hospitals did not perform all basic EmONC signal functions. None of the 90 health centers performed the basic set of EmONC signal functions. Performance of routine obstetric care functions, health worker EmONC training, and facility infrastructure and staffing varied. Assessment of the indicators for routine care revealed that several low-cost interventions are currently underused in Southern Province. There is substantial room for improvement in emergency and routine obstetric and neonatal care at the surveyed facilities. Efforts should focus on improving infrastructure and supplies, EmONC training, and adherence to the UN guidelines for routine and emergency obstetric care. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Community involvement in obstetric emergency management in rural areas: a case of Rukungiri district, Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality is a major public health problem worldwide especially in low income countries. Most causes of maternal deaths are due to direct obstetric complications. Maternal mortality ratio remains high in Rukungiri district, western Uganda estimated at 475 per 100,000 live births. The objectives were to identify types of community involvement and examine factors influencing the level of community involvement in the management of obstetric emergencies. Methods We conducted a descriptive study during 2nd to 28th February 2009 in rural Rukungiri district, western Uganda. A total of 448 heads of households, randomly selected from 6/11 (54.5%) of sub-counties, 21/42 (50.0%) parishes and 32/212 (15.1%) villages (clusters), were interviewed. Data were analysed using STATA version 10.0. Results Community pre-emergency support interventions available included community awareness creation (sensitization) while interventions undertaken when emergency had occurred included transportation and referring women to health facility. Community support programmes towards health care (obstetric emergencies) included establishment of community savings and credit schemes, and insurance schemes. The factors associated with community involvement in obstetric emergency management were community members being employed (AOR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.02 - 3.54) and rating the quality of maternal health care as good (AOR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.19 - 4.14). Conclusions Types of community involvement in obstetric emergency management include practices and support programmes. Community involvement in obstetric emergency management is influenced by employment status and perceived quality of health care services. Policies to promote community networks and resource mobilization strategies for health care should be implemented. There is need for promotion of community support initiatives including health insurance schemes and self help associations; further community sensitization by empowered

  11. Emergency obstetric care in Mali: catastrophic spending and its impoverishing effects on households

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Pierre; Philibert, Aline; Sissoko, Koman; Coulibaly, Aliou; Tourigny, Caroline; Traoré, Mamadou; Dumont, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the frequency of catastrophic expenditures for emergency obstetric care, explore its risk factors, and assess the effect of these expenditures on households in the Kayes region, Mali. Methods Data on 484 obstetric emergencies (242 deaths and 242 near-misses) were collected in 2008–2011. Catastrophic expenditure for emergency obstetric care was assessed at different thresholds and its associated factors were explored through logistic regression. A survey was subsequently administered in a nested sample of 56 households to determine how the catastrophic expenditure had affected them. Findings Despite the fee exemption policy for Caesareans and the maternity referral-system, designed to reduce the financial burden of emergency obstetric care, average expenses were 152 United States dollars (equivalent to 71 535 Communauté Financière Africaine francs) and 20.7 to 53.5% of households incurred catastrophic expenditures. High expenditure for emergency obstetric care forced 44.6% of the households to reduce their food consumption and 23.2% were still indebted 10 months to two and a half years later. Living in remote rural areas was associated with the risk of catastrophic spending, which shows the referral system’s inability to eliminate financial obstacles for remote households. Women who underwent Caesareans continued to incur catastrophic expenses, especially when prescribed drugs not included in the government-provided Caesarean kits. Conclusion The poor accessibility and affordability of emergency obstetric care has consequences beyond maternal deaths. Providing drugs free of charge and moving to a more sustainable, nationally-funded referral system would reduce catastrophic expenses for households during obstetric emergencies. PMID:23476093

  12. Multidisciplinary obstetric simulated emergency scenarios (MOSES): promoting patient safety in obstetrics with teamwork-focused interprofessional simulations.

    PubMed

    Freeth, Della; Ayida, Gubby; Berridge, Emma Jane; Mackintosh, Nicola; Norris, Beverley; Sadler, Chris; Strachan, Alasdair

    2009-01-01

    We describe an example of simulation-based interprofessional continuing education, the multidisciplinary obstetric simulated emergency scenarios (MOSES) course, which was designed to enhance nontechnical skills among obstetric teams and, hence, improve patient safety. Participants' perceptions of MOSES courses, their learning, and the transfer of learning to clinical practice were examined. Participants included senior midwives, obstetricians, and obstetric anesthetists, including course faculty from 4 purposively selected delivery suites in England. Telephone or e-mail interviews with MOSES course participants and facilitators were conducted, and video-recorded debriefings that formed integral parts of this 1-day course were analyzed. The team training was well received. Participants were able to check out assumptions and expectations of others and develop respect for different roles within the delivery suite (DS) team. Skillful facilitation of debriefing after each scenario was central to learning. Participants reported acquiring new knowledge or insights, particularly concerning the role of communication and leadership in crisis situations, and they rehearsed unfamiliar skills. Observing peers working in the simulations increased participants' learning by highlighting alternative strategies. The learning achieved by individuals and groups was noticeably dependent on their starting points. Some participants identified limited changes in their behavior in the workplace following the MOSES course. Mechanisms to manage the transfer of learning to the wider team were weakly developed, although 2 DS teams made changes to their regular update training. Interprofessional, team-based simulations promote new learning.

  13. The unmet need for Emergency Obstetric Care in Tanga Region, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Prytherch, Helen; Massawe, Siriel; Kuelker, Rainer; Hunger, Claudia; Mtatifikolo, Ferdinand; Jahn, Albrecht

    2007-01-01

    Background Improving maternal health by reducing maternal mortality constitutes the fifth Millennium Development Goal and represents a key public health challenge in the United Republic of Tanzania. In response to the need to evaluate and monitor safe motherhood interventions, this study aims at assessing the coverage of obstetric care according to the Unmet Obstetric Need (UON) concept by obtaining information on indications for, and outcomes of, major obstetric interventions. Furthermore, we explore whether this concept can be operationalised at district level. Methods A two year study using the Unmet Obstetric Need concept was carried out in three districts in Tanga Region, Tanzania. Data was collected prospectively at all four hospitals in the region for every woman undergoing a major obstetric intervention, including indication and outcome. The concept was adapted to address differentials in access to emergency obstetric care between districts and between rural and urban areas. Based upon literature and expert consensus, a threshold of 2% of all deliveries was used to define the expected minimum requirement of major obstetric interventions performed for absolute maternal indications. Results Protocols covering 1,260 complicated deliveries were analysed. The percentage of major obstetric interventions carried out in response to an absolute maternal indication was only 71%; most major obstetric interventions (97%) were caesarean sections. The most frequent indication was cephalo-pelvic-disproportion (51%). The proportion of major obstetric interventions for absolute maternal indications performed amongst women living in urban areas was 1.8% of all deliveries, while in rural areas it was only 0.7%. The high proportion (8.3%) of negative maternal outcomes in terms of morbidity and mortality, as well as the high perinatal mortality of 9.1% (still birth 6.9%, dying within 24 hours 1.7%, dying after 24 hours 0.5%) raise concern about the quality of care being

  14. Perianesthesia care following obstetric emergencies at risk for multisystem organ dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Curran, Carol A

    2005-06-01

    Perianesthesia care provided to obstetric patients is on the rise due to current obstetric practice habits, changes in the maternal population, and the increased desire for scheduled childbirth. Both scheduled and emergent cesarean deliveries create risk, yet the use of general anesthesia increases maternal morbidity and mortality significantly. Obstetric emergencies make up the majority of emergent cesarean deliveries. Detrimental events during pregnancy and childbirth may be categorized into hemorrhagic, septic, or anaphylactic shock. Excessive loss of circulating volume with subsequent loss in oxygenation creates an environment for multisystem organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Both MODS and pregnancy are hyperdynamic and hypermetabolic states. Close monitoring is needed to differentiate pregnancy for the progression of organ dysfunction. Caring for pregnant women with the intent that pregnancy is a normal, physiologic state can lead to complacency and the risk of misdiagnosis. The purpose of this article is to review current obstetric emergencies that place the obstetric population at risk for MODS and offer management options to perianesthesia providers.

  15. Hysterectomy - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100029.htm Hysterectomy - Series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Hysterectomy A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  16. Hysterectomy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hysterectomy is surgical removal of the uterus, resulting in inability to become pregnant. This surgery may be ... pelvic inflammatory disease, uterine fibroids and cancer. A hysterectomy may be done through an abdominal or a ...

  17. Hysterectomy - laparoscopic - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Supracervical hysterectomy - discharge; Removal of the uterus - discharge; Laparoscopic hysterectomy - discharge; Total laparoscopic hysterectomy - discharge; TLH - discharge; Laparoscopic supracervical ...

  18. Chikungunya Fever: Obstetric Considerations on an Emerging Virus.

    PubMed

    Dotters-Katz, Sarah K; Grace, Matthew R; Strauss, Robert A; Chescheir, Nancy; Kuller, Jeffrey A

    2015-07-01

    Chikungunya fever is an increasingly common viral infection transmitted to humans by species of the Aedes mosquitoes. Characterized by fevers, myalgias, arthralgias, headache, and rash, the infection is endemic to tropical areas. However, identification of disease vectors to Europe and the Americas has raised concern for possible spread of chikungunya to these areas. More recently, these concerns have become a reality; with more than 500,000 new cases in the Western hemisphere in the last 2 years, questions have arisen about the implications of infection during pregnancy and delivery. A literature review was performed using MEDLINE in order to gather information regarding the obstetric implications of this infection. It appears that although this virus can cross the placenta in the first and second trimester leading to fetal infection and miscarriage, this is a very rare occurrence. In contrast, active maternal infection within 4 days of delivery conveys a high risk of vertical transmission. Maternal infection during pregnancy does not appear to be more severe than infection on the nonpregnant female. Given the increasing incidence of chikungunya, obstetric providers should be aware of the disease and its implication for the gravid female.

  19. Obstetric emergencies at the United States–Mexico border crossings in El Paso, Texas

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jill A.; Rishel, Karen; Escobedo, Miguel A.; Arellano, Danielle E.; Cunningham, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the frequency, characteristics, and patient outcomes for women who accessed Emergency Medical Services (EMS) for obstetric emergencies at the ports of entry (POE) between El Paso, Texas, United States of America, and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. Methods A descriptive study of women 12–49 years of age for whom an EMS ambulance was called to an El Paso POE location from December 2008–April 2011 was conducted. Women were identified through surveillance of EMS records. EMS and emergency department (ED) records were abstracted for all women through December 2009 and for women with an obstetric emergency through April 2011. For obstetric patients admitted to the hospital, additional prenatal and birth characteristics were collected. Frequencies and proportions were estimated for each variable; differences between residents of the United States and Mexico were tested. Results During December 2008–December 2009, 47.6% (68/143) of women receiving EMS assistance at an El Paso POE had an obstetric emergency, nearly 20 times the proportion for Texas overall. During December 2008–April 2011, 60.1% (66/109) of obstetric patients with ED records were admitted to hospital and 52 gave birth before discharge. Preterm birth (23.1%; No. = 12), low birth weight (9.6%; No. = 5), birth in transit (7.7%; No. = 4), and postpartum hemorrhage (5.8%; No. = 3) were common; fewer than one-half the women (46.2%; No. = 24) had evidence of prenatal care. Conclusions The high proportion of obstetric EMS transports and high prevalence of complications in this population suggest a need for binational risk reduction efforts. PMID:25915011

  20. Obstetric emergencies at the United States-Mexico border crossings in El Paso, Texas.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jill A; Rishel, Karen; Escobedo, Miguel A; Arellano, Danielle E; Cunningham, Timothy J

    2015-02-01

    To describe the frequency, characteristics, and patient outcomes for women who accessed Emergency Medical Services (EMS) for obstetric emergencies at the ports of entry (POE) between El Paso, Texas, United States of America, and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. A descriptive study of women 12-49 years of age for whom an EMS ambulance was called to an El Paso POE location from December 2008-April 2011 was conducted. Women were identified through surveillance of EMS records. EMS and emergency department (ED) records were abstracted for all women through December 2009 and for women with an obstetric emergency through April 2011. For obstetric patients admitted to the hospital, additional prenatal and birth characteristics were collected. Frequencies and proportions were estimated for each variable; differences between residents of the United States and Mexico were tested. During December 2008-December 2009, 47.6% (68/143) of women receiving EMS assistance at an El Paso POE had an obstetric emergency, nearly 20 times the proportion for Texas overall. During December 2008-April 2011, 60.1% (66/109) of obstetric patients with ED records were admitted to hospital and 52 gave birth before discharge. Preterm birth (23.1%; No. = 12), low birth weight (9.6%; No. = 5), birth in transit (7.7%; No. = 4), and postpartum hemorrhage (5.8%; No. = 3) were common; fewer than one-half the women (46.2%; No. = 24) had evidence of prenatal care. The high proportion of obstetric EMS transports and high prevalence of complications in this population suggest a need for binational risk reduction efforts.

  1. Efficacy and safety of pelvic packing after emergency peripartum hysterectomy (EPH) in postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) setting.

    PubMed

    Touhami, Omar; Marzouk, Sofiene Ben; Kehila, Mehdi; Bennasr, Laidi; Fezai, Aymen; Channoufi, Mohamed Badis; Magherbi, Hayen El

    2016-07-01

    To study the safety and effectiveness of pelvic packing in the control of post emergency peripartum hysterectomy (EPH) bleeding in a postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) setting. From 39 patients with a severe PPH leading to an EPH (January 2010-December 2013), we identified a group of 17 patients requiring a pelvic packing (packing group) and a second group of 22 patients not requiring a pelvic packing (non-packing group). For each group, transfusion requirements were recorded from time of PPH diagnosis to end of the surgical procedure (P1: Period 1) and from that point to the end management in the SICU (P2: Period 2). Laboratory values, transfusion requirements and complications were compared between the 2 groups. Statistical comparisons were performed using Mann-Whitney test, Fisher's exact test and chi-square test. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Pelvic packing was successful in the control of bleeding in all the cases. During the second laparotomy for pack removal, none of the patients developed complications such as bowel injuries or necrosis. The 2 groups were similar in term of laboratory values at the end of the surgical procedure and 24h after the end of the surgical procedure. The number of PRBC units required in P1 was higher in the packing group compared to the non-packing group (16.6±5.3 vs 14±5; p=0.04), however the decrease in the amount of PRBCs transfused between P1 and P2 was higher in the packing group (13.3) compared to the non-packing group (9.1) (p<0.01). The incidence of febrile morbidity was higher in the packing group compared to the non-packing group (53% vs 9%; p=0.04); but no significant difference was shown in term of generalized sepsis, as well as renal failure, ARDS, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and MOF. The pelvic packing is a valuable method with a high success rate in the control of hemorrhage after an EPH in PPH setting with a low rate of complications. It is quite simple and quick to perform, and

  2. Risk of Peripartum Hysterectomy and Center Hysterectomy and Delivery Volume.

    PubMed

    Govindappagari, Shravya; Wright, Jason D; Ananth, Cande V; Huang, Yongmei; DʼAlton, Mary E; Friedman, Alexander M

    2016-12-01

    To characterize where women at risk for and undergoing peripartum hysterectomy delivered in terms of obstetric volume and procedural experience. We used data from the Perspective database to retrospectively evaluate trends in peripartum hysterectomy and deliveries at high risk of peripartum hysterectomy based on placenta previa and prior cesarean delivery delivered from 2006 through 2014. Hospitals were categorized two separate ways for the analysis: 1) into five roughly equal quintiles based on annualized delivery volume and 2) by the mean number of hysterectomies performed annually over the study period. Four thousand eight hundred eleven hysterectomies occurred among 5,388,486 deliveries in 500 hospitals over the study period. The peripartum hysterectomy rate increased from 81.4 per 100,000 deliveries in 2006 to 98.4 in 2014. The prevalence rate of placenta previa in the setting of previous cesarean delivery also increased over the study period. Between 2006-2008 and 2012-2014, peripartum hysterectomy decreased in the lowest delivery volume quintile and increased in the highest delivery volume quintile (-14.9/100,000 deliveries, 95% confidence interval [CI] -25.6 to -4.2 and +35.4/100,000 deliveries, 95% CI 20.3-50.5, respectively). Similarly, hospitals performing high rates of hysterectomies saw the largest increase over the study period. With peripartum hysterectomy rates increasing in the population, hospitals with high delivery volumes and high rates of hysterectomies saw the largest increases in peripartum hysterectomy rates. These trends support that improved referral practices and uptake of evidence-based recommendations may be occurring.

  3. Program note: applying the UN process indicators for emergency obstetric care to the United States.

    PubMed

    Lobis, S; Fry, D; Paxton, A

    2005-02-01

    The United Nations Process Indicators for emergency obstetric care (EmOC) have been used extensively in countries with high maternal mortality ratios (MMR) to assess the availability, utilization and quality of EmOC services. To compare the situation in high MMR countries to that of a low MMR country, data from the United States were used to determine EmOC service availability, utilization and quality. As was expected, the United States was found to have an adequate amount of good-quality EmOC services that are used by the majority of women with life-threatening obstetric complications.

  4. Availability, utilisation and quality of basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care services in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kongnyuy, Eugene J; Hofman, Jan; Mlava, Grace; Mhango, Chisale; van den Broek, Nynke

    2009-09-01

    To establish a baseline for the availability, utilisation and quality of maternal and neonatal health care services for monitoring and evaluation of a maternal and neonatal morbidity/mortality reduction programme in three districts in the Central Region of Malawi. Survey of all the 73 health facilities (13 hospitals and 60 health centres) that provide maternity services in the three districts (population, 2,812,183). There were 1.6 comprehensive emergency obstetric care (CEmOC) facilities per 500,000 population and 0.8 basic emergency obstetric care (BEmOC) facilities per 125,000 population. About 23% of deliveries were conducted in emergency obstetric care (EmOC) facilities and the met need for emergency obstetric complications was 20.7%. The case fatality rate for emergency obstetric complications treated in health facilities was 2.0%. Up to 86.7% of pregnant women attended antenatal clinic at least once and only 12.0% of them attend postnatal clinic at least once. There is a shortage of qualified staff and unequal distribution with more staff in hospitals leaving health centres severely understaffed. The total number of CEmOC facilities is adequate but the distribution is unequal, leaving some rural areas with poor access to CEmOC services. There are no functional BEmOC facilities in the three districts. In order to reduce maternal mortality in Malawi and countries with similar socio-economic profile, there is a need to upgrade some health facilities to at least BEmOC level by training staff and providing equipment and supplies.

  5. [Simulation training in the management of obstetric emergencies. A review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Bogne, V; Kirkpatrick, C; Englert, Y

    2014-01-01

    To assess the value of simulation based training in the management of obstetric emergencies. A search by keywords: obstetrics, gynecology, simulation, drills, emergency training restricted to randomized trials led to a selection of eight articles. Shoulder dystocia simulation unmasked deficiencies in performing Mc Robert maneuver in nearly 20% of doctors in training as well as ineffective and potentially harmful maneuver such as pressure on the uterine fundus. Delivery of the impacted shoulder improved from 42.9% to 83.3% after simulation training leading to a shorter head to body delivery interval. In postpartum haemorrhage simulation, lack of knowledge on prostaglandins and alkaloids of ergot, delay to transfer the patient to the operating room (82% of cases) and a poor communication between different professionals were identified. Post simulation improvement was seen in knowledge, technical skills, team spirit and structured communication. In severe preeclampsia simulation, mistakes such as injection of undiluted magnesium sulphate, caesarean section on an unstable patient were identified and reduced by 75%. Management of magnesium sulphate toxicity was also improved after simulation training. This review confirms the potential of simulation in training health professionals on management of obstetrics emergencies. Although the integration of this training modality into the curriculum of health care professionals in obstetrics and gynaecology seems beneficial, questions on the cost, the minimum standard of facilities, type of mannequins, human resources and frequency of drills required to achieve the learning objectives remain unanswered.

  6. Availability, utilization, and quality of emergency obstetric care services in Bauchi State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abegunde, Dele; Kabo, Ibrahim A; Sambisa, William; Akomolafe, Toyin; Orobaton, Nosa; Abdulkarim, Masduk; Sadauki, Habib

    2015-03-01

    To report the availability, utilization, and quality of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services in Bauchi State, Nigeria. Between June and July 2012, a cross-sectional survey of health facilities was conducted. Data on the performance of EmOC services between June 2011 and May 2012 were obtained from records of 20 general hospitals and 39 primary healthcare centers providing delivery services. Additionally, structured interviews with facility managers were conducted. Only 6 (10.2%) of the 59 facilities met the UN requirements for EmOC centers. None of the three senatorial zones in Bauchi State had the minimum acceptable number of five EmOC facilities per 500 000 population. Overall, 10 517 (4.4%) of the estimated 239 930 annual births took place in EmOC facilities. Cesarean delivery accounted for 3.6% (n=380) of the 10 517 births occurring in EmOC facilities and 0.2% of the 239 930 expected live births. Only 1416 (3.9%) of the expected 35 990 obstetric complications were managed in EmOC facilities. Overall, 45 (3.2%) of 1416 women with major direct obstetric complications treated at EmOC facilities died. Among 379 maternal deaths, 317 (83.6%) were attributable to major direct obstetric complications. Availability, utilization, and quality of EmOC services in Bauchi State, Nigeria, are suboptimal. The health system's capacity to manage emergency obstetric complications needs to be strengthened. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. All rights reserved.

  7. Reducing maternal mortality on a countrywide scale: The role of emergency obstetric training.

    PubMed

    Moran, Neil F; Naidoo, Mergan; Moodley, Jagidesa

    2015-11-01

    Training programmes to improve health worker skills in managing obstetric emergencies have been introduced in various countries with the aim of reducing maternal mortality through these interventions. In South Africa, based on an ongoing confidential enquiry system started in 1997, detailed information about maternal deaths is published in the form of regular 'Saving Mothers' reports. This article tracks the recommendations made in successive Saving Mothers reports with regard to emergency obstetric training, and it assesses the impact of these recommendations on reducing maternal mortality. Since 2009, South Africa has had its own training package, Essential Steps in the Management of Obstetric Emergencies (ESMOE), which the last three Saving Mothers reports have specifically recommended for all doctors and midwives working in maternity units. A special emphasis has been placed on the need for the simulation training component of ESMOE, also called obstetric 'fire drills', to be integrated into the clinical routines of all maternity units. The latest Saving Mothers report (2011-2013) suggests there has been little progress so far in improving emergency obstetric skills, indicating a need for further scale-up of ESMOE training in the country. The example of the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa is used to illustrate the process of scale-up and factors likely to facilitate that scale-up, including the introduction of ESMOE into the undergraduate medical training curriculum. Additional factors in the health system that are required to convert improved skills levels into improved quality of care and a reduction in maternal mortality are discussed. These include intelligent government health policies, formulated with input from clinical experts; strong clinical leadership to ensure that doctors and nurses apply the skills they have learnt appropriately, and work professionally and ethically; and a culture of clinical governance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  8. Views of senior health personnel about quality of emergency obstetric care: A qualitative study in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okonofua, Friday; Agholor, Kingsley; Okike, Ola; Abdus-salam, Rukayat Adeola; Gana, Mohammed; Abe, Eghe; Durodola, Adetoye; Galadanci, Hadiza

    2017-01-01

    Background Late arrival in hospital by women experiencing pregnancy complications is an important background factor leading to maternal mortality in Nigeria. The use of effective and timely emergency obstetric care determines whether women survive or die, or become near-miss cases. Healthcare managers have the responsibility to deploy resources for implementing emergency obstetric care. Objectives To determine the nature of institutional policies and frameworks for managing obstetric complications and reducing maternal deaths in Nigeria. Methods Thirty-six hospital managers, heads of obstetrics department and senior midwives were interviewed about hospital infrastructure, resources, policies and processes relating to emergency obstetric care, whilst allowing informants to discuss their thoughts and feelings. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analyzed using Atlas ti 6.2software. Results Hospital managers are aware of the seriousness of maternal mortality and the steps to improve maternal healthcare. Many reported the lack of policies and specific action-plans for maternal mortality prevention, and many did not purposely disburse budgets or resources to address the problem. Although some reported that maternal/perinatal audit take place in their hospitals, there was no substantive evidence and no records of maternal/perinatal audits were made available. Respondents decried the lack of appropriate data collection system in the hospitals for accurate monitoring of maternal mortality and identification of appropriate remediating actions. Conclusion Healthcare managers are handicapped to properly manage the healthcare system for maternal mortality prevention. Relevant training of healthcare managers would be crucial to enable the development of strategic implementation plans for the prevention of maternal mortality. PMID:28346519

  9. Supracervical hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Kives, Sari; Lefebvre, Guylaine; Wolfman, Wendy; Leyland, Nicholas; Allaire, Catherine; Awadalla, Alaa; Best, Carolyn; Leroux, Nathalie; Potestio, Frank; Rittenberg, David; Soucy, Renée; Singh, Sukhbir

    2010-01-01

    This guideline reviews the evidence relating to the potential benefits of the vaginal hysterectomy (VH) and supracervical hysterectomy (SCH) versus total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) with respect to postoperative sexual function, urinary function, and peri- and postoperative complications. Laparoscopic options are not included in this guideline. Women considering hysterectomy for benign disease can be given the option of retaining the cervix or proceeding with a total hysterectomy. The outcomes measured are postoperative sexual function and urinary function, and peri- and postoperative complications. The Cochrane Library, Medline, and Embase were searched for articles published in English from January 1950 to March 2008 specifically comparing VH and SCH with TAH in the prevention of sexual dysfunction, urinary dysfunction, and peri- and postoperative complications. Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. Additional publications were identified from the bibliographies of these articles. Randomized controlled trials were considered evidence of the highest quality, followed by cohort studies. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). 1. Vaginal hysterectomy is generally considered the first choice of surgical approach for most benign indications for hysterectomy, as it is associated with lower rates of morbidity, fewer postoperative complications, and a faster recovery time than abdominal hysterectomy. (I-A). 2. Women contemplating a vaginal, laparoscopic, or abdominal hysterectomy for the management of

  10. Human resources for emergency obstetric care in northern Tanzania: distribution of quantity or quality?

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Øystein Evjen; Ndeki, Sidney; Norheim, Ole Frithjof

    2005-01-01

    Background Health care agencies report that the major limiting factor for implementing effective health policies and reforms worldwide is a lack of qualified human resources. Although many agencies have adopted policy development and clinical practice guidelines, the human resources necessary to carry out these policies towards actual reform are not yet in place. Objectives The goal of this article is to evaluate the current status of human resources quality, availability and distribution in Northern Tanzania in order to provide emergency obstetric care services to specific districts in this area. The article also discusses the usefulness of distribution indicators for describing equity in the decision-making process. Methods We conducted a quantitative facility survey in six districts of Northern Tanzania. We collected data from all 129 facilities that provide delivery services in the study area. The data includes information on the emergency obstetric care indicators, as described by the WHO/UNICEF/UFPA guidelines for monitoring the provision of obstetric care. The inventory also includes information on the numbers of qualified health personnel at the basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care level. We analysed the distribution and workload of the available human resources in a wider policy context with a particular focus on equity, use and quality, by means of descriptive statistics and the Spearman's correlation test. Results We determined that there are adequate human resources allocated for health care provision in Tanzania, according to national standards. Compared to similar countries however, Tanzania has a very low availability of health care staff. Most qualified staff are concentrated in a few centralized locations, while those remaining are inequitably and inefficiently distributed in rural areas and lower-level services. Rural districts have restricted access to government-run health care, because these facilities are understaffed. In fact

  11. [Preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome as an obstetric emergency].

    PubMed

    Tallarek, A-C; Stepan, H

    2012-03-01

    Preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome are multisystemic hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. A causative treatment is not yet available. The obstetrician has to choose between the risk of prolongation of pregnancy for mother and fetus on the one hand and the hazard of prematurity on the other, when iatrogenic delivery is considered. As the clinical severity and progression of both diseases is very difficult to predict, an emergency situation can develop rapidly and unexpectedly. In this scenario a good interdisciplinary cooperation between obstetricians and intensive care physicians ensures an optimal outcome for the pregnant woman. This article gives an insight into both diseases and the clinical management.

  12. Complicated deliveries, critical care and quality in emergency obstetric care in Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Ø E; Ndeki, S; Norheim, O F

    2004-10-01

    Our objective was to determine the availability and quality of obstetric care to improve resource allocation in northern Tanzania. We surveyed all facilities providing delivery services (n=129) in six districts in northern Tanzania using the UN Guidelines for monitoring emergency obstetric care (EmOC). The three last questions in this audit outline are examined: Are the right women (those with obstetric complications) using emergency obstetric care facilities (Met Need)? Are sufficient quantities of critical services being provided (cesarean section rate (CSR))? Is the quality of the services adequate (case fatality rate (CFR))? Complications are calculated using Plan 3 of the UN Guidelines to assess the value of routine data for EmOC indicator monitoring. Nearly 60% of the expected complicated deliveries in the study population were conducted at EmOC qualified health facilities. 81.2% of the expected complicated deliveries are conducted in any facility (including facilities not qualifying as EmOC facilities). There is an inadequate level of critical services provided (CSR 4.6). Voluntary agencies provide most of these services in rural settings. All indicators show large variations with the setting (urban/rural location, level and ownership of facilities). Finally, there is large variation in the CFR with only one facility meeting the minimum accepted level. Utilization and quality of critical obstetric services at lower levels and in rural districts must be improved. The potential for improving the resource allocation within lower levels of the health care system is discussed. Given the small number of qualified facilities yet relatively high Met Need, we argue that it is neither the mothers' ignorance nor their lack of ability to get to a facility that is the main barrier to receiving quality care when needed, but rather the lack of quality care at the facility. Little can be concluded using the CFR to describe the quality of services provided.

  13. Onsite training of doctors, midwives and nurses in obstetric emergencies, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Crofts, Joanna F; Mukuli, Teclar; Murove, Bobb T; Ngwenya, Solwayo; Mhlanga, Sma; Dube, Meluleki; Sengurayi, Elton; Winter, Cathy; Jordan, Sharon; Barnfield, Sonia; Wilcox, Heather; Merriel, Abi; Ndlovu, Sabelo; Sibanda, Zedekiah; Moyo, Sikangezile; Ndebele, Wedu; Draycott, Tim J; Sibanda, Thabani

    2015-05-01

    In Zimbabwe, many health facilities are not able to manage serious obstetric complications. Staff most commonly identified inadequate training as the greatest barrier to preventing avoidable maternal deaths. We established an onsite obstetric emergencies training programme for maternity staff in the Mpilo Central Hospital. We trained 12 local staff to become trainers and provided them with the equipment and resources needed for the course. The trainers held one-day courses for 299 staff at the hospital. Maternal mortality in Zimbabwe has increased from 555 to 960 per 100,000 pregnant women from 2006 to 2011 and 47% of the deaths are believed to be avoidable. Most obstetric emergencies trainings are held off-site, away from the clinical area, for a limited number of staff. Following an in-hospital train-the-trainers course, 90% (138/153) of maternity staff were trained locally within the first year, with 299 hospital staff trained to date. Local system changes included: the introduction of a labour ward board, emergency boxes, colour-coded early warning observation charts and a maternity dashboard. In this hospital, these changes have been associated with a 34% reduction in hospital maternal mortality from 67 maternal deaths per 9078 births (0.74%) in 2011 compared with 48 maternal deaths per 9884 births (0.49%) in 2014. Introducing obstetric emergencies training and tools was feasible onsite, improved clinical practice, was sustained by local staff and associated with improved clinical outcomes. Further work to study the implementation and effect of this intervention at scale is required.

  14. Onsite training of doctors, midwives and nurses in obstetric emergencies, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mukuli, Teclar; Murove, Bobb T; Ngwenya, Solwayo; Mhlanga, Sma; Dube, Meluleki; Sengurayi, Elton; Winter, Cathy; Jordan, Sharon; Barnfield, Sonia; Wilcox, Heather; Merriel, Abi; Ndlovu, Sabelo; Sibanda, Zedekiah; Moyo, Sikangezile; Ndebele, Wedu; Draycott, Tim J; Sibanda, Thabani

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Problem In Zimbabwe, many health facilities are not able to manage serious obstetric complications. Staff most commonly identified inadequate training as the greatest barrier to preventing avoidable maternal deaths. Approach We established an onsite obstetric emergencies training programme for maternity staff in the Mpilo Central Hospital. We trained 12 local staff to become trainers and provided them with the equipment and resources needed for the course. The trainers held one-day courses for 299 staff at the hospital. Local setting Maternal mortality in Zimbabwe has increased from 555 to 960 per 100 000 pregnant women from 2006 to 2011 and 47% of the deaths are believed to be avoidable. Most obstetric emergencies trainings are held off-site, away from the clinical area, for a limited number of staff. Relevant changes Following an in-hospital train-the-trainers course, 90% (138/153) of maternity staff were trained locally within the first year, with 299 hospital staff trained to date. Local system changes included: the introduction of a labour ward board, emergency boxes, colour-coded early warning observation charts and a maternity dashboard. In this hospital, these changes have been associated with a 34% reduction in hospital maternal mortality from 67 maternal deaths per 9078 births (0.74%) in 2011 compared with 48 maternal deaths per 9884 births (0.49%) in 2014. Lessons learnt Introducing obstetric emergencies training and tools was feasible onsite, improved clinical practice, was sustained by local staff and associated with improved clinical outcomes. Further work to study the implementation and effect of this intervention at scale is required. PMID:26229206

  15. A hospital-centered approach to improve emergency obstetric care in South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Groppi, Lavinia; Somigliana, Edgardo; Pisani, Vincenzo; Ika, Michelina; Mabor, Joseph L; Akec, Henry N; Nhial, John A; Mading, Michel S; Scanagatta, Chiara; Manenti, Fabio; Putoto, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    To assess provision of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in Greater Yirol, South Sudan, after implementation of a hospital-centered intervention with an ambulance referral system. In a descriptive study, data were prospectively recorded for all women referred to Yirol County Hospital for delivery in 2012. An ambulance referral system had been implemented in October 2011. Access to the hospital and ambulance use were free of charge. The number of deliveries at Yirol County Hospital increased in 2012 to 1089, corresponding to 13.3% of the 8213 deliveries expected to have occurred in the catchment area. Cesareans were performed for 53 (4.9%) deliveries, corresponding to 0.6% of the expected number of deliveries in the catchment area. Among 950 women who delivered a newborn weighing at least 2500 g at the hospital, 6 (0.6%) intrapartum or very early neonatal deaths occurred. Of 1232 women expected to have major obstetric complications in 2012 in the catchment area, 472 (38.3%) received EmOC at the hospital. Of 115 expected absolute obstetric indications, 114 (99.1%) were treated in the hospital. A hospital-centered approach with an ambulance referral system effectively improves the availability of EmOC in underprivileged remote settings. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Medication errors in the obstetrics emergency ward in a low resource setting.

    PubMed

    Kandil, Mohamed; Sayyed, Tarek; Emarh, Mohamed; Ellakwa, Hamed; Masood, Alaa

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the patterns of medication errors in the obstetric emergency ward in a low resource setting. This prospective observational study included 10,000 women who presented at the obstetric emergency ward, department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Menofyia University Hospital, Egypt between March and December 2010. All medications prescribed in the emergency ward were monitored for different types of errors. The head nurse in each shift was asked to monitor each pharmacologic order from the moment of prescribing till its administration. Retrospective review of the patients' charts and nurses' notes was carried out by the authors of this paper. Results were tabulated and statistically analyzed. A total of 1976 medication errors were detected. Administration errors were the commonest error reported. Omitted errors ranked second followed by unauthorized and prescription errors. Three administration errors resulted in three Cesareans were performed for fetal distress because of wrong doses of oxytocin infusion. The rest of errors did not cause patients harm but may have lead to an increase in monitoring. Most errors occurred during night shifts. The availability of automated infusion pumps will probably decrease administration errors significantly. There is a need for more obstetricians and nurses during the nightshifts to minimize errors resulting from working under stressful conditions.

  17. Maternal and fetal outcome of obstetric emergencies in a tertiary health institution in South-Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mustafa Adelaja, Lamina; Olufemi Taiwo, Oladapo

    2011-01-01

    Objective. This study was carried out to determine the pattern of obstetric emergencies and its influence on maternal and perinatal outcome of obstetric emergencies at the Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital (OOUTH), Sagamu, Nigeria. Method. A retrospective study of obstetric emergencies managed over a three-year period at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital (OOUTH), Sagamu, Nigeria was conducted. Results. There were 262 obstetric emergencies accounting for 18.5% of the 1420 total deliveries during the period. Unbooked patients formed the bulk of the cases (60.3%). The most common emergencies were prolonged/obstructed labour, postpartum haemorrhage, fetal distress, severe pregnancy-induced hypertension/eclampsia, and antepartum haemorrhage. Obstetric emergencies were responsible for 70.6% of the maternal mortality and 86% of the perinatal mortality within the period. Conclusion. Prevention/effective management of obstetric emergencies will help to reduce maternal and perinatal mortality in our environment. This can be achieved through the utilization of antenatal care services, making budget for pregnancies and childbirth at family level (pending the time every family participates in National Health Insurance Scheme), adequate funding of social welfare services to assist indigent patients, liberal blood donation, and regular training of doctors and nurses on this subject.

  18. Myths and realities of training in obstetric emergencies.

    PubMed

    Draycott, Timothy J; Collins, Katherine J; Crofts, Joanna F; Siassakos, Dimitrios; Winter, Cathy; Weiner, Carl P; Donald, Fiona

    2015-11-01

    Training for intrapartum emergencies is a promising strategy to reduce preventable harm during birth; however, not all training is clinically effective. Many myths have developed around such training. These principally derive from misinformed beliefs that all training must be effective, cheap, independent of context and sustainable. The current evidence base for effective training supports local, unit-based and multi-professional training, with appropriate mannequins, and practice-based tools to support the best care. Training programmes based on these principles are associated with improved clinical outcomes, but we need to understand how and why that is, and also why some training is associated with no improvements, or even deterioration in outcomes. Effective training is not cheap, but it can be cost-effective. Insurers have the fiscal power to incentivise training, but they should demand the evidence of clinical effect; aspiration and proxies alone should no longer be sufficient for funding, in any resource setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; LAVH - discharge ... were in the hospital, you had a vaginal hysterectomy. Your surgeon made a cut in your vagina. ...

  20. Human resources and the quality of emergency obstetric care in developing countries: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dogba, Maman; Fournier, Pierre

    2009-02-06

    This paper reports on a systematic literature review exploring the importance of human resources in the quality of emergency obstetric care and thus in the reduction of maternal deaths. A systematic search of two electronic databases (ISI Web of Science and MEDLINE) was conducted, based on the following key words "quality obstetric* care" OR "pregnancy complications OR emergency obstetric* care OR maternal mortality" AND "quality health care OR quality care" AND "developing countries. Relevant papers were analysed according to three customary components of emergency obstetric care: structure, process and results. This review leads to three main conclusions: (1) staff shortages are a major obstacle to providing good quality EmOC; (2) women are often dissatisfied with the care they receive during childbirth; and (3) the technical quality of EmOC has not been adequately studied. The first two conclusions provide lessons to consider when formulating EmOC policies, while the third point is an area where more knowledge is needed.

  1. Low cost, high yield: simulation of obstetric emergencies for family medicine training.

    PubMed

    Magee, Susanna R; Shields, Robin; Nothnagle, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Simulation is now the educational standard for emergency training in residency and is particularly useful on a labor and delivery unit, which is often a stressful environment for learners given the frequency of emergencies. However, simulation can be costly. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of low-cost simulated obstetrical emergencies in training family medicine residents. The study took place in a community hospital in an urban underserved setting in the northeast United States. Low-cost simulations were developed for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and preeclampsia/eclampsia (PEC). Twenty residents were randomly assigned to the intervention (simulated PPH or PEC followed by debriefing) or control (lecture on PPH or PEC) group, and equal numbers of residents were assigned to each scenario. All participants completed a written test at baseline and an oral exam 6 months later on the respective scenario to which they were assigned. The participants provided written feedback on their respective teaching interventions. We compared performance on pretests and posttests by group using Wilcoxon Rank Sum. Twenty residents completed the study. Both groups performed similarly on baseline tests for both scenarios. Compared to controls, intervention residents scored significantly higher on the examination on the management of PPH but not for PEC. All intervention group participants reported that the simulation training was "extremely useful," and most found it "enjoyable." We demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of two low-cost obstetric emergency simulations and found that they may result in persistent increases in trainee knowledge.

  2. Affordability of emergency obstetric and neonatal care at public hospitals in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Honda, Ayako; Randaoharison, Pierana Gabriel; Matsui, Mitsuaki

    2011-05-01

    Timely access to emergency obstetric care is necessary to save the lives of women experiencing complications at delivery, and for newborn babies. Out-of-pocket costs are one of the critical factors hindering access to such services in low- and middle-income countries. This study measured out-of-pocket costs for caesarean section and neonatal care at an urban tertiary public hospital in Madagascar, assessed affordability in relation to household expenditure and investigated where families found the money to cover these costs. Data were collected for 103 women and 73 newborns at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Mahajanga in the Boeny region of Madagascar between September 2007 and January 2008. Out-of-pocket costs for caesarean section were catastrophic for middle and lower socio-economic households, and treatment for neonatal complications also created a big financial burden, with geographical and other financial barriers further limiting access to hospital care. This study identified 12 possible cases where the mother required an emergency caesarean section and her newborn required emergency care, placing a double burden on the household. In an effort to make emergency obstetric and neonatal care affordable and available to all, including those living in rural areas and those of medium and lower socio-economic status, well-designed financial risk protection mechanisms and a strong commitment by the government to mobilise resources to finance the country's health system are necessary.

  3. Emergency obstetric care as the priority intervention to reduce maternal mortality in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mbonye, A K; Asimwe, J B; Kabarangira, J; Nanda, G; Orinda, V

    2007-03-01

    We conducted a survey to determine availability of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) to provide baseline data for monitoring provision of obstetric care services in Uganda. The survey, covering 54 districts and 553 health facilities, assessed availability of EmOC signal functions. Following this, performance improvement process was implemented in 20 district hospitals to scale-up EmOC services. A maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 671/100,000 live births was recorded. Hemorrhage, 42.2%, was the leading direct cause of maternal deaths, and malaria accounted for 65.5% of the indirect causes. Among the obstetric complications, abortion accounted for 38.9% of direct and malaria 87.4% of indirect causes. Removal of retained products (OR 3.3, P<0.002), assisted vaginal delivery (OR 3.3, P<0.001) and blood transfusion (OR 13.7, P<0.001) were the missing signal functions contributing to maternal deaths. Most health facilities expected to offer basic EmOC, 349 (97.2%) were not offering them. Using the performance improvement process, availability of EmOC in the 20 hospitals improved significantly. An integrated programming approach aiming at increasing access to EmOC, malaria treatment and prevention services could reduce maternal mortality in Uganda.

  4. Emergency obstetric care in a rural district of Burundi: What are the surgical needs?

    PubMed Central

    Zachariah, R.; Kumar, A. M. V.; Trelles, M.; Caluwaerts, S.; van den Boogaard, W.; Manirampa, J.; Tayler-Smith, K.; Manzi, M.; Nanan-N’zeth, K.; Duchenne, B.; Ndelema, B.; Etienne, W.; Alders, P.; Veerman, R.; Van den Bergh, R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives In a rural district hospital in Burundi offering Emergency Obstetric care-(EmOC), we assessed the a) characteristics of women at risk of, or with an obstetric complication and their types b) the number and type of obstetric surgical procedures and anaesthesia performed c) human resource cadres who performed surgery and anaesthesia and d) hospital exit outcomes. Methods A retrospective analysis of EmOC data (2011 and 2012). Results A total of 6084 women were referred for EmOC of whom 2534(42%) underwent a major surgical procedure while 1345(22%) required a minor procedure (36% women did not require any surgical procedure). All cases with uterine rupture(73) and extra-uterine pregnancy(10) and the majority with pre-uterine rupture and foetal distress required major surgery. The two most prevalent conditions requiring a minor surgical procedure were abortions (61%) and normal delivery (34%). A total of 2544 major procedures were performed on 2534 admitted individuals. Of these, 1650(65%) required spinal and 578(23%) required general anaesthesia; 2341(92%) procedures were performed by ‘general practitioners with surgical skills’ and in 2451(96%) cases, anaesthesia was provided by nurses. Of 2534 hospital admissions related to major procedures, 2467(97%) were discharged, 21(0.8%) were referred to tertiary care and 2(0.1%) died. Conclusion Overall, the obstetric surgical volume in rural Burundi is high with nearly six out of ten referrals requiring surgical intervention. Nonetheless, good quality care could be achieved by trained, non-specialist staff. The post-2015 development agenda needs to take this into consideration if it is to make progress towards reducing maternal mortality in Africa. PMID:28170398

  5. Multidisciplinary Delphi Development of a Scale to Evaluate Team Function in Obstetric Emergencies: The PETRA Scale.

    PubMed

    Balki, Mrinalini; Hoppe, David; Monks, David; Cooke, Mary Ellen; Sharples, Lynn; Windrim, Rory

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a new interdisciplinary teamwork scale, the Perinatal Emergency: Team Response Assessment (PETRA), for the management of obstetric crises, through consensus agreement of obstetric caregivers. This prospective study was performed using expert consensus, based on a Delphi method. The study investigators developed a new PETRA tool, specifically related to obstetric crisis management, based on the existing literature and discussions among themselves. The scale was distributed to a selected panel of experts in the field for the Delphi process. After each round of Delphi, every component of the scale was analyzed quantitatively by the percentage of agreement ratings and each comment reviewed by the blinded investigators. The assessment scale was then modified, with components of less than 80% agreement removed from the scale. The process was repeated on three occasions to reach a consensus and final PETRA scale. Fourteen of 24 invited experts participated in the Delphi process. The original PETRA scale included six categories and 48 items, one global scale item, and a 3-point rubric for rating. The overall percentage agreement by experts in the first, second, and third rounds was 95.0%, 93.2%, and 98.5%, respectively. The final scale after the third round of Delphi consisted of the following seven categories: shared mental model, communication, situational awareness, leadership, followership, workload management, and positive/effective behaviours and attitudes. There were 34 individual items within these categories, each with a 5-point rating rubric (1 = unacceptable to 5 = perfect). Using a structured Delphi method, we established the face and content validity of this assessment scale that focuses on important aspects of interdisciplinary teamwork in the management of obstetric crises. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada

  6. Maternity wards or emergency obstetric rooms? Incidence of near-miss events in African hospitals.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Veronique; Ronsmans, Carine; Gohou, Valerie; Goufodji, Sourou; Lardi, Mohamed; Sahel, Amina; Saizonou, Jacques; De Brouwere, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    This study examines near-miss obstetric events in African hospitals as to the frequency, nature, and ratio of near miss to death and considers whether these could become useful indicators for monitoring the performance of obstetric services in Africa. Prospective or retrospective reviews of medical records were conducted in nine referral hospitals in three countries (Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, and Morocco). We calculated the incidence of near-miss obstetric events, near-miss cases, and maternal deaths related to hemorrhage, hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, dystocia, infections, and anemia and analyzed these according to hospital and timing relative to admission. The incidence of near-miss cases was varied, and in some hospitals extremely large: from 1% to almost a quarter of all deliveries were near misses. Near-miss cases were 15 times more common than deaths (ranging from a ratio of 9:1-108:1). Most of the women with near-miss events (NMEs) (83%) were already in a critical condition on arrival at the hospital (range 54-90%), and two in three were referred from another facility. The most frequent types of NMEs were hemorrhage and hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, but anemia was the leading cause in three first referral level hospitals in Benin and Côte d'Ivoire. Near-miss events due to infections were rare. Near-miss events are extremely common in some African hospitals, with a high proportion arriving in critical conditions. Near-miss events must be estimated separately for those already in a critical condition on arrival and those developing after admission; the first as a good indicator of the effectiveness of emergency referrals and the second as a potential tool for monitoring the performance of obstetric services.

  7. Emergency obstetric care in a rural district of Burundi: What are the surgical needs?

    PubMed

    De Plecker, E; Zachariah, R; Kumar, A M V; Trelles, M; Caluwaerts, S; van den Boogaard, W; Manirampa, J; Tayler-Smith, K; Manzi, M; Nanan-N'zeth, K; Duchenne, B; Ndelema, B; Etienne, W; Alders, P; Veerman, R; Van den Bergh, R

    2017-01-01

    In a rural district hospital in Burundi offering Emergency Obstetric care-(EmOC), we assessed the a) characteristics of women at risk of, or with an obstetric complication and their types b) the number and type of obstetric surgical procedures and anaesthesia performed c) human resource cadres who performed surgery and anaesthesia and d) hospital exit outcomes. A retrospective analysis of EmOC data (2011 and 2012). A total of 6084 women were referred for EmOC of whom 2534(42%) underwent a major surgical procedure while 1345(22%) required a minor procedure (36% women did not require any surgical procedure). All cases with uterine rupture(73) and extra-uterine pregnancy(10) and the majority with pre-uterine rupture and foetal distress required major surgery. The two most prevalent conditions requiring a minor surgical procedure were abortions (61%) and normal delivery (34%). A total of 2544 major procedures were performed on 2534 admitted individuals. Of these, 1650(65%) required spinal and 578(23%) required general anaesthesia; 2341(92%) procedures were performed by 'general practitioners with surgical skills' and in 2451(96%) cases, anaesthesia was provided by nurses. Of 2534 hospital admissions related to major procedures, 2467(97%) were discharged, 21(0.8%) were referred to tertiary care and 2(0.1%) died. Overall, the obstetric surgical volume in rural Burundi is high with nearly six out of ten referrals requiring surgical intervention. Nonetheless, good quality care could be achieved by trained, non-specialist staff. The post-2015 development agenda needs to take this into consideration if it is to make progress towards reducing maternal mortality in Africa.

  8. Educational needs of Australian rural and remote doctors for intermediate obstetric ultrasound and emergency medicine ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Glazebrook, Roz; Manahan, Dan; Chater, A Bruce

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the educational needs of Australian rural and remote doctors for intermediate obstetric ultrasound and emergency medicine ultrasound. The main research questions were: what educational topics would rural and remote doctors prefer to learn about in intermediate obstetric ultrasound and emergency medicine ultrasound, and what were those doctors' preferred methods of delivery for an ultrasound education program. A self-administered postal questionnaire containing a pre-paid return envelope was mailed to 344 Australian rural and remote doctors in December 2003. 107 completed questionnaires were returned, giving a response rate of 32.7%. This was after the denominator was adjusted for the 17 doctors whose letters were returned to sender. The respondents included 23 (21.5%) female and 84 (78.5%) male doctors. Eighty doctors (74.8%) stated that they used ultrasound, and 27 (25.2%) said they did not. Seventy-seven (72%) indicated they had previously participated in some ultrasound education and training. The respondents stated that their main areas of educational need in intermediate obstetric ultrasound were ectopic pregnancy (76.6%), miscarriage (72%), intrauterine growth restriction (65.4%), transvaginal scanning (47.7%), detecting fetal abnormalities (47.7%) and morphology scanning at 18-20 weeks (41.1%). The main areas of educational need in emergency medicine ultrasound were focused abdominal sonography in trauma (63.5%), detecting foreign bodies (40.2%), gynecological ultrasound (39.2%), gall bladder and biliary tract (37.4%), abdominal aortic aneurysm (32.7%) and trauma bleeding (31.7%). Australian rural and remote doctors are using ultrasound technology to improve the clinical investigation and diagnosis of a large variety of clinical conditions in their family medical practices. This paper describes the results of research into the educational needs of this target group of doctors.

  9. Challenges of major obstetric haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Wise, Arlene; Clark, Vicki

    2010-06-01

    Every minute of every day, a woman dies in pregnancy or childbirth. The biggest killer is obstetric haemorrhage, the successful treatment of which is a challenge for both the developed and developing worlds. The presence of an attendant at every birth and access to emergency obstetric care are key to reducing maternal morbidity and mortality in the developing world while resource-rich countries have a rising caesarean section rate with its consequential effect on the incidence of abnormal placentation and its link with peripartum hysterectomy. Management of obstetric haemorrhage involves early recognition, assessment and resuscitation. Various methods are available to try to stop the bleeding - from pharmacological methods to aid uterine contraction (e.g., oxytocinon, ergometrine and prostaglandins) to surgical methods to stem the bleeding (e.g., balloon tamponade, compression sutures or arterial ligation). Interventional radiology can be used if placenta accreta is suspected. Cell salvage has been introduced into obstetrics relatively recently in an attempt to reduce allogeneic transfusion. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Recommendations for renovating an operating theater at an emergency obstetric care facility.

    PubMed

    Abreu, E; Potter, D

    2001-12-01

    The importance of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in reducing maternal mortality has focused attention on both the skills of the clinicians to provide high quality care and on the health facilities in which the care is provided. Essential elements of EmOC include the capacity to perform cesarean sections for which an operating theater is needed. This article focuses on renovation of existing operating theaters to meet the necessary standards. While building, adding to, or renovating operating theaters can be expensive, this article emphasizes appropriate materials that are likely to be locally available and relatively inexpensive. The importance of proper maintenance is discussed.

  11. Impact of obesity on outcomes of hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Megan D.; Scott, Dana Marie; Saks, Erin; Tower, Amanda; Raker, Christina A.; Matteson, Kristen A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives To evaluate the impact of obesity on complications of hysterectomy Study Design Retrospective cohort study Design Classification Canadian Task Force II-2 Setting Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants Hospital of Rhode Island (WIH) Patients Patients who had a hysterectomy at WIH between July 2006 and January 2009 Intervention Hysterectomy by any mode Measurements and Main Results We collected data from medical records of all laparoscopic hysterectomies during the time period and collected data from a random subset of abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies. The independent variable, body mass index, was grouped according to World Health Organization guidelines. A composite of surgical complications was generated. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. We collected data from 907 hysterectomies and 29.9% (n=267) of the population was obese. Eighteen percent of patients (n=154) had at least one complication. Compared to non-obese women, obese women were at increased odds of having any complication (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.12-2-34). Performing subgroup analyses by mode of hysterectomy and controlling for confounding factors, we were unable to detect differences odds of complications between obese and non-obese women who underwent either an abdominal, vaginal, or laparoscopic hysterectomy. Conclusion In our study, we found that among women who had a hysterectomy, obese women had a higher rate of complications than non-obese women. PMID:24012923

  12. The state of emergency obstetric care services in Nairobi informal settlements and environs: Results from a maternity health facility survey

    PubMed Central

    Ziraba, Abdhalah K; Mills, Samuel; Madise, Nyovani; Saliku, Teresa; Fotso, Jean-Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa remains a challenge with estimates exceeding 1,000 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in some countries. Successful prevention of maternal deaths hinges on adequate and quality emergency obstetric care. In addition to skilled personnel, there is need for a supportive environment in terms of essential drugs and supplies, equipment, and a referral system. Many household surveys report a reasonably high proportion of women delivering in health facilities. However, the quality and adequacy of facilities and personnel are often not assessed. The three delay model; 1) delay in making the decision to seek care; 2) delay in reaching an appropriate obstetric facility; and 3) delay in receiving appropriate care once at the facility guided this project. This paper examines aspects of the third delay by assessing quality of emergency obstetric care in terms of staffing, skills equipment and supplies. Methods We used data from a survey of 25 maternity health facilities within or near two slums in Nairobi that were mentioned by women in a household survey as places that they delivered. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Kenya Medical Research Institute. Permission was also sought from the Ministry of Health and the Medical Officer of Health. Data collection included interviews with the staff in-charge of maternity wards using structured questionnaires. We collected information on staffing levels, obstetric procedures performed, availability of equipment and supplies, referral system and health management information system. Results Out of the 25 health facilities, only two met the criteria for comprehensive emergency obstetric care (both located outside the two slums) while the others provided less than basic emergency obstetric care. Lack of obstetric skills, equipment, and supplies hamper many facilities from providing lifesaving emergency obstetric procedures. Accurate estimation of burden of morbidity and

  13. [Obstetric emergency and non-emergency transfers to the university teaching hospital Yalgado ouedraogo of Ouagadougou: A 3-year study of their epidemiologic, clinical, and prognostic aspects].

    PubMed

    Ouattara, A; Ouedraogo, C M; Ouedraogo, A; Lankoande, J

    2015-01-01

    to describe the epidemiologic, clinical, and prognostic aspects of the emergency and non-emergency transfers of obstetric patients to Yalgado Ouédraogo University Hospital Center (UHC-YO) in Ouagadougou. this retrospective descriptive study looked at the outcomes of women transferred, on an emergency basis or not, to the obstetrics department of the UHC-YO. The study population comprised all women transferred to the department during 2010, 2011, and 2012. during the study period, there were 9,806 admissions for obstetric disorders: 43% were transfers. The patients' mean age was 26.11 years [(13-49]. Women transferred from health care facilities within the city of Ouagadougou accounted for 96% of the sample. The leading reason for these transfers - emergency or not - was preeclampsia and eclampsia (24.57%). We recorded a total of 161 maternal deaths, for a mortality rate of 3.9%. Approximately 26.55% of the newborns received immediate intensive care and were then transferred to the neonatology department. maternal and neonatal prognosis is always poor in cases transferred to UHC-YO, despite increased funding for emergency obstetric and neonatal care. Increased population awareness of the importance of prenatal consultation and adequate funding for health care facilities to provide equipment for emergency transfers and staff training in the management of obstetric and neonatal emergencies would probably improve these mortality and morbidity rates.

  14. Emergency obstetric care availability: a critical assessment of the current indicator.

    PubMed

    Gabrysch, Sabine; Zanger, Philipp; Campbell, Oona M R

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring progress in reducing maternal and perinatal mortality requires suitable indicators. The density of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) facilities has been proposed as a potentially useful indicator, but different UN documents make inconsistent recommendations, and its current formulation is not associated with maternal mortality. We compiled recently published indicator benchmarks and distinguished three sources of inconsistency: (i) use of different denominator metrics (per birth and per population), (ii) different assumptions on need for EmOC and for EmOC facilities and (iii) failure to specify facility capacity (birth load). The UN guidelines and handbook require fewer EmOC facilities than the World Health Report 2005 and do not specify capacity for deliveries or staffing levels. We recommend (i) always using births as the denominator for EmOC facility density, (ii) clearly stating assumptions on the proportion of deliveries needing basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care and the desired proportion of deliveries in EmOC facilities and (iii) specifying facility capacity and staffing and adapting benchmarks for settings with different population density to ensure geographical accessibility.

  15. Improving the availability of emergency obstetric care in conflict-affected settings.

    PubMed

    Krause, S K; Meyers, J L; Friedlander, E

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an emergency obstetric care (EmOC) project implemented by the Reproductive Health Response in Conflict (RHRC) Consortium in 12 conflict-affected settings in nine countries from 2000-2005 with funding and technical support from Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health Averting Maternal Death and Disability (AMDD) programme. The overall goal of the project was to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality in select conflict-affected settings by improving the availability of EmOC. Another aim of the project was to institutionalize EmOC within RHRC Consortium agencies by modelling how to improve the availability of basic and comprehensive EmOC at clinics and hospitals. The specific project purpose was to increase the availability of EmOC in select conflict-affected settings. The project demonstrated that a great deal more can and should be done by humanitarian workers to improve the availability of basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric services in conflict-affected settings.

  16. Strengthening emergency obstetric care in Nepal: The Women's Right to Life and Health Project (WRLHP).

    PubMed

    Rana, T G; Chataut, B D; Shakya, G; Nanda, G; Pratt, A; Sakai, S

    2007-09-01

    The Women's Right to Life and Health Project contributes to Nepal's National Safe Motherhood Program and maternal mortality reduction efforts by working to improve the availability, quality and utilization of emergency obstetric care services in public health facilities. The project upgraded 8 existing public health facilities through infrastructure, equipment, training, data collection, policy advocacy, and community information activities. The total cost of the project was approximately US$1.6 million. In 5 years, 3 comprehensive and 4 basic emergency obstetric care (EmOC) facilities were established in an area where adequate EmOC services were previously lacking. From 2000 to 2004, met need for EmOC improved from 1.9 to 16.9%; the proportion of births in EmOC project facilities increased from 3.8 to 8.3%; and the case fatality rate declined from 2.7 to 0.3%. While the use of maternity services is still low in Nepal, improving availability and quality of EmOC together with community empowerment can increase utilization by women with complications, even in low-resource settings. Partnerships with government and donors were key to the project's success. Similar efforts should be replicated throughout Nepal to expand the availability of essential life-saving services for pregnant women.

  17. What is needed for taking emergency obstetric and neonatal programmes to scale?

    PubMed

    Bergh, Anne-Marie; Allanson, Emma; Pattinson, Robert C

    2015-11-01

    Scaling up an emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC) programme entails reaching a larger number of people in a potentially broader geographical area. Multiple strategies requiring simultaneous attention should be deployed. This paper provides a framework for understanding the implementation, scale-up and sustainability of such programmes. We reviewed the existing literature and drew on our experience in scaling up the Essential Steps in the Management of Obstetric Emergencies (ESMOE) programme in South Africa. We explore the non-linear change process and conditions to be met for taking an existing EmONC programme to scale. Important concepts cutting across all components of a programme are equity, quality and leadership. Conditions to be met include appropriate awareness across the board and a policy environment that leads to the following: commitment, health systems-strengthening actions, allocation of resources (human, financial and capital/material), dissemination and training, supportive supervision and monitoring and evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Governing the implementation of emergency obstetric care: experiences of rural district health managers, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mkoka, Dickson Ally; Kiwara, Angwara; Goicolea, Isabel; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2014-08-03

    Many health policies developed internationally often become adopted at the national level and are implemented locally at the district level. A decentralized district health system led by a district health management team becomes responsible for implementing such policies. This study aimed at exploring the experiences of a district health management team in implementing Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC) related policies and identifying emerging governance aspects. The study used a qualitative approach in which data was obtained from thirteen individual interviews and one focus group discussion (FGD). Interviews were conducted with members of the district health management team, district health service boards and NGO representatives. The FGD included key informants who were directly involved in the work of implementing EmOC services in the district. Documentary reviews and observation were done to supplement the data. All the materials were analysed using a qualitative content analysis approach. Implementation of EmOC was considered to be a process accompanied by achievements and challenges. Achievements included increased institutional delivery, increased number of ambulances, training service providers in emergency obstetric care and building a new rural health centre that provides comprehensive emergency obstetric care. These achievements were associated with good leadership skills of the team together with partnerships that existed between different actors such as the Non-Governmental Organization (NGO), development partners, local politicians and Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs). Most challenges faced during the implementation of EmOC were related to governance issues at different levels and included delays in disbursement of funds from the central government, shortages of health workers, unclear mechanisms for accountability, lack of incentives to motivate overburdened staffs and lack of guidelines for partnership development. The study revealed that

  19. Governing the implementation of Emergency Obstetric Care: experiences of Rural District Health Managers, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many health policies developed internationally often become adopted at the national level and are implemented locally at the district level. A decentralized district health system led by a district health management team becomes responsible for implementing such policies. This study aimed at exploring the experiences of a district health management team in implementing Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC) related policies and identifying emerging governance aspects. Methods The study used a qualitative approach in which data was obtained from thirteen individual interviews and one focus group discussion (FGD). Interviews were conducted with members of the district health management team, district health service boards and NGO representatives. The FGD included key informants who were directly involved in the work of implementing EmOC services in the district. Documentary reviews and observation were done to supplement the data. All the materials were analysed using a qualitative content analysis approach. Results Implementation of EmOC was considered to be a process accompanied by achievements and challenges. Achievements included increased institutional delivery, increased number of ambulances, training service providers in emergency obstetric care and building a new rural health centre that provides comprehensive emergency obstetric care. These achievements were associated with good leadership skills of the team together with partnerships that existed between different actors such as the Non-Governmental Organization (NGO), development partners, local politicians and Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs). Most challenges faced during the implementation of EmOC were related to governance issues at different levels and included delays in disbursement of funds from the central government, shortages of health workers, unclear mechanisms for accountability, lack of incentives to motivate overburdened staffs and lack of guidelines for partnership development

  20. Emergency Obstetric Care in a Rural Hospital: On-call Specialists Can Manage C-sections.

    PubMed

    Ashtekar, Shyam V; Kulkarni, Madhav B; Ashtekar, Ratna S; Sadavarte, Vaishali S

    2012-07-01

    Institutional birth and Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC) are important strategies of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). While the Community Health Center (CHC) is expected to serve EmOC needs in NRHM, the CHCs are hamstrung due to chronic shortage of specialist doctors. Alternative strategies are therefore needed for ensuring EmOC. This study aims to estimate the EmOC needs in a private rural hospital from case records and find some useful predictors for caesarian section (C-section) and to assess C-section needs in the context of on-call specialist support. We analyzed a two-decade series of 2587 obstetric cases in a private rural hospital for normal deliveries and EmOC including C-section. About 80% of the obstetric cases were normal deliveries. Of the remaining 20% cases that required EmOC, nearly one-third required C-section. In the series, two maternal deaths occurred due to hemorrhage. About 13% case records showed past abortion, which adds to EmOC workload. Primipararous mothers with higher age had a greater incidence (23%) of C-section. The C-section rate shows a steady rise from 3% to above 10% in the series. This rural hospital required C-section in 6.4% cases. This C-section workload was managed with the help of on-call specialists. The local hospital team could manage 93.6% of the cases and abortions with only two maternal deaths. This strategy of an on-call specialist team can be an option for CHCs till resident specialists are adequately available.

  1. Availability and quality of emergency obstetric care in Shanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu; Barclay, Lesley

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the availability and quality of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) received by women in a rural Chinese province. The study was conducted in 7 rural counties and townships in Shanxi Province, China. Data sources included interviews with 7 hospital leaders, 5 maternal and child health workers, and 7 obstetricians; 118 records of complicated delivery were audited, 21 Maternal and Child Health Annual Reports analyzed, and observations conducted of facilities and advanced labor care. The number of comprehensive EmOC facilities was adequate in all counties. Three counties had fewer basic EmOC facilities than recommended and only 4 counties reached the recommended level. Most of the existing township hospitals did not provide birthing services. All the county hospitals could perform cesarean deliveries with rates from 6.8%-40.8%. The management of complications was not evidence-based. For example, women with pre-eclampsia and eclampsia were given too little magnesium sulfate; women were not closely monitored for hemorrhage after birth and the partograph was used incorrectly with consequences for obstructed labor. Basic EmOC facilities are not adequate and township hospitals should be upgraded to provide birthing services. The quality of EmOC is poor and needs improvement. Copyright 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Availability and distribution of, and geographic access to emergency obstetric care in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Gabrysch, Sabine; Simushi, Virginia; Campbell, Oona M R

    2011-08-01

    To assess the availability and coverage of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services in Zambia. Reported provision of EmOC signal functions in the Zambian Health Facility Census and additional criteria on staffing, opening hours, and referral capacity were used to classify all Zambian health facilities as providing comprehensive EmOC, basic EmOC, or more limited care. Geographic accessibility of EmOC services was estimated by linking health facility data with data from the Zambian population census. Few Zambian health facilities provided all basic EmOC signal functions and had qualified health professionals available on a 24-hour basis. Of the 1131 Zambian delivery facilities, 135 (12%) were classified as providing EmOC. Zambia nearly met the UN EmOC density benchmarks nationally, but EmOC facilities and health professionals were unevenly distributed between provinces. Geographic access to EmOC services in rural areas was low; in most provinces, less than 25% of the population lived within 15 km of an EmOC facility. A national Health Facility Census with geographic information is a valuable tool for assessing service availability and coverage at national and subnational levels. Simultaneously assessing health worker density and geographic access adds crucial information. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rate of cesarean delivery at hospitals providing emergency obstetric care in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad T; Yoshimura, Yukie

    2015-01-01

    To assess the rate of cesarean delivery and its indications at public emergency obstetric care (EmOC) hospitals in a district in Bangladesh. In a retrospective, cross-sectional study, data were extracted from the Safe Motherhood Promotion Project database and operation theater registers for cesarean deliveries at three district and three subdistrict EmOC hospitals in Narsingdi between January 1 and December 31, 2008. Information on cesarean deliveries and their indications, and maternal and neonatal outcomes were analyzed descriptively. Among 3329 deliveries, 1075 (32.3%) occurred by cesarean. The frequency of cesarean delivery ranged from 17.8% (147 of 824 deliveries) to 56.3% (174 of 309) among the six hospitals. Information on indications was available for 1043 cesarean deliveries. The main indications were previous cesarean delivery (251 deliveries, 24.1%), fetal distress (228, 21.9%), and prolonged or obstructed labor (214, 20.5%). There were no maternal deaths, but 10 (1.0%) cesarean deliveries resulted in stillbirth. The overall rate of cesarean delivery was high at EmOC hospitals. Interventions to improve decision making and limit possible unnecessary cesarean operations are needed. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A sector-wide approach to emergency obstetric care in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Orinda, V; Kakande, H; Kabarangira, J; Nanda, G; Mbonye, A K

    2005-12-01

    To establish a baseline for the availability, utilization, and quality of EmOC, and to help develop an operational strategy based on the findings. A needs assessment of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) was carried out in 197 health facilities in 19 out of 56 districts in Uganda, covering 38% of the total population. There were a large number of missing signal functions at health facilities and an urgent need to improve the availability of EmOC. By using the data from the assessment, it was possible to influence national policy through the health sector-wide approach (SWAp) and place EmOC high on the national agenda. A national strategy and roll out plan to strengthen EmOC is now in place.

  5. Reducing neonatal mortality in India: critical role of access to emergency obstetric care.

    PubMed

    Rammohan, Anu; Iqbal, Kazi; Awofeso, Niyi

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal mortality currently accounts for 41% of all global deaths among children below five years. Despite recording a 33% decline in neonatal deaths between 2000 and 2009, about 900,000 neonates died in India in 2009. The decline in neonatal mortality is slower than in the post-neonatal period, and neonatal mortality rates have increased as a proportion of under-five mortality rates. Neonatal mortality rates are higher among rural dwellers of India, who make up at least two-thirds of India's population. Identifying the factors influencing neonatal mortality will significantly improve child survival outcomes in India. Our analysis is based on household data from the nationally representative 2008 Indian District Level Household Survey (DLHS-3). We use probit regression techniques to analyse the links between neonatal mortality at the household level and households' access to health facilities. The probability of the child dying in the first month of birth is our dependent variable. We found that 80% of neonatal deaths occurred within the first week of birth, and that the probability of neonatal mortality is significantly lower when the child's village is closer to the district hospital (DH), suggesting the critical importance of specialist hospital care in the prevention of newborn deaths. Neonatal deaths were lower in regions where emergency obstetric care was available at the District Hospitals. We also found that parental schooling and household wealth status improved neonatal survival outcomes. Addressing the main causes of neonatal deaths in India--preterm deliveries, asphyxia, and sepsis--requires adequacy of specialised workforce and facilities for delivery and neonatal intensive care and easy access by mothers and neonates. The slow decline in neonatal death rates reflects a limited attention to factors which contribute to neonatal deaths. The suboptimal quality and coverage of Emergency Obstetric Care facilities in India require urgent attention.

  6. Quality improvement in emergency obstetric referrals: qualitative study of provider perspectives in Assin North district, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Afari, Henrietta; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Michaelis, Annie; Barker, Pierre; Sodzi-Tettey, Sodzi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe healthcare worker (HCW)-identified system-based bottlenecks and the value of local engagement in designing strategies to improve referral processes related to emergency obstetric care in rural Ghana. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews of participants to obtain provider narratives. Setting Referral systems in obstetrics in Assin North Municipal Assembly, a rural district in Ghana. This included one district hospital, six health centres and four local health posts. This work was embedded in an ongoing quality improvement project in the district addressing barriers to existing referral protocols to lessen delays. Participants 18 HCWs (8 midwives, 4 community health officers, 3 medical assistants, 2 emergency room nurses, 1 doctor) at different facility levels within the district. Results We identified important gaps in referral processes in Assin North, with the most commonly noted including recognising danger signs, alerting receiving units, accompanying critically ill patients, documenting referral cases and giving and obtaining feedback on referred cases. Main root causes identified by providers were in four domains: (1) transportation, (2) communication, (3) clinical skills and management and (4) standards of care and monitoring, and suggested interventions that target these barriers. Mapping these challenges allowed for better understanding of next steps for developing comprehensive, evidence-based solutions to identified referral gaps within the district. Conclusions Providers are an important source of information on local referral delays and in the development of approaches to improvement responsive to these gaps. Better engagement of HCWs can help to identify and evaluate high-impact holistic interventions to address faulty referral systems which result in poor maternal outcomes in resource-poor settings. These perspectives need to be integrated with patient and community perspectives. PMID:24833695

  7. Survey of Emergency and Essential Surgical, Obstetric and Anaesthetic Services Available in Bangladeshi Government Health Facilities.

    PubMed

    Loveday, Jonathan; Sachdev, Sonal P; Cherian, Meena N; Katayama, Francisco; Akhtaruzzaman, A K M; Thomas, Joe; Huda, N; Faragher, E Brian; Johnson, Walter D

    2017-07-01

    Evaluate the capacity of government-run hospitals in Bangladesh to provide emergency and essential surgical, obstetric and anaesthetic services. Cross-sectional survey of 240 Bangladeshi Government healthcare facilities using the World Health Organisation Situational Analysis Tool to Assess Emergency and Essential Surgical Care (SAT). This tool evaluates the ability of a healthcare facility to provide basic surgical, obstetric and anaesthetic care based on 108 queries that detail the infrastructure and population demographics, human resources, surgical interventions and reason for referral, and available surgical equipment and supplies. For this survey, the Bangladeshi Ministry of Health sent the SAT to sub-district, district/general and teaching hospitals throughout the country in April 2013. Responses were received from 240 healthcare facilities (49.5% response rate): 218 sub-district and 22 district/general hospitals. At the sub-district level, caesarean section was offered by 55% of facilities, laparotomy by 7% and open fracture repair by 8%. At the district/general hospital level, 95% offered caesarean section, 86% offered laparotomy and 77% offered open fracture treatment. Availability of anaesthesia services, general equipment and supplies reflected this trend, where district/general hospitals were better equipped than sub-district hospitals, though equipment and infrastructure shortages persist. There has been overall impressive progress by the Bangladeshi Government in providing essential surgical services. Areas for improvement remain across all key areas, including infrastructure, human resources, surgical interventions offered and available equipment. Investment in surgical services offers a cost-effective opportunity to continue to improve the health of the Bangladeshi population and move the country towards universal healthcare coverage.

  8. Effect of high-fidelity shoulder dystocia simulation on emergency obstetric skills and crew resource management skills among residents.

    PubMed

    Mannella, Paolo; Palla, Giulia; Cuttano, Armando; Boldrini, Antonio; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2016-12-01

    To determine the effect of a simulation training program for residents in obstetrics and gynecology in terms of technical and nontechnical skills for the management of shoulder dystocia. A prospective study was performed at a center in Italy in April-May 2015. Thirty-two obstetrics and gynecology residents were divided into two groups. Residents in the control group were immediately exposed to an emergency shoulder dystocia scenario, whereas those in the simulation group completed a 2-hour training session with the simulator before being exposed to the scenario. After 8weeks, the residents were again exposed to the shoulder dystocia scenario and reassessed. Participants were scored on their demonstration of technical and nontechnical skills. In the first set of scenarios, the mean score was higher in the simulation group than the control group in terms of both technical skills (P=0.008) and nontechnical skills (P<0.001). This difference was retained after 8weeks. High-fidelity simulation programs could be used for the training of residents in obstetrics and gynecology to diagnose and manage obstetric emergencies such as shoulder dystocia. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimization of competency in obstetrical emergencies: a role for simulation training.

    PubMed

    Monod, Cécile; Voekt, Cora A; Gisin, Martina; Gisin, Stefan; Hoesli, Irene M

    2014-04-01

    In obstetrical emergency situations, optimal management requires the immediate coordinated actions of a multi-disciplinary and multi-professional team. This study investigated the influence of simulation training on four specific skills: self-confidence, handling of emergency situation, knowledge of algorithms and team communication. Clinical algorithms were first presented to the participants. Training for six emergency situations (shoulder dystocia, postpartum haemorrhage, pre-eclampsia, maternal basic life support, neonatal resuscitation and operative vaginal birth) was performed using high- and low-fidelity simulation mannequins. General impression of the simulation training and the four above-mentioned skills were evaluated anonymously through a self-assessment questionnaire with a five-point Likert scale immediately after the training and 3 months later. From November 2010 to March 2012, 168 participants, distributed over six one-day courses, took part in the training. 156 participants returned the questionnaire directly after the course (92.9 %). The questionnaire return rate after 3 months was 36.3 %. The participants gave higher Likert scale answers for the questions on the four specific skills after 3 months compared to immediately after the course. The improvement was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) except for the question regarding team communication. Implementation of simulation training strengthens the professional competency.

  10. Barbed Suture for Vaginal Cuff Closure in Laparoscopic Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Byron Cardoso; Riaño, Giovanni; Hoyos, Luis R.; Otalora, Camila

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate whether the use of barbed suture for vaginal cuff closure is associated with a decrease in postoperative vaginal bleeding compared with cuff closure with polyglactin 910 in patients who have undergone laparoscopic hysterectomy. Methods: We performed a cohort study of patients who underwent laparoscopic hysterectomy between January 2008 and July 2012 by the minimally invasive gynecologic surgery division of the Gynecology, Obstetrics and Human Reproduction Department at Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá University Hospital, Bogotá, Colombia. Results: A total of 232 women were studied: 163 were in the polyglactin 910 group, and 69 were in the barbed suture group. The main outcome, postoperative vaginal bleeding, was documented in 53 cases (32.5%) in the polyglactin 910 group and in 13 cases (18.8%) in the barbed suture group (relative risk, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.34–0.9; P = .03). No statistically significant differences were found in other postoperative outcomes, such as emergency department admission, vaginal cuff dehiscence, infectious complications, and the presence of granulation tissue. Conclusion: In this study an inverse association was observed between the use of barbed suture for vaginal cuff closure during laparoscopic hysterectomy and the presence of postoperative vaginal bleeding. PMID:24680149

  11. Barbed suture for vaginal cuff closure in laparoscopic hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Medina, Byron Cardoso; Giraldo, Cristian Hernández; Riaño, Giovanni; Hoyos, Luis R; Otalora, Camila

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate whether the use of barbed suture for vaginal cuff closure is associated with a decrease in postoperative vaginal bleeding compared with cuff closure with polyglactin 910 in patients who have undergone laparoscopic hysterectomy. We performed a cohort study of patients who underwent laparoscopic hysterectomy between January 2008 and July 2012 by the minimally invasive gynecologic surgery division of the Gynecology, Obstetrics and Human Reproduction Department at Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá University Hospital, Bogotá, Colombia. A total of 232 women were studied: 163 were in the polyglactin 910 group, and 69 were in the barbed suture group. The main outcome, postoperative vaginal bleeding, was documented in 53 cases (32.5%) in the polyglactin 910 group and in 13 cases (18.8%) in the barbed suture group (relative risk, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.34-0.9; P = .03). No statistically significant differences were found in other postoperative outcomes, such as emergency department admission, vaginal cuff dehiscence, infectious complications, and the presence of granulation tissue. In this study an inverse association was observed between the use of barbed suture for vaginal cuff closure during laparoscopic hysterectomy and the presence of postoperative vaginal bleeding.

  12. Availability and use of emergency obstetric services: Kenya, Rwanda, Southern Sudan, and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Pearson, L; Shoo, R

    2005-02-01

    The article summarises the baseline assessments of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) carried out in Uganda, Kenya, Southern Sudan, and Rwanda in 2003 and 2004. Our objectives were to: (1) set up program baselines on the availability and utilization of EmOC services in these countries; (2) identify gaps and obstacles in providing EmOC services; and (3) make recommendations to governments based on evidence generated. Data were collected from clinical record reviews, provider and client interviews, observations, and focus group discussions. Either random or universal sampling was applied in the selection of health facilities assessed. Local nurses and midwives participated in the data collection and, to some extent, data processing and analysis. The coverage of basic EmOC services ranged 0-1.1/500,000 population compared to the UN-recommended level of 4/500,000. The coverage of comprehensive EmOC services ranged 0.5-4.3/500,000 compared to the recommended level of 1/500,000. Between 0.6% and 8.8% of all births took place in EmOC facilities, and 2.1% and 18.5% of all expected direct obstetric complications were treated. Cesarean section as a proportion of all births was between 0.1% and 1%. Shortage of trained staff especially mid-level providers, poor basic infrastructure such as lack of electricity and water supplies, inadequate supply of drugs and essential equipment, poor working conditions and staff morale, lack of communication and referral facilities, cost of treatment, and lack of accountability and proper management were identified as the main obstacles in providing 24-h quality EmOC services especially in remote and rural areas. Lack of basic EmOC services limits women's access to life-saving services during obstetric complications. To reduce maternal mortality ratio the states and development partners need to focus their effort to improve the coverage, quality, and utilization of EmOC services through supportive national policy, effective program strategies

  13. Availability and use of emergency obstetric care services in four districts of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Akhil Bandhu; Das, Dilip Kumar; Misra, Raghunath; Roy, Rabindra Nath; Ghosh, Debdatta; Mitra, Kaninika

    2005-09-01

    Process indicators have been recommended for monitoring the availability and use of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services. A health facility-based study was carried out in 2002 in four districts of West Bengal, India, to analyze these process indicators. Relevant records and registers for 2001 of all studied facilities in the districts were reviewed to collect data using a pre-designed schedule. The numbers of basic and comprehensive EmOC facilities were inadequate in all the four districts compared to the minimum acceptable level. Overall, 26.2% of estimated annual births took place in the EmOC facilities (ranged from 16.2% to 45.8% in 4 districts) against the required minimum of 15%. The rate of caesarean section calculated for all expected births in the population varied from 3.5% to 4.4% in the four districts with an overall rate of 4%, which is less than the minimum target of 5%. Only 29.9% of the estimated number of complications (which is 15% of all births) was managed in the EmOC facilities. The combined case-fatality rate in the basic/comprehensive EmOC facilities was 1.7%. Major obstetric complications contributed to 85.7% of maternal deaths, and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia was the most common cause. It can be concluded that all the process indicators, except proportion of deliveries in the EmOC facilities, were below the acceptable level. Certain priority measures, such as making facilities fully functional, effective referral and monitoring system, skill-based training, etc., are to be emphasized to improve the situation.

  14. [Non elective cesarean section: use of a color code to optimize management of obstetric emergencies].

    PubMed

    Rudigoz, René-Charles; Huissoud, Cyril; Delecour, Lisa; Thevenet, Simone; Dupont, Corinne

    2014-06-01

    The medical team of the Croix Rousse teaching hospital maternity unit has developed, over the last ten years, a set of procedures designed to respond to various emergency situations necessitating Caesarean section. Using the Lucas classification, we have defined as precisely as possible the degree of urgency of Caesarian sections. We have established specific protocols for the implementation of urgent and very urgent Caesarean section and have chosen a simple means to convey the degree of urgency to all team members, namely a color code system (red, orange and green). We have set time goals from decision to delivery: 15 minutes for the red code and 30 minutes for the orange code. The results seem very positive: The frequency of urgent and very urgent Caesareans has fallen over time, from 6.1 % to 1.6% in 2013. The average time from decision to delivery is 11 minutes for code red Caesareans and 21 minutes for code orange Caesareans. These time goals are now achieved in 95% of cases. Organizational and anesthetic difficulties are the main causes of delays. The indications for red and orange code Caesarians are appropriate more than two times out of three. Perinatal outcomes are generally favorable, code red Caesarians being life-saving in 15% of cases. No increase in maternal complications has been observed. In sum: Each obstetric department should have its own protocols for handling urgent and very urgent Caesarean sections. Continuous monitoring of their implementation, relevance and results should be conducted Management of extreme urgency must be integrated into the management of patients with identified risks (scarred uterus and twin pregnancies for example), and also in structures without medical facilities (birthing centers). Obstetric teams must keep in mind that implementation of these protocols in no way dispenses with close monitoring of labour.

  15. The challenges of improving emergency obstetric care in two rural districts in Mali.

    PubMed

    Otchere, S A; Kayo, A

    2007-11-01

    We describe a collaboration between Save the Children USA, the Averting Maternal Death and Disability (AMDD) program and the Ministry of Health of Mali, to improve the availability, quality and utilization of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in Yanfolila and Bougouni rural districts in Sikasso Region of Mali. Project planning, interventions and strategies between 2001 and 2004 were aimed at improving the capacity of 2 district hospitals to provide quality EmOC, sensitizing the community as partners to use services and to influence changes in policy at a national level through advocacy efforts. By the end of 2004, despite many health systems' challenges, the 2 hospitals were providing comprehensive EmOC. Providing 24-hour service proved difficult and, though not effectively institutionalized in the 2 hospitals, the UN Process Indicators showed modest improvements in quality and utilization of EmOC. Met need for EmOC increased from 9% in 2001 to 15% in 2004 in Bougouni and from 6% in 2001 to 15% in 2004 in Yanfolila. Case fatality rates declined by 69% (from 7% in 2001 to 2% in 2004) and by 38% (from 8% in 2001 to 5% in 2004) in Bougouni and Yanfolila, respectively. Although useful policy changes were achieved at the national level, more are needed if UN Guidelines are to be met. Availability of more obstetric functions at the community level, and fewer staff transfers are among policy changes needed. Save the Children's project experience showed that it is possible to improve the quality and use of EmOC in hospitals despite challenges; we drew national attention to EmOC as a key strategy in maternal mortality reduction, and raised awareness of the need for improved EmOC services at clinics that are more accessible to the community.

  16. Human resources and the quality of emergency obstetric care in developing countries: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Dogba, Maman; Fournier, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Background This paper reports on a systematic literature review exploring the importance of human resources in the quality of emergency obstetric care and thus in the reduction of maternal deaths. Methods A systematic search of two electronic databases (ISI Web of Science and MEDLINE) was conducted, based on the following key words "quality obstetric* care" OR "pregnancy complications OR emergency obstetric* care OR maternal mortality" AND "quality health care OR quality care" AND "developing countries. Relevant papers were analysed according to three customary components of emergency obstetric care: structure, process and results. Results This review leads to three main conclusions: (1) staff shortages are a major obstacle to providing good quality EmOC; (2) women are often dissatisfied with the care they receive during childbirth; and (3) the technical quality of EmOC has not been adequately studied. The first two conclusions provide lessons to consider when formulating EmOC policies, while the third point is an area where more knowledge is needed. PMID:19200353

  17. Contracting in specialists for emergency obstetric care- does it work in rural India?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Contracting in private sector is promoted in developing countries facing human resources shortages as a challenge to reduce maternal mortality. This study explored provision, practice, performance, barriers to execution and views about contracting in specialists for emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in rural India. Methods Facility survey was conducted in all secondary and tertiary public health facilities (44) in three heterogeneous districts in Maharashtra state of India. Interviews (42) were conducted with programme managers and district and block level officials and with public and private EmOC specialists. Locations of private obstetricians in the study districts were identified and mapped. Results Two schemes, namely Janani Suraksha Yojana and Indian Public Health standards (IPHS) provided for contracting in EmOC specialists. The IPHS provision was chosen for use mainly due to greater sum for contracting in (US $ 30/service episode vs.300 US$/month). The positions of EmOC specialists were vacant in 83% of all facilities that hence had a potential for contracting in EmOC specialists. Private specialists were contracted in at 20% such facilities. The contracting in of specialists did not greatly increase EmOC service outputs at facilities, except in facilities with determined leadership. Contracting in specialists was useful for non emergency conditions, but not for obstetric emergencies. The contracts were more of a relational nature with poor monitoring structures. Inadequate infrastructure, longer distance to private specialists, insufficient financial provision for contracting in, and poor management capacities were barriers to effective implementation of contracting in. Dependency on the private sector was a concern among public partners while the private partners viewed contracting in as an opportunity to gain experience and credibility. Conclusions Density and geographic distribution of private specialists are important influencing factors in

  18. Contracting in specialists for emergency obstetric care- does it work in rural India?

    PubMed

    Randive, Bharat; Chaturvedi, Sarika; Mistry, Nerges

    2012-12-31

    Contracting in private sector is promoted in developing countries facing human resources shortages as a challenge to reduce maternal mortality. This study explored provision, practice, performance, barriers to execution and views about contracting in specialists for emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in rural India. Facility survey was conducted in all secondary and tertiary public health facilities (44) in three heterogeneous districts in Maharashtra state of India. Interviews (42) were conducted with programme managers and district and block level officials and with public and private EmOC specialists. Locations of private obstetricians in the study districts were identified and mapped. Two schemes, namely Janani Suraksha Yojana and Indian Public Health standards (IPHS) provided for contracting in EmOC specialists. The IPHS provision was chosen for use mainly due to greater sum for contracting in (US $ 30/service episode vs.300 US$/month). The positions of EmOC specialists were vacant in 83% of all facilities that hence had a potential for contracting in EmOC specialists. Private specialists were contracted in at 20% such facilities. The contracting in of specialists did not greatly increase EmOC service outputs at facilities, except in facilities with determined leadership. Contracting in specialists was useful for non emergency conditions, but not for obstetric emergencies. The contracts were more of a relational nature with poor monitoring structures. Inadequate infrastructure, longer distance to private specialists, insufficient financial provision for contracting in, and poor management capacities were barriers to effective implementation of contracting in. Dependency on the private sector was a concern among public partners while the private partners viewed contracting in as an opportunity to gain experience and credibility. Density and geographic distribution of private specialists are important influencing factors in determining feasibility and use of

  19. Availability and Quality of Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Wichaidit, Wit; Alam, Mahbub-Ul; Halder, Amal K; Unicomb, Leanne; Hamer, Davidson H; Ram, Pavani K

    2016-08-03

    Bangladesh's maternal mortality and neonatal mortality remain unacceptably high. We assessed the availability and quality of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) and emergency newborn care (EmNC) services at health facilities in Bangladesh. We randomly sampled 50 rural villages and 50 urban neighborhoods throughout Bangladesh and interviewed the director of eight and nine health facilities nearest to each sampled area. We categorized health facilities into different quality levels (high, moderate, low, and substandard) based on staffing, availability of a phone or ambulance, and signal functions (six categories for EmOC and four categories for EmNC). We interviewed the directors of 875 health facilities. Approximately 28% of health facilities did not have a skilled birth attendant on call 24 hours per day. The least commonly performed EmOC signal function was administration of anticonvulsants (67%). The quality of EmOC services was high in 33% and moderate in 52% of the health facilities. The least common EmNC signal function was kangaroo mother care (7%). The quality of EmNC was high in 2% and moderate in 33% of the health facilities. Approximately one-third of health facilities lack 24-hour availability of skilled birth attendants, increasing the risk of peripartum complications. Most health facilities offered moderate to high quality services for EmOC and low to substandard quality for EmNC.

  20. Availability and Quality of Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Wichaidit, Wit; Alam, Mahbub-Ul; Halder, Amal K.; Unicomb, Leanne; Hamer, Davidson H.; Ram, Pavani K.

    2016-01-01

    Bangladesh's maternal mortality and neonatal mortality remain unacceptably high. We assessed the availability and quality of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) and emergency newborn care (EmNC) services at health facilities in Bangladesh. We randomly sampled 50 rural villages and 50 urban neighborhoods throughout Bangladesh and interviewed the director of eight and nine health facilities nearest to each sampled area. We categorized health facilities into different quality levels (high, moderate, low, and substandard) based on staffing, availability of a phone or ambulance, and signal functions (six categories for EmOC and four categories for EmNC). We interviewed the directors of 875 health facilities. Approximately 28% of health facilities did not have a skilled birth attendant on call 24 hours per day. The least commonly performed EmOC signal function was administration of anticonvulsants (67%). The quality of EmOC services was high in 33% and moderate in 52% of the health facilities. The least common EmNC signal function was kangaroo mother care (7%). The quality of EmNC was high in 2% and moderate in 33% of the health facilities. Approximately one-third of health facilities lack 24-hour availability of skilled birth attendants, increasing the risk of peripartum complications. Most health facilities offered moderate to high quality services for EmOC and low to substandard quality for EmNC. PMID:27273640

  1. Making It Happen: Training health-care providers in emergency obstetric and newborn care.

    PubMed

    Ameh, Charles A; van den Broek, Nynke

    2015-11-01

    An estimated 289,000 maternal deaths, 2.6 million stillbirths and 2.4 million newborn deaths occur globally each year, with the majority occurring around the time of childbirth. The medical and surgical interventions to prevent this loss of life are known, and most maternal and newborn deaths are in principle preventable. There is a need to build the capacity of health-care providers to recognize and manage complications during pregnancy, childbirth and the post-partum period. Skills-and-drills competency-based training in skilled birth attendance, emergency obstetric care and early newborn care (EmONC) is an approach that is successful in improving knowledge and skills. There is emerging evidence of this resulting in improved availability and quality of care. To evaluate the effectiveness of EmONC training, operational research using an adapted Kirkpatrick framework and a theory of change approach is needed. The Making It Happen programme is an example of this. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Obstetric audit in resource-poor settings: lessons from a multi-country project auditing 'near miss' obstetrical emergencies.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Veronique; Brugha, Ruairi; Browne, Edmund; Gohou, Valerie; Bacci, Alberta; De Brouwere, Vincent; Sahel, Amina; Goufodji, Sourou; Alihonou, Eusebe; Ronsmans, Carine

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the practical steps involved in setting up and running multi-professional, in-depth case reviews of 'near miss' obstetrical complications. It draws on lessons learned in 12 referral hospitals in Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana and Morocco. A range of feasibility indicators are presented which measured the implementation and frequency of audit activities, the quality of participation, adherence to the planned protocol for the near-miss audits, the quality of audit discussions and the sustainability of the project. Although the principles of the audit approach were well accepted and implemented everywhere, near-miss audits appeared most successful in first referral level hospitals. Contextual factors that determine the successful implementation of near-miss audit include staff finding adequate time for audit activities, financial incentives to groups rather than individuals, involvement of senior staff and hospital managers, the ease of communication in smaller units, the employment of social workers for the incorporation of women's views at audits, and the strength of external support provided by the research team. The poor quality of information recorded in case notes was recognized everywhere as a deficiency, but did not present a major obstacle to effective case reviews. Ownership and leadership within the hospital, more easily achieved in the first-level referral hospitals, were probably the most important determinants of successful implementation. Sustainability requires a commitment to audit from policy makers and managers at higher levels of the health system and some devolution of resources for implementing recommendations.

  3. The emergence of a global right to health norm – the unresolved case of universal access to quality emergency obstetric care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The global response to HIV suggests the potential of an emergent global right to health norm, embracing shared global responsibility for health, to assist policy communities in framing the obligations of the domestic state and the international community. Our research explores the extent to which this global right to health norm has influenced the global policy process around maternal health rights, with a focus on universal access to emergency obstetric care. Methods In examining the extent to which arguments stemming from a global right to health norm have been successful in advancing international policy on universal access to emergency obstetric care, we looked at the period from 1985 to 2013 period. We adopted a qualitative case study approach applying a process-tracing methodology using multiple data sources, including an extensive literature review and limited key informant interviews to analyse the international policy agenda setting process surrounding maternal health rights, focusing on emergency obstetric care. We applied John Kingdon's public policy agenda setting streams model to analyse our data. Results Kingdon’s model suggests that to succeed as a mobilising norm, the right to health could work if it can help bring the problem, policy and political streams together, as it did with access to AIDS treatment. Our analysis suggests that despite a normative grounding in the right to health, prioritisation of the specific maternal health entitlements remains fragmented. Conclusions Despite United Nations recognition of maternal mortality as a human rights issue, the relevant policy communities have not yet managed to shift the policy agenda to prioritise the global right to health norm of shared responsibility for realising access to emergency obstetric care. The experience of HIV advocates in pushing for global solutions based on right to health principles, including participation, solidarity and accountability; suggest potential avenues for

  4. Barriers to Emergency Obstetric Care Services in Perinatal Deaths in Rural Gambia: A Qualitative In-Depth Interview Study

    PubMed Central

    Jammeh, Abdou; Sundby, Johanne; Vangen, Siri

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The Gambia has one of the world's highest perinatal mortality rates. We explored barriers of timely access to emergency obstetric care services resulting in perinatal deaths and in survivors of severe obstetric complications in rural Gambia. Method. We applied the “three delays” model as a framework for assessing contributing factors to perinatal deaths and obstetric complications. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 survivors of severe obstetric complications at home settings within three to four weeks after hospital discharge. Family members and traditional birth attendants were also interviewed. The interviews were translated into English and transcribed verbatim. We used content analysis to identify barriers of care. Results. Transport/cost-related delays are the major contributors of perinatal deaths in this study. A delay in recognising danger signs of pregnancy/labour or decision to seek care outside the home was the second important contributor of perinatal deaths. Decision to seek care may be timely, but impaired access precluded utilization of EmOC services. Obtaining blood for transfusion was also identified as a deterrent to appropriate care. Conclusion. Delays in accessing EmOC are critical in perinatal deaths. Thus, timely availability of emergency transport services and prompt decision-making are warranted for improved perinatal outcomes in rural Gambia. PMID:21766039

  5. Barriers to emergency obstetric care services in perinatal deaths in rural gambia: a qualitative in-depth interview study.

    PubMed

    Jammeh, Abdou; Sundby, Johanne; Vangen, Siri

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The Gambia has one of the world's highest perinatal mortality rates. We explored barriers of timely access to emergency obstetric care services resulting in perinatal deaths and in survivors of severe obstetric complications in rural Gambia. Method. We applied the "three delays" model as a framework for assessing contributing factors to perinatal deaths and obstetric complications. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 survivors of severe obstetric complications at home settings within three to four weeks after hospital discharge. Family members and traditional birth attendants were also interviewed. The interviews were translated into English and transcribed verbatim. We used content analysis to identify barriers of care. Results. Transport/cost-related delays are the major contributors of perinatal deaths in this study. A delay in recognising danger signs of pregnancy/labour or decision to seek care outside the home was the second important contributor of perinatal deaths. Decision to seek care may be timely, but impaired access precluded utilization of EmOC services. Obtaining blood for transfusion was also identified as a deterrent to appropriate care. Conclusion. Delays in accessing EmOC are critical in perinatal deaths. Thus, timely availability of emergency transport services and prompt decision-making are warranted for improved perinatal outcomes in rural Gambia.

  6. Responsiveness of emergency obstetric care systems in low- and middle-income countries: a critical review of the "third delay".

    PubMed

    Cavallaro, Francesca L; Marchant, Tanya J

    2013-05-01

    We reviewed the evidence on the duration, causes and effects of delays in providing emergency obstetric care to women attending health facilities (the third delay) in low- and middle-income countries. We performed a critical literature review using terms related to obstetric care, birth outcome, delays and developing countries. A manual search of reference lists of key articles was also performed. 69 studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies reported long delays in providing care, and the mean waiting time for women admitted with complications was as much as 24 h before treatment. The three most cited barriers to providing timely care were shortage of treatment materials, surgery facilities and qualified staff. Existing evidence is insufficient to estimate the effect of delays on birth outcomes. Delays in providing emergency obstetric care seem common in resource-constrained settings but further research is necessary to determine the effect of the third delay on birth outcomes. © 2013 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Lifesaving emergency obstetric services are inadequate in south-west Ethiopia: a formidable challenge to reducing maternal mortality in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Girma, Meseret; Yaya, Yaliso; Gebrehanna, Ewenat; Berhane, Yemane; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2013-11-04

    Most maternal deaths take place during labour and within a few weeks after delivery. The availability and utilization of emergency obstetric care facilities is a key factor in reducing maternal mortality; however, there is limited evidence about how these institutions perform and how many people use emergency obstetric care facilities in rural Ethiopia. We aimed to assess the availability, quality, and utilization of emergency obstetric care services in the Gamo Gofa Zone of south-west Ethiopia. We conducted a retrospective review of three hospitals and 63 health centres in Gamo Gofa. Using a retrospective review, we recorded obstetric services, documents, cards, and registration books of mothers treated and served in the Gamo Gofa Zone health facilities between July 2009 and June 2010. There were three basic and two comprehensive emergency obstetric care qualifying facilities for the 1,740,885 people living in Gamo Gofa. The proportion of births attended by skilled attendants in the health facilities was 6.6% of expected births, though the variation was large. Districts with a higher proportion of midwives per capita, hospitals and health centres capable of doing emergency caesarean sections had higher institutional delivery rates. There were 521 caesarean sections (0.8% of 64,413 expected deliveries and 12.3% of 4,231 facility deliveries). We recorded 79 (1.9%) maternal deaths out of 4,231 deliveries and pregnancy-related admissions at institutions, most often because of post-partum haemorrhage (42%), obstructed labour (15%) and puerperal sepsis (15%). Remote districts far from the capital of the Zone had a lower proportion of institutional deliveries (<2% of expected births compared to an overall average of 6.6%). Moreover, some remotely located institutions had very high maternal deaths (>4% of deliveries, much higher than the average 1.9%). Based on a population of 1.7 million people, there should be 14 basic and four comprehensive emergency obstetric care (Em

  8. Lifesaving emergency obstetric services are inadequate in south-west Ethiopia: a formidable challenge to reducing maternal mortality in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most maternal deaths take place during labour and within a few weeks after delivery. The availability and utilization of emergency obstetric care facilities is a key factor in reducing maternal mortality; however, there is limited evidence about how these institutions perform and how many people use emergency obstetric care facilities in rural Ethiopia. We aimed to assess the availability, quality, and utilization of emergency obstetric care services in the Gamo Gofa Zone of south-west Ethiopia. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of three hospitals and 63 health centres in Gamo Gofa. Using a retrospective review, we recorded obstetric services, documents, cards, and registration books of mothers treated and served in the Gamo Gofa Zone health facilities between July 2009 and June 2010. Results There were three basic and two comprehensive emergency obstetric care qualifying facilities for the 1,740,885 people living in Gamo Gofa. The proportion of births attended by skilled attendants in the health facilities was 6.6% of expected births, though the variation was large. Districts with a higher proportion of midwives per capita, hospitals and health centres capable of doing emergency caesarean sections had higher institutional delivery rates. There were 521 caesarean sections (0.8% of 64,413 expected deliveries and 12.3% of 4,231 facility deliveries). We recorded 79 (1.9%) maternal deaths out of 4,231 deliveries and pregnancy-related admissions at institutions, most often because of post-partum haemorrhage (42%), obstructed labour (15%) and puerperal sepsis (15%). Remote districts far from the capital of the Zone had a lower proportion of institutional deliveries (<2% of expected births compared to an overall average of 6.6%). Moreover, some remotely located institutions had very high maternal deaths (>4% of deliveries, much higher than the average 1.9%). Conclusion Based on a population of 1.7 million people, there should be 14 basic and four

  9. Status of emergency obstetric care in a local government area in south-south Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mezie-Okoye, Margaret M; Adeniji, Foluke O; Tobin-West, Charles I; Babatunde, Seye

    2012-09-01

    This study assessed the status of the availability and performance of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in 12 functional public health facilities out of the existing 19 in Gokana Local Government Area of Rivers State in south-south Nigeria, prior to the midwives service scheme (MSS) launch in 2009. No facility qualified as basic EmOC, while one had comprehensive EmOC status. Signal functions that required supply of medical consumables were performed by more facilities than services that required special training, equipment and maintenance. Only two facilities (16.67%) had the minimum requirement of > or =4 midwives for 24-hour EmOC service; while only 2.2% of expected births occurred at the facilities. The poor state of maternal health resources in the study area requires urgent interventions by Local and State Governments for infrastructure upgrade and deployment and training of staff towards attainment of MDG-5. A follow-up evaluation would be required since the commencement of the MSS.

  10. Characteristics and mortality of neonates in an emergency obstetric and neonatal care facility, rural Burundi

    PubMed Central

    Van den Bergh, R.; Ndelema, B.; Bulckaert, D.; Manzi, M.; Lambert, V.; Zachariah, R.; Reid, A. J.; Harries, A. D.

    2013-01-01

    Setting: A Médecins Sans Frontières emergency obstetric and neonatal care facility specialising as a referral centre for three districts for women with complications during pregnancy or delivery in rural Burundi. Objective: To describe the characteristics and in-facility mortality rates of neonates born in 2011. Design: Descriptive study involving a retrospective review of routinely collected facility data. Results: Of 2285 women who delivered, the main complications were prolonged labour 331 (14%), arrested labour 238 (10%), previous uterine intervention 203 (9%), breech 171 (8%) and multiple gestations 150 (7%). There were 175 stillbirths and 2110 live neonates, of whom 515 (24%) were of low birth weight, 963 (46%) were delivered through caesarean section and 267 (13%) required active birth resuscitation. Overall, there were 102 (5%) neonatal deaths. A total of 453 (21%) neonates were admitted to dedicated neonatal special services for sick and low birth weight babies. A high proportion of these neonates were delivered by caesarean section and needed active birth resuscitation. Of 67 (15%) neonatal deaths in special services, 85% were due to conditions linked to low birth weight and birth asphyxia. Conclusion: Among neonates born to women with complications during pregnancy or delivery, in-facility deaths due to low birth weight and birth asphyxia were considerable. Sustained attention is needed to reduce these mortality rates. PMID:26393046

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging - A troubleshooter in obstetric emergencies: A pictorial review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rohini; Bajaj, Sunil Kumar; Kumar, Nishith; Chandra, Ranjan; Misra, Ritu Nair; Malik, Amita; Thukral, Brij Bhushan

    2016-01-01

    The application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in pregnancy faced initial skepticism of physicians because of fetal safety concerns. The perceived fetal risk has been found to be unwarranted and of late, the modality has attained acceptability. Its role in diagnosing fetal anomalies is well recognized and following its safety certification in pregnancy, it is finding increasing utilization during pregnancy and puerperium. However, the use of MRI in maternal emergency obstetric conditions is relatively limited as it is still evolving. In early gestation, ectopic implantation is one of the major life-threatening conditions that are frequently encountered. Although ultrasound (USG) is the accepted mainstay modality, the diagnostic predicament persists in many cases. MRI has a role where USG is indeterminate, particularly in the extratubal ectopic pregnancy. Later in gestation, MRI can be a useful adjunct in placental disorders like previa, abruption, and adhesion. It is a good problem-solving tool in adnexal masses such as ovarian torsion and degenerated fibroid, which have a higher incidence during pregnancy. Catastrophic conditions like uterine rupture can also be preoperatively and timely diagnosed. MRI has a definite role to play in postpartum and post-abortion life-threatening conditions, e.g., retained products of conception, and gestational trophoblastic disease, especially when USG is inconclusive or inadequate.

  12. What is the impact of multi-professional emergency obstetric and neonatal care training?

    PubMed

    Bergh, Anne-Marie; Baloyi, Shisana; Pattinson, Robert C

    2015-11-01

    This paper reviews evidence regarding change in health-care provider behaviour and maternal and neonatal outcomes as a result of emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC) training. A refined version of the Kirkpatrick classification for programme evaluation was used to focus on change in efficiency and impact of training (levels 3 and 4). Twenty-three studies were reviewed - five randomised controlled trials, two quasi-experimental studies and 16 before-and-after observational studies. Training programmes had all been developed in high-income countries and adapted for use in low- and middle-income countries. Nine studies reported on behaviour change and 13 on process and patient outcomes. Most showed positive results. Every maternity unit should provide EmONC teamwork training, mandatory for all health-care providers. The challenges are as follows: scaling up such training to all institutions, sustaining regular in-service training, integrating training into institutional and health-system patient safety initiatives and 'thinking out of the box' in evaluation research.

  13. Strengthening emergency obstetric care in Thanh Hoa and Quang Tri provinces in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Otchere, S A; Binh, H T

    2007-11-01

    Save the Children/USA and the Ministry of Health of Vietnam undertook a project between 2001 and 2004 to improve the availability of, access to, quality and utilization of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services at district and provincial hospitals in two provinces in Vietnam. The project improved the functional capacity of 3 provincial and 1 district hospitals providing comprehensive EmOC services, and upgraded 1 district hospital providing basic EmOC into a comprehensive EmOC facility through training, infrastructure and quality improvement. Data presented in this paper focus on only the 2 district hospitals even though the UN process indicators showed increases in utilization of EmOC in all 5 hospitals. In the case of Hai Lang, the proportion of births increased from 13% at baseline to 31% at the end of 2004, and met need increased significantly from 16% to 87% largely due to increased capacity of the hospital and staff. Met need in Hoang Hoa hospital more than doubled (17% at baseline versus 54% in 2004) and the proportion of births increased slightly from 19% in 2001 to 22% in 2004. Case fatality rates for the two hospitals remarkably remained at zero. Lessons from this project have been incorporated into national policy and guidelines. Improvements in the capacity of existing health facilities to treat complications in pregnancy and childbirth can be realized in a relatively short period of time and is an essential element in reducing maternal mortality.

  14. Emergency obstetric care availability, accessibility and utilization in eight districts in Pakistan's North West Frontier Province.

    PubMed

    Ali, Moazzam; Ayaz, Mohammad; Rizwan, Humayun; Hashim, Saima; Kuroiwa, Chushi

    2006-01-01

    Reducing maternal mortality is a critical issue in Pakistan. Do public health care centers in Pakistan's North West Frontier Province (NWFP) comply with minimum UN recommendations for availability, use, and quality of basic and comprehensive Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC) as measured by UN process indicators? All public health facilities providing EmOC (n = 50) in 30% of districts in NWFP province (n = 8 districts) sampled randomly in September 2003 were included in a cross-sectional study. Data came from health facility records. Almost all indicators were below minimum recommended UN levels. The number of facilities providing basic EmOC services was much too low to be called providing comprehensive coverage. A low percentage of births took place in hospital and few women with complications reached EmOC facilities. Caesarean section was either underutilized or unavailable. The case fatality rate was low, perhaps due to poor record-keeping. The findings of this first needs assessment in NWFP province can serve as a benchmark for monitoring future progress. In resource-poor countries like Pakistan, it is important to upgrade existing facilities, giving special emphasis to facilities that provide basic EmOC services, since many problems can be resolved at the most basic level. Health policy makers and planners need to take immediate, appropriate rectifying measures to, inter alia, improve staffing in rural areas, enhance staff skills through training, upgrade management and supervision, ensure medical supply availability, mandate proper record-keeping, and observe progress by monitoring process indicators regularly.

  15. Can mHealth improve access to safe blood for transfusion during obstetric emergency?

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Aminur; Akhter, Sadika; Nisha, Monjura Khatun; Islam, Syed Shariful; Ashraf, Fatema; Rahman, Monjur; Begum, Nazneen; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Austin, Anne; Anwar, Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Of the 99% maternal deaths that take place in developing countries, one-fourth is due to postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). PPH accounts for one-third of all blood transfusions in Bangladesh where the transfusion process is lengthy as most facilities do not have in-house blood bank facilities. In this context, the location where blood is obtained and the processes of obtaining blood products are not standardized, leading to preventable delays in collecting blood, when it is needed. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an online Blood Information Management Application (BIMA) system for reducing lag time in the blood transfusion process. Patients and methods The study was conducted in a public medical college hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and in two proximate, licensed blood banks between January 2014 and March 2015, using a before after design. A total of 310 women (143 before and 177 after), who needed emergency blood transfusion during their perinatal period, as determined by a medical professional, were included in the study. A median linear regression model was employed to assess the adjusted effect of BIMA on transfusion time. Results After the introduction of BIMA, the median duration between the identified need for blood and blood transfusion reduced from 152 to 122 minutes (P<0.05). For PPH specifically, the reduction was from 175 to 113 minutes (P<0.05). After introducing BIMA and after adjusting for criteria such as maternal age, education, parity, duty roster of providers, and reasons for blood transfusion, a 24 minute reduction in the time was observed between the identified need for blood and transfusion (P<0.001). Conclusion BIMA was effective in reducing delays in blood transfusion for emergency obstetric patients. This pilot study suggests that implementing BIMA is one mechanism that has the potential to streamline blood transfusion systems in Bangladesh. PMID:28461767

  16. Modification of Obstetric Emergency Simulation Scenarios for Realism in a Home-Birth Setting.

    PubMed

    Komorowski, Janelle; Andrighetti, Tia; Benton, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Clinical competency and clear communication are essential for intrapartum care providers who encounter high-stakes, low-frequency emergencies. The challenge for these providers is to maintain infrequently used skills. The challenge is even more significant for midwives who manage births at home and who, due to low practice volume and low-risk clientele, may rarely encounter an emergency. In addition, access to team simulation may be limited for home-birth midwives. This project modified existing validated obstetric simulation scenarios for a home-birth setting. Twelve certified professional midwives (CPMs) in active home-birth practice participated in shoulder dystocia and postpartum hemorrhage simulations. The simulations were staged to resemble home-birth settings, supplies, and personnel. Fidelity (realism) of the simulations was assessed with the Simulation Design Scale, and satisfaction and self-confidence were assessed with the Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning Scale. Both utilized a 5-point Likert scale, with higher scores suggesting greater levels of fidelity, participant satisfaction, and self-confidence. Simulation Design Scale scores indicated participants agreed fidelity was achieved for the home-birth setting, while scores on the Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning indicated high levels of participant satisfaction and self-confidence. If offered without modification, simulation scenarios designed for use in hospitals may lose fidelity for home-birth midwives, particularly in the environmental and psychological components. Simulation is standard of care in most settings, an excellent vehicle for maintaining skills, and some evidence suggests it results in improved perinatal outcomes. Additional study is needed in this area to support home-birth providers in maintaining skills. This pilot study suggests that simulation scenarios intended for hospital use can be successfully adapted to the home-birth setting. © 2016 by

  17. Impact Evaluation of PRONTO Mexico: A Simulation-Based Program in Obstetric and Neonatal Emergencies and Team Training

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Dilys M.; Cohen, Susanna R.; Fritz, Jimena; Olvera-García, Marisela; Zelek, Sarah T.; Fahey, Jenifer O.; Romero-Martínez, Martín; Montoya-Rodríguez, Alejandra; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Most maternal deaths in Mexico occur within health facilities, often attributable to suboptimal care and lack of access to emergency services. Improving obstetric and neonatal emergency care can improve health outcomes. We evaluated the impact of PRONTO, a simulation-based low-cost obstetric and neonatal emergency and team training program on patient outcomes. Methods We conducted a pair-matched hospital-based trial in Mexico from 2010 to 2013 with 24 public hospitals. Obstetric and neonatal care providers participated in PRONTO trainings at intervention hospitals. Control hospitals received no intervention. Outcome measures included hospital-based neonatal mortality, maternal complications, and cesarean delivery. We fitted mixed-effects negative binomial regression models to estimate incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals using a difference-in-differences approach, cumulatively, and at follow-up intervals measured at 4, 8, and 12 months. Results There was a significant estimated impact of PRONTO on the incidence of cesarean sections in intervention hospitals relative to controls adjusting for baseline differences during all 12 months cumulative of follow-up (21% decrease, P = 0.005) and in intervals measured at 4 (16% decrease, P = 0.02), 8 (20% decrease, P = 0.004), and 12 months’ (20% decrease, P = 0.003) follow-up. We found no statistically significant impact of the intervention on the incidence of maternal complications. A significant impact of a 40% reduction in neonatal mortality adjusting for baseline differences was apparent at 8 months postintervention but not at 4 or 12 months. Conclusions PRONTO reduced the incidence of cesarean delivery and may improve neonatal mortality, although the effect on the latter might not be sustainable. Further study is warranted to confirm whether obstetric and neonatal emergency simulation and team training can have lasting results on patient outcomes. PMID:26312613

  18. Reducing maternal mortality: better monitoring, indicators and benchmarks needed to improve emergency obstetric care. Research summary for policymakers.

    PubMed

    Collender, Guy; Gabrysch, Sabine; Campbell, Oona M R

    2012-06-01

    Several limitations of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) indicators and benchmarks are analysed in this short paper, which synthesises recent research on this topic. A comparison between Sri Lanka and Zambia is used to highlight the inconsistencies and shortcomings in current methods of monitoring EmOC. Recommendations are made to improve the usefulness and accuracy of EmOC indicators and benchmarks in the future.

  19. Alternative measures of spatial distribution and availability of health facilities for the delivery of emergency obstetric services in island communities.

    PubMed

    Oyerinde, Koyejo; Baravilala, Wame

    2014-12-01

    International guidelines and recommendations for availability and spatial distribution of emergency obstetric care services do not adequately address the challenges of providing emergency health services in island communities. The isolation and small population sizes that are typical of islands and remote populations limit the applicability of international guidelines in such communities. Universal access to emergency obstetric care services, when pregnant women encounter complications, is one of the three key strategies for reducing maternal and newborn mortality; the other two being family planning and skilled care during labor. The performance of selected lifesaving clinical interventions (signal functions) over a 3-month period is commonly used to assess and assign performance categories to health facilities but island communities might not have a large enough population to generate demand for all the signal functions over a 3-month period. Similarly, availability and spatial distribution recommendations are typically based on the size of catchment populations, but the populations of island communities tend to be sparsely distributed. With illustrations from six South Pacific Island states, we argue that the recommendation for availability of health facilities, that there should be at least five emergency obstetric care facilities (including at least one comprehensive facility) for every 500,000 population, and the recommendation for equitable distribution of health facilities, that all subnational areas meet the availability recommendation, can be substituted with a focus on access to blood transfusion and obstetric surgical care within 2 hours for all pregnant residents of islands. Island communities could replace the performance of signal functions over a 3-month period with a demonstrated capacity to perform signal functions if the need arises.

  20. Impact Evaluation of PRONTO Mexico: A Simulation-Based Program in Obstetric and Neonatal Emergencies and Team Training.

    PubMed

    Walker, Dilys M; Cohen, Susanna R; Fritz, Jimena; Olvera-García, Marisela; Zelek, Sarah T; Fahey, Jenifer O; Romero-Martínez, Martín; Montoya-Rodríguez, Alejandra; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor

    2016-02-01

    Most maternal deaths in Mexico occur within health facilities, often attributable to suboptimal care and lack of access to emergency services. Improving obstetric and neonatal emergency care can improve health outcomes. We evaluated the impact of PRONTO, a simulation-based low-cost obstetric and neonatal emergency and team training program on patient outcomes. We conducted a pair-matched hospital-based trial in Mexico from 2010 to 2013 with 24 public hospitals. Obstetric and neonatal care providers participated in PRONTO trainings at intervention hospitals. Control hospitals received no intervention. Outcome measures included hospital-based neonatal mortality, maternal complications, and cesarean delivery. We fitted mixed-effects negative binomial regression models to estimate incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals using a difference-in-differences approach, cumulatively, and at follow-up intervals measured at 4, 8, and 12 months. There was a significant estimated impact of PRONTO on the incidence of cesarean sections in intervention hospitals relative to controls adjusting for baseline differences during all 12 months cumulative of follow-up (21% decrease, P = 0.005) and in intervals measured at 4 (16% decrease, P = 0.02), 8 (20% decrease, P = 0.004), and 12 months' (20% decrease, P = 0.003) follow-up. We found no statistically significant impact of the intervention on the incidence of maternal complications. A significant impact of a 40% reduction in neonatal mortality adjusting for baseline differences was apparent at 8 months postintervention but not at 4 or 12 months. PRONTO reduced the incidence of cesarean delivery and may improve neonatal mortality, although the effect on the latter might not be sustainable. Further study is warranted to confirm whether obstetric and neonatal emergency simulation and team training can have lasting results on patient outcomes.

  1. Effect of audit and feedback on the availability, utilisation and quality of emergency obstetric care in three districts in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kongnyuy, E J; Leigh, B; van den Broek, N

    2008-12-01

    Facility-based maternal death reviews and criterion-based clinical audit, were introduced in three districts in Malawi in 2006. Can audit and feedback improve the availability, utilisation and quality of emergency obstetric care (EmOC)? Observational study in which emergency obstetric care offered to women who gave birth in 73 health facilities (13 hospitals and 60 health centres) in three districts in Malawi in 2005 (baseline, 41,637 women) was compared to 2006 (43,729 women) and 2007 (51,085 women). The number of comprehensive and basic EmOC facilities did not change over the 3-year period (p for trend=1.000). Although institutional delivery rate decreased in 2006, overall it increased over 3 years (p for trend<0.001) - 31.8% (2005), 31.1% (2006) and 34.7% (2007), and Caesarean section rate was low and did not change (p for trend=0.257) - 1.7% (2005), 1.6% (2006) and 1.5% (2007). There was a significant increase in the met need for EmOC (p for trend<0.001) - 15.2% for 2005, 17.0% for 2006 and 18.8% for 2007. Maternal mortality decreased significantly from 250 per 100,000 women in 2005 to 222 in 2006 and 182 in 2007 (p for trend<0.001). Similarly, the case fatality rate decreased monotonically (p for trend<0.001) - 3.7% (2005), 3.0% (2006) and 1.5% (2007). Audit and feedback can improve availability, utilisation and quality of emergency obstetric care in countries with limited resources. There is need to increase availability of emergency obstetric care by upgrading some health centres to EmOC level through training of staff and provision of equipment and supplies.

  2. An examination of women experiencing obstetric complications requiring emergency care: perceptions and sociocultural consequences of caesarean sections in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, Rasheda; Blum, Lauren S; Sultana, Marzia; Bilkis, Sayeda; Koblinsky, Marge

    2012-06-01

    Little is known about the physical and socioeconomic postpartum consequences of women who experience obstetric complications and require emergency obstetric care (EmOC), particularly in resource-poor countries such as Bangladesh where historically there has been a strong cultural preference for births at home. Recent increases in the use of skilled birth attendants show socioeconomic disparities in access to emergency obstetric services, highlighting the need to examine birthing preparation and perceptions of EmOC, including caesarean sections. Twenty women who delivered at a hospital and were identified by physicians as having severe obstetric complications during delivery or immediately thereafter were selected to participate in this qualitative study. Purposive sampling was used for selecting the women. The study was carried out in Matlab, Bangladesh, during March 2008-August 2009. Data-collection methods included in-depth interviews with women and, whenever possible, their family members. The results showed that the women were poorly informed before delivery about pregnancy-related complications and medical indications for emergency care. Barriers to care-seeking at emergency obstetric facilities and acceptance of lifesaving care were related to apprehensions about the physical consequences and social stigma, resulting from hospital procedures and financial concerns. The respondents held many misconceptions about caesarean sections and distrust regarding the reason for recommending the procedure by the healthcare providers. Women who had caesarean sections incurred high costs that led to economic burdens on family members, and the blame was attributed to the woman. The postpartum health consequences reported by the women were generally left untreated. The data underscore the importance of educating women and their families about pregnancy-related complications and preparing families for the possibility of caesarean section. At the same time, the health systems

  3. An Examination of Women Experiencing Obstetric Complications Requiring Emergency Care: Perceptions and Sociocultural Consequences of Caesarean Sections in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Rasheda; Sultana, Marzia; Bilkis, Sayeda; Koblinsky, Marge

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the physical and socioeconomic postpartum consequences of women who experience obstetric complications and require emergency obstetric care (EmOC), particularly in resource-poor countries such as Bangladesh where historically there has been a strong cultural preference for births at home. Recent increases in the use of skilled birth attendants show socioeconomic disparities in access to emergency obstetric services, highlighting the need to examine birthing preparation and perceptions of EmOC, including caesarean sections. Twenty women who delivered at a hospital and were identified by physicians as having severe obstetric complications during delivery or immediately thereafter were selected to participate in this qualitative study. Purposive sampling was used for selecting the women. The study was carried out in Matlab, Bangladesh, during March 2008–August 2009. Data-collection methods included in-depth interviews with women and, whenever possible, their family members. The results showed that the women were poorly informed before delivery about pregnancy-related complications and medical indications for emergency care. Barriers to care-seeking at emergency obstetric facilities and acceptance of lifesaving care were related to apprehensions about the physical consequences and social stigma, resulting from hospital procedures and financial concerns. The respondents held many misconceptions about caesarean sections and distrust regarding the reason for recommending the procedure by the healthcare providers. Women who had caesarean sections incurred high costs that led to economic burdens on family members, and the blame was attributed to the woman. The postpartum health consequences reported by the women were generally left untreated. The data underscore the importance of educating women and their families about pregnancy-related complications and preparing families for the possibility of caesarean section. At the same time, the health

  4. Referrals between Public Sector Health Institutions for Women with Obstetric High Risk, Complications, or Emergencies in India - A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Samiksha; Doyle, Pat; Campbell, Oona M; Mathew, Manu; Murthy, G V S

    2016-01-01

    Emergency obstetric care (EmOC) within primary health care systems requires a linked referral system to be effective in reducing maternal death. This systematic review aimed to summarize evidence on the proportion of referrals between institutions during pregnancy and delivery, and the factors affecting referrals, in India. We searched 6 electronic databases, reviewed four regional databases and repositories, and relevant program reports from India published between 1994 and 2013. All types of study or reports (except editorials, comments and letters) which reported on institution-referrals (out-referral or in-referral) for obstetric care were included. Results were synthesized on the proportion and the reasons for referral, and factors affecting referrals. Of the 11,346 articles identified by the search, we included 232 articles in the full text review and extracted data from 16 studies that met our inclusion criteria Of the 16, one was RCT, seven intervention cohort (without controls), six cross-sectional, and three qualitative studies. Bias and quality of studies were reported. Between 25% and 52% of all pregnancies were referred from Sub-centres for antenatal high-risk, 14% to 36% from nurse run delivery or basic EmOC centres for complications or emergencies, and 2 to 7% were referred from doctor run basic EmOC centres for specialist care at comprehensive EmOC centres. Problems identified with referrals from peripheral health centres included low skills and confidence of staff, reluctance to induce labour, confusion over the clinical criteria for referral, non-uniform standards of care at referral institutions, a tendency to by-pass middle level institutions, a lack of referral communication and supervision, and poor compliance. The high proportion of referrals from peripheral health centers reflects the lack of appropriate clinical guidelines, processes, and skills for obstetric care and referral in India. This, combined with inadequate referral communication

  5. Obstetric Transport.

    PubMed

    Scott, Julie

    2016-12-01

    Obstetric transport is a specialized medical transport for maternal, fetal, and neonatal concerns. Perinatal regionalization of care provides a broader geographic availability of obstetric services with defined levels of maternal and neonatal care so that women can be transported to centers with increased resources and capabilities to reduce morbidity and mortality. The Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act provides regulatory guidance for care of laboring women who require transfer to a higher level of care. The Situation, Background, Assessment, and Recommendation communication can identify key pieces of medical information with recommendations given for mutual expectations of next steps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Coverage of emergency obstetric care and availability of services in public and private health facilities in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Alam, Badrul; Mridha, Malay K; Biswas, Taposh K; Roy, Lumbini; Rahman, Maksudur; Chowdhury, Mahbub E

    2015-10-01

    To assess the coverage of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) and the availability of obstetric services in Bangladesh. In a national health facility assessment performed between November 2007 and July 2008, all public EmOC facilities and private facilities providing obstetric services in the 64 districts of Bangladesh were mapped. The performance of EmOC services in these facilities during the preceding month was investigated using a semi-structured questionnaire completed through interviews of managers and service providers, and record review. In total, 8.6 (2.1 public and 6.5 private) facilities per 500000 population offered obstetric care services. Population coverage by obstetric care facilities varied by region. Among 281 public facilities designated for comprehensive EmOC, cesarean delivery was available in only 215 (76.5%) and blood transfusion services in 198 (70.5%). In the private sector (for profit and not for profit), these services were available in more than 80% of facilities. In all facility types, performance of assisted vaginal delivery (range 12.2%-48.4%) and use of parenteral anticonvulsants to treat pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (range 48.6%-80.8%) were low. The main reason for non-availability of EmOC services was a lack of specialist/trained providers. Bangladesh needs to increase the availability of EmOC services through innovative public-private partnerships. In the public sector, additional trained manpower supported by an incentivized package should be deployed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Distance to emergency obstetric services and early neonatal mortality in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Britt; Harper, Sam; Kaufman, Jay S; Abdullah, Muna

    2014-07-01

    To assess the effect of distance to emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmONC) services on early neonatal mortality in rural Ethiopia and examine whether proximity to services contributes to socio-economic inequalities in early neonatal mortality. We linked data from the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey with facility data from the 2008 Ethiopian National EmONC Needs Assessment based on geographical coordinates collected in both surveys. Health facilities were classified based on the performance of nine EmONC signal functions (e.g. neonatal resuscitation, Caesarean section). We used multivariable logistic regression to assess the relationship between distance to services and early neonatal mortality. A decomposition approach was used to quantify the relative contributions of distance to EmONC services and other determinants to overall and socio-economic inequality in early neonatal mortality. In general, closer proximity to EmONC services and higher level of care were associated with lower early neonatal mortality. Living more than 80 km from the nearest comprehensive EmONC facility able to perform all nine signal functions compared to living within 10 km was associated with an increase of 14.4 early neonatal deaths per 1000 live births (95% CI: 0.1, 28.7). Closer proximity to a substandard EmONC facility compared with no facility was not associated with lower early neonatal mortality. Distance to EmONC services was an important determinant of early neonatal mortality, although it did not make a significant contribution to explaining socio-economic inequality. Our results suggest that recent initiatives by the Ethiopian government to improve geographical access to EmONC services have the potential to reduce early neonatal mortality but may not affect inequalities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The global met need for emergency obstetric care: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Holmer, H; Oyerinde, K; Meara, J G; Gillies, R; Liljestrand, J; Hagander, L

    2015-01-01

    Of the 287,000 maternal deaths every year, 99% happen in low- and middle-income countries. The vast majority could be averted with timely access to appropriate emergency obstetric care (EmOC). The proportion of women with complications of pregnancy or childbirth who actually receive treatment is reported as 'Met need for EmOC'. To estimate the global met need for EmOC and to examine the correlation between met need, maternal mortality ratio and other indicators. A systematic review was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. Searches were made in PubMed, EMBASE and Google Scholar. Studies containing data on met need in EmOC were selected. Analysis was performed with data extracted from 62 studies representing 51 countries. World Bank data were used for univariate and multiple linear regression. Global met need for EmOC was 45% (IQR: 28-57%), with significant disparity between low- (21% [12-31%]), middle- (32% [15-56%]), and high-income countries (99% [99-99%]), (P = 0.041). This corresponds to 11.4 million (8.8-14.8) untreated complications yearly and 951 million (645-1174 million) women without access to EmOC. We found an inverse correlation between met need and maternal mortality ratio (r = -0.42, P < 0.001). Met need was significantly correlated with the proportion of births attended by skilled birth attendants (β = 0.53 [95% CI 0.41-0.65], P < 0.001). The results suggest a considerable inadequacy in global met need for EmOC, with vast disparities between countries of different income levels. Met need is a powerful indicator of the response to maternal mortality and strategies to improve EmOC act in synergy with the expansion of skilled birth attendance. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  9. Health issues and the environment--an emerging paradigm for providers of obstetrical and gynaecological health care.

    PubMed

    Genuis, Stephen J

    2006-09-01

    Although ongoing study is required to winnow environmental ideology from scientific fact, existing evidence from recent research demonstrates a definitive link between chemical toxicants and potential health sequelae, including congenital affliction and gynaecological disorders. Amid media clamour of health risk and biological peril associated with various environmental toxicants, a spectrum of responses has emerged: some have embraced the environmental cause, some have summarily dismissed it as piffle and perhaps the majority has remained disinterested. Although journals devoted to toxicological and environmental health concerns have become prominent in academia with voluminous numbers of scientific reports being published, there has been limited exploration of the relationship between contemporary chemical exposure and reproductive medical issues in mainstream obstetrics and gynaecology literature. Providers of obstetrical and gynaecological health care need to acquire knowledge of taking an exposure history, instruction in details of precautionary avoidance, skills to provide preconception care and necessary tools to investigate and manage patients with toxicant exposure.

  10. Evidence Basis for Hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Jenifer N; Trabuco, Emanuel C

    2016-09-01

    Although vaginal hysterectomy has long been championed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists as the preferred mode of uterine removal, nationwide vaginal hysterectomy utilization has steadily declined. This article reviews the evidence comparing vaginal with other modes of hysterectomy and highlights areas of ongoing controversy regarding contraindications to vaginal surgery, risk of subsequent prolapse development, and impacts of changing hysterectomy trends on resident education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk Factors for Pelvic Floor Repair After Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Blandon, Roberta E.; Bharucha, Adil E.; Melton, L. Joseph; Schleck, Cathy D.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Gebhart, John B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Having demonstrated that prior history of prolapse was a risk factor for pelvic floor repair procedures after hysterectomy, the objective of this study was to assess medical risk factors for pelvic floor repair after hysterectomy. Methods Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project database of 8,220 Olmsted County, Minnesota women who had hysterectomy for benign indications in 1965-2002, we conducted a nested case-control study in 144 pairs, comparing women who underwent pelvic floor repair after hysterectomy (cases) to controls matched for known risk factors (ie, age, pelvic floor disorders at baseline, year and type of hysterectomy, and pelvic floor repair during hysterectomy). Results The median duration between hysterectomy and pelvic floor repair was 13 years. Chronic pulmonary disease (odds ratio [OR] 14.3; 95% CI 1.2 to 178) but not obstetric history, obesity, indication for hysterectomy, or chronic constipation was associated with an increased risk of pelvic floor repair after hysterectomy. Between the hysterectomy and subsequent pelvic floor repair, overall pelvic organ prolapse severity changed by 1 grade or less in 54 cases (38%, Group A) but increased by 2 or more grades in 72 cases (50%, Group B). In Group A, but not Group B, uterine prolapse (OR 25; 95% CI 2.1 to 300) and chronic pulmonary disease (OR 22; 95% CI 1.5 to 328) at baseline remained risk factors for pelvic floor repair after hysterectomy. Conclusion In this matched case-control study, chronic pulmonary disease was the only risk factor for pelvic floor repair after hysterectomy for benign indications, underscoring the need to address pulmonary status prior to surgery. PMID:19300323

  12. Complications of hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Clarke-Pearson, Daniel L; Geller, Elizabeth J

    2013-03-01

    Hysterectomy is the most common gynecologic procedure performed in the United States, with more than 600,000 procedures performed each year. Complications of hysterectomy vary based on route of surgery and surgical technique. The objective of this article is to review risk factors associated with specific types of complications associated with benign hysterectomy, methods to prevent and recognize complications, and appropriate management of complications. The most common complications of hysterectomy can be categorized as infectious, venous thromboembolic, genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) tract injury, bleeding, nerve injury, and vaginal cuff dehiscence. Infectious complications after hysterectomy are most common, ranging from 10.5% for abdominal hysterectomy to 13.0% for vaginal hysterectomy and 9.0% for laparoscopic hysterectomy. Venous thromboembolism is less common, ranging from a clinical diagnosis rate of 1% to events detected by more sensitive laboratory methods of up to 12%. Injury to the GU tract is estimated to occur at a rate of 1-2% for all major gynecologic surgeries, with 75% of these injuries occurring during hysterectomy. Injury to the GI tract after hysterectomy is less common, with a range of 0.1-1%. Bleeding complications after hysterectomy also are rare, with a median range of estimated blood loss of 238-660.5 mL for abdominal hysterectomy, 156-568 mL for laparoscopic hysterectomy, and 215-287 mL for vaginal hysterectomy, with transfusion only being more likely after laparoscopic compared to vaginal hysterectomy (odds ratio 2.07, confidence interval 1.12-3.81). Neuropathy after hysterectomy is a rare but significant event, with a rate of 0.2-2% after major pelvic surgery. Vaginal cuff dehiscence is estimated at a rate of 0.39%, and it is more common after total laparoscopic hysterectomy (1.35%) compared with laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy (0.28%), total abdominal hysterectomy (0.15%), and total vaginal hysterectomy (0

  13. Revisiting the obstetric flying squad.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, J; Parampalam, S D

    2000-06-01

    The obstetric flying squad has been used in obstetric practice since 1933 to manage obstetric emergencies occurring in domicilliary practice. It has often been criticised in such situations as only delaying effective treatment to the patient. We have introduced the obstetric flying squad in an urban setting to cater for obstetric emergencies occurring in private practice. This service has been used on ten occasions since its inception without any maternal deaths being recorded or any delay in the provision of emergency care. The flying squad has led to closer cooperation between the government and private sectors in providing obstetric care.

  14. A cost effective small hospital in Bangladesh: what it can mean for emergency obstetric care.

    PubMed

    McCord, C; Chowdhury, Q

    2003-04-01

    home treatment, or 2 for tetanus immunization of pregnant women. Sixty-two percent of the DALYS saved came from emergency obstetric care (EmOC) related activities. We conclude that cost effective basic hospital service can be added to immunization, family planning and other basic health services now available in countries like Bangladesh with a very low increase in total cost and that the benefits which would accrue, particularly for maternal and perinatal mortality, would be great.

  15. Standard basic emergency obstetric and neonatal care training in Addis Ababa; trainees reaction and knowledge acquisition.

    PubMed

    Mirkuzie, Alemnesh H; Sisay, Mitike Molla; Bedane, Mulu Muleta

    2014-09-24

    In 2010, the Federal Ministry of Health of Ethiopia (FMOH) has developed standard Basic Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care (BEmONC) in-service training curricula to respond to the high demand for competency in EmONC. However, the effectiveness of the training curricula has not been well documented. A collaborative intervention project in Addis Ababa has trained providers using the standard BEmONC curricula where this paper presents Krikpartick level 1 and level 2 evaluation of the training. The project has been conducted in 10 randomly selected public health centers (HC) in Addis Ababa. Providers working in the labour wards of the selected HCs have received the standard BEmONC training between May and July 2013. Using standard tools, trainees' reaction to the course and factual knowledge during the immediate post-course and six months after the training were assessed. Descriptive statistics and t-tests were done. Of the total 82 providers who received the training, 30 (36.6%) were male, 61 (74.4%) were midwives. Providers' work experiences ranged from 1 month to 37 years. Seventy-four (89%) providers reported that the training was appropriate for their work, 95% reported that the training have updated their knowledge & skills, while 27 (32.9%) reported that the training facilities & arrangements were unsatisfactory. The mean immediate post-course knowledge score was 83.5% and 33 (40%) providers did not achieve knowledge-based mastery in their first attempt. The midwives were more likely to achieve knowledge-based mastery than the nurses (p < 0.05). The mean knowledge score six-months post-training was 80.2% and 40% have scored knowledge based mastery. Being one of the first papers reporting the implementation of the standard in-service BEmONC training curriculum, we have identified an important limitation on the course evaluations of the curriculum, which need urgent consideration. The majority of the trainees has reported favourable reaction to the training

  16. Cost-effectiveness of simulation-based team training in obstetric emergencies (TOSTI study).

    PubMed

    van de Ven, J; van Baaren, G J; Fransen, A F; van Runnard Heimel, P J; Mol, B W; Oei, S G

    2017-09-01

    Team training is frequently applied in obstetrics. We aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of obstetric multi-professional team training in a medical simulation centre. We performed a model-based cost-effectiveness analysis to evaluate four strategies for obstetric team training from a hospital perspective (no training, training without on-site repetition and training with 6 month or 3-6-9 month repetition). Data were retrieved from the TOSTI study, a randomised controlled trial evaluating team training in a medical simulation centre. We calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), which represent the costs to prevent the adverse outcome, here (1) the composite outcome of obstetric complications and (2) specifically neonatal trauma due to shoulder dystocia. Mean costs of a one-day multi-professional team training in a medical simulation centre were €25,546 to train all personnel of one hospital. A single training in a medical simulation centre was less effective and more costly compared to strategies that included repetition training. Compared to no training, the ICERs to prevent a composite outcome of obstetric complications were €3432 for a single repetition training course on-site six months after the initial training and €5115 for a three monthly repetition training course on-site after the initial training during one year. When we considered neonatal trauma due to shoulder dystocia, a three monthly repetition training course on-site after the initial training had an ICER of €22,878. Multi-professional team training in a medical simulation centre is cost-effective in a scenario where repetition training sessions are performed on-site. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Opinion of women on emergency obstetric care provided in public facilities in Lagos, Nigeria: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kikelomo; Banke-Thomas, Aduragbemi; Sonoiki, Olatunji; Ajayi, Babatunde; Ilozumba, Onaedo; Akinola, Oluwarotimi

    2017-06-01

    Limited attention has been given to opinions of women receiving emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in developing countries. We organized focus groups with 39 women who received this care from Lagos public facilities. Availability of competent personnel and equipment were two positive opinions highlighted. Contrarily, women expressed concerns regarding the seeming unresponsiveness of the service to nonmedical aspects of care, associated stress of service utilization, and high treatment costs. There is a need to leverage the positive perception of women regarding the available technical resources while improving institutional care components like administrative processes, basic amenities, and costs toward increasing utilization and preventing complications.

  18. Maternal mortality and its relationship to emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in a tertiary care hospital in South India

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the trends in maternal mortality ratio over 5 years at JIPMER Hospital and to find out the proportion of maternal deaths in relation to emergency admissions. Methods: A retrospective analysis of maternal deaths from 2008 to 2012 with respect to type of admission, referral and ICU care and cause of death according to WHO classification of maternal deaths. Results: Of the 104 maternal deaths 90% were emergency admissions and 59% of them were referrals. Thirty two percent of them died within 24 hours of admission. Forty four percent could be admitted to ICU and few patients could not get ICU bed. The trend in cause of death was increasing proportion of indirect causes from 2008 to 2012. Conclusion: The trend in MMR was increasing proportion of indirect deaths. Ninety percent of maternal deaths were emergency admissions with complications requiring ICU care. Hence comprehensive EmOC facilities should incorporate Obstetric ICU care. PMID:27512460

  19. Maternal mortality and its relationship to emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in a tertiary care hospital in South India.

    PubMed

    Dasari, Papa

    2015-06-01

    To determine the trends in maternal mortality ratio over 5 years at JIPMER Hospital and to find out the proportion of maternal deaths in relation to emergency admissions. A retrospective analysis of maternal deaths from 2008 to 2012 with respect to type of admission, referral and ICU care and cause of death according to WHO classification of maternal deaths. Of the 104 maternal deaths 90% were emergency admissions and 59% of them were referrals. Thirty two percent of them died within 24 hours of admission. Forty four percent could be admitted to ICU and few patients could not get ICU bed. The trend in cause of death was increasing proportion of indirect causes from 2008 to 2012. The trend in MMR was increasing proportion of indirect deaths. Ninety percent of maternal deaths were emergency admissions with complications requiring ICU care. Hence comprehensive EmOC facilities should incorporate Obstetric ICU care.

  20. Women's perceptions of the quality of emergency obstetric care in a referral hospital in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Stal, Karen Berit; Pallangyo, Pedro; van Elteren, Marianne; van den Akker, Thomas; van Roosmalen, Jos; Nyamtema, Angelo

    2015-07-01

    To assess perceptions of the quality of obstetric care of women who delivered in a rural Tanzanian referral hospital. A descriptive-exploratory qualitative study, using semistructured in-depth interviews and participatory observation. Nineteen recently delivered women and 3 health workers were interviewed. Although most women held positive views about the care they received in hospital, several participants expressed major concerns about negative attitudes of healthcare workers. Lack of medical communication given by care providers constituted a major complaint. A more positive attitude by health workers and the provision of adequate medical information may promote a more positive hospital experience of women in need of obstetric care and enhance attendance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Difficulties leaving home: a cross-sectional study of delays in seeking emergency obstetric care in Herat, Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Atsumi; Borchert, Matthias; Niksear, Homa; Alkozai, Ahmad Shah; Cox, Jonathan; Gardiner, Julian; Osmani, Khadija Ruina; Filippi, Véronique

    2011-10-01

    This study used an analytical cross-sectional design to identify risk factors associated with delays in care-seeking among women admitted in life-threatening conditions to a maternity hospital in Herat, Afghanistan, from February 2007 to January 2008. Disease-specific criteria of 'near-miss' were used to identify women in life-threatening conditions. Among 472 eligible women and their husbands, 411 paired interviews were conducted, and information on socio-demographic factors; the woman's status and social resources; the husband's social networks; health care accessibility and utilisation; care-seeking costs; and community characteristics were obtained. Decision and departure delays were assessed quantitatively from reported timings of symptom recognition, care-seeking decision, and departure for health facilities. Censored normal regression analyses suggest that although determinants of decision delay were influenced by the nature and symptoms of complications, uptake of antenatal care (ANC) and the birth plan reduced decision delay at the time of the obstetric emergency. Access to care and social networks reduced departure delay. Programmatic efforts may be directed towards exploiting the roles of ANC and social resources in facilitating access to emergency obstetric care.

  2. Mobile in situ obstetric emergency simulation and teamwork training to improve maternal-fetal safety in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Guise, Jeanne-Marie; Lowe, Nancy K; Deering, Shad; Lewis, Patricia O; O'Haire, Christen; Irwin, Lori K; Blaser, Molly; Wood, Laurie S; Kanki, Barbara G

    2010-10-01

    Evidence from other high-risk industries has demonstrated that teamwork skills can be taught and effective teamwork may improve safety. Increasingly, health care providers, hospital administrators, and quality and safety professionals are considering simulation as a strategy to improve quality and patient safety. A mobile obstetric emergency simulation and team training program was created to bring simulation technology and teamwork training used routinely in other high reliability fields directly to health care institutions. A mobile unit constituted a practical approach, given the expense of simulation equipment, the time required for staff to develop educational materials and simulation scenarios, and the need to have a standardized program to promote consistent evaluation across sites. Between 2007 and 2009, in situ simulation of obstetric emergencies and teamwork training was tested with more than 150 health care professionals in labor and delivery units across four rural and two community hospitals in Oregon. HOW DO ORGANIZATIONS DETERMINE WHICH TYPE OF SIMULATION IS BEST FOR THEM? Because simulation technologies are relatively costly to start and maintain, it can be challenging for hospitals and health care professionals to determine which format (send staff to a simulation center, develop in-house simulation program, develop a consortium of hospitals that run a simulation program, or use a mobile simulation program) is best for them. In situ simulation is an effective way to develop new skills, to maintain infrequently used clinical skills even among experienced clinical teams, and to uncover and address latent safety threats in the clinical setting.

  3. Getting women to hospital is not enough: a qualitative study of access to emergency obstetric care in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Pitchforth, E; van Teijlingen, E; Graham, W; Dixon-Woods, M; Chowdhury, M

    2006-06-01

    To explore what happened to poor women in Bangladesh once they reached a hospital providing comprehensive emergency obstetric care (EmOC) and to identify support mechanisms. Mixed methods qualitative study. Large government medical college hospital in Bangladesh. Providers and users of EmOC. Ethnographic observation in obstetrics unit including interviews with staff and women using the unit and their carers. Women had to mobilise significant financial and social resources to fund out of pocket expenses. Poorer women faced greater challenges in receiving treatment as relatives were less able to raise the necessary cash. The official financial support mechanism was bureaucratic and largely unsuitable in emergency situations. Doctors operated a less formal "poor fund" system to help the poorest women. There was no formal assessment of poverty; rather, doctors made "adjudications" of women's need for support based on severity of condition and presence of friends and relatives. Limited resources led to a "wait and see" policy that meant women's condition could deteriorate before help was provided. Greater consideration must be given to what happens at health facilities to ensure that (1) using EmOC does not further impoverish families; and (2) the ability to pay does not influence treatment. Developing alternative finance mechanisms to reduce the burden of out of pocket expenses is crucial but challenging. Increased investment in EmOC must be accompanied by an increased focus on equity.

  4. Getting women to hospital is not enough: a qualitative study of access to emergency obstetric care in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Pitchforth, E; van Teijlingen, E; Graham, W; Dixon‐Woods, M; Chowdhury, M

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore what happened to poor women in Bangladesh once they reached a hospital providing comprehensive emergency obstetric care (EmOC) and to identify support mechanisms. Design Mixed methods qualitative study. Setting Large government medical college hospital in Bangladesh. Sample Providers and users of EmOC. Methods Ethnographic observation in obstetrics unit including interviews with staff and women using the unit and their carers. Results Women had to mobilise significant financial and social resources to fund out of pocket expenses. Poorer women faced greater challenges in receiving treatment as relatives were less able to raise the necessary cash. The official financial support mechanism was bureaucratic and largely unsuitable in emergency situations. Doctors operated a less formal “poor fund” system to help the poorest women. There was no formal assessment of poverty; rather, doctors made “adjudications” of women's need for support based on severity of condition and presence of friends and relatives. Limited resources led to a “wait and see” policy that meant women's condition could deteriorate before help was provided. Conclusions Greater consideration must be given to what happens at health facilities to ensure that (1) using EmOC does not further impoverish families; and (2) the ability to pay does not influence treatment. Developing alternative finance mechanisms to reduce the burden of out of pocket expenses is crucial but challenging. Increased investment in EmOC must be accompanied by an increased focus on equity. PMID:16751473

  5. Barriers to providing quality emergency obstetric care in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Healthcare providers' perspectives on training, referrals and supervision, a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Austin, Anne; Gulema, Hanna; Belizan, Maria; Colaci, Daniela S; Kendall, Tamil; Tebeka, Mahlet; Hailemariam, Mengistu; Bekele, Delayehu; Tadesse, Lia; Berhane, Yemane; Langer, Ana

    2015-03-29

    Increasing women's access to and use of facilities for childbirth is a critical national strategy to improve maternal health outcomes in Ethiopia; however coverage alone is not enough as the quality of emergency obstetric services affects maternal mortality and morbidity. Addis Ababa has a much higher proportion of facility-based births (82%) than the national average (11%), but timely provision of quality emergency obstetric care remains a significant challenge for reducing maternal mortality and improving maternal health. The purpose of this study was to assess barriers to the provision of emergency obstetric care in Addis Ababa from the perspective of healthcare providers by analyzing three factors: implementation of national referral guidelines, staff training, and staff supervision. A mixed methods approach was used to assess barriers to quality emergency obstetric care. Qualitative analyses included twenty-nine, semi-structured, key informant interviews with providers from an urban referral network consisting of a hospital and seven health centers. Quantitative survey data were collected from 111 providers, 80% (111/138) of those providing maternal health services in the same referral network. Respondents identified a lack of transportation and communication infrastructure, overcrowding at the referral hospital, insufficient pre-service and in-service training, and absence of supportive supervision as key barriers to provision of quality emergency obstetric care. Dedicated transportation and communication infrastructure, improvements in pre-service and in-service training, and supportive supervision are needed to maximize the effective use of existing human resources and infrastructure, thus increasing access to and the provision of timely, high quality emergency obstetric care in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

  6. Status of Emergency Obstetric Care in Six Developing Countries Five Years before the MDG Targets for Maternal and Newborn Health

    PubMed Central

    Ameh, Charles; Msuya, Sia; Hofman, Jan; Raven, Joanna; Mathai, Matthews; van den Broek, Nynke

    2012-01-01

    Background Ensuring women have access to good quality Emergency Obstetric Care (EOC) is a key strategy to reducing maternal and newborn deaths. Minimum coverage rates are expected to be 1 Comprehensive (CEOC) and 4 Basic EOC (BEOC) facilities per 500,000 population. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional survey of 378 health facilities was conducted in Kenya, Malawi, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Bangladesh and India between 2009 and 2011. This included 160 facilities designated to provide CEOC and 218 designated to provide BEOC. Fewer than 1 in 4 facilities aiming to provide CEOC were able to offer the nine required signal functions of CEOC (23.1%) and only 2.3% of health facilities expected to provide BEOC provided all seven signal functions. The two signal functions least likely to be provided included assisted delivery (17.5%) and manual vacuum aspiration (42.3%). Population indicators were assessed for 31 districts (total population = 15.7 million). The total number of available facilities (283) designated to provide EOC for this population exceeded the number required (158) a ratio of 1.8. However, none of the districts assessed met minimum UN coverage rates for EOC. The population based Caesarean Section rate was estimated to be <2%, the maternal Case Fatality Rate (CFR) for obstetric complications ranged from 2.0–9.3% and still birth (SB) rates ranged from 1.9–6.8%. Conclusions Availability of EOC is well below minimum UN target coverage levels. Health facilities in the surveyed countries do not currently have the capacity to adequately respond to and manage women with obstetric complications. To achieve MDG 5 by 2015, there is a need to ensure that the full range of signal functions are available in health facilities designated to provide CEOC or BEOC and improve the quality of services provided so that CFR and SB rates decline. PMID:23236357

  7. Expected to deliver: alignment of regulation, training, and actual performance of emergency obstetric care providers in Malawi and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lobis, Samantha; Mbaruku, Godfrey; Kamwendo, Francis; McAuliffe, Eilish; Austin, Judy; de Pinho, Helen

    2011-12-01

    Policy, regulation, training, and support for cadres adopting tasks and roles outside their historical domain have lagged behind the practical shift in service-delivery on the ground. The Health Systems Strengthening for Equity (HSSE) project sought to assess the alignment between national policy and regulation, preservice training, district level expectations, and clinical practice of cadres providing some or all components of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in Malawi and Tanzania. A mixed methods approach was used, including key informant interviews, a survey of District Health Management Teams, and a survey of health providers employed at a representative sample of health facilities. A lack of alignment between national policy and regulation, training, and clinical practice was observed in both countries, particularly for cadres with less preservice training; a closer alignment was found between district level expectations and reported clinical practice. There is ineffective use of cadres that are trained and authorized to provide EmOC, but who are not delivering care, especially assisted vaginal delivery. Better alignment between policy and practice, and support and training, and more efficient utilization of clinical staff are needed to achieve the quality health care for which the Malawian and Tanzanian health ministries and governments are accountable. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of a geographic information system to assess accessibility to health facilities providing emergency obstetric and newborn care in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Mahbub E; Biswas, Taposh K; Rahman, Monjur; Pasha, Kamal; Hossain, Mollah A

    2017-08-01

    To use a geographic information system (GIS) to determine accessibility to health facilities for emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmONC) and compare coverage with that stipulated by UN guidelines (5 EmONC facilities per 500 000 individuals, ≥1 comprehensive). A cross-sectional study was undertaken of all public facilities providing EmONC in 24 districts of Bangladesh from March to October 2012. Accessibility to each facility was assessed by applying GIS to estimate the proportion of catchment population (comprehensive 500 000; basic 100 000) able to reach the nearest facility within 2 hours and 1 hour of travel time, respectively, by existing road networks. The minimum number of public facilities providing comprehensive and basic EmONC services (1 and 5 per 500 000 individuals, respectively) was reached in 16 and 3 districts, respectively. However, after applying GIS, in no district did 100% of the catchment population have access to these services. A minimum of 75% and 50% of the population had accessibility to comprehensive services in 11 and 5 districts, respectively. For basic services, accessibility was much lower. Assessing only the number of EmONC facilities does not ensure universal coverage; accessibility should be assessed when planning health systems. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  9. Cost-analysis of robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy versus total abdominal hysterectomy for women with endometrial cancer and atypical complex hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Herling, Suzanne F; Palle, Connie; Møller, Ann M; Thomsen, Thordis; Sørensen, Jan

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the hospital cost of treatment with robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy and total abdominal hysterectomy for women with endometrial cancer or atypical complex hyperplasia and to identify differences in resource use and cost. This cost analysis was based on two cohorts: women treated with robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy (n = 202) or with total abdominal hysterectomy (n = 158) at Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark. We conducted an activity-based cost analysis including consumables and healthcare professionals' salaries. As cost-drivers we included severe complications, duration of surgery, anesthesia and stay at the post-anesthetic care unit, as well as number of hospital bed-days. Ordinary least-squares regression was used to explore the cost variation. The primary outcome was cost difference in Danish kroner between total abdominal hysterectomy and robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy. The average cost of consumables was 12,642 Danish kroner more expensive per patient for robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy than for total abdominal hysterectomy (2014 price level: 1€ = 7.50 Danish kroner). When including all cost-drivers, the analysis showed that the robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy procedure was 9386 Danish kroner (17%) cheaper than the total abdominal hysterectomy (p = 0.003). When the robot investment was included, the cost difference reduced to 4053 Danish kroner (robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy was 7% cheaper than total abdominal hysterectomy) (p = 0.20). Increasing age and Type 2 diabetes appeared to influence the overall costs. For women with endometrial cancer or atypical complex hyperplasia, robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy was cheaper than total abdominal hysterectomy, mostly due to fewer complications and shorter length of hospital stay. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Availability of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) among public and private health facilities in rural northwest Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sikder, Shegufta S; Labrique, Alain B; Ali, Hasmot; Hanif, Abu A M; Klemm, Rolf D W; Mehra, Sucheta; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-31

    Although safe motherhood strategies recommend that women seek timely care from health facilities for obstetric complications, few studies have described facility availability of emergency obstetric care (EmOC). We sought to describe and compare availability and readiness to provide EmOC among public and private health facilities commonly visited for pregnancy-related complications in two districts of northwest Bangladesh. We also described aspects of financial and geographic access to healthcare and key constraints to EmOC provision. Using data from a large population-based community trial, we identified and surveyed the 14 health facilities (7 public, 7 private) most frequently visited for obstetric complications and near misses as reported by women. Availability of EmOC was based on provision of medical services, assessed through clinician interviews and record review. Levels of EmOC availability were defined as basic or comprehensive. Readiness for EmOC provision was based on scores in four categories: staffing, equipment, laboratory capacity, and medicines. Readiness scores were calculated using unweighted averages. Costs of C-section procedures and geographic locations of facilities were described. Textual analysis was used to identify key constraints. The seven surveyed private facilities offered comprehensive EmOC compared to four of the seven public facilities. With 100% representing full readiness, mean EmOC readiness was 81% (range: 63%-91%) among surveyed private facilities compared to 67% (range: 48%-91%) in public facilities (p = 0.040). Surveyed public clinics had low scores on staffing and laboratory capacity (69%; 50%). The mean cost of the C-section procedure in private clinics was $77 (standard deviation: $16) and free in public facilities. The public sub-district facilities were the only facilities located in rural areas, with none providing comprehensive EmOC. Shortages in specialized staff were listed as the main barrier to EmOC provision in

  11. New paradigm old thinking: The case for emergency obstetric care in the prevention of maternal mortality in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ijadunola, Kayode T; Ijadunola, Macellina Y; Esimai, Olapeju A; Abiona, Titilayo C

    2010-02-17

    The continuing burden of maternal mortality, especially in developing countries has prompted a shift in paradigm from the traditional risk assessment approach to the provision of access to emergency obstetric care services for all women who are pregnant. This study assessed the knowledge of maternity unit operatives at the primary and secondary levels of care about the concept of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) and investigated the contents of antenatal care (ANC) counseling services they delivered to clients. It also described the operatives' preferred strategies and practices for promoting safe motherhood and averting maternal mortality in South-west Nigeria. The study population included all the 152 health workers (doctors, midwives, nurses and community health extension workers) employed in the maternity units of all the public health facilities (n = 22) offering maternity care in five cities of 2 states. Data were collected with the aid of a self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire and non-participant observation checklist. Results were presented using descriptive statistics. Ninety one percent of the maternity unit staff had poor knowledge concerning the concept of EmOC, with no difference in knowledge of respondents across age groups. While consistently more than 60% of staff reported the inclusion of specific client-centered messages such as birth preparedness and warning/danger signs of pregnancy and delivery in the (ANC) delivered to clients, structured observations revealed that less than a quarter of staff actually did this. Furthermore, only 40% of staff reported counseling clients on complication readiness, but structured observations revealed that no staff did. Only 9% of staff had ever been trained in lifesaving skills (LSS). Concerning strategies for averting maternal deaths, 70% of respondents still preferred the strengthening of routine ANC services in the health facilities to the provision of access to EmOC services for all pregnant

  12. Availability and distribution of emergency obstetric care services in Karnataka State, South India: access and equity considerations.

    PubMed

    Mony, Prem K; Krishnamurthy, Jayanna; Thomas, Annamma; Sankar, Kiruba; Ramesh, B M; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James; Avery, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    As part of efforts to reduce maternal deaths in Karnataka state, India, there has been a concerted effort to increase institutional deliveries. However, little is known about the quality of care in these healthcare facilities. We investigated the availability and distribution of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services in eight northern districts of Karnataka state in south India. We undertook a cross-sectional study of 444 government and 422 private health facilities, functional 24-hours-a-day 7-days-a-week. EmOC availability and distribution were evaluated for 8 districts and 42 taluks (sub-districts) during the year 2010, based on a combination of self-reporting, record review and direct observation. Overall, the availability of EmOC services at the sub-state level [EmOC = 5.9/500,000; comprehensive EmOC (CEmOC) = 4.5/500,000 and basic EmOC (BEmOC) = 1.4/500,000] was seen to meet the benchmark. These services however were largely located in the private sector (90% of CEmOC and 70% of BemOC facilities). Thirty six percent of private facilities and six percent of government facilities were EmOC centres. Although half of eight districts had a sufficient number of EmOC facilities and all eight districts had a sufficient number of CEmOC facilities, only two-fifths of the 42 taluks had a sufficient number of EmOC facilities. With the private facilities being largely located in select towns only, the 'non-headquarter' taluks and 'backward' taluks suffered from a marked lack of coverage of these services. Spatial mapping further helped identify the clustering of a large number of contiguous taluks without adequate government EmOC facilities in northeastern Karnataka. In conclusion, disaggregating information on emergency obstetric care service availability at district and subdistrict levels is critical for health policy and planning in the Indian setting. Reducing maternal deaths will require greater attention by the government in addressing inequities in

  13. New paradigm old thinking: the case for emergency obstetric care in the prevention of maternal mortality in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The continuing burden of maternal mortality, especially in developing countries has prompted a shift in paradigm from the traditional risk assessment approach to the provision of access to emergency obstetric care services for all women who are pregnant. This study assessed the knowledge of maternity unit operatives at the primary and secondary levels of care about the concept of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) and investigated the contents of antenatal care (ANC) counseling services they delivered to clients. It also described the operatives' preferred strategies and practices for promoting safe motherhood and averting maternal mortality in South-west Nigeria. Methods The study population included all the 152 health workers (doctors, midwives, nurses and community health extension workers) employed in the maternity units of all the public health facilities (n = 22) offering maternity care in five cities of 2 states. Data were collected with the aid of a self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire and non-participant observation checklist. Results were presented using descriptive statistics. Results Ninety one percent of the maternity unit staff had poor knowledge concerning the concept of EmOC, with no difference in knowledge of respondents across age groups. While consistently more than 60% of staff reported the inclusion of specific client-centered messages such as birth preparedness and warning/danger signs of pregnancy and delivery in the (ANC) delivered to clients, structured observations revealed that less than a quarter of staff actually did this. Furthermore, only 40% of staff reported counseling clients on complication readiness, but structured observations revealed that no staff did. Only 9% of staff had ever been trained in lifesaving skills (LSS). Concerning strategies for averting maternal deaths, 70% of respondents still preferred the strengthening of routine ANC services in the health facilities to the provision of access to Em

  14. Availability and Distribution of Emergency Obstetric Care Services in Karnataka State, South India: Access and Equity Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Mony, Prem K.; Krishnamurthy, Jayanna; Thomas, Annamma; Sankar, Kiruba; Ramesh, B. M.; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James; Avery, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Background As part of efforts to reduce maternal deaths in Karnataka state, India, there has been a concerted effort to increase institutional deliveries. However, little is known about the quality of care in these healthcare facilities. We investigated the availability and distribution of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services in eight northern districts of Karnataka state in south India. Methods & Findings We undertook a cross-sectional study of 444 government and 422 private health facilities, functional 24-hours-a-day 7-days-a-week. EmOC availability and distribution were evaluated for 8 districts and 42 taluks (sub-districts) during the year 2010, based on a combination of self-reporting, record review and direct observation. Overall, the availability of EmOC services at the sub-state level [EmOC = 5.9/500,000; comprehensive EmOC (CEmOC) = 4.5/500,000 and basic EmOC (BEmOC) = 1.4/500,000] was seen to meet the benchmark. These services however were largely located in the private sector (90% of CEmOC and 70% of BemOC facilities). Thirty six percent of private facilities and six percent of government facilities were EmOC centres. Although half of eight districts had a sufficient number of EmOC facilities and all eight districts had a sufficient number of CEmOC facilities, only two-fifths of the 42 taluks had a sufficient number of EmOC facilities. With the private facilities being largely located in select towns only, the ‘non-headquarter’ taluks and ‘backward’ taluks suffered from a marked lack of coverage of these services. Spatial mapping further helped identify the clustering of a large number of contiguous taluks without adequate government EmOC facilities in northeastern Karnataka. Conclusions In conclusion, disaggregating information on emergency obstetric care service availability at district and subdistrict levels is critical for health policy and planning in the Indian setting. Reducing maternal deaths will require greater

  15. [Hysterectomy for benign pathology: Guidelines for clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Deffieux, X; de Rochambeau, B; Chêne, G; Gauthier, T; Huet, S; Lamblin, G; Agostini, A; Marcelli, M; Golfier, F

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the study was to provide guidelines for clinical practice from the French college of obstetrics and gynecology (CNGOF), based on the best evidence available, concerning hysterectomy for benign pathology. Each recommendation for practice was allocated a grade which depends on the level of evidence (guidelines for clinical practice method). Hysterectomy should be performed by a high volume surgeon (>10 procedures of hysterectomy per year) (grade C). Rectal enema stimulant laxatives are not recommended prior to hysterectomy (grade C). It is recommended to carry out vaginal disinfection using povidone iodine solution prior to an hysterectomy (grade B). Antibioprophylaxis is recommended during a hysterectomy, regardless of the surgical route (grade B). The vaginal or the laparoscopic routes are recommended for hysterectomy for benign pathology (grade B), even if the uterus is large and/or the patient is obese (grade C). The choice between these two surgical approaches depends on others parameters, such as the surgeon's experience, the mode of anesthesia and organizational constraints (operative duration and medico economic factors). Hysterectomy by vaginal route is not contraindicated in nulliparous women (grade C) or in women with previous c-section (grade C). No specific technique to achieve hemostasis is recommended with a view to avoid urinary tract injuries (grade C). In the absence of ovarian pathology and personal or family history of breast/ovarian carcinoma, it is recommended to conserve ovaries in pre-menopausal women (grade B). Subtotal hysterectomy is not recommended in order to diminish the risk of per- or postoperative complications (grade B). The application of these recommendations should minimize risks associated with hysterectomy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. [The importance of simulation in team training on obstetric emergencies: results of the first phase of the national plan for continuous medical training].

    PubMed

    Maio Matos, Francisco; Sousa Gomes, Andrea; Costa, Fernando Jorge; Santos Silva, Isabel; Carvalhas, Joana

    2012-01-01

    Obstetric emergencies are unexpected and random. The traditional model for medical training of these acute events has included lectures combined with sporadic clinical experiences, but this educational method has inherent limitations. Given the variety of manual skills that must be learned and high-risk environment, Obstetrics is uniquely suited for simulation. New technological educational tools provide an opportunity to learn and master technical skills needed in emergent situations as well as the opportunity to rehearse and learn from mistakes without risks to patients. The goals of this study are to assess which are the factors that trainees associate to human fallibility before and after clinical simulation based training; to compare the confidence level to solve emergent obstetric situations between interns and experts with up to 5 years of experience before and after training, and to determine the value that trainees give to simulation as a teaching tool on emergent events. 31 physicians participated at this course sessions. After the course, we verified changes in the factores that trainees associate to human fallibility, an increase in confidence level to solve emergent obstetric and an increase in the value that trainees give to simulation as a teaching tool.

  17. Hysterectomy types in Estonia are still different from the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Veerus, Piret; Lang, Katrin; Toompere, Karolin; Kirss, Fred

    2015-05-01

    To describe hysterectomy rates in different age groups, indications and proportion of surgery types over time. Nationwide register-based study. Estonia. Women who had hysterectomies for benign indications from 2004 to 2011. For each case, diagnosis according to ICD-10, type of surgery according to Nordic Medico-Statistical Committee, age, and time of operation were retrieved from the Estonian Health Insurance Fund database. Mid-year female population statistics were obtained from Statistics Estonia. Rate of hysterectomies per 100 000 women, proportions of different operation types, and main indications for hysterectomies. The total number of hysterectomies was 12 336, with a yearly mean of 1542. The rate of hysterectomies per 100 000 women/year decreased between 2004 and 2011 from 239.1 to 204.9. The proportion of abdominal hysterectomies decreased from 86.0 to 56.1% and the proportion of laparoscopic hysterectomies increased from 6.3 to 34.7%, while the proportion of vaginal hysterectomies remained more or less stable (7.8-9.1%). Most hysterectomies (74.4%) occurred in the age group 35-54 years. The main indications for hysterectomies were leiomyoma (61.5%), female genital prolapse (9.0%) and endometriosis (8.8%). Population rates and indications for hysterectomies in Estonia were similar to those in most Nordic countries, but the proportion of abdominal hysterectomies was higher and that of vaginal hysterectomy lower. The rates of laparoscopic and vaginal hysterectomies should be increased. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Response times for emergency cesarean delivery: use of simulation drills to assess and improve obstetric team performance.

    PubMed

    Lipman, S S; Carvalho, B; Cohen, S E; Druzin, M L; Daniels, K

    2013-04-01

    We documented time to key milestones and determined reasons for transport-related delays during simulated emergency cesarean. Prospective, observational investigation of delivery of care processes by multidisciplinary teams of obstetric providers on the labor and delivery unit at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford, CA, USA, during 14 simulated uterine rupture scenarios. The primary outcome measure was the total time from recognition of the emergency (time zero) to that of surgical incision. The median (interquartile range) from time zero until incision was 9 min 27 s (8:55 to 10:27 min:s). In this series of emergency cesarean drills, our teams required approximately nine and a half minutes to move from the labor room to the nearby operating room (OR) and make the surgical incision. Multiple barriers to efficient transport were identified. This study demonstrates the utility of simulation to identify and correct institution-specific barriers that delay transport to the OR and initiation of emergency cesarean delivery.

  19. [Validity of the modern fetal monitoring methods in the decision of emergency obstetric operations].

    PubMed

    Issel, E P; Bollmann, R; Prenzlau, P

    1975-01-01

    The validity of the modern methods of fetal monitoring to decide for the indication of urgent obstetric operations. The reliability of the modern supervision of the fetus is studied in cases of doubtful fetal heart action. Up to the present day we have no method for the exact estimation of the degree of a damage to the fetus. In such a precarious situation we should use all available methods for the diagnosis of the fetal condition, because the results of only one of the methods offer insufficient evidence. By means of the literature the alterations in the ECG of the dying fetus are interpreted in comparison to artefacts. In cases of doubtful fetal heart action we recommend in addition to the clinical findings to record the fetal ECG, to controll the actual fetal pH and attempt an investigation by ultrasonic.

  20. An assessment of priority setting process and its implication on availability of emergency obstetric care services in Malindi District, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Nyandieka, Lilian Nyamusi; Kombe, Yeri; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Byskov, Jens; Njeru, Mercy Karimi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In spite of the critical role of Emergency Obstetric Care in treating complications arising from pregnancy and childbirth, very few facilities are equipped in Kenya to offer this service. In Malindi, availability of EmOC services does not meet the UN recommended levels of at least one comprehensive and four basic EmOC facilities per 500,000 populations. This study was conducted to assess priority setting process and its implication on availability, access and use of EmOC services at the district level. Methods A qualitative study was conducted both at health facility and community levels. Triangulation of data sources and methods was employed, where document reviews, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with health personnel, facility committee members, stakeholders who offer and/ or support maternal health services and programmes; and the community members as end users. Data was thematically analysed. Results Limitations in the extent to which priorities in regard to maternal health services can be set at the district level were observed. The priority setting process was greatly restricted by guidelines and limited resources from the national level. Relevant stakeholders including community members are not involved in the priority setting process, thereby denying them the opportunity to contribute in the process. Conclusion The findings illuminate that consideration of all local plans in national planning and budgeting as well as the involvement of all relevant stakeholders in the priority setting exercise is essential in order to achieve a consensus on the provision of emergency obstetric care services among other health service priorities. PMID:26889337

  1. Successes and Challenges of Interprofessional Physiologic Birth and Obstetric Emergency Simulations in a Nurse-Midwifery Education Program.

    PubMed

    Shaw-Battista, Jenna; Belew, Cynthia; Anderson, Deborah; van Schaik, Sandrijn

    2015-01-01

    This article describes childbirth simulation design and implementation within the nurse-midwifery education program at the University of California, San Francisco. Nurse-midwife and obstetrician faculty coordinators were supported by faculty from multiple professions and specialties in curriculum review and simulation development and implementation. The primary goal of the resulting technology-enhanced simulations of normal physiologic birth and obstetric emergencies was to assist learners' development of interprofessional competencies related to communication, teamwork, and patient-centered care. Trainees included nurse-midwifery students; residents in obstetrics, pediatrics, and family medicine; medical students; and advanced practice nursing students in pediatrics. The diversity of participant types and learning levels provided benefits and presented challenges to effective scenario-based simulation design among numerous other theoretical and logistical considerations. This project revealed practical solutions informed by emerging health sciences and education research literature, faculty experience, and formal course evaluations by learners. Best practices in simulation development and implementation were incorporated, including curriculum revision grounded in needs assessment, case- and event-based clinical scenarios, optimization of fidelity, and ample time for participant debriefing. Adequate preparation and attention to detail increased the immersive experience and benefits of simulation. Suggestions for fidelity enhancement are provided with examples of simulation scenarios, a timeline for preparations, and discussion topics to facilitate meaningful learning by maternity and newborn care providers and trainees in clinical and academic settings. Pre- and postsimulation measurements of knowledge, skills, and attitudes are ongoing and not reported. This article is part of a special series of articles that address midwifery innovations in clinical practice

  2. An assessment of priority setting process and its implication on availability of emergency obstetric care services in Malindi District, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Nyandieka, Lilian Nyamusi; Kombe, Yeri; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Byskov, Jens; Njeru, Mercy Karimi

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the critical role of Emergency Obstetric Care in treating complications arising from pregnancy and childbirth, very few facilities are equipped in Kenya to offer this service. In Malindi, availability of EmOC services does not meet the UN recommended levels of at least one comprehensive and four basic EmOC facilities per 500,000 populations. This study was conducted to assess priority setting process and its implication on availability, access and use of EmOC services at the district level. A qualitative study was conducted both at health facility and community levels. Triangulation of data sources and methods was employed, where document reviews, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with health personnel, facility committee members, stakeholders who offer and/ or support maternal health services and programmes; and the community members as end users. Data was thematically analysed. Limitations in the extent to which priorities in regard to maternal health services can be set at the district level were observed. The priority setting process was greatly restricted by guidelines and limited resources from the national level. Relevant stakeholders including community members are not involved in the priority setting process, thereby denying them the opportunity to contribute in the process. The findings illuminate that consideration of all local plans in national planning and budgeting as well as the involvement of all relevant stakeholders in the priority setting exercise is essential in order to achieve a consensus on the provision of emergency obstetric care services among other health service priorities.

  3. BE-SAFE: Bedside sonography for assessment of the fetus in emergencies: educational intervention for late-pregnancy obstetric ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sachita; Adedipe, Adeyinka; Ruffatto, Benjamin; Backlund, Brandon H; Sajed, Dana; Rood, Kari; Fernandez, Rosemarie

    2014-09-01

    Late obstetric emergencies are time critical presentations in the emergency department. Evaluation to ensure the safety of mother and child includes rapid assessment of fetal viability, fetal heart rate (FHR), fetal lie, and estimated gestational age (EGA). Point-of-care (POC) obstetric ultrasound (OBUS) offers the advantage of being able to provide all these measurements. We studied the impact of POC OBUS training on emergency physician (EP) confidence, knowledge, and OBUS skill performance on a live model. This is a prospective observational study evaluating an educational intervention we designed, called the BE-SAFE curriculum (BEdside Sonography for the Assessment of the Fetus in Emergencies). Subjects were a convenience sample of EP attendings (N=17) and residents (N=14). Prior to the educational intervention, participants completed a self-assessment survey on their confidence regarding OBUS, and took a pre-test to assess their baseline knowledge of OBUS. They then completed a 3-hour training session consisting of didactic and hands-on education in OBUS. After training, each subject's time and accuracy of performance of FHR, EGA, and fetal lie was recorded. Post-intervention knowledge tests and confidence surveys were administered. Results were compared with non-parametric t-tests. Pre- and post-test knowledge assessment scores for previously untrained EPs improved from 65.7% [SD=20.8] to 90% [SD=8.2] (p<0.0007). Self-confidence on a scale of 1-6 improved significantly for identification of FHR, fetal lie, and EGA. After training, the average times for completion of OBUS critical skills were as follows: cardiac activity (9s), FHR (68.6s), fetal lie (28.1s), and EGA (158.1 sec). EGA estimates averaged 28w0d (25w0d-30w6d) for the model's true gestational age of 27w0d. After a focused POC OBUS training intervention, the BE-SAFE educational intervention, EPs can accurately and rapidly use ultrasound to determine FHR, fetal lie, and estimate gestational age in mid

  4. Hypogastric artery ligation for obstetrical hemorrhage: clinical experience in a tertiary care center.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Cağlar; Akkar, Ozlem Bozoklu; Karakuş, Savaş; Cetin, Ali; Yanik, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Several authorities advocate the use of hypogastric artery ligation (HAL) in the treatment of cases of obstetrical hemorrhage related to uterine atony or placenta accreta. We assessed the morbidity and mortality of patients who underwent HAL as a component of emergency procedures to control life-threatening uterine bleeding in a tertiary-care university hospital. In this retrospective study, the clinical data of 24 eligible patients who underwent HAL between 2010 and 2013 in a university hospital to prevent or control severe uterine bleeding were collected and analyzed with regard to intraoperative and postoperative findings. In the study population, there were nine patients with uterine atony managed without hysterectomy after HAL and there were 15 patients with placenta previa complicated with placenta accreta after HAL. Of these 15 patients, seven underwent hysterectomy and eight were managed without hysterectomy. Overall, the clinical features of the patients managed with or without hysterectomy were similar for patients with uterine atony and placenta previa. We suggest that if HAL is performed in a surgical setting as mentioned in this study, it may be a life-saving and fertility-sparing procedure.

  5. Has Chiranjeevi Yojana changed the geographic availability of free comprehensive emergency obstetric care services in Gujarat, India?

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Kranti Suresh; Yasobant, Sandul; Patel, Amit; Upadhyay, Ashish; Mavalankar, Dileep V.

    2015-01-01

    Background The high rate of maternal mortality in India is of grave concern. Poor rural Indian women are most vulnerable to preventable maternal deaths primarily because they have limited availability of affordable emergency obstetric care (EmOC) within reasonable geographic proximity. Scarcity of obstetricians in the public sector combined with financial barriers to accessing private sector obstetrician services preclude this underserved population from availing lifesaving functions of comprehensive EmOC such as C-section. In order to overcome this limitation, Government of Gujarat initiated a unique public–private partnership program called Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY) in 2005. The program envisaged leveraging private sector providers to increase availability and thereby accessibility of EmOC care for vulnerable sections of society. Under CY, private sector providers render obstetric care services to poor women at no cost to patients. This paper examines the CY's effectiveness in improving availability of CEmOC services between 2006 and 2012 in three districts of Gujarat, India. Methods Primary data on facility locations, EmOC functionality, and obstetric bed availability were collected in the years 2012 and 2013 in three study districts. Secondary data from Census 2001 and 2011 were used along with required geographic information from Topo sheets and Google Earth maps. ArcGIS version 10 was used to analyze the availability of services using two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method. Results Our analysis suggests that the availability of CEmOC services within reasonable travel distance has greatly improved in all three study districts as a result of CY. We also show that the declining participation of the private sector did not result in an increase in distance to the nearest facility, but the extent of availability of providers for several villages was reduced. Spatial and temporal analyses in this paper provide a comprehensive understanding of trends in the

  6. Has Chiranjeevi Yojana changed the geographic availability of free comprehensive emergency obstetric care services in Gujarat, India?

    PubMed

    Vora, Kranti Suresh; Yasobant, Sandul; Patel, Amit; Upadhyay, Ashish; Mavalankar, Dileep V

    2015-01-01

    Background The high rate of maternal mortality in India is of grave concern. Poor rural Indian women are most vulnerable to preventable maternal deaths primarily because they have limited availability of affordable emergency obstetric care (EmOC) within reasonable geographic proximity. Scarcity of obstetricians in the public sector combined with financial barriers to accessing private sector obstetrician services preclude this underserved population from availing lifesaving functions of comprehensive EmOC such as C-section. In order to overcome this limitation, Government of Gujarat initiated a unique public-private partnership program called Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY) in 2005. The program envisaged leveraging private sector providers to increase availability and thereby accessibility of EmOC care for vulnerable sections of society. Under CY, private sector providers render obstetric care services to poor women at no cost to patients. This paper examines the CY's effectiveness in improving availability of CEmOC services between 2006 and 2012 in three districts of Gujarat, India. Methods Primary data on facility locations, EmOC functionality, and obstetric bed availability were collected in the years 2012 and 2013 in three study districts. Secondary data from Census 2001 and 2011 were used along with required geographic information from Topo sheets and Google Earth maps. ArcGIS version 10 was used to analyze the availability of services using two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method. Results Our analysis suggests that the availability of CEmOC services within reasonable travel distance has greatly improved in all three study districts as a result of CY. We also show that the declining participation of the private sector did not result in an increase in distance to the nearest facility, but the extent of availability of providers for several villages was reduced. Spatial and temporal analyses in this paper provide a comprehensive understanding of trends in the

  7. Tanzanian lessons in using non-physician clinicians to scale up comprehensive emergency obstetric care in remote and rural areas

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With 15-30% met need for comprehensive emergency obstetrical care (CEmOC) and a 3% caesarean section rate, Tanzania needs to expand the number of facilities providing these services in more remote areas. Considering severe shortage of human resources for health in the country, currently operating at 32% of the required skilled workforce, an intensive three-month course was developed to train non-physician clinicians for remote health centres. Methods Competency-based curricula for assistant medical officers' (AMOs) training in CEmOC, and for nurses, midwives and clinical officers in anaesthesia and operation theatre etiquette were developed and implemented in Ifakara, Tanzania. The required key competencies were identified, taught and objectively assessed. The training involved hands-on sessions, lectures and discussions. Participants were purposely selected in teams from remote health centres where CEmOC services were planned. Monthly supportive supervision after graduation was carried out in the upgraded health centres Results A total of 43 care providers from 12 health centres located in 11 rural districts in Tanzania and 2 from Somalia were trained from June 2009 to April 2010. Of these 14 were AMOs trained in CEmOC and 31 nurse-midwives and clinical officers trained in anaesthesia. During training, participants performed 278 major obstetric surgeries, 141 manual removal of placenta and evacuation of incomplete and septic abortions, and 1161 anaesthetic procedures under supervision. The first 8 months after introduction of CEmOC services in 3 health centres resulted in 179 caesarean sections, a remarkable increase of institutional deliveries by up to 300%, decreased fresh stillbirth rate (OR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.1-1.7) and reduced obstetric referrals (OR: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1-0.4)). There were two maternal deaths, both arriving in a moribund condition. Conclusions Tanzanian AMOs, clinical officers, and nurse-midwives can be trained as a team, in a three

  8. Has Chiranjeevi Yojana changed the geographic availability of free comprehensive emergency obstetric care services in Gujarat, India?

    PubMed

    Vora, Kranti Suresh; Yasobant, Sandul; Patel, Amit; Upadhyay, Ashish; Mavalankar, Dileep V

    2015-01-01

    The high rate of maternal mortality in India is of grave concern. Poor rural Indian women are most vulnerable to preventable maternal deaths primarily because they have limited availability of affordable emergency obstetric care (EmOC) within reasonable geographic proximity. Scarcity of obstetricians in the public sector combined with financial barriers to accessing private sector obstetrician services preclude this underserved population from availing lifesaving functions of comprehensive EmOC such as C-section. In order to overcome this limitation, Government of Gujarat initiated a unique public-private partnership program called Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY) in 2005. The program envisaged leveraging private sector providers to increase availability and thereby accessibility of EmOC care for vulnerable sections of society. Under CY, private sector providers render obstetric care services to poor women at no cost to patients. This paper examines the CY's effectiveness in improving availability of CEmOC services between 2006 and 2012 in three districts of Gujarat, India. Primary data on facility locations, EmOC functionality, and obstetric bed availability were collected in the years 2012 and 2013 in three study districts. Secondary data from Census 2001 and 2011 were used along with required geographic information from Topo sheets and Google Earth maps. ArcGIS version 10 was used to analyze the availability of services using two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method. Our analysis suggests that the availability of CEmOC services within reasonable travel distance has greatly improved in all three study districts as a result of CY. We also show that the declining participation of the private sector did not result in an increase in distance to the nearest facility, but the extent of availability of providers for several villages was reduced. Spatial and temporal analyses in this paper provide a comprehensive understanding of trends in the availability of EmOC services

  9. Improvement and retention of emergency obstetrics and neonatal care knowledge and skills in a hospital mentorship program in Lilongwe, Malawi.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jennifer H; Kaliti, Charlotte; Bengtson, Angela; Hayat, Sumera; Chimala, Eveles; MacLeod, Rachel; Kaliti, Stephen; Sisya, Fanny; Mwale, Mwawi; Wilkinson, Jeffrey

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate whether a hospital-based mentoring program could significantly increase short- and longer-term emergency obstetrics and neonatal care (EmONC) knowledge and skills among health providers. In a prospective before-and-after study, 20 mentors were trained using a specially-created EmONC mentoring and training program at Bwaila Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi. The mentors then trained an additional 114 providers as mentees in the curriculum. Mentors and mentees were asked to complete a test before initiation of the training (Pre-Test), immediately after training (Post-Test 1), and at least 6 months after training (Post-Test 2) to assess written and practical EmONC knowledge and skills. Mean scores were then compared. Scores increased significantly between the Pre-Test and Post-Test 1 for both written (n=134; difference 22.9%, P<0.001) and practical (n=125; difference 29.5%, P<0.001) tests. Scores were still significantly higher in Post-Test 2 than in the Pre-Test for written (n=111; difference 21.0%, P<0.001) and practical (n=103; difference 29.3%, P<0.001) tests. A hospital-based mentoring program can result in both short- and longer-term improvement in EmONC knowledge and skills. Further research is required to assess whether this leads to behavioral changes that improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The dominance of the private sector in the provision of emergency obstetric care: studies from Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Mariano; Vora, Kranti; De Costa, Ayesha

    2016-07-07

    India has experienced a steep rise in institutional childbirth. The relative contributions of public and private sector facilities to emergency obstetric care (EmOC) has not been studied in this setting. This paper aims to study in three districts of Gujarat state, India:(a) the availability of EmOC facilities in the public and private sectors; (b) the availability and distribution of human resources for birth attendance in the two sectors; and (c) to benchmark the above against 2005 World Health Report benchmarks (WHR2005). A cross-sectional survey of obstetric care facilities reporting 30 or more births in the last three months was conducted (n = 159). Performance of EmOC signal functions and availability of human resources were assessed. EmOC provision was dominated by private facilities (112/159) which were located mainly in district headquarters or small urban towns. The number of basic and comprehensive EmOC facilities was below WHR2005 benchmarks. A high number of private facilities performed C-sections but not all basic signal functions (72/159). Public facilities were the main EmOC providers in rural areas and 40/47 functioned at less than basic EmOC level. The rate of obstetricians per 1000 births was higher in the private sector. The private sector is the dominant EmOC provider in the state. Given the highly skewed distribution of facilities and resources in the private sector, state led partnerships with the private sector so that all women in the state receive care is important alongside strengthening the public sector.

  11. Essential basic and emergency obstetric and newborn care: from education and training to service delivery and quality of care.

    PubMed

    Otolorin, Emmanuel; Gomez, Patricia; Currie, Sheena; Thapa, Kusum; Dao, Blami

    2015-06-01

    Approximately 15% of expected births worldwide will result in life-threatening complications during pregnancy, delivery, or the postpartum period. Providers skilled in emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmONC) services are essential, particularly in countries with a high burden of maternal and newborn mortality. Jhpiego and its consortia partners have implemented three global programs to build provider capacity to provide comprehensive EmONC services to women and newborns in these resource-poor settings. Providers have been educated to deliver high-impact maternal and newborn health interventions, such as prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia and management of birth asphyxia, within the broader context of quality health services. This article describes Jhpiego's programming efforts within the framework of the basic and expanded signal functions that serve as indicators of high-quality basic and emergency care services. Lessons learned include the importance of health facility strengthening, competency-based provider education, global leadership, and strong government ownership and coordination as essential precursors to scale-up of high impact evidence-based maternal and newborn interventions in low-resource settings.

  12. Risk of peripartum hysterectomy in births after assisted reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    Cromi, Antonella; Candeloro, Ilario; Marconi, Nicola; Casarin, Jvan; Serati, Maurizio; Agosti, Massimo; Ghezzi, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    To investigate whether women who conceive after assisted reproductive technology (ART) are at higher risk for emergency peripartum hysterectomy. A case-control study using a prospectively maintained institutional database. A tertiary referral university teaching maternity hospital. Thirty-one women who underwent peripartum hysterectomy for management of hemorrhage, and 19,902 control women. None. Association between potential predictors and peripartum hysterectomy. The incidence of peripartum hysterectomy was 1.7 cases per 1,000 births (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.4). After adjustment for maternal age and twin pregnancy, placenta previa (odds ratio [OR] 50.78, 95% CI 23.30-110.68), prior cesarean delivery (OR 6.72, 95% CI 2.99-15.09 for one cesarean; OR 6.80, 95% CI 1.45-31.90 for two or more cesareans), previous myomectomy (OR 24.59, 95% CI 6.70-90.19), and ART conception (OR 5.98, 95% CI 2.18-16.40) were all antenatal predictors for peripartum hysterectomy. In women having a peripartum hysterectomy, 13.4% of the risk is attributable to mode of conception. A history of ART increases the likelihood of needing a peripartum hysterectomy to control hemorrhage. Further investigation is needed to determine whether ART conception should be included in algorithms of risk stratification for emergency cesarean hysterectomy and plan of care be modified accordingly. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy and Laparoscopic-Assisted Vaginal Hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    King, Cara R; Giles, Dobie

    2016-09-01

    Vaginal hysterectomy has been shown to have the lowest complication rate, better cosmesis, and decreased cost compared with alternate routes of hysterectomy. However, there are times when a vaginal hysterectomy is not feasible and an open abdominal hysterectomy should be avoided. Minimally invasive surgery has evolved over the last several decades; with the improvement in optics and surgical instruments, laparoscopic hysterectomy is becoming increasingly common. A total laparoscopic hysterectomy is possible with proper training, including sound technique in laparoscopic suturing for closure of the vaginal cuff. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Contemporary Obstetric Triage.

    PubMed

    Sandy, Edward Allen; Kaminski, Robert; Simhan, Hygriv; Beigi, Richard

    2016-03-01

    The role of obstetric triage in the care of pregnant women has expanded significantly. Factors driving this change include the Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act, improved methods of testing for fetal well-being, increasing litigation risk, and changes in resident duty hour guidelines. The contemporary obstetric triage facility must have processes in place to provide a medical screening examination that complies with regulatory statues while considering both the facility's maternal level of care and available resources. This review examines the history of the development of obstetric triage, current considerations in a contemporary obstetric triage paradigm, and future areas for consideration. An example of a contemporary obstetric triage program at an academic medical center is presented. A successful contemporary obstetric triage paradigm is one that addresses the questions of "sick or not sick" and "labor or no labor," for every obstetric patient that presents for care. Failure to do so risks poor patient outcome, poor patient satisfaction, adverse litigation outcome, regulatory scrutiny, and exclusion from federal payment programs. Understanding the role of contemporary obstetric triage in the current health care environment is important for both providers and health care leadership. This study is for obstetricians and gynecologists as well as family physicians. After completing this activity, the learner should be better able to understand the scope of a medical screening examination within the context of contemporary obstetric triage; understand how a facility's level of maternal care influences clinical decision making in a contemporary obstetric triage setting; and understand the considerations necessary for the systematic evaluation of the 2 basic contemporary obstetric questions, "sick or not sick?" and "labor or no labor?"

  15. The availability of emergency obstetric care in the context of the JSY cash transfer programme in Madhya Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Sabde, Yogesh; Diwan, Vishal; Randive, Bharat; Chaturvedi, Sarika; Sidney, Kristi; Salazar, Mariano; De Costa, Ayesha

    2016-05-18

    Since 2005, India has implemented a national cash transfer programme, the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), which provides women a cash transfer upon giving birth in an existing public facility. This has resulted in a steep rise in facility births across the country. The early years of the programme saw efforts being made to strengthen the ability of facilities to provide obstetric care. Given that the JSY has been able to draw millions of women into facilities to give birth (there have been more than 50 million beneficiaries thus far), it is important to study the ability of these facilities to provide emergency obstetric care (EmOC), as the functionality of these facilities is critical to improved maternal and neonatal outcomes. We studied the availability and level of provision of EmOC signal functions in public facilities implementing the JSY programme in three districts of Madhya Pradesh (MP) state, central India. These are measured against the World Health Report (WHR) 2005benchmarks. As a comparison, we also study the functionality and contribution of private sector facilities to the provision of EmOC in these districts. A cross-sectional survey of all healthcare facilities offering intrapartum care was conducted between February 2012 and April 2013. The EmOC signal functions performed in each facility were recorded, as were human resource data and birth numbers for each facility. A total of 152 facilities were surveyed of which 118 were JSY programme facilities. Eighty-six percent of childbirths occurred at programme facilities, two thirds of which occurred at facilities that did not meet standards for the provision basic emergency obstetric care. Of the 29 facilities that could perform caesareans, none could perform all the basic EmOC functions. Programme facilities provided few EmOC signal functions apart from parenteral antibiotic or oxytocic administration. Complicated EmOC provision was found predominantly in non-programme (private) facilities; only one of

  16. Obstetrical Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index A-Z Obstetric Ultrasound Obstetric ultrasound uses sound waves to produce pictures of a baby (embryo ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  17. Maternal death and obstetric care audits in Nigeria: a systematic review of barriers and enabling factors in the provision of emergency care.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Julia; Hirose, Atsumi; Owolabi, Oluwatoyin; Imamura, Mari; Kanguru, Lovney; Okonofua, Friday

    2016-04-22

    Maternal death reviews and obstetric audits identify causes and circumstances related to occurrence of a maternal death or serious complication and inform improvements in quality of care. Given Nigeria's high maternal mortality, the lessons learned from past experiences can provide a good evidence base for informed decision making. We aimed to synthesise findings from maternal death reviews and other obstetric audits conducted in Nigeria through a systematic review, seeking to identify common barriers and enabling factors related to the provision of emergency obstetric care. We searched for maternal death reviews and obstetric care audits reported in the published literature from 2000-2014. A 'best-fit' framework approach was used to extract data using a structured data extraction form. The articles that met the inclusion criteria were assessed using a nine point quality score. Of the 1,841 abstracts and titles at initial screening, 329 full text articles were reviewed and 43 papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Four types of barriers were reported related to: transport and referral; health workers; availability of services; and organisational factors. Three elements stand out in Nigeria as contributing to maternal mortality: delays in Caesarean section, unavailability of magnesium sulphate and lack of safe blood transfusion services. Obstetric care reviews and audits are useful activities to undertake and should be promoted by improving the processes used to conduct them, as well as extending their implementation to rural and basic level health facilities and to the community. Urgent areas for quality improvement in obstetric care, even in tertiary and teaching hospitals should focus on organisational factors to reduce delays in conducting Caesarean section and making blood and magnesium sulphate available for all who need these interventions.

  18. Supracervical hysterectomy - the vaginal route.

    PubMed

    Wilczyński, Miłosz; Cieślak, Jarosław; Malinowski, Andrzej

    2014-06-01

    Removal of the cervix during hysterectomy is not mandatory. There has been no irrefutable evidence so far that total hysterectomy is more beneficial to patients in terms of pelvic organ function. The procedure that leaves the cervix intact is called a subtotal hysterectomy. Traditional approaches to this surgery include laparoscopic and abdominal routes. Vaginal total hysterectomy has been proven to present many advantages over the other approaches. Therefore, it seems that this route should also be applied in the case of subtotal hysterectomy. We present 9 cases of patients who underwent subtotal hysterectomy performed through the vagina for benign gynecological diseases.

  19. Laparoscopic Supracervical Hysterectomy Compared to Total Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    De Paoli, Sania; Fasolino, Luigi; Fasolino, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare peri-operative results of laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy (LSH) with those of laparoscopic total hysterectomy (TLH). Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at the Department of Gynecology at a teaching hospital. A group of 157 patients who underwent TLH was compared with a group of 157 patients who underwent LSH with or without bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO). Both groups had similar baseline characteristics and comparable surgical indications. Results: We reviewed our 7-year experience with laparoscopic hysterectomies performed at our department between October 2000 and November 2007. The similarities between patient characteristics were tested by using Wilcoxon Rank Sum Statistics. Patient and surgery characteristics as well as surgery outcomes were analyzed with descriptive statistics showing medians and 95% CIs. Women who underwent LSH had a shorter operation time compared with women in the TLH group (100 min vs. 110 min). Major complication rates were higher in the TLH group than in the LSH group (4.5% vs. 1.3%). Minor complication rates were 13.3% in the TLH group compared with 13.4% in the LSH group. Conclusions: Our data and experience provide specific information about the perioperative performance of LSH compared with TLH. In our experience, LSH proved to be a valid alternative to TLH in the absence of specific indications for TLH. Adequate counseling concerning the risk of cyclical bleeding and reoperation is mandatory. PMID:19793479

  20. Improvement and retention of emergency obstetrics and neonatal care knowledge and skills in a hospital mentorship program in Lilongwe, Malawi☆

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jennifer H.; Kaliti, Charlotte; Bengtson, Angela; Hayat, Sumera; Chimala, Eveles; MacLeod, Rachel; Kaliti, Stephen; Sisya, Fanny; Mwale, Mwawi; Wilkinson, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether a hospital-based mentoring program could significantly increase short- and longer-term emergency obstetrics and neonatal care (EmONC) knowledge and skills among health providers. Methods In a prospective before-and-after study, 20 mentors were trained using a specially-created EmONC mentoring and training program at Bwaila Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi. The mentors then trained an additional 114 providers as mentees in the curriculum. Mentors and mentees were asked to complete a test before initiation of the training (Pre-Test), immediately after training (Post-Test 1), and at least 6 months after training (Post-Test 2) to assess written and practical EmONC knowledge and skills. Mean scores were then compared. Results Scores increased significantly between the Pre-Test and Post-Test 1 for both written (n=134; difference 22.9%, P<0.001) and practical (n=125; difference 29.5%, P<0.001) tests. Scores were still significantly higher in Post-Test 2 than in the Pre-Test for written (n=111; difference 21.0%, P<0.001) and practical (n=103; difference 29.3%, P<0.001) tests. Conclusion A hospital-based mentoring program can result in both short- and longer-term improvement in EmONC knowledge and skills. Further research is required to assess whether this leads to behavioral changes that improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:26658095

  1. Kaqchikel midwives, home births, and emergency obstetric referrals in Guatemala: contextualizing the choice to stay at home.

    PubMed

    Berry, Nicole S

    2006-04-01

    Maternal mortality is highest in those countries whose health budgets are restricted. Practical strategies employed in the International Safe Motherhood Initiative, therefore, must be both effective and economical. Investing in emergency obstetric care resources has been touted as one such strategy. This investment aims to insure significant improvements are made in regional health centers, and a chain of referral is put into place so that only problem cases are attended by the most skilled health workers. This article examines how this model of referral functions in Sololá, Guatemala, where most Kaqchikel Mayan women give birth at home with a traditional midwife, and no skilled biomedical attendant is available at the birth to make a referral. Ethnographic data is used to explore reasons why women do not go to the hospital at the first sign of difficulty. I argue that the problem frequently is not that Mayan midwives, their clients and families fail to understand the biomedical information about dangers in birth, but rather that this information fails to fit into an already existing social system of understanding birth and birth-related knowledge.

  2. Emergency obstetric care in Pakistan: potential for reduced maternal mortality through improved basic EmOC facilities, services, and access.

    PubMed

    Ali, M; Hotta, M; Kuroiwa, C; Ushijima, H

    2005-10-01

    To ascertain and compare compliance with UN emergency obstetric care (EmOC) recommendations by public health care centers in Pakistan's Punjab and Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP) provinces. Cross-sectional data were collected from July through September 2003 using UN process indicators. From each province, 30% of districts (n=19); were randomly selected; all public health facilities providing EmOC services (n=170) were included. The study found that out of 170 facilities only 22 were providing basic and 37 comprehensive EmOC services in the areas studied. Only 5.7% of births occurred in EmOC health facilities. Met need was 9% and 0.5% of women gave birth by cesarean section. The case fatality rate was a low 0.7%, probably due to poor record keeping. Access and several indicators were better in NWFP than in Punjab. Almost all indicators were below UN recommendations. Health policy makers and planners must take immediate, appropriate measures at district and hospital levels to reduce maternal mortality.

  3. SYMPTEK homemade foam models for client education and emergency obstetric care skills training in low-resource settings.

    PubMed

    Deganus, Sylvia A

    2009-10-01

    Clinical training for health care workers using anatomical models and simulation has become an established norm. A major requirement for this approach is the availability of lifelike training models or simulators for skills practice. Manufactured sophisticated human models such as the resuscitation neonatal dolls, the Zoë gynaecologic simulator, and other pelvic models are very expensive, and are beyond the budgets of many training programs or activities in low-resource countries. Clinical training programs in many low-resource countries suffer greatly because of this cost limitation. Yet it is also in these same poor countries that the need for skilled human resources in reproductive health is greatest. The SYMPTEK homemade models were developed in response to the need for cheaper, more readily available humanistic models for training in emergency obstetric skills and also for client education. With minimal training, a variety of cheap SYMPTEK models can easily be made, by both trainees and facilitators, from high-density latex foam material commonly used for furnishings. The models are reusable, durable, portable, and easily maintained. The uses, advantages, disadvantages, and development of the SYMPTEK foam models are described in this article.

  4. Promoting cultural humility during labor and birth: putting theory into action during PRONTO obstetric and neonatal emergency training.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Jenifer O; Cohen, Susanna R; Holme, Francesca; Buttrick, Elizabeth S; Dettinger, Julia C; Kestler, Edgar; Walker, Dilys M

    2013-01-01

    Maternal and neonatal mortality in Northern Guatemala, a region with a high percentage of indigenous people, is disproportionately high. Initiatives to improve quality of care at local health facilities equipped for births, and increasing the number of births attended at these facilities will help address this problem. PRONTO (Programa de Rescate Obstétrico y Neonatal: Tratamiento Óptimo y Oportuno) is a low-tech, high-fidelity, simulation-based, provider-to-provider training in the management of obstetric and neonatal emergencies. This program has been successfully tested and implemented in Mexico. PRONTO will now be implemented in Guatemala as part of an initiative to decrease maternal and perinatal mortality. Guatemalan health authorities have requested that the training include training on cultural humility and humanized birth. This article describes the process of curricular adaptation to satisfy this request. The PRONTO team adapted the existing program through 4 steps: (a) analysis of the problem and context through a review of qualitative data and stakeholder interviews, (b) literature review and adoption of a theoretical framework regarding cultural humility and adult learning, (c) adaptation of the curriculum and design of new activities and simulations, and (d) implementation of adapted and expanded curriculum and further refinement in response to participant response.

  5. Geographic Access Modeling of Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care in Kigoma Region, Tanzania: Transportation Schemes and Programmatic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi No; Schmitz, Michelle M; Serbanescu, Florina; Dynes, Michelle M; Maro, Godson; Kramer, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Access to transportation is vital to reducing the travel time to emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC) for managing complications and preventing adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. This study examines the distribution of travel times to EmONC in Kigoma Region, Tanzania, using various transportation schemes, to estimate the proportion of live births (a proxy indicator of women needing delivery care) with poor geographic access to EmONC services. Methods: The 2014 Reproductive Health Survey of Kigoma Region identified 4 primary means of transportation used to travel to health facilities: walking, cycling, motorcycle, and 4-wheeled motor vehicle. A raster-based travel time model was used to map the 2-hour travel time catchment for each mode of transportation. Live birth density distributions were aggregated by travel time catchments, and by administrative council, to estimate the proportion of births with poor access. Results: Of all live births in Kigoma Region, 13% occurred in areas where women can reach EmONC facilities within 2 hours on foot, 33% in areas that can be reached within 2 hours only by motorized vehicles, and 32% where it is impossible to reach EmONC facilities within 2 hours. Over 50% of births in 3 of the 8 administrative councils had poor estimated access. In half the councils, births with poor access could be reduced to no higher than 12% if all female residents had access to motorized vehicles. Conclusion: Significant differences in geographic access to EmONC in Kigoma Region, Tanzania, were observed both by location and by primary transportation type. As most of the population may only have good EmONC access when using mechanized or motorized vehicles, bicycles and motorcycles should be incorporated into the health transportation strategy. Collaboration between private transportation sectors and obstetric service providers could improve access to EmONC services among most populations. In areas where residents may

  6. Skilled birth attendants in Tanzania: a descriptive study of cadres and emergency obstetric care signal functions performed.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Etsuko; Adegoke, Adetoro A; Masenga, Gileard; Fimbo, Janeth; Msuya, Sia E

    2015-01-01

    Although most developing countries monitor the proportion of births attended by skilled birth attendants (SBA), they lack information on the availability and performance of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) signal functions by different cadres of health care providers (HCPs). The World Health Organisation signal functions are set of key interventions that targets direct obstetric causes of maternal deaths. Seven signal functions are required for health facilities providing basic EmOC and nine for facilities providing comprehensive EmOC. Our objectives were to describe cadres of HCPs who are considered SBAs in Tanzania, the EmOC signal functions they perform and challenges associated with performance of EmOC signal functions. We conducted a cross-sectional study of HCPs offering maternity care services at eight health facilities in Moshi Urban District in northern Tanzania. A questionnaire and health facility assessment forms were used to collect information from participants and health facilities. A total of 199 HCPs working at eight health facilities in Moshi Urban District met the inclusion criteria. Out of 199, 158 participated, giving a response rate of 79.4 %. Ten cadres of HCPs were identified as conducting deliveries regardless of the level of health facilities. Most of the participants (81 %) considered themselves SBAs, although some were not considered SBAs by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW). Only two out of the eight facilities provided all of the required EmOC signal functions. While Assistant Medical Officers are expected to perform all the signal functions, only 38 % and 13 % had performed vacuum extraction or caesarean sections respectively. Very few registered and enrolled nurse-midwives had performed removal of retained products (22 %) or assisted vaginal delivery (24 and 11 %). Inadequate equipment and supplies, and lack of knowledge and skills in performing EmOC were two main challenges identified by health care providers in all

  7. Geographic Access Modeling of Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care in Kigoma Region, Tanzania: Transportation Schemes and Programmatic Implications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi No; Schmitz, Michelle M; Serbanescu, Florina; Dynes, Michelle M; Maro, Godson; Kramer, Michael R

    2017-09-27

    Access to transportation is vital to reducing the travel time to emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC) for managing complications and preventing adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. This study examines the distribution of travel times to EmONC in Kigoma Region, Tanzania, using various transportation schemes, to estimate the proportion of live births (a proxy indicator of women needing delivery care) with poor geographic access to EmONC services. The 2014 Reproductive Health Survey of Kigoma Region identified 4 primary means of transportation used to travel to health facilities: walking, cycling, motorcycle, and 4-wheeled motor vehicle. A raster-based travel time model was used to map the 2-hour travel time catchment for each mode of transportation. Live birth density distributions were aggregated by travel time catchments, and by administrative council, to estimate the proportion of births with poor access. Of all live births in Kigoma Region, 13% occurred in areas where women can reach EmONC facilities within 2 hours on foot, 33% in areas that can be reached within 2 hours only by motorized vehicles, and 32% where it is impossible to reach EmONC facilities within 2 hours. Over 50% of births in 3 of the 8 administrative councils had poor estimated access. In half the councils, births with poor access could be reduced to no higher than 12% if all female residents had access to motorized vehicles. Significant differences in geographic access to EmONC in Kigoma Region, Tanzania, were observed both by location and by primary transportation type. As most of the population may only have good EmONC access when using mechanized or motorized vehicles, bicycles and motorcycles should be incorporated into the health transportation strategy. Collaboration between private transportation sectors and obstetric service providers could improve access to EmONC services among most populations. In areas where residents may not access EmONC facilities within 2 hours

  8. Quality of obstetric care in public-sector facilities and constraints to implementing emergency obstetric care services: evidence from high- and low-performing districts of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Iqbal; Kalim, Nahid; Koblinsky, Marge

    2009-04-01

    This study explored the quality of obstetric care in public-sector facilities and the constraints to programming comprehensive essential obstetric care (EOC) services in rural areas of Khulna and Sylhet divisions, relatively high- and low-performing areas of Bangladesh respectively. Quality was explored by physically inspecting all public-sector EOC facilities and the constraints through in-depth interviews with public-sector programme managers and service providers. Distribution of the functional EOC facilities satisfied the United Nation's minimum criteria of at least one comprehensive EOC and four basic EOC facilities for every 500,000 people in Khulna but not in Sylhet region. Human-resource constraints were the major barrier for maternal health. Sanctioned posts for nurses were inadequate in rural areas of both the divisions; however, deployment and retention of trained human resources were more problematic in rural areas of Sylhet. Other problems also plagued care, including unavailability of blood in rural settings and lack of use of evidence-based techniques. The overall quality of care was better in the EOC facilities of Khulna division than in Sylhet. 'Context' of care was also different in these two areas: the population in Sylhet is less literate, more conservative, and faces more geographical and sociocultural barriers in accessing services. As a consequence of both care delivered and the context, more normal vaginal and caesarian-section deliveries were carried out in the public-sector EOC facilities in the Khulna region, with the exception of the medical college hospitals. To improve maternal healthcare, there is a need for a human-resource plan that increases the number of posts in rural areas and ensures availability. All categories of maternal healthcare providers also need training on evidence-based techniques. While the centralized push system of management has its strengths, special strategies for improving the response in the low

  9. Quality of Obstetric Care in Public-sector Facilities and Constraints to Implementing Emergency Obstetric Care Services: Evidence from High- and Low-performing Districts of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Kalim, Nahid; Koblinsky, Marge

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the quality of obstetric care in public-sector facilities and the constraints to programming comprehensive essential obstetric care (EOC) services in rural areas of Khulna and Sylhet divisions, relatively high- and low-performing areas of Bangladesh respectively. Quality was explored by physically inspecting all public-sector EOC facilities and the constraints through in-depth interviews with public-sector programme managers and service providers. Distribution of the functional EOC facilities satisfied the United Nation's minimum criteria of at least one comprehensive EOC and four basic EOC facilities for every 500,000 people in Khulna but not in Sylhet region. Human-resource constraints were the major barrier for maternal health. Sanctioned posts for nurses were inadequate in rural areas of both the divisions; however, deployment and retention of trained human resources were more problematic in rural areas of Sylhet. Other problems also plagued care, including unavailability of blood in rural settings and lack of use of evidence-based techniques. The overall quality of care was better in the EOC facilities of Khulna division than in Sylhet. ‘Context' of care was also different in these two areas: the population in Sylhet is less literate, more conservative, and faces more geographical and sociocultural barriers in accessing services. As a consequence of both care delivered and the context, more normal vaginal and caesarian-section deliveries were carried out in the public-sector EOC facilities in the Khulna region, with the exception of the medical college hospitals. To improve maternal healthcare, there is a need for a human-resource plan that increases the number of posts in rural areas and ensures availability. All categories of maternal healthcare providers also need training on evidence-based techniques. While the centralized push system of management has its strengths, special strategies for improving the response in the low

  10. Limited Effectiveness of a Skills and Drills Intervention to Improve Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care in Karnataka, India: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Beena; Krishnamurthy, Jayanna; Correia, Blaze; Panigrahi, Ruchika; Washington, Maryann; Ponnuswamy, Vinotha; Mony, Prem

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The majority of the maternal and perinatal deaths are preventable through improved emergency obstetric and newborn care at facilities. However, the quality of such care in India has significant gaps in terms of provider skills and in their preparedness to handle emergencies. We tested the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a “skills and drills” intervention, implemented between July 2013 and September 2014, to improve emergency obstetric and newborn care in the state of Karnataka, India. Methods: Emergency drills through role play, conducted every 2 months, combined with supportive supervision and a 2-day skills refresher session were delivered across 4 sub-district, secondary-level government facilities by an external team of obstetric and pediatric specialists and nurses. We evaluated the intervention through a quasi-experimental design with 4 intervention and 4 comparison facilities, using delivery case sheet reviews, pre- and post-knowledge tests among providers, objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs), and qualitative in-depth interviews. Primary outcomes consisted of improved diagnosis and management of selected maternal and newborn complications (postpartum hemorrhage, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and birth asphyxia). Secondary outcomes included knowledge and skill levels of providers and acceptability and feasibility of the intervention. Results: Knowledge scores among providers improved significantly in the intervention facilities; in obstetrics, average scores between the pre- and post-test increased from 49% to 57% (P=.006) and in newborn care, scores increased from 48% to 56% (P=.03). Knowledge scores in the comparison facilities were similar but did not improve significantly over time. Skill levels were significantly higher among providers in intervention facilities than comparison facilities (mean objective structured clinical examination scores for obstetric skills: 55% vs. 46%, respectively; for

  11. Limited Effectiveness of a Skills and Drills Intervention to Improve Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care in Karnataka, India: A Proof-of-Concept Study.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Beena; Krishnamurthy, Jayanna; Correia, Blaze; Panigrahi, Ruchika; Washington, Maryann; Ponnuswamy, Vinotha; Mony, Prem

    2016-12-23

    The majority of the maternal and perinatal deaths are preventable through improved emergency obstetric and newborn care at facilities. However, the quality of such care in India has significant gaps in terms of provider skills and in their preparedness to handle emergencies. We tested the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a "skills and drills" intervention, implemented between July 2013 and September 2014, to improve emergency obstetric and newborn care in the state of Karnataka, India. Emergency drills through role play, conducted every 2 months, combined with supportive supervision and a 2-day skills refresher session were delivered across 4 sub-district, secondary-level government facilities by an external team of obstetric and pediatric specialists and nurses. We evaluated the intervention through a quasi-experimental design with 4 intervention and 4 comparison facilities, using delivery case sheet reviews, pre- and post-knowledge tests among providers, objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs), and qualitative in-depth interviews. Primary outcomes consisted of improved diagnosis and management of selected maternal and newborn complications (postpartum hemorrhage, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and birth asphyxia). Secondary outcomes included knowledge and skill levels of providers and acceptability and feasibility of the intervention. Knowledge scores among providers improved significantly in the intervention facilities; in obstetrics, average scores between the pre- and post-test increased from 49% to 57% (P=.006) and in newborn care, scores increased from 48% to 56% (P=.03). Knowledge scores in the comparison facilities were similar but did not improve significantly over time. Skill levels were significantly higher among providers in intervention facilities than comparison facilities (mean objective structured clinical examination scores for obstetric skills: 55% vs. 46%, respectively; for newborn skills: 58% vs. 48%, respectively; P

  12. Committee Opinion No. 701 Summary: Choosing The Route Of Hysterectomy For Benign Disease.

    PubMed

    2017-06-01

    Hysterectomy is one of the most frequently performed surgical procedures in the United States. Selection of the route of hysterectomy for benign causes can be influenced by the size and shape of the vagina and uterus; accessibility to the uterus; extent of extrauterine disease; the need for concurrent procedures; surgeon training and experience; average case volume; available hospital technology, devices, and support; whether the case is emergent or scheduled; and preference of the informed patient. Vaginal and laparoscopic procedures are considered "minimally invasive" surgical approaches because they do not require a large abdominal incision and, thus, typically are associated with shortened hospitalization and postoperative recovery times compared with open abdominal hysterectomy. Minimally invasive approaches to hysterectomy should be performed, whenever feasible, based on their well-documented advantages over abdominal hysterectomy. The vaginal approach is preferred among the minimally invasive approaches. Laparoscopic hysterectomy is a preferable alternative to open abdominal hysterectomy for those patients in whom a vaginal hysterectomy is not indicated or feasible. Although minimally invasive approaches to hysterectomy are the preferred route, open abdominal hysterectomy remains an important surgical option for some patients. The obstetrician-gynecologist should discuss the options with patients and make clear recommendations on which route of hysterectomy will maximize benefits and minimize risks given the specific clinical situation. The relative advantages and disadvantages of the approaches to hysterectomy should be discussed in the context of the patient's values and preferences, and the patient and health care provider should together determine the best course of action after this discussion.

  13. Committee Opinion No 701: Choosing the Route of Hysterectomy for Benign Disease.

    PubMed

    2017-06-01

    Hysterectomy is one of the most frequently performed surgical procedures in the United States. Selection of the route of hysterectomy for benign causes can be influenced by the size and shape of the vagina and uterus; accessibility to the uterus; extent of extrauterine disease; the need for concurrent procedures; surgeon training and experience; average case volume; available hospital technology, devices, and support; whether the case is emergent or scheduled; and preference of the informed patient. Vaginal and laparoscopic procedures are considered "minimally invasive" surgical approaches because they do not require a large abdominal incision and, thus, typically are associated with shortened hospitalization and postoperative recovery times compared with open abdominal hysterectomy. Minimally invasive approaches to hysterectomy should be performed, whenever feasible, based on their well-documented advantages over abdominal hysterectomy. The vaginal approach is preferred among the minimally invasive approaches. Laparoscopic hysterectomy is a preferable alternative to open abdominal hysterectomy for those patients in whom a vaginal hysterectomy is not indicated or feasible. Although minimally invasive approaches to hysterectomy are the preferred route, open abdominal hysterectomy remains an important surgical option for some patients. The obstetrician-gynecologist should discuss the options with patients and make clear recommendations on which route of hysterectomy will maximize benefits and minimize risks given the specific clinical situation. The relative advantages and disadvantages of the approaches to hysterectomy should be discussed in the context of the patient's values and preferences, and the patient and health care provider should together determine the best course of action after this discussion.

  14. Where there is no anesthetist--increasing capacity for emergency obstetric care in rural India: an evaluation of a pilot program to train general doctors.

    PubMed

    Mavalankar, Dileep; Callahan, Katie; Sriram, Veena; Singh, Prabal; Desai, Ajesh

    2009-12-01

    The lack of anesthesia providers in rural public sector hospitals is a significant barrier to providing emergency obstetric care. In 2006, the state of Gujarat initiated the Life Saving Anesthetic Skills (LSAS) for Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC) training program for medical offers (MOs). We evaluated the trained MOs' experience of the program, and identified factors leading to post-training performance. The sample was chosen to equally represent performing and nonperforming LSAS-trained MOs using purposive sampling qualitative interviews with trainees across Gujarat (n=14). Data on facility preparedness and monthly case load were also collected. Being posted with a specialist anesthesiologist and with a cooperative EmOC provider increased the likelihood that the MOs would provide anesthesia. MOs who did not provide anesthesia were more likely to have been posted with a nonperforming or uncooperative EmOC provider and were more likely to have low confidence in their ability to provide anesthesia. Facilities were found to be under prepared to tackle emergency obstetric procedures. Program managers should consider extending the duration of the program and placing more emphasis on practical training. Posting doctors with cooperative and performing EmOC providers will significantly improve the effectiveness of the program. A separate team of program managers who plan, monitor, and solve the problems reported by the trained MOs would further enhance the success of scaling up the training program.

  15. Peripartum hysterectomy in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Jou, Hei-Jen; Hung, Hsin-Wen; Ling, Pei-Ying; Chen, Shih-Ming; Wu, Shiao-Chi

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the incidence and associated risk factors for peripartum hysterectomy in singleton pregnancies. A retrospective cohort study of all women with singleton pregnancies admitted for delivery in 2002 taken from the National Healthcare Insurance database. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for maternal and hospital characteristics using logistic regression. There were 287 peripartum hysterectomies in 214 237 singleton pregnancies (0.13%). Cesarean delivery, vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC), and repeat cesarean delivery had higher hysterectomy rates than vaginal delivery, with adjusted ORs of 12.13 (95% CI 8.30-17.74), 5.12 (95% CI 1.19-21.92), and 3.84 (95% CI 2.52-5.86), respectively. Pregnancies complicated with placenta previa, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and premature labor were associated with significantly increased risks for peripartum hysterectomy (P<0.05). Risk factors for peripartum hysterectomy included cesarean delivery, VBAC, repeat cesarean, placenta previa, GDM, and premature labor. VBAC and repeat cesarean had a similar risk.

  16. Referrals between Public Sector Health Institutions for Women with Obstetric High Risk, Complications, or Emergencies in India – A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Samiksha; Doyle, Pat; Campbell, Oona M.; Mathew, Manu; Murthy, G. V. S.

    2016-01-01

    Emergency obstetric care (EmOC) within primary health care systems requires a linked referral system to be effective in reducing maternal death. This systematic review aimed to summarize evidence on the proportion of referrals between institutions during pregnancy and delivery, and the factors affecting referrals, in India. We searched 6 electronic databases, reviewed four regional databases and repositories, and relevant program reports from India published between 1994 and 2013. All types of study or reports (except editorials, comments and letters) which reported on institution-referrals (out-referral or in-referral) for obstetric care were included. Results were synthesized on the proportion and the reasons for referral, and factors affecting referrals. Of the 11,346 articles identified by the search, we included 232 articles in the full text review and extracted data from 16 studies that met our inclusion criteria Of the 16, one was RCT, seven intervention cohort (without controls), six cross-sectional, and three qualitative studies. Bias and quality of studies were reported. Between 25% and 52% of all pregnancies were referred from Sub-centres for antenatal high-risk, 14% to 36% from nurse run delivery or basic EmOC centres for complications or emergencies, and 2 to 7% were referred from doctor run basic EmOC centres for specialist care at comprehensive EmOC centres. Problems identified with referrals from peripheral health centres included low skills and confidence of staff, reluctance to induce labour, confusion over the clinical criteria for referral, non-uniform standards of care at referral institutions, a tendency to by-pass middle level institutions, a lack of referral communication and supervision, and poor compliance. The high proportion of referrals from peripheral health centers reflects the lack of appropriate clinical guidelines, processes, and skills for obstetric care and referral in India. This, combined with inadequate referral communication

  17. Elective cesarean hysterectomy: a 5 year comparison with cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Barclay, D L; Hawks, B L; Frueh, D M; Power, J D; Struble, R H

    1976-04-15

    Elective cesarean sections performed on the obstetric service at the University of Arkansas Medical Center were reviewed for the period January 1, 1970, through December 31, 1974. The purpose of the review was to compare operative and postoperative complications of cesarean section, cesarean section and tubal ligation, and cesarean section and elective hysterectomy. A total of 1,255 cesarean sections were performed of which 207 (17 per cent) were associated with tubal ligation and 242 (18 per cent) with hysterectomy. Elective cesarean hysterectomies were performed for elective sterilization (68 per cent), for medically indicated sterilizations (11 per cent), or for definitive treatment of uterine pathology(21 per cent). All cesarean sections were obstetrically indicated with the exception of 34 primary cesarean hysterectomies performed as definitive treatment of carcinoma in situ of the cervix. The operative procedures were compared in regard to the following characteristics or complications: operating time; incidence of blood transfusions, urinary tract injuries, postoperative bleeding, febrile morbidity, and other postoperative complications; and postoperative hospital days.

  18. Hysterectomies in Finland in 1990-2012: comparison of outcomes between trainees and specialists.

    PubMed

    Jokinen, Ewa; Brummer, Tea; Jalkanen, Jyrki; Fraser, Jaana; Heikkinen, Anna-Mari; Mäkinen, Juha; Sjöberg, Jari; Tomàs, Eija; Mikkola, Tomi S; Härkki, Päivi

    2015-07-01

    To assess trends for hysterectomy methods in the Nordic countries and to compare outcomes of hysterectomies in Finland done by trainees with those done by specialists. Register-based study. NOMESCO database for the Nordic countries and the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. National prospective cohort of 5279 hysterectomies in Finland. Numbers of hysterectomies in the Nordic countries were collected in 1995-2011 and in Finland in 1990-2012. The Finhyst study to collect data on hysterectomies for benign indications was carried out in Finland in 2006. Information concerning patients, surgeons, and hysterectomy outcome was analysed. Hysterectomy numbers and methods. Operating time, blood loss, and complications in hysterectomies done by trainees and specialists. In Finland, the rate of hysterectomies has been reduced by approximately 50% since the 1990s and is now similar to that in the other Nordic countries. The laparoscopic method is twice as common in Finland as in other Nordic countries, constituting 35-40% of all hysterectomies. The operating time for all hysterectomy methods was 16-25% longer among trainees than specialists. For the abdominal or laparoscopic methods there were no significant differences in the complication rates between the groups. In the vaginal approach, blood loss of ≥1000 mL was slightly more common in operations done by trainees (1.3% vs. 2.6%, p = 0.037). Laparoscopic hysterectomy is more common in Finland than in the other Nordic countries. Although trainees need more time to operate, there were no differences between the trainees and the specialists with regard to major complication rates. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Availability and use of emergency obstetric care services in public hospitals in Laos PDR: a systems analysis.

    PubMed

    Douangphachanh, Xaysomphou; Ali, Moazzam; Outavong, Phathammavong; Alongkon, Phengsavanh; Sing, Menorath; Chushi, Kuroiwa

    2010-12-01

    The maternal mortality ratio in Laos in 2005 was 660 per 100,000 lives birth which was the third highest in Asia-Pacific Region. The objective was to determine the availability and use of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in provincial and district hospitals in Borikhamxay, Khammouane, and Savannakhet provinces using UN guidelines. A hospital-based cross sectional survey was conducted from January to March 2008. All district (30) and provincial hospitals (3) from three provinces were included. Analysis was based on hospital records reflecting 12 months of facility data. Data indicates that only 14 hospitals (42.4%) were providing EmOC services, i.e., 9 basic, 5 comprehensive services. The proportion of births in EmOC facilities was only 11.2%, the met need was a very low 14.5%, and the cesarean section rate was only 0.9%. The case fatality rate in Borikhanxay province was 2.8%; in Khammouane and in Savannakhet provinces it was less than 1%. Record keeping at hospitals was poor. Signal functions provided in the last three months showed only 48.5% of the facilities performed assisted vaginal delivery. This is the first study in Lao PDR to assess EmOC services. Almost all the indicators were below the UN recommendations. Health planners must take evidence-based decisions to rectify and improve the situation in the hospitals regarding EmOC services. These data can therefore help government to assign and allocate budgets appropriately, and help policymakers and planners to identify systemic bottlenecks and prioritize solutions and will help in improving maternal health.

  20. Competence of health workers in emergency obstetric care: an assessment using clinical vignettes in Brong Ahafo region, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Lohela, Terhi Johanna; Nesbitt, Robin Clark; Manu, Alexander; Vesel, Linda; Okyere, Eunice; Kirkwood, Betty; Gabrysch, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess health worker competence in emergency obstetric care using clinical vignettes, to link competence to availability of infrastructure in facilities, and to average annual delivery workload in facilities. Design Cross-sectional Health Facility Assessment linked to population-based surveillance data. Setting 7 districts in Brong Ahafo region, Ghana. Participants Most experienced delivery care providers in all 64 delivery facilities in the 7 districts. Primary outcome measures Health worker competence in clinical vignette actions by cadre of delivery care provider and by type of facility. Competence was also compared with availability of relevant drugs and equipment, and to average annual workload per skilled birth attendant. Results Vignette scores were moderate overall, and differed significantly by respondent cadre ranging from a median of 70% correct among doctors, via 55% among midwives, to 25% among other cadres such as health assistants and health extension workers (p<0.001). Competence varied significantly by facility type: hospital respondents, who were mainly doctors and midwives, achieved highest scores (70% correct) and clinic respondents scored lowest (45% correct). There was a lack of inexpensive key drugs and equipment to carry out vignette actions, and more often, lack of competence to use available items in clinical situations. The average annual workload was very unevenly distributed among facilities, ranging from 0 to 184 deliveries per skilled birth attendant, with higher workload associated with higher vignette scores. Conclusions Lack of competence might limit clinical practice even more than lack of relevant drugs and equipment. Cadres other than midwives and doctors might not be able to diagnose and manage delivery complications. Checking clinical competence through vignettes in addition to checklist items could contribute to a more comprehensive approach to evaluate quality of care. Trial registration number NCT00623337

  1. Perinatal mortality associated with use of uterotonics outside of Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Day, Louise T; Hruschka, Daniel; Mussell, Felicity; Jeffers, Eva; Saha, Stacy L; Alam, Shafiul

    2016-10-06

    Prior studies have shown that using uterotonics to augment or induce labor before arrival at comprehensive Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care (CEmONC) settings (henceforth, "outside uterotonics") may contribute to perinatal mortality in low- and middle-income countries. We estimate its effect on perinatal mortality in rural Bangladesh. Using hospital records (23986 singleton term births, Jan 1, 2009-Dec 31, 2015) from rural Bangladesh, we use a logistic regression model to estimate the increased risk of perinatal death from uterotonics administered outside a CEmONC facility. Among term births (≥37 weeks gestation), the risk of perinatal death adjusted for key confounders is significantly increased among women reporting uterotonic use outside of CEmONC (OR = 3 · 0, 95 % CI = 2 · 4,3 · 7). This increased risk is particularly high for fresh stillbirths (OR = 4 · 0, 95 % CI = 3 · 0,5 · 3) and intrapartum-related causes of early neonatal deaths (birth asphyxia) (OR = 3 · 1, 95 % CI = 2 · 2,4 · 5). In this sample, outside uterotonic use was associated with substantially increased risk of fresh stillbirths, deaths due to birth asphyxia, and all perinatal deaths. In settings of high uterotonic use outside of controlled settings, substantial improvement in both stillbirth and early neonatal mortality may be made by reducing such use.

  2. Measuring equity in utilization of emergency obstetric care at Wolisso Hospital in Oromiya, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Improving equity in access to services for the treatment of complications that arise during pregnancy and childbirth, namely Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC), is fundamental if maternal and neonatal mortality are to be reduced. Consequently, there is a growing need to monitor equity in access to EmOC. The objective of this study was to develop a simple questionnaire to measure equity in utilization of EmOC at Wolisso Hospital, Ethiopia and compare the wealth status of EmOC users with women in the general population. Methods Women in the Ethiopia 2005 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) constituted our reference population. We cross-tabulated DHS wealth variables against wealth quintiles. Five variables that differentiated well across quintiles were selected to create a questionnaire that was administered to women at discharge from the maternity from January to August 2010. This was used to identify inequities in utilization of EmOC by comparison with the reference population. Results 760 women were surveyed. An a posteriori comparison of these 2010 data to the 2011 DHS dataset, indicated that women using EmOC were wealthier and more likely to be urban dwellers. On a scale from 0 (poorest) to 15 (wealthiest), 31% of women in the 2011 DHS sample scored less than 1 compared with 0.7% in the study population. 70% of women accessing EmOC belonged to the richest quintile with only 4% belonging to the poorest two quintiles. Transportation costs seem to play an important role. Conclusions We found inequity in utilization of EmOC in favour of the wealthiest. Assessing and monitoring equitable utilization of maternity services is feasible using this simple tool. PMID:23607604

  3. Measuring equity in utilization of emergency obstetric care at Wolisso Hospital in Oromiya, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wilunda, Calistus; Putoto, Giovanni; Manenti, Fabio; Castiglioni, Maria; Azzimonti, Gaetano; Edessa, Wagari; Atzori, Andrea; Merialdi, Mario; Betrán, Ana Pilar; Vogel, Joshua; Criel, Bart

    2013-04-22

    Improving equity in access to services for the treatment of complications that arise during pregnancy and childbirth, namely Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC), is fundamental if maternal and neonatal mortality are to be reduced. Consequently, there is a growing need to monitor equity in access to EmOC. The objective of this study was to develop a simple questionnaire to measure equity in utilization of EmOC at Wolisso Hospital, Ethiopia and compare the wealth status of EmOC users with women in the general population. Women in the Ethiopia 2005 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) constituted our reference population. We cross-tabulated DHS wealth variables against wealth quintiles. Five variables that differentiated well across quintiles were selected to create a questionnaire that was administered to women at discharge from the maternity from January to August 2010. This was used to identify inequities in utilization of EmOC by comparison with the reference population. 760 women were surveyed. An a posteriori comparison of these 2010 data to the 2011 DHS dataset, indicated that women using EmOC were wealthier and more likely to be urban dwellers. On a scale from 0 (poorest) to 15 (wealthiest), 31% of women in the 2011 DHS sample scored less than 1 compared with 0.7% in the study population. 70% of women accessing EmOC belonged to the richest quintile with only 4% belonging to the poorest two quintiles. Transportation costs seem to play an important role. We found inequity in utilization of EmOC in favour of the wealthiest. Assessing and monitoring equitable utilization of maternity services is feasible using this simple tool.

  4. The influence of travel time on emergency obstetric care seeking behavior in the urban poor of Bangladesh: a GIS study.

    PubMed

    Panciera, Rocco; Khan, Akib; Rizvi, Syed Jafar Raza; Ahmed, Shakil; Ahmed, Tanvir; Islam, Rubana; Adams, Alayne M

    2016-08-22

    Availability of Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC) is crucial to avert maternal death due to life-threatening complications potentially arising during delivery. Research on the determinants of utilization of EmOC has neglected urban settings, where traffic congestion can pose a significant barrier to the access of EmOC facilities, particularly for the urban poor due to costly and limited transportation options. This study investigates the impact of travel time to EmOC facilities on the utilization of facility-based delivery services among mothers living in urban poor settlements in Sylhet, Bangladesh. A cross-sectional EmOC health-seeking behavior survey from 39 poor urban clusters was geo-spatially linked to a comprehensive geo-referenced dataset of EmOC facility locations. Geo-spatial techniques and logistic regression were then applied to quantify the impact of travel time on place of delivery (EmOC facility or home), while controlling for confounding socio-cultural and economic factors. Increasing travel time to the nearest EmOC facility is found to act as a strong deterrent to seeking care for the urban poor in Sylhet. Logistic regression results indicate that a 5-min increase in travel time to the nearest EmOC facility is associated with a 30 % decrease (0.655 odds ratio, 95 % CI: 0.529-0.811) in the likelihood of delivery at an EmOC facility rather than at home. Moreover, the impact of travel time varies substantially between public, NGO and private facilities. A 5-min increase in travel time from a private EmOC facility is associated with a 32.9 % decrease in the likelihood of delivering at a private facility, while for public and Non-Government Organizations (NGO) EmOC facilities, the impact is lower (28.2 and 28.6 % decrease respectively). Other strong determinants of delivery at an EmOC facility are the use of antenatal care and mother's formal education, while Muslim mothers are found to be more likely to deliver at home. Geospatial evidence points to

  5. QUARITE (quality of care, risk management and technology in obstetrics): a cluster-randomized trial of a multifaceted intervention to improve emergency obstetric care in Senegal and Mali

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Alexandre; Fournier, Pierre; Fraser, William; Haddad, Slim; Traore, Mamadou; Diop, Idrissa; Gueye, Mouhamadou; Gaye, Alioune; Couturier, François; Pasquier, Jean-Charles; Beaudoin, François; Lalonde, André; Hatem, Marie; Abrahamowicz, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Background Maternal and perinatal mortality are major problems for which progress in sub-Saharan Africa has been inadequate, even though childbirth services are available, even in the poorest countries. Reducing them is the aim of two of the main Millennium Development Goals. Many initiatives have been undertaken to remedy this situation, such as the Advances in Labour and Risk Management (ALARM) International Program, whose purpose is to improve the quality of obstetric services in low-income countries. However, few interventions have been evaluated, in this context, using rigorous methods for analyzing effectiveness in terms of health outcomes. The objective of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of the ALARM International Program (AIP) in reducing maternal mortality in referral hospitals in Senegal and Mali. Secondary goals include evaluation of the relationships between effectiveness and resource availability, service organization, medical practices, and satisfaction among health personnel. Methods/Design This is an international, multi-centre, controlled cluster-randomized trial of a complex intervention. The intervention is based on the concept of evidence-based practice and on a combination of two approaches aimed at improving the performance of health personnel: 1) Educational outreach visits; and 2) the implementation of facility-based maternal death reviews. The unit of intervention is the public health facility equipped with a functional operating room. On the basis of consent provided by hospital authorities, 46 centres out of 49 eligible were selected in Mali and Senegal. Using randomization stratified by country and by level of care, 23 centres will be allocated to the intervention group and 23 to the control group. The intervention will last two years. It will be preceded by a pre-intervention one-year period for baseline data collection. A continuous clinical data collection system has been set up in all participating centres. This, along

  6. Obstetric retrospect

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Louis A. C.

    1981-01-01

    A series of 818 consecutive obstetric patients in a general practice between 1946 and 1970 is analysed in detail. The findings are discussed in relation to other studies from general practice and to current obstetric hospital practice. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:6973630

  7. [Evolution of waiting time and length of stay between 2005 and 2012 in an obstetric and gynaecologic emergency unit in a French teaching hospital].

    PubMed

    Coutin, A-S; Vaucel, E

    2014-05-01

    To compare and analyze waiting time and length of stay between 2005 and 2012 in the obstetric and gynaecologic emergency unit of Nantes teaching hospital, new unit opened in 2004. Descriptive study from the registers over 2months' periods in 2005 and 2012. Despite an increase of the daily average number of visits from 28 to 39 (P<0.0001), the waiting time increased in obstetrics from 15minutes to 18 in 2012, P<0.03. In gynaecology, waiting time decreased in 2012 on daytime weekdays (37minutes versus 44) and increased on weekend (41minutes versus 28) and at night (37minutes versus 23) P<0.01. The length of stay was similar in obstetrics (108minutes versus 104) but reduced on daytime weekdays (124minutes in 2005, 109 in 2012, P<0.05). In gynaecology duration was similar (108minutes versus 105), but decreased on daytime weekdays (110minutes in 2005, 101 in 2012) and increased on overnight weekend (94minutes in 2005, 121 in 2012) (P<0.05). Our organization enabled to improve some lengths of time despite an increased activity. Those lengths of time should be monitored as they reflect our organizations and are indicators of efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Current evidence on basic emergency obstetric and newborn care services in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mirkuzie, Alemnesh H; Sisay, Mitike Molla; Reta, Alemnesh Tekelebirhan; Bedane, Mulu Muleta

    2014-10-10

    Emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC) is a high impact priority intervention highly recommended for improving maternal and neonatal health outcomes. In 2008, Ethiopia conducted a national EmONC survey that revealed implementation gaps, mainly due to resource constraints and poor competence among providers. As part of an ongoing project, this paper examined progress in the implementation of the basic EmONC (BEmONC) in Addis Ababa and compared with the 2008 survey. A facility based intervention project was conducted in 10 randomly selected public health centers (HCs) in Addis Ababa and baseline data collected on BEmONC status from January to March 2013. Retrospective routine record reviews and facility observations were done in 29 HCs in 2008 and in10 HCs in 2013. Twenty-five providers in 2008 and 24 in 2013 participated in BEmONC knowledge and skills assessment. All the data were collected using standard tools. Descriptive statistics and t-tests were used. In 2013, all the surveyed HCs had continuous water supply, reliable access to telephone, logbooks & phartograph. Fifty precent of the HCs in 2013 and 34% in 2008 had access to 24 hours ambulance services. The ratio of midwives to 100 expected births were 0.26 in 2008 and 10.3 in 2013. In 2008, 67% of the HCs had a formal fee waiver system while all the surveyed HCs had it in 2013. HCs reporting a consistent supply of uterotonic drugs were 85% in 2008 and 100% in 2013. The majority of the providers who participated in both surveys reported to have insufficient knowledge in diagnosing postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) and birth asphyxia as well as poor skills in neonatal resuscitation. Comparing with the 2008 survey, no significant improvements were observed in providers' knowledge and competence in 2013 on PPH management and essential newborn care (p > 0.05). There are advances in infrastructure, medical supplies and personnel for EmONC provision, yet poor providers' competences have persisted contributing to

  9. Existence and functionality of emergency obstetric care services at district level in Kenya: theoretical coverage versus reality.

    PubMed

    Echoka, Elizabeth; Kombe, Yeri; Dubourg, Dominique; Makokha, Anselimo; Evjen-Olsen, Bjørg; Mwangi, Moses; Byskov, Jens; Olsen, Øystein Evjen; Mutisya, Richard

    2013-03-25

    The knowledge on emergency obstetric care (EmOC) is limited in Kenya, where only partial data from sub-national studies exist. The EmOC process indicators have also not been integrated into routine health management information system to monitor progress in safe motherhood interventions both at national and lower levels of the health system. In a country with a high maternal mortality burden, the implication is that decision makers are unaware of the extent of need for life-saving care and, therefore, where to intervene. The objective of the study was to assess the actual existence and functionality of EmOC services at district level. This was a facility-based cross-sectional study. Data were collected from 40 health facilities offering delivery services in Malindi District, Kenya. Data presented are part of the "Response to accountable priority setting for trust in health systems" (REACT) study, in which EmOC was one of the service areas selected to assess fairness and legitimacy of priority setting in health care. The main outcome measures in this study were the number of facilities providing EmOC, their geographical distribution, and caesarean section rates in relation to World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Among the 40 facilities assessed, 29 were government owned, seven were private and four were voluntary organisations. The ratio of EmOC facilities to population size was met (6.2/500,000), compared to the recommended 5/500,000. However, using the strict WHO definition, none of the facilities met the EmOC requirements, since assisted delivery, by vacuum or forceps was not provided in any facility. Rural-urban inequities in geographical distribution of facilities were observed. The facilities were not providing sufficient life-saving care as measured by caesarean section rates, which were below recommended levels (3.7% in 2008 and 4.5% in 2009). The rates were lower in the rural than in urban areas (2.1% vs. 6.8%; p < 0.001 ) in 2008 and (2.7% vs

  10. Existence and functionality of emergency obstetric care services at district level in Kenya: theoretical coverage versus reality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The knowledge on emergency obstetric care (EmOC) is limited in Kenya, where only partial data from sub-national studies exist. The EmOC process indicators have also not been integrated into routine health management information system to monitor progress in safe motherhood interventions both at national and lower levels of the health system. In a country with a high maternal mortality burden, the implication is that decision makers are unaware of the extent of need for life-saving care and, therefore, where to intervene. The objective of the study was to assess the actual existence and functionality of EmOC services at district level. Methods This was a facility-based cross-sectional study. Data were collected from 40 health facilities offering delivery services in Malindi District, Kenya. Data presented are part of the “Response to accountable priority setting for trust in health systems” (REACT) study, in which EmOC was one of the service areas selected to assess fairness and legitimacy of priority setting in health care. The main outcome measures in this study were the number of facilities providing EmOC, their geographical distribution, and caesarean section rates in relation to World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Results Among the 40 facilities assessed, 29 were government owned, seven were private and four were voluntary organisations. The ratio of EmOC facilities to population size was met (6.2/500,000), compared to the recommended 5/500,000. However, using the strict WHO definition, none of the facilities met the EmOC requirements, since assisted delivery, by vacuum or forceps was not provided in any facility. Rural–urban inequities in geographical distribution of facilities were observed. The facilities were not providing sufficient life-saving care as measured by caesarean section rates, which were below recommended levels (3.7% in 2008 and 4.5% in 2009). The rates were lower in the rural than in urban areas (2.1% vs. 6

  11. Major obstetric hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Frederic J; Van de Velde, Marc

    2008-03-01

    Major obstetric hemorrhage remains the leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide, and is associated with a high rate of substandard care. A well-defined and multidisciplinary approach that aims to act quickly and avoid omissions or conflicting strategies is key. The most common etiologies of hemorrhage are abruptio placenta, placenta previa/accreta, uterine rupture in the antepartum period and retained placenta, uterine atony, and genital-tract trauma in the postpartum period. Basic treatment of postpartum hemorrhage relies on manual removal of the placenta or manual exploration of the uterus plus bladder emptying and oxytocin administration. If this does not arrest bleeding, or if there is any suspicion of genital-tract trauma, examination of the vagina and cervix with appropriate valves and analgesia/anesthesia must follow quickly. Postpartum uterine atony resistant to oxytocin must be treated with prostaglandin within 15 to 30 minutes; uterine balloon tamponade can be also useful at this stage. Aggressive transfusion therapy and resuscitation are mandatory in major obstetric hemorrhage. Specific invasive treatment must be considered within no more than 30 to 60 minutes, if previous measures have failed -- and even earlier in some particular etiologies. The two main options are radiologic embolization and surgical artery ligations. Recombinant factor VIIa may also be considered, but should not delay the performance of a life-saving procedure such as embolization or surgery. Hysterectomy must be implemented when all other interventions have failed.

  12. Obstetric life support.

    PubMed

    Puck, Andrea Lorraine; Oakeson, Ann Marie; Morales-Clark, Ana; Druzin, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    The death of a woman during pregnancy is devastating. Although the incidence of maternal cardiac arrest is increasing, it continues to be a comparatively rare event. Obstetric healthcare providers may go through their entire career without participating in a maternal cardiac resuscitation. Concern has been raised that when an arrest does occur in the obstetric unit, providers who are trained in life support skills at 2-year intervals are ill equipped to provide the best possible care. The quality of resuscitation skills provided during cardiopulmonary arrest of inpatients often may be poor, and knowledge of critical steps to be followed during resuscitation may not be retained after life support training. The Obstetric Life Support (ObLS) training program is a method of obstetric nursing and medical staff training that is relevant, comprehensive, and cost-effective. It takes into consideration both the care needs of the obstetric patient and the adult learning needs of providers. The ObLS program brings obstetric nurses, obstetricians, and anesthesiologists together in multidisciplinary team training that is crucial to developing efficient emergency response.

  13. The changing face of obstetric fistula surgery in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jeremy; Ayenachew, Fekade; Ballard, Karen D

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the incidence and type of obstetric fistula presenting to Hamlin Fistula Ethiopia over a 4-year period. Study design This is a 4-year retrospective survey of obstetric fistula treated at three Hamlin Fistula Hospitals in Ethiopia, where approximately half of all women in the country are treated. The operation logbook was reviewed to identify all new cases of obstetric fistula presenting from 2011 to 2015. New cases of urinary fistula were classified by fistula type (high or low), age, and parity of the woman. Results In total, 2,593 new cases of urinary fistulae were identified in the study period. The number of new cases fell by 20% per year over the 4 years (P<0.001). A total of 1,845 cases (71.1%) were low (ischemic) fistulae, and 804 cases (43.6%) of these had an extreme form of low circumferential fistula. A total of 638 (24.6%) women had a high bladder fistula, which predominantly occurs following surgery, specifically cesarean section or emergency hysterectomy, and 110 (4.2%) women had a ureteric fistula. The incidence of high fistulae increased over the study period from 26.9% to 36.2% (P<0.001). A greater proportion of multiparous women had a high bladder fistula (70.3%) compared with primigravid women (29.7%) (P<0.001). Conversely, a greater proportion of primiparous women experienced a low circumferential fistulae (68.6%) compared with multiparous women (31.4%) (P<0.001). Conclusion There appears to be a decline in the number of Ethiopian women being treated for new obstetric urinary fistulae. However, the type of fistula being presented for treatment is changing, with a rise in high fistulae that very likely occurred following cesarean section and a decline in the classic low fistulae that arise following obstructed childbirth. PMID:27445505

  14. Competence of birth attendants at providing emergency obstetric care under India's JSY conditional cash transfer program for institutional delivery: an assessment using case vignettes in Madhya Pradesh province.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Sarika; Upadhyay, Sourabh; De Costa, Ayesha

    2014-05-24

    Access to emergency obstetric care by competent staff can reduce maternal mortality. India has launched the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) conditional cash transfer program to promote institutional births. During implementation of the JSY, India witnessed a steep increase in the proportion of institutional deliveries-from 40% in 2004 to 73% in 2012. However, maternal mortality reduction follows a secular trend. Competent management of complications, when women deliver in facilities under the JSY, is essential for reduction in maternal mortality and therefore to a successful program outcome. We investigate, using clinical vignettes, whether birth attendants at institutions under the program are competent at providing appropriate care for obstetric complications. A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in three districts of Madhya Pradesh (MP) province. Written case vignettes for two obstetric complications, hemorrhage and eclampsia, were administered to 233 birth attendant nurses at 73 JSY facilities. Their competence at (a) initial assessment, (b) diagnosis, and (c) making decisions on appropriate first-line care for these complications was scored. The mean emergency obstetric care (EmOC) competence score was 5.4 (median = 5) on a total score of 20, and 75% of participants scored below 35% of the maximum score. The overall score, although poor, was marginally higher in respondents with Skilled Birth Attendant (SBA) training, those with general nursing and midwifery qualifications, those at higher facility levels, and those conducting >30 deliveries a month. In all, 14% of respondents were competent at assessment, 58% were competent at making a correct clinical diagnosis, and 20% were competent at providing first-line care. Birth attendants in the JSY facilities have low competence at EmOC provision. Hence, births in the JSY program cannot be considered to have access to competent EmOC. Urgent efforts are required to effectively increase the

  15. Hysterectomy for Benign Conditions of the Uterus: Total Abdominal Hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Moen, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Hysterectomy is the most common major gynecologic procedure. Although alternatives to hysterectomy result in fewer procedures performed annually, and the use of endoscopic techniques and vaginal hysterectomy have resulted in a lower percentage performed by the open abdominal route, certain pelvic disorders require abdominal hysterectomy. Preoperative evaluation with informed consent and surgical planning are essential to select appropriate candidates. Prophylactic antibiotics, thromboprophylaxis, attention to surgical technique, and enhanced recovery protocols should be used to provide optimal outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Massive delayed vaginal hemorrhage after laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Holloran-Schwartz, M Brigid; Potter, Shannon J; Kao, Ming-Shian

    2012-01-01

    Background. A known complication of supracervical hysterectomy is cyclical bleeding from the retained cervix when functioning endometrial tissue is not totally removed. We present a rare case of delayed postoperative vaginal hemorrhage after supracervical hysterectomy. Case. A 44-year-old woman presented on postoperative day 15 after laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy with massive vaginal hemorrhage requiring emergent re-operation. Her bleeding was controlled with vaginally placed sutures. Ultrasound confirmed no intraperitoneal free fluid. The etiology was thought to be induced by postoperative tissue necrosis from cautery applied to the endocervical canal during the original surgery. Conclusion. Delayed vaginal hemorrhage from a retained cervix is a rare complication of laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy. Caution should be exercised when cauterizing the endocervical canal as induced tissue necrosis may increase the risk of postoperative bleeding.

  17. Ovarian Cancer: Still Possible After Hysterectomy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer Is ovarian cancer still possible after a hysterectomy? Answers from Yvonne Butler Tobah, M.D. Yes, ... primary peritoneal cancer) if you've had a hysterectomy. Your risk depends on the type of hysterectomy ...

  18. Surgical site infection after hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lake, AeuMuro G.; McPencow, Alexandra M.; Dick-Biascoechea, Madeline A.; Martin, Deanna K.; Erekson, Elisabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to estimate the occurrence of surgical site infections (SSI) after hysterectomy and associated risk factors. Study Design We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the 2005-09 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program participant use data files to analyze hysterectomies. Different routes of hysterectomy were compared. The primary outcome was to identify the occurrence of 30-day superficial SSI (cellulitis) after hysterectomy. Secondary outcomes were the occurrence of deep and organ-space SSI after hysterectomy. Logistic regression models were conducted to further explore the associations of risks factors with SSI after hysterectomy. Results A total of 13,822 women were included in our final analysis. The occurrence of postoperative cellulitis after hysterectomy was 1.6% (n= 221). Risk factors associated with cellulitis were route of hysterectomy with an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 3.74 (95% CI 2.26-6.22) for laparotomy compared with the vaginal approach, operative time > 75th percentile (AOR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.40-2.44), American Society of Anesthesia Class ≥ 3 (AOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.31-2.43), body mass index ≥ 40kg/m2 (AOR 2.65, 95% CI 1.85-3.80), and diabetes mellitus (AOR 1.54, 95% CI 1.06-2.24) The occurrence of deep and organ-space SSI was 1.1% (n= 154) after hysterectomy. Conclusion Our finding of the decreased occurrence of superficial SSI after vaginal approach for hysterectomy reaffirms the role for vaginal hysterectomy as the route of choice for hysterectomy. PMID:23770467

  19. Hysterectomy for heavy menstrual bleeding.

    PubMed

    van der Meij, Eva; Emanuel, Mark Hans

    2016-01-01

    Hysterectomy is the most frequently performed major surgical intervention in gynecology. Although surgically removing the uterus is invasive, it represents the most definitive treatment option for heavy menstrual bleeding. In this article, we will discuss the indications for hysterectomy as a treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding, the different approaches to perform the hysterectomy, the complications which may occur during and after this procedure and finally the outcomes in comparison with other treatment options.

  20. Types of radical hysterectomies

    PubMed Central

    Marin, F; Plesca, M; Bordea, CI; Moga, MA; Blidaru, A

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The treatment for cervical cancer is a complex, multidisciplinary issue, which applies according to the stage of the disease. The surgical elective treatment of cervical cancer is represented by the radical abdominal hysterectomy. In time, many surgeons perfected this surgical technique; the ones who stood up for this idea were Thoma Ionescu and Ernst Wertheim. There are many varieties of radical hysterectomies performed by using the abdominal method and some of them through vaginal and mixed way. Each method employed has advantages and disadvantages. At present, there are three classifications of radical hysterectomies which are used for the simplification of the surgical protocols: Piver-Rutledge-Smith classification which is the oldest, GCG-EORTC classification and Querlow and Morrow classification. The last is the most evolved and recent classification; its techniques can be adapted for conservative operations and for different types of surgical approaches: abdominal, vaginal, laparoscopic or robotic. Abbreviations: GCG-EORTC = Gynecologic Cancer Group of the European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer; LEEP = loop electrosurgical excision procedure; I.O.B. = Institute of Oncology Bucharest; PRS = Piver-Rutledge-Smith PMID:25408722

  1. Updated Hysterectomy Surveillance and Factors Associated With Minimally Invasive Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Vitonis, Allison F.; Einarsson, Jon I.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The goal of this study is to obtain updated surveillance statistics for hysterectomy procedures in the United States and identify factors associated with undergoing a minimally invasive approach to hysterectomy. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of the 2009 United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample was performed. Subjects included all women aged 18 years or older who underwent hysterectomy of any type. Logistic regression and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the proportion of hysterectomies performed by various routes, as well as factors associated with undergoing minimally invasive surgery (laparoscopic, vaginal, or robotic). Results: A total of 479 814 hysterectomies were performed in the United States in 2009, 86.6% of which were performed for benign indications. Among the hysterectomies performed for benign indications, 56% were completed abdominally, 20.4% were performed laparoscopically, 18.8% were performed vaginally, and 4.5% were performed with robotic assistance. Factors associated with decreased odds of a minimally invasive hysterectomy included the following: minority race (P < .0001), fibroids (P < .0001), concomitant adnexal surgery (P < .0001), self-pay (P = .01) or Medicaid as insurer (P < .0001), and increased severity of illness (P < .0001). Factors associated with increased odds of a minimally invasive hysterectomy included the following: age >50 years (P < .0001), prolapse or menstrual disorder (P < .0001), median household income of $48 000–$62 999 (P = .007) or ≥$63 000 (P = .009), and location in the West (P = .02). A length of stay >1 day was most common in abdominal hysterectomy cases (96.1%), although total mean charges were highest for robotic cases ($38 161). Conclusion: The US hysterectomy incidence in 2009 decreased from prior years' reports, with an increasing frequency of laparoscopic and robotic approaches. Racial and socioeconomic factors influenced hysterectomy mode. PMID:25392662

  2. The End of the Hysterectomy Epidemic and Endometrial Cancer Incidence: What Are the Unintended Consequences of Declining Hysterectomy Rates?

    PubMed Central

    Temkin, Sarah M.; Minasian, Lori; Noone, Anne-Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Population-level cancer incidence rates are one measure to estimate the cancer burden. The goal is to provide information on trends to measure progress against cancer at the population level and identify emerging patterns signifying increased risk for additional research and intervention. Endometrial cancer is the most common of the gynecologic malignancies but capturing the incidence of disease among women at risk (i.e., women with a uterus) is challenging and not routinely published. Decreasing rates of hysterectomy increase the number of women at risk for disease, which should be reflected in the denominator of the incidence rate calculation. Furthermore, hysterectomy rates vary within the United States by multiple factors including geographic location, race, and ethnicity. Changing rates of hysterectomy are important to consider when looking at endometrial cancer trends. By correcting for hysterectomy when calculating incidence rates of cancers of the uterine corpus, many of the disparities that have been assumed for this disease are diminished. PMID:27148481

  3. Potentially Avoidable Peripartum Hysterectomies in Denmark: A Population Based Clinical Audit

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Lone; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Objective To audit the clinical management preceding peripartum hysterectomy and evaluate if peripartum hysterectomies are potentially avoidable and by which means. Material and Methods We developed a structured audit form based on explicit criteria for the minimal mandatory management of the specific types of pregnancy and delivery complications leading to peripartum hysterectomy. We evaluated medical records of the 50 Danish women with peripartum hysterectomy identified in the Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study 2009–2012 and made short narratives of all cases. Results The most frequent indication for hysterectomy was hemorrhage. The two main initial causes were abnormally invasive placenta (26%) and lacerations (26%). Primary atony was third and occurred in 20%. Before hysterectomy another 26% had secondary atony following complications such as lacerations, retained placental tissue or coagulation defects. Of the 50 cases, 24% were assessed to be avoidable and 30% potentially avoidable. Hysterectomy following primary and secondary atony was assessed to be avoidable in 4/10 and 4/13 cases, respectively. Early sufficient suturing of lacerations and uterine ruptures, as well as a more widespread use of intrauterine balloons alone or in combination with uterine compression sutures (the sandwich model), could presumably have prevented about one fourth of the peripartum hysterectomies. Conclusion More than 50% of peripartum hysterectomies seem to be avoidable by simple measures. In order to minimize the number of unnecessary peripartum hysterectomies, obstetricians and anesthesiologists should investigate individual cases by structured clinical audit, and disseminate and discuss the results for educational purposes. An international collaboration is warranted to strengthen our recommendations and reveal if they are generally applicable. PMID:27560802

  4. Knowledge and Skills of Healthcare Providers in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia before and after Competency-Based Training in Emergency Obstetric and Early Newborn Care

    PubMed Central

    Ameh, Charles A.; Kerr, Robert; Madaj, Barbara; Mdegela, Mselenge; Kana, Terry; Jones, Susan; Lambert, Jaki; Dickinson, Fiona; White, Sarah; van den Broek, Nynke

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthcare provider training in Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (EmOC&NC) is a component of 65% of intervention programs aimed at reducing maternal and newborn mortality and morbidity. It is important to evaluate the effectiveness of this. Methods We evaluated knowledge and skills among 5,939 healthcare providers before and after 3–5 days ‘skills and drills’ training in emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmOC&NC) conducted in 7 sub-Saharan Africa countries (Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Zimbabwe) and 2 Asian countries (Bangladesh, Pakistan). Standardised assessments using multiple choice questions and objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) were used to measure change in knowledge and skills and the Improvement Ratio (IR) by cadre and by country. Linear regression was performed to identify variables associated with pre-training score and IR. Results 99.7% of healthcare providers improved their overall score with a median (IQR) increase of 10.0% (5.0% - 15.0%) for knowledge and 28.8% (23.1% - 35.1%) for skill. There were significant improvements in knowledge and skills for each cadre of healthcare provider and for each country (p<0.05). The mean IR was 56% for doctors, 50% for mid-level staff and nurse-midwives and 38% for nursing-aides. A teaching job, previous in-service training, and higher percentage of work-time spent providing maternity care were each associated with a higher pre-training score. Those with more than 11 years of experience in obstetrics had the lowest scores prior to training, with mean IRs 1.4% lower than for those with no more than 2 years of experience. The largest IR was for recognition and management of obstetric haemorrhage (49–70%) and the smallest for recognition and management of obstructed labour and use of the partograph (6–15%). Conclusions Short in-service EmOC&NC training was associated with improved knowledge and skills for all cadres of healthcare providers working

  5. Knowledge and Skills of Healthcare Providers in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia before and after Competency-Based Training in Emergency Obstetric and Early Newborn Care.

    PubMed

    Ameh, Charles A; Kerr, Robert; Madaj, Barbara; Mdegela, Mselenge; Kana, Terry; Jones, Susan; Lambert, Jaki; Dickinson, Fiona; White, Sarah; van den Broek, Nynke

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare provider training in Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (EmOC&NC) is a component of 65% of intervention programs aimed at reducing maternal and newborn mortality and morbidity. It is important to evaluate the effectiveness of this. We evaluated knowledge and skills among 5,939 healthcare providers before and after 3-5 days 'skills and drills' training in emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmOC&NC) conducted in 7 sub-Saharan Africa countries (Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Zimbabwe) and 2 Asian countries (Bangladesh, Pakistan). Standardised assessments using multiple choice questions and objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) were used to measure change in knowledge and skills and the Improvement Ratio (IR) by cadre and by country. Linear regression was performed to identify variables associated with pre-training score and IR. 99.7% of healthcare providers improved their overall score with a median (IQR) increase of 10.0% (5.0% - 15.0%) for knowledge and 28.8% (23.1% - 35.1%) for skill. There were significant improvements in knowledge and skills for each cadre of healthcare provider and for each country (p<0.05). The mean IR was 56% for doctors, 50% for mid-level staff and nurse-midwives and 38% for nursing-aides. A teaching job, previous in-service training, and higher percentage of work-time spent providing maternity care were each associated with a higher pre-training score. Those with more than 11 years of experience in obstetrics had the lowest scores prior to training, with mean IRs 1.4% lower than for those with no more than 2 years of experience. The largest IR was for recognition and management of obstetric haemorrhage (49-70%) and the smallest for recognition and management of obstructed labour and use of the partograph (6-15%). Short in-service EmOC&NC training was associated with improved knowledge and skills for all cadres of healthcare providers working in maternity wards in both sub-Saharan Africa and

  6. Using international data to set benchmarks for morbidity outcomes after hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Meghana J; Alsop, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    To set an international benchmark for monitoring morbidity after hysterectomy. In a retrospective, observational study, data were assessed from women who underwent abdominal, vaginal, or laparoscopic hysterectomy in three countries (Australia, England, and the USA) between 2008 and 2012. The main outcome measures were length of stay (LOS), readmission, hemorrhage, and intraoperative conversion. Overall, 32 181 procedures were included. The intraoperative conversion rate from vaginal and laparoscopic to abdominal hysterectomy was 1.5%. The LOS was significantly higher after abdominal surgery (3 days) than after vaginal (2 days; P<0.001) or laparoscopic (1 day; P<0.001) surgery. LOS was also higher after conversion (3 days) than after vaginal and laparoscopic hysterectomy (P<0.001 for both). Conversion cases had the highest rate of hemorrhage (7.5% vs 2.4% for abdominal, 1.8% vaginal, and 1.2% laparoscopic) and readmission (5.0% vs 4.2% for abdominal, 3.1% vaginal, and 2.8% laparoscopic). The odds of readmission were higher after abdominal than after laparoscopic hysterectomy (odds ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.19-1.67; P<0.001). The morbidity associated with different surgical approaches to hysterectomy, including after intraoperative conversion, should be used as a benchmark. There is a need to measure and publish morbidity data after hysterectomy. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Safe total intrafascial laparoscopic (TAIL™) hysterectomy: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hohl, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    This study directly compares total intrafascial laparoscopic (TAIL™) hysterectomy with vaginal (VH) and abdominal (AH) hysterectomy with regard to safety, operating time and time of convalescence. The study is a prospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2), including data from patients of a single university-affiliated teaching institution, admitted between 1997 and 2008 for hysterectomy due to benign uterus pathology. Patient data were collected pre-, intra- and postoperatively and complications documented using a standardised data sheet of a Swiss obstetric and gynaecological study group (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Schweizerische Frauenkliniken, Amlikon/Switzerland). Classification of complications (major complications and minor complications) for all three operation techniques, evaluation of surgeons and comparison of operation times and days of hospitalisation were analysed. 3066 patients were included in this study. 993 patients underwent AH, 642 VH and 1,431 total intrafascial hysterectomy. No statistically significant difference for the operation times comparing the three groups can be demonstrated. The mean hospital stay in the TAIL™ hysterectomy, VH and AH groups is 5.8 ± 2.4, 8.8 ± 4.0 and 10.4 ± 3.9 days, respectively. The postoperative minor complications including infection rates are low in the TAIL™ hysterectomy group (3.8%) when compared with either the AH group (15.3%) or the VH group (11.2%), respectively. The total of minor complications is statistically significant lower for TAIL™ hysterectomy as for AH (O.R. 4.52, CI 3.25–6.31) or VH (O.R. 3.16, CI 2.16–4.62). Major haemorrhage with consecutive reoperation is observed statistically significantly more frequent in the AH group when compared to the TAIL™ hysterectomy group, with an O.R. of 6.13 (CI 3.05–12.62). Overall, major intra- and postoperative complications occur significant more frequently in the AH group (8.6%) when compared to the VH group (3

  8. Depression, anxiety, hostility and hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Ewalds-Kvist, S Béatrice M; Hirvonen, Toivo; Kvist, Mårten; Lertola, Kaarlo; Niemelä, Pirkko

    2005-09-01

    Sixty-five women (aged 32 - 54 yrs) were assessed at 2 months before to 8 months after total abdominal hysterectomy on four separate occasions. Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), Taylor's Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMAS), the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI), Measurement of Masculinity-Femininity (MF), Likert scales and semantic differentials for psychological, somatic and sexual factors varied as assessment tools. High-dysphoric and low-dysphoric women were compared with regard to hysterectomy outcomes. Married nulliparae suffered from enhanced depression post-surgery. Pre-surgery anxiety, back pain and lack of dyspareunia contributed to post-surgery anxiety. Pre-surgery anxiety was related to life crises. Pre- and post-surgery hostility occurred in conjunction with poor sexual gratification. Post-hysterectomy health improved, but quality of sexual relationship was impaired. Partner support and knowledge counteracted hysterectomy aftermath. Post-hysterectomy symptoms constituted a continuum to pre-surgery signs of depression, anxiety or hostility.

  9. Post-hysterectomy dyspareunia.

    PubMed

    Siedhoff, Matthew T; Carey, Erin T; Findley, Austin D; Hobbs, Kumari A; Moulder, Janelle K; Steege, John F

    2014-01-01

    When appropriately performed, hysterectomy most often contributes substantially to quality of life. Postoperative morbidity is minimal, in particular after minimally invasive surgery. In a minority of women, pain during intercourse is one of the more long-lasting sequelae of the procedure. Complete evaluation and treatment of this complication requires a thorough understanding of the status and function of neighboring organ systems and structures (urinary system, gastrointestinal tract, and pelvic and hip muscle groups). Successful resolution of dyspareunia often may be facilitated with review of the patient's previous degree of comfort during sex and the nature of her relationship with her partner. Repeat surgery is needed in a small minority of patients.

  10. Elective cesarean hysterectomy for treatment of cervical neoplasia. An update.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, M S; Roberts, W S; Fiorica, J V; Angel, J L; Finan, M A; Cavanagh, D

    1993-03-01

    From January 1, 1979, to March 31, 1991, 37 patients underwent elective cesarean hysterectomy for early cervical neoplasia. Thirty-four patients had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III, and three patients had stage IA-1 squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Twenty-eight were primary cesarean sections; nine had obstetric indications. The mean operative time was 128 minutes; mean estimated blood loss was 1,400 mL. One patient experienced an intraoperative hemorrhage (3,500 mL). There were no other recognized intraoperative complications. Four significant postoperative complications included a vaginal cuff abscess, a wound dehiscence and pelvic abscess, one patient with febrile morbidity and an ileus and ligation with partial transection of a ureter. Patients were discharged on a mean of postoperative day 5.7. Although significant complications occurred, we believe that the noncompliant nature of our patient population justifies elective cesarean hysterectomy for treatment of cervical neoplasia.

  11. Vaginal hysterectomy for pelvic organ prolapse in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sah, D K; Doshi, N R; Das, C R

    2010-01-01

    UVP is a significant Public Health Problem in Nepal. This problem is mainly prevalent in rural areas where the women are socio--economically less privileged and cannot afford the costs of treatment. An analysis of peri operative and post operative complications of vaginal hysterectomies for pelvic organ prolapse. A hospital based prospective study was carried out in the department of obstetrics and gynaecology, NGMC followed up from the time of operation to time of discharge. 632 cases underwent vaginal hysterectomy with financial support from UNFPA. There were no operative complications. The most common post operative complications as noted were retention of urine, pelvic infection & pelvic abscess. In two cases laparotomy was done for haemoperitoneum. Pelvic abscess was drained vaginally. Mortality was nil. Proper screening before operation is the key to reduce operative as well as peri operative complications.

  12. The effect of a multidisciplinary obstetric emergency team training program, the In Time course, on diagnosis to delivery interval following umbilical cord prolapse - A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Copson, Sean; Calvert, Katrina; Raman, Puvaneswary; Nathan, Elizabeth; Epee, Mathias

    2017-06-01

    Cord prolapse is an uncommon obstetric emergency, with potentially fatal consequences for the baby if prompt action is not taken. Simulation training provides a means by which uncommon emergencies can be practised, with the aim of improving teamwork and clinical outcomes. This study aimed to determine if the introduction of a simulation-based training course was associated with an improvement in the management of cord prolapse, in particular the diagnosis to delivery interval. We also aimed to investigate if an improvement in perinatal outcomes could be demonstrated. A retrospective cohort study was performed. All cases of cord prolapse in the designated time period were identified and reviewed and a comparison of outcome measures pre- and post-training was undertaken. Thirty-one cases were identified in the pre-training period, and compared to 64 cases post-training. Documentation improved significantly post-training. There were non-significant improvements in use of spinal anaesthetic, and in the length of stay in the special care neonatal unit. There was a significant increase in the number of babies with Apgar scores less than seven at 5 min. There were no differences in the diagnosis to delivery interval, or in perinatal mortality rates. Obstetric emergency training was associated with improved teamwork, as evidenced by the improved documentation post-training in this study, but not with improved diagnosis to delivery interval. Long-term follow-up studies are required to ascertain whether training has an impact on longer-term paediatric outcomes, such as cerebral palsy rates. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. Impact of a low-technology simulation-based obstetric and newborn care training scheme on non-emergency delivery practices in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Walton, Anna; Kestler, Edgar; Dettinger, Julia C; Zelek, Sarah; Holme, Francesca; Walker, Dilys

    2016-03-01

    To assess the effect of a low-technology simulation-based training scheme for obstetric and perinatal emergency management (PRONTO; Programa de Rescate Obstétrico y Neonatal: Tratamiento Óptimo y Oportuno) on non-emergency delivery practices at primary level clinics in Guatemala. A paired cross-sectional birth observation study was conducted with a convenience sample of 18 clinics (nine pairs of intervention and control clinics) from June 28 to August 7, 2013. Outcomes included implementation of practices known to decrease maternal and/or neonatal mortality and improve patient care. Overall, 25 and 17 births occurred in intervention and control clinics, respectively. Active management of the third stage of labor was appropriately performed by 20 (83%) of 24 intervention teams versus 7 (50%) of 14 control teams (P=0.015). Intervention teams implemented more practices to decrease neonatal mortality than did control teams (P<0.001). Intervention teams ensured patient privacy in 23 (92%) of 25 births versus 11 (65%) of 17 births for control teams (P=0.014). All 15 applicable intervention teams kept patients informed versus 6 (55%) of 11 control teams (P=0.001). Differences were also noted in teamwork; in particular, skill-based tools were used more often at intervention sites than control sites (P=0.012). Use of PRONTO enhanced non-emergency delivery care by increasing evidence-based practice, patient-centered care, and teamwork. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Emergency cervical cerclage after miscarriage of the first fetus in dichorionic twin pregnancies: obstetric and neonatal outcomes of delayed delivery interval.

    PubMed

    Petousis, Stamatios; Goutzioulis, Antonios; Margioula-Siarkou, Chrysoula; Katsamagkas, Taxiarchis; Kalogiannidis, Ioannis; Agorastos, Theodoros

    2012-09-01

    To study the effectiveness of emergency cervical cerclage in order to delay the delivery interval after miscarriage of the first fetus in dichorionic twin pregnancies. Dichorionic twin pregnancies after miscarriage of the first fetus (<24 weeks) were exclusively included in the present analysis. Prolongation of delivery interval was managed with additional emergency cervical cerclage in the already initiated tocolytic therapy. Obstetric outcomes (cervical dilatation, gestational age at delivery of the first twin, interval between miscarriage and delivery of the second fetus) and neonatal outcomes [neonatal birth weight, Apgar score in the first and fifth minute, admission to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)] of the second twin were analyzed. Five cases of dichorionic twin pregnancies were included in our study. Cervical dilatation (mean ± SD) at admission time was 3.7 ± 1.4 cm. The gestational week at delivery of the first twin was 20.6 ± 2.6. The median delivery interval was 72 days and the maximum 121 days. Mean gestational age at delivery of the second twin was 28.8 ± 7.2 weeks and mean birth weight 1,772.5 ± 742 g. The rate of live birth was 80 %, while NICU admission was demanded in 75 % of the live births. All neonates discharged from NICU remained alive after 1 month of life. The present study demonstrated beneficial effect concerning obstetric and neonatal outcomes of the second twin after performing emergency cervical cerclage to postpone the delivery interval in premature dichorionic twin pregnancies.

  15. Factors Contributing to Massive Blood Loss on Peripartum Hysterectomy for Abnormally Invasive Placenta: Who Bleeds More?

    PubMed Central

    Usui, Rie; Suzuki, Hirotada; Baba, Yosuke

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. To identify factors that determine blood loss during peripartum hysterectomy for abnormally invasive placenta (AIP-hysterectomy). Methods. We reviewed all of the medical charts of 11,919 deliveries in a single tertiary perinatal center. We examined characteristics of AIP-hysterectomy patients, with a single experienced obstetrician attending all AIP-hysterectomies and using the same technique. Results. AIP-hysterectomy was performed in 18 patients (0.15%: 18/11,919). Of the 18, 14 (78%) had a prior cesarean section (CS) history and the other 4 (22%) were primiparous women. Planned AIP-hysterectomy was performed in 12/18 (67%), with the remaining 6 (33%) undergoing emergent AIP-hysterectomy. Of the 6, 4 (4/6: 67%) patients were primiparous women. An intra-arterial balloon was inserted in 9/18 (50%). Women with the following three factors significantly bled less in AIP-hysterectomy than its counterpart: the employment of an intra-arterial balloon (4,448 ± 1,948 versus 8,861 ± 3,988 mL), planned hysterectomy (5,003 ± 2,057 versus 9,957 ± 4,485 mL), and prior CS (5,706 ± 2,727 versus 9,975 ± 5,532 mL). Patients with prior CS (−) bled more: this may be because these patients tended to undergo emergent surgery or attempted placental separation. Conclusion. Patients with intra-arterial balloon catheter insertion bled less on AIP-hysterectomy. Massive bleeding occurred in emergent AIP-hysterectomy without prior CS. PMID:27630716

  16. [Airway management in obstetrics].

    PubMed

    Boutonnet, M; Faitot, V; Keïta, H

    2011-09-01

    Reviewing problems related to the airway management in obstetrics, taking into account the recent evolutions of the anaesthetic practices in obstetrics. A review of the literature in English and French was performed in the Pumed database in April 2010. The first research used the following MeshTerms: "Anesthesia, Obstetrical" [Mesh] AND "Intubation, Intratracheal" [Mesh]. Complementary research used alone or in combination the following keywords: difficult tracheal intubation; failed tracheal intubation; airway; prediction of difficult tracheal intubation; maternal mortality; maternal morbidity; liability; aspiration pneumonia and obstetrical anesthesia. All the publications were retained excluding the correspondence. Data analysis for the airway management in obstetrics, the prediction of difficult intubation, the prevention of pulmonary inhalation of gastric fluid, but also on maternal morbi-mortality in link with general anesthesia in obstetrics. Airway management in obstetrics remains a true challenge for various reasons. The physiological and anatomical modifications related to pregnancy are responsible for a faster hypoxemia, a reduction of the diameter of the pharyngolaryngal tract, as well as an increase of the risk of inhalation of gastric contents after 16 weeks of amenorrhea. The emergency or extreme emergency context and the presence of diseases like obesity or preeclampsia raise the risks of difficulties with airway management. The logical evolution of the practices, with the considerable rise of the regional anesthesia/analgesia limits the training and the maintenance of competences for intratracheal intubation in obstetrics. The training per simulation appears particularly interesting on the subject and this approach needs to be developed. The literature indicates that the incidence of difficult intubation is of one per 30. The impossible intubation is one per 280 in obstetrics, eight times greater than in the general population. No criterion of

  17. Haemorrhagia post partum; an implementation study on the evidence-based guideline of the Dutch Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (NVOG) and the MOET (Managing Obstetric Emergencies and Trauma-course) instructions; the Fluxim study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background One of the most important causes of maternal mortality and severe morbidity worldwide is post partum haemorrhage (PPH). Factors as substandard care are frequently reported in the international literature and there are similar reports in the Netherlands. The incidence of PPH in the Dutch population is 5% containing 10.000 women a year. The introduction of an evidence-based guideline on PPH by the Dutch society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (NVOG) and the initiation of the MOET course (Managing Obstetrics Emergencies and Trauma) did not lead to a reduction of PPH. This implies the possibility of an incomplete implementation of both the NVOG guideline and MOET-instructions. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop and test a tailored strategy to implement both the NVOG guideline and MOET-instructions Methods/Design One step in the development procedure is to evaluate the implementation of the guideline and MOET-instructions in the current care. Therefore measurement of the actual care will be performed in a representative sample of 20 hospitals. This will be done by prospective observation of the third stage of labour of 320 women with a high risk of PPH using quality indicators extracted from the NVOG guideline and MOET instructions. In the next step barriers and facilitators for guideline adherence will be analyzed by performance of semi structured interviews with 30 professionals and 10 patients, followed by a questionnaire study among all Dutch gynaecologists and midwives to quantify the barriers mentioned. Based on the outcomes, a tailored strategy to implement the NVOG guideline and MOET-instructions will be developed and tested in a feasibility study in 4 hospitals, including effect-, process- and cost evaluation. Discussion This study will provide insight into current Dutch practice, in particular to what extent the PPH guidelines of the NVOG and the MOET-instructions have been implemented in the actual care, and into the barriers and

  18. Hysterectomy Does Not Cause Constipation

    PubMed Central

    van der Bom, Johanna G.; van der Vaart, C. Huub

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to evaluate the risk on development and persistence of constipation after hysterectomy. Methods We conducted a prospective, observational, multicenter study with three-year follow-up in 13 teaching and nonteaching hospitals in the Netherlands. A total of 413 females who underwent hysterectomy for benign disease other than symptomatic uterine prolapse were included. All patients underwent vaginal hysterectomy, subtotal abdominal hysterectomy, or total abdominal hysterectomy. A validated disease-specific quality-of-life questionnaire was completed before and three years after surgery to assess the presence of constipation. Results Of the 413 included patients, 344 (83 percent) responded at three-year follow-up. Constipation had developed in 7 of 309 patients (2 percent) without constipation before surgery and persisted in 16 of 35 patients (46 percent) with constipation before surgery. Preservation of the cervix seemed to be associated with an increased risk of the development of constipation (relative risk, 6.6; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.3–33.3; P = 0.02). Statistically significant risk factors for the persistence of constipation could not be identified. Conclusions Hysterectomy does not seem to cause constipation. In nearly half of the patients reporting constipation before hysterectomy, this symptom will disappear. PMID:18443878

  19. Hysterectomy trends in Australia, 2000-2001 to 2013-2014: joinpoint regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Louise F; Pandeya, Nirmala; Mishra, Gita D

    2017-10-01

    Hysterectomy is a common gynecological procedure, particularly in middle and high income countries. The aim of this paper was to describe and examine hysterectomy trends in Australia from 2000-2001 to 2013-2014. For women aged 25 years and over, data on the number of hysterectomies performed in Australia annually were sourced from the National Hospital and Morbidity Database. Age-specific and age-standardized hysterectomy rates per 10 000 women were estimated with adjustment for hysterectomy prevalence in the population. Using joinpoint regression analysis, we estimated the average annual percentage change over the whole study period (2000-2014) and the annual percentage change for each identified trend line segment. A total of 431 162 hysterectomy procedures were performed between 2000-2001 and 2013-2014; an annual average of 30 797 procedures (for women aged 25+ years). The age-standardized hysterectomy rate, adjusted for underlying hysterectomy prevalence, decreased significantly over the whole study period [average annual percentage change -2.8%; 95% confidence interval (CI) -3.5%, -2.2%]. The trend was not linear with one joinpoint detected in 2008-2009. Between 2000-2001 and 2008-2009 there was a significant decrease in incidence (annual percentage change -4.4%; 95% CI -5.2%, -3.7%); from 2008-2009 to 2013-2014 the decrease was minimal and not significantly different from zero (annual percentage change -0.1%; 95% CI -1.7%, 1.5%). A similar change in trend was seen in all age groups. Hysterectomy rates in Australian women aged 25 years and over have declined in the first decade of the 21st century. However, in the last 5 years, rates appear to have stabilized. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Population-based risk for peripartum hysterectomy during low- and moderate-risk delivery hospitalizations.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Alexander M; Wright, Jason D; Ananth, Cande V; Siddiq, Zainab; D'Alton, Mary E; Bateman, Brian T

    2016-11-01

    Postpartum hysterectomy is an obstetric procedure that carries significant maternal risk that is not well characterized by hospital volume. The objective of this study was to determine risk for peripartum hysterectomy for women at low and moderate risk for the procedure. This population-based study used data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to characterize risk for peripartum hysterectomy. Women with a diagnosis of placenta accreta or prior cesarean and placenta previa were excluded. Obstetrical risk factors along with demographic and hospital factors were evaluated. Multivariable mixed-effects log-linear regression models were developed to determine adjusted risk. Based on these models receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted, and the area under the curve was determined to assess discrimination. Peripartum hysterectomy occurred in 1 in 1913 deliveries. Risk factors associated with significant risk for hysterectomy included mode of delivery, stillbirth, placental abruption, fibroids, and antepartum hemorrhage. These factors retained their significance in adjusted models: the risk ratio for stillbirth was 3.44 (95% confidence interval, 2.94-4.02), abruption 2.98 (95% confidence interval, 2.52-3.20), fibroids 3.63 (95% confidence interval, 3.22-4.08), and antepartum hemorrhage 7.15 (95% confidence interval, 6.16-8.32). The area under the curve for the model was 0.833. Peripartum hysterectomy is a relatively common event that hospitals providing routine obstetric care should be prepared to manage. That specific risk factors are highly associated with risk for hysterectomy supports routine use of hemorrhage risk-assessment tools. However, given that a significant proportion of hysterectomies will be unpredictable, the availability of rapid transfusion protocols may be necessary for hospitals to safely manage these cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Quality of care for obstetric emergencies in 4 general hospitals in Egypt: an observational study of delays in receiving care and blood bank services.

    PubMed

    Nada, K H; Barakat, A A; Gipson, R

    2011-01-01

    A lack of available blood contributes to 16% of all maternal deaths in Egypt. This study aimed to assess the quality of care for obstetric emergencies in 4 general hospitals in Egypt over a 6-month period with the focus on delays in receiving care and blood bank services. Observations were made of the processes and delays in the clinical setting, from the start of each patient's complaint until discharge, and the receipt and filling of orders for blood at the blood bank. Patients failed to recognize danger signs. Lack of transportation, incorrect choice of provider or facility and unclear referral systems added further delays. Delays occurred in hospital admission, assessment of patients, initiation of resuscitation, initiation of medical or surgical interventions, ordering blood, J receipt of blood and administration of blood to patients. The blood ordering procedures were substandard. Lack of blood availability had multidisciplinary causes.

  2. Laparoscopy-to-laparotomy quotient in obstetrics and gynecology residency programs.

    PubMed

    Sami Walid, M; Heaton, Richard L

    2011-05-01

    Laparoscopic skills are indispensable to the practice of present-day gynecologists. Hence, we investigated the share of minimal invasive surgery in the training of obstetricians and gynecologists. Information on resident experience from 197 obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN) residency programs was obtained from the Association of Professors of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Over a period of 4 years, an OBGYN resident performs--as surgeon or assistant--on average 190 abdominal procedures including 111 abdominal hysterectomies as well as 53 vaginal hysterectomies and 95 operative laparoscopic procedures with or without hysterectomy. The average laparoscopy-tolaparotomy quotient (LPQ) is 0.54, and the average vaginal-to-abdominal hysterectomy quotient (VAQ) is 0.50. More attention to minimal invasive surgery is needed in OBGYN residency programs.

  3. 'Maybe it was her fate and maybe she ran out of blood': final caregivers' perspectives on access to care in obstetric emergencies in rural Indonesia.

    PubMed

    D'Ambruoso, Lucia; Byass, Peter; Qomariyah, Siti Nurul

    2010-03-01

    Maternal mortality persists in low-income settings despite preventability with skilled birth attendance and emergency obstetric care. Poor access limits the effectiveness of life-saving interventions and is typical of maternal health care in low-income settings. This paper examines access to care in obstetric emergencies from the perspectives of service users, using established and contemporary theoretical frameworks of access and a routine health surveillance method. The implications for health planning are also considered. The final caregivers of 104 women who died during pregnancy or childbirth were interviewed in two rural districts in Indonesia using an adapted verbal autopsy. Qualitative analysis revealed social and economic barriers to access and barriers that arose from the health system itself. Health insurance for the poor was highly problematic. For providers, incomplete reimbursements, and low public pay, acted as disincentives to treat the poor. For users, the schemes were poorly socialized and understood, complicated to use and led to lower quality care. Services, staff, transport, equipment and supplies were also generally unavailable or unaffordable. The multiple barriers to access conferred a cumulative disadvantage that culminated in exclusion. This was reflected in expressions of powerlessness and fatalism regarding the deaths. The analysis suggests that conceiving of access as a structurally determined, complex and dynamic process, and as a reciprocally maintained phenomenon of disadvantaged groups, may provide useful explanatory concepts for health planning. Health planning from this perspective may help to avoid perpetuating exclusion on social and economic grounds, by health systems and services, and help foster a sense of control at the micro-level, among peoples' feelings and behaviours regarding their health. Verbal autopsy surveys provide an opportunity to routinely collect information on the exclusory mechanisms of health systems

  4. Availability of drugs and medical supplies for emergency obstetric care: experience of health facility managers in a rural District of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Provision of quality emergency obstetric care relies upon the presence of skilled health attendants working in an environment where drugs and medical supplies are available when needed and in adequate quantity and of assured quality. This study aimed to describe the experience of rural health facility managers in ensuring the timely availability of drugs and medical supplies for emergency obstetric care (EmOC). Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with a total of 17 health facility managers: 14 from dispensaries and three from health centers. Two members of the Council Health Management Team and one member of the Council Health Service Board were also interviewed. A survey of health facilities was conducted to supplement the data. All the materials were analysed using a qualitative thematic analysis approach. Results Participants reported on the unreliability of obtaining drugs and medical supplies for EmOC; this was supported by the absence of essential items observed during the facility survey. The unreliability of obtaining drugs and medical supplies was reported to result in the provision of untimely and suboptimal EmOC services. An insufficient budget for drugs from central government, lack of accountability within the supply system and a bureaucratic process of accessing the locally mobilized drug fund were reported to contribute to the current situation. Conclusion The unreliability of obtaining drugs and medical supplies compromises the timely provision of quality EmOC. Multiple approaches should be used to address challenges within the health system that prevent access to essential drugs and supplies for maternal health. There should be a special focus on improving the governance of the drug delivery system so that it promotes the accountability of key players, transparency in the handling of information and drug funds, and the participation of key stakeholders in decision making over the allocation of locally collected drug funds. PMID

  5. Availability of drugs and medical supplies for emergency obstetric care: experience of health facility managers in a rural District of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mkoka, Dickson Ally; Goicolea, Isabel; Kiwara, Angwara; Mwangu, Mughwira; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2014-03-19

    Provision of quality emergency obstetric care relies upon the presence of skilled health attendants working in an environment where drugs and medical supplies are available when needed and in adequate quantity and of assured quality. This study aimed to describe the experience of rural health facility managers in ensuring the timely availability of drugs and medical supplies for emergency obstetric care (EmOC). In-depth interviews were conducted with a total of 17 health facility managers: 14 from dispensaries and three from health centers. Two members of the Council Health Management Team and one member of the Council Health Service Board were also interviewed. A survey of health facilities was conducted to supplement the data. All the materials were analysed using a qualitative thematic analysis approach. Participants reported on the unreliability of obtaining drugs and medical supplies for EmOC; this was supported by the absence of essential items observed during the facility survey. The unreliability of obtaining drugs and medical supplies was reported to result in the provision of untimely and suboptimal EmOC services. An insufficient budget for drugs from central government, lack of accountability within the supply system and a bureaucratic process of accessing the locally mobilized drug fund were reported to contribute to the current situation. The unreliability of obtaining drugs and medical supplies compromises the timely provision of quality EmOC. Multiple approaches should be used to address challenges within the health system that prevent access to essential drugs and supplies for maternal health. There should be a special focus on improving the governance of the drug delivery system so that it promotes the accountability of key players, transparency in the handling of information and drug funds, and the participation of key stakeholders in decision making over the allocation of locally collected drug funds.

  6. Post-operative anxiety, depression and psychiatric support in patients undergoing hysterectomy: A cross sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Raza, Nahal; Waqas, Ahmed; Jamal, Mehak

    2015-04-01

    Hysterectomy is a frequently performed gynaecological procedure in Pakistan. This surgical procedure is a very stressful event for Pakistani women suffering from severe gynecological diseases and complications. It is also associated with a high incidence of anxiety and depression. Several studies in the West have reported an improvement in symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients undergoing hysterectomy. But this situation might be different in low resource countries like Pakistan where it is usually associated with myths, life threatening complications and obstetric abnormalities. Psychiatric support for these women is almost non-existent in general surgical settings.

  7. Preoperative teaching and hysterectomy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Oetker-Black, Sharon L; Jones, Susan; Estok, Patricia; Ryan, Marian; Gale, Nancy; Parker, Carla

    2003-06-01

    This study used a theoretical model to determine whether an efficacy-enhancing teaching protocol was effective in improving immediate postoperative behaviors and selected short- and long-term health outcomes in women who underwent abdominal hysterectomies. The model used was the self-efficacy theory of Albert Bandura, PhD. One hundred eight patients in a 486-bed teaching hospital in the Midwest who underwent hysterectomies participated. The participation rate was 85%, and the attrition rate was 17% during the six-month study. The major finding was that participants in the efficacy-enhancing teaching group ambulated significantly longer than participants in the usual care group. This is an important finding because the most prevalent postoperative complications after hysterectomy are atelectasis, pneumonia, paralytic ileus, and deep vein thrombosis, and postoperative ambulation has been shown to decrease or prevent all of these complications. This finding could affect the overall health status of women undergoing hysterectomies.

  8. Transthoracic echocardiography in obstetric anaesthesia and obstetric critical illness.

    PubMed

    Dennis, A T

    2011-04-01

    Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is a powerful non-invasive diagnostic, monitoring and measurement device in medicine. In addition to cardiologists, many other specialised groups, including emergency and critical care physicians and cardiac anaesthetists, have recognised its ability to provide high quality information and utilise TTE in the care of their patients. In obstetric anaesthesia and management of obstetric critical illness, the favourable characteristics of pregnant women facilitate TTE examination. These include anterior and left lateral displacement of the heart, frequent employment of the left lateral tilted position to avoid aortocaval compression, spontaneous ventilation and wide acceptance of ultrasound technology by women. Of relevance to obstetric anaesthetists is that maternal morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease is significant worldwide. This makes TTE an appropriate, important and applicable device in pregnant women. Clinician-performed TTE enables differentiation between the life-threatening causes of hypotension. In the critically ill woman this improves diagnostic accuracy and allows treatment interventions to be instituted and monitored at the point of patient care. This article outlines the application of TTE in the specialty of obstetric anaesthesia and in the management of obstetric critical illness. It describes the importance of TTE education, quality assurance and outcome recording. It also discusses how barriers to the routine implementation of TTE in obstetric anaesthesia and management of obstetric critical illness can be overcome.

  9. Factors Associated With Peripartum Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Bodelon, Clara; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Schiff, Melissa A.; Reed, Susan D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify factors associated with peripartum hysterectomy performed within 30 days postpartum. Methods This was a population-based case-control study using Washington State birth certificate registry (1987-2006) linked to the Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System (CHARS). Cases underwent hysterectomy within 30 days postpartum. Controls were frequency matched 4:1. Exposures included factors related to hemorrhage, delivery method, multiple gestations, and infection. Incidence rates of peripartum hysterectomy and maternal and neonatal morbidity/mortality were assessed. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) by maternal age, parity, gestational age, year of birth, and mode of delivery and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed. Results There were 896 hysterectomies. Incidence rates ranged from 0.25 in 1987to 0.82 per 1,000 deliveries in 2006 (χ2 for trend, p<0.001). Factors related to hemorrhage were strongly related to peripartum hysterectomy. Placenta previa (192 cases vs. 23 controls; aOR=7.9, 95% CI: 4.1– 15.0), abruptio placenta (71 vs. 55; aOR=3.2, 95% CI: 1.8–5.8), and retained placenta (214 vs. 28; aOR=43.0, 95% CI: 19.0–97.7) increased the risk of hysterectomy, as did uterine atony, uterine rupture, and thrombocytopenia. Having multiple gestations did not. As compared with vaginal delivery, vaginal delivery after cesarean (27 cases vs. 105 controls; aOR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.2–3.0), primary cesarean (270 vs. 504; aOR=4.6, 95% CI: 3.5–6.0), and repeat cesarean (296 vs. 231; aOR=7.9, 95% CI: 5.8-10.7) increased the risk of peripartum hysterectomy. Among the 111 women who had hysterectomy on readmission (12.8% of cases), hemorrhage- and infection-related factors were still strongly associated with peripartum hysterectomy. Conclusion Incidence rates of peripartum hysterectomy are increasing over time. The most important risk factor for peripartum hysterectomy is hemorrhage, most notably caused by uterine rupture, retained placenta, and atony of

  10. Long-term incidence of hysterectomy following endometrial resection or endometrial ablation for heavy menstrual bleeding.

    PubMed

    Kalampokas, Emmanouil; McRobbie, Sarah; Payne, Fiona; Parkin, David E

    2017-10-01

    To estimate the incidence of hysterectomy following endometrial resection or endometrial ablation (ERA). The present retrospective study enrolled women who underwent ERA for benign heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) at Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, UK, between February 1, 1990, and December 31, 1997; follow-up data to the end of 2015 were included from the pathology laboratory report system from the single pathology laboratory in the region. Data were compared between patients who did or did not require a hysterectomy after ERA. There were 901 patients who underwent ERA for HMB during the study period. The mean age of patients was 42.3 ± 5.7 years; of the patients included, 206 (22.9%) women underwent hysterectomy and these patients had a mean age of 40.1 years. Of the patients who had hysterectomies, 155 (75.2%) did so in the first 5 years following ERA, 31 (15.0%) did within 6-10 years, 11 (5.3%) did within 11-15 years, and 9 (4.4%) did within 16-20 years. In total, 51 (24.8%) of these patients had hysterectomies within 6-25 years of ERA. A significant majority of women who underwent ERA for HMB did not require hysterectomy up to 25 years after the procedure. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  11. [Hysterectomy for benign gynaecological disease: Surgical approach, vaginal suture method and morcellation: Guidelines].

    PubMed

    Gauthier, T; Huet, S; Marcelli, M; Lamblin, G; Chêne, G

    2015-12-01

    To provide clinical practice guidelines from the French college of obstetrics and gynaecology (CNGOF), based on the best evidence available, concerning the surgical approach, the vaginal suture method, the surgeon's experience and morcellation to avoid complications with hysterectomy for benign gynaecological disease. English and French review of literature about complications with hysterectomy for benign gynaecological disease, excluding cancer. For benign gynaecological disease, vaginal (VH) or laparoscopic (LH) hysterectomy are recommended (grade B). In case of big uterus, VH or LH are recommended (grade C). VH is not contraindicated in nulliparous (Grade C). VH is not contraindicated in case of previous caesarean (grade C). In obese women, VH and LH are recommended (grade C). It should be recommended to perform at least 30 hysterectomies during learning curve (grade C). Hysterectomy should be performed by surgeon doing at least 10 hysterectomies each year (grade C). No vaginal suture method is recommended (grade C). It is recommended to assess cancer risk before (histological sample and/or imagery) when morcellation is planned (expert opinion). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Turkish hysterectomy and mastectomy patients - depression, body image, sexual problems and spouse relationships.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Gulseren; Gumus, Aysun Babacan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare hysterectomy and mastectomy patients in terms of depression, body image, sexual problems and spouse relations. The study group comprised 94 patients being treated in Ege University Radiation Oncology Clinic, Tulay Aktas Oncology Hospital, Izmir Aegean Obstetrics and Gynecology Training and Research Hospital for breast and gynecological cancer (42 patients underwent mastectomy, 52 patient underwent hysterectomy). Five scales were used in the study: Sociodemographic Data Form, Beck Depression Scale, Body Image Scale, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Golombok Rust Sexual Functions Scale. Mastectomy patients were more depressive than hysterectomy patients (t = 2.78, p < 0.01). Body image levels of the patients were bad but there was no significant difference between the two patient groups (p > 0.05). Hysterectomy patients had more problems in terms of vaginismus (t = 2.32, p < 0.05), avoidance of sexual intercourse (t = 2.31, p < 0.05), communication (t = 2.06, p < 0.05), and frequency of sexual intercourse than mastectomy patients (t = 2.10, p < 0.05). As compared with compliance levels between patients and spouses; hysterectomy patients had more problems related to expression of emotions than mastectomy patients (t = 2.12, p < 0.05). In conclusion, body image was negative, mastectomy was associated with more depression and hysterectomy with greater sexual problems and difficulties with spouse relationships.

  13. Concurrent puerperal hysterectomy with Ascaris lumbricoides infestation: coincidence or consequence?

    PubMed

    Zapardiel, Ignacio; Peiretti, Michele; Godoy-Tundidor, Sonia

    2010-04-01

    The most common etiology of postpartum hemorrhage is uterine atony, although hematologic disorders may be present. A 36-year-old nulliparous woman underwent puerperal hysterectomy caused by uncontrolled postpartum hemorrhage. One day after discharge, she vomited in the emergency room a 24-cm long Ascaris lumbricoides. Infestation during gestation may cause hematologic disorders that could complicate pregnancy outcome.

  14. Signal functions for emergency obstetric care as an intervention for reducing maternal mortality: a survey of public and private health facilities in Lusaka District, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Tembo, Tannia; Chongwe, Gershom; Vwalika, Bellington; Sitali, Lungowe

    2017-09-06

    Zambia's maternal mortality ratio was estimated at 398/100,000 live births in 2014. Successful aversion of deaths is dependent on availability and usability of signal functions for emergency obstetric and neonatal care. Evidence of availability, usability and quality of signal functions in urban settings in Zambia is minimal as previous research has evaluated their distribution in rural settings. This survey evaluated the availability and usability of signal functions in private and public health facilities in Lusaka District of Zambia. A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted between November 2014 and February 2015 at 35 public and private health facilities. The Service Availability and Readiness Assessment tool was adapted and administered to overall in-charges, hospital administrators or maternity ward supervisors at health facilities providing maternal and newborn health services. The survey quantified infrastructure, human resources, equipment, essential drugs and supplies and used the UN process indicators to determine availability, accessibility and quality of signal functions. Data on deliveries and complications were collected from registers for periods between June 2013 and May 2014. Of the 35 (25.7% private and 74.2% public) health facilities assessed, only 22 (62.8%) were staffed 24 h a day, 7 days a week and had provided obstetric care 3 months prior to the survey. Pre-eclampsia/ eclampsia and obstructed labor accounted for most direct complications while postpartum hemorrhage was the leading cause of maternal deaths. Overall, 3 (8.6%) and 5 (14.3%) of the health facilities had provided Basic and Comprehensive EmONC services, respectively. All facilities obtained blood products from the only blood bank at a government referral hospital. The UN process indicators can be adequately used to monitor progress towards maternal mortality reduction. Lusaka district had an unmet need for BEmONC as health facilities fell below the minimum UN standard

  15. Women-focused development intervention reduces delays in accessing emergency obstetric care in urban slums in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recognizing the burden of maternal mortality in urban slums, in 2007 BRAC (formally known as Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) has established a woman-focused development intervention, Manoshi (the Bangla abbreviation of mother, neonate and child), in urban slums of Bangladesh. The intervention emphasizes strengthening the continuum of maternal, newborn and child care through community, delivery centre (DC) and timely referral of the obstetric complications to the emergency obstetric care (EmOC) facilities. This study aimed to assess whether Manoshi DCs reduces delays in accessing EmOC. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted during October 2008 to January 2009 in the slums of Dhaka city among 450 obstetric complicated cases referred either from DCs of Manoshi or from their home to the EmOC facilities. Trained female interviewers interviewed at their homestead with structured questionnaire. Pearson's chi-square test, t-test and Mann-Whitney test were performed. Results The median time for making the decision to seek care was significantly longer among women who were referred from home than referred from DCs (9.7 hours vs. 5.0 hours, p < 0.001). The median time to reach a facility and to receive treatment was found to be similar in both groups. Time taken to decide to seek care was significantly shorter in the case of life-threatening complications among those who were referred from DC than home (0.9 hours vs.2.3 hours, p = 0.002). Financial assistance from Manoshi significantly reduced the first delay in accessing EmOC services for life-threatening complications referred from DC (p = 0.006). Reasons for first delay include fear of medical intervention, inability to judge maternal condition, traditional beliefs and financial constraints. Role of gender was found to be an important issue in decision making. First delay was significantly higher among elderly women, multiparity, non life-threatening complications and who were not involved in

  16. Women-focused development intervention reduces delays in accessing emergency obstetric care in urban slums in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Shamsun; Banu, Morsheda; Nasreen, Hashima E

    2011-01-30

    Recognizing the burden of maternal mortality in urban slums, in 2007 BRAC (formally known as Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) has established a woman-focused development intervention, Manoshi (the Bangla abbreviation of mother, neonate and child), in urban slums of Bangladesh. The intervention emphasizes strengthening the continuum of maternal, newborn and child care through community, delivery centre (DC) and timely referral of the obstetric complications to the emergency obstetric care (EmOC) facilities. This study aimed to assess whether Manoshi DCs reduces delays in accessing EmOC. This cross-sectional study was conducted during October 2008 to January 2009 in the slums of Dhaka city among 450 obstetric complicated cases referred either from DCs of Manoshi or from their home to the EmOC facilities. Trained female interviewers interviewed at their homestead with structured questionnaire. Pearson's chi-square test, t-test and Mann-Whitney test were performed. The median time for making the decision to seek care was significantly longer among women who were referred from home than referred from DCs (9.7 hours vs. 5.0 hours, p < 0.001). The median time to reach a facility and to receive treatment was found to be similar in both groups. Time taken to decide to seek care was significantly shorter in the case of life-threatening complications among those who were referred from DC than home (0.9 hours vs.2.3 hours, p = 0.002). Financial assistance from Manoshi significantly reduced the first delay in accessing EmOC services for life-threatening complications referred from DC (p = 0.006). Reasons for first delay include fear of medical intervention, inability to judge maternal condition, traditional beliefs and financial constraints. Role of gender was found to be an important issue in decision making. First delay was significantly higher among elderly women, multiparity, non life-threatening complications and who were not involved in income-generating activities

  17. Availability and provision of emergency obstetric care under a public–private partnership in three districts of Gujarat, India: lessons for Universal Health Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Sidney, K; Mehta, R; Mavalankar, D

    2016-01-01

    Objective The state of Gujarat in India (population 60 million) has implemented a public–private partnership (PPP) with private obstetricians called the Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY) since 2006. This study investigated the adequacy of basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care (BEmOC and CEmOC) services through the public and private sectors with reference to the United Nations (UN) guidelines. Design A cross-sectional facility survey was conducted in three districts. Results A total of 300 facilities, 151 public and 149 private, had provided obstetric services to a total of 53 896 births in the past 6 months. Nearly half, 135 facilities (104 public and 31 private), individually reported <10 births per month (low load), and, as a group, reported only 4% of all births in the past 6 months. The remaining 165 high-load facilities consisted of 23 (3 public; 20 private) full CEmOC, 66 (1; 65) ‘potential’ CEmOC, 12 (3; 9) BEmOC and 57 (40; 17) non-EmOC facilities. All the three districts exceeded the UN recommendation for EmOC availability by 3.3 to 11.3 times. Free provision, through both public and PPP facilities, ranged from 1.42 to 3.43. The actual performance was nearly double the recommendation for CEmOC but inadequate for BEmOC. Conclusions Public sector EmOC availability and provision is negligible. Private sector availability is well beyond the recommended UN norms. The CY programme has resulted in increased availability and provision of EmOC services. However, the overall provision of EmOC is compromised due to the poor performance of BEmOC functions and clustering of private facilities in towns. PMID:28588914

  18. Availability and provision of emergency obstetric care under a public-private partnership in three districts of Gujarat, India: lessons for Universal Health Coverage.

    PubMed

    Iyer, V; Sidney, K; Mehta, R; Mavalankar, D

    2016-01-01

    The state of Gujarat in India (population 60 million) has implemented a public-private partnership (PPP) with private obstetricians called the Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY) since 2006. This study investigated the adequacy of basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care (BEmOC and CEmOC) services through the public and private sectors with reference to the United Nations (UN) guidelines. A cross-sectional facility survey was conducted in three districts. A total of 300 facilities, 151 public and 149 private, had provided obstetric services to a total of 53 896 births in the past 6 months. Nearly half, 135 facilities (104 public and 31 private), individually reported <10 births per month (low load), and, as a group, reported only 4% of all births in the past 6 months. The remaining 165 high-load facilities consisted of 23 (3 public; 20 private) full CEmOC, 66 (1; 65) 'potential' CEmOC, 12 (3; 9) BEmOC and 57 (40; 17) non-EmOC facilities. All the three districts exceeded the UN recommendation for EmOC availability by 3.3 to 11.3 times. Free provision, through both public and PPP facilities, ranged from 1.42 to 3.43. The actual performance was nearly double the recommendation for CEmOC but inadequate for BEmOC. Public sector EmOC availability and provision is negligible. Private sector availability is well beyond the recommended UN norms. The CY programme has resulted in increased availability and provision of EmOC services. However, the overall provision of EmOC is compromised due to the poor performance of BEmOC functions and clustering of private facilities in towns.

  19. Supracervical hysterectomy – the vaginal route

    PubMed Central

    Cieślak, Jarosław; Malinowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Removal of the cervix during hysterectomy is not mandatory. There has been no irrefutable evidence so far that total hysterectomy is more beneficial to patients in terms of pelvic organ function. The procedure that leaves the cervix intact is called a subtotal hysterectomy. Traditional approaches to this surgery include laparoscopic and abdominal routes. Vaginal total hysterectomy has been proven to present many advantages over the other approaches. Therefore, it seems that this route should also be applied in the case of subtotal hysterectomy. We present 9 cases of patients who underwent subtotal hysterectomy performed through the vagina for benign gynecological diseases. PMID:25097688

  20. Social determinants of access to minimally invasive hysterectomy: reevaluating the relationship between race and route of hysterectomy for benign disease.

    PubMed

    Price, Joan T; Zimmerman, Lilli D; Koelper, Nathan C; Sammel, Mary D; Lee, Sonya; Butts, Samantha F

    2017-08-04

    Racial and socioeconomic disparities exist in access to medical and surgical care. Studies of national databases have demonstrated disparities in route of hysterectomy for benign indications, but have not been able to adjust for patient-level factors that affect surgical decision-making. We sought to determine whether access to minimally invasive hysterectomy for benign indications is differential according to race independent of the effects of relevant subject-level confounding factors. The secondary study objective was to determine the association between socioeconomic status and ethnicity and access to minimally invasive hysterectomy. A cross-sectional study evaluated factors associated with minimally invasive hysterectomies performed for fibroids and/or abnormal uterine bleeding from 2010 through 2013 at 3 hospitals within an academic university health system in Philadelphia, PA. Univariate tests of association and multivariable logistic regression identified factors significantly associated with minimally invasive hysterectomy compared to the odds of treatment with the referent approach of abdominal hysterectomy. Of 1746 hysterectomies evaluated meeting study inclusion criteria, 861 (49%) were performed abdominally, 248 (14%) vaginally, 310 (18%) laparoscopically, and 327 (19%) with robot assistance. In univariate analysis, African American race (odds ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.97) and Hispanic ethnicity (odds ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-1.00) were associated with lower odds of any minimally invasive hysterectomy relative to abdominal hysterectomy. In analyses adjusted for age, body mass index, income quartile, obstetrical and surgical history, uterine weight, and additional confounding factors, African American race was no longer a risk factor for reduced minimally invasive hysterectomy (odds ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.61-1.10), while Hispanic ethnicity (odds ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.76) and

  1. Randomized controlled trial comparing operative times between standard and robot-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Deimling, Timothy A; Eldridge, Jennifer L; Riley, Kristin A; Kunselman, Allen R; Harkins, Gerald J

    2017-01-01

    To compare the operative time between robot-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomies and standard laparoscopic hysterectomies. A prospective, randomized controlled trial enrolled women aged 18-80 years attending Penn State Hershey Medical Center between April 23 and October 20, 2014 to undergo hysterectomy. Participants were randomized using a random number generator to undergo either robot-assisted or standard laparoscopic hysterectomy. The primary outcome was the total operative time (surgeon incision to surgeon stop, including robot docking time, if applicable). Intention-to-treat analyses were performed and the operative time was compared between the two treatments for non-inferiority, defined as a difference in operative time of no longer than 15 minutes. There were 72 patients randomized to each treatment arm. The mean operative time was 73.9 minutes (median 67.0 minutes; interquartile range 59.0-83.0 minutes) in the robot-assisted hysterectomy group and 74.9 minutes (median 65.5 minutes; interquartile range 57.0-90.5 minutes) in the standard laparoscopic hysterectomy group. The upper bound of the 95% confidence interval of the difference in operative time was 6.6 minutes, below the 15-minute measure of non-inferiority. When performed by a surgeon experienced in both techniques, the operative time for robot-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy was non-inferior to that achieved with standard laparoscopic hysterectomy. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT02118974. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  2. Obstetric Safety and Quality.

    PubMed

    Pettker, Christian M; Grobman, William A

    2015-07-01

    Obstetric safety and quality is an emerging and important topic not only as a result of the pressures of patient and regulatory expectations, but also because of the genuine interest of caregivers to reduce harm, improve outcomes, and optimize care. Although each seeks to improve care by using scientific approaches beyond human physiology and pathophysiology, patient safety methodologies seek to avoid preventable adverse events, whereas health care quality projects aim to achieve the best possible outcomes. It is well-documented that an increasingly complex medical system controlled by human workers is a circumstance subject to recurrent failure. A safety culture encourages a proactive approach to mitigate failure before, during, and after it occurs. This article highlights the key concepts in health care safety and quality and reviews the background of the quality improvement sciences with particular emphasis on obstetric outcomes and quality measures.

  3. Pap Smear: Still Necessary After Hysterectomy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pap tests still needed after removal of the uterus (hysterectomy)? Answers from Sandhya Pruthi, M.D. It ... If you had a partial hysterectomy — when the uterus is removed but the lower end of the ...

  4. Indications and Route of Hysterectomy for Benign Diseases. Guideline of the DGGG, OEGGG and SGGG (S3 Level, AWMF Registry No. 015/070, April 2015)

    PubMed Central

    Neis, K. J.; Zubke, W.; Römer, T.; Schwerdtfeger, K.; Schollmeyer, T.; Rimbach, S.; Holthaus, B.; Solomayer, E.; Bojahr, B.; Neis, F.; Reisenauer, C.; Gabriel, B.; Dieterich, H.; Runnenbaum, I. B.; Kleine, W.; Strauss, A.; Menton, M.; Mylonas, I.; David, M.; Horn, L-C.; Schmidt, D.; Gaß, P.; Teichmann, A. T.; Brandner, P.; Stummvoll, W.; Kuhn, A.; Müller, M.; Fehr, M.; Tamussino, K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Official guideline “indications and methods of hysterectomy” to assign indications for the different methods published and coordinated by the German Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG), the Austrian Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (OEGGG) and the Swiss Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (SGGG). Besides vaginal and abdominal hysterectomy, three additional techniques have been implemented due to the introduction of laparoscopy. Organ-sparing alternatives were also integrated. Methods: The guideline group consisted of 26 experts from Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Recommendations were developed using a structured consensus process and independent moderation. A systematic literature search and quality appraisal of benefits and harms of the therapeutic alternatives for symptomatic fibroids, dysfunctional bleeding and adenomyosis was done through MEDLINE up to 6/2014 focusing on systematic reviews and meta-analysis. Results: All types of hysterectomy led in studies to high rates of patient satisfaction. If possible, vaginal instead of abdominal hysterectomy should preferably be done. If a vaginal hysterectomy is not feasible, the possibility of a laparoscopic hysterectomy should be considered. An abdominal hysterectomy should only be done with a special indication. Organ-sparing interventions also led to high patient satisfaction rates, but contain the risk of symptom recurrence. Conclusion: As an aim, patients should be enabled to choose that therapeutic intervention for their benign disease of the uterus that convenes best to them and their personal life situation. PMID:27667852

  5. Impact of a low-technology simulation-based obstetric and newborn care training scheme on non-emergency delivery practices in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Anna; Kestler, Edgar; Dettinger, Julia C.; Zelek, Sarah; Holme, Francesca; Walker, Dilys

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of a low-technology simulation-based training scheme for obstetric and perinatal emergency management (PRONTO; Programa de Rescate Obstétrico y Neonatal: Tratamiento Óptimo y Oportuno) on non-emergency delivery practices at primary level clinics in Guatemala. Methods A paired cross-sectional birth observation study was conducted with a convenience sample of 18 clinics (nine pairs of intervention and control clinics) from June 28 to August 7, 2013. Outcomes included implementation of practices known to decrease maternal and/or neonatal mortality and improve patient care. Results Overall, 25 and 17 births occurred in intervention and control clinics, respectively. Active management of the third stage of labor was appropriately performed by 20 (83%) of 24 intervention teams versus 7 (50%) of 14 control teams (P = 0.015). Intervention teams implemented more practices to decrease neonatal mortality than did control teams (P < 0.001). Intervention teams ensured patient privacy in 23 (92%) of 25 births versus 11 (65%) of 17 births for control teams (P = 0.014). All 15 applicable intervention teams kept patients informed versus 6 (55%) of 11 control teams (P = 0.001). Differences were also noted in teamwork; in particular, skill-based tools were used more often at intervention sites than control sites (P = 0.012). Conclusion Use of PRONTO enhanced non-emergency delivery care by increasing evidence-based practice, patient-centered care, and teamwork. PMID:26797198

  6. Outcomes following hysterectomy or endometrial ablation for heavy menstrual bleeding: retrospective analysis of hospital episode statistics in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Cooper, K; Lee, Aj; Chien, P; Raja, Ea; Timmaraju, V; Bhattacharya, S

    2011-09-01

    higher risk than endometrial ablation of surgery for pelvic floor repair and stress urinary incontinence. Surgery for pelvic floor prolapse is more common after vaginal than abdominal hysterectomy. © 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 RCOG.

  7. Minilaparoscopic hysterectomy made easy: first report on alternative instrumentation and new integrated energy platform.

    PubMed

    Ng, Ying Woo; Lim, Li Min; Fong, Yoke Fai

    2014-05-01

    Minilaparoscopy is an attractive approach for hysterectomy due to advantages such as reduced morbidities and enhanced cosmesis. However, it has not been popularized due to the lack of suitable instruments and high technical demand. We aim to highlight the first case of minilaparoscopic hysterectomy reported in Asia and the use of a new integrated energy platform, Thunderbeat. We would like to propose an alternative method of instrumentation, so as to improve the feasibility and safety of minilaparoscopic hysterectomy. The first minilaparoscopic hysterectomy in Singapore was successfully completed using the alternative instrumentation and new energy platform. There was no conversion or complication during the surgery. The patient recovered uneventfully. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of such alternative instrumentation. This approach in instrumentation and the new energy platform will improve the feasibility and speed of the surgery and ensure safety in our patients. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  8. Placenta accreta as a cause of peripartum hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Palova, E; Redecha, M; Malova, A; Hammerova, L; Kosibova, Z

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to identify the risk factors associated with placenta accreta. Cases of peripartum hysterectomy at University Hospital of Bratislava were identified in the period from January 1st 2008 to December 31th 2013. Included were only those cases which had a histological evidence of placenta accreta. Fifty patients, who underwent peripartum hysterectomy were included in the study. Between 2008 and 2013 eight cases of placenta accreta were identified. Five (62.5 %) of these were suspected before delivery. The overall incidence of PA was 0.19 per 1000 deliveries. Median gestational age at delivery was 37 weeks (range 25-41 weeks). Six of eight (75 %) women with placenta accreta had a previous caesarean delivery or curettage. In 5 patients both placenta praevia and prior Caesarean delivery were present. Among the 50 women who underwent peripartum hysterectomy, 8 (16 %) were patients with both prenatally diagnosed placenta praevia and previous caesarean delivery, placenta accreta was suspected in 4 of these (50 %) compared with 10 of 42 (24 %) without this combination of risk factors. Those in whom placenta accreta was suspected were delivered earlier than 37 weeks of gestation and were less likely to have emergency delivery. Placenta accreta is the second most common indication for an emergency peripartum hysterectomy. There is a high suspicion of placenta accreta in patients with placenta praevia and after previous Caesarean section (Tab. 3, Ref. 17).

  9. Perioperative and transfusion outcomes in women undergoing cesarean hysterectomy for abnormal placentation

    PubMed Central

    Brookfield, Kathleen F.; Goodnough, Lawrence T.; Lyell, Deirdre J.; Butwick, Alexander J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Women with placenta increta (PI) and placenta percreta (PP) are at high risk of obstetric hemorrhage, however the severity of hemorrhage and perioperative morbidity may differ according to the degree of placental invasion. We sought to compare blood component usage and perioperative morbidity between women with PI vs. PP undergoing CH (Cesarean hysterectomy). Study Design and Methods We identified 77 women who underwent CH for PI or PP from the NICHD MFMU Network Cesarean registry, which sourced data from 19 centers from 1999–2002. We examined demographic, obstetric and surgical data, and rates of transfusion and perioperative morbidity. We performed statistical tests for between-group analyses; P<0.05 as statistically significant. Results Rates of intraoperative or postoperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion were similar between groups (PI=84% vs. PP=88%; P=0.7). We observed no between-group differences in rates of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion (intraoperative FFP: PI=30% vs. PP=41%; P=0.3; postoperative FFP: PI=28% vs. PP=18%; P=0.4) or platelet (PLT) transfusion (intraoperative PLTs: PI=14% vs. PP=29%; P=0.2; postoperative PLTs: PI=9% vs. PP=9%; P=1.0). Among the morbidities, a higher proportion of PP women underwent cystotomy (PI=14% vs. PP=38%, P=0.02) and postoperative mechanical ventilation (PI=14% vs. PP=35%; P=0.03). Conclusion Rates of intraoperative RBC, FFP and PLT transfusion are similar for PI and PP women, and perioperative outcomes are worse for PP women. We suggest the same mobilization transfusion medicine support for both groups, including blood-ordering (type and crossmatch for CH), and availability of emergency blood protocols including fibrinogen-containing preparations. PMID:24188691

  10. Determinants of delays in travelling to an emergency obstetric care facility in Herat, Afghanistan: an analysis of cross-sectional survey data and spatial modelling.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Atsumi; Borchert, Matthias; Cox, Jonathan; Alkozai, Ahmad Shah; Filippi, Veronique

    2015-02-05

    Women's delays in reaching emergency obstetric care (EmOC) facilities contribute to high maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity in low-income countries, yet few studies have quantified travel times to EmOC and examined delays systematically. We defined a delay as the difference between a woman's travel time to EmOC and the optimal travel time under the best case scenario. The objectives were to model travel times to EmOC and identify factors explaining delays. i.e., the difference between empirical and modelled travel times. A cost-distance approach in a raster-based geographic information system (GIS) was used for modelling travel times. Empirical data were obtained during a cross-sectional survey among women admitted in a life-threatening condition to the maternity ward of Herat Regional Hospital in Afghanistan from 2007 to 2008. Multivariable linear regression was used to identify the determinants of the log of delay. Amongst 402 women, 82 (20%) had no delay. The median modelled travel time, reported travel time, and delay were 1.0 hour [Q1-Q3: 0.6, 2.2], 3.6 hours [Q1-Q3: 1.0, 12.0], and 2.0 hours [Q1-Q3: 0.1, 9.2], respectively. The adjusted ratio (AR) of a delay of the "one-referral" group to the "self-referral" group was 4.9 [95% confidence interval (CI): 3.8-6.3]. Difficulties obtaining transportation explained some delay [AR 2.1 compared to "no difficulty"; 95% CI: 1.5-3.1]. A husband's very large social network (> = 5 people) doubled a delay [95% CI: 1.1-3.7] compared to a moderate (3-4 people) network. Women with severe infections had a delay 2.6 times longer than those with postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) [95% CI: 1.4-4.9]. Delays were mostly explained by the number of health facilities visited. A husband's large social network contributed to a delay. A complication with dramatic symptoms (e.g. PPH) shortened a delay while complications with less-alarming symptoms (e.g. severe infection) prolonged it. In-depth investigations are needed to

  11. Where there is no obstetrician--increasing capacity for emergency obstetric care in rural India: an evaluation of a pilot program to train general doctors.

    PubMed

    Evans, Cherrie Lynn; Maine, Deborah; McCloskey, Lois; Feeley, Frank G; Sanghvi, Harshad

    2009-12-01

    Maternal mortality continues to be high in rural India. Chief among the reasons for this is a severe shortage of obstetricians to perform cesarean delivery and other skills required for emergency obstetric care (EmOC). In 2006, the Government of India and the Federation of Obstetric and Gynecological Societies of India (FOGSI) with technical assistance from Jhpiego, instituted a nationwide, 16-week comprehensive EmOC (CEmOC) training program for general medical officers (MOs). This program is based on an earlier pilot project (2004-2006). To evaluate the pilot project, and identify lessons learned to inform the nationwide scale-up. The lead author (CE) visited trainees and their facilities to evaluate the project. Eight data collection tools were created, which included interviews with informants (program/government staff, regional/international experts, trainees and trainers), facility observation, and facility-based data collection of births and maternal/newborn deaths during the study period. More trainees performed each of the basic EmOC skills after the training than before. After training, 10 of 15 facilities to which trainees returned could provide all signal functions for basic EmOC whereas only 2 could do so before. For comprehensive EmOC, 2 facilities with obstetricians were providing all functions before and 2 were doing so after, even though the specialists had left those facilities and services were being provided by CEmOC trainees. Barriers to providing, or continuing to provide, EmOC for some trainees included insufficient training for cesarean delivery, lack of anesthetists, equipment and infrastructure (operating theater, blood services, forceps/vacuum, manual vacuum aspiration syringes). Although MOs can be trained to provide CEmOC (including cesarean delivery), without proper selection of facilities and trainees, adequate training, and support, this strategy will not substantially improve the availability of comprehensive EmOC in India. To

  12. Assessing emergency obstetric care provision in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review of the application of global guidelines.

    PubMed

    Banke-Thomas, Aduragbemi; Wright, Kikelomo; Sonoiki, Olatunji; Banke-Thomas, Oluwasola; Ajayi, Babatunde; Ilozumba, Onaedo; Akinola, Oluwarotimi

    2016-01-01

    Background Lack of timely and quality emergency obstetric care (EmOC) has contributed significantly to maternal morbidity and mortality, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Since 2009, the global guideline, referred to as the 'handbook', has been used to monitor availability, utilization, and quality of EmOC. Objective To assess application and explore experiences of researchers in LMICs in assessing EmOC. Design Multiple databases of peer-reviewed literature were systematically reviewed on EmOC assessments in LMICs, since 2009. Following set criteria, we included articles, assessed for quality based on a newly developed checklist, and extracted data using a pre-designed extraction tool. We used thematic summaries to condense our findings and mapped patterns that we observed. To analyze experiences and recommendations for improved EmOC assessments, we took a deductive approach for the framework synthesis. Results Twenty-seven studies met our inclusion criteria, with 17 judged as high quality. The highest publication frequency was observed in 2015. Most assessments were conducted in Nigeria and Tanzania (four studies each) and Bangladesh and Ghana (three each). Most studies (17) were done at subnational levels with 23 studies using the 'handbook' alone, whereas the others combined the 'handbook' with other frameworks. Seventeen studies conducted facility-based surveys, whereas others used mixed methods. For different reasons, intrapartum and very early neonatal death rate and proportion of deaths due to indirect causes in EmOC facilities were the least reported indicators. Key emerging themes indicate that data quality for EmOC assessments can be improved, indicators should be refined, a holistic approach is required for EmOC assessments, and assessments should be conducted as routine processes. Conclusions There is clear justification to review how EmOC assessments are being conducted. Synergy between researchers, EmOC program managers, and

  13. Assessing emergency obstetric care provision in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review of the application of global guidelines.

    PubMed

    Banke-Thomas, Aduragbemi; Wright, Kikelomo; Sonoiki, Olatunji; Banke-Thomas, Oluwasola; Ajayi, Babatunde; Ilozumba, Onaedo; Akinola, Oluwarotimi

    2016-01-01

    Lack of timely and quality emergency obstetric care (EmOC) has contributed significantly to maternal morbidity and mortality, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Since 2009, the global guideline, referred to as the 'handbook', has been used to monitor availability, utilization, and quality of EmOC. To assess application and explore experiences of researchers in LMICs in assessing EmOC. Multiple databases of peer-reviewed literature were systematically reviewed on EmOC assessments in LMICs, since 2009. Following set criteria, we included articles, assessed for quality based on a newly developed checklist, and extracted data using a pre-designed extraction tool. We used thematic summaries to condense our findings and mapped patterns that we observed. To analyze experiences and recommendations for improved EmOC assessments, we took a deductive approach for the framework synthesis. Twenty-seven studies met our inclusion criteria, with 17 judged as high quality. The highest publication frequency was observed in 2015. Most assessments were conducted in Nigeria and Tanzania (four studies each) and Bangladesh and Ghana (three each). Most studies (17) were done at subnational levels with 23 studies using the 'handbook' alone, whereas the others combined the 'handbook' with other frameworks. Seventeen studies conducted facility-based surveys, whereas others used mixed methods. For different reasons, intrapartum and very early neonatal death rate and proportion of deaths due to indirect causes in EmOC facilities were the least reported indicators. Key emerging themes indicate that data quality for EmOC assessments can be improved, indicators should be refined, a holistic approach is required for EmOC assessments, and assessments should be conducted as routine processes. There is clear justification to review how EmOC assessments are being conducted. Synergy between researchers, EmOC program managers, and other key stakeholders would be critical for

  14. Massive obstetric hemorrhage: Current approach to management.

    PubMed

    Guasch, E; Gilsanz, F

    2016-01-01

    Massive obstetric hemorrhage is a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. It is defined (among others) as the loss of>2,500ml of blood, and is associated to a need for admission to critical care and/or hysterectomy. The relative hemodilution and high cardiac output found in normal pregnancy allows substantial bleeding before a drop in hemoglobin and/or hematocrit can be identified. Some comorbidities associated with pregnancy can contribute to the occurrence of catastrophic bleeding with consumption coagulopathy, which makes the situation even worse. Optimization, preparation, rational use of resources and protocolization of actions are often useful to improve outcomes in patients with postpartum hemorrhage. Using massive obstetric hemorrhage protocols is useful for facilitating rapid transfusion if needed, and can also be cost-effective. If hypofibrinogenemia during the bleeding episode is identified, early fibrinogen administration can be very useful. Other coagulation factors in addition to fibrinogen may be necessary during postpartum hemorrhage replacement measures in order to effectively correct coagulopathy. A hysterectomy is recommended if the medical and surgical measures prove ineffective.

  15. Does the effect of one-day simulation team training in obstetric emergencies decline within one year? A post-hoc analysis of a multicentre cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, J; Fransen, A F; Schuit, E; van Runnard Heimel, P J; Mol, B W; Oei, S G

    2017-09-01

    Does the effect of one-day simulation team training in obstetric emergencies decline within one year? A post-hoc analysis of a multicentre cluster randomised controlled trial. J van de Ven, AF Fransen, E Schuit, PJ van Runnard Heimel, BW Mol, SG Oei OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the effect of a one-day simulation-based obstetric team training on patient outcome changes over time. Post-hoc analysis of a multicentre, open, randomised controlled trial that evaluated team training in obstetrics (TOSTI study).We studied women with a singleton pregnancy beyond 24 weeks of gestation in 24 obstetric units. Included obstetric units were randomised to either a one-day, multi-professional simulation-based team training focusing on crew resource management in a medical simulation centre (12 units) or to no team training (12 units). We assessed whether outcomes differed between both groups in each of the first four quarters following the team training and compared the effect of team training over quarters. Primary outcome was a composite outcome of low Apgar score, severe postpartum haemorrhage, trauma due to shoulder dystocia, eclampsia and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. During a one year period after the team training the rate of obstetric complications, both on the composite level and the individual component level, did not differ between any of the quarters. For trauma due to shoulder dystocia team training led to a significant decrease in the first quarter (0.06% versus 0.26%, OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.98) but in the subsequent quarters no significant reductions were observed. Similar results were found for invasive treatment for severe postpartum haemorrhage where a significant increase was only seen in the first quarter (0.4% versus 0.03%, OR 19, 95% CI 2.5-147), and not thereafter. The beneficial effect of a one-day, simulation-based, multiprofessional, obstetric team training seems to decline after three months. If team training is further evaluated or

  16. Improved accessibility of emergency obstetrics and newborn care(EmONC) services for maternal and newborn health: a community based project

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Every year an estimated three million neonates die globally and two hundred thousand of these deaths occur in Pakistan. Majority of these neonates die in rural areas of underdeveloped countries from preventable causes (infections, complications related to low birth weight and prematurity). Similarly about three hundred thousand mother died in 2010 and Pakistan is among ten countries where sixty percent burden of these deaths is concentrated. Maternal and neonatal mortality remain to be unacceptably high in Pakistan especially in rural areas where more than half of births occur. Method/Design This community based cluster randomized controlled trial will evaluate the impact of an Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (EmONC) package in the intervention arm compared to standard of care in control arm. Perinatal and neonatal mortality are primary outcome measure for this trial. The trial will be implemented in 20 clusters (Union councils) of District Rahimyar Khan, Pakistan. The EmONC package consists of provision of maternal and neonatal health pack (clean delivery kit, emollient, chlorhexidine) for safe motherhood and newborn wellbeing and training of community level and facility based health care providers with emphasis on referral of complicated cases to nearest public health facilities and community mobilization. Discussion Even though there is substantial evidence in support of effectiveness of various health interventions for improving maternal, neonatal and child health. Reduction in perinatal and neonatal mortality remains a big challenge in resource constrained and diverse countries like Pakistan and achieving MDG 4 and 5 appears to be a distant reality. A comprehensive package of community based low cost interventions along the continuum of care tailored according to the socio cultural environment coupled with existing health force capacity building may result in improving the maternal and neonatal outcomes. The findings of this proposed community

  17. Assessing emergency obstetric care provision in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review of the application of global guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Banke-Thomas, Aduragbemi; Wright, Kikelomo; Sonoiki, Olatunji; Banke-Thomas, Oluwasola; Ajayi, Babatunde; Ilozumba, Onaedo; Akinola, Oluwarotimi

    2016-01-01

    Background Lack of timely and quality emergency obstetric care (EmOC) has contributed significantly to maternal morbidity and mortality, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Since 2009, the global guideline, referred to as the ‘handbook’, has been used to monitor availability, utilization, and quality of EmOC. Objective To assess application and explore experiences of researchers in LMICs in assessing EmOC. Design Multiple databases of peer-reviewed literature were systematically reviewed on EmOC assessments in LMICs, since 2009. Following set criteria, we included articles, assessed for quality based on a newly developed checklist, and extracted data using a pre-designed extraction tool. We used thematic summaries to condense our findings and mapped patterns that we observed. To analyze experiences and recommendations for improved EmOC assessments, we took a deductive approach for the framework synthesis. Results Twenty-seven studies met our inclusion criteria, with 17 judged as high quality. The highest publication frequency was observed in 2015. Most assessments were conducted in Nigeria and Tanzania (four studies each) and Bangladesh and Ghana (three each). Most studies (17) were done at subnational levels with 23 studies using the ‘handbook’ alone, whereas the others combined the ‘handbook’ with other frameworks. Seventeen studies conducted facility-based surveys, whereas others used mixed methods. For different reasons, intrapartum and very early neonatal death rate and proportion of deaths due to indirect causes in EmOC facilities were the least reported indicators. Key emerging themes indicate that data quality for EmOC assessments can be improved, indicators should be refined, a holistic approach is required for EmOC assessments, and assessments should be conducted as routine processes. Conclusions There is clear justification to review how EmOC assessments are being conducted. Synergy between researchers, EmOC program

  18. Antibiotic prophylaxis for abdominal hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Mele, G; Loizzi, P; Greco, P; Gargano, G; Varcaccio Garofalo, G; Belsanti, A

    1988-01-01

    Three different regimens of antibiotic treatment have been employed in order to evaluate their efficacy as a profilaxis for abdominal hysterectomy. Two short term administrations (Cephtriaxone and Cephamandole plus Tobramycine) and a conventional full dose treatment (Cephazoline) have been compared over a group of homogeneous patients. No significant differences, except a reduction in postoperative time spent in hospital, have been found among the groups. A reduction in urinary tract infection has also been reported with a single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis.

  19. An Economic Analysis of Robotically Assisted Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jason D.; Ananth, Cande V.; Tergas, Ana I.; Herzog, Thomas J.; Burke, William M.; Lewin, Sharyn N.; Lu, Yu-Shiang; Neugut, Alfred I.; Hershman, Dawn L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To perform an econometric analysis to examine the influence of procedure volume, variation in hospital accounting methodology, and use of various analytic methodologies on cost of robotically assisted hysterectomy for benign gynecologic disease and endometrial cancer. METHODS A national sample was used to identify women who underwent laparoscopic or robotically assisted hysterectomy for benign indications or endometrial cancer from 2006 to 2012. Surgeon and hospital volume were classified as the number of procedures performed before the index surgery. Total costs as well as fixed and variable costs were modeled using multivariable quantile regression methodology. RESULTS A total of 180,230 women, including 169,324 women who underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy for benign indications and 10,906 patients whose hysterectomy was performed for endometrial cancer, were identified. The unadjusted median cost of robotically assisted hysterectomy for benign indications was $8,152 (interquartile range [IQR] $6,011–10,932) compared with $6,535 (IQR $5,127–8,357) for laparoscopic hysterectomy (P<.001). The cost differential decreased with increasing surgeon and hospital volume. The unadjusted median cost of robotically assisted hysterectomy for endometrial cancer was $9,691 (IQR $7,591–12,428) compared with $8,237 (IQR $6,400–10,807) for laparoscopic hysterectomy (P<.001). The cost differential decreased with increasing hospital volume from $2,471 for the first 5 to 15 cases to $924 for more than 50 cases. Based on surgeon volume, robotically assisted hysterectomy for endometrial cancer was $1,761 more expensive than laparoscopy for those who had performed fewer than five cases; the differential declined to $688 for more than 50 procedures compared with laparoscopic hysterectomy. CONCLUSION The cost of robotic gynecologic surgery decreases with increased procedure volume. However, in all of the scenarios modeled, robotically assisted hysterectomy

  20. An economic analysis of robotically assisted hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jason D; Ananth, Cande V; Tergas, Ana I; Herzog, Thomas J; Burke, William M; Lewin, Sharyn N; Lu, Yu-Shiang; Neugut, Alfred I; Hershman, Dawn L

    2014-05-01

    To perform an econometric analysis to examine the influence of procedure volume, variation in hospital accounting methodology, and use of various analytic methodologies on cost of robotically assisted hysterectomy for benign gynecologic disease and endometrial cancer. A national sample was used to identify women who underwent laparoscopic or robotically assisted hysterectomy for benign indications or endometrial cancer from 2006 to 2012. Surgeon and hospital volume were classified as the number of procedures performed before the index surgery. Total costs as well as fixed and variable costs were modeled using multivariable quantile regression methodology. A total of 180,230 women, including 169,324 women who underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy for benign indications and 10,906 patients whose hysterectomy was performed for endometrial cancer, were identified. The unadjusted median cost of robotically assisted hysterectomy for benign indications was $8,152 (interquartile range [IQR] $6,011-10,932) compared with $6,535 (IQR $5,127-8,357) for laparoscopic hysterectomy (P<.001). The cost differential decreased with increasing surgeon and hospital volume. The unadjusted median cost of robotically assisted hysterectomy for endometrial cancer was $9,691 (IQR $7,591-12,428) compared with $8,237 (IQR $6,400-10,807) for laparoscopic hysterectomy (P<.001). The cost differential decreased with increasing hospital volume from $2,471 for the first 5 to 15 cases to $924 for more than 50 cases. Based on surgeon volume, robotically assisted hysterectomy for endometrial cancer was $1,761 more expensive than laparoscopy for those who had performed fewer than five cases; the differential declined to $688 for more than 50 procedures compared with laparoscopic hysterectomy. The cost of robotic gynecologic surgery decreases with increased procedure volume. However, in all of the scenarios modeled, robotically assisted hysterectomy remained substantially more costly than laparoscopic

  1. Secondary hemorrhage after total laparoscopic hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Paul, P G; Prathap, Talwar; Kaur, Harneet; Shabnam, Khan; Kandhari, Dimple; Chopade, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the cumulative incidence, patient characteristics, and potential risk factors for secondary hemorrhage after total laparoscopic hysterectomy. All women who underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy at Paul's Hospital between January 2004 and April 2012 were included in the study. Patients who had bleeding per vaginam between 24 hours and 6 weeks after primary surgery were included in the analysis. A total of 1613 patients underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy during the study period, and 21 patients had secondary hemorrhage after hysterectomy. The overall cumulative incidence of secondary hemorrhage after total laparoscopic hysterectomy was 1.3%. The mean size of the uterus was 541.4 g in the secondary hemorrhage group and 318.9 g in patients without hemorrhage, which was statistically significant. The median time interval between hysterectomy and secondary hemorrhage was 13 days. Packing was sufficient to control the bleeding in 13 patients, and 6 patients required vault suturing. Laparoscopic coagulation of the uterine artery was performed in 1 patient. Uterine artery embolization was performed twice in 1 patient to control the bleeding. Our data suggest that secondary hemorrhage is rare but may occur more often after total laparoscopic hysterectomy than after other hysterectomy approaches. Whether it is related to the application of thermal energy to tissues, which causes more tissue necrosis and devascularization than sharp culdotomy in abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies, is not clear. A large uterus size, excessive use of an energy source for the uterine artery, and culdotomy may play a role.

  2. Predictors and outcome of obstetric admissions to intensive care unit: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shruti; Guleria, Kiran; Vaid, Neelam B; Suneja, Amita; Ahuja, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    This descriptive observational study was carried out in Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital to identify predictors and outcome of obstetric admission to Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Ninety consecutive pregnant patients or those up to 42 days of termination of pregnancy admitted to ICU from October 2010 to December 2011 were enrolled as study subjects with selection of a suitable comparison group. Qualitative statistics of both groups were compared using Pearson's Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Odds ratio was calculated for significant factors. Low socioeconomic status, duration of complaints more than 12 h, delay at intermediary facility, and peripartum hysterectomy increased probability of admission to ICU. High incidence of obstetric admissions to ICU as compared to other countries stresses on need for separate obstetric ICU. Availability of high dependency unit can decrease preload to ICU by 5%. Patients with hemorrhagic disorders and those undergoing peripartum hysterectomy need more intensive care.

  3. Obstetric team simulation program challenges.

    PubMed

    Bullough, A S; Wagner, S; Boland, T; Waters, T P; Kim, K; Adams, W

    2016-12-01

    To describe the challenges associated with the development and assessment of an obstetric emergency team simulation program. The goal was to develop a hybrid, in-situ and high fidelity obstetric emergency team simulation program that incorporated weekly simulation sessions on the labor and delivery unit, and quarterly, education protected sessions in the simulation center. All simulation sessions were video-recorded and reviewed. Labor and delivery unit and simulation center. Medical staff covering labor and delivery, anesthesiology and obstetric residents and obstetric nurses. Assessments included an on-line knowledge multiple-choice questionnaire about the simulation scenarios. This was completed prior to the initial in-situ simulation session and repeated 3 months later, the Clinical Teamwork Scale with inter-rater reliability, participant confidence surveys and subjective participant satisfaction. A web-based curriculum comprising modules on communication skills, team challenges, and team obstetric emergency scenarios was also developed. Over 4 months, only 6 labor and delivery unit in-situ sessions out of a possible 14 sessions were carried out. Four high-fidelity sessions were performed in 2 quarterly education protected meetings in the simulation center. Information technology difficulties led to the completion of only 18 pre/post web-based multiple-choice questionnaires. These test results showed no significant improvement in raw score performance from pre-test to post-test (P=.27). During Clinical Teamwork Scale live and video assessment, trained raters and program faculty were in agreement only 31% and 28% of the time, respectively (Kendall's W=.31, P<.001 and W=.28, P<.001). Participant confidence surveys overall revealed confidence significantly increased (P<.05), from pre-scenario briefing to after post-scenario debriefing. Program feedback indicates a high level of participant satisfaction and improved confidence yet further program refinement is

  4. The Role of Interventional Radiology in Obstetric Hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, M. Belli, A.

    2010-10-15

    Obstetric hemorrhage remains a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Traditionally, in cases of obstetric hemorrhage refractory to conservative treatment, obstetricians have resorted to major surgery with the associated risks of general anesthesia, laparotomy, and, in the case of hysterectomy, loss of fertility. Over the past two decades, the role of pelvic arterial embolization has evolved from a novel treatment option to playing a key role in the management of obstetric hemorrhage. To date, interventional radiology offers a minimally invasive, fertility-preserving alternative to conventional surgical treatment. We review current literature regarding the role of interventional radiology in postpartum hemorrhage, abnormal placentation, abortion, and cervical ectopic pregnancy. We discuss techniques, success rates, and complications.

  5. Barriers in the Delivery of Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care in Post-Conflict Africa: Qualitative Case Studies of Burundi and Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Primus Che; Bulage, Patience; Urdal, Henrik; Sundby, Johanne

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity rates are particularly grim in conflict, post-conflict and other crisis settings, a situation partly blamed on non-availability and/or poor quality of emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC) services. The aim of this study was to explore the barriers to effective delivery of EmONC services in post-conflict Burundi and Northern Uganda, in order to provide policy makers and other relevant stakeholders context-relevant data on improving the delivery of these lifesaving services. Methods This was a qualitative comparative case study that used 42 face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews and 4 focus group discussions for data collection. Participants were 32 local health providers and 37 staff of NGOs working in the area of maternal health. Data was analysed using the framework approach. Results The availability, quality and distribution of EmONC services were major challenges across the sites. The barriers in the delivery of quality EmONC services were categorised into two major themes; human resources-related challenges, and systemic and institutional failures. While some of the barriers were similar, others were unique to specific sites. The common barriers included shortage of qualified staff; lack of essential installations, supplies and medications; increasing workload, burn-out and turnover; and poor data collection and monitoring systems. Barriers unique to Northern Uganda were demoralised personnel and lack of recognition; poor referral system; inefficient drug supply system; staff absenteeism in rural areas; and poor coordination among key personnel. In Burundi, weak curriculum; poor harmonisation and coordination of training; and inefficient allocation of resources were the unique challenges. To improve the situation across the sites, efforts are ongoing to improve the training and recruitment of more staff; harmonise and strengthen the curriculum and training; increase the number of Em

  6. Barriers in the Delivery of Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care in Post-Conflict Africa: Qualitative Case Studies of Burundi and Northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Chi, Primus Che; Bulage, Patience; Urdal, Henrik; Sundby, Johanne

    2015-01-01

    Maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity rates are particularly grim in conflict, post-conflict and other crisis settings, a situation partly blamed on non-availability and/or poor quality of emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC) services. The aim of this study was to explore the barriers to effective delivery of EmONC services in post-conflict Burundi and Northern Uganda, in order to provide policy makers and other relevant stakeholders context-relevant data on improving the delivery of these lifesaving services. This was a qualitative comparative case study that used 42 face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews and 4 focus group discussions for data collection. Participants were 32 local health providers and 37 staff of NGOs working in the area of maternal health. Data was analysed using the framework approach. The availability, quality and distribution of EmONC services were major challenges across the sites. The barriers in the delivery of quality EmONC services were categorised into two major themes; human resources-related challenges, and systemic and institutional failures. While some of the barriers were similar, others were unique to specific sites. The common barriers included shortage of qualified staff; lack of essential installations, supplies and medications; increasing workload, burn-out and turnover; and poor data collection and monitoring systems. Barriers unique to Northern Uganda were demoralised personnel and lack of recognition; poor referral system; inefficient drug supply system; staff absenteeism in rural areas; and poor coordination among key personnel. In Burundi, weak curriculum; poor harmonisation and coordination of training; and inefficient allocation of resources were the unique challenges. To improve the situation across the sites, efforts are ongoing to improve the training and recruitment of more staff; harmonise and strengthen the curriculum and training; increase the number of EmONC facilities; and improve

  7. Involving traditional birth attendants in emergency obstetric care in Tanzania: policy implications of a study of their knowledge and practices in Kigoma Rural District

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Access to quality maternal health services mainly depends on existing policies, regulations, skills, knowledge, perceptions, and economic power and motivation of service givers and target users. Critics question policy recommending involvement of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in emergency obstetric care (EmoC) services in developing countries. Objectives This paper reports about knowledge and practices of TBAs on EmoC in Kigoma Rural District, Tanzania and discusses policy implications on involving TBAs in maternal health services. Methods 157 TBAs were identified from several villages in 2005, interviewed and observed on their knowledge and practice in relation to EmoC. Quantitative and qualitative techniques were used for data collection and analysis depending on the nature of the information required. Findings Among all 157 TBAs approached, 57.3% were aged 50+ years while 50% had no formal education. Assisting mothers to deliver without taking their full pregnancy history was confessed by 11% of all respondents. Having been attending pregnant women with complications was experienced by 71.2% of all respondents. Only 58% expressed adequate knowledge on symptoms and signs of pregnancy complications. Lack of knowledge on possible risk of HIV infections while assisting childbirth without taking protective gears was claimed by 5.7% of the respondents. Sharing the same pair of gloves between successful deliveries was reported to be a common practice by 21.1% of the respondents. Use of unsafe delivery materials including local herbs and pieces of cloth for protecting themselves against HIV infections was reported as being commonly practiced among 27.6% of the respondents. Vaginal examination before and during delivery was done by only a few respondents. Conclusion TBAs in Tanzania are still consulted by people living in underserved areas. Unfortunately, TBAs’ inadequate knowledge on EmOC issues seems to have contributed to the rising concerns about

  8. Involving traditional birth attendants in emergency obstetric care in Tanzania: policy implications of a study of their knowledge and practices in Kigoma Rural District.

    PubMed

    Vyagusa, Dismas B; Mubyazi, Godfrey M; Masatu, Melchiory

    2013-10-14

    Access to quality maternal health services mainly depends on existing policies, regulations, skills, knowledge, perceptions, and economic power and motivation of service givers and target users. Critics question policy recommending involvement of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in emergency obstetric care (EmoC) services in developing countries. This paper reports about knowledge and practices of TBAs on EmoC in Kigoma Rural District, Tanzania and discusses policy implications on involving TBAs in maternal health services. 157 TBAs were identified from several villages in 2005, interviewed and observed on their knowledge and practice in relation to EmoC. Quantitative and qualitative techniques were used for data collection and analysis depending on the nature of the information required. Among all 157 TBAs approached, 57.3% were aged 50+ years while 50% had no formal education. Assisting mothers to deliver without taking their full pregnancy history was confessed by 11% of all respondents. Having been attending pregnant women with complications was experienced by 71.2% of all respondents. Only 58% expressed adequate knowledge on symptoms and signs of pregnancy complications. Lack of knowledge on possible risk of HIV infections while assisting childbirth without taking protective gears was claimed by 5.7% of the respondents. Sharing the same pair of gloves between successful deliveries was reported to be a common practice by 21.1% of the respondents. Use of unsafe delivery materials including local herbs and pieces of cloth for protecting themselves against HIV infections was reported as being commonly practiced among 27.6% of the respondents. Vaginal examination before and during delivery was done by only a few respondents. TBAs in Tanzania are still consulted by people living in underserved areas. Unfortunately, TBAs' inadequate knowledge on EmOC issues seems to have contributed to the rising concerns about their competence to deliver the recommended maternal

  9. Radical hysterectomy and vaginectomy with sigmoid vaginoplasty for stage I vaginal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yin, Duo; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Shulan; Huo, Naichen; Xiao, Qian; Ling, Ouyang; Lu, Yanming; Wei, Heng

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic value of radical hysterectomy and vaginectomy with sigmoid vaginoplasty among patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I vaginal carcinoma. A retrospective study was conducted of 5 women (age range, 45-55years) with stage I vaginal carcinoma who underwent surgery at Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China, between January 4, 2009, and December 30, 2011. All participants had lesions in the upper third of the vagina and wished to retain sexual function. Patients underwent radical hysterectomy and vaginectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy, followed by sigmoid vaginoplasty for vaginal reconstruction. The mean operative time was 248.0±39.6minutes and the mean intraoperative blood loss was 335.0±76.6mL. All patients recovered well after surgery and no delayed complications or recurrence were experienced during a mean follow-up of 22.8±9.98months. None of the patients developed vaginal stenosis and all were satisfied with their postoperative sexuality. The mean Female Sexual Function Index was 28.0±1.92. Radical hysterectomy and vaginectomy with sigmoid vaginoplasty was a reasonable option for patients with stage I vaginal carcinoma who wished to retain sexual function after surgery. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The temporal and age-dependent patterns of hysterectomy-corrected cervical cancer incidence rates in Denmark: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Anne; Kahlert, Johnny; Rositch, Anne; Pedersen, Lars; Gravitt, Patti; Blaakaer, Jan; Soegaard, Mette

    2017-02-01

    Hysterectomy is a common gynecological procedure; however, the incidence of total and subtotal hysterectomy varies across countries, by age, and over time. As only women with an intact cervix are at risk of cervical cancer, failing to remove hysterectomized women from the denominator may underestimate the cervical cancer incidence. We aimed to describe the temporal and age-dependent patterns of cervical cancer incidence in Denmark before and after correction for hysterectomy. Using data from national registries we calculated uncorrected and hysterectomy-corrected cervical cancer incidence rates among women ≥20 years during 2000-11. Hysterectomy-corrected rates were calculated by subtracting post-hysterectomy person-years from the denominator. The overall uncorrected cervical cancer incidence rate was 17.8/100 000 person-years (95% CI 17.3-18.3). After correction for hysterectomy, the rate increased by 8.4% to 19.3/100 000 person-years (95% CI 18.8-19.9). The highest uncorrected incidence was seen in women aged 35-39 years, peaking at 24.4/100 000 person-years, whereas the highest hysterectomy-corrected cervical cancer incidence rate was observed in women aged 75-79 years (29.4/100 000 person-years). Over time, women ≥60 years had the highest hysterectomy-corrected cervical cancer incidence. Correcting for hysterectomy incidence resulted in a higher cervical cancer incidence and a shift in the peak incidence from age 35-39 years to age 75-79 years. Over time, women ≥60 years were at the highest risk of cervical cancer. Given the high incidence in women >60-65 years, when women are eligible to exit screening, a revision of the screening guidelines may be warranted. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Hysterectomy, Oophorectomy, and Risk of Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hendryx, Michael; Manson, JoAnn E.; Liang, XiaoYun; Margolis, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Estrogen has been suggested as a risk factor for thyroid cancer. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the associations between hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO), and incidence of thyroid cancer. Design: This was a prospective cohort study. Setting: The study was conducted at 40 clinical centers in the United States. Participants: A total of 127 566 women aged 50–79 were enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative during 1993–1998. Main Outcome Measures: Hysterectomy and BSO were self-reported. Incident thyroid cancer cases were confirmed by medical record review. Results: Three hundred forty-four incident thyroid cancer cases were identified during an average of 14.4 years of follow-up. Compared with women without hysterectomy, women with hysterectomy, regardless of ovarian status, had a significantly higher risk of thyroid cancer (hazard ratio 1.46 [95% confidence interval 1.16–1.85]). Hysterectomy with BSO was not associated with a lower risk for thyroid cancer compared with hysterectomy alone. Among women with hysterectomy alone, hormone therapy use was associated with lower risk of thyroid cancer (hazard ratio 0.47 [95% confidence interval 0.28–0.78]). However, we did not observe significant associations between hormone therapy use and thyroid cancer in women without hysterectomy or women with hysterectomy plus BSO. Conclusion: Our large prospective study observed that hysterectomy, regardless of oophorectomy status, was associated with increased risk of thyroid cancer among postmenopausal women. In addition, our data did not support the hypotheses that exogenous estrogen is a risk factor or that estrogen deprivation is a protective factor for thyroid cancer. Further research is needed to clarify whether these apparent associations may be due to shared risk factors between indications for hysterectomy and thyroid cancer. PMID:27459531

  12. Hysterectomy, Oophorectomy, and Risk of Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Luo, Juhua; Hendryx, Michael; Manson, JoAnn E; Liang, XiaoYun; Margolis, Karen L

    2016-10-01

    Estrogen has been suggested as a risk factor for thyroid cancer. The aim of this study is to examine the associations between hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO), and incidence of thyroid cancer. This was a prospective cohort study. The study was conducted at 40 clinical centers in the United States. A total of 127 566 women aged 50-79 were enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative during 1993-1998. Hysterectomy and BSO were self-reported. Incident thyroid cancer cases were confirmed by medical record review. Three hundred forty-four incident thyroid cancer cases were identified during an average of 14.4 years of follow-up. Compared with women without hysterectomy, women with hysterectomy, regardless of ovarian status, had a significantly higher risk of thyroid cancer (hazard ratio 1.46 [95% confidence interval 1.16-1.85]). Hysterectomy with BSO was not associated with a lower risk for thyroid cancer compared with hysterectomy alone. Among women with hysterectomy alone, hormone therapy use was associated with lower risk of thyroid cancer (hazard ratio 0.47 [95% confidence interval 0.28-0.78]). However, we did not observe significant associations between hormone therapy use and thyroid cancer in women without hysterectomy or women with hysterectomy plus BSO. Our large prospective study observed that hysterectomy, regardless of oophorectomy status, was associated with increased risk of thyroid cancer among postmenopausal women. In addition, our data did not support the hypotheses that exogenous estrogen is a risk factor or that estrogen deprivation is a protective factor for thyroid cancer. Further research is needed to clarify whether these apparent associations may be due to shared risk factors between indications for hysterectomy and thyroid cancer.

  13. [Peripartal hemorrhage with a necessity to make a hysterectomy as a life-rescuing operation - case report].

    PubMed

    Papík, J; Procházka, H; Šrámková, L; Kňourek, V; Pán, M

    2015-01-01

    To present a case of peripartal hemorrhage with a necessity to make a hysterectomy. Case Report. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Mladá Boleslav. We report a case of 34-year-old secundigravida secundipara in 40th week of pregnancy after caesarean section, when after an iterative caesarean section strong peripartal hemorrhage appeared with a necessity to make an urgent revision of an abdominal cavity. Conservative farmacological methods do not stop the bleeding, so it is necessary to make a hysterectomy as a life-rescuing operation. Presenting this case report authors want to refer to the fact, that even in these days of modern medicine it is still necessary to manage the technic of abdominal hysterectomy as a life-rescuing operation and claim necessity of interdisciplinary co-operation, especially in between obstetrician, anesthetist and haematologist.

  14. Pelvic packing method (after two laparotomies): a salvage procedure to control intractable pelvic hemorrhage after vaginal hysterectomy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kale, A; Kuyumcuoğlu, U

    2008-01-01

    Hysterectomy is one of the most commonly performed operative procedures in the world and hemorrhage continues to be a serious complication of both obstetrical and gynecologic surgeries. The pelvic packing technique is a useful alternative to control pelvic bleeding when standard measures fail. A 45-year-old premenopausal women with a history of pelvic pain and obstructive voiding symptoms underwent vaginal hysterectomy. Intraabdominal bleeding persisted after surgery and relaparotomy was performed. After routine surgical techniques failed to achieve adequate hemostasis, a pelvic packing technique was successfully used to tamponade the pelvic bleeding. When traditional methods of controlling pelvic hemorrhage fail, pelvic packing can be used as an unusual method for intractable pelvic hemorrhage. We successfully used the pelvic packing technique in a premenopousal patient with intractable hemorrhage after vaginal hysterectomy and this technique saved the patient's life.

  15. Competence of birth attendants at providing emergency obstetric care under India’s JSY conditional cash transfer program for institutional delivery: an assessment using case vignettes in Madhya Pradesh province

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Access to emergency obstetric care by competent staff can reduce maternal mortality. India has launched the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) conditional cash transfer program to promote institutional births. During implementation of the JSY, India witnessed a steep increase in the proportion of institutional deliveries-from 40% in 2004 to 73% in 2012. However, maternal mortality reduction follows a secular trend. Competent management of complications, when women deliver in facilities under the JSY, is essential for reduction in maternal mortality and therefore to a successful program outcome. We investigate, using clinical vignettes, whether birth attendants at institutions under the program are competent at providing appropriate care for obstetric complications. Methods A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in three districts of Madhya Pradesh (MP) province. Written case vignettes for two obstetric complications, hemorrhage and eclampsia, were administered to 233 birth attendant nurses at 73 JSY facilities. Their competence at (a) initial assessment, (b) diagnosis, and (c) making decisions on appropriate first-line care for these complications was scored. Results The mean emergency obstetric care (EmOC) competence score was 5.4 (median = 5) on a total score of 20, and 75% of participants scored below 35% of the maximum score. The overall score, although poor, was marginally higher in respondents with Skilled Birth Attendant (SBA) training, those with general nursing and midwifery qualifications, those at higher facility levels, and those conducting >30 deliveries a month. In all, 14% of respondents were competent at assessment, 58% were competent at making a correct clinical diagnosis, and 20% were competent at providing first-line care. Conclusions Birth attendants in the JSY facilities have low competence at EmOC provision. Hence, births in the JSY program cannot be considered to have access to competent EmOC. Urgent efforts are

  16. Examining the Use of Magnesium Sulfate to Treat Pregnant Women with Preeclampsia and Eclampsia: Results of a Program Assessment of Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC) Training in India.

    PubMed

    Budhwani, Henna; Shivkumar, Poonam; Purandare, Chittaranjan Narhari; Cataldo, Nicholas A; Desai, Sadhana; Bhatt, Prakash; Baswal, Dinesh; Bhardwaj, Ajey

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to examine rates of magnesium sulfate utilization by emergency obstetric care trainees to treat preeclampsia-eclampsia in India. Secondarily, structural barriers are identified which limit the use of magnesium sulfate, highlighting limitations of emergency obstetric care training, which is a commonly implemented intervention in resource-poor settings. Trainees' curriculum specified magnesium sulfate treatment for eclampsia and severe preeclampsia. Case records were analyzed for preeclampsia-eclampsia diagnosis, magnesium sulfate utilization, delivery route, and maternal and neonatal outcomes from 13,238 reported deliveries between 2006 and 2012 across 75 district hospitals in 12 Indian states. Of 1320 cases of preeclampsia-eclampsia, 322 (24.4%) had eclampsia. Magnesium sulfate was given to 12.9% of preeclamptic and 54.3% of eclamptic women, with lower usage rates in rural communities. Among the 1308 women with preeclampsia-eclampsia, only 24 deaths occurred (1.8%). In contrast, among the 17,179 women without preeclampsia-eclampsia, there were 95 reported deaths (0.6%). Both maternal mortality ratios were found to be much higher than the Millennium Development Goal target of 0.15%. Magnesium sulfate administration was associated with a higher death rate in preeclamptic but not eclamptic women, representing possible confounding by severity. To optimize resources spent on emergency obstetric care training, the consistent availability of magnesium sulfate should be improved in India. Increasing drug availability, implementing clinical guidelines around its administration, and training health-care providers on the identification and treatment of preeclampsia-eclampsia could lead to notable improvements in maternal and infant mortality.

  17. Antibiotic prophylaxis for elective hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Ayeleke, Reuben Olugbenga; Mourad, Selma; Marjoribanks, Jane; Calis, Karim A; Jordan, Vanessa

    2017-06-18

    Elective hysterectomy is commonly performed for benign gynaecological conditions. Hysterectomy can be performed abdominally, laparoscopically, or vaginally, with or without laparoscopic assistance. Antibiotic prophylaxis consists of administration of antibiotics to reduce the rate of postoperative infection, which otherwise affects 40%-50% of women after vaginal hysterectomy, and more than 20% after abdominal hysterectomy. No Cochrane review has systematically assessed evidence on this topic. To determine the effectiveness and safety of antibiotic prophylaxis in women undergoing elective hysterectomy. We searched electronic databases to November 2016 (including the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Studies (CRSO), MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), as well as clinical trials registers, conference abstracts, and reference lists of relevant articles. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing use of antibiotics versus placebo or other antibiotics as prophylaxis in women undergoing elective hysterectomy. We used Cochrane standard methodological procedures. We included in this review 37 RCTs, which performed 20 comparisons of various antibiotics versus placebo and versus one another (6079 women). The quality of the evidence ranged from very low to moderate. The main limitations of study findings were risk of bias due to poor reporting of methods, imprecision due to small samples and low event rates, and inadequate reporting of adverse effects. Any antibiotic versus placebo Vaginal hysterectomyModerate-quality evidence shows that women who received antibiotic prophylaxis had fewer total postoperative infections (risk ratio (RR) 0.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19 to 0.40; five RCTs, N = 610; I(2) = 85%), less urinary tract infection (UTI) (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.77; eight RCTs, N = 1790; I(2) = 44%), fewer pelvic infections (RR 0

  18. Agreement of histopathological findings of uterine curettage and hysterectomy specimens in women with abnormal uterine bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Moradan, Sanam; Ghorbani, Raheb; Lotfi, Azita

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To examined the diagnostic value of dilatation and curettage (D&C) in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) by conducting a histopathological examination of endometrial tissues by D&C and hysterectomy. Methods: In this retrospective study, the medical records of 163 women who had been hospitalized in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Ward, Amir-al-Momenin Hospital, Semnan, Iran between 2010 and 2015 for diagnostic curettage due to AUB and who had undergone hysterectomy were investigated. The patients’ characteristics and histopathologic results of curettage and hysterectomy were extracted, and sensitivity and specificity and positive and negative predictive values of curettage were calculated. Results: The mean ± standard deviation age of the patients was 49.8±7.8 years. The sensitivity values of D&C in the diagnosis of endometrial pathologies was 49.1%, specificity 84.5%, positive 60.5%, and negative predictive 77.5%. The sensitivities of D&C in the diagnosis of various endometrial hyperplasia was 62.5%, disordered proliferative endometrium 36.8%, and endometrial cancer 83.3%. Of 6 patients with endometrial polyps on performing hysterectomy, no patient was diagnosed by curettage. Conclusions: Dilatation and curettage has acceptable sensitivity in the diagnosis of endometrial cancer, low sensitivity in the diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia, and very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of disordered proliferative endometrium and endometrial polyps. PMID:28439599

  19. Tocolytic Drugs for Use in Veterinary Obstetrics

    PubMed Central

    Ménard, L.

    1984-01-01

    The author presents a literature review of two tocolytic agents used in veterinary obstetrics: isoxsuprine and clenbuterol. The medical background from which these drugs emerged for human use and to which is linked their application in animal medicine is described. Each drug is reviewed according to its pharmacology, basic considerations for its clinical use and the reports on its application in the treatment and management of obstetrical disorders in veterinary medicine. PMID:17422462

  20. Laparoscopic Supracervical Hysterectomy versus Laparoscopic-Assisted Vaginal Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Heidi C.; Pan, Katy; Subramanian, Dhinagar; Sedgley, Robert C.; Raff, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the incidence of perioperative complications and postoperative healthcare utilization and costs in laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy (LSH) versus laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) patients. Methods: Women ≥18 years with LSH or LAVH were extracted using a large national commercial claims database from 1/1/2007 through 9/30/2008. Outcome was perioperative complications and gynecologic-related postoperative resource use and costs. Multivariate analysis was performed to compare postsurgical outcomes between the cohorts. Results: The final sample consisted of 6,198 LSH patients and 14,181 LAVH patients. LSH patients were significantly more likely to have dysfunctional uterine bleeding and leiomyomas and less likely to have endometriosis and prolapse as the primary diagnosis, and also significantly more likely to have a uterus that weighed >250 grams than LAVH patients. Compared with LAVH patients, LSH patients had significantly lower overall infection rates (7.4% versus 6.2%, P=.002) and lower total gynecologic-related postoperative costs ($252 versus $385, P<.001, within 30 days of follow-up and $350 versus $569, P<.001, within 180 days of follow-up). Significant cost differences remained following multivariate adjustment for patient characteristics. Conclusions: LSH patients demonstrated fewer perioperative complications and lower GYN-related postoperative costs compared to LAVH patients. PMID:22643499

  1. Biosocial determinants of hysterectomy in New Zealand.

    PubMed Central

    Dharmalingam, A; Pool, I; Dickson, J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the prevalence and biosocial correlates of hysterectomy. METHODS: Data were from a 1995 national survey of women aged 20 to 59 years. We applied piecewise nonparametric exponential hazards models to a subsample aged 25 to 59 to estimate the effects of biosocial correlates on hysterectomy likelihood. RESULTS: Risks of hysterectomy for 1991 through 1995 were lower than those before 1981. University-educated and professional women were less likely to undergo hysterectomy. Higher parity and intrauterine device side effects increased the risk. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms international results, especially those on education and occupation, but also points to ethnicity's mediating role. Education and occupation covary independently with hysterectomy. Analysis of time variance and periodicity showed declines in likelihood from 1981. PMID:10983207

  2. Health resource utilization and costs during the first 90 days following robot-assisted hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Dandolu, Vani; Pathak, Prathamesh

    2017-08-07

    To compare health resource utilization, costs and readmission rates between robot-assisted and non-robot-assisted hysterectomy during the 90 days following surgery. The study used 2008-2012 Truven Health MarketScan data. All patients admitted as inpatients with a CPT code for hysterectomy between January 2008 and September 2012 were identified and the first hysterectomy-related admission in each patient was included. Patients were categorized based on the route of their hysterectomy and the use of laparoscopy as: total abdominal hysterectomy, vaginal hysterectomy (VH), laparoscopy-assisted supracervical hysterectomy, laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy' and total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH). Hospitalization costs, including hospital, physician, pharmacy and facility costs, were calculated for the index admissions and for the 90-day follow-up periods. Health resource utilization was determined in terms of inpatient readmissions, outpatient visits, and emergency room visits, RESULTS: There were 302,923 hysterectomies performed over 5 years for benign indications in the inpatient setting (55% abdominal, 17% vaginal, and 28% laparoscopic). Concurrent use of robot assistance steadily increased and was reported in 50% of TLH procedures in 2012. The rates of readmission overall were 4.9% for robot-assisted procedures and 4.3% for procedures without robot assistance (OR 0.89, CI 0.82-0.97). Readmission rates were lowest for VH (3.2%) and highest for TLH (5.6%). Following robot-assisted hysterectomy and VH, 8.3% and 4.6% of patients, respectively, had more than ten outpatient visits in the 90-day follow-up period. The average total cost for 90 days was $16,820 for robot-assisted hysterectomy and $13,031 for procedures without robot assistance. Of the additional costs for robot-assisted surgery, 25% were incurred in the 90-day follow-up period. The study using private insurance data found that robot-assisted hysterectomy was associated with higher health

  3. The Triple-P procedure as a conservative surgical alternative to peripartum hysterectomy for placenta percreta.

    PubMed

    Chandraharan, Edwin; Rao, Sridevi; Belli, Anna-Maria; Arulkumaran, Sabaratnam

    2012-05-01

    The reported maternal mortality for morbidly adherent placenta ranges from 7% to 10% worldwide. Current treatment modalities for this potentially life-threatening condition include radical approaches such as elective peripartum hysterectomy with or without bowel/bladder resection or ureteric re-implantation (for placenta percreta infiltrating these organs), and conservative measures such as compression sutures with balloon tamponade and the placenta remaining in situ. However, both conservative and radical measures are associated with significant maternal morbidity and mortality. The present article describes the Triple-P procedure-which involves perioperative placental localization and delivery of the fetus via transverse uterine incision above the upper border of the placenta; pelvic devascularization; and placental non-separation with myometrial excision and reconstruction of the uterine wall-as a safe and effective alternative to conservative management or peripartum hysterectomy. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Elective cesarean hysterectomy vs elective cesarean section followed by remote hysterectomy: reassessing the risks.

    PubMed

    Bost; Rising; Bost

    1998-07-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the risks of elective cesarean hysterectomy with the risks of elective cesarean section followed by remote hysterectomy.Methods: A census of elective cesarean hysterectomies (n = 31) and a random sample of 200 cesarean sections and 200 hysterectomies performed by the authors between 1987 and 1996 were evaluated. Only elective repeat and primary cesarean section patients without labor were selected for study (n = 86). Total abdominal hysterectomies were drawn from the sample (n = 60), excluding cancer cases, patients over 50 years old, and those with ancillary procedures other than adnexectomy and lysis of adhesions. General probability theory was used to calculate a predicted complication rate of cesarean section followed by TAH from the complication rates of the component procedures done independently. This predicted combined complication rate was then compared to the observed rate of complications from cesarean hysterectomy to evaluate the risks of the two alternative treatment regimens.Results: Elective cesarean section and total abdominal hysterectomy had complication rates of 12.8% and 13.4%, respectively. The predicted combined complication rate for elective cesarean section followed by TAH was 24.5%. The observed rate of complications for elective cesarean hysterectomy was much lower (16.1%). Although bleeding complications were similar for the two regimens, the rate of transfusion was higher for cesarean hysterectomy (13.0%) than for cesarean section (0%) and TAH (3.4%) alone. Eighty percent of the cesarean hysterectomy patients would have been candidates for autologous blood donation, had it been available.Conclusions: Elective cesarean hysterectomy has a lower risk of complications than elective cesarean section followed by remote abdominal hysterectomy and should be preferred. Transfusion risks are higher for cesarean hysterectomy but can be decreased by the use of autologous blood.

  5. A retrospective cohort study of hemostatic agent use during hysterectomy and risk of post-operative complications.

    PubMed

    Harris, John A; Uppal, Shitanshu; Kamdar, Neil; Swenson, Carolyn W; Campbell, Darrell; Morgan, Daniel M

    2017-02-01

    To determine if the use of intraoperative hemostatic agents was a risk factor for post-operative adverse events within 30 days of patients undergoing hysterectomy. A population-based retrospective cohort study included data from patients undergoing hysterectomy for any indication between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2014, at 52 hospitals in Michigan, USA. Any individuals with missing covariate data were excluded, and multivariable logistic regression and propensity score-matching were used to estimate the rate of post-operative adverse events associated with intra-operative hemostatic agents independent of demographic and surgical factors. There were 17 960 surgical procedures included in the analysis, with 4659 (25.9%) that included the use of hemostatic agents. Hemostatic agent use was associated with an increase in predicted hospital re-admissions (P=0.007). Among all hysterectomy approaches, and after adjusting for demographic and surgical factors, hemostatic agent use during robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy was associated with an increased predicted rate of blood transfusions (P=0.019), an increased predicted rate of pelvic abscess diagnoses (P=0.001), an increased predicted rate of hospital re-admission (P=0.001), and an increased predicted rate of re-operation (P=0.021). Hemostatic agents should be used carefully owing to associations with increased post-operative re-admissions and re-operations when used during hysterectomy. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  6. Retrospective cohort study of PAMG-1 and fetal fibronectin test performance in assessing spontaneous preterm birth risk in symptomatic women attending an emergency obstetrical unit.

    PubMed

    Melchor, J C; Navas, H; Marcos, M; Iza, A; de Diego, M; Rando, D; Melchor, I; Burgos, J

    2017-08-29

    To assess the performance of the PAMG-1 and fFN tests using real-world data for the prediction of spontaneous preterm delivery (sPTD) in patients presenting to an emergency obstetrical unit with threatened preterm labour (PTL) by conducting a retrospective audit of patient medical records over two different one-year time periods during which either fFN or PAMG-1 was used as the standard of care biochemical test. A retrospective cohort study chart review of women with threatened PTL electronic medical records (EMR) from a Level III maternity hospital was conducted for two periods of one year each: (1) the "Baseline" time period, during which the qualitative fFN test with a cutoff of 50 ng/ml was used as standard of care biochemical test for the risk assessment of preterm delivery, and (2) the "Comparative" time period, during which the PAMG-1 test with a cutoff of 1 ng/mL was used as the standard of care biomarker test. Patients with singleton gestations between 24(+0) to 34(+6) weeks of gestation with symptoms of early preterm labour, clinically intact membranes, and cervical dilation <3 cm, who did not have a medically-indicated preterm delivery within 14 days of testing were selected for chart review and included in the analysis. Key parameters used for analysis were biochemical test results, time of testing, and time of delivery. Positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), sensitivity (SN), specificity (SP), and likelihood ratios (LR+ and LR-) for the prediction of sPTD ≤7 and ≤14 days were calculated for PAMG-1 and fFN. 420 patients were identified in the EMR as having presented with threatened PTL during the Baseline period. 90.0% (378/420) subjects met eligibility criteria, 10.1% (38/378) of which were fFN positive and 2.6% (10/378) of which had a sPTD ≤7 days. fFN PPV and NPV were 7.9% and 97.9% for sPTD ≤7 days, respectively. fFN LR+ and LR- were 3.15 and 0.77, respectively. 410 patients were identified in the EMR

  7. Laparoscopic ureteroneocystostomy for ureteral injuries after hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Pompeo, Alexandre; Molina, Wilson R; Sehrt, David; Tobias-Machado, Marcos; Mariano Costa, Renato M; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima; Kim, Fernando J

    2013-01-01

    To examine the feasibility of early laparoscopic ureteroneocystostomy for ureteral obstruction due to hysterectomy injury. We retrospectively reviewed a 10-y experience from 2 institutions in patients who underwent early (<30 d) or late (>30 d) laparoscopic ureteroneocystostomy for ureteral injury after hysterectomy. Evaluation of the surgery included the cause of the stricture and intraoperative and postoperative outcomes. A total of 9 patients with distal ureteral injury after hysterectomy were identified. All injuries were identified and treated as early as 21 d after hysterectomy. Seven of 9 patients underwent open hysterectomy, and the remaining patients had vaginal and laparoscopic radical hysterectomy. All ureteroneocystostomy cases were managed laparoscopically without conversion to open surgery and without any intraoperative complications. The Lich-Gregoir reimplantation technique was applied in all patients, and 2 patients required a psoas hitch. The mean operative time was 206.6 min (range, 120-280 min), the mean estimated blood loss was 122.2 cc (range, 25-350 cc), and the mean admission time was 3.3 d (range, 1-7 d). Cystography showed no urine leak when the ureteral stent was removed at 4 to 6 wk after the procedure. Ureteroneocystostomy patency was followed up with cystography at 6 mo and at least 10 y after ureteroneocystostomy. Early laparoscopic ureteral reimplantation may offer an alternative surgical approach to open surgery for the management of distal ureteral injuries, with favorable cosmetic results and recovery time from ureteral obstruction due to hysterectomy injury.

  8. Incidence of pelvic floor repair after hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Blandon, Roberta E.; Bharucha, Adil E.; Melton, L. Joseph; Schleck, Cathy D.; Babalola, Ebenezer O.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Gebhart, John B.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to assess the incidence of and risk factors for pelvic floor repair (PFR) procedures after hysterectomy. STUDY DESIGN Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project database, we tracked the incidence of PFRs through June 2006 among 8220 Olmsted County, MN, women who had a hysterectomy for benign indications between 1965 and 2002. RESULTS The cumulative incidence of PFR after hysterectomy was 5.1% by 30 years. This risk was not influenced by age at hysterectomy or calendar period. Future PFR was more frequently required in women who had prolapse, whether they underwent a hysterectomy alone (eg, vaginal [hazard ratio (HR) 4.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5 to 7.3], abdominal [HR 3.9; 95% CI 1.9 to 8.0]) or a hysterectomy and PFR (ie, vaginal [HR 1.9; 95% CI 1.3 to 2.7] or abdominal [HR 2.9; 95% CI 1.5 to 5.5]). CONCLUSION Compared with women without prolapse, women who had a hysterectomy for prolapse were at increased risk for subsequent PFR. PMID:18060973

  9. Vaginal hysterectomy in non-prolapsed uteruses: "no scar hysterectomy".

    PubMed

    Salcedo, Felix Lugo

    2009-09-01

    Traditionally, vaginal hysterectomy (VH) has been limited to cases of uterine prolapse, despite the fact that vast worldwide literature has demonstrated its applicability in other common benign diseases, such as uterine fibromatosis and abnormal uterine bleeding, with excellent outcomes. Such outstanding results have made this procedure one of the most useful and advantageous alternatives when compared to the abdominal and laparoscopic routes. Currently, VH (an ancient procedure) does not represent a first-line alternative. Therefore, the main goal of this paper is to describe some of the advantages of the vaginal route in order to help vaginal surgery schools to re-establish the leading role of this approach as a part of the minimally invasive gynecological surgery trend.

  10. Depression Following Hysterectomy and the Influencing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bahri, Narjes; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Larki, Mona; Amini, Thoraya; Askari Sartavosi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Hysterectomy is one of the most common gynecological surgeries performed worldwide. However, women undergoing this surgery often experience negative emotional reactions. Objectives This study was done with the aim of investigating the relationship between hysterectomy and postoperative depression, three months after the procedure. Materials and Methods This longitudinal study was conducted in the province of Khorasan-Razavi in Iran, using multistage sampling. At first, three cities were selected from the province by cluster sampling; then, five hospitals were randomly selected from these cities. The participants included 53 women who were hysterectomy candidates in one of the five selected hospitals. The participants’ demographics and hysterectomy procedure information were entered into two separate questionnaires, and the Beck depression inventory (BDI) was employed to measure their severity of depression before and three months after the surgery. The statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 16 was used for the statistical analysis, and a P value of < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The means and standard deviations of the participants’ depression scores before and three months after their hysterectomies were 13.01 ± 10.1 and 11.02 ± 10.3, respectively. Although the mean score of depression decreased three months after the hysterectomy, the difference was not statistically significant. However, a significant relationship was found between the satisfaction with the outcome of the hysterectomy and the postoperative depression score (P = 0.04). Conclusions In this study, undergoing a hysterectomy did not show a relationship with postoperative depression three months after the surgery. Moreover, the only factor related to depression following a hysterectomy was satisfaction with the surgery. PMID:27066267

  11. Secondary Hemorrhage After Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Prathap, Talwar; Kaur, Harneet; Shabnam, Khan; Kandhari, Dimple; Chopade, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study is to estimate the cumulative incidence, patient characteristics, and potential risk factors for secondary hemorrhage after total laparoscopic hysterectomy. Methods: All women who underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy at Paul's Hospital between January 2004 and April 2012 were included in the study. Patients who had bleeding per vaginam between 24 hours and 6 weeks after primary surgery were included in the analysis. Results: A total of 1613 patients underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy during the study period, and 21 patients had secondary hemorrhage after hysterectomy. The overall cumulative incidence of secondary hemorrhage after total laparoscopic hysterectomy was 1.3%. The mean size of the uterus was 541.4 g in the secondary hemorrhage group and 318.9 g in patients without hemorrhage, which was statistically significant. The median time interval between hysterectomy and secondary hemorrhage was 13 days. Packing was sufficient to control the bleeding in 13 patients, and 6 patients required vault suturing. Laparoscopic coagulation of the uterine artery was performed in 1 patient. Uterine artery embolization was performed twice in 1 patient to control the bleeding. Conclusions: Our data suggest that secondary hemorrhage is rare but may occur more often after total laparoscopic hysterectomy than after other hysterectomy approaches. Whether it is related to the application of thermal energy to tissues, which causes more tissue necrosis and devascularization than sharp culdotomy in abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies, is not clear. A large uterus size, excessive use of an energy source for the uterine artery, and culdotomy may play a role. PMID:25392609

  12. 'In situ simulation' versus 'off site simulation' in obstetric emergencies and their effect on knowledge, safety attitudes, team performance, stress, and motivation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Unexpected obstetric emergencies threaten the safety of pregnant women. As emergencies are rare, they are difficult to learn. Therefore, simulation-based medical education (SBME) seems relevant. In non-systematic reviews on SBME, medical simulation has been suggested to be associated with improved learner outcomes. However, many questions on how SBME can be optimized remain unanswered. One unresolved issue is how 'in situ simulation' (ISS) versus 'off site simulation' (OSS) impact learning. ISS means simulation-based training in the actual patient care unit (in other words, the labor room and operating room). OSS means training in facilities away from the actual patient care unit, either at a simulation centre or in hospital rooms that have been set up for this purpose. Methods and design The objective of this randomized trial is to study the effect of ISS versus OSS on individual learning outcome, safety attitude, motivation, stress, and team performance amongst multi-professional obstetric-anesthesia teams. The trial is a single-centre randomized superiority trial including 100 participants. The inclusion criteria were health-care professionals employed at the department of obstetrics or anesthesia at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, who were working on shifts and gave written informed consent. Exclusion criteria were managers with staff responsibilities, and staff who were actively taking part in preparation of the trial. The same obstetric multi-professional training was conducted in the two simulation settings. The experimental group was exposed to training in the ISS setting, and the control group in the OSS setting. The primary outcome is the individual score on a knowledge test. Exploratory outcomes are individual scores on a safety attitudes questionnaire, a stress inventory, salivary cortisol levels, an intrinsic motivation inventory, results from a questionnaire evaluating perceptions of the simulation and suggested changes needed in the

  13. 'In situ simulation' versus 'off site simulation' in obstetric emergencies and their effect on knowledge, safety attitudes, team performance, stress, and motivation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Van der Vleuten, Cees; Lindschou, Jane; Gluud, Christian; Østergaard, Doris; LeBlanc, Vicki; Johansen, Marianne; Ekelund, Kim; Albrechtsen, Charlotte Krebs; Pedersen, Berit Woetman; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Weikop, Pia; Ottesen, Bent

    2013-07-17

    Unexpected obstetric emergencies threaten the safety of pregnant women. As emergencies are rare, they are difficult to learn. Therefore, simulation-based medical education (SBME) seems relevant. In non-systematic reviews on SBME, medical simulation has been suggested to be associated with improved learner outcomes. However, many questions on how SBME can be optimized remain unanswered. One unresolved issue is how 'in situ simulation' (ISS) versus 'off site simulation' (OSS) impact learning. ISS means simulation-based training in the actual patient care unit (in other words, the labor room and operating room). OSS means training in facilities away from the actual patient care unit, either at a simulation centre or in hospital rooms that have been set up for this purpose. The objective of this randomized trial is to study the effect of ISS versus OSS on individual learning outcome, safety attitude, motivation, stress, and team performance amongst multi-professional obstetric-anesthesia teams.The trial is a single-centre randomized superiority trial including 100 participants. The inclusion criteria were health-care professionals employed at the department of obstetrics or anesthesia at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, who were working on shifts and gave written informed consent. Exclusion criteria were managers with staff responsibilities, and staff who were actively taking part in preparation of the trial. The same obstetric multi-professional training was conducted in the two simulation settings. The experimental group was exposed to training in the ISS setting, and the control group in the OSS setting. The primary outcome is the individual score on a knowledge test. Exploratory outcomes are individual scores on a safety attitudes questionnaire, a stress inventory, salivary cortisol levels, an intrinsic motivation inventory, results from a questionnaire evaluating perceptions of the simulation and suggested changes needed in the organization, a team-based score on video

  14. Obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Valverde, E; Ferrer-Oliveras, R; Alijotas-Reig, J

    2016-04-01

    Obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome is an acquired autoimmune disorder that is associated with various obstetric complications and, in the absence of prior history of thrombosis, with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies directed against other phospholipids, proteins called cofactors or PL-cofactor complexes. Although the obstetric complications have been related to the procoagulant properties of antiphospholipid antibodies, pathological studies of human placenta have shown the proinflammatory capacity of antiphospholipid antibodies via the complement system and proinflammatory cytokines. There is no general agreement on which antiphospholipid antibodies profile (laboratory) confers the greatest obstetric risk, but the best candidates are categories I and IIa. Combined treatment with low doses of aspirin and heparin achieves good obstetric and maternal outcomes. In this study, we also review the therapeutic possibilities in refractory cases, although the likelihood of progressing to other autoimmune diseases is low. We briefly comment on incomplete obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome, also known as antiphospholipid antibody-mediated pregnancy morbidity syndrome.

  15. [Childbirth preparation courses: obstetrical and neonatal evaluation].

    PubMed

    Grignaffini, A; Soncini, E; Riccò, R; Vadora, E

    2000-01-01

    From 1997, R.A.T. (Respiratory Autogenous Training) and "Stretching" training have been performed into the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology University of Parma, for childbirth preparation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the obstetric characteristics of these women during labor and delivery. We compared the labour and delivery characteristics of 200 women who have completed antepartum R.A.T. and stretching training with 100 matched controls who have not. Preparation is significantly related to reduction in dystocic deliveries (operative vaginal delivery and cesarean section) and emergency cesarean section. Epidural analgesia (an obstetric procedure that is not routinely offered in the department of Parma) is more frequently performed in women prepared with ante-partum training. The neonatal outcome is good in all the three groups. "Prepared-childbirth" courses offer measurable clinical, obstetrical and neonatal advantages and psychological support, providing a useful link between prenatal ambulatory care and hospital labor and delivery care.

  16. Pain following hysterectomy: epidemiological and clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Brandsborg, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that different surgical procedures like amputation, thoracotomy, inguinal herniotomy, and mastectomy are associated with a risk of developing chronic postsurgical pain. Hysterectomy is the most frequent gynecological procedure with an annual frequency of 5000 hysterectomies for a benign indication in Denmark, but is has not previously been documented in detail to what extent this procedure leads to chronic pain. The aim of this PhD thesis was therefore to describe the epidemiology, type of pain, risk factors, and predictive factors associated with chronic pain after hysterectomy for a benign indication. The thesis includes four papers, of which one is based on a questionnaire study, two are based on a prospective clinical study, and one is a review of chronic pain after hysterectomy. The questionnaire paper included 1135 women one year after hysterectomy. A postal questionnaire about pain before and after hysterectomy was combined with data from the Danish Hysterectomy Database. Chronic postoperative pain was described by 32%, and the identified risk factors were preoperative pelvic pain, previous cesarean section, other pain problems and pain as an indication for hysterectomy. Spinal anesthesia was associated with a decreased risk of having pain after one year. The type of surgery (i.e. abdominal or vaginal hysterectomy) did not influence chronic pain. The prospective paper included 90 women referred for a hysterectomy on benign indication. The tests were performed before, on day 1, and 4 months after surgery and included questionnaires about pain, coping, and quality of life together with quantitative sensory testing of pain thresholds. Seventeen percent had pain after 4 months, and the risk factors were preoperative pain problems elsewhere and a high intensity of acute postoperative pain. Type of surgery was not a risk factor. Preoperative brush-evoked allodynia, pinprick hyperalgesia, and vaginal pain threshold were associated with a high

  17. Comparison of postoperative vaginal length and sexual function after abdominal, vaginal, and laparoscopic hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Önder; Özer, Alev; Köstü, Bülent; Bakacak, Murat; Kıran, Gürkan; Avcı, Fazıl

    2016-01-01

    To compare vaginal length and sexual function after total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH), total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH), and vaginal hysterectomy (VH). The present cross-sectional study at a single center in Turkey compared vaginal length and sexual function among women who received TLH, TAH, VH, or no surgery (groups 1, 2, 3, and 0, respectively) between January 2011 and April 2014. All women underwent hysterectomy for benign reasons at least 3months before the study and were sexually active. Vaginal length was measured between the hymenal ring and vaginal apex. Sexual function was assessed via the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire, short form (PISQ-12). Vaginal length in groups 0, 1, 2, and 3 was 10.9±1.5, 8.9±1.4, 8.5±1.2, and 8.1±0.7cm, respectively; it was significantly longer in the control group (P<0.001), and significantly shorter in group 3 than in group 1 (P=0.03). The mean PISQ-12 score in groups 0, 1, 2, and 3 was 18.6±5.2, 12.9±3.0, 13.8±4.4, and 11.5±4.4, respectively, and was significantly higher in group 0 (P<0.001). Total hysterectomy shortened vaginal length and compromised sexual function regardless of the technique used. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hysterectomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... cuts in the belly, in order to perform robotic surgery You and your doctor will decide which ... through the vagina using a laparoscope or after robotic surgery. When a larger surgical cut (incision) in ...

  19. Anatomical complications of hysterectomy: A review.

    PubMed

    Ramdhan, Rebecca C; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-10-01

    Hysterectomy is the most commonly performed gynecological procedure in the United States with three possible surgical approaches; vaginal, abdominal and laparoscopic. As with any surgical procedure, various anatomical complications can arise. These include injuries to anatomical structures such as the urinary bladder, ureter, intestines, rectum, anus, and a multitude of nervous structures. Other complications include sexual dysfunction, vaginal cuff dehiscence, and urinary incontinence. Using standard search engines, the anatomical complications of hysterectomies are reviewed. In conclusion, surgeons who perform hysterectomies or are involved with postoperative hysterectomy patients should be familiar with the possible complications of this common procedure and the steps that can be taken to help reduce the risk of those complications. Clinicians should also inform their patients of the potential complications as they can affect lifestyle and comfort. Clin. Anat. 30:946-952, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Pragmatic prevention, permanent solution: Women's experiences with hysterectomy in rural India.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sapna

    2016-02-01

    Hysterectomy appears to be on the rise amongst low-income, rural women in India as routine treatment for gynaecological ailments. This paper explores the individual, household, socio-economic and health system factors that influenced women's decisions to undergo hysterectomy in rural Gujarat, with a focus on women's perspectives. Interviews were conducted with 35 rural, low-income women who had undergone hysterectomy, local gynaecologists and other key informants, alongside observation of daily life and health-related activities. Inductive, open coding was conducted within a framework analysis to identify thematic influences on the decision to undergo hysterectomy. Women underwent hysterectomy at an average age of 36, as treatment for typically severe gynaecological ailments. I argue that women, faced with embedded social inequality in the form of gender biases, lack of labour security and a maternal-centric health system, demonstrated pragmatic agency in their decision to remove the uterus. When they experienced gynaecological ailments, most sought two to three opinions and negotiated financial and logistical concerns. The health system offered few non-invasive services for non-maternal health issues. Moreover, women and health care providers believed there is limited utility of the uterus beyond childbearing. Women's responsibilities as caretakers, workers and producers drove them to seek permanent solutions that would secure their long-term work and health security. Thus, hysterectomy emerged as a normalised treatment for gynaecological ailments, particularly for low-income women with limited resources or awareness of potential side effects. In this setting, hysterectomy reflects the power structures and social inequalities in which women negotiated medical treatment--and the need to reverse a culture of permanent solutions for low-income women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Multi-professional training for obstetric emergencies in a U.S. hospital over a 7-year interval: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Weiner, C P; Collins, L; Bentley, S; Dong, Y; Satterwhite, C L

    2016-01-01

    Birth is less safe than it can be. We adapted the UK-developed PROMPT (PRactical Obstetric Multi-Professional Training) course to local practices and initiated annual training. This observational study used quality assurance data from University of Kansas Hospital 2 years before and 7 years after intervention encompassing 14,309 consecutive deliveries from January 2006 through December 2014. An events/trials approach was applied to changes in proportions over time. PROMPT was associated with progressive decreases in rates (P<0.05) of brachial plexus injury and umbilical artery pH <7.00 exclusive of catastrophic events. Reduced rates (P<0.05) of cesarean section, episiotomy and higher perception of nurse/physician communication were documented. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) rates declined progressively by >50% (P=NS). These improvements occurred despite younger faculty and higher rates of complicated pregnancies (P<0.05). Estimated health-care costs avoided exceeded annual training costs. Local annual multi-professional training as provided by PROMPT was temporally associated with improved obstetric outcomes.

  2. Outpatient Hysterectomy Volume in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Sarah L; Ajao, Mobolaji O; Clark, Nisse V; Vitonis, Allison F; Einarsson, Jon I

    2017-07-01

    To estimate the number of outpatient hysterectomies being performed annually in the United States in an effort to offer more correct estimates of hysterectomy use in light of reported decreasing inpatient case volume. This is a cross-sectional analysis of State Ambulatory Surgery and Services Databases from 16 states with complete information for year 2011. Adult women undergoing hysterectomy were included. Procedure volume, route, and associated patient and surgical characteristics were calculated. There were 64,612 ambulatory hysterectomies reported; 81.5% of surgeries were performed laparoscopically and 16% vaginally. If these numbers are extrapolated to national estimates, this represents 100,000-200,000 outpatient hysterectomies per year. The strongest driver of the laparoscopic, compared with vaginal, route of hysterectomy in this data set was presence of cancer (odds ratio 4.01 [3.19-5.05], P<.001). In addition to indication for surgery, patient characteristics such as age, race, income, location, and primary payer were associated with mode of hysterectomy. The laparoscopic surgeries were associated with shorter length of stay (mean stay 0.65 days, [99% confidence interval 0.65-0.66] compared with 0.79 days [0.78-0.81], adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.89 [0.86-0.92], P<.001) and higher mean charges ($24,227 [$24,053-24,402] versus $14,068 [$13,811-14,330], P<.001) compared with vaginal surgeries. The perceived decline that has been reported in national hysterectomy volume may represent lack of reporting of surgeries performed in ambulatory settings. This information has considerable implications for business, public health interventions, and insurance carriers among other key stakeholders in women's health care delivery.

  3. Hysterectomy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Arabic) استئصال الرحم - العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Hysterectomy 子宫切除术 - 简体中文 (Chinese - Simplified) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Hysterectomy 子宮切除術 - 繁體中文 (Chinese - Traditional) ...

  4. Persistent Bleeding After Laparoscopic Supracervical Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Cholkeri-Singh, Aarathi; Sulo, Suela; Miller, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In our clinical experience, there seemed to be a correlation between cervical stump bleeding and adenomyosis. Therefore, we wanted to conduct a study to determine whether there was an actual correlation and to identify other risk factors for persistent bleeding after a laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy. Methods: The study included women who underwent laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2012. Data were collected on age, postmenopausal status, body mass index (BMI), uterine weight, indication for hysterectomy, concomitant bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO), presence of endometriosis, surgical ablation of the endocervix, adenomyosis, presence of endocervix in the specimen, and postoperative bleeding. Results: The study included 256 patients, of whom 187 had no postoperative bleeding after the operation, 40 had bleeding within 12 weeks, and 29 had bleeding after 12 weeks. The 3 groups were comparable in BMI, postmenopausal status, uterine weight, indication for hysterectomy, BSO, surgical ablation of the endocervix, adenomyosis, and the presence of endocervix. However, patients who had postoperative bleeding at more than 12 weeks were significantly younger (P = .002) and had a higher rate of endometriosis (P < .001). Conclusions: Risks factors for postoperative bleeding from the cervical stump include a younger age at the time of hysterectomy and the presence of endometriosis. Therefore, younger patients and those with endometriosis who desire to have no further vaginal bleeding may benefit from total hysterectomy over supracervical hysterectomy. All patients who are undergoing supracervical hysterectomy should be counseled about the possible alternatives, benefits, and risks, including continued vaginal bleeding from the cervical stump and the possibility of requiring future treatment and procedures. PMID:25516706

  5. Persistent bleeding after laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kirsten J; Cholkeri-Singh, Aarathi; Sulo, Suela; Miller, Charles E

    2014-01-01

    In our clinical experience, there seemed to be a correlation between cervical stump bleeding and adenomyosis. Therefore, we wanted to conduct a study to determine whether there was an actual correlation and to identify other risk factors for persistent bleeding after a laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy. The study included women who underwent laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2012. Data were collected on age, postmenopausal status, body mass index (BMI), uterine weight, indication for hysterectomy, concomitant bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO), presence of endometriosis, surgical ablation of the endocervix, adenomyosis, presence of endocervix in the specimen, and postoperative bleeding. The study included 256 patients, of whom 187 had no postoperative bleeding after the operation, 40 had bleeding within 12 weeks, and 29 had bleeding after 12 weeks. The 3 groups were comparable in BMI, postmenopausal status, uterine weight, indication for hysterectomy, BSO, surgical ablation of the endocervix, adenomyosis, and the presence of endocervix. However, patients who had postoperative bleeding at more than 12 weeks were significantly younger (P = .002) and had a higher rate of endometriosis (P < .001). Risks factors for postoperative bleeding from the cervical stump include a younger age at the time of hysterectomy and the presence of endometriosis. Therefore, younger patients and those with endometriosis who desire to have no further vaginal bleeding may benefit from total hysterectomy over supracervical hysterectomy. All patients who are undergoing supracervical hysterectomy should be counseled about the possible alternatives, benefits, and risks, including continued vaginal bleeding from the cervical stump and the possibility of requiring future treatment and procedures.

  6. A Comparison Between Non-Descent Vaginal Hysterectomy and Total Abdominal Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Dibyajyoti, Gharphalia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hysterectomy is one of the most common gyneacological surgeries performed worldwide. The vaginal technique has been introduced and performed centuries back, but has been less successful due to lack of experience and enthusiasm among Gynaecologists, due to a misconception that the abdominal route is safer and easier. Aim To evaluate the most efficient route of hysterectomy in women with mobile nonprolapsed uteri of 12 weeks or lesser by comparing the intra and postoperative complications of vaginal and abdominal hysterectomies. Materials and Methods A prospective, randomized controlled trial was performed wherein, 300 consecutive patients requiring hysterectomy for benign diseases were analysed over a period of 2 years (December 2012–November 2014). Group A (n = 150) underwent vaginal hysterectomy (non descent vaginal hysterectomy, NDVH) which was compared with group B (n = 150) who had abdominal hysterectomy. The primary outcome measures were operative time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative analgesia, hospital stay, postoperative mobility, blood transfusion, wound infection, febrile morbidity and postoperative systemic infections. Secondary outcome measures were conversion of vaginal to abdominal route and re-laparotomy. Results Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups. There were no intraoperative complications in either group. Regarding operation duration, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative pain, postoperative blood transfusion, mobilization in post operative ward, postoperative wound infection, febrile morbidity, duration of hospital stay, p-value was significant in vaginal hysterectomy compared to abdominal hysterectomy. Regarding postoperative systemic infections, p-value was not significant. None of the cases in the vaginal group were converted to abdominal route and none of the cases in the whole study group underwent re-laparotomy. Conclusion The present study concludes that patients requiring hysterectomy

  7. Cost analysis when open surgeons perform minimally invasive hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Jonathan P; Kantartzis, Kelly L; Ahn, Ki Hoon; Bonidie, Michael J; Lee, Ted

    2014-01-01

    The costs to perform a hysterectomy are widely variable. Our objective was to determine hysterectomy costs by route and whether traditionally open surgeons lower costs when performing laparoscopy versus robotics. Hysterectomy costs including subcategories were collected from 2011 to 2013. Costs were skewed, so 2 statistical transformations were performed. Costs were compared by surgeon classification (open, laparoscopic, or robotic) and surgery route. A total of 4,871 hysterectomies were performed: 34.2% open, 50.7% laparoscopic, and 15.1% robotic. Laparoscopic hysterectomy had the lowest total costs (P < .001). By cost subcategory, laparoscopic hysterectomy was lower than robotic hysterectomy in 6 and higher in 1. When performing robotic hysterectomy, open and robotic surgeon costs were similar. With laparoscopic hysterectomy, open surgeons had higher costs than laparoscopic surgeons for 1 of 2 statistical transformations (P = .007). Open surgeons had lower costs performing laparoscopic hysterectomy than robotic hysterectomy with robotic maintenance and depreciation included (P < .001) but similar costs if these variables were excluded. Although laparoscopic hysterectomy had lowest costs overall, robotics may be no more costly than laparoscopic hysterectomy when performed by surgeons who predominantly perform open hysterectomy.

  8. Tubal ligation, hysterectomy and D&C: evidence from the Melbourne Women's Midlife Health Project.

    PubMed

    Taffe, J; Green, A; Dudley, E; Dennerstein, L

    2000-01-01

    The question of whether tubal ligation (TL) is associated with increased risk of hysterectomy or dilatation and curettage (D&C) is examined using data from a population-based study. Retrospective information on TL, D&C and hysterectomy was gathered from 1,810 Australian-born women aged 45-55 who were randomly selected from the population of Melbourne, Australia. Odds ratios for the outcomes were adjusted via logistic regression for age, years of education, smoking status, alcohol consumption, history of premenopausal complaints, number of lost pregnancies, and whether women have discussed menstruation or menopause with their doctor. With these variables taken into account, TL does not emerge as a risk factor for hysterectomy. Though there was a significant association between TL and the probability of ever experiencing a D&C, related extraneous variables which appear to link these events are identified. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Geographic Variance of Cost Associated With Hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Sheyn, David; Mahajan, Sangeeta; Billow, Megan; Fleary, Alexandra; Hayashi, Emi; El-Nashar, Sherif A

    2017-05-01

    To estimate whether the cost of hysterectomy varies by geographic region. This was a cross-sectional, population-based study using the 2013 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample of women older than 18 years undergoing inpatient hysterectomy for benign conditions. Hospital charges obtained from the National Inpatient Sample database were converted to actual costs using cost-to-charge ratios provided by the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Multivariate regression was used to assess the effects that demographic factors, concomitant procedures, diagnoses, and geographic region have on hysterectomy cost above the median. Women who underwent hysterectomy for benign conditions were identified (N=38,414). The median cost of hysterectomy was $13,981 (interquartile range $9,075-29,770). The mid-Atlantic region had the lowest median cost of $9,661 (interquartile range $6,243-15,335) and the Pacific region had the highest median cost, $22,534 (interquartile range $15,380-33,797). Compared with the mid-Atlantic region, the Pacific (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 10.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 9.44-11.45), South Atlantic (adjusted OR 5.39, 95% CI 4.95-5.86), and South Central (adjusted OR 2.40, 95% CI 2.21-2.62) regions were associated with the highest probability of costs above the median. All concomitant procedures were associated with an increased cost with the exception of bilateral salpingectomy (adjusted OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.95-1.12). Compared with vaginal hysterectomy, laparoscopic and robotic modes of hysterectomy were associated with higher probabilities of increased costs (adjusted OR 2.86, 95% CI 2.61-3.15 and adjusted OR 5.66, 95% CI 5.11-6.26, respectively). Abdominal hysterectomy was not associated with a statistically significant increase in cost compared with vaginal hysterectomy (adjusted OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.91-1.09). The cost of hysterectomy varies significantly with geographic region after adjusting for confounders.

  10. Resident duty-hour restrictions and their effect on operative experience in obstetrics and gynecology.

    PubMed

    Occhino, John A; Hannigan, Tiffany L; Baggish, Michael S; Gebhart, John B

    2011-01-01

    To determine the effect of duty-hour restrictions on the operative experience of obstetrics and gynecology residents. Operative numbers were obtained from graduates of Mayo Clinic (Rochester, Minn., USA) and Good Samaritan Hospital (Cincinnati, Ohio, USA). Mean operative numbers between graduates in 2007 and 2003 were compared. The following procedures were evaluated: spontaneous vaginal delivery, forceps-assisted vaginal delivery, vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery, cesarean delivery, surgery on antenatal patients, amniocentesis, total abdominal hysterectomy, total vaginal hysterectomy, laparotomy, incontinence or pelvic floor surgery, operative laparoscopy, hysteroscopy, cervical conization, and surgical sterilization. The number of procedures performed (total and as the primary surgeon) were evaluated. We analyzed each institution's residents separately. At Mayo Clinic, the 2007 graduates performed significantly fewer conizations than the 2003 graduates (p = 0.006). At Good Samaritan Hospital, the 2007 graduates performed significantly more vacuum-assisted vaginal deliveries (p = 0.002), cesarean deliveries (p = 0.002), and sterilizations (p < 0.001) than the 2003 graduates. The above findings were unchanged when evaluating procedures for which the resident was the primary surgeon. Duty-hour restrictions have not adversely affected the operative experience of obstetrics and gynecology residents. No significant differences in the number of the spontaneous vaginal deliveries, abdominal hysterectomies, or vaginal hysterectomies performed were observed. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. 'The clock keeps ticking'--the role of a community-based intervention in reducing delays in seeking emergency obstetric care in rural Bangladesh: a quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Banu, M; Akter, M; Begum, K; Choudhury, R H; Nasreen, H E

    2014-04-01

    To explore the role of a community-based intervention in reducing delays in accessing emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in rural Bangladesh, and the factors associated with delayed decision making, reaching the health facility and receiving treatment. Quasi-experimental study. Multistage random sampling was used to select 540 villages, from which 1200 women who reported obstetric complications in March-April 2010 were interviewed. The median time taken to make the decision to access health care was significantly lower in the intervention areas compared with the control areas (80 vs 90 min). In addition, the median time taken to reach the health facility was significantly lower in the intervention areas compared with the control areas (110 vs 135 min). However, no difference was found in the median time taken to receive treatment. Multiple linear regressions demonstrated that the community intervention significantly reduced decision making and time taken to reach the health facility when accessing EmOC in rural Bangladesh. However, for women experiencing haemorrhage, the delays were longer in the intervention areas. Protective factors against delayed decision making included access to television, previous medical exposure, knowledge, life-threatening complications during childbirth and use of a primary health facility. Financial constraints and traditional perceptions were associated with delayed decision making. Complications during labour, use of a motorized vehicle and use of a primary health facility were associated with faster access to EmOC, and poverty, distance, transportation difficulties and decision made by male guardian were associated with slower access to EmOC. The intervention appeared to reduce the time taken to make the decision to access health care and the time taken to reach the health facility when accessing EmOC. This study provides support for a focus on emergency preparedness for timely referral from the community. Copyright © 2014 The Royal

  12. Teaching primary care obstetrics

    PubMed Central

    Koppula, Sudha; Brown, Judith B.; Jordan, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the experiences and recommendations for recruitment of family physicians who practise and teach primary care obstetrics. Design Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Setting Six primary care obstetrics groups in Edmonton, Alta, that were involved in teaching family medicine residents in the Department of Family Medicine at the University of Alberta. Participants Twelve family physicians who practised obstetrics in groups. All participants were women, which was reasonably representative of primary care obstetrics providers in Edmonton. Methods Each participant underwent an in-depth interview. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The investigators independently reviewed the transcripts and then analyzed the transcripts together in an iterative and interpretive manner. Main findings Themes identified in this study include lack of confidence in teaching, challenges of having learners, benefits of having learners, and recommendations for recruiting learners to primary care obstetrics. While participants described insecurity and challenges related to teaching, they also identified positive aspects, and offered suggestions for recruiting learners to primary care obstetrics. Conclusion Despite describing poor confidence as teachers and having challenges with learners, the participants identified positive experiences that sustained their interest in teaching. Supporting these teachers and recruiting more such role models is important to encourage family medicine learners to enter careers such as primary care obstetrics. PMID:24627402

  13. Type C2 radical hysterectomy may improve outcomes of locally advanced mucinous adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Okame, Shinichi; Kojima, Atsumi; Teramoto, Norihiro; Shiroyama, Yuko; Yokoyama, Takashi; Takehara, Kazuhiro; Nogawa, Takayoshi

    2016-08-01

    It is not known whether radiotherapy or surgery is better as initial treatment for locally advanced mucinous adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. We reviewed the medical records and pathological materials of 32 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IB2-IIB mucinous adenocarcinoma, who had undergone radiotherapy or radical hysterectomy as primary treatment between 2001 and 2010. p16(INK4a) immunohistochemistry was performed as a marker for human papillomavirus-related adenocarcinoma. Thirteen patients received radiotherapy and 19 patients underwent radical hysterectomy. The cumulative 3-year locoregional control rates in the radical hysterectomy and radiotherapy groups were 79.0 and 46.2 % (P = 0.03), and 5-year overall survival rates were 70.7 and 38.5 % (P = 0.09), respectively. Of patients with p16(INK4a)-positive tumors (n = 19), the cumulative 3-year locoregional control rates in the radical hysterectomy and radiotherapy groups were 100 and 60.0 % (P = 0.01), and 5-year overall survival rates were 88.9 and 40.0 % (P = 0.04), respectively. Conversely, the cumulative 3-year locoregional control rates in the human papillomavirus-negative radical hysterectomy group and radiotherapy group were 20.0 and 37.5 % (P = 0.66), and 5-year overall survival rates were 20.0 and 37.5 % (P = 0.60), respectively. Radical hysterectomy may significantly improve locoregional control and overall survival compared with radiotherapy for stage IB2-IIB mucinous adenocarcinoma patients, especially those with p16(INK4a)-positive mucinous adenocarcinoma.

  14. Cost differences among robotic, vaginal, and abdominal hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Woelk, Joshua L; Borah, Bijan J; Trabuco, Emanuel C; Heien, Herbert C; Gebhart, John B

    2014-02-01

    To compare the costs of vaginal and abdominal hysterectomy with robotically assisted hysterectomy. We identified all cases of robotically assisted hysterectomy, with or without bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, treated at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, Minnesota) from January 1, 2007, through December 31, 2009. Cases were propensity score-matched (one-to-one) to cases of vaginal and abdominal hysterectomy, selected randomly from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2006 (before acquisition of the robotic surgical system). All billed costs were abstracted through the sixth postoperative week from the Olmsted County Healthcare Expenditure and Utilization Database and compared between cohorts with a generalized linear modeling framework. Predicted costs were estimated with the recycled predictions method. Costs of operative complications also were estimated. The total number of abdominal hysterectomies collected for comparison was 234 and the total number of vaginal hysterectomies was 212. Predicted mean cost of robotically assisted hysterectomy was $2,253 more than that of vaginal hysterectomy ($13,619 compared with $11,366; P<.001), although costs of complications were not significantly different. The predicted mean costs of robotically assisted compared with abdominal hysterectomy were similar ($14,679 compared with $15,588; P=.35). The costs of complications were not significantly different. Overall, vaginal hysterectomy was less costly than robotically assisted hysterectomy. Abdominal hysterectomy and robotically assisted hysterectomy had similar costs. II.

  15. Telemedicine in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Odibo, Imelda N; Wendel, Paul J; Magann, Everett F

    2013-09-01

    Telemedicine lends itself to several obstetric applications and is of growing interest in developed and developing nations worldwide. In this article we review current trends and applications within obstetrics practice. We searched electronic databases, March 2010 to September 2012, for telemedicine use studies related to obstetrics. Thirty-four of 101 identified studies are the main focus of review. Other relevant studies published before March 2010 are included. Telemedicine plays an important role as an adjunct to delivery of health care to remote patients with inadequate medical access in this era of limited resources and emphasis on efficient use of those available resources.

  16. Is antacid treatment necessary in obstetric anesthesia?

    PubMed

    Al Mazrooa, A A; Alyafi, W A; Marzouki, S A

    1995-10-01

    All the obstetric units in Jeddah were surveyed regarding the use of antacid prophylaxis and the methods of anesthesia used for emergency and elective cesarian section. The results were compared with the Western practice where marked variation was found but this apparently did not influence mortality from acid aspiration.

  17. [Lower urinary tract dysfunction following radical hysterectomy].

    PubMed

    Aoun, F; Roumeguère, T

    2015-12-01

    Radical hysterectomy is associated with a significant amount of urinary functional complications and a negative impact on quality of life. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the neurological etiology of lower urinary tract dysfunction following radical hysterectomy and to establish an optimal postoperative management strategy. We performed a comprehensive overview using the following terms: "radical hysterectomy" and "urologic diseases etiology" or "urologic disease prevention and control". The reported incidence of lower urinary tract dysfunction after radical hysterectomy varies from 12 to 85%. Several animal and clinical urodynamic studies corroborate the neurologic etiology of the dysfunction. Lower urinary tract dysfunction is a common postoperative finding (70-85%) but spontaneous recovery is to be expected within 6-12 months after surgery. The most frequent long term sequela is stress urinary incontinence (40% of cases) and its management is complex and challenging. Postoperative refractory overactive bladder and bladder underactivity can be treated by neuromodulation of sacral roots and superior hypogastric plexus, respectively. In the absence of good clinical predictors, preoperative urodynamic examinations could have a role in understanding the pathophysiology of the dysfunction before such interventions. The pathophysiology of lower urinary tract dysfunction following radical hysterectomy is multifactorial. Its management is complex and should be multidisciplinary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors influencing women's decision making in hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Janda, Monika; Armfield, Nigel R; Page, Katie; Kerr, Gayle; Kurz, Suzanne; Jackson, Graeme; Currie, Jason; Weaver, Edward; Yazdani, Anusch; Obermair, Andreas

    2017-09-12

    To explore factors influencing how well-informed women felt about hysterectomy, influences on their decision making, and on them receiving a less-invasive alternative to open surgery. Online questionnaire, conducted in 2015-2016, of women who had received a hysterectomy in Australia, in the preceding two years. Questionnaires were completed by 2319/6000 women (39% response). Most women (n=2225; 96%) felt well-informed about hysterectomy. Women were more aware of the open abdominal approach (n=1798; 77%), than of less-invasive vaginal (n=1552; 67%), laparoscopic (n=1540; 66%), laparoscopic-assisted (n=1303; 56%), and robotic approaches (n=289; 12%). Most women (n=1435; 62%) reported their gynaecologist was the most influential information source. Women who received information about hysterectomy from a GP (OR=1.47; 95% CI 1.15-1.90), or from a gynaecologist (OR=1.3; 95% CI 1.06-1.58), were more likely to feel better informed (p<0.01). This study is important because it helps clinicians, researchers and health policy makers to understand why many women still receive an open abdominal approach despite many learned societies recommending to avoid it if possible. Additional information, or education about avoiding open abdominal approach where possible may lead to a greater number of women receiving less-invasive types of hysterectomy in the future. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy for Large Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rakesh; Sundaram, Meenakshi; Lakhotia, Smita; Mahajan, Chaitali; Manaktala, Gayatri; Shah, Parul

    2009-01-01

    Aim: In this review, we assessed the feasibility of total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) in cases of very large uteri weighing more than 500 grams. We have analyzed whether it is possible for an experienced laparoscopic surgeon to perform efficient total laparoscopic hysterectomy for large myomatous uteri regardless of the size, number and location of the myomas. Design: Retrospective review (Canadian Task Force Classification II-1) Setting: Dedicated high volume Gynecological laparoscopy centre. Patients: 173 women with symptomatic myomas who underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy at our center. There were no exclusion criteria based on the size number or location of myomas. Intervention: TLH and modifications of performing the surgery by ligating the uterine arteries prior, myomectomy followed by hysterectomy, direct morcellation after uterine artery ligation. Results: 72% of patients had previous normal vaginal delivery and 28% had previous cesarean section. Average clinical size of the uterus was 18 weeks (10, 32). The average weight of the specimen was 700 grams (500, 2240). The average duration of surgery was 107 min (40, 300) and the average blood loss was 228 ml (10, 3200). Conclusion: Total laparoscopic hysterectomy is a technically feasible procedure. It can be performed by experienced surgeons for large uteri regardless of the size, number or location of the myomas. PMID:22442509

  20. Obstetrics and Ernest Hemingway.

    PubMed

    King, C R

    1989-07-01

    Ernest Hemingway is one of the most popular and important American writers of the 20th century. His fiction, ranging from the short story to the novel, is well known, but his medical knowledge, and in particular his knowledge of obstetrics, often is not recognized. To achieve the realistic depiction of the childbirth scenes in A Farewell to Arms required that Hemingway acquire special knowledge of obstetrics practice.

  1. Peripartum cesarean hysterectomy: critical analysis of risk factors and trends over the years.

    PubMed

    Orbach, Adi; Levy, Amalia; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Mazor, Moshe; Holcberg, Gershon; Sheiner, Eyal

    2011-03-01

    To investigate time trends and risk factors for peripartum cesarean hysterectomy. A population-based study comparing all deliveries that were complicated with peripartum hysterectomy to deliveries without this complication was conducted. Deliveries occurred during the years 1988-2007 at a tertiary medical center. A multiple logistic regression model was constructed to find independent risk factors associated with peripartum hysterectomy. Emergency peripartum cesarean hysterectomy complicated 0.06% (n=125) of all deliveries in the study period (n=211,815). The incidence of peripartum hysterectomy increased over time (1988-1994, 0.04%; 1995-2000, 0.05%; 2001-2007, 0.095%). Independent risk factors for emergency peripartum hysterectomy from a backward, stepwise, multivariable logistic regression model were: uterine rupture (OR=487; 95% CI 257.8-919.8, p<0.001), placenta previa (OR=66.4; 95% CI 39.8-111, p<0.001), postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) (OR=40.8; 95% CI 22.4-74.6, p<0.001), cervical tears (OR=22.3; 95% CI 10.4-48.1, p<0.001), second trimester bleeding (OR=6; 95% CI 1.8-20, p=0.003), previous cesarean delivery (OR=5.4; 95% CI 3.5-8.4, p<0.001), placenta accreta (OR=4.7; 95% CI 1.9-11.7, p=0.001), and grand multiparity (above five deliveries, OR=4.1; 95% CI 2.5-6.6, p<0.001). Newborns of these women had lower Apgar scores (<7) at 1 and 5 min (32.7% vs.4.4%; p<0.001, and 10.5% vs. 0.6%; p<0.001, respectively), and higher rates of perinatal mortality (18.4% vs. 1.4%; p<0.001) as compared to the comparison group. Significant risk factors for peripartum hysterectomy are uterine rupture, placenta previa, PPH, cervical tears, previous cesarean delivery, placenta accreta, and grand multiparity. Since the incidence rates are increasing over time, careful surveillance is warranted. Cesarean deliveries in patients with placenta previa-accreta, specifically those performed in women with a previous cesarean delivery, should involve specially trained obstetricians, following

  2. What is an Obstetrics/Gynecology Hospitalist?

    PubMed

    McCue, Brigid

    2015-09-01

    The obstetrics/gynecology (OB/GYN) hospitalist is the latest subspecialist to evolve from obstetrics and gynecology. Starting in 2002, academic leaders recognized the impact of such coalescing forces as the pressure to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality, stagnant reimbursements and the increasing cost of private practice, the decrease in applications for OB/GYN residencies, and the demand among practicing OB/GYNs for work/life balance. Initially coined laborist, the concept of the OB/GYN hospitalist emerged. Thinking of becoming an OB/GYN hospitalist? Here is what you need to know.

  3. Laparoscopic hysterectomy with morcellation versus abdominal hysterectomy for presumed fibroids in premenopausal women: a decision analysis

    PubMed Central

    SIEDHOFF, Matthew T.; WHEELER, Stephanie B.; RUTSTEIN, Sarah E.; GELLER, Elizabeth J.; DOLL, Kemi M.; WU, Jennifer M.; CLARKE-PEARSON, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To model outcomes in laparoscopic hysterectomy with morcellation compared to abdominal hysterectomy for the presumed fibroid uterus, examining short-and long-term complications, as well as mortality. Study Design A decision tree was constructed to compare outcomes for a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 premenopausal women undergoing hysterectomy for presumed fibroids over a 5-year time horizon. Parameter and quality of life utility estimates were determined from published literature for postoperative complications, leiomyosarcoma incidence, death related to leiomyomsarcoma, and procedure-related death. Results The decision analysis predicted fewer overall deaths with laparoscopic hysterectomy compared to abdominal hysterectomy (98 vs. 103 per 100,000). While there were more deaths from leiomyosarcoma following laparoscopic hysterectomy (86 vs. 71 per 100,000), there were more hysterectomy-related deaths with abdominal hysterectomy (32 vs. 12 per 100,000). The laparoscopic group had lower rates of transfusion (2,400 vs. 4,700 per 100,000), wound infection (1,500 vs 6,300 per 100,000), venous thromboembolism (690 vs. 840 per 100,000) and incisional hernia (710 vs. 8,800 per 100,000), but a higher rate of vaginal cuff dehiscence (640 vs. 290 per 100,000). Laparoscopic hysterectomy resulted in more quality-adjusted life years (499,171 vs. 490,711 over five years). Conclusion The risk of leiomyosarcoma morcellation is balanced by procedure-related complications associated with laparotomy, including death. This analysis provides patients and surgeons with estimates of risk and benefit, upon which patient-centered decisions can be made. PMID:25817518

  4. 42 CFR 50.207 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sterilization by hysterectomy. 50.207 Section 50... Sterilization by hysterectomy. (a) Programs or projects to which this subpart applies shall not perform or arrange for the performance of any hysterectomy solely for the purpose of rendering an individual...

  5. 42 CFR 50.207 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sterilization by hysterectomy. 50.207 Section 50... Sterilization by hysterectomy. (a) Programs or projects to which this subpart applies shall not perform or arrange for the performance of any hysterectomy solely for the purpose of rendering an individual...

  6. 42 CFR 441.255 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sterilization by hysterectomy. 441.255 Section 441... Sterilizations § 441.255 Sterilization by hysterectomy. (a) FFP is not available in expenditures for a hysterectomy if— (1) It was performed solely for the purpose of rendering an individual permanently incapable...

  7. 42 CFR 50.207 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sterilization by hysterectomy. 50.207 Section 50... Sterilization by hysterectomy. (a) Programs or projects to which this subpart applies shall not perform or arrange for the performance of any hysterectomy solely for the purpose of rendering an individual...

  8. 42 CFR 441.255 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sterilization by hysterectomy. 441.255 Section 441... Sterilizations § 441.255 Sterilization by hysterectomy. (a) FFP is not available in expenditures for a hysterectomy if— (1) It was performed solely for the purpose of rendering an individual permanently incapable...

  9. 42 CFR 50.207 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sterilization by hysterectomy. 50.207 Section 50... Sterilization by hysterectomy. (a) Programs or projects to which this subpart applies shall not perform or arrange for the performance of any hysterectomy solely for the purpose of rendering an individual...

  10. 42 CFR 441.255 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sterilization by hysterectomy. 441.255 Section 441... Sterilizations § 441.255 Sterilization by hysterectomy. (a) FFP is not available in expenditures for a hysterectomy if— (1) It was performed solely for the purpose of rendering an individual permanently incapable...

  11. 42 CFR 50.207 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sterilization by hysterectomy. 50.207 Section 50... Sterilization by hysterectomy. (a) Programs or projects to which this subpart applies shall not perform or arrange for the performance of any hysterectomy solely for the purpose of rendering an individual...

  12. 42 CFR 441.255 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sterilization by hysterectomy. 441.255 Section 441... Sterilizations § 441.255 Sterilization by hysterectomy. (a) FFP is not available in expenditures for a hysterectomy if— (1) It was performed solely for the purpose of rendering an individual permanently incapable...

  13. 42 CFR 441.255 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sterilization by hysterectomy. 441.255 Section 441... Sterilizations § 441.255 Sterilization by hysterectomy. (a) FFP is not available in expenditures for a hysterectomy if— (1) It was performed solely for the purpose of rendering an individual permanently incapable...

  14. The impact of a simulation-based training lab on outcomes of hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Asoğlu, Mehmet Reşit; Achjian, Tamar; Akbilgiç, Oğuz; Borahay, Mostafa A.; Kılıç, Gökhan S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of a simulation-based training lab on surgical outcomes of different hysterectomy approaches in a resident teaching tertiary care center. Material and Methods This retrospective cohort study was conducted at The University of Texas, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. In total, 1397 patients who had undergone total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH), vaginal hysterectomy (VH), total laparoscopy-assisted hysterectomy (TLH), or robot-assisted hysterectomy (RAH) for benign gynecologic conditions between 2009 and 2014 were included in the study. The comparison was made according to the year when the surgeries were performed: 2009 (before simulation training) and the combination of 2010–2014 (after simulation training) for each technique (TAH, VH, and LAH). Since a simulation lab for robotic surgery was introduced in 2010 at our institute, the comparison for robotic surgery was made between the combination of 2009–2010 as the control and the combination of 2010–2014 as the study group. Results The average estimated blood loss before and after simulation-based training was significantly different in TAH and RAH groups (317±170 mL versus 257±146 mL, p=0.003 and 154±107 mL versus 102±88 mL, p=0.004, respectively), but no difference was found for TLH and VH. The mean of length of hospital stay was significantly different before and after simulation-based training for each technique: 3.7±2.3 versus 2.9±2.2 days for TAH, 2.0±1.2 versus 1.3±0.9 days for VH, 2.4±1.3 versus 1.9±2.5 days for TLH, and 2.0±1.3 versus 1.4±1.7 days for RAH (p<0.01). Conclusion Based on our data, simulator-based training may play an integrative role in developing the residents’ surgical skills and thus improving the surgical outcomes of hysterectomy. PMID:27403070

  15. Management of women requesting subtotal hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Maina, William C; Morris, Edward P

    2010-12-01

    Subtotal hysterectomy (SH), which is also referred to as supracervical hysterectomy, is a common gynaecological procedure in which the uterus is removed and the cervix is retained. There is continuing debate about the advantages and disadvantages of SH compared with total abdominal hysterectomy. Persistent vaginal bleeding and the need for continued cervical screening appear to be the main disadvantages of SH. The procedure is often combined with removal of the ovaries. Women should be counselled appropriately prior to removal of their ovaries. Following an internal audit of practice of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) prescription within our own unit, we discovered that there were inconsistencies in the prescription of HRT following SH which led us to investigate this matter further. We concluded that evidence is lacking to guide HRT prescription following SH and bilateral oophorectomy and propose content that can help produce guidelines for the counselling of women prior to SH and prescription of HRT.

  16. [Risk factors for hysterectomy among Brazilian women].

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Thália V Barreto; Aquino, Estela M L

    2003-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to investigate risk factors for hysterectomy among women using the public health system in Northeast Brazil. The cases were 373 women aged 30-54 years that had undergone elective hysterectomy for benign pelvic conditions. Controls were 742 women with preserved uterus selected from public health clinics. Data were collected through a review of medical records and a personal interview using a structured, pre-tested questionnaire. Unconditional multiple logistic regression was applied in the analysis. Women at greater risk for hysterectomy were those with a higher per capita family income, zero to three children, a history of medical consultation for menstrual problems, hospitalization for gynecological problems, or tubal ligation before age 30 years. Menopause and a history of stillbirth appeared as protective factors in the statistical analysis.

  17. Hysterectomy and urinary incontinence in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kudish, Bela I; Shveiky, David; Gutman, Robert E; Jacoby, Vanessa; Sokol, Andrew I; Rodabough, Rebecca; Howard, Barabara V; Blanchette, Patricia; Iglesia, Cheryl B

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate an association between hysterectomy and urinary incontinence (UI) in postmenopausal women. Women (aged 50-79) with uteri (N = 53,569) and without uteri (N = 38,524) who enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study between 1993 and 1996 were included in this secondary analysis. Baseline (BL) and 3-year demographic, health/physical forms and personal habit questionnaires were used. Statistical analyses included univariate and logistic regression methods. The baseline UI rate was 66.5 %, with 27.3 % of participants having stress urinary incontinence (SUI), 23 % having urge UI (UUI), and 12.4 % having mixed UI (MUI). 41.8 % of women had undergone hysterectomy, with 88.1 % having had the procedure before age 54. Controlling for health/physical variables, hysterectomy was associated with UI at BL (OR 1.25, 95 % CI 1.19, 1.32) and over the 3-year study period (OR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.11, 1.36). Excluding women with UI at BL, a higher incidence of UUI and SUI episodes was found in hysterectomy at year 3. Among women who had undergone hysterectomy, those with bilateral oophorectomy (BSO) did not have increased odds of developing UI at BL or over the 3-year study period. Hormone use was not associated with a change in UI incidence (estrogen + progesterone, p = 0.17; unopposed estrogen, p = 0.41). Risk of UI is increased in postmenopausal women who had undergone hysterectomy compared with women with uteri.

  18. Obstetric anaesthesia in low-resource settings.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Robert A; Reed, Anthony R; James, Michael F

    2010-06-01

    Close co-operation between obstetricians and obstetric anaesthesia providers is crucial for the safety and comfort of parturients, particularly in low-resource environments. Maternal and foetal mortality is unacceptably high, and the practice of obstetric anaesthesia has an important influence on outcome. Well-conducted national audits have identified the contributing factors to anaesthesia-related deaths. Spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section is the method of choice in the absence of contraindications, but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Minimum requirements for safe practice are adequate skills, anaesthesia monitors, disposables and drugs and relevant management protocols for each level of care. The importance of current outreach initiatives is emphasised, and educational resources and the available financial sources discussed. The difficulties of efficient procurement of equipment and drugs are outlined. Guiding principles for the practice of analgesia for labour, anaesthesia for caesarean section and the management of obstetric emergencies, where the anaesthetist also has a central role, are suggested.

  19. Endoluminal release of ureteral ligature after hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Jen; Lin, Victor Chia-Hsiang; Huang, Ching-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Iatrogenic ureteral injury is a well-recognized complication of abdominal total hysterectomy. We report a case of a 57-year-old female who underwent abdominal total hysterectomy for a uterine myoma and experienced severe right flank pain postoperatively. The imaging study displayed an obstruction of the right distal ureter. Under ureteroscopy, an extraluminal ligature was released with a holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser. The stenotic segment was immediately relieved. Two months later, the intravenous urogram illustrated patency of the distal ureter with regression of right hydronephrosis. There was no recurrent hydronephrosis during 1 year of follow-up.

  20. Obstetric hemorrhage and shock management: using the low technology Non-pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment in Nigerian and Egyptian tertiary care facilities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Obstetric hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal mortality globally. The Non-pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment (NASG) is a low-technology, first-aid compression device which, when added to standard hypovolemic shock protocols, may improve outcomes for women with hypovolemic shock secondary to obstetric hemorrhage in tertiary facilities in low-resource settings. Methods This study employed a pre-intervention/intervention design in four facilities in Nigeria and two in Egypt. Primary outcomes were measured mean and median blood loss, severe end-organ failure morbidity (renal failure, pulmonary failure, cardiac failure, or CNS dysfunctions), mortality, and emergency hysterectomy for 1442 women with ≥750 mL blood loss and at least one sign of hemodynamic instability. Comparisons of outcomes by study phase were assessed with rank sum tests, relative risks (RR), number needed to treat for benefit (NNTb), and multiple logistic regression. Results Women in the NASG phase (n = 835) were in worse condition on study entry, 38.5% with mean arterial pressure <60 mmHg vs. 29.9% in the pre-intervention phase (p = 0.001). Despite this, negative outcomes were significantly reduced in the NASG phase: mean measured blood loss decreased from 444 mL to 240 mL (p < 0.001), maternal mortality decreased from 6.3% to 3.5% (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.35-0.89), severe morbidities from 3.7% to 0.7% (RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.08-0.50), and emergency hysterectomy from 8.9% to 4.0% (RR 0.44, 0.23-0.86). In multiple logistic regression, there was a 55% reduced odds of mortality during the NASG phase (aOR 0.45, 0.27-0.77). The NNTb to prevent either mortality or severe morbidity was 18 (12-36). Conclusion Adding the NASG to standard shock and hemorrhage management may significantly improve maternal outcomes from hypovolemic shock secondary to obstetric hemorrhage at tertiary care facilities in low-resource settings. PMID:20955600

  1. Comparison of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, hysterectomy, and endometrial ablation for heavy menstrual bleeding in a decision analysis model.

    PubMed

    Louie, Michelle; Spencer, Jennifer; Wheeler, Stephanie; Ellis, Victoria; Toubia, Tarek; Schiff, Lauren D; Siedhoff, Matthew T; Moulder, Janelle K

    2017-08-10

    A better understanding of the relative risks and benefits of common treatment options for abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) can help providers and patients to make balanced, evidence-based decisions. To provide comparative estimates of clinical outcomes after placement of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), ablation, or hysterectomy for AUB. A PubMED search was done using combinations of search terms related to abnormal uterine bleeding, LNG-IUS, hysterectomy, endometrial ablation, cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness, and quality-adjusted life years. Full articles published in 2006-2016 available in English comparing at least two treatment modalities of interest among women of reproductive age with AUB were included. A decision tree was generated to compare clinical outcomes in a hypothetical cohort of 100 000 premenopausal women with nonmalignant AUB. We evaluated complications, mortality, and treatment outcomes over a 5-year period, calculated cumulative quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and conducted probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system had the highest number of QALYs (406 920), followed by hysterectomy (403 466), non-resectoscopic ablation (399 244), and resectoscopic ablation (395 827). Ablation had more treatment failures and complications than LNG-IUS and hysterectomy. Findings were robust in probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system and hysterectomy outperformed endometrial ablation for treatment of AUB. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  2. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Severe Secondary Hemorrhage after Hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Jae; Kim, Man Deuk; Lee, Jung-Yun; Kim, Sang Wun; Kim, Sung Hoon; Kim, Young Tae; Nam, Eun Ji

    2017-07-13

    Four of 1237 patients who underwent abdominal, laparoscopic, and vaginal hysterectomy between October 2013 and May 2015 had severe secondary hemorrhage after hysterectomy (2 conventional multiport total laparoscopic hysterectomies, 1 single-port access hysterectomy, and 1 total abdominal hysterectomy). The median time interval between hysterectomy and secondary hemorrhage was 28.4 days (range, 16-52 days). All 4 cases were treated with transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE), all of whom required blood transfusions to maintain vital functions before TAE. The mean operative time was 90 minutes. The median length of hospital stay after TAE was 12 days (range, 4-24 days), and the patients were discharged without complications or additional surgery. These cases show the value of minimally invasive TAE for patients experiencing severe secondary hemorrhage after hysterectomy. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Minimally Invasive Specialists and Rates of Laparoscopic Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Stephanie N.; Isaacson, Keith B.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Despite the prevalence of hysterectomy for treatment of benign gynecologic conditions, providers nationwide have been slow to adopt minimally-invasive surgical techniques. Our objective is to investigate the impact of a department for minimally invasive gynecologic surgery (MIGS) on the rate of laparoscopic hysterectomy at an academic community hospital without robotic technology. Methods: This retrospective observational study included all patients who underwent hysterectomy for benign indications from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2012. The primary outcome was route of hysterectomy: open, laparoscopic, or vaginal. Secondary outcomes of interest included length of stay and factors associated with an open procedure. Results: In 2004, only 24 (8%) of the 292 hysterectomies performed for benign conditions at Newton-Wellesley Hospital (NWH) were laparoscopic. The rate increased to more than 50% (189/365) by 2008, and, in 2012, 72% (316/439) of hysterectomies were performed via a traditional laparoscopic approach. By 2012, more than 93% (411/439) of all hysterectomies were performed in a minimally invasive manner (including total laparoscopic hysterectomy [TLH], laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy [LSH], total vaginal hysterectomy [TVH], and laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy [LAVH]). More than 85% of the hysterectomies at NWH in 2012 were outpatient procedures. By this time, the surgeon's preference or lack of expertise was rarely cited as a factor leading to open hysterectomy. Conclusions: A large diverse gynecologic surgery department transformed surgical practice from primarily open hysterectomy to a majority (>72%) performed via the traditional laparoscopic route and a large majority (>93%) performed in a minimally invasive manner in less than 8 years, without the use of robotic technology. This paradigm shift was fueled by patient demand and by MIGS department surgical mentorship for generalist obstetrician

  4. Termination of pregnancy as emergency obstetric care: the interpretation of Catholic health policy and the consequences for pregnant women: an analysis of the death of Savita Halappanavar in Ireland and similar cases.

    PubMed

    Berer, Marge

    2013-05-01

    Issues arising from the death of Savita Halappanavar in Ireland in October 2012 include the question of whether it is unethical to refuse to terminate a non-viable pregnancy when the woman's life may be at risk. In Catholic maternity services, this decision intersects with health professionals' interpretation of Catholic health policy on treatment of miscarriage as well as the law on abortion. This paper explores how these issues came together around Savita's death and the consequences for pregnant women and maternity services worldwide. It discusses cases not only in Ireland but also the Americas. Many of the events presented are recent, and most of the sources are media and individual reports. However, there is a very worrying common thread across countries and continents. If further research unearths more cases like Savita's, any Catholic health professionals and/or hospitals refusing to terminate a pregnancy as emergency obstetric care should be stripped of their right to provide maternity services. In some countries these are the main or only existing maternity services. Even so, governments should refuse to fund these services, and either replace them with non-religious services or require that non-religious staff are available at all times specifically to take charge of such cases to prevent unnecessary deaths. At issue is whether a woman's life comes first or not at all. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Common postoperative pulmonary complications after hysterectomy for benign indications.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Ellen R; Muffly, Tyler M; Barber, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications after hysterectomy for benign indications. This was a retrospective cohort study of all women who underwent hysterectomy for benign indications at the Cleveland Clinic from Jan. 1, 2001, to Dec. 31, 2009. Exclusion criteria incorporated patients who underwent hysterectomy for premalignant or malignant conditions. Pulmonary complications were defined as postoperative pneumonia, respiratory failure, atelectasis, and pneumothorax based on International classification of diseases, ninth revision, codes. In the 9-year study period, 3226 women underwent hysterectomy for benign indications (abdominal, 38.4%; vaginal, 39.3%; laparoscopic, 22.3%). Ten of the 3226 women (0.3%; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.57%) who underwent hysterectomy were identified with postoperative pulmonary complications. Among the different types of hysterectomy, the incidence of pulmonary complications was not different (total abdominal hysterectomy, 0.9%; vaginal hysterectomy, 0.12%; laparoscopic hysterectomy, 0.9%; P = .8). The incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications after hysterectomy for benign indications is low. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Robotic-assisted hysterectomy: patient selection and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Smorgick, Noam

    2017-01-01

    Minimally invasive hysterectomy via the laparoscopic or vaginal approach is beneficial to patients when compared with laparotomy, but has not been offered in the past to all women because of the technical difficulties and the long learning curve required for laparoscopic hysterectomy. Robotic-assisted hysterectomy for benign indications may allow for a shorter learning curve but does not offer clear advantages over conventional laparoscopic hysterectomy in terms of surgical outcomes. In addition, robotic hysterectomy is invariably associated with increased costs. Nevertheless, this surgical approach has been widely adopted by gynecologic surgeons. The aim of this review is to describe specific indications and patients who may benefit from robotic-assisted hysterectomy. These include hysterectomy for benign conditions in cases with high surgical complexity (such as pelvic adhesive disease and endometriosis), hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy for treatment of endometrial carcinoma, and obese patients. In the future, additional evidence regarding the benefits of single-site robotic hysterectomy may further modify the indications for robotic-assisted hysterectomy. PMID:28356774

  7. A comparison of abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies in Benghazi, Libya.

    PubMed

    Agnaeber, K; Bodalal, Z

    2013-08-01

    We performed a comparative study between abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies using clinical data from Al-Jamhouria hospital (one of the largest maternity hospitals in Eastern Libya). Various parameters were taken into consideration: the rates of each type (and their subtypes); average age of patients; indications; causes; postoperative complications; and duration of stay in the hospital afterwards. Conclusions and recommendations were drawn from the results of this study. In light of the aforementioned parameters, it was found that: (1) abdominal hysterectomies were more common than vaginal hysterectomies (p < 0.001); (2) patients admitted for abdominal hysterectomies are younger than those admitted for vaginal hysterectomies (p < 0.001); (3) the most common indication for an abdominal hysterectomy was menstrual disturbances, while for vaginal hysterectomies it was vaginal prolapse; (4) the histopathological cause for abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies were observed and the most common were found to be leiomyomas and atrophic endometrium; (5) there was no significant difference between the two routes in terms of postoperative complications; (6) patients who were admitted for abdominal hysterectomies spent a longer amount of time in the hospital (p < 0.01). It was concluded that efforts should be made to further pursue vaginal and laparoscopic hysterectomies as a viable option to the more conventional abdominal route.

  8. Comparative Effectiveness of Minimally Invasive Hysterectomy for Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Burke, William M.; Tergas, Ana I.; Hou, June Y.; Huang, Yongmei; Hu, Jim C.; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Ananth, Cande V.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Hershman, Dawn L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Despite the potential benefits of minimally invasive hysterectomy for uterine cancer, population-level data describing the procedure’s safety in unselected patients are lacking. We examined the use of minimally invasive surgery and the association between the route of the procedure and long-term survival. Methods We used the SEER-Medicare database to identify women with stage I-III uterine cancer who underwent hysterectomy from 2006 to 2011. Patients who underwent abdominal hysterectomy were compared with those who had minimally invasive hysterectomy (laparoscopic and robot-assisted). Perioperative morbidity, use of adjuvant therapy, and long-term survival were examined after propensity score balancing. Results We identified 6,304 patients, including 4,139 (65.7%) who underwent abdominal hysterectomy and 2,165 (34.3%) who underwent minimally invasive hysterectomy; performance of minimally invasive hysterectomy increased from 9.3% in 2006 to 61.7% in 2011. Robot-assisted procedures accounted for 62.3% of the minimally invasive operations. Compared with women who underwent abdominal hysterectomy, minimally invasive hysterectomy was associated with a lower overall complication rate (22.7% v 39.7%; P < .001), and lower perioperative mortality (0.6% v 1.1%), but these women were more likely to receive adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy (34.3% v 31.3%) and brachytherapy (33.6% v 31.0%; P < .05). The complication rate was higher after robot-assisted hysterectomy compared with laparoscopic hysterectomy (23.7% v 19.5%; P = .03). There was no association between the use of minimally invasive hysterectomy and either overall (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.04) or cancer-specific (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.59 to 1.16) mortality. Conclusion Minimally invasive hysterectomy does not appear to compromise long-term survival for women with endometrial cancer. PMID:26834057

  9. Prevention in Obstetrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children in the Tropics, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this issue of "Children in the Tropics" is to describe work that may be done by a motivated health team having only the strict minimum of material resources. While not a handbook of obstetrics, this text serves as a reminder of basic information and procedures workers must be able to perform. Following a review of the…

  10. Prevention in Obstetrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children in the Tropics, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this issue of "Children in the Tropics" is to describe work that may be done by a motivated health team having only the strict minimum of material resources. While not a handbook of obstetrics, this text serves as a reminder of basic information and procedures workers must be able to perform. Following a review of the…

  11. Analysis of first and second trimester maternal serum analytes for the prediction of morbidly adherent placenta requiring hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Oztas, Efser; Ozler, Sibel; Caglar, Ali Turhan; Yucel, Aykan

    2016-11-01

    Morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) is a growing concern currently and is still a diagnostic challenge for obstetricians. As emergency hysterectomy due to unscheduled delivery in MAP carries significant risks, we aimed to evaluate whether first and second trimester serum analytes may be used in the prediction of MAP requiring hysterectomy. A retrospective chart review of all identified cases of placenta previa totalis with and without MAP was performed. A total of 316 pregnant women diagnosed as placenta previa totalis were identified and included in the analysis. Cases were examined in three groups (Group 1: 204 nonadherent placenta previa patients; Group 2: 61 MAP patients managed with endouterine hemostatic square sutures and/or Bakri balloon tamponade; and Group 3: 51 patients with MAP requiring hysterectomy). Among all first and second trimester screening analytes only maternal serum alphafetoprotein (MS-AFP) levels were significantly higher in patients with MAP requiring hysterectomy (p < 0.001). According to the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis performed for the predictive value of MS-AFP levels, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.742 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.505-0.979]. The best MS-AFP cut-off value was 1.25 multiple of the median (MoM) with 85.94% sensitivity and 71.43% specificity (p = 0.036). The best predictors which affect the increased risk of hysterectomy, was further evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analyses. Only elevated maternal serum alphafetoprotein (MS-AFP) was found to be an independent predictor of MAP requiring hysterectomy [odds ratio (OR) = 25.329, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.487-43.143, p = 0.025]. In conclusion, increased second trimester MS-AFP levels independently predict morbidly adherent placenta requiring hysterectomy among women with placenta previa totalis. Copyright © 2016 Kaohsiung Medical University. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.. All rights reserved.

  12. Interval Between Hysterectomy and Start of Radiation Treatment Is Predictive of Recurrence in Patients With Endometrial Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Cattaneo, Richard; Hanna, Rabbie K.; Jacobsen, Gordon; Elshaikh, Mohamed A.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) has been shown to improve local control in patients with endometrial carcinoma. We analyzed the impact of the time interval between hysterectomy and RT initiation in patients with endometrial carcinoma. Methods and Materials: In this institutional review board-approved study, we identified 308 patients with endometrial carcinoma who received adjuvant RT after hysterectomy. All patients had undergone hysterectomy, oophorectomy, and pelvic and para-aortic lymph node evaluation from 1988 to 2010. Patients' demographics, pathologic features, and treatments were compared. The time interval between hysterectomy and the start of RT was calculated. The effects of time interval on recurrence-free (RFS), disease-specific (DSS), and overall survival (OS) were calculated. Following univariate analysis, multivariate modeling was performed. Results: The median age and follow-up for the study cohort was 65 years and 72 months, respectively. Eighty-five percent of the patients had endometrioid carcinoma. RT was delivered with high-dose-rate brachytherapy alone (29%), pelvic RT alone (20%), or both (51%). Median time interval to start RT was 42 days (range, 21-130 days). A total of 269 patients (74%) started their RT <9 weeks after undergoing hysterectomy (group 1) and 26% started ≥9 weeks after surgery (group 2). There were a total of 43 recurrences. Tumor recurrence was significantly associated with treatment delay of ≥9 weeks, with 5-year RFS of 90% for group 1 compared to only 39% for group 2 (P<.001). On multivariate analysis, RT delay of ≥9 weeks (P<.001), presence of lymphovascular space involvement (P=.001), and higher International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grade (P=.012) were independent predictors of recurrence. In addition, RT delay of ≥9 weeks was an independent significant predictor for worse DSS and OS (P=.001 and P=.01, respectively). Conclusions: Delay in administering adjuvant RT after hysterectomy was

  13. CHALLENGES OF OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA: DIFFICULT LARYNGEAL VISUALIZATION.

    PubMed

    Alanoğlu, Zekeriyya; Erkoç, Süheyla Karadağ; Güçlü, Çiğdem Yildirim; Meço, Başak Ceyda Orbey; Baytaş, Volkan; Can, Özlem Selvi; Alkiş, Neslihan

    2016-03-01

    Obstetric anesthesia is one of the high risk subspecialties of anesthesia practice. Anesthesia related complications are the sixth leading cause of maternal mortality. Difficult or failed intubation following induction of general anesthesia for CS remains the major contributory factor to anesthesia-related maternal complications. The airway management of obstetric patients is a challenging issue for several reasons. Anatomic and physiologic changes related to pregnancy may increase the difficult and failed intubation rates compared to the general surgical population. Proper evaluation of the airway anatomy and airway structures is vital to prevent airway management related catastrophes. In addition to basic airway and intubation equipment, each anesthesia department must have difficult intubation equipment cart including fiber optic laryngoscope, video laryngoscopes, and different types of laryngeal masks. It is essential that all anesthesiologists have a preconceived and well thought-out algorithm and emergency airway equipment to deal with airway emergencies during difficult or failed intubation of a parturient.

  14. Obstetric hemorrhage survey: Attitudes and practices of maternal-fetal medicine fellows.

    PubMed

    Ahmadzia, H K; Thomas, S M; Murtha, A P; Heine, R P; Brancazio, L R

    2016-05-17

    To evaluate experiences related to obstetric hemorrhage and suspected abnormal placentation among first year maternal-fetal medicine fellows. A cross-sectional anonymous survey was administered at the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine fellow retreat in March 2013. Fellows were asked about management strategies that reflected both their individual and institutional practices. There was a 56% response rate (55/98). In cases of postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine atony, there was variable use of the uterine tamponade device. The median incremental time for balloon deflation was every 5 hours (IQR = 2-12). Compared to the east coast, fellows from the west coast performed more hysterectomies (mean±SD; 2.9±2.4 vs. 1.2±1.2, p = 0.004). During a peripartum hysterectomy, 29% of fellows used a handheld cautery device such as Ligasure® or Gyrus®. Fifty-six percent responded that their institution never recommend planned delayed hysterectomies for abnormal placental implantation. There is wide variation in practice among first year maternal-fetal medicine fellows in management of peripartum hysterectomy and postpartum hemorrhage.

  15. [Laparoscopic hysterectomy. Results in 80 cases].

    PubMed

    Irico, G; Cacciopolli, L; Farré, A; Cooke, M

    1994-01-01

    Our experience is based on laparoscopic hysterectomies performs from August 1992 to May 1994. The purpose of the initial surgical objective is described, as well as different variations of the technique. The procedure was systematized, the operating time was diminished to a considerable extent, thus avoiding intra-operatory complications. Pre-operatory diagnosis and histopathological findings were enumerated. Intra-operatory and post-operatory complications were evaluated. With an increasing development of the technique, a shorter operating time was made possible. The length of hospital stay and its quality were unrelated to the operation time. A quick recovery was reached as regards complete activity of the patients. Laparoscopic hysterectomy performed by an endoscopic-gynecologist surgeon represents an alternative and a new way of thinking.

  16. Malignant transformation of persistent endometriosis after hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Bawazeer, Naif A; Al-Jifree, Hatim M; Gari, Abdulrahim M

    2014-11-01

    The malignant transformation of persistent endometriotic implants into endometrioid adenocarcinoma is rare, especially after remote hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH-BSO), and there are few cases reported in the English language literature. Patients receiving estrogen replacement therapy are common among the reported cases. We present a case that demonstrates the possibility of malignant transformation in a 53-year-old female, known case of endometriosis, who underwent total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with no evidence of malignancy in the final pathology report. After 9 years, she presented with lower abdominal mass, and histopathological studies confirmed the diagnosis of well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma. The possibility of malignant transformation and possible risk factors are discussed with a brief literature review. 

  17. Malignant transformation of persistent endometriosis after hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Bawazeer, Naif A.; Al-Jifree, Hatim M.; Gari, Abdulrahim M.

    2014-01-01

    The malignant transformation of persistent endometriotic implants into endometrioid adenocarcinoma is rare, especially after remote hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH-BSO), and there are few cases reported in the English language literature. Patients receiving estrogen replacement therapy are common among the reported cases. We present a case that demonstrates the possibility of malignant transformation in a 53-year-old female, known case of endometriosis, who underwent total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with no evidence of malignancy in the final pathology report. After 9 years, she presented with lower abdominal mass, and histopathological studies confirmed the diagnosis of well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma. The possibility of malignant transformation and possible risk factors are discussed with a brief literature review. PMID:25399218

  18. Case report of ovarian torsion mimicking ovarian cancer as an uncommon late complication of laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Arkadiusz; Słabuszewska-Jóźwiak, Aneta; Jakiel, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy (LSH) is an example of a partial hysterectomy, performed due to benign gynaecological complaints. Better endoscopic instruments and operational techniques have led to a great reduction in the number of abdominal hysterectomies. It is believed that LSH is a safe and minimally invasive hysterectomy technique. The Cochrane Database meta-analysis proves the benefits of minimally invasive surgery compared with abdominal gynaecological surgery, including decreased pain, surgical-site infections and hospital stay, quicker return to activity, and fewer postoperative adhesions. According to recent publications, the overall complication rate of all hysterectomy methods is about 1-4.5%. Adnexal torsion is a correlated complication. About 3-5% of patients undergoing emergency surgery due to pelvic pain are diagnosed with this condition. It may be the cause of acute abdomen and correlated symptoms such as vomiting, nausea, or severe pain. To the best of our knowledge a case of asymptomatic, delayed ovarian torsion mimicking ovarian tumour has not been reported so far. In the presented case, torsion successfully imitated neoplastic process as both ROMA score and IOTA ‘simple rules’ indicated a malignancy with high degree of probability. This case demonstrates that, if ovarian tumour is detected in the postoperative period, a torsion of ovarian pedicle should be taken into consideration as it may mimic malignant neoplasm. PMID:28250728

  19. Laparoscopic Hysterectomy with Automatic Stapling Devices

    PubMed Central

    Tabb, Reese

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcomes including operating time, blood loss, length of stay (LOS), return to work and complications of laparoscopic hysterectomy performed with automatic stapling devices. Methods: Between 6/11/91 and 11/23/95, 127 laparoscopic hysterectomies were performed with automatic stapling devices. On an average, 6 firings with the stapler were done per case. Postoperative telephone survey and retrospective review of records were done. Results: Data averages for operating time, blood loss, LOS and return to work, respectively, were 90 minutes, 190 cc's, 1.1 day and 2 weeks. Significant complications included delayed postoperative bleeding in 4 patients, all of which occurred within the first 35 cases. One was controlled laparoscopically and 3 others required exploratory laparotomies. Since certain precautionary measures as described were taken, hemorrhagic complications were eliminated. Conclusions: Laparoscopic hysterectomy can be performed safely and effectively with automatic stapling devices in properly selected patients. A potential hazard inherent with this technique includes intraoperative and postoperative bleeding from the staple lines, the incidence of which can be minimized by taking certain precautionary measures such as the use of white cartridges only and bipolar desiccation of staple lines when indicated. PMID:9876650

  20. 257 Incidental Appendectomies During Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Deidre T.; O'Holleran, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This retrospective observational report analyzes the demographics, blood loss, length of surgical duration, number of days in the hospital, and complications for 821 consecutive patients undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy over a 11-year period stratified by incidental appendectomy. Methods: A retrospective chart abstraction was performed. ANOVA and chi-square tests were performed with significance preset at P<0.05. Results: Of 821 consecutive patients undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomy, 257 underwent elective appendectomy with the ultrasonic scalpel, either as part of their staging, treatment for pelvic pain, or prophylaxis against appendicitis. Comparing the 2 groups, no difference existed in mean age of 50±10 years or mean BMI of 27.6±6.7. Both groups had a similar mean blood loss of 130 mL. Surgery took less time (137 vs 118 minutes, P<0.0012) and the hospital stay was shorter in the appendectomy group (1.5 vs 1.2, P<0.0001) possibly because it was performed incidentally in most cases. No complications were attributable to the appendectomy, and complication types and rates in both groups were similar. Though all appendicies appeared normal, pathology was documented in 9%, including 3 carcinoid tumors. Conclusions: Incidental appendectomy during total laparoscopic hysterectomy is not associated with significant risk and can be routinely offered to patients planning elective gynecologic laparoscopic procedures, as is standard for open procedures. PMID:18237505

  1. Incidence of and risk factors for surgical site infections in women undergoing hysterectomy for endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tuomi, Taru; Pasanen, Annukka; Leminen, Arto; Bützow, Ralf; Loukovaara, Mikko

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of, and risk factors for, surgical site infections in a contemporary cohort of women with endometrial carcinoma. We retrospectively studied 1164 women treated for endometrial carcinoma by hysterectomy at a single institution in 2007-2013. In all, 912 women (78.4%) had minimally invasive hysterectomy. Data on surgical site infections were collected from medical records. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify risk factors for incisional and organ/space infections. Ninety-four women (8.1%) were diagnosed with a surgical site infection. Twenty women (1.7%) had an incisional infection and 74 (6.4%) had an organ/space infection. The associations of 17 clinico-pathologic and surgical variables were tested by univariate analyses. Those variables that were identified as potential risk factors in univariate analyses (p < 0.15) were used in logistic regression models with incisional and organ/space infections as dependent variables. Obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2)), diabetes, and long operative time (>80th centile) were independently associated with a higher risk of incisional infection, whereas minimally invasive surgery was associated with a smaller risk. Smoking, conversion to laparotomy, and lymphadenectomy were associated with a higher risk of organ/space infection. Organ/space infections comprised the majority of surgical site infections. Risk factors for incisional and organ/space infections differed. Minimally invasive hysterectomy was associated with a smaller risk of incisional infections but not of organ/space infections. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Correlates of hysterectomy among African-American women.

    PubMed

    Palmer, J R; Rao, R S; Adams-Campbell, L L; Rosenberg, L

    1999-12-15

    Hysterectomy is the second most common surgery performed on US women. Baseline data from a large study of African-American women were used to examine correlates of premenopausal hysterectomy. Analyses were conducted on participants aged 30-49 years; 5,163 had had a hysterectomy and 29,787 were still menstruating. Multiple logistic regression was used to compute prevalence odds ratios for the association of hysterectomy with various factors. Hysterectomy was associated with region of residence: Odds ratios for living in the South, Midwest, and West relative to the Northeast were 2.63 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.38, 2.91), 2.02 (95% CI: 1.81, 2.25), and 1.89 (95% CI: 1.68, 2.12), respectively. Hysterectomy was inversely associated with years of education and age at first birth: Odds ratios were 1.96 (95% CI: 1.74, 2.21) for < or =12 years of education relative to >16 years and 4.33 (95% CI: 3.60, 5.22) for first birth before age 20 relative to age 30 or older. Differences in the prevalence of major indications for hysterectomy did not explain the associations. This study indicates that the correlates of hysterectomy among African-American women are similar to those for White US women. The associations with geographic region and educational attainment suggest that there may be modifiable factors which could lead to reduced hysterectomy rates.

  3. Retrospective comparison of laparoscopic versus open radical hysterectomy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jing; Yang, Lu; Dong, Weihong; Wang, Hongbo; Xiong, Zhoufang; Wang, Zehua

    2016-01-01

    To compare outcomes after laparoscopic radical hysterectomy (LRH) and abdominal radical hysterectomy (ARH) for locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC)after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). In a retrospective study, data were analyzed from patients with FIGO stage IB2-IIB cervical cancer who underwent LRH or ARH after NACT at Union Hospital, Wuhan, China, between January 2007 and August 2013.Perioperative outcomes and survival were compared. Overall, 99 patients who underwent LRH and 30 who underwent ARH were included. Compared with ARH patients, LRH patients presented with lower-stage tumors (P=0.013). Median operative time, number of harvested lymph nodes, and rate of positive surgical margins did not differ significantly between the groups, but LRH resulted in less blood loss (median 300mL [range 20-1100] vs 375mL [100-1200]; P=0.027). There were two intraoperative complications and 23 postoperative complications in the LRH group, and 12 postoperative complications in the ARH group. No conversions occurred in the LRH group; all complications were managed without severe sequelae. As of March 2014, recurrence had been noted for 6(6.1%) LRH patients and 2 (6.7%) ARH patients. LRH was similar to ARH in terms of safety, feasibility, and morbidity, with less blood loss among women with LACC undergoing NACT. Long-term outcomes need to be documented. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Galarza-Maldonado, Claudio; Kourilovitch, Maria R; Pérez-Fernández, Oscar M; Gaybor, Mariana; Cordero, Christian; Cabrera, Sonia; Soroka, Nikolai F

    2012-02-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in pregnancy has a serious impact on maternal and fetal morbidity. It causes recurrent pregnancy miscarriage and it is associated with other adverse obstetric findings like preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome and others. The 2006 revised criteria, which is still valid, is used for APS classification. Epidemiology of obstetric APS varies from one population group to another largely due to different inclusion criteria and lack of standardization of antibody detection methods. Treatment is still controversial. This topic should include a multidisciplinary team and should be individualized. Success here is based on strict control and monitoring throughout pregnancy and even in the preconception and postpartum periods. Further research in this field and unification of criteria are required to yield better therapeutic strategies in the future.

  5. Introduction of robot-assisted radical hysterectomy for early stage cervical cancer: impact on complications, costs and oncologic outcome.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Emelie; Flöter Rådestad, Angelique; Falconer, Henrik

    2017-05-01

    The objective was to assess the impact of robot-assisted radical hysterectomy (RRH) on surgical and oncologic outcome and costs compared with open radical hysterectomy (ORH) at a tertiary referral center in Sweden. In this retrospective analysis all patients treated with radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for early stage uterine cervical cancer during 2006-2015 were included (n = 304). The patients were divided into two groups, ORH (n = 155) and RRH (n = 149). Patient characteristics, FIGO stage, histology, adjuvant therapy, operation time, length of stay (LOS), lymph node yield, recurrence rate and survival were retrieved from medical records. Complications were graded according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. In addition, costs related to the surgical treatments were calculated. Blood loss, LOS and intraoperative complications were significantly lower as well as lymph node yield after RRH. No differences in postoperative complications or costs were observed between the two groups. Recurrence of disease was detected in 13.4 and 10.3% after RRH and ORH, respectively. Regression analysis demonstrated that histology, tumor size, positive lymph nodes and type of operation (RRH) were significantly associated with recurrence. The introduction of RRH was accompanied by similar postoperative complication rates and costs but lower LOS compared with ORH. An initial learning curve may account for the higher recurrence rate observed after RRH. These data reinforce the need for structured training and monitoring of outcomes when novel treatment modalities are introduced. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Randomized controlled trial of thermal balloon ablation versus vaginal hysterectomy for leiomyoma-induced heavy menstrual bleeding.

    PubMed

    Jain, Prachi; Rajaram, Shalini; Gupta, Bindiya; Goel, Neerja; Srivastava, Himsweta

    2016-11-01

    To compare the efficacy of thermal balloon ablation (TBA) with that of vaginal hysterectomy in the treatment of leiomyoma-induced heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). An open-label randomized controlled trial was conducted between November 1, 2012, and October 31, 2014, in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, India. Eligible women with HMB (aged ≥40 years, uterus size ≤14 weeks of pregnancy, leiomyoma ≤5 cm, uterocervical length ≤12 cm) were randomly assigned (1:1) to undergo TBA or vaginal hysterectomy using computer-generated random number tables. The primary outcome was the number of women in the TBA group with HMB 6 months after surgery. Analyses were by intention to treat. Each group contained 20 women. No women in the TBA group had HMB at 6 months. Nineteen women were amenorrheic by 6 months and one was hypomenorrheic. TBA can replace vaginal hysterectomy in some perimenopausal women with uterine leiomyomas. Clinical Trials Registry India: CTRI/2016/07/007119. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Late preterm: obstetric management.

    PubMed

    Meloni, Alessandra; Antonelli, Antonello; Deiana, Sara; Rocca, Alessio; Atzei, Alessandra; Paoletti, Anna Maria; Melis, Gian Benedetto

    2010-10-01

    Late preterm is the recommended definition for infants born at 34 0/7 to 36 6/7 weeks' gestation after the onset of the mother's last menstrual period. Late-preterm infants are known to have greater mortality and morbidity when compared with term infants during the neonatal period. Obstetric management plays a substantial role in influencing neonatal outcomes. We conducted a retrospective study on late-preterm births based on data collected by regional certificates of birth attendance, comparing overall data with those relative to our Department, the aim of our study was to evaluate if obstetric management, related to different delivery settings, could influence the prevalence and the method of delivery in late preterm gestational age. Preterm births represent about 10% of 25,011 births in Sardinia, and 72.6% of them are late preterm. Elective cesarean section results significantly higher in late preterm than in term deliveries. In our Department, both late-preterm delivery rate and elective cesarean sections rate were lower if compared with country region data. Obstetric management strategies play an important role in delaying deliveries and reducing late-preterm birth rates.

  8. Blood transfusion in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Nigam, A; Prakash, A; Saxena, P

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion of blood and blood components is a common practice in obstetric wards but it is not without risk. The incidence of transfusion reactions varies from 4 in every hundred transfusions for non-haemolytic reactions to one in every 40,000 for haemolytic transfusion reactions. The physiological basis of blood transfusion is outlined in this article. Most of the donated blood is processed into components: packed red cells (PRBCs), platelets, and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or cryoprecipitate. Various alternatives to blood transfusion exist and include autotransfusion, pre-autologous blood storage, use of oxygen carrying blood substitutes and intraoperative cell salvage. Despite the risks associated with transfusions, obstetricians are frequently too aggressive in transfusing blood and blood products to their patients. Acute blood loss in obstetrics is usually due to placenta praevia, postpartum blood loss and surgery related. An early involvement of a consultant obstetrician, anaesthetist, haematologist and the blood bank is essential. There are no established criteria for initiating red cell transfusions and the decision is purely based on clinical and haematological parameters, which have been discussed along with the general principles of blood transfusion in obstetrics and some practical guidelines.

  9. A spatial analysis to study access to emergency obstetric transport services under the public private “Janani Express Yojana” program in two districts of Madhya Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The government in Madhya Pradesh (MP), India in 2006, launched “Janani Express Yojana” (JE), a decentralized, 24X7, free emergency transport service for all pregnant women under a public-private partnership. JE supports India’s large conditional cash transfer program, the “Janani Suraksha Yojana” (JSY) in the province and transports on average 60,000 parturients to hospital every month. The model is a relatively low cost one that potentially could be adopted in other parts of India and South Asia. This paper describes the uptake, time taken and geographic equity in access to the service to transport women to a facility in two districts of MP. Methods This was a facility based cross sectional study. We interviewed parturients (n = 468) who delivered during a five day study period at facilities with >10 deliveries/month (n = 61) in two study districts. The women were asked details of transportation used to arrive at the facility, time taken and their residential addresses. These details were plotted onto a Geographic Information System (GIS) to estimate travelled distances and identify statistically significant clusters of mothers (hot spots) reporting delays >2 hours. Results JE vehicles were well dispersed across the districts and used by 236 (50.03%) mothers of which 111(47.03%) took >2 hours to reach a facility. Inability of JE vehicle to reach a mother in time was the main reason for delays. There was no correlation between the duration of delay and distance travelled. Maps of the travel paths and travel duration of the women are presented. The study identified hot spots of mothers with delays >2 hours and explored the possible reasons for longer delays. Conclusions The JE service was accessible in all parts of the districts. Relatively high utilization rates of JE indicate that it ably supported JSY program to draw more women for institutional deliveries. However, half of the JE users experienced long (>2 hour) delays. The delayed mothers

  10. Developing obstetric medicine training in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Suarez, José; Suarez, Niza; Ateka-Barrutia, Oier

    2017-03-01

    Maternal mortality is an important indicator of health in populations around the world. The distribution of maternal mortality ratio globally shows that middle- and low-income countries have ∼99% of the mortality burden. Most countries of Latin America are considered to be middle- or low-income countries, as well as areas of major inequities among the different social classes. Medical problems in pregnancy remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality in this region. Previous data indicate the need for a call to action for adequate diagnosis and care of medical diseases in obstetric care. The impact of nonobstetric and medical pathologies on maternal mortality in Latin America is largely unknown. In Latin America, two educational initiatives have been proposed to improve skills in maternity care. The Advanced Life Support in Obstetrics (ALSO®) was first started to address obstetric emergencies, and subsequently adapted for low-middle-income country settings as the Global ALSO®. In parallel, the Latin American obstetric anesthesia community has progressively focused on improvement of several intrapartum/intraoperative issues, which has secondarily taken them to embrace the obstetric medicine area on interest and join the former initiatives. In the present review, we summarize the available data regarding medical morbidity and mortality in pregnancy in Latin America, as well as the challenges, achievements, issues, initiatives, and future directions encouraging maternal health educators, health care trainers, and physicians in middle- and low-income countries, such as many Latin American ones, to improve and/or change attitudes, if needed, on current clinical practice.

  11. Can training non-physician clinicians/associate clinicians (NPCs/ACs) in emergency obstetric, neonatal care and clinical leadership make a difference to practice and help towards reductions in maternal and neonatal mortality in rural Tanzania? The ETATMBA project

    PubMed Central

    Ellard, David R; Shemdoe, Aloisia; Mazuguni, Festo; Mbaruku, Godfrey; Davies, David; Kihaile, Paul; Pemba, Senga; Bergström, Staffan; Nyamtema, Angelo; Mohamed, Hamed-Mahfoudh; O'Hare, Joseph Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives During late 2010, 36 trainees including 19 assistant medical officers (AMOs) 1 senior clinical officer (CO) and 16 nurse midwives/nurses were recruited from districts across rural Tanzania and invited to join the Enhancing Human Resources and Use of Appropriate Technologies for Maternal and Perinatal Survival in the sub-Saharan Africa (ETATMBA) training programme. The ETATMBA project was training associate clinicians (ACs) as advanced clinical leaders in emergency obstetric care. The trainees returned to health facilities across the country with the hope of being able to apply their new skills and knowledge. The main aim of this study was to explore the impact of the ETATMBA training on health outcomes including maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in their facilities. Secondly, to explore the challenges faced in working in these health facilities. Design The study is a pre-examination/postexamination of maternal and neonatal health indicators and a survey of health facilities in rural Tanzania. The facilities surveyed were those in which ETATMBA trainees were placed post-training. The maternal and neonatal indicators were collected for 2011 and 2013 and the survey of the facilities was in early 2014. Results 16 of 17 facilities were surveyed. Maternal deaths show a non-significant downward trend over the 2 years (282–232 cases/100 000 live births). There were no significant differences in maternal, neonatal and birth complication variables across the time-points. The survey of facilities revealed shortages in key areas and some are a serious concern. Conclusions This study represents a snapshot of rural health facilities providing maternal and neonatal care in Tanzania. Enhancing knowledge, practical skills, and clinical leadership of ACs may have a positive impact on health outcomes. However, any impact may be confounded by the significant challenges in delivering a service in terms of resources. Thus, training may be beneficial, but it

  12. Review of peripartum hysterectomy rates at a tertiary Australian hospital.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hon C; Pelecanos, Anita; Sekar, Renuka

    2016-12-01

    Peripartum hysterectomy is commonly performed for catastrophic postpartum haemorrhage uncontrolled by conservative medical and surgical therapies. Currently, information about the incidence and indications for peripartum hysterectomy are not well defined in Australia. Evaluate the incidence and indications of peripartum hysterectomy in the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital (RBWH) between 2000 and 2014. A 15-year retrospective cohort study of peripartum hysterectomies at RBWH was conducted. The incidence of this event was calculated. Risk factors for abnormal placentation were explored using univariate analyses. Statistical significance was declared at α < 0.05. A total of 83 cases of peripartum hysterectomy were reviewed. The incidence of peripartum hysterectomy was 0.60 per 1000 births after discounting the 44 (53%) cases of peripheral regional hospital referrals. Abnormal placentation and uterine atony constituted the majority of the indications for peripartum hysterectomy. Abnormal placentation included placenta praevia, accrete, increta and percreta. In this cohort with peripartum hysterectomy, previous caesarean section was strongly associated with abnormal placentation (P < 0.001, OR 11.4, 95% CI 3.6-35.8). No maternal mortality was recorded, although 63% of patients encountered complications. A planned peripartum hysterectomy resulted in significantly fewer red blood cell (P = 0.011) and platelet transfusions (P = 0.001). The incidence of peripartum hysterectomy recorded in our tertiary institution between 2000 and 2014 is 0.60 per 1000 births. Abnormal placentation is the commonest indication leading to severe postpartum haemorrhage requiring peripartum hysterectomy. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. The Frequency and Complication Rates of Hysterectomy Accompanying Cesarean Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Shellhaas, Cynthia S.; Gilbert, Sharon; Landon, Mark B.; Varner, Michael W.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Hauth, John C.; Spong, Catherine Y.; Caritis, Steve N.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Sorokin, Yoram; Miodovnik, Menachem; O'Sullivan, Mary J.; Sibai, Baha M.; Langer, Oded; Gabbe, Steven G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To estimate the frequency, indications, and complications of cesarean hysterectomy. Methods This was a prospective, 2-year observational study at 13 academic medical centers conducted between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2000 on all women who underwent a hysterectomy at the time of cesarean delivery. Data was abstracted from the medical record by study nurses. The outcomes included procedure frequency, indications, and complications. Results A total of 186 cesarean hysterectomies (0.5%) were performed from a cohort of 39,244 women who underwent cesarean delivery. The leading indications for hysterectomy were placenta accreta (38%) and uterine atony (34%). Of the hysterectomy cases with a diagnosis recorded as accreta, 18% accompanied a primary cesarean delivery while 82% had a prior procedure (p<0.001). Of the hysterectomy cases with atony recorded as a diagnosis, 59% complicated primary cesarean delivery whereas 41% had a prior cesarean (p< 0.001). Major maternal complications of cesarean hysterectomy included transfusion of red blood cells (84%) and other blood products (34%), fever (11%), subsequent laparotomy (4%), ureteral injury (3%), and death (1.6%). Accreta hysterectomy cases were more likely than atony hysterectomy cases to require ureteral stents (14% versus 3%, p=0.03) and to instill sterile milk into the bladder (23% versus 8%, p=0.02). Conclusion The rate of cesarean hysterectomy has declined modestly in the last decade. In spite of the use of effective therapies and procedures to control hemorrhage at cesarean delivery, a small proportion of women continue to require hysterectomy to control hemorrhage from both uterine atony and placenta accreta. PMID:19622981

  14. Therapeutic effect of laser vaporization for vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia following hysterectomy due to premalignant and malignant lesions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Kong, Wei-Min; Wu, Yu-Mei; Wang, Jian-Dong; Zhang, Wei-Yuan

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of laser vaporization for vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) after hysterectomy in Chinese women and to identify factors affecting persistence/recurrence. Twenty-eight VAIN patients after hysterectomy due to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (group 1) and 11 VAIN patients due to cervical cancer (group 2) were reviewed retrospectively. All patients were treated with at least one episode of laser vaporization between 2010 and 2011, and then followed up every 3 months for at least 1 year. Cox regression analysis was used to identify independent factors predicting persistence/recurrence. All VAIN patients achieved remission after two episodes of laser treatment, with 85.7% complete regression in group 1 and 54.5% in group 2. The first episode of the treatment had a significantly higher success rate in group 1 than in group 2 (46.2% vs 0.0%). All patients had no recurrence during a mean follow-up time of 22.8-27.8 months (range 12-39 months). However, infection persisted in 21 (61.8%) of 34 human-papillomavirus-positive patients after laser vaporization. Severity of VAIN was the only significant independent predictor of persistence/recurrence after one episode of the treatment (adjusted odds ratio, 4.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-12.96; P = 0.017). Laser treatments were well tolerated with no major side-effects. Laser vaporization may be a useful option for the treatment of VAIN after hysterectomy. However, a follow-up is required to assess the long-term efficacy of laser treatment. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Private health care coverage and increased risk of obstetric intervention

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background When clinically indicated, common obstetric interventions can greatly improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. However, variation in intervention rates suggests that obstetric practice may not be solely driven by case criteria. Methods Differences in obstetric intervention rates by private and public status in Ireland were examined using nationally representative hospital discharge data. A retrospective cohort study was performed on childbirth hospitalisations occurring between 2005 and 2010. Multivariate logistic regression analysis with correction for the relative risk was conducted to determine the risk of obstetric intervention (caesarean delivery, operative vaginal delivery, induction of labour or episiotomy) by private or public status while adjusting for obstetric risk factors. Results 403,642 childbirth hospitalisations were reviewed; approximately one-third of maternities (30.2%) were booked privately. After controlling for relevant obstetric risk factors, women with private coverage were more likely to have an elective caesarean delivery (RR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.45-1.51), an emergency caesarean delivery (RR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.12-1.16) and an operative vaginal delivery (RR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.22-1.27). Compared to women with public coverage who had a vaginal delivery, women with private coverage were 40% more likely to have an episiotomy (RR: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.38-1.43). Conclusions Irrespective of obstetric risk factors, women who opted for private maternity care were significantly more likely to have an obstetric intervention. To better understand both clinical and non-clinical dynamics, future studies of examining health care coverage status and obstetric intervention would ideally apply mixed-method techniques. PMID:24418254

  16. Private health care coverage and increased risk of obstetric intervention.

    PubMed

    Lutomski, Jennifer E; Murphy, Michael; Devane, Declan; Meaney, Sarah; Greene, Richard A

    2014-01-13

    When clinically indicated, common obstetric interventions can greatly improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. However, variation in intervention rates suggests that obstetric practice may not be solely driven by case criteria. Differences in obstetric intervention rates by private and public status in Ireland were examined using nationally representative hospital discharge data. A retrospective cohort study was performed on childbirth hospitalisations occurring between 2005 and 2010. Multivariate logistic regression analysis with correction for the relative risk was conducted to determine the risk of obstetric intervention (caesarean delivery, operative vaginal delivery, induction of labour or episiotomy) by private or public status while adjusting for obstetric risk factors. 403,642 childbirth hospitalisations were reviewed; approximately one-third of maternities (30.2%) were booked privately. After controlling for relevant obstetric risk factors, women with private coverage were more likely to have an elective caesarean delivery (RR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.45-1.51), an emergency caesarean delivery (RR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.12-1.16) and an operative vaginal delivery (RR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.22-1.27). Compared to women with public coverage who had a vaginal delivery, women with private coverage were 40% more likely to have an episiotomy (RR: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.38-1.43). Irrespective of obstetric risk factors, women who opted for private maternity care were significantly more likely to have an obstetric intervention. To better understand both clinical and non-clinical dynamics, future studies of examining health care coverage status and obstetric intervention would ideally apply mixed-method techniques.

  17. Blood transfusion practices in obstetric anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Jadon, Ashok; Bagai, Rajni

    2014-09-01

    Blood transfusion is an essential component of emergency obstetric care and appropriate blood transfusion significantly reduces maternal mortality. Obstetric haemorrhage, especially postpartum haemorrhage, remains one of the major causes of massive haemorrhage and a prime cause of maternal mortality. Blood loss and assessment of its correct requirement are difficult in pregnancy due to physiological changes and comorbid conditions. Many guidelines have been used to assess the requirement and transfusion of blood and its components. Infrastructural, economic, social and religious constraints in blood banking and donation are key issues to formulate practice guidelines. Available current guidelines for transfusion are mostly from the developed world; however, they can be used by developing countries keeping available resources in perspective.

  18. Blood transfusion practices in obstetric anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Jadon, Ashok; Bagai, Rajni

    2014-01-01

    Blood transfusion is an essential component of emergency obstetric care and appropriate blood transfusion significantly reduces maternal mortality. Obstetric haemorrhage, especially postpartum haemorrhage, remains one of the major causes of massive haemorrhage and a prime cause of maternal mortality. Blood loss and assessment of its correct requirement are difficult in pregnancy due to physiological changes and comorbid conditions. Many guidelines have been used to assess the requirement and transfusion of blood and its components. Infrastructural, economic, social and religious constraints in blood banking and donation are key issues to formulate practice guidelines. Available current guidelines for transfusion are mostly from the developed world; however, they can be used by developing countries keeping available resources in perspective. PMID:25535427

  19. The history of imaging in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Benson, Carol B; Doubilet, Peter M

    2014-11-01

    During the past century, imaging of the pregnant patient has been performed with radiography, scintigraphy, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography (US). US imaging has emerged as the primary imaging modality, because it provides real-time images at relatively low cost without the use of ionizing radiation. This review begins with a discussion of the history and current status of imaging modalities other than US for the pregnant patient. The discussion then turns to an in-depth description of how US technology advanced to become such a valuable diagnostic tool in the obstetric patient. Finally, the broad range of diagnostic uses of US in these patients is presented, including its uses for distinguishing an intrauterine pregnancy from a failed or ectopic pregnancy in the first trimester; assigning gestational age and assessing fetal weight; evaluating the fetus for anomalies and aneuploidy; examining the uterus, cervix, placenta, and amniotic fluid; and guiding obstetric interventional procedures.

  20. Costs and Outcomes of Abdominal, Vaginal, Laparoscopic and Robotic Hysterectomies

    PubMed Central

    Jonsdottir, Gudrun M.; Jorgensen, Selena; Shah, Neel; Einarsson, Jon I.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To estimate the incidence of operative complications and compare operative cost and overall cost of different methods of benign hysterectomy including abdominal, vaginal, laparoscopic, and robotic techniques. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis (Canadian Task Force classification II-2) of all patients who underwent a hysterectomy for benign reasons in 2009 at a single urban academic tertiary care center using the χ2 test and Student t test. A multivariate regression analysis was also performed for predictors of costs. Cost data were gathered from the hospital's billing system; the remainder of data was extracted from patient's medical records. Results: In 2009, 688 patients underwent a benign hysterectomy; 185 (26.9%) hysterectomies were abdominal, 135 (19.6%) vaginal, 352 (51.5%) laparoscopic, and 14 (2.0%) robotic. The rate of intraoperative complication was 1.7% for abdominal, 0.8% for vaginal, 0.3% for laparoscopic, and 0 for robotic. Mean total patient costs were $43,622 for abdominal, $31,934 for vaginal, $38,312 for laparoscopic, and $49,526 for robotic hysterectomies. Costs were significantly influenced by method of hysterectomy, operative time, and length of stay. Conclusion: Though complication rates did not vary significantly among minimally invasive methods of hysterectomy, patient costs were significantly influenced by the method of hysterectomy. PMID:23484557