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Sample records for emergency open cholecystectomy

  1. [Effectiveness of intercostal nerve block with ropivacaine in analgesia of patients undergoing emergency open cholecystectomy under general anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Vizcarra-Román, M A; Bahena-Aponte, J A; Cruz-Jarquín, A; Vázquez-García, Ja C; Cárdenas-Lailson, L E

    2012-01-01

    Postoperative pain after open cholecystectomy is associated with reduced respiratory function, longer recovery period before deambulation and oral food intake, and prolonged hospital stay. Intercostal nerve block provides satisfactory analgesia and ropivacaine is the most widely used local anesthetic agent in intercostal nerve block due to its excellent effectiveness, lower cardiovascular toxicity, and longer half-life. To evaluate intercostal nerve block effectiveness with ropivacaine in patients undergoing emergency open cholecystectomy under general anesthesia compared with conventional management. A controlled clinical trial was carried out on 50 patients undergoing open cholecystectomy, 25 patients without intercostal nerve block versus 25 patients with intercostal nerve block using ropivacaine at 0.5% combined with epinephrine. Intraoperative minimum alveolar concentration and inhalation anesthetic use were evaluated. Tramadol as rescue analgesic agent and pain were evaluated during immediate postoperative period by means of the Visual Analog Scale at 8, 16, and 24 hours. Mean inhalation anesthetic use was lower in the intercostal nerve block group with 13% vs 37% in the group without intercostal nerve block (p= 0.01). Rescue tramadol requirement was lower in the intercostal nerve block group than in the group without intercostal nerve block at 8 hours (8% vs 67%), 16 hours (0% vs 83%), and 24 hours (12% vs 79%) (p<0.0001). Visual Analog Scale for Pain results were similar in both groups. Intercostal nerve block reduces intraoperative inhalation anesthetic use, immediate postoperative pain, and tramadol intake as rescue analgesic agent in patients undergoing open cholecystectomy.

  2. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation and epidural anesthesia for an emergency open cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Yurtlu, Bülent Serhan; Köksal, Bengü; Hancı, Volkan; Turan, Işıl Özkoçak

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive ventilation is an accepted treatment modality in both acute exacerbations of respiratory diseases and chronic obstructive lung disease. It is commonly utilized in the intensive care units, or for postoperative respiratory support in post-anesthesia care units. This report describes intraoperative support in non-invasive ventilation to neuroaxial anesthesia for an emergency upper abdominal surgery. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. [Non-invasive mechanical ventilation and epidural anesthesia for an emergency open cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Yurtlu, Bülent Serhan; Köksal, Bengü; Hancı, Volkan; Turan, Işıl Özkoçak

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive ventilation is an accepted treatment modality in both acute exacerbations of respiratory diseases and chronic obstructive lung disease. It is commonly utilized in the intensive care units, or for postoperative respiratory support in post-anesthesia care units. This report describes intraoperative support in non-invasive ventilation to neuroaxial anesthesia for an emergency upper abdominal surgery. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Open versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A comparison of postoperative pulmonary function.

    PubMed Central

    Frazee, R C; Roberts, J W; Okeson, G C; Symmonds, R E; Snyder, S K; Hendricks, J C; Smith, R W

    1991-01-01

    Upper abdominal surgery is associated with characteristic changes in pulmonary function which increase the risk of lower lobe atelectasis. Sixteen patients undergoing open cholecystectomy and 20 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were prospectively evaluated by pulmonary function tests (forced vital capacity [FVC], forced expiratory volume [FEV-1], and forced expiratory flow [FEF] 25% to 75%) before operation and on the morning after surgery to determine if the laparoscopic technique lessens the pulmonary risk. Fraction of the baseline pulmonary function was calculated by dividing the postoperative pulmonary function by the preoperative pulmonary function and multiplying by 100%. Postoperative FVC measured 52% of preoperative function for open cholecystectomy and 73% for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p = 0.002). Postoperative FEV-1 measured 53% of baseline function for open cholecystectomy and 72% for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p = 0.006). Postoperative FEF 25% to 75% measured 53% for open cholecystectomy and 81% for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p = 0.07). It is concluded that laparoscopic cholecystectomy offers improved pulmonary function compared to the open technique. PMID:1828139

  5. Open versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A comparison of postoperative pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Frazee, R C; Roberts, J W; Okeson, G C; Symmonds, R E; Snyder, S K; Hendricks, J C; Smith, R W

    1991-06-01

    Upper abdominal surgery is associated with characteristic changes in pulmonary function which increase the risk of lower lobe atelectasis. Sixteen patients undergoing open cholecystectomy and 20 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were prospectively evaluated by pulmonary function tests (forced vital capacity [FVC], forced expiratory volume [FEV-1], and forced expiratory flow [FEF] 25% to 75%) before operation and on the morning after surgery to determine if the laparoscopic technique lessens the pulmonary risk. Fraction of the baseline pulmonary function was calculated by dividing the postoperative pulmonary function by the preoperative pulmonary function and multiplying by 100%. Postoperative FVC measured 52% of preoperative function for open cholecystectomy and 73% for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p = 0.002). Postoperative FEV-1 measured 53% of baseline function for open cholecystectomy and 72% for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p = 0.006). Postoperative FEF 25% to 75% measured 53% for open cholecystectomy and 81% for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p = 0.07). It is concluded that laparoscopic cholecystectomy offers improved pulmonary function compared to the open technique.

  6. Emergent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute acalculous cholecystitis revisited.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Daisuke; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Higashida, Masaharu; Yoshida, Koji; Hino, Keisuke; Irei, Isao; Moriya, Takuya; Matsumoto, Hideo; Hirai, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Masafumi

    2016-03-01

    To compare the safety of emergent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) with surgery for acute calculous cholecystitis (ACC). We retrospectively reviewed the perioperative records of 111 patients who underwent emergent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis under the care of the Department of Digestive Surgery, Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, between January 2010 and April 2014. Patients were divided into the AAC group (27 patients) and the ACC group (84 patients), and their perioperative outcomes were compared. Patients in the AAC group had significantly higher disease severity and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status scores (p = 0.001 and 0.037, respectively), lower blood hemoglobin and albumin concentrations (p = 0.0005 and 0.017, respectively), and lower hematocrit and platelet count (p < 0.0001 and 0.040, respectively) than those in the ACC group. When we compared perioperative outcomes, we also found that patients in the AAC group were more likely to have received a blood transfusion (p = 0.002) and to have required conversion to open surgery (p = 0.008). There were no significant differences in morbidity, mortality or length of hospital stay. Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe in acute acalculous as well as acute calculous cholecystitis.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of emergency versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute gallbladder pathology.

    PubMed

    Sutton, A J; Vohra, R S; Hollyman, M; Marriott, P J; Buja, A; Alderson, D; Pasquali, S; Griffiths, E A

    2017-01-01

    The optimal timing of cholecystectomy for patients admitted with acute gallbladder pathology is unclear. Some studies have shown that emergency cholecystectomy during the index admission can reduce length of hospital stay with similar rates of conversion to open surgery, complications and mortality compared with a 'delayed' operation following discharge. Others have reported that cholecystectomy during the index acute admission results in higher morbidity, extended length of stay and increased costs. This study examined the cost-effectiveness of emergency versus delayed cholecystectomy for acute benign gallbladder disease. Using data from a prospective population-based cohort study examining the outcomes of cholecystectomy in the UK and Ireland, a model-based cost-utility analysis was conducted from the perspective of the UK National Health Service, with a 1-year time horizon for costs and outcomes. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was used to investigate the impact of parameter uncertainty on the results obtained from the model. Emergency cholecystectomy was found to be less costly (£4570 versus £4720; €5484 versus €5664) and more effective (0·8868 versus 0·8662 QALYs) than delayed cholecystectomy. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that the emergency strategy is more than 60 per cent likely to be cost-effective across willingness-to-pay values for the QALY from £0 to £100 000 (€0-120 000). Emergency cholecystectomy is less costly and more effective than delayed cholecystectomy. This approach is likely to be beneficial to patients in terms of improved health outcomes and to the healthcare provider owing to the reduced costs. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy: effect on pulmonary function tests.

    PubMed

    Coskun, I; Hatipoglu, A R; Topaloglu, A; Yoruk, Y; Yalcinkaya, S; Caglar, T

    2000-01-01

    Operations often cause impairment in respiration due to pain. This study was designed to compare the changes in pulmonary function tests after open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Two groups of 35 patients were randomly set up. Each patient had 3 pulmonary function tests performed and 2 postero-anterior grid chest roentgenograms taken. All of these data were evaluated by the same group of investigators. After taking into consideration the difference between pulmonary function tests, values were not significant (P < or = 0.05). All pulmonary function test values decreased significantly on the 1st postoperative day (P < or = 0.05). When postero-anterior chest roentgenograms were compared no clinically evident atelectasis except 3 lineary was seen in the laparoscopic cholecystectomy group, whereas 5 lineary, 7 focal, and 3 segmentary atelectasia were encountered in the open cholecystectomy group (P < or = 0.05). We believe that laparoscopic cholecystectomy has more advantages when speaking of postoperative pulmonary function tests and atelectasia.

  9. Effectiveness of Spinal Anaesthesia versus General Anaesthesia for Open Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Kuju, R B; Dongol, Y; Verma, R

    2016-05-01

    Cholecystectomy is performed either as an open or a laparascopic route. Despite of a number of peri-operative and post-operative benefits of laparascopic cholecystectomy, the traditional and invasive open cholecystectomy is still in frequent practice for various reasons. Though general anaesthesia is regarded as the gold standard anaesthetic technique, alternatives to it such as spinal anaesthesia, with its advantages, outweighs general anaesthesia. Spinal anaesthesia, therefore, could be a safe and effective anaesthetic procedure over general anaesthesia for open cholecystectomy. 120 patients with uncomplicated symptomatic gallstone disease undergoing open cholecystectomy and complying with ASA I or II physical status, aged between 18 and 70 years of either sex and BMI ≤ 30 kg/m2 were enrolled for the study. They were randomly categorized into SA group (received spinal anaesthesia) and GA group (received general anaesthesia), each group containing 60 patients. Intra-operative events and post-operative events were observed up to 48 hours post-surgery and compared between the groups. Data is in percentage and mean with standard deviation and median. Statistical analysis was done using independent t-test, chi-square test, relative risks and ANOVA. Spinal anaesthesia is safe and effective in pain management post open cholecystectomy. The median pain-free intervalin SA group was 8hours as compared to 1 hour in GA group. The average mean pain score was also significantly less in SA group than in GA group at all intervals of time observed. Majority (90%) in SA groups were managed with intramuscular diclofenacsodium whereas majority in GA group were managed with intramuscular pethedine. Intra-operatively, SA group had more cases of haemodynamic instability than GA group, which were easily managed in both the groups. The differences in the incidence of post-operative nausea and vomiting and the days of hospital stay between the groups were not significant. Spinal

  10. Changes in T-lymphocytes' viability after laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Gomatos, Ilias P; Alevizos, Leonidas; Kalathaki, Olga; Kantsos, Harilaos; Kataki, Agapi; Leandros, Emmanuel; Zografos, George; Konstantoulakis, Manousos

    2015-04-01

    Laparoscopic surgery results in decreased immune and metabolic stress response compared to open surgery. Our aim was to evaluate the suspension of host immune defense in terms of apoptosis, necrosis, and survival of peripheral T-lymphocytes in patients undergoing laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy. Apoptosis, necrosis and viability of peripheral T-lymphocytes were measured preoperatively and postoperatively by means of flow cytometry in 27 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy and 25 undergoing open cholecystectomy. White cell count, CRP, and serum glucose levels were also measured. Viable peripheral T-lymphocytes were significantly decreased in open cholecystectomy (P = 0.02), while their late apoptotic as well as the overall necrotic rate were significantly increased (P = 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively). Open cholecystectomy was also associated with lower levels of surviving circulating T-lymphocytes (P = 0.01) and higher percentage of necrotic T lymphocytes (P = 0.03) 24 hours postoperatively compared to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Serum CRP was increased 24 hours after open cholecystectomy (P = 0.04). All differences failed to sustain more than 48 hours postoperatively. Increased viability and decreased necrosis of circulating T-lymphocytes were observed in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Necrosis (and not apoptosis) seems to be the predominant pathway of T-lymphocyte death in open cholecystectomy, in a process reaching its peak at 24 hours and further attenuating 48 hours postoperatively.

  11. A late unusual complication after an open cholecystectomy: Amputation neuroma of the CBD causing obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Sleiman, Youssef A; Hassoun, Ziad A; Nasser, Haydar A; Abs, Leila; Allouch, Mustafa

    2017-07-25

    Cholecystectomy is one of the most frequently done procedures in general surgery. There are few reports of amputation neuromas following this procedure. This presentation describes a case of obstructive jaundice due to amputation neuroma in a patient with a history of cholecystectomy. We report about a 53 y o lady who presented with obstructive jaundice, 8 years following open cholecystectomy. Paraclinical investigations were in favor of cholangicarcinoma, however the final pathology revealed an amputation neuroma of the CBD. Amputation neuromas are rarely seen in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. They are benign reparative lesions of the CBD following surgery or manipulation of the extra hepatic biliary tree. It is very difficult to diagnose them pre-operatively. Surgical resection is the first choice of treatment. Traumatic neuromas should always be among the differential diagnosis, when assessing a CBD mass in patients with a previous history of open cholecystectomy or surgery to the gastrointestinal tract. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. A Common Bile Duct Stone formed by Suture Material after Open Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kook-Hyun; Jang, Byung-Ik

    2007-01-01

    The use of non-absorbable suture materials for cystic duct ligation after cholecystectomy can expose patients to the risk of recurrent stone formation in the common bile duct (CBD). However, in Korea suture materials have rarely been found to act as a nidus for common bile duct calculus formation. Recently, we experienced a case in which suture material, that had migrated from a previous cholecystectomy site into the CBD, probably served as a nidus for common bile duct stone formation. The stone was confirmed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and removed successfully using a basket. The authors report a case of surgical suture migration and discuss its subsequent role as a stone forming nucleus within the CBD in a patient who underwent open cholecystectomy; and include a review of the literature. PMID:18309688

  13. A case-control study of postoperative pulmonary complications after laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Hall, J C; Tarala, R A; Hall, J L

    1996-04-01

    Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC) are common after upper abdominal surgery. The objective of this case-control study was to compare the incidence of PPC after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and open cholecystectomy (OC) within a tertiary care center. Patients were accrued from two sequential clinical trials that evaluated the role of incentive spirometry in the prevention of PPC after abdominal surgery. Included for study were patients with gallstones undergoing elective surgery who had an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification < 3. All patients included in the study were encouraged to use an incentive spirometer at least 10 times each hour while awake. Patients with chronic bronchitis were excluded from study, as were patients who received other forms of physical therapy. OC was performed through either a transverse or an oblique incision. There was an equitable dispersion of putative risk factors for PPC between the groups at baseline. PPC were defined as clinical features consistent with collapse/consolidation, an otherwise unexplained temperature above 38 degrees C, plus either confirmatory chest radiology or positive sputum microbiology. The incidence of PPC was 2.7% (1/37) after LC and 17.2% (10/58) after OC (p < 0.05). It is concluded that PPC are less common after laparoscopic cholecystectomy than after open cholecystectomy.

  14. An unexpected finding of hepatic lymphoma after emergent cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Steen, Shawn T; Slater, Evan D; Barbaro, Casey E; Huebner, Emma R

    2017-03-01

    Herein we describe a case report of a patient with elevated liver enzymes, leukocytosis, anemia and fevers after cholecystectomy surgery done for presumed acute cholecystitis. Numerous post-surgical tests showed no acute surgical complications to account for the laboratory abnormalities. Due to systemic symptoms of joint pain and the chronicity of the symptoms, a liver biopsy was recommended by the gastroenterology service to rule out infectious or auto-immune causes. After the liver biopsy, the patient was diagnosed with intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL), a subset of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. After a thorough lymphoma evaluation, the IVLBCL was found to be isolated to the liver and treated successfully with chemotherapy. This is only the second case report in the literature of this entity.

  15. Spilled gallstones after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Papasavas, Pavlos K; Caushaj, Philip F; Gagné, Daniel J

    2002-10-01

    Spilled gallstones have emerged as a new issue in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We treated a 77-year-old woman who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Subsequently, a right flank abscess developed. During the cholecystectomy, the gallbladder was perforated and stones were spilled. After a failed attempt to drain the abscess percutaneously, the patient required open drainage, which revealed retained gallstones in the right flank. The abscess resolved, although the patient continued to have intermittent drainage without evidence of sepsis. Review of the literature revealed 127 cases of spilled gallstones, of which 44.1% presented with intraperitoneal abscess, 18.1% with abdominal wall abscess, 11.8% with thoracic abscess, 10.2% with retroperitoneal abscess, and the rest with various clinical pictures. In case of gallstone spillage during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, every effort should be made to locate and retrieve the stones.

  16. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the treatment of acute cholecystitis: comparison of results between early and late cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Acar, Turan; Kamer, Erdinç; Acar, Nihan; Atahan, Kemal; Bağ, Halis; Hacıyanlı, Mehmet; Akgül, Özgün

    2017-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the gold standard in the treatment of symptomatic gallstones. The common opinion about treatment of acute cholecystitis is initially conservative treatment due to preventing complications of inflamation and following laparoscopic cholecystectomy after 6- 8 weeks. However with the increase of laparoscopic experience in recent years, early laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become more common. We aimed to compare the outcomes of the patients to whom we applied early or late cholecystectomy after hospitalization from the emergency department with the diagnosis of AC between March 2012-2015. We retrospectively reviewed the files of totally 66 patients in whom we performed early cholecystectomy (within the first 24 hours) (n: 33) and to whom we firstly administered conservative therapy and performed late cholecystectomy (after 6 to 8 weeks) (n: 33) after hospitalization from the emergency department with the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. The groups were made up of patients who had similar clinical and demographic characteristics. While there were no statistically significant differences between the durations of operation, the durations of hospitalization were longer in those who underwent early cholecystectomy. Moreover, more complications were seen in the patients who underwent early cholecystectomy although the difference was not statistically significant. Early cholecystectomy is known to significantly reduce the costs in patients with acute cholecystitis. However, switching to open surgery as well as increase of complications in patients who admitted with severe inflammation attack and who have high comorbidity, caution should be exercised when selecting patients for early operation.

  17. Comparison of recovery profile for propofol and sevoflurane anesthesia in cases of open cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shiv Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Mahajan, Reena; Katyal, Surabhi; Mann, Sfurti

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Sevoflurane and propofol are considered to be the agents of choice in surgeries of short duration due to their better recovery profile and few post-operative complications. This study was designed to compare the early recovery profile of sevoflurane and propofol anesthesia in patients undergoing open cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients of either sex with American Society of Anesthesiologists grade 1 and 2 scheduled for elective cholecystectomy were prospectively randomized into two groups. Group S (30 patients) were maintained with sevoflurane anesthesia (1-2%), while in Group P (30 patients) were maintained with propofol infusion (75-125 μg/kg/min) in both the groups the anesthetic concentration/dose was so adjusted to keep hemodynamic parameter (mean arterial pressure and heart rate) within 15% of their respective baselines values. Results: It was observed that there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between there early recovery profile that includes spontaneous eye opening (7.5 ± 1.6 min for sevoflurane group and 6.9 ± 1.7 min for propofol group), following simple verbal command (9.2 ± 2.2 min for sevoflurane group and 8.9 ± 1.9 min for propofol group) and extubation time (10.7 ± 2.3 min for sevoflurane group and 10.3 ± 2.0 min for propofol group) but there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in incidence of post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in both groups. Conclusion: Propofol is as good as sevoflurane for maintenance of anesthesia in surgeries like open cholecystectomy with an added advantage of lower incidence of PONV owing to its intrinsic antiemetic properties. PMID:25885989

  18. Growing use of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the national Veterans Affairs Surgical Risk Study: effects on volume, patient selection, and selected outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, A Y; Daley, J; Pappas, T N; Henderson, W G; Khuri, S F

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy to the 43 tertiary-care university-affiliated Veterans Administration medical centers (VAMCs) participating in the National Veterans Affairs Surgical Risk Study from October 1991 through December 1993. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Previous studies in the private sector have documented growth in the number of cholecystectomies and falling clinical thresholds for cholecystectomy with the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: The following were analyzed for changes over time: measures of patient preoperative risk, complexity of surgery, severity of biliary disease, numbers of procedures, postoperative length of stay, and 30-day postoperative mortality and general complication rates. RESULTS: The number of cholecystectomies performed laparoscopically increased, but the total number of cholecystectomies performed remained stable over time. The proportion of patients with acute cholecystitis, emergent cholecystectomies, and technically complex cholecystectomies did not change or increased slightly over time. Adjusted odds for postoperative general complications were lower for laparoscopic than for open cholecystectomy, but 30-day postoperative mortality and general complication rates for all cholecystectomies remained constant over time. Postoperative length of stay for all cholecystectomies fell significantly. Implementation rates of laparoscopic cholecystectomy varied widely between hospitals. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was adopted more slowly and used in a lower percentage of cholecystectomies than in non-VA settings. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to non-VA studies showing increases in overall cholecystectomy volume since the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, these VAMCs implemented laparoscopic cholecystectomy without growth in cholecystectomies or a change in the clinical threshold for cholecystectomy. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was associated with better outcomes, but its

  19. Population-based cohort study of variation in the use of emergency cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder diseases.

    PubMed

    2016-11-01

    The aims of this prospective population-based cohort study were to identify the patient and hospital characteristics associated with emergency cholecystectomy, and the influences of these in determining variations between hospitals. Data were collected for consecutive patients undergoing cholecystectomy in acute UK and Irish hospitals between 1 March and 1 May 2014. Potential explanatory variables influencing the performance of emergency cholecystectomy were analysed by means of multilevel, multivariable logistic regression modelling using a two-level hierarchical structure with patients (level 1) nested within hospitals (level 2). Data were collected on 4744 cholecystectomies from 165 hospitals. Increasing age, lower ASA fitness grade, biliary colic, the need for further imaging (magnetic retrograde cholangiopancreatography), endoscopic interventions (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) and admission to a non-biliary centre significantly reduced the likelihood of an emergency cholecystectomy being performed. The multilevel model was used to calculate the probability of receiving an emergency cholecystectomy for a woman aged 40 years or over with an ASA grade of I or II and a BMI of at least 25·0 kg/m(2) , who presented with acute cholecystitis with an ultrasound scan showing a thick-walled gallbladder and a normal common bile duct. The mean predicted probability of receiving an emergency cholecystectomy was 0·52 (95 per cent c.i. 0·45 to 0·57). The predicted probabilities ranged from 0·02 to 0·95 across the 165 hospitals, demonstrating significant variation between hospitals. Patients with similar characteristics presenting to different hospitals with acute gallbladder pathology do not receive comparable care. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Scoring System Development and Validation for Prediction Choledocholithiasis before Open Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Pejović, Tomislav; Stojadinović, Miroslav M

    2015-01-01

    Accurate precholecystectomy detection of concurrent asymptomatic common bile duct stones (CBDS) is key in the clinical decision-making process. The standard preoperative methods used to diagnose these patients are often not accurate enough. The aim of the study was to develop a scoring model that would predict CBDS before open cholecystectomy. We retrospectively collected preoperative (demographic, biochemical, ultrasonographic) and intraoperative (intraoperative cholangiography) data for 313 patients at the department of General Surgery at Gornji Milanovac from 2004 to 2007. The patients were divided into a derivation (213) and a validation set (100). Univariate and multivariate regression analysis was used to determine independent predictors of CBDS. These predictors were used to develop scoring model. Various measures for the assessment of risk prediction models were determined, such as predictive ability, accuracy, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), calibration and clinical utility using decision curve analysis. In a univariate analysis, seven risk factors displayed significant correlation with CBDS. Total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and bile duct dilation were identified as independent predictors of choledocholithiasis. The resultant total possible score in the derivation set ranged from 7.6 to 27.9. Scoring model shows good discriminatory ability in the derivation and validation set (AUC 94.3 and 89.9%, respectively), excellent accuracy (95.5%), satisfactory calibration in the derivation set, similar Brier scores and clinical utility in decision curve analysis. Developed scoring model might successfully estimate the presence of choledocholithiasis in patients planned for elective open cholecystectomy.

  1. Laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy in cirrhotic patients: a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    El-Awadi, Saleh; El-Nakeeb, Ayman; Youssef, Tamer; Fikry, Amir; Abd El-Hamed, Tito M; Ghazy, Hosam; Foda, Elyamany; Farid, Mohamed

    2009-02-01

    Improved laparoscopic experience and techniques have made laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) feasible options in cirrhotic patients. This study was designed to compare the risk and benefits of open cholecystectomy (OC) versus LC in compensated cirrhosis. A randomized prospective study, in the period from October 2002 till December 2006, where 110 cirrhotic patients with symptomatic gallstone were randomly divided into OC group (55 patients) and LC group (55 patients). There was no operative mortality. In LC group 4 (7.33%) patients were converted to OC. Mean surgical time was significantly longer in OC group than LC group (96.13+17.35 min versus 76.13+15.12) P<0.05, associated with significantly higher intraoperative bleeding in OC group (P<0.01), necessitating blood transfusions to 7 (12.72%) patients in OC group. The time to resume diet was 18.36+8.18 h in LC group which is significantly earlier than in OC group 47.84+14.6h P<0.005. Hospital stay was significantly longer in OC group than LC group (6+1.74 days versus 1.87+1.11 days) P<0.01 with low postoperative morbidity. LC in cirrhotics is still complicated and highly difficult which associates with significant morbidity compared with that of patients without cirrhosis. However, it offers lower morbidity, shorter operative time; early resume dieting with less need for blood transfusion and reducing hospital stay than OC.

  2. Is standardized care feasible in the emergency setting? A case matched analysis of patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Grass, Fabian; Cachemaille, Matthieu; Blanc, Catherine; Fournier, Nicolas; Halkic, Nermin; Demartines, Nicolas; Hübner, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Immediate laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the accepted standard for the treatment of acute cholecystitis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of a standardized approach with tailored care maps for pre- and postoperative care by comparing pain, nausea and patient satisfaction after elective and emergent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. From January 2014 until April 2015, data on pain and nausea management were prospectively recorded for all elective and emergency procedures in the department of visceral surgery. This prospective observational study compared consecutive laparoscopic elective vs. emergency cholecystectomies. Visual analogue scales (VAS) were used to measure pain, nausea, and satisfaction from recovery room until 96 hours postoperatively. Final analysis included 168 (79%) elective cholecystectomies and 44 (21%) emergent procedures. Demographics (Age, gender, BMI and ASA-scores) were comparable between the 2 groups. In the emergency group, patients did not receive anxiolytic medication (0% vs.13%, p = 0.009) and less postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) prophylaxis (77% vs. 97% p = <0.001). Perioperative pain management was similar in terms of opioid consumption (median amount of fentanyl 450ug [IQR 350-500] vs. 450ug [375-550], p = 0.456) and wound infiltration rates (24% vs. 25%, p = 0.799). Postoperative consumption of paracetamol, metamizole and opiod medications were similar between the 2 groups. VAS scores for pain (p = 0.191) and nausea (p = 0.392) were low for both groups. Patient satisfaction was equally high in both clinical settings (VAS 8.5 ± 1.1 vs. 8.6 ± 1.1, p = 0.68). A standardized pathway allows equally successful control of pain and nausea after both elective and emergency laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This study was retrospectively registered by March 01, 2016 in the following trial register: www.researchregistry.com (UIN researchregistry993).

  3. Do resident duty hour restrictions reduce technical complications of emergency laparoscopic cholecystectomy?

    PubMed

    Naylor, Rebekah A; Rege, Robert V; Valentine, R James

    2005-11-01

    The impact of resident duty hour restrictions on patient care has not been assessed. We studied 275 patients undergoing emergency cholecystectomy before and after duty hour regulations instituted by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Operations were stratified into 6-hour intervals from the time in-hospital call began. Procedure-related complications (bile duct injury, cystic duct leak, abdominal hemorrhage, trocar injury, intraabdominal/wound infection, unrecognized retained stone) were the primary outcomes variables. Complications occurred after 7 of 107 (6.5%) operations performed before duty hour restrictions, which was not different from 15 of 168 (8.9%) after duty hour restrictions. In both periods, all complications followed operations that began within the first 18 hours of duty. Patients with complications had longer operative times (p = 0.038) and a higher proportion of operations lasting 120 minutes or longer (p = 0.006). Comparing patients with and without complications, there were no significant differences in patient demographics, operative complexity, or PGY level of the surgeon. Only operative time of 120 minutes or longer retained significance in the multivariable model (p = 0.0023; odds ratio, 4.05; 95% CI, 1.65-9.97). There was no correlation between imposition of duty hour restrictions and technical complication rates in this study. Duration of operative time of 120 minutes or longer was the only independent marker, suggesting that technical complications are a function of operative complexity, not duration of duty. These data suggest that duty hour restrictions might not have a measurable influence on the surgical complication rate after emergency cholecystectomy.

  4. Open-access technique and "critical view of safety" as the safest way to perform laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Tsalis, Konstantinos; Antoniou, Nikolaos; Koukouritaki, Zambia; Patridas, Dimitrios; Christoforidis, Emmanuel; Lazaridis, Charalampos

    2015-04-01

    The 2 main challenges of laparoscopic cholecystectomy are primary peritoneal access and safe identification, ligation, and division of the cystic duct and cystic artery. This is a 13-year period retrospective study from January 2000 to December 2012. All the operations were performed by 1 surgeon and all the data were collected from the hospitals archive. A total of 929 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed for symptomatic cholelithiasis. The first author was involved in all the operations either by performing or assisting in them. The open access (OA) technique was used in all cases for the creation of pneumoperitoneum. After establishing the pneumoperitoneum, the "critical view of safety" (CVS) technique was used to ligate and divide the cystic duct and cystic artery. When the OA was not possible or CVS was not feasible, the operation was converted to open. Successful establishment of pneumoperitoneum with OA was possible in 911 of 929 (98.06%) patients and CVS was achieved in 873 patients (95.82%). In 18 patients the operation was converted to open because of dense adhesions not permitting the establishment of the pneumoperitoneum. No intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred in these patients. No bile duct injury occurred in this series. Postoperative complications were recorded in 19 patients (2.04%). Five patients had bleeding from port sites, 12 patients had wound infection at the umbilical incision, and 2 patients developed subhepatic collections, which were drained percutaneously under computed tomographic guidance. In this series of laparoscopic cholecystectomies, we used the "open access" technique to create pneumoperitoneum and we obtained the "critical view of safety" for the identification of the cystic duct. Our results show that this approach is the safest way to perform and teach laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  5. Suspected biliary complications after laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy leading to endoscopic cholangiography: a retrospective comparison.

    PubMed

    Gholson, C F; Dungan, C; Neff, G; Ferguson, R; Favrot, D; Nandy, I; Banish, P; Sittig, K

    1998-03-01

    To study how suspected postoperative biliary complications are influenced by surgical technique, we compared clinical profiles of 63 patients referred for ERCP after open (OC) and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) over a four-year period. ERCP was not performed for postoperative pain alone and only six (9.5%) studies were normal. Referrals after LC were younger (mean 39.1 vs 53.6 years, P < 0.001) and ERCP was requested earlier (mean 71.6 vs 2360 days, P < 0.001) in the postoperative course. Choledocholithiasis (CDL) alone, the most common finding, was successfully managed with a single ERCP in 97.2% of cases. CDL after LC occurred in younger patients (35.5 vs 58.9 years, P < 0.01) who presented earlier (mean 98.6 days vs 5.1 years, P < 0.01), without biliary ductal dilatation (P < 0.01). Although CDL after LC was associated with higher ALT and bilirubin levels than after OC, the difference was not statistically significant. Cystic duct leaks (LC: six patients, OC: four patients) were typically associated with CDL after OC and 90% resolved with endoscopic therapy. Biliary ligation (four cases) was managed successfully with choledochojejunostomy. We conclude that findings at ERCP for suspected biliary obstruction or injury after OC or LC are similar and usually can be endoscopically managed. After LC, referrals currently are younger, present much earlier, and retained stones are less likely to be associated with ductal dilatation than after OC.

  6. Synchronous Open Heart Surgery and Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: An Observational Case Study with 28 Patients.

    PubMed

    Bilge Erdogan, Mustafa; Kaplan, Mehmet; Kazaz, Hakki; Salman, Bulent

    2017-03-01

    Acute cholecystitis (AC) may be a severe problem and may increase the mortality rate and hospital stay in patients who undergo open heart surgery (OHS), due to its aggressive course; therefore, AC should be treated as soon as possible. We aimed to present data on our synchronous cardiac and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) operations performed for AC complicating patients with cardiac disease and who were waiting to undergo OHS. Between January 2008 and September 2014, we performed 2773 OHSs in Medical Park Gaziantep Hospital. Among these, 28 (1%) patients underwent concomitant LC in the same session by the same experienced surgeon. The mean age of the patients was 61.4 ± 9.1 years, and the proportion of males was 71.4 per cent. Acalculous cholecystitis was found in 42.9 per cent of the patients. Patients stayed in the intensive care unit for 3.1 ± 1.4 days and were discharged from the hospital after 16.5 ± 6.3 days. Postoperative 2-year follow-up was completed in all patients with a mean follow-up period of 3.4 ± 2.0 years. The overall complication rate was 28.6 per cent. LC-related complications were seen in four patients. No inhospital mortality was observed. Only one patient who underwent mitral valve replacement and tricuspid valve repair died in the second year after the operation due to congestive heart failure. Three patients died due to noncardiac reasons in the follow-up period. By increasing the experiences of surgeons in laparoscopic surgery in critically ill patients, LC can be safely performed concurrently in patients scheduled for OHS.

  7. Impact of a dedicated emergency surgical unit on early laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Bokhari, S; Walsh, U; Qurashi, K; Liasis, L; Watfah, J; Sen, M; Gould, S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Emergency general surgery (EGS) accounts for 50% of the surgical workload, and yet outcomes are variable and poorly recorded. The management of acute cholecystitis (AC) at a dedicated emergency surgical unit (ESU) was assessed as a performance target for EGS. Methods The outcomes for AC admissions were compared one year before and after inception of the ESU. The impact on cost and compliance with national guidance recommending early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (ELC) within seven days of diagnosis was assessed. Results The overall ELC rate increased from 26% for the 126 patients admitted in the pre-ESU period to 45% for the 152 patients admitted in the post-ESU period (p=0.001). With those unsuitable for ELC excluded, the ELC rate increased from 34% to 82% (p<0.001). The proportion of patients precluded from ELC for avoidable reasons, particularly owing to ‘surgeon preference/skill’, was reduced from 69% to 18% (p<0.001). The mean total length of stay (LOS) and postoperative LOS fell by 1.7 days (from 8.3 to 6.6 days, p=0.040) and 2 days (from 5.6 to 3.6 days, p=0.020) respectively. The higher ELC rate and the reduction in LOS produced additional tariff income (£111,930) and estimated savings in bed day (£90,440) and readmission (£27,252) costs. Conclusions A dedicated ESU incorporating national recommendations for EGS improves alignment of best practice with best evidence and can also result in financial rewards for a busy district general hospital. PMID:26673047

  8. Open Standards for Emergency Mangement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, E.

    2012-04-01

    The mission of the OASIS (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards) Emergency Management Technical Committee (EM-TC) is to create incident and emergency-related standards for data interoperability. The TC welcomes participation from members of the emergency management community, developers and implementers, and members of the public concerned with disaster management and response. Since the foundation of the EM-TC in 2003, there have been several Standards developed to support this mission. The first and most widely accepted has been the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP). CAP has been adopted worldwide and is also ITU Recommendation 1303. The EM-TC has continued in the development of content data standards to support the emergency management mission. This suite of standards is referred to as the Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) family of standards. The EDXL suite of standards are developed starting with a defined requirement from the response community. The requirements are vetted through a working group process, reviewed by the development community to determine whether the concepts once "standardized" will result in software that will be developed then provided with comments to the OASIS EM-TC for defining the standard. The OASIS process includes an open public review period where all comments are accepted and publically adjudicated. The EDXL-Distribution Element (DE), EDXL-Resource Management (RM), EDXL-Hospital Availability eXchange (HAVE) are all now ratified Standards. The EDXL-Situation Reporting (SitRep) Standard is in final review and the EXDL-Tracking of Emergency Patients (TEP) is in development. This presentation will briefly present each of the OASIS EM-TC Standards as well as the process for their development and review. Information will be provided about how to participate in the process as well as where open source code can be found to get started developing systems of systems using the EDXL Standards.

  9. [Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis].

    PubMed

    Neufeld, D; Sivak, G; Jessel, J; Freund, U

    1996-04-01

    We performed 417 laparoscopic cholecystectomies, including 58 for acute cholecystitis, between September 1991 and April 1995,. All operations were successful, with no mortality or complications. In about 10%, the laparoscopic approach failed and we converted to open cholecystectomy. Average post-operative hospitalization was 24 hours. We also performed primary open cholecystectomies in 55 patients with acute cholecystitis, because of limitations of operating room and staff availability for unscheduled laparoscopic surgery. In these patients, hospital stay was longer and rate of complications higher. In our opinion laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe and the preferred approach in acute cholecystitis.

  10. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: new indications.

    PubMed

    Nowzaradan, Y; Westmoreland, J C

    1991-06-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed on 65 unselected and consecutive patients, regardless of age, weight, history of abdominal surgery or presence of acute cholecystitis. All procedures were completed successfully, with only two patients converted to an open cholecystectomy. There were no intra-abdominal intraoperative complications; n o intraoperative transfusions were required. There were no intra-abdominal injuries, and no patient required repeat surgery for postoperative complications. Hospital stays averaged 30 hours, and the average time until patients resumed normal activities was 6 days.

  11. [Actual status of laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Chousleb Mizrahi, Elias; Chousleb Kalach, Alberto; Shuchleib Chaba, Samuel

    2004-08-01

    Since the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 1988, the management of gall-bladder disease has changed importantly. This technique was rapidly popularized in the U.S. as well as in Europe. Multiple studies have proved its feasibility, safeness and great advantages. Analyze usefulness and recent advances of endoscopic surgery in the management of gallbladder disease. We did a review of the recent medical literature to determine the actual status of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the most common surgical procedure performed in the digestive tract. During the year 2001, 1,100,000 cholecystectomies were done in the U.S., 85% were done laparoscopically. In Mexico cholecystectomy in government hospitals is done laparoscopically in 50% of the cases, while in private hospitals it reaches 90%. There are multiple prospective controlled studies showing superiority of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in times of recovery, costs, return to normal activity, pain, morbidity, esthetics among other advantages. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the gold standard for the treatment of the great majority of cases of gallbladder disease, nevertheless in developing countries open cholecystectomy is still done frequently.

  12. Preoperative risk factors for conversion from laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy: a validated risk score derived from a prospective U.K. database of 8820 patients.

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, Robert P; Hollyman, Marianne; Hodson, James; Bonney, Glenn; Vohra, Ravi S; Griffiths, Ewen A

    2016-11-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is commonly performed, and several factors increase the risk of open conversion, prolonging operating time and hospital stay. Preoperative stratification would improve consent, scheduling and identify appropriate training cases. The aim of this study was to develop a validated risk score for conversion for use in clinical practice. Preoperative patient and disease-related variables were identified from a prospective cholecystectomy database (CholeS) of 8820 patients, divided into main and validation sets. Preoperative predictors of conversion were identified by multivariable binary logistic regression. A risk score was developed and validated using a forward stepwise approach. Some 297 procedures (3.4%) were converted. The risk score was derived from six significant predictors: age (p = 0.005), sex (p < 0.001), indication for surgery (p < 0.001), ASA (p < 0.001), thick-walled gallbladder (p = 0.040) and CBD diameter (p = 0.004). Testing the score on the validation set yielded an AUROC = 0.766 (p < 0.001), and a score >6 identified patients at high risk of conversion (7.1% vs. 1.2%). This validated risk score allows preoperative identification of patients at six-fold increased risk of conversion to open cholecystectomy. Copyright © 2016 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: report of 82 cases.

    PubMed

    Meador, J H; Nowzaradan, Y; Matzelle, W

    1991-02-01

    In our initial experience with 82 patients, laparoscopic cholecystectomy has shown numerous advantages over open cholecystectomy. Both intraoperative blood loss and postoperative need for pain medication have been minimal. Most patients were discharged within 24 to 36 hours and resumed normal activities within 3 to 5 days. The aesthetic aspect is also an obvious advantage, since the laparoscopic procedure avoids disfiguring abdominal scars. Previous abdominal surgery is not a contraindication to attempting this procedure. Based on our experience, laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be done safely on most patients who are candidates for open cholecystectomy, including the elderly, the obese, and those with acute gangrenous cholecystitis.

  14. Increased cholecystectomy rate after the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Legorreta, A P; Silber, J H; Costantino, G N; Kobylinski, R W; Zatz, S L

    To examine if overall cost savings may fail to result from laparoscopic ("closed") cholecystectomy if it also results in an increased total rate of cholecystectomies or generates additional costs unassociated with the open procedure. Inpatient and outpatient expenditures, incidence rates, and length of inpatient stay data for 6909 health maintenance organization enrollees with gallbladder complaints were analyzed from 1988 through 1992 using claims data from a large, private practice-based health maintenance organization. The incidence of cholecystectomy and total health maintenance organization expenditures on gallbladder disease have increased since the introduction of laparoscopic closed cholecystectomy. The rate of cholecystectomy procedures per 1000 enrollees increased from 1.35 in 1988 to 2.15 in 1992 (P < .001). Total annual medical expenditures on gallbladder disease per 1000 enrollees (in 1992 dollars) rose 11.4% during the study period (P < .001), despite a concurrent 25.1% decline in the unit cost (physician and hospital cost) for cholecystectomy procedures (P < .001). During the same study period, no significant change was noted in the rate of appendectomy per 1000 enrollees (0.76 in 1988 to 0.73 in 1992), which is a measure of nonelective surgical care, or in the inguinal hernia repair rate (2.01 in 1988 to 2.19 in 1992), which has a physician and patient discretionary component similar to that of cholecystectomy. The introduction of laparoscopic gallbladder surgery resulted in rising rates of cholecystectomy for a population of patients in a private, independent practice-based health maintenance organization. Such a rise was not seen for hernia repair surgery or appendectomy. It seems that the use of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, a new technology touted as reducing health care costs, may result in an increased consumption of health care resources due to changes in the indications for gallbladder surgery.

  15. Could ICG-aided robotic cholecystectomy reduce the rate of open conversion reported with laparoscopic approach? A head to head comparison of the largest single institution studies.

    PubMed

    Gangemi, A; Danilkowicz, R; Elli, F E; Bianco, F; Masrur, M; Giulianotti, P C

    2017-03-01

    Comparative studies between robotic and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) focus heavily on economic considerations under the assumption of comparable clinical outcomes. Advancement of the robotic technique and the further widespread use of this approach suggest a need for newer comparison studies. 676 ICG-aided robotic cholecystectomies (ICG-aided RC) performed at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) Division of General, Minimally Invasive and Robotic Surgery were compiled retrospectively. Additionally, 289 LC were similarly obtained. Data were compared to the largest single institution LC data sets from within the US and abroad. Statistically significant variations were found between UIC-RC and UIC-LC in minor biliary injuries (p = 0.049), overall open conversion (p ≤ 0.001), open conversion in the acute setting (p = 0.002), and mean blood loss (p < 0.001). UIC-RC open conversions were also significantly lower than Greenville Health System LC (p ≤ 0.001). Additionally, UIC ICG-RC resulted in the lowest percentages of major biliary injuries (0 %) and highest percentage of biliary anomalies identified (2.07 %). ICG-aided cholangiography and the technical advantages associated with the robotic platform may significantly decrease the rate of open conversion in both the acute and non-acute setting. The sample size discrepancy and the non-randomized nature of our study do not allow for drawing definitive conclusions.

  16. Efficacy of single-injection unilateral thoracic paravertebral block for post open cholecystectomy pain relief: a prospective randomized study at Gondar University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Fentie, Demeke Yilkal; Gebremedhn, Endale Gebreegziabher; Denu, Zewditu Abdissa; Gebreegzi, Amare Hailekiros

    2017-01-01

    Background Cholecystectomy can be associated with considerable postoperative pain. While the benefits of paravertebral block (PVB) on pain after thoracotomy and mastectomy have been demonstrated, not enough investigations on the effects of PVB on pain after open cholecystectomy have been conducted. We tested the hypothesis that a single-injection thoracic PVB reduces pain scores, decreases opioid consumption, and prolongs analgesic request time after cholecystectomy. Methods Of 52 patients recruited, 50 completed the study. They were randomly allocated into two groups: the paravertebral group and the control group. The outcome measures were the severity of pain measured on numeric pain rating scale, total opioid consumption, and first analgesic request time during the first postoperative 24 hours. Result The main outcomes recorded during 24 hours after surgery were Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) pain scores (NRS, 0–10), cumulative opioid consumption, and the first analgesic request time. Twenty four hours after surgery, NRS at rest was 4 (3–6) vs 5 (5–7) and at movement 4 (4–7) vs 6 (5–7.5) for the PVB and control groups, respectively. The difference between the groups over the whole observation period was statistically significant (P<0.05). Twenty-four hours after surgery, median (25th–75th percentile) cumulative morphine consumption was 0 (0–2) vs 2.5 (2–4) mg (P<0.0001) and cumulative tramadol consumption was 200 (150–250) mg vs 300 (200–350) mg in the paravertebral and in the control group, respectively (P=0.003). After surgery, the median (25th–75th percentile) first analgesic requirement time was prolonged in the PVB group in statistically significant fashion (P<0.0001). Conclusion and recommendations Single-shot thoracic PVB as a component of multi-modal analgesic regimen provided superior analgesia when compared with the control group up to 24 postoperative hours after cholecystectomy, and we recommend this block for post cholecystectomy

  17. Advanced emergency openings for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Schimmel, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    Explosively actuated openings in composite panels are proposed to enhance passenger survivability within commercial aircraft by providing improvements in emergency openings, fuselage venting, and fuel dump. The concept is to embed a tiny, highly stable explosive cord in the periphery of a load-carrying composite panel; on initiation of the cord, the panel is fractured to create a well-defined opening. The panel would be installed in the sides of the fuselage for passenger egress, in the top of the fuselage for smoke venting, and in the bottoms of the fuel cells for fuel dump. Described are the concerns with the use of explosive systems, safety improvements, advantages, experimental results, and recommended approach to gain acceptance and develop this concept.

  18. Factors associated with successful laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis.

    PubMed Central

    Rattner, D W; Ferguson, C; Warshaw, A L

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This article determined which preoperative data correlated with successful completion of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with acute cholecystitis. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Although laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the procedure of choice in chronic cholecystitis, its use in acute cholecystitis may be associated with higher costs and complication rates. It is not known which patients with acute cholecystitis are likely to require conversion to open cholecystectomy based on preoperative data or if a cooling-off period with medical therapy can diminish inflammation and increase the chance of successful laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: All laparoscopic cholecystectomies done by the authors between 10/90 and 2/92 were reviewed. Data on cases of acute cholecystitis were prospectively collected on standardized data forms. RESULTS: Twenty of 281 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were done for acute cholecystitis; 7/20 patients with acute cholecystitis required conversion to open cholecystectomy compared with 6/281 patients undergoing elective operation for chronic cholecystitis. In patients with acute cholecystitis the interval from admission to cholecystectomy in the successful cases was 0.6 days vs. 5 days in the cases requiring conversion to open cholecystectomy (p = .01). Cases requiring conversion to open cholecystectomy also had higher WBC (14.0 vs. 9.0, p < .05), alkaline phosphatase (206 vs. 81, p < .02, and APACHE II scores (10.6 vs. 5.1, p < .05). Ultrasonographic findings such as gallbladder distention, wall thickness, and pericholecystic fluid did not correlate with the success of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients converted from laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy required more operating room time (120 min vs. 87 min, p < .01) and more postop hospital days (6 vs. 2, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis should be done immediately after the diagnosis is established because delaying surgery

  19. Intractable intraoperative bleeding requiring platelet transfusion during emergent cholecystectomy in a patient with dual antiplatelet therapy after drug-eluting coronary stent implantation (with video)

    PubMed Central

    Fujikawa, Takahisa; Noda, Tomohiro; Tada, Seiichiro; Tanaka, Akira

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 76-year-old man, receiving dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and ticlopidine for the past 6 years after implantation of drug-eluting coronary stent, developed a severe hypochondriac pain. After diagnosing severe acute cholecystitis by an enhanced CT, emergent laparotomy under continuation of DAPT was attempted. During the operation, intractable bleeding from the adhesiolysed liver surface was encountered, which required platelet transfusion. Subtotal cholecystectomy with abdominal drainage was performed, and the patient recovered without any postoperative bleeding or thromboembolic complications. Like the present case, the final decision should be made to perform platelet transfusion when life-threatening DAPT-induced intraoperative bleeding occurs during an emergent surgery, despite the elevated risk of stent thrombosis. PMID:23536626

  20. Anesthetic Management of a Patient With Antimuscle-Specific Kinase Antibody-Positive Myasthenia Gravis Undergoing an Open Cholecystectomy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Akatsu, Masahiko; Ikegami, Yukihiro; Tase, Choichiro; Nishikawa, Koichi

    2017-03-15

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the production of antibodies against the acetylcholine receptor, muscle-specific kinase (MuSK), or other proteins at the neuromuscular junction. MG with antibodies against MuSK (MuSK-MG) has been described recently. Here, we report the first case of anesthetic management of a patient with MuSK-MG undergoing an open cholecystectomy. In our case, propofol and remifentanil-based anesthesia were used for successful management without using muscle relaxants. Patients with MuSK-MG have predominantly ocular, bulbar, and respiratory symptoms that may increase the risk of aspiration. Anesthesiologists need to pay attention to perioperative respiratory failure and respiratory crisis.

  1. The technique of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in children.

    PubMed Central

    Davidoff, A M; Branum, G D; Murray, E A; Chong, W K; Ware, R E; Kinney, T R; Pappas, T N; Meyers, W C

    1992-01-01

    Twelve children underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis during a 10-month period in one institution. The operative technique that has been described for adults was modified because of the smaller dimensions of pediatric patients. These modifications are discussed in this report, as are new alternatives for evaluating the common duct. No operative complications or conversions to open cholecystectomy occurred, and no complications after surgery were seen during an average follow-up period of 4.5 months. The benefits of laparoscopic cholecystectomy include decreased pain and ileus after surgery, shortened hospitalization, and improved cosmesis. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe and efficacious in children, and it compares favorably with traditional cholecystectomy in the pediatric age group. Images FIG. 3. PMID:1532120

  2. Gallstone Ileus Post-cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Månsson, C; Norlén, O

    2015-01-01

    Gallstone ileus is a rather rare condition and in most cases it involves a cholecysto-enteric fistula, through which a gallstone passes into the bowel. If the gallstone is large enough it may obstruct the bowel and a gallstone ileus emerges. In the presented case, the patient was subjected to a cholecystectomy over 40 years ago, but despite this, he developed a gallstone ileus. A gallstone that obstructed the small bowel was suspected with computed tomography and confirmed with exploratory laparotomy. Although a few cases of gallstone ileus after cholecystectomy are described in the literature, our case describes a unique pathogenic mechanism.

  3. [Thoracic epidural anesthesia for open cholecystectomy in severe lung disease. Description of a case and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Mendibil, I; Postigo-Morales, S; Gonzalez-Larrabe, I; Arizaga-Maguregi, A

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has increased in the last decade. The anesthetic management of these patients in upper abdomen surgery is a challenge to the anesthesiologist, since general anesthesia is associated with a high possibility of severe pulmonary complications. The search for a suitable alternative has been a subject of study for years. The case is presented of a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, who required an urgent cholecystectomy. The treatment of the case and brief review of the literature is presented. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. [Laparoscopic cholecystectomy--1,000 procedures in a surgical department].

    PubMed

    Freund, U; Mayo, A; Schwartz, I; Neufeld, D; Paran, H

    2000-11-01

    The first 1,000 laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed in our department were reviewed. There was no operative mortality; conversion to open cholecystectomy was necessary in 2%. In the last 600 cases the rate of conversion had decreased to 0.5%. There was common bile duct injury in 0.3%, with the injuries identified during primary surgery. This clinical experience is consistent with previous studies, which proved that laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe and should replace open operation as the procedure of choice.

  5. Enhanced muscle strength with carbohydrate supplement two hours before open cholecystectomy: a randomized, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Gava, Marcella Giovana; Castro-Barcellos, Heloísa Michelon; Caporossi, Cervantes; Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo de

    2016-02-01

    to investigate the effects of preoperative fasting abbreviation with oral supplementation with carbohydrate in the evolution of grip strength in patients undergoing cholecystectomy by laparotomy. we conducted a clinical, randomizeddouble blind study with adult female patients, aged 18-60 years. Patients were divided into two groups: Control Group, with fasting prescription 6-8h until the time of operation; and Intervention Group, which received prescription of fasting for solids 6-8h before surgery, but ingested an oral supplement containing 12.5% carbohydrate, six (400ml) and two (200ml) hours before theprocedure. The handgrip strength was measured in both hands in both groups, at patient's admission (6h before surgery), the immediate pre-operative time (1h before surgery) and 12-18h postoperatively. we analyzed 27 patients, 14 in the intervention group and 13 in the control group. There was no mortality. The handgrip strength (mean [standard deviation]) was significantly higher in the intervention group in the three periods studied, in at least one hand: preoperatively in the dominant hand (27.8 [2.6] vs 24.1 [3.7] kg; p=0.04), in the immediate preoperative in both hands, and postoperatively in the non-dominant hand (28.5 [3.0] vs 21.3 [5.9] kg; p=0.01). the abbreviation of preoperative fasting to two hours with drink containing carbohydrate improves muscle function in the perioperative period.

  6. Anesthetic complications in dogs undergoing hepatic surgery: cholecystectomy versus non-cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Burns, Brigid R; Hofmeister, Erik H; Brainard, Benjamin M

    2014-03-01

    To determine if dogs that undergo laparotomy for cholecystectomy suffer from a greater number or magnitude of perianesthetic complications, including hypotension, hypothermia, longer recovery time, and lower survival rate, than dogs that undergo laparotomy for hepatic surgery without cholecystectomy. Retrospective cohort study. One hundred and three dogs, anesthetised between January 2007 and October 2011. The variables collected from the medical record included age, weight, gender, surgical procedure, pre-operative bloodwork, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status, emergency status, total bilirubin concentration, anesthetic agents administered, body temperature nadir, final body temperature, hypotension, duration of hypotension, blood pressure nadir, intraoperative drugs, anesthesia duration, surgery duration, time to extubation, final diagnosis, days spent in the intensive care unit (ICU), total bill, survival to discharge, and survival to follow-up. No significant difference in body temperature nadir, final temperature, presence of hypotension, duration of hypotension, blood pressure nadir, the use of inotropes, or final outcome was found between dogs undergoing cholecystectomy and dogs undergoing exploratory laparotomy for other hepatic disease. Dogs that had cholecystectomy had longer anesthesia durations and longer surgery durations than dogs that did not have cholecystectomy. No significant differences existed for temperature nadir (34.8 versus 35.3°C; non-cholecystectomy versus cholecystectomy), final temperature (35.6 versus 35.9°C), time to extubation (30 versus 49 minutes), duration of hypotension (27 versus 21 minutes), or MAP nadir (56 versus 55 mmHg). Hypotension occurred in 66% and 74% and inotropes were used in 64% and 53%, for non-cholecystectomy and cholecystectomy patients, respectively. Dogs that underwent cholecystectomies did not suffer a greater number of anesthesia complications than did dogs undergoing hepatic surgery without

  7. Cholecystectomy in a heifer

    PubMed Central

    TSUKA, Takeshi; TANAKA, Hinako; KONO, Shinji; MORITA, Takehito; MURAHATA, Yusuke; AZUMA, Kazuo; OSAKI, Tomohiro; ITO, Norihiko; OKAMOTO, Yoshiharu; IMAGAWA, Tomohiro

    2017-01-01

    A 10-month-old female Japanese black heifer presenting with sudden loss of appetite was diagnosed with extreme extension of the gallbladder. Laparotomy reaching from the right part of the 10th rib to the right flank showed an extended gallbladder greater than 50 cm in diameter. Cholecystectomy was performed as follows: 1) complete removal of the gallbladder distally from the base; 2) flushing via a catheter inserted into the common bile duct; and 3) covering of the hole opened in the common bile duct with a double-suturing method using the mucous membrane and muscular layers of the remaining gallbladder structures. Serum levels of total bilirubin gradually decreased from 7.5 mg/dl preoperatively to 4.7 mg/dl, 1.6 mg/dl and 0.6 mg/dl at 3, 8 and 34 days postoperatively, respectively. The heifer showed 1 month of clinical improvements, grew normally and finally became pregnant. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first clinical report to describe cholecystectomy in cattle. PMID:28190819

  8. Emerging Leaders: AED's Open World Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Open World Program, funded and administered by the Library of Congress, with support from private organizations such as the Academy for Educational Development (AED). Open World Program allows community colleges to participate by hosting delegations from other countries. Some themes include: environment, women as leaders, economic…

  9. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the cardiac patient: a case study.

    PubMed

    Schmelzer, C; Stone, N L

    1995-02-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the standard procedure for the surgical management of cholelithiasis. Compared with open cholecystectomy, this procedure offers shorter hospital stays, shorter recovery time, better cosmetic results, and an overall reduction in health care cost for the patient. As the number of cardiac patients having elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy increases, it is important for the postanesthesia nurse to understand the postoperative assessment and nursing interventions these patients require. Congestive heart failure and acute pulmonary edema are two potential complications resulting from insufflation of the abdomen and intraoperative fluids. This case study of a cardiac patient undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy demonstrates important postanesthesia assessment parameters.

  10. [Results of conventional cholecystectomy. Experience in a university hospital].

    PubMed

    Montagnini, A L; Jukemura, J; Gianini, P T; Machado, M A; Abdo, E E; Penteado, S; Machado, M C; da Cunha, J E; Bacchella, T; Pinotti, H W

    1996-01-01

    The experience with open cholecystectomy in an university affiliated hospital is documented in this report. We studied retrospectively 221 patients operated between 1987 and 1992, type of surgery, morbidity and mortality were analyzed. There were 171 (77.3%) cholecystectomy alone and 50 (22.7%) cholecystectomy with other biliary surgery (BS). Pulmonary, urinary and wound complications were the most common. Overall incidence of complications was 7.2%. For patients with cholecystectomy alone morbidity was 3.5% and for patients with BS morbidity was 20% (p < 0.002). There were no mortality in this group of patients.

  11. Non-randomised patients in a cholecystectomy trial: characteristics, procedures, and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Ros, Axel; Carlsson, Per; Rahmqvist, Mikael; Bäckman, Karin; Nilsson, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is now considered the first option for gallbladder surgery. However, 20% to 30% of cholecystectomies are completed as open operations often on elderly and fragile patients. The external validity of randomised trials comparing mini-laparotomy cholecystectomy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy has not been studied. The aim of this study is to analyse characteristics, procedures, and outcomes for all patients who underwent cholecystectomy without being included in such a trial. Methods Characteristics (age, sex, co-morbidity, and ASA-score), operation time, hospital stay, and mortality were compared for patients who underwent cholecystectomy outside and within a randomised controlled trial comparing mini-laparotomy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Results During the inclusion period 1719 patients underwent cholecystectomy. 726 patients were randomised and 724 of them completed the trial; 993 patients underwent cholecystectomy outside the trial. The non-randomised patients were older – and had more complications from gallstone disease, higher co-morbidity, and higher ASA – score when compared with trial patients. They were also more likely to undergo acute surgery and they had a longer postoperative hospital stay, with a median 3 versus 2 days (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Standardised mortality ratio within 90 days of operation was 3.42 (mean) (95% CI 2.17 to 5.13) for non-randomised patients and 1.61 (mean) (95%CI 0.02 to 3.46) for trial patients. For non-randomised patients, operation time did not differ significantly between mini-laparotomy and open cholecystectomy in multivariate analysis. However, the operation for laparoscopic cholecystectomy lasted 20 minutes longer than open cholecystectomy. Hospital stay was significantly shorter for both mini-laparotomy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy compared to open cholecystectomy. Conclusion Non-randomised patients were older and more sick than trial patients. The assignment

  12. Emerging Open Online Distance Education Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    A revolution of sorts is underway in providing open access to rich resources, actual courses, and even entire degrees online. This revolution is fueled by the combination of a bubble in tuition rates, lingering effects of the recession, monumental student debt exceeding one trillion dollars in the United States, development of increasingly…

  13. Patients' experiences with cholecystitis and a cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Lindseth, Glenda N; Denny, Dawn L

    2014-01-01

    Nurses commonly care for patients with cholecystitis, a major health problem with a growing prevalence. Although considerable research has been done to compare patient outcomes among surgical approaches for cholecystitis, few studies have examined the experiences of patients with cholecystitis and the subsequent cholecystectomy surgery. A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach was initiated to better understand the experience of hospitalized patients with cholecystitis through their cholecystectomy surgery. Face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted with patients diagnosed with cholecystitis and scheduled for a cholecystectomy at a rural, Midwestern hospital in the United States. Postoperative interviews were then conducted with the patients who experienced an uneventful cholecystectomy. Giorgi's technique was used to analyze postoperative narratives of the patients' cholecystectomy experiences to determine the themes. Following analysis of interview transcripts from the patients, 5 themes emerged: (a) consumed by discomfort and pain, (b) restless discomfort interrupting sleep, (c) living in uncertainty, (d) impatience to return to normalcy, and (e) feelings of vulnerability. Informants with acute cholecystitis described distressing pain before and after surgery that interfered with sleep and family responsibilities. Increased awareness is needed to prevent the disruption to daily life that can result from the cholecystitis and resulting cholecystectomy surgery. Also, nurses can help ease the unpredictability of the experience by providing relevant patient education, prompt pain relief, and an attentive approach to the nursing care.

  14. Percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy and delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy in critically ill patients with acute calculus cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Spira, Ram M; Nissan, Aviran; Zamir, Oded; Cohen, Tzeela; Fields, Scott I; Freund, Herbert R

    2002-01-01

    The ultimate therapy for acute cholecystitis is cholecystectomy. However, in critically ill elderly patients the mortality of emergency cholecystectomy may reach up to 30%. Open cholecystostomy performed under local anesthesia was considered to be the procedure of choice for treatment of acute cholecystitis in high-risk patients. In recent years, ultrasound- or computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy (PTHC) replaced open cholecystostomy for the treatment of acute cholecystitis in critically ill patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the results of a 5-year protocol using PTHC followed by delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for the treatment of acute cholecystitis in critically ill patients. We reviewed the charts of 55 patients who underwent PTHC at the Hadassah University Hospital Mount Scopus during the years 1994 to 1999. The main indications for PTHC among this group of severely sick and high-risk patients was biliary sepsis and septic shock in 23 patients (42%); and severe comorbidities in 32 patients (58%). The median age was 74 (32 to 98) years, 33 were female and 22 male. Successful biliary drainage by PTHC was achieved in 54 of 55 (98%) of the patients. The majority of the patients (31 of 55) were drained transhepaticlly under CT guidance. The rest, (24 of 55) were drained using ultrasound guidance followed by cholecystography for verification. Complications included hepatic bleeding that required surgical intervention in 1 patient and dislodgment of the catheter in 9 patients that was reinserted in 2 patients. Three patients died of multisystem organ failure 12 to 50 days following the procedure. The remaining 52 patients recovered well with a mean hospital stay of 15.5 plus minus 11.4 days. Thirty-one patients were able to undergo delayed surgery: 28 underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy of whom 4 (14%) were converted to open cholecystectomy. This was compared with a 1.9% conversion rate in 1

  15. The first laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, W

    2001-01-01

    Prof Dr Med Erich Mühe of Böblingen, Germany, performed the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy on September 12, 1985. The German Surgical Society rejected Mühe in 1986 after he reported that he had performed the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy, yet in 1992 he received their highest award, the German Surgical Society Anniversary Award. In 1990 in Atlanta, at the Society of American Gastrointestinal Surgeons (SAGES) Convention, Perissat, Berci, Cuschieri, Dubois, and Mouret were recognized by SAGES for performing early laparoscopic cholecystectomies, but Mühe was not. However, in 1999 he was recognized by SAGES for having performed the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy-SAGES invited Mühe to present the Storz Lecture. In Mühe's presentation, titled "The First Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy," which he gave in March 1999 in San Antonio, Texas, he described the first procedure. Finally, Mühe had received the worldwide acclaim that he deserved for his pioneering work. One purpose of this article is to trace the development of the basic instruments used in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The other purpose is to give Mühe the recognition he deserves for being the developer of the laparoscopic cholecystectomy procedure.

  16. Elective cholecystectomy reduces morbidity of cholelithiasis in pediatric sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Emily F; Partain, Paige I; Lebensburger, Jeffrey D; Fineberg, Naomi S; Howard, Thomas H

    2017-01-01

    Cholelithiasis is a frequent complication in pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD). Though it is standard practice to perform a cholecystectomy in pediatric SCD patients with symptoms of cholelithiasis, the use of elective cholecystectomy for asymptomatic patients remains controversial. Records of 191 pediatric sickle cell patients with cholelithiasis who underwent cholecystectomy were retrospectively reviewed. Patients classified as follows: (i) elective-no preoperative symptoms, cholelithiasis on screening ultrasound, comprehensive preoperative plan; (ii) symptomatic-preoperative symptoms of cholelithiasis on diagnostic ultrasound, comprehensive preoperative plan; or (iii) emergent-hospitalization for acute cholecystitis symptoms, cholelithiasis on diagnostic ultrasound, limited preoperative preparation. We compared the morbidity of cholecystectomy by examining pre- and post-cholecystectomy hospital admission days, length of stay for cholecystectomy, and surgical complications. Patients with SCD underwent a total of 191 cholecystectomies over a 10-year period: 51 elective, 110 symptomatic, and 30 emergent. Patients who required emergent cholecystectomy had a longer postoperative hospitalization time than elective or symptomatic cholecystectomy (7.3 vs 4.3, P < 0.001). Baseline values for total bilirubin and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly elevated (P < 0.02 and P < 0.07, respectively) in patients requiring emergent cholecystectomy. This represents the largest reported retrospective review of pediatric cholelithiasis and cholecystectomy in SCD to date. These data strongly suggest that elective cholecystectomy decreases morbidity associated with emergent cholecystectomy. The overall outcomes for symptomatic and elective patients are favorable. However, our study indicates the need for prospective studies to identify clinical indicators for those emergent patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Delayed jejunal perforation after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Ikennah L.; Dixon, Elijah

    2016-01-01

    Bowel perforation is a rare complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which if left undiagnosed can have fatal consequences. In addition, isolated small bowel perforation is extremely rare and should be considered in patients presenting with sudden onset abdominal pain in the postoperative period. A 57-year-old male with symptomatic gallstones underwent urgent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and was discharged home on postoperative day (POD) 1 without complications. He presented to the emergency department on POD 11 complaining of sudden onset abdominal pain. A CT scan did not confirm a diagnosis and he was admitted for observation. On post admission day 2, he became significantly peritonitic and laparotomy revealed jejunal perforation. Bowel resection with hand-sewn anastomosis was completed and he was discharged on POD 10. Follow-up at 6 weeks revealed no further issues. We review the literature on small bowel perforation post laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:26908534

  18. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an audit of 500 patients.

    PubMed

    Mehraj, Adnan; Naqvi, Muhammad Ali; Feroz, Shizan Hamid; ur Rasheed, Haroon

    2011-01-01

    The Gold standard treatment for symptomatic gallstone disease is laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) since 1990. LC can be performed safely as a day case procedure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in symptomatic gall stones disease in terms of length of hospital stay, complications, morbidity and mortality. This retrospective descriptive study was carried out in Department of General & Laparoscopic Surgery, AK CMH, Muzaffarabad. Notes of all patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the department over a 26 month period were reviewed from department register. Demographics as well as details of cases, conversion to open operation and complications of surgery and anaesthesia were reviewed from clinical notes and departmental register and noted on a designed Performa. Data were analysed using SPSS-18 and results compared with international studies. Out of 500 patients, 443 (88.6%) were females and 57 (11.4%) were males. The mean age of the patients was 42.47 +/- 11.43 years. Mean operative time was 40.09 +/- 11.16 minutes. Seven (1.4%) patients developed port site wound infection. Sixteen (3.2%) cases were converted to open surgery in face of obscured anatomy of Calot's triangle. Two (0.4%) cases has cystic duct stoma leak secondary to missed Common duct stones and were dealt with ERCP and stone extraction. There was no case of bile duct injury, major haemorrhage or bowel injury. There was no mortality associated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy in our series. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a safe and effective management of gall stone disease. Better training, careful case selection, meticulous technique and high standard equipment are of paramount importance for ensuring good results in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  19. Massive Open Online Librarianship: Emerging Practices in Response to MOOCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mune, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses, or MOOCs, have recently emerged as a disruptive pedagogy gaining rapid momentum in higher education. In some states, proposed legislations would accredit MOOCs to provide college-credit courses in the name of cost saving, efficiency and access. While debates rage regarding the place of MOOCs in higher education, some…

  20. The Emergence of Public Health Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angell, C.; Hartwell, H.; Hemingway, A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify key concepts in the literature relating to the release of open educational resources (OER), with specific reference to the emergence of public health OER. Design/methodology/approach: A review of the literature relating to the development of OER was followed by an online search for OER literature…

  1. Massive Open Online Librarianship: Emerging Practices in Response to MOOCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mune, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses, or MOOCs, have recently emerged as a disruptive pedagogy gaining rapid momentum in higher education. In some states, proposed legislations would accredit MOOCs to provide college-credit courses in the name of cost saving, efficiency and access. While debates rage regarding the place of MOOCs in higher education, some…

  2. The Emergence of Public Health Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angell, C.; Hartwell, H.; Hemingway, A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify key concepts in the literature relating to the release of open educational resources (OER), with specific reference to the emergence of public health OER. Design/methodology/approach: A review of the literature relating to the development of OER was followed by an online search for OER literature…

  3. Abdominal lift for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Koti, Rahul; Davidson, Brian R

    2013-08-31

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (key-hole removal of the gallbladder) is now the most often used method for treatment of symptomatic gallstones. Several cardiopulmonary changes (decreased cardiac output, pulmonary compliance, and increased peak airway pressure) occur during pneumoperitoneum, which is now introduced to allow laparoscopic cholecystectomy. These cardiopulmonary changes may not be tolerated in individuals with poor cardiopulmonary reserve. To assess the benefits and harms of abdominal wall lift compared to pneumoperitoneum in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded until February 2013. We included all randomised clinical trials comparing abdominal wall lift (with or without pneumoperitoneum) versus pneumoperitoneum. We calculated the risk ratio (RR), rate ratio (RaR), or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on intention-to-treat analysis with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models using the Review Manager (RevMan) software. For abdominal wall lift with pneumoperitoneum versus pneumoperitoneum, a total of 130 participants (all with low anaesthetic risk) scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomised in five trials to abdominal wall lift with pneumoperitoneum (n = 53) versus pneumoperitoneum only (n = 52). One trial which included 25 people did not state the number of participants in each group. All five trials had a high risk of bias. There was no mortality or conversion to open cholecystectomy in any of the participants in the trials that reported these outcomes. There was no significant difference in the rate of serious adverse events between the two groups (two trials; 2/29 events (0.069 events per person) versus 2/29 events (0.069 events per person); rate ratio 1.00; 95% CI 0

  4. Abdominal lift for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Koti, Rahul; Samraj, Kumarakrishnan; Davidson, Brian R

    2012-05-16

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (key-hole removal of the gallbladder) is now the most often used method for treatment of symptomatic gallstones. Several cardiopulmonary changes (decreased cardiac output, pulmonary compliance, and increased peak airway pressure) occur during pneumoperitoneum, which is now introduced to allow laparoscopic cholecystectomy. These cardiopulmonary changes may not be tolerated in individuals with poor cardiopulmonary reserve. To assess the benefits and harms of abdominal wall lift compared with pneumoperitoneum in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded until January 2012. We included all randomised clinical trials comparing abdominal wall lift (with or without pneumoperitoneum) versus pneumoperitoneum. We calculated the risk ratio (RR), rate ratio (RaR), or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on intention-to-treat analysis with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models using RevMan software. For abdominal wall lift with pneumoperitoneum versus pneumoperitoneum, a total of 156 participants (all with low anaesthetic risk) who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomised in six trials to abdominal wall lift with pneumoperitoneum (n = 65) versus pneumoperitoneum only (n = 66). One trial which included 25 patients did not state the number of patients in each group. All six trials had a high risk of bias. There was no mortality or conversion to open cholecystectomy in any of the patients in the trials that reported these outcomes. There was no significant difference in the rate of serious adverse events between the two groups (2 trials; 2/29 events (0.069 events per patient) versus 2/29 events (0.069 events per patient); rate ratio 1.00; 95% CI 0.17 to 5.77). None of the

  5. Laparoscopic antegrade cholecystectomy: a standard procedure?

    PubMed Central

    Cianci, Pasquale; Di Lascia, Alessandra; Fersini, Alberto; Ambrosi, Antonio; Neri, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Retrograde approach (“fundus first”) is often used in open surgery, while in laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is less frequent. LC, with antegrade access, is done by putting in traction the infundibulum and going up to the fundus before to clip the cystic. Our study analyzes a number of surgical procedures performed by experienced surgeons in laparoscopy. From 2002 to 2015, 1740 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed at our Institution. The operative procedure performed since 2002 consists of the incision of the visceral peritoneum from the infundibulum away from Calot’s triangle along the gallbladder bed up to the fundus. Then it continues from the fundus up to the infundibulum. Results: There were no bile duct injuries. Average operative time was 40 min. 22 conversions to an open procedure (1.3%) occurred, in cases of acute cholecystitis and cirrhotic patient. Postoperative stay was mean 2 days with no delayed sequelae on follow up. Conclusions: gallbladder antegrade dissection for laparoscopic cholecystectomy can reduce the time of surgery and is an easier technique to perform. Therefore, it can be proposed as the standard procedure and not only be used for difficult cholecystectomies. PMID:28352832

  6. Open space suitability analysis for emergency shelter after an earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anhorn, J.; Khazai, B.

    2014-06-01

    In an emergency situation shelter space is crucial for people affected by natural hazards. Emergency planners in disaster relief and mass care can greatly benefit from a sound methodology that identifies suitable shelter areas and sites where shelter services need to be improved. A methodology to rank suitability of open spaces for contingency planning and placement of shelter in the immediate aftermath of a disaster is introduced. The Open Space Suitability Index (OSSI) uses the combination of two different measures: a qualitative evaluation criterion for the suitability and manageability of open spaces to be used as shelter sites, and a second quantitative criterion using a capacitated accessibility analysis based on network analysis. For the qualitative assessment, implementation issues, environmental considerations, and basic utility supply are the main categories to rank candidate shelter sites. Geographic Information System (GIS) is used to reveal spatial patterns of shelter demand. Advantages and limitations of this method are discussed on the basis of a case study in Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC). According to the results, out of 410 open spaces under investigation, 12.2% have to be considered not suitable (Category D and E) while 10.7% are Category A and 17.6% are Category B. Almost two third (59.5%) are fairly suitable (Category C).

  7. Open space suitability analysis for emergency shelter after an earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anhorn, J.; Khazai, B.

    2015-04-01

    In an emergency situation shelter space is crucial for people affected by natural hazards. Emergency planners in disaster relief and mass care can greatly benefit from a sound methodology that identifies suitable shelter areas and sites where shelter services need to be improved. A methodology to rank suitability of open spaces for contingency planning and placement of shelter in the immediate aftermath of a disaster is introduced. The Open Space Suitability Index uses the combination of two different measures: a qualitative evaluation criterion for the suitability and manageability of open spaces to be used as shelter sites and another quantitative criterion using a capacitated accessibility analysis based on network analysis. For the qualitative assessment implementation issues, environmental considerations and basic utility supply are the main categories to rank candidate shelter sites. A geographic information system is used to reveal spatial patterns of shelter demand. Advantages and limitations of this method are discussed on the basis of an earthquake hazard case study in the Kathmandu Metropolitan City. According to the results, out of 410 open spaces under investigation, 12.2% have to be considered not suitable (Category D and E) while 10.7% are Category A and 17.6% are Category B. Almost two-thirds (59.55%) are fairly suitable (Category C).

  8. Mortality and complications associated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A meta-analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Shea, J A; Healey, M J; Berlin, J A; Clarke, J R; Malet, P F; Staroscik, R N; Schwartz, J S; Williams, S V

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of large laparoscopic cholecystectomy case-series and compare results concerning complications, particularly bile duct injury, to those reported in open cholecystectomy case-series. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Since the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the United States, hundreds of reports about the technique have been published, many including statements about the advantages of laparoscopic cholecystectomy compared with those of open cholecystectomy. There is an unevenness in scope and quality of the studies. Nevertheless, enough data have accumulated from large series to permit analyses of data regarding some of the most important issues. METHODS: Articles identified via a MEDLINE (the National Library of Medicine's computerized database) search were evaluated according to standard criteria. Data regarding the patient sample, study methods, and outcomes of cholecystectomy were abstracted and summarized across studies. RESULTS: Outcomes of laparoscopic cholecystectomy are examined for 78,747 patients reported on in 98 studies and compared with outcomes of open cholecystectomy for 12,973 patients reported on in 28 studies. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy appears to have a higher common bile duct injury rate and a lower mortality rate. Estimated rates of other types of complications after laparoscopic cholecystectomy generally were low. Most conversions followed operative discoveries (e.g., dense adhesions) and were not the result of injury. CONCLUSIONS: There is wide variability in the amount and type of data reported within any single study, and patient populations may not be comparable across studies. Except for a higher common bile duct injury rate, laparoscopic cholecystectomy appears to be at least as safe a procedure as that of open cholecystectomy. PMID:8916876

  9. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anaesthesia: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A

    2014-12-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia is the present gold standard in treatment of symptomatic gall bladder disease. This study was conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anaesthesia which could be more cost effective. A prospective study was conducted was over a fourteen month period at a teaching hospital to evaluate efficacy, safety and cost benefit of conducting laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anaesthesia(SA). Patients meeting inclusion criteria were taken up for laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anaesthesia by standardized techniques. They underwent standard four port laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Mean anaesthesia time, pneumoperitoneum time and surgery time defined primary outcome measures. Intraoperative events and post operative pain score were the secondary outcomes measured. All patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy without any major complications. None had to be converted to general anaesthesia in this series. The operation had to be converted to open incision in 3 patients. Commonest complaint was pain in right shoulder and anxiety at the beginning of operation/pneumoperitoneum. All patients were highly or well satisfied during follow up. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy done under spinal anaesthesia as a routine anaesthesia of choice is feasible and safe. In this study spinal anaesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy was found to be safe even in patients with respiratory problems, cost-effective, with minimal postoperative pain and smooth recovery; the disadvantage being occasional right shoulder pain following pneumo-peritoneum (40%). Spinal anaesthesia can be recommended to be the anaesthesia technique of choice for conducting laparoscopic cholecystectomy in hospital setups where cost is a major factor; provided proper backup is present.

  10. [Elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy: the limit of a dream become true].

    PubMed

    Rampa, M; Boati, P; Battaglia, L; Leo, E; Vannelli, A

    2011-01-01

    Laparoscopic technique in elective cholecystectomy is the last step in an evolutive time to minimize the abdominal access. From 1st January 2004 to 31th December 2006 we analyzed 5515 cholecystectomy procedures: 4877 laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 635 open cholecystectomy. Complications and supplementary diagnosis have been identified in SDO Lombardia's country database. Morbidity occurred in 82 patients (12.9%) with open technique and 109 patients (2.23%) with laparoscopic technique; mortality occurred in 11 patients (1.73%) with open technique and 1 patient (0.02%) with laparoscopic technique. Mean hospital stay are 14.40 days with open technique and 4.75 with laparoscopic technique. Morbidity in open technique is 6 fold more than laparoscopia technique. The difference between the two technique is present in literature and it's the result of non invasive technique compared with the incision of the laparoscopia technique. This is the critical point in the difference of hospital stay between the two technique all to the good of laparoscopy. The high mortality ratio is due to the selective criteria in laparoscopic technique. First remark is the high quality of our hospital care, compared with hospital teaching in the word. In this hospital the laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the gold standard in cholelitiasis treatment. The second remark is the limit of the open technique in severe cholelitiasis with evidence in high ratio of hospital stay, morbidity and mortality.

  11. Increased Risk of Depressive Disorder following Cholecystectomy for Gallstones

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chao-Hung; Lin, Herng-Ching; Lee, Cha-Ze

    2015-01-01

    Background Prior studies indicate a possible association between depression and cholecystectomy, but no study has compared the risk of post-operative depressive disorders (DD) after cholecystectomy. This retrospective follow-up study aimed to examine the relationship between cholecystectomy and the risk of DD in patients with gallstones in a population-based database. Methods Using ambulatory care data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, 6755 patients who received a first-time principal diagnosis of gallstones at the emergency room (ER) were identified. Among them, 1197 underwent cholecystectomy. Each patient was then individually followed-up for two years to identify those who were later diagnosed with DD. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to estimate the risk of developing DD between patients with gallstone who did and those who did not undergo cholecystectomy. Results Of 6755 patients with gallstones, 173 (2.56%) were diagnosed with DD during the two-year follow-up. Among patients who did and those who did not undergo cholecystectomy, 3.51% and 2.36% later developed depressive disorder, respectively. After adjusting for the patient’s sex, age and geographic location, the hazard ratio (HR) of DD within two years of gallstone diagnosis was 1.43 (95% CI, 1.02–2.04) for patients who underwent cholecystectomy compared to those who did not. Females, but not males, had a higher the adjusted HR of DD (1.61; 95% CI, 1.08–2.41) for patients who underwent cholecystectomy compared to those who did not. Conclusions There is an association between cholecystectomy and subsequent risk of DD among females, but not in males. PMID:26053886

  12. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A report from a single center

    PubMed Central

    Vagenas, Konstantinos; Karamanakos, Stavros N; Spyropoulos, Charalambos; Panagiotopoulos, Spyros; Karanikolas, Menelaos; Stavropoulos, Michalis

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To review and evaluate our experience in laparo-scopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on data collected during a 13-year period (1992-2005) from 1220 patients who underwent laparoscopic cho-lecystectomy. RESULTS: Mortality rate was 0%. The overall morbidity rate was 5.08% (n = 62), with the most serious complications arising from injuries to the biliary tree and the cystic artery. In 23 (1.88%) cases, cholecystectomy could not be completed laparoscopically and the operation was converted to an open procedure. Though the patients were scheduled as day-surgery cases, the average duration of hospital stay was 2.29 d, as the complicated cases with prolonged hospital stay were included in the calculation. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a safe, minimally invasive technique with favorable results for the patient. PMID:16804976

  13. Emergency in-flight egress opening for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1980-01-01

    In support of a stall/spin research program, an emergency in-flight egress system is being installed in a light general aviation airplane. To avoid a major structural redesign for a mechanical door, an add-on 11.2 kg pyrotechnic-actuated system was developed to create an opening in the existing structure. The airplane skin will be explosively severed around the side window, across a central stringer, and down to the floor, creating an opening of approximately 76 by 76 cm. The severed panel will be jettisoned at an initial velocity of approximately 13.7 m/sec. System development included a total of 68 explosive severance tests on aluminum material using small samples, small and full scale flat panel aircraft structural mock-ups, and an actual aircraft fuselage. These tests proved explosive sizing/severance margins, explosive initiation, explosive product containment, and system dynamics.

  14. Is prophylactic cholecystectomy useful in obese patients undergoing gastric bypass?

    PubMed

    Guadalajara, Héctor; Sanz Baro, Raquel; Pascual, Isabel; Blesa, Isabel; Rotundo, Grevelyn Sosa; López, Jose María Gil; Corripio, Ramón; Vesperinas, Gregorio; Sancho, Luis García; Montes, Jose Antonio Rodríguez

    2006-07-01

    Obesity constitutes a clear risk factor for cholelithiasis, especially if it is associated with a rapid weight loss, as is the case of patients following bariatric surgery. Prophylactic cholecystectomy is indicated in biliopancreatic diversions due to the high incidence of postoperative cholelithiasis. However, there is no agreement on gastric bypass. This study was conducted to establish the incidence of cholecystopathy demonstrated by histology and to assess the indication for prophylactic cholecystectomy in a systematic way on patients undergoing gastric bypass. The evaluation is based on 100 consecutive morbidly obese patients undergoing open gastric bypass surgery with concomitant prophylactic cholecystectomy. Variables studied were: age, gender, body mass index, preoperative ultrasound and the anatomopathologic analysis of the gallbladder that was removed. Of the 100 patients who took part in the trial, 11 had had a previous cholecystectomy. Among the 89 patients remaining, preoperative ultrasound diagnosis of cholelithiasis was 16.8%, and the actual postoperative incidence was 24.7%. Other histologic alterations were: cholesterolosis 46.1%, chronic unspecified cholecystitis 22.5%, and granulomatous cholecystitis 1.1%. The total incidence of cholecystopathy was 93.3%. The morbi-mortality related to cholecystectomy was 0%. Based on these results and given the absence of morbidity, we believe that prophylactic cholecystectomy is suitable during open gastric bypass.

  15. [Cholecystectomy during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Bolaños Ancona, R; Juárez García, L; Estrada Altamirano, A; Castelazo Morales, E

    1998-06-01

    Cholecystectomy during pregnancy happens to be the second most common cause of laparotomy. The reported incidence of the procedure is I of every 1250 to 12,500 pregnancies. We have done a retrospective study from january 1989 to december 1994, at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, having 35,080 deliveries registered, four of them with reported cholecystectomy during pregnancy. The average of maternal age resulted in 20.2 years, varying from 16 to 23 years. Three patients were multigravidas, and just one primigravida. Gestational age at the time of diagnosis and surgery was reported in 17 to 23.4 weeks. We found one twin pregnancy, and that two patients had history of chronic colecistitis. In the 100% of cases laparotomy and cholecystectomy was done, with preterm labor as the most frequent complication. There were 3 fetal loss in study and only 2 pregnancies were delivered at term. In this review the estimated frequency of cholecystectomy was 1 of 8780 deliveries, being the second cause of quirurgical treatment during pregnancy, after appendicectomy. There were reported 50% fetal deaths, and no severe maternal complications.

  16. Simulation trainer for practicing emergent open thoracotomy procedures.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Allan J; Prescher, Hannes; Biffar, David E; Poston, Robert S

    2015-07-01

    An emergent open thoracotomy (OT) is a high-risk, low-frequency procedure uniquely suited for simulation training. We developed a cost-effective Cardiothoracic (CT) Surgery trainer and assessed its potential for improving technical and interprofessional skills during an emergent simulated OT. We modified a commercially available mannequin torso with artificial tissue models to create a custom CT Surgery trainer. The trainer's feasibility for simulating emergent OT was tested using a multidisciplinary CT team in three consecutive in situ simulations. Five discretely observable milestones were identified as requisite steps in carrying out an emergent OT; namely (1) diagnosis and declaration of a code situation, (2) arrival of the code cart, (3) arrival of the thoracotomy tray, (4) initiation of the thoracotomy incision, and (5) defibrillation of a simulated heart. The time required for a team to achieve each discrete step was measured by an independent observer over the course of each OT simulation trial and compared. Over the course of the three OT simulation trials conducted in the coronary care unit, there was an average reduction of 29.5% (P < 0.05) in the times required to achieve the five critical milestones. The time required to complete the whole OT procedure improved by 7 min and 31 s from the initial to the final trial-an overall improvement of 40%. In our preliminary evaluation, the CT Surgery trainer appears to be useful for improving team performance during a simulated emergent bedside OT in the coronary care unit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Gallstone ileus after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, I; Beuran, M; Venter, M D; Iftimie-Nastase, I; Smarandache, R; Popescu, B; Boştină, R

    2012-09-15

    Gallstone ileus represents a rare complication (0,3-0,5%) of a serious, but common disease-gallstones, which affect around 10% of the population in the USA and Western Europe. Associated diseases (usually severe), elderly patients, delayed diagnosis and therapy due to late presentation to the hospital, account for the morbidity and mortality rates described in literature. We present the case of a patient with partial colon obstruction due to a large gallstone that was "lost" during an emergency laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The calculus eroded the intestinal wall, partially occluding the lumen, triggering recurrent Kerwsky-like, subocclusive episodes. The intraperitoneal abscess has spontaneously drained through the subhepatic drain and once the tube has been removed, a persistent intermittent fistula became obvious.

  18. Increased ERCP rate following the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Legorreta, A P; Brooks, R J; Staroscik, R N; Xuan, Y; Costantino, G N; Zatz, S L

    1995-10-01

    Over the past 5 years there has been a remarkable change in the manner in which symptomatic gallstones are surgically managed. In this study we reviewed the experience of a large HMO to determine the relationship between the rate of increase of ERCP and that of cholecystectomy. All individuals enrolled in US Healthcare's HMO-PA, in the region of southeastern Pennsylvania from 1988 through 1993, were included in the analysis. Using the HMO claims database, patients who underwent an open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy during the study period were identified. We then identified those patients who had a pre- or post- operative ERCP. Over the study period, there has been a substantial increase in cholecystectomies per 1000 members-from 1.37 in 1988 to 2.16 (p < 0.0001) in 1993. In our study population there were 1261 ERCPs performed in 979 patients with an average of 1.3 ERCPs per patient during the study period. The ERCP rate per 1000 members has increased from 0.16 to 0.56 (p < 0.0001) from 1988 to 1993, at the same time that the cholecystectomy rate was substantially increasing. The correlation for the ERCP and cholecystectomy rates from 1988 to 1993 was 0.994 (p < 0.0001). Since the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 1989-1990, many more ERCPs are now being performed. It is necessary to determine the implications related to the rapid diffusion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, including the effect that this technology has had on other older and stable technologies such as ERCP. Our results describe the dramatic effect that laparoscopic cholecystectomy has had on the utilization of ERCPs.

  19. [Anterograde laparoscopic cholecystectomy: when and why].

    PubMed

    Miscusi, G; Masoni, L; de Anna, L; Brescia, A; Gasparrini, M; Taglienti, D; Micheletti, A; Marsano, N; Montori, A

    1993-01-01

    Today largely diffused is the concept that laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) represents the treatment of choice for symptomatic gallstones. Nonetheless some questions have been raised on the real safety of this new method in terms of procedure-related complications. On the basis of our experience with traditional open cholecystectomy, we have recently performed a prograde LC in those cases with difficulties in identifying the anatomical structures of the so called Calot's triangle. This alternative route can be easily performed laparoscopically and has been useful in reducing the time of the intervention in the most difficult setting and to increase the safety of the procedure. The technical details and the results are compared with those of the laparoscopic retrograde route.

  20. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy using 2-mm instruments.

    PubMed

    Uranüs, S; Peng, Z; Kronberger, L; Pfeifer, J; Salehi, B

    1998-10-01

    Today, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the method of choice for treatment of symptomatic gallbladder disorders. It minimizes effects of the operation that are independent of the gallbladder, such as trauma to the abdominal wall and other soft tissue. The surgical wounds were even smaller when 2-mm trocars were used. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy using 2-mm instruments was performed in a consecutive series of 14 patients with symptomatic gallstones. The procedure was completed in 12 cases, with conversion to open surgery in two cases. Intraoperative cholangiography was always performed. The postoperative course was always uneventful. The cosmetic effect was highly satisfactory. The procedure using 2-mm instruments could be indicated in selected patients with uncomplicated gallstone disease.

  1. Manifestation, Drivers, and Emergence of Open Ocean Deoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Levin, Lisa A

    2017-09-29

    Oxygen loss in the ocean, termed deoxygenation, is a major consequence of climate change and is exacerbated by other aspects of global change. An average global loss of 2% or more has been recorded in the open ocean over the past 50-100 years, but with greater oxygen declines in intermediate waters (100-600 m) of the North Pacific, the East Pacific, tropical waters, and the Southern Ocean. Although ocean warming contributions to oxygen declines through a reduction in oxygen solubility and stratification effects on ventilation are reasonably well understood, it has been a major challenge to identify drivers and modifying factors that explain different regional patterns, especially in the tropical oceans. Changes in respiration, circulation (including upwelling), nutrient inputs, and possibly methane release contribute to oxygen loss, often indirectly through stimulation of biological production and biological consumption. Microbes mediate many feedbacks in oxygen minimum zones that can either exacerbate or ameliorate deoxygenation via interacting nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon cycles. The paleo-record reflects drivers of and feedbacks to deoxygenation that have played out through the Phanerozoic on centennial, millennial, and hundred-million-year timescales. Natural oxygen variability has made it difficult to detect the emergence of a climate-forced signal of oxygen loss, but new modeling efforts now project emergence to occur in many areas in 15-25 years. Continued global deoxygenation is projected for the next 100 or more years under most emissions scenarios, but with regional heterogeneity. Notably, even small changes in oxygenation can have significant biological effects. New efforts to systematically observe oxygen changes throughout the open ocean are needed to help address gaps in understanding of ocean deoxygenation patterns and drivers. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Marine Science Volume 10 is January 3, 2018. Please see http

  2. Gallstone pancreatitis without cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Stephanie S; Li, Bonnie H; Haigh, Philip I

    2013-09-01

    Current guidelines recommend that patients with an initial episode of gallstone pancreatitis receive cholecystectomy. However, for various reasons, many patients do not. To determine the risk of developing recurrent gallstone pancreatitis in patients who never receive a cholecystectomy. Retrospective cohort study using electronic medical records. Inpatient and outpatient. All patients in Kaiser Permanente Southern California with a primary diagnosis of acute gallstone pancreatitis hospitalized from January 1, 1995, through December 31, 2010, with no previous diagnosis of gallstone pancreatitis documented in the medical record. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with or without sphincterotomy and/or stent placement, or no intervention. Recurrent acute pancreatitis. A total of 1119 patients were identified. The median age at diagnosis was 63 years. Among the patients, 802 received no intervention and 317 received ERCP. After a median follow-up of 2.3 years, the overall risk of recurrent pancreatitis was 14.6%; it was 8.2% and 17.1% in patients who had ERCP and no intervention, respectively (P < .001). The median time to recurrence was 11.3 and 10.1 months in the patients who had ERCP and no intervention, respectively. Kaplan-Meier estimates of recurrence for 1, 2, and 5 years in the ERCP group were 5.2%, 7.4%, and 11.1%, compared with 11.3%, 16.1%, and 22.7% in the no-intervention group (hazard ratio = 0.45; 95% CI, 0.30-0.69; P < .001). Charlson Comorbidity Index and intensive care unit stay were independently associated with recurrence, whereas age, sex, and admission Ranson score were not associated. In patients who did not undergo cholecystectomy, the risk of recurrent pancreatitis is significant. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography mitigates this risk and should be considered during initial hospitalization if cholecystectomy is not done.

  3. Residual gallbladder stones after cholecystectomy: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chowbey, Pradeep; Sharma, Anil; Goswami, Amit; Afaque, Yusuf; Najma, Khoobsurat; Baijal, Manish; Soni, Vandana; Khullar, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Incomplete gallbladder removal following open and laparoscopic techniques leads to residual gallbladder stones. The commonest presentation is abdominal pain, dyspepsia and jaundice. We reviewed the literature to report diagnostic modalities, management options and outcomes in patients with residual gallbladder stones after cholecystectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medline, Google and Cochrane library between 1993 and 2013 were reviewed using search terms residual gallstones, post-cholecystectomy syndrome, retained gallbladder stones, gallbladder remnant, cystic duct remnant and subtotal cholecystectomy. Bibliographical references from selected articles were also analyzed. The parameters that were assessed include demographics, time of detection, clinical presentation, mode of diagnosis, nature of intervention, site of stone, surgical findings, procedure performed, complete stone clearance, sequelae and follow-up. RESULTS: Out of 83 articles that were retrieved between 1993 and 2013, 22 met the inclusion criteria. In most series, primary diagnosis was established by ultrasound/computed tomography scan. Localization of calculi and delineation of biliary tract was performed using magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. In few series, diagnosis was established by endoscopic ultrasound, intraoperative cholangiogram and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. Laparoscopic surgery, endoscopic techniques and open surgery were the most common treatment modalities. The most common sites of residual gallstones were gallbladder remnant, cystic duct remnant and common bile duct. CONCLUSION: Residual gallbladder stones following incomplete gallbladder removal is an important sequelae after cholecystectomy. Completion cholecystectomy (open or laparoscopic) is the most common treatment modality reported in the literature for the management of residual gallbladder stones. PMID:26622110

  4. An Exploratory Investigation of the Role of Openness in Relationship Quality among Emerging Adult Chinese Couples

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yixin; Wang, Kexin; Chen, Shuang; Zhang, Jianxin; Zhou, Mingjie

    2017-01-01

    This study tested emerging adult couples’ openness and its fit effect on their romantic relationship quality using quadratic polynomial regression and response surface analysis. Participants were 260 emerging adult dyads. Both dyads’ openness and relationship quality were measured. The result showed that (1) female and male openness contribute differently to relationship quality; (2) couples with similar high openness could experience better relationship quality than those with similar low openness traits; and (3) when dyadic openness is dissimilar, it is better to be either relatively high or relatively low than to be moderate. These findings highlight the role of openness in emerging adults’ romantic relationships from a dyadic angle. PMID:28360875

  5. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in cirrhotics.

    PubMed

    Machado, Norman Oneil

    2012-01-01

    Due to the concern of risk of intra- and postoperative complications and associated morbidity, cirrhosis of the liver is often considered a contraindication for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). This article intends to review the literature and underline the various approaches to dealing with this technically challenging procedure. A Medline search of major articles in the English literature on LC in cirrhotic patients over a 16-y period from 1994 to 2011 was reviewed and the findings analyzed. A total of 1310 cases were identified. Most the patients who underwent LC were in Child-Pugh class A, followed by Child-Pugh classes B and C, respectively. The overall conversion rate was 4.58%, and morbidity was 17% and mortality 0.45%. Among the patients who died, most were in Child-Pugh class C, with a small number in classes B and A. The cause of death included, postoperative bleeding, liver failure, sepsis, duodenal perforation, and myocardial infarction. A meta-analysis of 400 patients in the literature, comparing outcomes of patients undergoing LC with and without cirrhosis, revealed higher conversion rate, longer operative time, higher bleeding complications, and overall increased morbidity in patients with cirrhosis. Safe LC was facilitated by measures that included the use of ultrasonic shears and other hemostatic measures and using subtotal cholecystectomy in patients with difficult hilum and gallbladder bed. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be safely performed in cirrhotic patients, within Child-Pugh classes A and B, with acceptable morbidity and conversion rate.

  6. Comparison of Early and Delayed Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Acute Cholecystitis: Experience from A Single Center

    PubMed Central

    Gul, Rouf; Dar, Rayees Ahmad; Sheikh, Riyaz Ahmad; Salroo, Nazir Ahmad; Matoo, Adnan Rashid; Wani, Sabiya Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstones is mainly performed after the acute cholecystitis episode settles because of the fear of higher morbidity and conversion from laparoscopic cholecystectomy to open cholecystectomy during acute cholecystitis. Aims: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis and to compare the results with delayed cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective and randomized study. For patients assigned to early group, laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed as soon as possible within 72 hours of admission. Patients in the delayed group were treated conservatively and discharged as soon as the acute attack subsided. They were subsequently readmitted for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy 6-12 weeks later. Results: There was no significant difference in the conversion rates, postoperative analgesia requirements, or postoperative complications. However, the early group had significantly more blood loss, more operating time, and shorter hospital stay. Conclusion: Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy within 72 hours of onset of symptoms has both medical as well as socioeconomic benefits and should be the preferred approach for patients managed by surgeons with adequate experience in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:24020050

  7. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in England and Wales: results of an audit by the Royal College of Surgeons of England.

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, D.; Nair, R.; Fowler, S.; McCloy, R.

    1994-01-01

    The results of an audit of open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy conducted by the Comparative Audit Service of The Royal College of Surgeons of England are presented. Data were submitted by 124 consultant surgeons on 3319 attempted laparoscopic and by 227 consultant surgeons on 8035 open cholecystectomies performed in England and Wales during the 2 years 1990 and 1991. These were contrasted with 9322 attempted laparoscopic cholecystectomies reported in 21 series reported in the world literature between 1991 and 1992, and with five other nations' audit studies. Among attempted laparoscopic cases, conversion to an open procedure was necessary in 175/3319 (5.2%) of cases and overall mortality was 0.15% (5/3319). Major complications were reported in 2.1% and minor complications in 5.9% of cases. Bile duct injury was reported to be significantly more common after attempted laparoscopic cholecystectomy (11/3319, 0.33%) than after open cholecystectomy (4/8035, 0.06%) (95% confidence intervals -0.48 to 0.08), but it was not significantly different from that reported for laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the combined world literature (28/9322, 0.3%) (95% confidence intervals -0.19 to 0.25). Most systemic complications were significantly more common after open cholecystectomy. For open cholecystectomy, the mortality was 55/8035 (0.76%), with major complications reported in 3.2% and minor complications in 9.8% of patients. Adoption of the laparoscopic approach was associated with a four-fifths reduction in the mortality of cholecystectomy, and a 40% reduction in the overall complication rate when compared with the open operation. While laparoscopic cholecystectomy has an impressively low mortality and morbidity profile during the first 2 years of its introduction into the UK, prevention of bile duct injury is the most important issue to be addressed in all laparoscopic cholecystectomy training programmes. PMID:8074391

  8. [Complications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy: evaluation study].

    PubMed

    Boutelier, P

    1998-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been considered as a safe and effective procedure without randomised prospective trial. Two physician insurers associations (in France and in USA) have shown an important increase of the lawsuits after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, especially concerning common bile duct injuries. An exhaustive study of the literature demonstrates that in the rare prospective studies collecting all of the laparoscopic cholecystectomies realised in one country or one state, the percentage of biliary tract injuries is form twice to five times as big as with open surgery, and bigger in case of acute cholecystitis. It seems that diffusion of the monopolar current can explain a good number of them. These injuries are difficult for repairing because of their high localisation and the associated tissular burn. Their long term morbidity is important and their cost is huge. Three recent prospective studies comparing laparoscopic versus minilaparotomy approach demonstrate that the advantages of laparoscopic approach according to the cost and the recovery's speed are, except for the obese patients, less evident than one could believe.

  9. Abdominal Drainage Following Appendectomy and Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Stone, H. Harlan; Hooper, C. Ann; Millikan, William J.

    1978-01-01

    Consecutive patients undergoing emergency appendectomy (283) or urgent cholecystectomy (51) were prospectively studied for the development of post-operative incisional or peritoneal sepsis. Severity of the original peritoneal infection was carefully recorded, while use of a Penrose dam to drain the peritoneum was randomized according to pre-assigned hospital number. Both aerobic and anaerobic cultures were taken from the abdomen at the time of operation as well as from all postoperative infectious foci. Results demonstrated no essential differences in incidence of wound and peritoneal infection following appendectomy for simple or suppurative appendicitis (187) or following cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis (51). However, with gangrenous or perforative appendicitis (94), incisional and intra-abdominal infection rates were 43% and 45%, respectively, when a drain was used; yet only 29 and 13%, respectively, without a drain. These latter differences were significant (p < 0.001). In addition, intra-abdominal abscesses were three times as likely to drain through the incision than along any tract provided by the rubber conduit. Cultures revealed that hospital pathogens accounted for a greater proportion of wound and peritoneal sepsis after cholecystectomy and appendectomy for simple or suppurative appendicitis if a drain had been inserted than if managed otherwise. By contrast, a mixed bacterial flora was responsible for most infections following appendectomy for gangrenous or perforated appendicitis, irrespective as to use of a drain. PMID:646499

  10. The Emergence of Open-Source Software in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Guohua; Bonk, Curtis J.

    2007-01-01

    The open-source software movement is gaining increasing momentum in China. Of the limited numbers of open-source software in China, "Red Flag Linux" stands out most strikingly, commanding 30 percent share of Chinese software market. Unlike the spontaneity of open-source movement in North America, open-source software development in…

  11. 77 FR 59374 - Emerging Technology and Research Advisory Committee; Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... Research Advisory Committee; Notice of Open Meeting The Emerging Technology and Research Advisory Committee... activities, including those related to deemed exports. Agenda Thursday, October 11 Open Session 1. Co-chairman's opening comments, Committee Introductions 2. Housekeeping/Elections and Open Call for New...

  12. The Emergence of Open-Source Software in North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Guohua; Bonk, Curtis J.

    2007-01-01

    Unlike conventional models of software development, the open source model is based on the collaborative efforts of users who are also co-developers of the software. Interest in open source software has grown exponentially in recent years. A "Google" search for the phrase open source in early 2005 returned 28.8 million webpage hits, while…

  13. Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infection After Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Warren, David K; Nickel, Katelin B; Wallace, Anna E; Mines, Daniel; Tian, Fang; Symons, William J; Fraser, Victoria J; Olsen, Margaret A

    2017-01-01

    There are limited data on risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) after open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A retrospective cohort of commercially insured persons aged 18-64 years was assembled using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) procedure or Current Procedural Terminology, 4th edition codes for cholecystectomy from December 31, 2004 to December 31, 2010. Complex procedures and patients (eg, cancer, end-stage renal disease) and procedures with pre-existing infection were excluded. Surgical site infections within 90 days after cholecystectomy were identified by ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify independent risk factors for SSI. Surgical site infections were identified after 472 of 66566 (0.71%) cholecystectomies; incidence was higher after open (n = 51, 4.93%) versus laparoscopic procedures (n = 421, 0.64%; P < .001). Independent risk factors for SSI included male gender, preoperative chronic anemia, diabetes, drug abuse, malnutrition/weight loss, obesity, smoking-related diseases, previous Staphylococcus aureus infection, laparoscopic approach with acute cholecystitis/obstruction (hazards ratio [HR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-1.96), open approach with (HR, 4.29; 95% CI, 2.45-7.52) or without acute cholecystitis/obstruction (HR, 4.04; 95% CI, 1.96-8.34), conversion to open approach with (HR, 4.71; 95% CI, 2.74-8.10) or without acute cholecystitis/obstruction (HR, 7.11; 95% CI, 3.87-13.08), bile duct exploration, postoperative chronic anemia, and postoperative pneumonia or urinary tract infection. Acute cholecystitis or obstruction was associated with significantly increased risk of SSI with laparoscopic but not open cholecystectomy. The risk of SSI was similar for planned open and converted procedures. These findings suggest that stratification by operative factors is important when comparing SSI rates between facilities.

  14. Presentation and management of gallbladder remnant after partial cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Jayant, Mayank; Kaushik, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Partial cholecystectomy is usually performed with the aim of preventing bile duct injury and/or vascular injuries in situations where there is difficulty in performing cholecystectomy. Occasionally, such patients can become symptomatic due to recurrence or persistence of disease in the gallbladder remnant and may require further treatment. A case series of various presentations and follow up of seven patients who had undergone open partial cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstone disease in the past. Of 7 patients, 6 were symptomatic, and each of them was found to have a remnant of the gallbladder (with calculi in the remnant in 4 patients). Three patients who presented with recurrent biliary symptoms were re-operated and the gallbladder remnant was removed, with resolution of the symptoms. Two patients refused further operation-one patient with acute pancreatitis who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for removal of common bile duct stones, and another who presented with acute cholecystitis. The other 2 patients (one with transient jaundice and the other who is asymptomatic) remain on follow-up. Although partial cholecystectomy is an accepted, safe option in difficult cases, these patients must be counselled regarding the recurrence of symptoms, and must be kept on follow-up. If symptoms develop, completion of cholecystectomy to remove the remnant provides symptomatic relief.

  15. National Trends in the Adoption of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy over 7 Years in the United States and Impact of Laparoscopic Approaches Stratified by Age

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Abdul; Desai, Sapan S.; McMaster, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to characterize national trends in adoption of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and determine differences in outcome based on type of surgery and patient age. Methods. Retrospective cross-sectional study of patients undergoing cholecystectomy. Trends in open versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy by age group and year were analyzed. Differences in outcomes including in-hospital mortality, complications, discharge disposition, length of stay (LOS), and cost are examined. Results. Between 1999 and 2006, 358,091 patients underwent cholecystectomy. In 1999, patients aged ≥80 years had the lowest rates of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, followed by those aged 65–79, 64–50, and 49–18 years (59.7%, 65.3%, 73.2%, and 83.5%, resp., P < 0.05). Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was associated with improved clinical and economic outcomes across all age groups. Over the study period, there was a gradual increase in laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed among all age groups during each year, though elderly patients continued to lag significantly behind their younger counterparts in rates of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Conclusion. This is the largest study to report trends in adoption of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the US in patients stratified by age. Elderly patients are more likely to undergo open cholecystectomy. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is associated with improved clinical outcomes. PMID:24790759

  16. Cholelithiasis, cholecystectomy, and liver disease.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, George N

    2010-06-01

    Cholelithiasis and fatty liver disease share some important risk factors, such as central obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. We sought to determine whether persons with cholelithiasis or a history of cholecystectomy were more likely to have elevated serum liver enzymes or to develop cirrhosis. We used cohort data from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), to determine whether persons with a self-reported history of cholecystectomy at baseline (n=466) had a higher incidence of hospitalization or death due to cirrhosis than persons without a history of cholecystectomy (n=8,691) during up to 21 years of follow-up. We also used cross-sectional data from the third NHANES conducted between the years 1988 and 1994 to determine whether persons with cholelithiasis (n=833) or previous cholecystectomy (n=709), as determined by ultrasonography, were more likely to have elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) than persons without cholecystectomy or cholelithiasis (n=8,027). Persons with previous cholecystectomy were two times more likely to be hospitalized for or die of cirrhosis (adjusted hazard ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-4.0) and were more likely to have elevated serum ALT (adjusted odds ratio 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.5) or GGT (adjusted odds ratio 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.6) than persons without cholecystectomy. We did not identify an independent association between cholelithiasis and serum ALT or GGT levels. Cholecystectomy is a predictor of the development cirrhosis and is associated with elevated serum liver enzymes. Cholelithiasis is not independently associated with serum liver enzyme levels; whether cholelithiasis is associated with the development of cirrhosis remains to be determined.

  17. Intraoperative pneumothorax during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Tai, Yu-Pin; Wei, Chang-Kuo; Lai, Yu-Yung

    2006-12-01

    Anesthesiologists currently view laparoscopic cholecystectomy resemblant to other laparoscopic procedures with respect to the necessity of inducing a pneumoperitoneum via abdominal insufflation of carbon dioxide (CO2). The present case report describes a healthy 63-year-old man who while undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia, developed hypoxemia in the course in consequence of pneumothorax. This complication, although rare, can be catastrophic if prompt diagnosis and rapid intervention and management do not come in the nick of time.

  18. Migrations of the Mind: The Emergence of Open Source Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Michael; Bartholomew, Mitchell; Jones, Travis

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe an Open Source approach to education. They define Open Source Education (OSE) as a teaching and learning framework where the use and presentation of information is non-hierarchical, malleable, and subject to the needs and contributions of students as they become "co-owners" of the course. The course transforms itself into an…

  19. Safety Outcomes of NOTES Cholecystectomy Versus Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Cheng; Ling, Yan; Ma, Chi; Ma, Xiaochun; Fan, Wei; Niu, Weibo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is an endoscopic technique whereby surgical interventions can be performed with a flexible endoscope passed through a natural orifice (mouth, vulva, urethra, anus) then through a transluminal opening of the stomach, vagina, bladder, or colon. Although in the early stage of research and development, NOTES has been clinically applied across the globe, above all the transvaginal cholecystectomy is among the most frequently performed procedures. In the existing 2 types of transvaginal routes, the hybrid NOTES cholecystectomy (NC) is more likely to be accepted. However, there has been controversy regarding the safety outcomes of hybrid NC in comparison with classical laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). The primary objective of this meta-analysis is to compare the characteristics between NC and classical LC. Materials and Methods: A meta-analysis of eligible studies comparing NC with classical LC was performed to evaluate the safety outcomes including wound complications, other postoperative complications and intraoperative conversion between the 2 groups. Results: Pooling 3 randomized controlled trials (n=157) and 7 nonrandomized trial (n=593) demonstrated that the rates of wound complications and other postoperative complications in NC group did not significantly differ from those of classical LC group [wound complications: ratio difference (RD)=−0.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.04to 0.01, P=0.23; other postoperative complication: RD=−0.01; 95% CI, −0.03 to 0.02; P=0.6]. The intraoperative conversion rate in NC groups was higher than that of LC groups (RD=0.03; 95% CI, 0.01-0.06; P=0.02). Conclusions: There is no significate difference between the safety of NC and laparoscope cholecystectomy. NC is associated with a higher rate of intraoperative conversion when compared with LC. It is worthy of further promotion and validation in clinical settings. PMID:27557339

  20. Clinical outcomes of subtotal cholecystectomy performed for difficult cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Minho; Choi, Namkyu; Yoo, Youngsun; Kim, Yooseok; Kim, Sungsoo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy (LSC) can be an alternative surgical technique for difficult cholecystectomies. Surgeons performing LSC sometimes leave the posterior wall of the gallbladder (GB) to shorten the operation time and avoid liver injury. However, leaving the inflamed posterior GB wall is a major concern. In this study, we evaluated the clinical outcomes of standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SLC), LSC, and LSC removing only anterior wall of the GB (LSCA). Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed between January 2006 to December 2015 and analyzed the outcomes of SLC, LSC, and LSCA. Results A total of 1,037 patients underwent SLC. 22 patients underwent LSC; and 27 patients underwent LSCA. The mean operating times of SLC, LSC, and LSCA were 41, 74, and 68 minutes, respectively (P < 0.01). Blood loss was 5, 45, and 33 mL (P < 0.05). The mean lengths of postoperative hospitalization were 3.4, 5.4, and 5.8 days. Complications occurred in 24 SLC patients (2.3%), 2 LSC patients (9%), and 1 LSCA patient (3.7%). There was no mortality among the LSC and LSCA patients. Conclusion LSC and LSCA are safe and feasible alternatives for difficult cholecystectomies. These procedures help surgeons avoid bile duct injury and conversion to laparotomy. LSCA has the benefits of shorter operation time and less bleeding compared to LSC. PMID:27847794

  1. Factors Influencing the Successful Completion of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Timmons, Suzanne; Majeed, Aamir; Twomey, Aongus; Aftab, Fuad

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the preoperative factors contributing to the decision to convert laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy. Methods: Retrospective identification of 324 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy, with univariate and multivariate analysis of the following parameters: age, gender, obesity, previous abdominal surgery, presentation with acute cholecystitis, pancreatitis or obstructive jaundice, gallbladder wall thickening, gallbladder or common bile duct stones. Results: Thirty-nine patients (12%) underwent conversion to open cholecystectomy. Patients aged over 65 years were four times more likely to require conversion than patients under 50 years of age. Under 50 years of age, males had equal conversion rates to females, and above this age there was a non-significant increased conversion rate in males. Obese patients had higher conversion rates than non-obese patients (23% versus 9%, P < 0.003). Thirty-eight percent of patients with choledocholithiasis required conversion. Age, acute cholecystitis and choledocholithiasis independently predicted conversion. A patient aged less than fifty years with neither acute cholecystitis nor choledocholithiasis had a conversion rate of just 2%, while almost 60% of those over 65 years of age with acute cholecystitis or choledocholithiasis required conversion. Conclusion: The parameters of age, acute cholecystitis and choledocholithiasis must be considered in the clinical decision making process when planning laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:20202401

  2. A new minimally invasive technique for cholecystectomy. Subxiphoid "minimal stress triangle": microceliotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, N S; Meredith, M C; Lumb, J C; Cacdac, R G; Vanterpool, C C; Rayls, K R; Zerega, W D; Silbergleit, A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors devised a minimally invasive technique for cholecystectomy via microceliotomy that provides safety attainable with the open conventional approach and postoperative results comparable to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has evolved as a minimally invasive outpatient procedure. Patients can return rapidly to preoperative status with minimal postoperative morbidity and pain, and the small scar size is cosmetically desirable. Unfortunately, there are reports of serious intraoperative complications, including injury to blood vessels, bowel, and the bile ducts, caused by failure to identify structures properly. The conventional cholecystectomy technique currently is relegated to patients on whom the laparoscopic procedure cannot be performed. METHODS: Cholecystectomy was performed through a 3-cm transverse high subxiphoid incision in the "minimal stress triangle." The location, anterior to Calot's triangle, was critical in providing a direct vertical view of the biliary ducts during dissection. Direct view cholecystectomy was performed using endoscopic instruments without pneumoperitoneum. Postoperative data were compared with both laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy results. RESULTS: Using the microceliotomy technique in the ambulatory setting, cholecystectomy was performed successfully in 99.3% (N = 143) of cases. Biliary leakage beyond the third postoperative day was caused by failure of clips or obstruction to bile flow. The postoperative morbidity, acceptability of scar, and analgesic requirements compare favorably with other techniques. Microceliotomy is cost effective. Portal hypertension is a contraindication for this procedure. CONCLUSIONS: The microceliotomy approach offers a viable, safe, and cost-effective alternative to the laparoscopic technique for cholecystectomy, especially when facilities for laparoscopy are not available or when the laparoscopic procedure cannot be performed

  3. Experience with partial cholecystectomy in severe cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Partial cholecystectomy (PC) is often an inevitable operative procedure when Calot triangle is severely inflamed and fibrosed with conglomerated structures. We reviewed our clinical outcomes of PC to compare its feasibility with conventional total cholecystectomy (TC), especially for its possible application to laparoscopic procedure. Methods From Aug. 2000 to July 2008, 20 cases of PC by laparotomy were performed, including converted cases during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Sixty-eight cases of TC by open method during the same period were compared in a mean follow-up period of 108 months. Results Bile fistula was observed in 3 cases of PC; one case needed endoscopic biliary stent for management and a second case showed fistula that closed by supportive care in 2 months. The last patient died from peritonitis. No bile fistula was observed in PC. Morbidities were found in 9 cases of PC (45%) and in 11 cases of TC (16.2%). Bile fistula (n=3) and wound infection (n=3) were prominent in the PC group, and wound infection (n=7) in the TC group. Reoperations were necessary for 5 (25.0%) and 4 (5.9%) patients from PC and TC, respectively. Mortality occurred in 2 (2/10 10%) and 4 cases (4/68 5.9%) of PC and TC, respectively. Two mortalities in each group resulted from direct extension of cholecystitis. Conclusions Considering the higher risks of complications and mortality, PC should be avoided as long as possible, and patients should always be informed of its clinical outcomes postoperatively. Further elaboration of a safer operative plan should be sought. PMID:26155235

  4. Laparoscopic modified subtotal cholecystectomy for difficult gall bladders: A single-centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Harilingam, Mohan Raj; Shrestha, Ashish Kiran; Basu, Sanjoy

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is considered the ‘gold standard’ intervention for gall bladder (GB) diseases. However, to avoid serious biliovascular injury, conversion is advocated for distorted anatomy at the Calot's triangle. The aim is to find out whether our technique of laparoscopic modified subtotal cholecystectomy (LMSC) is suitable, with an acceptable morbidity and outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of 993 consecutive patients who underwent cholecystectomy was done at a large District General Hospital (DGH) between August 2007 and January 2015. The data are as follows: Patient's demographics, operative details including intra- and postoperative complications, postoperative stay including follow-up that was recorded and analysed. RESULTS: A total of 993 patients (263 males and 730 female) were included. The median age was 52*(18-89) years. Out of the 993 patients, 979 (98.5%) and 14 (1.5%) were listed for laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy, respectively. Of the 979 patients, 902 (92%) and 64 (6.5%) patients underwent LC ± on-table cholangiography (OTC) and LMSC ± OTC, respectively, with a median stay of 1* (0-15) days. Of the 64 patients, 55 (86%) had dense adhesions, 22 (34%) had acute inflammation, 19 (30%) had severe contraction, 12 (19%) had empyema, 7 (11%) had Mirizzi's syndrome and 2 (3%) had gangrenous GB. The mean operative time was 120 × (50-180) min [Table 1]. Six (12%) patients required endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) postoperatively, and there were four (6%) readmissions in a follow-up of 30 × (8-76) months. The remaining 13 (1.3%) patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy converted to an open cholecystectomy. The median stay for open/laparoscopic cholecystectomy converted to open cholecystectomy was 5 × (1-12) days. CONCLUSION: Our technique of LMSC avoided conversion in 6.5% patients and believe that it is feasible and safe for difficult GBs

  5. Tonoplast Aquaporins Facilitate Lateral Root Emergence1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hachez, Charles; Bienert, Manuela Désirée; Beebo, Azeez; Swarup, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are water channels allowing fast and passive diffusion of water across cell membranes. It was hypothesized that AQPs contribute to cell elongation processes by allowing water influx across the plasma membrane and the tonoplast to maintain adequate turgor pressure. Here, we report that, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the highly abundant tonoplast AQP isoforms AtTIP1;1, AtTIP1;2, and AtTIP2;1 facilitate the emergence of new lateral root primordia (LRPs). The number of lateral roots was strongly reduced in the triple tip mutant, whereas the single, double, and triple tip mutants showed no or minor reduction in growth of the main root. This phenotype was due to the retardation of LRP emergence. Live cell imaging revealed that tight spatiotemporal control of TIP abundance in the tonoplast of the different LRP cells is pivotal to mediating this developmental process. While lateral root emergence is correlated to a reduction of AtTIP1;1 and AtTIP1;2 protein levels in LRPs, expression of AtTIP2;1 is specifically needed in a restricted cell population at the base, then later at the flanks, of developing LRPs. Interestingly, the LRP emergence phenotype of the triple tip mutants could be fully rescued by expressing AtTIP2;1 under its native promoter. We conclude that TIP isoforms allow the spatial and temporal fine-tuning of cellular water transport, which is critically required during the highly regulated process of LRP morphogenesis and emergence. PMID:26802038

  6. Pitfalls in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Yvergneaux, J P; Kint, M; Kuppens, E

    1994-01-01

    On the basis of literature and of 475 laparoscopic cholecystectomies of the authors, some pitfalls are reviewed. The circumstances, the mechanism and the prevention of injuries were detailed together with the connected problem of postoperative bile leakage. Among the cholangiographic pitfalls the importance of detection of congenital and acquired anomalies of the biliary tree by means of preoperative ERCP or intraoperative trans-cystic cholangiograms was emphasized. A particular study was made of 3 pictures: Mirizzi syndrome; stone impaction in Vater's papilla; no retrograde flow of the common hepatic duct on intraoperative cholangiograms. Biliodigestive fistulas were briefly commented. The problems with cystic duct stones, particularly the treatment of stones in a long, low inserted cystic duct with retroduodenal course and the closing of thick-walled or wide cystic stumps, were explained. In patients with intraoperative residual common bile duct stones and with failed preoperative catheterization of the papilla, the authors advocate their double approach technique. This combined intraoperative laparoscopic and postoperative endoscopic procedure is carried out via the same transcystic polythene catheters as used for cholangiography and external biliary drainage of the common bile duct.

  7. Open Schooling: Why Open Schools Are Re-Emerging as a New Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commonwealth of Learning, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Open schools are not just concerned with increasing access to secondary schooling, but also with equalising educational opportunities for citizens regardless of their geographic location or socio-economic background. Through a well-articulated policy, broad consensus on the most appropriate direction for the future development of open schooling…

  8. Is Cholecystectomy Necessary After ERCP for Bile Duct Stones in Patients with Gallbladder in situ?

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soon Kil; Lee, Byung Seok; Kim, Nam Jae; Lee, Heon Young; Chae, Hee Bok; Youn, Sei Jin; Park, Seon Mee

    2001-01-01

    Background The requirement for subsequent cholecystectomy in patients with gallbladder in situ after endoscopic removal of stones from the common bile duct (CBD) is controversial. The aims of this study were to assess the requirement for subsequent cholecystectomy for gallbladder-related symptoms, and to identify the patients who develop symptoms after the endoscopic removal of CBD stones. Methods Of 241 patients with gallbladder in situ following endoscopic removal of stones from the CBD, 146 patients (78 men and 68 women; mean age 69±13 years, range 20–93) with a follow-up time of more than three months without elective cholecystectomy were enrolled in the study. Fifty-nine patients had gallbladder stones (single stones in 27 and multiple stones in 32) and 87 patients had gallbladder in situ without stones. The time from entry to the occurrences of death or cholecystectomy was evaluated retrospectively. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors associated with these events. Results The mean duration of follow-up was 24.1±18.0 months (range 3–70 months). During follow-up, seven patients (4.8%) underwent cholecystectomy, on average 18.4 months after CBD stone removal, as the result of acute cholecystitis in four cases, biliary pain in two cases and acute pancreatitis in one case. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed in four patients and open cholecystectomy in three patients. Post-operative morbidity occurred in two patients, with improvement after conservative management. Nine patients (6.2%) died as the result of unrelated biliary disease. Age, sex, presence of gallbladder stones, multiplicity of gallbladder stones and underlying disease did not correlate with subsequent cholecystectomy by Cox regression analysis. Conclusion Elective cholecystectomy is not warranted in patients with bile duct stones when the common duct can be cleared of stones by endoscopic sphincterotomy. We could not find any clinical predictors of further

  9. Outcomes after laparoscopic cholecystectomy in children with biliary dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Hernando; Hagglund, Karen H; Smadi, Yamen

    2011-06-01

    Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of biliary dyskinesia (BD) as an indication for cholecystectomy in children and to identify presenting clinical findings and optimal ejection fraction (EF) associated with the resolution of symptoms after surgery. We conducted a retrospective review of medical records of 212 pediatric patients who underwent cholecystectomy from August, 1998 to November, 2006. Patients who met criteria for BD had their short-term outcomes examined by record review and their long-term postoperative outcomes recorded by questionnaire. To compare EF and clinical presentation to symptom resolution or outcome, χ tests were used. Logistic regression was used to evaluate possible predictors of symptom resolution. BD was the indication for cholecystectomy in 20% of patients (44 of 212). Short-term outcome was not predicted by any of the collected variables. An EF ≤11% predicted higher rate of symptom resolution (P=0.02). Although patients with specific right upper quadrant pain had higher rates of long-term improvement than those with nonspecific abdominal pain (57.9% vs. 18.2%), this did not reach significance (P=0.057). The only predictor emerging from the logistic regression was EF cutoff at 11% (odds ratio=17.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.756-174.418). In this series, symptoms of BD were more likely to be resolved by cholecystectomy in children with EF ≤11%.

  10. Breaking Barriers to Successful Implementation of Day Case Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, I; Bolger, J; Al-Hilli, Z; Hill, A D K

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a common procedure performed in both emergency and elective settings. Our aim was to analyse the trends in laparoscopic surgery in Ireland in the public and private healthcare systems. In particular we studied the trend in day case laparoscopic cholecystectomy. National HIPE data for the years 2010-2012 was obtained. Similar datasets were obtained from the three main health insurers. 19,214 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were carried out in Ireland over the 3-year period. More procedures were performed in the public system than the private system from 2010-2012. There was a steady increase in surgeries performed in the public sector, while the private sector remained static. Although the ALOS was significantly higher in the public sector, there was an increase in the rate of day case procedures from 416 (13%) to 762 (21.9%). The day case rates in private hospitals increased only slightly from 29 (5.1%) in 2010 to 40 (5.9%) in 2012. Day case laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been shown to be a safe procedure, however significant barriers remain in place to the implementation of successful day case units nationwide.

  11. Hepatic Artery Angiography and Embolization for Hemobilia Following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, Tony; Travis, Simon; Ettles, Duncan; Dyet, John; Sedman, Peter; Wedgewood, Kevin; Royston, Christopher

    1999-01-15

    Purpose: The effectiveness of angiography and embolization in diagnosis and treatment were assessed in a cohort of patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage secondary to hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods: Over a 6-year period 1513 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were carried out in our region. Nine of these patients (0.6%) developed significant upper gastrointestinal bleeding, 5-43 days after surgery. All underwent emergency celiac and selective right hepatic artery angiography. All were treated by coil embolization of the right hepatic artery proximal and distal to the bleeding point. Results: Pseudoaneurysms of the hepatic artery adjacent to cholecystectomy clips were demonstrated in all nine patients at selective right hepatic angiography. In three patients celiac axis angiography alone failed to demonstrate the pseudoaneurysm. Embolization controlled hemorrhage in all patients with no further bleeding and no further intervention. One patient developed a candidal liver abscess in the post-procedure period. All patients are alive and well at follow-up. Conclusion: Selective right hepatic angiography is vital in the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Embolization offers the advantage of minimally invasive treatment in unstable patients, does not disrupt recent biliary reconstruction, allows distal as well as proximal control of the hepatic artery, and is an effective treatment for this potentially life-threatening complication.

  12. Continuity Education in Emergency and Conflict Situations: The Case for Using Open, Distance and Flexible Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Charlotte; Morpeth, Roslyn Louise

    2014-01-01

    Emergency and conflict in countries such as Syria, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan have made us more aware of the long-term serial disruption and psychosocial damage faced by people caught up in emergency and conflict areas. Open, distance and flexible learning (ODFL) has sometimes been employed in these regions to maintain a degree of…

  13. Current Role of Minimally Invasive Radical Cholecystectomy for Gallbladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Manzoni, Alberto; Guerini, Francesca; Ramera, Marco; Aroldi, Francesca; Zaniboni, Alberto; Rosso, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Background. For Tis and T1a gallbladder cancer (GbC), laparoscopic cholecystectomy can provide similar survival outcomes compared to open cholecystectomy. However, for patients affected by resectable T1b or more advanced GbC, open approach radical cholecystectomy (RC), consisting in gallbladder liver bed resection or segment 4b-5 bisegmentectomy, with locoregional lymphadenectomy, is considered the gold standard while minimally invasive RC (MiRC) is skeptically considered. Aim. To analyze current literature on perioperative and oncologic outcomes of MiRC for patients affected by GbC. Methods. A Medline review of published articles until June 2016 concerning MiRC for GbC was performed. Results. Data relevant for this review were presented in 13 articles, including 152 patients undergoing an attempt of MiRC for GbC. No randomized clinical trial was found. The approach was laparoscopic in 147 patients and robotic in five. Conversion was required in 15 (10%) patients. Postoperative complications rate was 10% with no mortality. Long-term survival outcomes were reported by 11 studies, two of them showing similar oncologic results when comparing MiRC with matched open RC. Conclusions. Although randomized clinical trials are still lacking and only descriptive studies reporting on limited number of patients are available, current literature seems suggesting that when performed at highly specialized centers, MiRC for GbC is safe and feasible and has oncologic outcomes comparable to open RC. PMID:27885325

  14. Ureteric Suture Urolithiasis Following Open Emergency Ureteric Repair

    PubMed Central

    Sarmah, Piyush B.; Kelly, Brian D.; Devarajan, Raghuram

    2016-01-01

    Suture urolithiasis is an unusual but recognised phenomenon following surgery on the urinary tract. We report a case in a 30-year-old man who sustained a gunshot injury to the left ureter in Burundi and underwent open ureteric repair in a regional hospital. He migrated to the UK and presented one year later with left loin pain. An intravenous urogram revealed two foci of calcification to the left of L3, within a peri-ureteric position. The patient underwent left-sided ureteroscopy where two calculi each formed around a nylon suture were discovered within a ureteric pseudo-diverticulum, and basketed. This is the first reported case of suture urolithiasis occurring following ureteric surgery. PMID:26989371

  15. Emergent diversity in an open-ended evolving virtual community.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Jose D; Lobo, Daniel; Martín, Gema M; Doursat, René; Vico, Francisco J

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of biodiversity has become an important line of research in theoretical ecology and, in particular, conservation biology. However, studying the evolution of ecological communities under traditional modeling approaches based on differential calculus requires species' characteristics to be predefined, which limits the generality of the results. An alternative but less standardized methodology relies on intensive computer simulation of evolving communities made of simple, explicitly described individuals. We study here the formation, evolution, and diversity dynamics of a community of virtual plants with a novel individual-centered model involving three different scales: the genetic, the developmental, and the physiological scales. It constitutes an original attempt at combining development, evolution, and population dynamics (based on multi-agent interactions) into one comprehensive, yet simple model. In this world, we observe that our simulated plants evolve increasingly elaborate canopies, which are capable of intercepting ever greater amounts of light. Generated morphologies vary from the simplest one-branch structure of promoter plants to a complex arborization of several hundred thousand branches in highly evolved variants. On the population scale, the heterogeneous spatial structuration of the plant community at each generation depends solely on the evolution of its component plants. Using this virtual data, the morphologies and the dynamics of diversity production were analyzed by various statistical methods, based on genotypic and phenotypic distance metrics. The results demonstrate that diversity can spontaneously emerge in a community of mutually interacting individuals under the influence of specific environmental conditions.

  16. The Emergence of the Open Networked ``i-Learning'' Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elia, Gianluca

    The most significant forces that are changing the business world and the society behaviors in this beginning of the twenty-first century can be identified into the globalization of the economy, technological evolution and convergence, change of the workers' expectations, workplace diversity and mobility, and mostly, knowledge and learning as major organizational assets. But which type of ­learning dynamics must be nurtured and pursued within the organizations, today, in order to generate valuable knowledge and its effective applications? After a brief discussion on the main changes observable in management, ICT and society/workplace in the last years, this chapter aims to answer to this question, through the proposition of the “Π-shaped” profile (a new professional archetype for leading change), and through the discussion of the open networked “i-Learning” model (a new framework to “incubate” innovation in learning processes). Actually, the “i” stands for “innovation” (to highlight the nature of the impact on traditional ­learning model), but also it stands for “incubation” (to underline the urgency to have new environments in which incubating new professional profiles). Specifically, the main key characteristics at the basis of the innovation of the learning processes will be ­presented and described, by highlighting the managerial, technological and societal aspects of their nature. A set of operational guidelines will be also ­provided to ­activate and sustain the innovation process, so implementing changes in the strategic dimensions of the model. Finally, the “i-Learning Radar” is presented as an operational tool to design, communicate and control an “i-Learning experience”. This tool is represented by a radar diagram with six strategic dimensions of a ­learning initiative.

  17. [Natural history of cholelithiasis and incidence of cholecystectomy in an urban and a Mapuche rural area].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ayuso, Rosa María; Hernández, Verónica; González, Berta; Carvacho, Claudia; Navarrete, Carlos; Alvarez, Manuel; González, Robinson; Marshall, Guillermo; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Nervi, Flavio

    2002-07-01

    Cholelithiasis is the second cause of hospital admissions in Chile. To study the prevalence of symptomatic gallstone disease and opportunity of cholecystectomy in La Florida, Santiago and among Mapuche Indians in Huapi Island. In the period 2000-2001, we contacted to 71% (1127 subjects) and to 61% (145 subjects) patients of La Florida and Huapi Island, respectively, that had previously participated in an epidemiological study on cholelithiasis in 1993. We defined symptomatic gallstone patients as those with a history of biliary colic. Each patient was subjected to gallbladder ultrasound. In 1993, 30-35% of gallstone patients were symptomatic (approximately 70% women). During the lapse 1993-2001, only 50% of subjects from La Florida and 25% of patients from Huapi Island were cholecystectomized (p < 0.05). Fifty percent of cholecystectomies were emergency operations. In 38 symptomatic Mapuche Indians from Huapi, cholecystectomy was indicated in 2001. After five months of the indication, only one of these subjects had been operated. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy represented 40% of all cholecystectomies performed in the National Health Service Hospitals. This study demonstrates an unacceptable high prevalence of symptomatic gallstone patients remaining non-operated in both the urban and rural communities. This reciprocally correlates with the high frequency of emergency cholecystectomies and the high incidence of gallbladder cancer among Chileans. This study contrasts negatively with the situation of Scotland, where 73.5% of cholecystectomies were laparoscopic in 1998-1999. To reach Scotland standards, the Chilean Public Health System should increase the number of cholecystectomies from 27,000 in 2001 to 57,510

  18. A retrospective comparison of robotic cholecystectomy versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy: operative outcomes and cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Strosberg, David S; Nguyen, Michelle C; Muscarella, Peter; Narula, Vimal K

    2017-03-01

    Robotic-assisted surgery is gaining popularity in general surgery. Our objective was to evaluate and compare operative outcomes and total costs for robotic cholecystectomy (RC) and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). A retrospective review was performed for all patients who underwent single-procedure RC and LC from January 2011 to July 2015 by a single surgeon at a large academic medical center. Demographics, diagnosis, perioperative variables, postoperative complications, 30-day readmissions, and operative and hospital costs were collected and analyzed between those patient groups. A total of 237 patients underwent RC or LC, and comprised the study population. Ninety-seven patients (40.9 %) underwent LC, and 140 patients (50.1 %) underwent RC. Patients who underwent RC had a higher body mass index (p = 0.03), lower rates of coronary artery disease (p < 0.01), and higher rates of chronic cholecystitis (p < 0.01). There were lower rates of intraoperative cholangiography (p < 0.01) and conversion to an open procedure (p < 0.01), however longer operative times (p < 0.01) for patients in the RC group. There were no bile duct injuries in either group, no difference in bile leak rates (p = 0.65), or need for reoperation (p = 1.000). Cost analysis of outpatient-only procedures, excluding cases with conversion to open or use of intraoperative cholangiography, demonstrated higher total charges (p < 0.01) and cost (p < 0.01) and lower revenue (p < 0.01) for RC compared to LC, with no difference in total payments (p = 0.34). Robotic cholecystectomy appears to be safe although costlier in comparison with laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Further studies are needed to understand the long-term implications of robotic technology, the cost to the health care system, and its role in minimally invasive surgery.

  19. Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infection After Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, Katelin B.; Wallace, Anna E.; Mines, Daniel; Tian, Fang; Symons, William J.; Fraser, Victoria J.; Olsen, Margaret A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. There are limited data on risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) after open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. A retrospective cohort of commercially insured persons aged 18–64 years was assembled using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) procedure or Current Procedural Terminology, 4th edition codes for cholecystectomy from December 31, 2004 to December 31, 2010. Complex procedures and patients (eg, cancer, end-stage renal disease) and procedures with pre-existing infection were excluded. Surgical site infections within 90 days after cholecystectomy were identified by ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify independent risk factors for SSI. Results. Surgical site infections were identified after 472 of 66566 (0.71%) cholecystectomies; incidence was higher after open (n = 51, 4.93%) versus laparoscopic procedures (n = 421, 0.64%; P < .001). Independent risk factors for SSI included male gender, preoperative chronic anemia, diabetes, drug abuse, malnutrition/weight loss, obesity, smoking-related diseases, previous Staphylococcus aureus infection, laparoscopic approach with acute cholecystitis/obstruction (hazards ratio [HR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27–1.96), open approach with (HR, 4.29; 95% CI, 2.45–7.52) or without acute cholecystitis/obstruction (HR, 4.04; 95% CI, 1.96–8.34), conversion to open approach with (HR, 4.71; 95% CI, 2.74–8.10) or without acute cholecystitis/obstruction (HR, 7.11; 95% CI, 3.87–13.08), bile duct exploration, postoperative chronic anemia, and postoperative pneumonia or urinary tract infection. Conclusions. Acute cholecystitis or obstruction was associated with significantly increased risk of SSI with laparoscopic but not open cholecystectomy. The risk of SSI was similar for planned open and converted procedures. These findings suggest that stratification by operative factors is

  20. Impact of scheduled laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with acute cholecystitis, following percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Bo-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Frequently encountered in practice, the first-line treatment for acute cholecystitis is early or urgent cholecystectomy, with laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) being the preferred method. Percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGBD) is considered as a safe alternative therapeutic option for resolving acute cholecystitis in surgically high-risk patients. We evaluated the surgical outcomes of acute cholecystitis, focusing on the differences between emergent LC without PTGBD, and scheduled LC following PTGBD. Methods Between March 2010 and December 2014, 294 patients with acute cholecystitis who had undergone LC, were retrospectively studied. Group I included 166 patients who underwent emergency LC without PTGBD. Group II included 128 patients who underwent scheduled LC after PTGBD. Clinical outcomes were analyzed according to each group. Results On admission, Group II had a higher mean level of c-reactive protein than Group I. According to the classification of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA), group II had a greater number of high-risk patients than group I. There was no significant difference on perioperative outcomes between the two groups, including open conversion rate and complications. Analysis as per the ASA classes revealed no statistically remarkable finding between the groups. Conclusions There are no significant differences in the surgical outcomes of emergency LC group without PTGBD, and scheduled LC group following PTGBD. Comparison between two groups according to ASA classification reflecting the comorbidity and severity of condition of the patients also revealed no significant differences. However, scheduled LC following PTGBD is important for patients having acute cholecystitis with concurrent comorbidity. PMID:28317042

  1. [Simple cholecystectomy without drainage. A dilemma?].

    PubMed

    Macellari, G; Baraldi, U; Giustina, A; David, P; Parigi, M; De Angelis, E

    1980-04-30

    A retrospective study was carried out to show the uselessness of the routine employment of the drainage after simple cholecystectomy. 1425 patients underwent cholecystectomy because for cholelithiasis; of these 164 (13%) were drained because of adhesions, concomitant pancreatitis, inadvertent damage, empiema, gangrena and perforation of the gallbladder. In no case of the 1261 patients without drainage it has been possible to demonstrate the presence of one of those complications for which the use of a drainage after simple cholecystectomy is commonly advised.

  2. Comparison of outcomes after single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy in relation to patient body mass index.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eun Jeong; Roh, Young Hoon; Choi, Chan Joong; Kim, Min Chan; Kim, Kwan Woo; Choi, Hong Jo

    2014-01-01

    Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy may contribute to a paradigm shift in the field of laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery by providing patients with benefits beyond those observed after other surgical procedures. This study was designed to evaluate clinically meaningful differences in operative outcomes between obese and nonobese patients after single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Data were collected retrospectively from 172 patients who had undergone single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed by the same surgeon at a single medical center between January and December 2011. For the outcome analysis, patients were divided into nonobese and obese patient groups according to their body mass index (<25 kg/m2 vs ≥25 kg/m2). Demographic and clinical data did not differ significantly between obese patients (n=65) and nonobese patients (n=107). In addition, statistically significant differences pertaining to most measured surgical outcomes including postoperative hospital stay, bile spillage, additional port use, and open conversion were not detected between the groups. However, the two groups differed significantly regarding operative time such that nonobese patients had shorter operative times than obese patients (P<.05). The results of this study showed that operative time for single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy was the only difference between obese and nonobese patients. Given this result, body mass index may not be as relevant a factor in patient selection for single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy as previously thought.

  3. When seconds count: A study of communication variables in the opening segment of emergency calls.

    PubMed

    Penn, Claire; Koole, Tom; Nattrass, Rhona

    2016-02-09

    The opening sequence of an emergency call influences the efficiency of the ambulance dispatch time. The greeting sequences in 105 calls to a South African emergency service were analysed. Initial results suggested the advantage of a specific two-part opening sequence. An on-site experiment aimed at improving call efficiency was conducted during one shift (1100 calls). Results indicated reduced conversational repairs and a significant reduction of 4 seconds in mean call length. Implications for systems and training are derived.

  4. Sea Spray and Icing in the Emerging Open Water of the Arctic Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Sea Spray and Icing in the Emerging Open Water of the...sea spray over the open ocean and the severity of sea spray icing on fixed offshore structures. We will use information on the relationship of the...climatology in ice -free northern oceans from reanalysis data and the time-varying extent of the sea ice cover. Our field campaigns in the second and

  5. Cosmesis and body image after single-port laparoscopic or conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a multicenter double blinded randomised controlled trial (SPOCC-trial).

    PubMed

    Steinemann, Daniel C; Raptis, Dimitri A; Lurje, Georg; Oberkofler, Christian E; Wyss, Roland; Zehnder, Adrian; Lesurtel, Mickael; Vonlanthen, René; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Breitenstein, Stefan

    2011-09-12

    Emerging attempts have been made to reduce operative trauma and improve cosmetic results of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There is a trend towards minimizing the number of incisions such as natural transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SPLC). Many retrospective case series propose excellent cosmesis and reduced pain in SPLC. As the latter has been confirmed in a randomized controlled trial, patient's satisfaction on cosmesis is still controversially debated. The SPOCC trial is a prospective, multi-center, double blinded, randomized controlled study comparing SPLC with 4-port conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (4PLC) in elective surgery. The hypothesis and primary objective is that patients undergoing SPLC will have a better outcome in cosmesis and body image 12 weeks after surgery. This primary endpoint is assessed using a validated 8-item multiple choice type questionnaire on cosmesis and body image. The secondary endpoint has three entities: the quality of life 12 weeks after surgery assessed by the validated Short-Form-36 Health Survey questionnaire, postoperative pain assessed by a visual analogue scale and the use of analgesics. Operative time, surgeon's experience with SPLC and 4PLC, use of additional ports, conversion to 4PLC or open cholecystectomy, length of stay, costs, time of work as well as intra- and postoperative complications are further aspects of the secondary endpoint. Patients are randomly assigned either to SPLC or to 4PLC. Patients as well as treating physicians, nurses and assessors are blinded until the 7th postoperative day. Sample size calculation performed by estimating a difference of cosmesis of 20% (alpha = 0.05 and beta = 0.90, drop out rate of 10%) resulted in a number of 55 randomized patients per arm. The SPOCC-trial is a prospective, multi-center, double-blind, randomized controlled study to assess cosmesis and body image after SPLC. (clinicaltrial.gov): NCT 01278472.

  6. Population-based cohort study of outcomes following cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder diseases.

    PubMed

    2016-11-01

    The aim was to describe the management of benign gallbladder disease and identify characteristics associated with all-cause 30-day readmissions and complications in a prospective population-based cohort. Data were collected on consecutive patients undergoing cholecystectomy in acute UK and Irish hospitals between 1 March and 1 May 2014. Potential explanatory variables influencing all-cause 30-day readmissions and complications were analysed by means of multilevel, multivariable logistic regression modelling using a two-level hierarchical structure with patients (level 1) nested within hospitals (level 2). Data were collected on 8909 patients undergoing cholecystectomy from 167 hospitals. Some 1451 cholecystectomies (16·3 per cent) were performed as an emergency, 4165 (46·8 per cent) as elective operations, and 3293 patients (37·0 per cent) had had at least one previous emergency admission, but had surgery on a delayed basis. The readmission and complication rates at 30 days were 7·1 per cent (633 of 8909) and 10·8 per cent (962 of 8909) respectively. Both readmissions and complications were independently associated with increasing ASA fitness grade, duration of surgery, and increasing numbers of emergency admissions with gallbladder disease before cholecystectomy. No identifiable hospital characteristics were linked to readmissions and complications. Readmissions and complications following cholecystectomy are common and associated with patient and disease characteristics. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The analysis of 146 patients with difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Bat, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is very commonly performed surgical intervention. Acute or chronic cholecystitis, adhesions due to previous upper abdomen surgeries, Mirrizi’s syndrome and obesity are common clinical conditions that can be associated with difficult cholecystectomy. In this study, we evaluated and scored the patients with difficult surgical exploration during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Material and Method: All patients who underwent LC from 2010 to 2015 were retrospectively rewieved. According to intraoperative findings DLC cases were described and classified. Class I difficulty: Adhesion of omentum majus, transverse colon, duodenum to the fundus of the gallbladder. Class II difficulty: Adhesions in Calot’s triangle and difficulty in dissection of cystic artery and cystic duct Class III difficulty: Difficulty in dissection of gallbladder bed (scleroathrophic gallbladder, hemorrhage from liver during dissection of gallbladder, chirotic liver). Class IV difficulty: Difficulty in exploration of gallbladder due to intraabdominal adhesions including technical problems. Results: A total of 146 patients were operated with DLC. The most common difficulty type was Class I difficulty (88 patients/60.2%). Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was converted to laparotomy in 98 patients. Operation time was found to be related with conversion to open surgery (P<0.05). Wound infection rate was also statistically higher in conversion group (P<0.05). The opertion time was found to be longest with Class II difficulty. Conversion rate to open surgery was also highest with Class II difficulty group. Conclusion: Class II difficulty characterized by severe adhesions in calot’s triangle is most serious problem among all DLC cases. They have longer operation time and higher conversion rate. PMID:26629124

  8. INVESTIGATION OF OPEN-PATH FTIR FOR FAST DEPLOYMENT EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO CHEMICAL THREATS AND ACCIDENTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have performed a series of experiments to determine the tradeoff in detection sensitivity for implementing design features for an Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared (OP-FTIR) chemical analyzer that would be quick to deploy under emergency response conditions. The fast-deplo...

  9. INVESTIGATION OF OPEN-PATH FTIR FOR FAST DEPLOYMENT EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO CHEMICAL THREATS AND ACCIDENTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have performed a series of experiments to determine the tradeoff in detection sensitivity for implementing design features for an Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared (OP-FTIR) chemical analyzer that would be quick to deploy under emergency response conditions. The fast-deplo...

  10. Acetic acid sclerotherapy for treatment of biliary leak from an isolated right posterior sectoral duct after cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young-Kil; Jung, Bo-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Bile duct injury is one of the most serious complications of both laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy. Isolated bile duct injury can occur from the misidentification of aberrant right hepatic ducts, and it is troublesome because the early diagnosis is easy to miss and the definite treatment is controversial. We report a case of an isolated right posterior sectoral duct injury following cholecystectomy managed successfully with acetic acid sclerotherapy combined with coil embolization for a fistula tract. PMID:28382295

  11. Is the male gender an independent risk factor for complication in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis?

    PubMed

    Ambe, Peter C; Köhler, Lothar

    2015-05-01

    This paper was designed to investigate the gender dependent risk of complication in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the standard procedure for benign gallbladder disorders. The role of gender as an independent risk factor for complicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy remains unclear. A retrospective single-center analysis of laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed for acute cholecystitis over a 5-year period in a community hospital was performed. Within the period of examination, 1884 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed. The diagnosis was acute cholecystitis in 779 cases (462 female, 317 male). The male group was significantly older (P = 0.001). Surgery lasted significantly longer in the male group (P = 0.008). Conversion was done in 35 cases (4.5%). There was no significant difference in the rate of conversion between both groups. However the rate of conversion was significantly higher in male patients > 65 years (P = 0.006). The length of postoperative hospital stay was significantly longer in the male group (P = 0.007), in the group > 65 years (P = 0.001) and following conversion to open surgery (P = 0.001). The male gender was identified as an independent risk factor for prolonged laparoscopic cholecystectomy on multivariate analysis. The male gender could be an independent risk factor for complicated or challenging surgery in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis.

  12. The Feasibility of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in Patients with Previous Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Diez, J.; Delbene, R.; Ferreres, A.

    1998-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried in 1500 patients submitted to elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy to ascertain its feasibility in patients with previous abdominal surgery. In 411 patients (27.4%) previous infraumbilical intraperitoneal surgery had been performed, and 106 of them (7.06%) had 2 or more operations. Twenty five patients (1.66%) had previous supraumbilical intraperitoneal operations (colonic resection, hydatid liver cysts, gastrectomies, etc.) One of them had been operated 3 times. In this group of 25 patients the first trocar and pneumoperitoneum were performed by open laparoscopy. In 2 patients a Marlex mesh was present from previous surgery for supraumbilical hernias. Previous infraumbilical intraperitoneal surgery did not interfere with laparoscopic cholecystectomy, even in patients with several operations. There was no morbidity from Verres needle or trocars. In the 25 patients with supraumbilical intraperitoneal operations, laparoscopic cholecystectomy was completed in 22. In 3, adhesions prevented the visualization of the gallbladder and these patients were converted to an open procedure. In the 2 patients Marlex mesh prevented laparoscopic cholecystectomy because of adhesions to abdominal organs. We conclude that in most instances previous abdominal operations are no contraindication to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:9515231

  13. Open versus laparoscopic approach in the treatment of abdominal emergencies in elderly population

    PubMed Central

    COCORULLO, G.; FALCO, N.; TUTINO, R.; FONTANA, T.; SCERRINO, G.; SALAMONE, G.; LICARI, L.; GULOTTA, G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the role of laparoscopy in the treatment of surgical emergency in old population. Patients and Methods Over-70 years-old patients submitted to emergency abdominal surgery from January 2013 to December 2014 were collected and grouped according to admission diagnoses. These accounted small bowel obstruction, colonic acute disease, appendicitis, ventral hernia, gastro-duodenal perforation, biliary disease. In each group it was analyzed the operation time (OT), the morbidity rate and the mortality rate comparing open and laparoscopic management using T-test and Chi-square test. Results 159 over 70-years-old patients underwent emergency surgery in the General and Emergency surgery Operative Unit (O.U.) of the Policlinic of Palermo. 75 patients were managed by a laparoscopic approach and 84 underwent traditional open emergency surgery. T-Test for OT and Chi-square test for morbidity rate and mortality rate showed no differences in small bowel emergencies (p=0,4; 0,250,9; p>0,95) and in gastro-duodenal perforation (p=0,9; p>0.9; p>0.95). In cholecystitis, laparoscopy group showed lower OT (T-Test: p= 0,0002) while Chi-square test for morbidity rate (0,1open surgery in surgical emergencies in elderly population. PMID:27734793

  14. Health-related quality of life in patients undergoing cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Li-Na; Shi, Hon-Yi; Wang, Tsai-Fan; Chang, Chiung-Ying; Lee, King-Teh

    2011-07-01

    This large-scale prospective cohort study of a Taiwan population applied generalized estimating equations to evaluate predictors of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after open cholecystectomy (OC) and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) procedures performed between February 2007 and November 2008. The Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index and Short Form-36 were used in a preoperative assessment and in 3(rd) month and 6(th) month postoperative assessments of 38 OC and 259 LC patients. The HRQOL of the cholecystectomy patients were significantly improved at 3 months and 6 months postsurgery (p<0.05). At 3 months postsurgery, HRQOL improvement was significantly larger in LC patients than in OC patients. Patient characteristics, clinical characteristics, and health care quality were also significantly related to HRQOL improvement (p<0.05). Additionally, after controlling for related variables, preoperative health status was significantly and positively associated with each subscale of the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index and Short Form-36 throughout the 6 months (p<0.05). Patients should be advised that their postoperative HRQOL may depend not only on their postoperative health care but also on their preoperative functional status.

  15. [The treatment of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis].

    PubMed

    Liguori, G; Bortul, M; Castiglia, D

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the results of early laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis and to analyse the problems related to patients' selection and surgical timing. The authors report their personal experience of 45 laparoscopic cholecystectomies for acute cholecystitis. The diagnosis was based on clinical, blood test and US scan analyse findings. Technical surgical details were decompression of the gallbladder, use of endobag and abdominal dranage. We didn't perform and intraoperative cholangiography in absence of predictive factor for common bile duct stones. The mean time required for surgery was 120 minutes, conversion rate was 15% in early operations and 23.8% in operations delaied more than 72 h. Dissection difficulty is the main cause of conversion. Four patients underwent postoperative complications: one subphrenic abscess, one bile leakage (both recovered with nonsurgical therapy and two wound infections). In conclusion laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe and effective as early treatment of acute cholecystitis in the first 72 hours due to easier dissection of the inflammed and oedematous tissue. This approach allows a reduction of the operative risk and the conversion rate with medical and economic advantages. Presence of bile duct stones is still now indication to conversion in open surgery.

  16. Financial Ties Between Emergency Physicians and Industry: Insights From Open Payments Data.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, William; Ross, Joseph S; Melnick, Edward R; Newman, David H; Venkatesh, Arjun K

    2016-08-01

    The Open Payments program requires reporting of payments by medical product companies to teaching hospitals and licensed physicians. We seek to describe nonresearch, nonroyalty payments made to emergency physicians in the United States. We performed a descriptive analysis of the most recent Open Payments data released to the public by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services covering the 2014 calendar year. We calculated the median payment, the total pay per physician, the types of payments, and the drugs and devices associated with payments to emergency physicians. For context, we also calculated total pay per physician and the percentage of active physicians receiving payments for all specialties. There were 46,405 payments totaling $10,693,310 to 12,883 emergency physicians, representing 30% of active emergency physicians in 2013. The percentage of active physicians within a specialty who received a payment ranged from 14.6% in preventive medicine to 91% in orthopedic surgery. The median payment and median total pay to emergency physicians were $16 (interquartile range $12 to $68) and $44 (interquartile range $16 to $123), respectively. The majority of payments (83%) were less than $100. Food and beverage (86%) was the most frequent type of payment. The most common products associated with payments to emergency physicians were rivaroxaban, apixaban, ticagrelor, ceftaroline, canagliflozin, dabigatran, and alteplase. Nearly a third of emergency physicians received nonresearch, nonroyalty payments from industry in 2014. Most payments were of small monetary value and for activities related to the marketing of antithrombotic drugs. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The management of the open abdomen in trauma and emergency general surgery: part 1-damage control.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Jose J; Cullinane, Daniel C; Dutton, William D; Jerome, Rebecca; Bagdonas, Richard; Bilaniuk, Jaroslaw W; Bilaniuk, Jarolslaw O; Collier, Bryan R; Como, John J; Cumming, John; Griffen, Maggie; Gunter, Oliver L; Kirby, John; Lottenburg, Larry; Mowery, Nathan; Riordan, William P; Martin, Niels; Platz, Jon; Stassen, Nicole; Winston, Eleanor S

    2010-06-01

    The open abdomen technique, after both military and civilian trauma, emergency general or vascular surgery, has been used in some form for the past 30 years. There have been several hundred citations on the indications and the management of the open abdomen. Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma practice management committee convened a study group to organize the world's literature for the management of the open abdomen. This effort was divided into two parts: damage control and the management of the open abdomen. Only damage control is presented in this study. Part 1 is divided into indications for the open abdomen, temporary abdominal closure, staged abdominal repair, and nutrition support of the open abdomen. A literature review was performed for more than 30 years. Prospective and retrospective studies were included. The reviews and case reports were excluded. Of 1,200 articles, 95 were selected. Seventeen surgeons reviewed the articles with four defined criteria. The Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma primer was used to grade the evidence. There was only one level I recommendation. A patient with documented abdominal compartment syndrome should undergo decompressive laparotomy. The open abdomen technique remains a heroic maneuver in the care of the critically ill trauma or surgical patient. For the best outcomes, a protocol for the indications, temporary abdominal closure, staged abdominal reconstruction, and nutrition support should be in place.

  18. Protocol for extended antibiotic therapy after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute calculous cholecystitis (Cholecystectomy Antibiotic Randomised Trial, CHART)

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Pablo; Campana, Juan Pablo; Dietrich, Agustín; Goransky, Jeremías; Glinka, Juan; Giunta, Diego; Barcan, Laura; Alvarez, Fernando; Mazza, Oscar; Sánchez Claria, Rodrigo; Palavecino, Martin; Arbues, Guillermo; Ardiles, Victoria; de Santibañes, Eduardo; Pekolj, Juan; de Santibañes, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acute calculous cholecystitis represents one of the most common complications of cholelithiasis. While laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the standard treatment in mild and moderate forms, the need for antibiotic therapy after surgery remains undefined. The aim of the randomised controlled Cholecystectomy Antibiotic Randomised Trial (CHART) is therefore to assess if there are benefits in the use of postoperative antibiotics in patients with mild or moderate acute cholecystitis in whom a laparoscopic cholecystectomy is performed. Methods and analysis A single-centre, double-blind, randomised trial. After screening for eligibility and informed consent, 300 patients admitted for acute calculus cholecystitis will be randomised into two groups of treatment, either receiving amoxicillin/clavulanic acid or placebo for 5 consecutive days. Postoperative evaluation will take place during the first 30 days. Postoperative infectious complications are the primary end point. Secondary end points are length of hospital stay, readmissions, need of reintervention (percutaneous or surgical reinterventions) and overall mortality. The results of this trial will provide strong evidence to either support or abandon the use of antibiotics after surgery, impacting directly in the incidence of adverse events associated with the use of antibiotics, the emergence of bacterial resistance and treatment costs. Ethics and dissemination This study and informed consent sheets have been approved by the Research Projects Evaluating Committee (CEPI) of Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (protocol N° 2111). Results The results of the trial will be reported in a peer-reviewed publication. Trial registration number NCT02057679. PMID:26582405

  19. Incidental gallbladder cancer after cholecystectomy: 1990 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Dorobisz, Tadeusz; Dorobisz, Karolina; Chabowski, Mariusz; Pawłowski, Wiktor; Janczak, Dawid; Patrzałek, Dariusz; Janczak, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cancer of the gallbladder is a serious diagnostic and therapeutic problem. According to the literature, 30% of cases are not confirmed before surgery. Other cases are detected incidentally by histopathology. Clinical trials and meta-analyses show that incidental gallbladder cancer (iGBC) occurs in 0.19%–2.8% of patients after cholecystectomy. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence and severity of iGBC in cholecystectomy procedures performed in the surgical department at the 4th Military Teaching Hospital in Wroclaw during the years 1990–2014. Patients and methods In the years 1990–2014, a total of 7,314 cholecystectomies were performed in the surgical department because of cholecystolithiasis: 6,145 were performed using the laparoscopic approach (84.02%), 867 were performed as open surgery (11.8%), and 302 cases required conversion (5.1%). In this group, 5,214 of the patients were females (71.3%) and 2,100 were males (28.7%), with an average age of 54.7 years. Results We found 64 iGBC cases which were confirmed by histopathology. This represented 0.87% of all cases. In this group, 50 patients were females (78.1%) and 14 were males (21.8%), with an average age of 67.1 years. Of this group, 40 patients underwent a classic cholecystectomy, while 24 underwent laparoscopic procedures, out of which 13 cases ultimately required traditional surgery. The histopathology showed 15 carcinomas that were classified as G1 (23.4%), 28 were G2 (43.75%), and 21 were G3 (32.8%). Conclusion iGBC detected after a cholecystectomy due to cholecystolithiasis is a rare disease. We found iGBC in 0.87% of cases, which is on a comparable scale to the world literature. In the case of cancer, we frequently found it necessary to convert to an open surgical procedure. This cancer is more common in females and in people over 60 years of age. PMID:27540304

  20. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an audit of our training programme.

    PubMed

    Lim, Swee Ho; Salleh, Ibrahim; Poh, Beow Kiong; Tay, Khoon Hean

    2005-04-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a commonly performed procedure in general surgical practice but it also has an inherently steep learning curve. The training of surgeons in this procedure presents a challenge to teaching hospitals, which essentially have to strike a balance between effective training and safety of the patient. The present study aims first to assess the safety of the structured training programme for this procedure at the Department of Surgery, Changi General Hospital, Singapore. Secondly, it seeks to audit the conversion and bile duct injury rates among the laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed by the department, and the factors which influence these. Notes of all patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the department over an 18-month period were reviewed retrospectively and the relevant data prospectively collected. Demographics, as well as details of cases of conversion to open operation and of bile duct injury were identified and the reasons for each recorded. A total of 443 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 18-month period. The most common indication for surgery was biliary colic/dyspepsia (61.4%), followed by cholecystitis, cholangitis, pancreatitis and common bile duct stone. The overall conversion rate was 11.5%. Three hundred and fifty-five patients were operated on by consultant surgeons, while 88 were by registrars who had been through the structured training programme. There was no statistically significant difference found in the conversion rates between these two groups (P = 0.284). Twenty-two of the 268 female (8.2%) patients had conversion to open operation, while 29 of the 175 male patients (16.6%) underwent conversion (P = 0.007). Amongst cases of cholecystitis and cholangitis, the conversion rate for patients operated on within 7 days of onset of symptoms was 35%, while those operated on 8 or more days later had a conversion rate of 29.7% (P = 0.639). There was a solitary case of bile duct

  1. Triple, double- and single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Sabuncuoglu, Mehmet Zafer; Benzin, Mehmet Fatih; Cakir, Tugrul; Sozen, Isa; Sabuncuoglu, Aylin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Advances in laparoscopic techniques have enabled complicated intra-abdominal surgical procedures to be made with less trauma and a better cosmetic appearance. The techniques have been developed by decreasing the number of incisions in conventional laparoscopic procedures in order to increase patient satisfaction. The aim of this study was to compare the results of cholecystectomies made with 3, 2 or a single incision. Method: A total of 95 cholecystectomy patients from Elbistan State Hospital and Suleyman Demirel University Hospital between 2011 and 2013 were prospectively evaluated. The patients were separated into 3 groups as triple incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (TILC), double incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (DILC) and single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC). Patients were evaluated in respect of demographic characteristics, operation time, success rate, analgesia requirement, length of hospital stay and patient satisfaction. Results: Successful procedures were completed in 40 TILC, 40 DILC and 15 SILC cases. Transfer to open cholecystectomy was not required in any case. The mean duration of operation was 71 mins (range, 55-120 mins) for SILC cases, 45 mins (range, 32-125 mins) for DILC cases and 42 mins (range, 29-96 mins) for TILC cases. The mean time for the SILC cases was statistically significantly longer than the other two groups (p < 0.000). Conclusions: At a comparable level with DILC and TILC, single incision laparosccopic cholecystectomy is a method which can be used without incurring any extra costs or requiring additional instrumentation or training and which has good cosmetic results and a low requirement for analgesia. PMID:25419372

  2. Ninety-day readmissions after inpatient cholecystectomy: A 5-year analysis

    PubMed Central

    Manuel-Vázquez, Alba; Latorre-Fragua, Raquel; Ramiro-Pérez, Carmen; López-Marcano, Aylhin; Al-Shwely, Farah; De la Plaza-Llamas, Roberto; Ramia, José Manuel

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine the incidence of readmission after cholecystectomy using 90 d as a time limit. METHODS We retrospectively reviewed all patients undergoing cholecystectomy at the General Surgery and Digestive System Service of the University Hospital of Guadalajara, Spain. We included all patients undergoing cholecystectomy for biliary pathology who were readmitted to hospital within 90 d. We considered readmission to any hospital service as cholecystectomy-related complications. We excluded ambulatory cholecystectomy, cholecystectomy combined with other procedures, oncologic disease active at the time of cholecystectomy, finding of malignancy in the resection specimen, and scheduled re-admissions for other unrelated pathologies. RESULTS We analyzed 1423 patients. There were 71 readmissions in the 90 d after discharge, with a readmission rate of 4.99%. Sixty-four point seven nine percent occurred after elective surgery (cholelithiasis or vesicular polyps) and 35.21% after emergency surgery (acute cholecystitis or acute pancreatitis). Surgical non-biliary causes were the most frequent reasons for readmission, representing 46.48%; among them, intra-abdominal abscesses were the most common. In second place were non-surgical reasons, at 29.58%, and finally, surgical biliary reasons, at 23.94%. Regarding time for readmission, almost 50% of patients were readmitted in the first week and most second readmissions occurred during the second month. Redefining the readmissions rate to 90 d resulted in an increase in re-hospitalization, from 3.51% at 30 d to 4.99% at 90 d. CONCLUSION The use of 30-d cutoff point may underestimate the incidence of complications. The current tendency is to use 90 d as a limit to measure complications associated with any surgical procedure. PMID:28522915

  3. Ninety-day readmissions after inpatient cholecystectomy: A 5-year analysis.

    PubMed

    Manuel-Vázquez, Alba; Latorre-Fragua, Raquel; Ramiro-Pérez, Carmen; López-Marcano, Aylhin; Al-Shwely, Farah; De la Plaza-Llamas, Roberto; Ramia, José Manuel

    2017-04-28

    To determine the incidence of readmission after cholecystectomy using 90 d as a time limit. We retrospectively reviewed all patients undergoing cholecystectomy at the General Surgery and Digestive System Service of the University Hospital of Guadalajara, Spain. We included all patients undergoing cholecystectomy for biliary pathology who were readmitted to hospital within 90 d. We considered readmission to any hospital service as cholecystectomy-related complications. We excluded ambulatory cholecystectomy, cholecystectomy combined with other procedures, oncologic disease active at the time of cholecystectomy, finding of malignancy in the resection specimen, and scheduled re-admissions for other unrelated pathologies. We analyzed 1423 patients. There were 71 readmissions in the 90 d after discharge, with a readmission rate of 4.99%. Sixty-four point seven nine percent occurred after elective surgery (cholelithiasis or vesicular polyps) and 35.21% after emergency surgery (acute cholecystitis or acute pancreatitis). Surgical non-biliary causes were the most frequent reasons for readmission, representing 46.48%; among them, intra-abdominal abscesses were the most common. In second place were non-surgical reasons, at 29.58%, and finally, surgical biliary reasons, at 23.94%. Regarding time for readmission, almost 50% of patients were readmitted in the first week and most second readmissions occurred during the second month. Redefining the readmissions rate to 90 d resulted in an increase in re-hospitalization, from 3.51% at 30 d to 4.99% at 90 d. The use of 30-d cutoff point may underestimate the incidence of complications. The current tendency is to use 90 d as a limit to measure complications associated with any surgical procedure.

  4. Effect of aspirin continuation on blood loss and postoperative morbidity in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy or colorectal cancer resection.

    PubMed

    Ono, Kazumi; Idani, Hitoshi; Hidaka, Hidekuni; Kusudo, Kazuhito; Koyama, Yusuke; Taguchi, Shinya

    2013-02-01

    No consensus exists whether to continue or withdraw aspirin therapy perioperatively in patients undergoing major laparoscopic abdominal surgery. To investigate whether preoperative continuation of aspirin therapy increases blood loss and associated morbidity during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and colorectal cancer resection, we compared duration of surgical procedures, amount of intraoperative blood loss, rate of blood transfusion, length of postoperative stay, rate of conversion to open surgery, and reoperation within 48 hours between patients with and without aspirin therapy preoperatively. Twenty-nine of 270 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and 23 of 218 patients who underwent laparoscopic colorectal cancer resection, respectively, were on aspirin therapy. We found no significant difference in the investigated outcome between groups with the exception of longer surgical duration of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in aspirin-treated patients. Although underpowered, above findings may suggest that aspirin continuation is unlikely to increase blood loss or postoperative morbidity in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy or colorectal cancer resection.

  5. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients aged 60 years and over – our experience

    PubMed Central

    Serban, D; Branescu, C; Savlovschi, C; Purcărea, AP; El-Khatib, A; Balasescu, SA; Nica, A; Dascalu, AM; Vancea, G; Oprescu, SM; Tudor, C

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To analyze the efficiency of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for the population aged 60 years and over admitted with acute cholecystitis, the clinical features and associated pathology presented by these patients and the impact of these factors on the choice of surgical technique. Materials and method. A retrospective study was carried out between February 2010 and February 2015, on patients aged 60 years and over, operated in emergency for acute cholecystitis in our clinic. All data were extracted from the registered medical documents and operatory protocols. Results. A total of 497 surgeries were performed for acute cholecystitis, of which 149 were patients aged 60 years and over (30%). Open surgery is much better represented in the population aged over 60 years (61.75% vs. 29.98%). One major cause is the associated pathology that increases the anesthetic risk and hampers a laparoscopic procedure. The conversion rate in the study group presented a higher percentage, but not more exaggerated than in the general population (6.71% vs. 4.63 %).Patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery had a faster recovery and required lower doses and shorter term pain medication, in contrast to conventional surgery (1,8 days vs. 5.7 days). Bile leak has been of reduced quantity, short-term and stopped spontaneously. Only one case needed reintervention, in which aberrant bile ducts that were clipped were found in the gallbladder bed, was operated by laparoscopy. Wound infections and swelling were also encountered more frequently in patients that underwent classic surgery (3.24%). Conclusions. Performing laparoscopic cholecystectomy, when possible, has produced very good results, reducing the average length of stay of patients and even decreasing the number of postoperative complications, thus allowing a faster reintegration of patients into society. The main concern was related to the associated pathology that increased the anesthetic risk. PMID:27928438

  6. SIMPLIFIED LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY WITH TWO INCISIONS

    PubMed Central

    ABAID, Rafael Antoniazzi; CECCONELLO, Ivan; ZILBERSTEIN, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has traditionally been performed with four incisions to insert four trocars, in a simple, efficient and safe way. Aim To describe a simplified technique of laparoscopic cholecystectomy with two incisions, using basic conventional instrumental. Technique In one incision in the umbilicus are applied two trocars and in epigastrium one more. The use of two trocars on the same incision, working in "x" does not hinder the procedure and does not require special instruments. Conclusion Simplified laparoscopic cholecystectomy with two incisions is feasible and easy to perform, allowing to operate with ergonomy and safety, with good cosmetic result. PMID:25004296

  7. Agent-based Large-Scale Emergency Evacuation Using Real-Time Open Government Data

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Wei; Liu, Cheng; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2014-01-01

    The open government initiatives have provided tremendous data resources for the transportation system and emergency services in urban areas. This paper proposes a traffic simulation framework using high temporal resolution demographic data and real time open government data for evacuation planning and operation. A comparison study using real-world data in Seattle, Washington is conducted to evaluate the framework accuracy and evacuation efficiency. The successful simulations of selected area prove the concept to take advantage open government data, open source data, and high resolution demographic data in emergency management domain. There are two aspects of parameters considered in this study: user equilibrium (UE) conditions of traffic assignment model (simple Non-UE vs. iterative UE) and data temporal resolution (Daytime vs. Nighttime). Evacuation arrival rate, average travel time, and computation time are adopted as Measure of Effectiveness (MOE) for evacuation performance analysis. The temporal resolution of demographic data has significant impacts on urban transportation dynamics during evacuation scenarios. Better evacuation performance estimation can be approached by integrating both Non-UE and UE scenarios. The new framework shows flexibility in implementing different evacuation strategies and accuracy in evacuation performance. The use of this framework can be explored to day-to-day traffic assignment to support daily traffic operations.

  8. PACS for Bhutan: a cost effective open source architecture for emerging countries.

    PubMed

    Ratib, Osman; Roduit, Nicolas; Nidup, Dechen; De Geer, Gerard; Rosset, Antoine; Geissbuhler, Antoine

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports the design and implementation of an innovative and cost-effective imaging management infrastructure suitable for radiology centres in emerging countries. It was implemented in the main referring hospital of Bhutan equipped with a CT, an MRI, digital radiology, and a suite of several ultrasound units. They lacked the necessary informatics infrastructure for image archiving and interpretation and needed a system for distribution of images to clinical wards. The solution developed for this project combines several open source software platforms in a robust and versatile archiving and communication system connected to analysis workstations equipped with a FDA-certified version of the highly popular Open-Source software. The whole system was implemented on standard off-the-shelf hardware. The system was installed in three days, and training of the radiologists as well as the technical and IT staff was provided onsite to ensure full ownership of the system by the local team. Radiologists were rapidly capable of reading and interpreting studies on the diagnostic workstations, which had a significant benefit on their workflow and ability to perform diagnostic tasks more efficiently. Furthermore, images were also made available to several clinical units on standard desktop computers through a web-based viewer. • Open source imaging informatics platforms can provide cost-effective alternatives for PACS • Robust and cost-effective open architecture can provide adequate solutions for emerging countries • Imaging informatics is often lacking in hospitals equipped with digital modalities.

  9. One-stage emergency treatment of open grade IIIB tibial shaft fractures with bone loss.

    PubMed

    Tropet, Y; Garbuio, P; Obert, L; Jeunet, L; Elias, B

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the authors' experience with emergency reconstruction of severe tibial shaft fractures. Five male patients were admitted to the emergency room with a grade IIIB open tibial shaft fracture with bone loss (average age, 33 years; age range, 18-65 years). Injuries were the result of motorcycle accidents (N = 2), pedestrian accidents (N = 1), gunshot wound (N = 1), and paragliding fall (N = 1). Primary emergent one-stage management for all patients consisted of administration of antibiotics, debridement, stabilization by locked intramedullary nailing, bone grafting from the iliac crest, and coverage using free muscle flaps (four latissimus dorsi and one gracilis). The average follow-up was 21 months (range, 8 months-3.5 years). Partial weight bearing with no immobilization was started at 3 months, and full weight bearing began 5 months after trauma. No angular complications and no nonunions were observed. There was one case of superficial infection without osteitis. All fractures healed within 6 months in 4 patients and within 10 months in 1 patient. At the last follow-up examination, ankle and knee motion was normal and no pain was noted, except for 1 patient who had associated lesions (ankle motion reduced by 50%). Aggressive emergency management of severe open tibial fractures provides good results. It improves end results markedly, not only by reducing tissue loss from infection, but also reducing healing and rehabilitation times.

  10. The relationship of fall school opening and emergency department asthma visits in a large metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Robert A; Ito, Kazuhiko; Stevenson, Lori; Hastings, Harold M

    2005-09-01

    Asthma morbidity is seasonal, with the fewest exacerbations occurring in summer and the most exacerbations in early fall. To determine if the fall increase in pediatric asthma emergency department (ED) visits is related to the school year start. Time-series study of daily asthma ED visits taken from an administrative claims database for the years 1991 to 2002. Eleven municipal hospitals in New York City, NY. Patients Emergency department visits with asthma as the primary diagnosis among children aged 2 to 4, 5 to 11, and 12 to 17 years and adults with asthma aged 22 to 45 years as comparative group. Main Outcome Measure Rate of asthma ED visits after the September school opening compared with before the opening, during a 60-day window of each year. The delayed effect of school opening was examined by the lagged school-opening indicator for lag 0 through 9 days. The model adjusted for factors that may influence morbidity. There were 86 731 ED visits within the study period. Asthma ED visits for children aged 5 to 11 years were significantly associated with school opening day, with the highest lagged rate ratio being 1.46 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29-1.65). For children aged 2 to 4 years, the highest rate ratio was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.06-1.35), and for children aged 12 to 17 years, the highest lagged rate ratio was 1.13 (95% CI, 0.98-1.31). The rise in adult ED visits following school opening was less substantial, with the highest lagged rate ratio being 1.07 (95% CI, 1.00-1.14). The start of the September school year was associated with increases in pediatric asthma ED visits, particularly among grade school children.

  11. Is cholecystectomy the treatment of choice for acute acalculous cholecystitis? A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Soria Aledo, Víctor; Galindo Iñíguez, Lorena; Flores Funes, Diego; Carrasco Prats, Milagros; Aguayo Albasini, Jose Luis

    2017-10-01

    There is currently no consensus with regard to the use of cholecystectomy or percutaneous cholecystostomy as the therapy of choice for acute acalculous cholecystitis. The goal of this study was to review the scientific evidence on the management of these patients according to clinical and radiographic findings. A systematic review of the literature from 2000 to 2016 was performed. The databases of PubMed, Índice Médico Español, Cochrane Library and Embase were searched according to the following inclusion criteria: publication language (English or Spanish), adult patients, acalculous etiology and appropriate study design. A total of 1,013 articles were identified and ten articles were selected for review. These included five observational controlled studies and five case series which described the outcome of patients treated with percutaneous cholecystostomy and emergency cholecystectomy. No prospective or randomized studies were identified using the search criteria. The data from the literature and analysis of results suggested that percutaneous cholecystostomy may be a definitive therapy for acute acalculous cholecystitis with no need for subsequent elective cholecystectomy. Percutaneous cholecystostomy may be the first treatment option for patients with acute acalculous cholecystitis except in cases with a perforation or gallbladder gangrene. Patients at low surgical risk may benefit from cholecystectomy but both treatment options may be effective. Percutaneous cholecystostomy in patients with acute acalculous cholecystitis may be a definitive therapy with no need for a subsequent elective cholecystectomy. However, the overall quality of studies is low and the final recommendations should be considered with caution.

  12. Day versus night laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis: A comparison of outcomes and cost.

    PubMed

    Siada, Sammy S; Schaetzel, Shaina S; Chen, Allen K; Hoang, Huy D; Wilder, Fatima G; Dirks, Rachel C; Kaups, Krista L; Davis, James W

    2017-09-18

    Recent studies have suggested higher complication and conversion to open rates for nighttime laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and recommend against the practice. We hypothesize that patients undergoing night LC for acute cholecystitis have decreased hospital length of stay and cost with no difference in complication and conversion rates. A retrospective review of patients with acute cholecystitis who underwent LC from October 2011 through June 2015 was performed. Complication rates, length of stay, and cost of hospitalization were compared between patients undergoing day cholecystectomy and night cholecystectomy. Complication rates and costs did not differ between the day and night groups. Length of stay was shorter in the night group (2.4 vs 2.8 days, p = 0.002). Performing LC for acute cholecystitis during night-time hours does not increase risk of complications and decreases length of stay. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Endoscopic removal of common bile duct stones without subsequent cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Olaison, G; Kald, B; Karlqvist, P A; Lindström, E; Anderberg, B

    1987-09-01

    Good results from endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) for removing choledochal stones following cholecystectomy, have led to increasing use of the method when the gallbladder is in situ. The need for cholecystectomy after successful EST has been questioned. As cholecystectomy in elderly patients involves substantial risk, we routinely defer cholecystectomy in such patients while they remain asymptomatic. Experience of 40 cases is reported. Thirty-four were discharged without cholecystectomy and one underwent elective cholecystectomy at his own request. The remaining 33 patients were followed up for 6-53 (mean 21.5) months. Four died from causes unrelated to gallstone disease. Symptoms requiring cholecystectomy arose in two cases (6%). We found no problems due to refraining from routine elective cholecystectomy following EST for common bile duct stones. The rarity of later symptoms appears to justify a "wait and see" attitude to post-EST cholecystectomy.

  14. Early endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography after laparoscopic cholecystectomy can strain the occurrence of trocar site hernia

    PubMed Central

    Sumer, Fatih; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yagci, Mehmet Ali; Otan, Emrah; Kocaaslan, Huseyin

    2014-01-01

    This study reports a 69-year-old, obese, female patient presenting with a biliary leakage after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis. Closure of the umbilical trocar site had been neglected during the laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Early, on postoperative day five, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) requirement after laparoscopic cholecystectomy resolved the biliary leakage problem but resulted with a more complicated clinical picture with an intestinal obstruction and severe abdominal pain. Computed tomography revealed a strangulated hernia from the umbilical trocar site. Increased abdominal pressure during ERCP had strained the weak umbilical trocar site. Emergency surgical intervention through the umbilicus revealed an ischemic small bowel segment which was treated with resection and anastomosis. This report demonstrates that negligence of trocar site closure can result in very early herniation, particularly if an endoscopic intervention is required in the early postoperative period. PMID:25400872

  15. Early endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography after laparoscopic cholecystectomy can strain the occurrence of trocar site hernia.

    PubMed

    Sumer, Fatih; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yagci, Mehmet Ali; Otan, Emrah; Kocaaslan, Huseyin

    2014-11-16

    This study reports a 69-year-old, obese, female patient presenting with a biliary leakage after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis. Closure of the umbilical trocar site had been neglected during the laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Early, on postoperative day five, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) requirement after laparoscopic cholecystectomy resolved the biliary leakage problem but resulted with a more complicated clinical picture with an intestinal obstruction and severe abdominal pain. Computed tomography revealed a strangulated hernia from the umbilical trocar site. Increased abdominal pressure during ERCP had strained the weak umbilical trocar site. Emergency surgical intervention through the umbilicus revealed an ischemic small bowel segment which was treated with resection and anastomosis. This report demonstrates that negligence of trocar site closure can result in very early herniation, particularly if an endoscopic intervention is required in the early postoperative period.

  16. Gallstone ileus one quarter of a century post cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Saedon, Mahmud; Gourgiotis, Stavros; Salemis, Nikolaos S; Majeed, Ali W; Zavos, Apostolos

    2008-01-01

    Gallstone ileus is a rare but potentially serious complication of cholelithiasis. It is usually preceded by history of biliary symptoms. It usually occurs as a result of a large gallstone creating and passing through a cholecysto-enteric fistula. Most of the time, the stone will pass the GI tract without any problems, but large enough stones can cause obstruction. The two most common locations of impaction are the terminal ileum and the ileocaecal valve because of the anatomical small diameter and less active peristalsis. We present an unusual case of small bowel obstruction secondary to gallstone ileus 24 years after an open cholecystectomy.

  17. Early experience in human hybrid transgastric and transvaginal endoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Gustavo; Saavedra, Lil; Agurto, Hellen; Quispe, Rosa; Ramírez, Edwin; Grande, José; Tamayo, Juan; Sánchez, Victoria; Málaga, Daniel; Marks, Jeffrey M

    2010-05-01

    Abdominal procedures have been performed for a long time through the anterior abdominal wall. Since the first reports in the 1980s, laparoscopy has become the standard for cholecystectomy, with many advantages over open procedures. Now a natural-orifice approach to the peritoneal cavity may further reduce the invasiveness of surgery by either diminishing or avoiding abdominal incisions. Several orifice routes to the abdominal cavity have been described: transgastric, transvaginal, transvesical, and transcolonic. Although most experiences with the porcine model showed the possibility of these approaches, few surgeons reported experiences with humans. The authors present their complete early experience with transgastric (TG) and transvaginal (TV) cholecystectomies in human beings. Thirty-nine patients (4 males and 35 females) underwent hybrid NOTES procedures from January 2007 to January 2009. The mean age was 46 years (range = 19-83). The body mass index ranged from 20 to 41 and ASA was I-II. Transgastric (TG) cholecystectomy was performed in 27 patients and 12 patients had a transvaginal (TV) cholecystectomy. The mean operative time was 140 min. Although operative times were slightly shorter in the TG group 005B137 +/- 34.6 min (range = 75-195)] compared to the TV route [147 +/- 31.5 min (range = 95-220)], there were no significant differences between the two groups (p = 0.5, Mann-Whitney U test). Patients were started on liquids within 1 h and discharged 2 h later, except the last 11 TG patients, who went home 24 h later because of enrollment in a separate protocol. An overall 20% morbidity rate and no mortality were found. The complication rates for the TG and TV groups were 18% (5/27) and 25% (3/12), respectively, which was not statistically significant (p = 0.6, chi(2) test). Seventy-five percent of complications (6/8) occurred the first year and 25% (2/8) during the second year of our experience. Transgastric and transvaginal cholecystectomies are feasible

  18. Emergency Soft Tissue Reconstruction Algorithm in Patients With Open Tibia Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, P.A.; Shibaev, E.U.; Nevedrov, A.V.; Vlasov, A.P.; Lasarev, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tactic of emergency closing of soft tissue defect allows to significantly improve the treatment results concerning patients with severe open fractures. However, a number of certain factors make the implementation of this tactic rather difficult. Injured people’s unstable conditions are mong these crucial factors which include, polytrauma in lots of cases, absence of exact recommendations for recovery terms, choice of definite tissue flaps and a type of circulation. The Aim of Study: is to develop exact, usable and in practice algorithm of emergency reconstruction of leg soft tissues in patients with severe open tibia fractures, based on the usage of the most foolproof and simple methods. Data (Patients) and Methods: 85 patients with open tibia fractures complicated by soft tissue defects were included in our study. Patients were divided into two groups. The control group consisted of 56 patients. Soft tissue reconstruction in this group was provided without an exact algorithm, after continuous attempts on local healing. After analyzing the treatment process and the treatment results we have developed the algorithm of emergency soft tissue reconstruction. It was used in 29 patients (the study group). This algorithm allows choosing optimal timing for tissue reconstruction and appropriate method to be applied, depending on the patient’s condition, the mechanism of soft tissue defect formation, and its square and localization. Results: We observed a statistical decrease in deep wound infection frequency, partial tibia necrosis frequency, chronic osteomyelitis frequency, duration of hospitalization in patients with severe open tibia fractures because of using our algorithm. PMID:27583057

  19. [Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: considerations on the technique].

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, P; Nesi, L; Zago, A; Zardini, C

    1992-04-01

    The Authors analyze the single steps of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and describe the technique usually preferred. On the basis of the experience acquired, advantages and disadvantages of each manoeuver and instrument available are pointed out.

  20. Endogenous gas gangrene after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Zelić, M; Kunisek, L; Mendrila, D; Gudelj, M; Abram, M; Uravić, M

    2011-01-01

    Clostridial gas gangrene of the abdominal wall is rare, and it is usually associated with organ perforation, immunosuppression or gastrointestinal malignancies. In this paper we present a case of fulminant, endogenous gas gangrene in a 58-year old diabetic female with arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis, following uneventful laparoscopic cholecystectomy. She developed gas gangrene of the abdominal wall 12-hours after cholecystectomy and died 24-hours after the onset of the first symptoms, in spite of treatment.

  1. Explosive events in connection with small scale flux emergence in open field regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galsgaard, Klaus; Moreno-Insertis, Fernando, , Prof

    In recent years observations have shown that the emergence of new magnetic flux from the convection zone into the open field regions in the corona may generate spectacular jet phenomena. A smaller number of jets seem to end their near steady state phase in one or more spectacular eruptions where material is accelerated away from the solar surface reaching fairly high velocities. To investigate the jet phenomena, we have conducted a number of numerical MHD experiments that investigate the general interaction between an emerging bipolar flux region and the open coronal magnetic field. Under the correct conditions, this generates a well defined jet phase and the model explains many of the general characteristics of the typical Eiffel tower jets. Towards the end phase of the jet, the remains of the emerged flux system may experience some violent eruptions. This talk will discuss the general characteristics of these eruptions, aiming at providing an explanation to why they occur, and how they develop in general. These jets and eruptions may be what is taking place in some of the so-called breakout models described in a number of recent observational papers.

  2. The efficacy of cefazolin in reducing surgical site infection in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective randomized double-blind controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ruangsin, Sakchai; Laohawiriyakamol, Supparerk; Sunpaweravong, Somkiat; Mahattanobon, Somrit

    2015-04-01

    A prophylactic antibiotic is recommended in open cholecystectomy surgeries, but in laparoscopic cholecystectomies such prophylaxis is controversial. Recent reviews have not found conclusive evidence that routine prophylaxis, especially in low risk patients, is effective. This clinical trial was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of cefazolin in reducing surgical site infection SSI in laparoscopic cholecystectomies in a sample not screened for high or low risk patients. A randomized double-blind controlled trial was conducted in a single university hospital. Scheduled cholecystectomy patients without selection for patient risk factors were randomized into two groups. Pre-operatively, group A patients received a placebo of 10 ml isotonic sodium chloride, and group B patients received 1 g of cefazolin as a prophylactic antibiotic. All patients underwent a standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and were followed up for at least 30 days. Two hundred ninety-nine patients were randomized (149 in group A and 150 in group B). SSI occurred in seven patients (2.34 %), five (1.67 %) in the placebo group, and two (0.67 %) in the prophylactic antibiotic group. The difference was not statistically significant (p value = 0.512), and no specific risk factors for post-operative infection were identified. A single dose of preoperative prophylactic cefazolin has no significant benefit in reducing the incidence of SSI in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Whether or not to use a prophylactic depends on the individual patient, and the consideration of the attending surgeon.

  3. [Peculiarities of surgical care in case of open injuries of limbs in emergency situations in peacetime].

    PubMed

    Dubrov, V É; Mitish, V A; Kobritsov, G P; Shabanov, V É; Baĭramov, Sh A; Khanin, M Iu

    2014-01-01

    It was done the comparative analysis of treatment results of casualties with open injuries of limbs in emergency situations in peacetime. It was determined that traditional approach of field surgery is unacceptable for this group of casualties. It is connected with limitations of evacuation and high frequency of complications. The developed modified surgical protocol permits not only to provide specialized care to casualties with soft tissue trauma and open fracture of limbs but also to reduce frequency of deep suppuration in 1.9 times. Also it allows to decrease number of dressings for one patient and period of the wound defect preparation to reconstructive plastic surgeries in 2.6 and 1.5 times respectively.

  4. Hydro-Jet Assisted Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Initial Experience in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Shekarriz, Hodjat; Upadhyay, Jyoti; Comman, Andreas; Markert, Uwe; Bürk, Conny G.; Kujath, Peter; Bruch, Hans-Peter

    2002-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Hydro-Jet technology has long been used for cutting various materials like metal and wood in the industrial field. In the medical field, this technology has been applied successfully for selective cutting of the parenchyma of the liver. However, to our knowledge, no data exist on the use of the Hydro-Jet technique for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new dissection technique using a high-pressure water stream (Hydro-Jet) and a new dissection probe for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods: Thirty pigs underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Pigs were randomized to receive either the conventional or Hydro-Jet assisted dissection technique. The feasibility of this technique and the features of surgical dissection were evaluated and compared between the 2 groups. Results: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was successful in all animals with no need for conversion to open surgery. The mean operative time was 28 and 36 minutes for Hydro-Jet versus conventional dissection, respectively. Complications using the Hydro-Jet and conventional techniques included 6% and 20% gallbladder perforation and 6.5% and 13% liver laceration, respectively. The use of the Hydro-Jet for cholecystectomy had clear technical advantages over conventional dissection. The Hydro-Jet resulted in a selective dissection of fibrous and connective tissue preserving blood vessels for later ligation. Therefore, the dissection was performed in a relatively bloodless field. The ease of dissection using the new bent tipped dissector represents another advantage. Finally, the continuous water flow allowed a clear view for the operator. Conclusions: This study shows that Hydro-jet dissection represents an excellent alternative to the conventional technique for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The improved anatomical dissection combined with an almost bloodless operating field secondary to continuous water flow may decrease dissection

  5. Visual outcome after emergency surgery for open globe eye injury in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Toride, Ai; Toshida, Hiroshi; Matsui, Asaki; Matsuzaki, Yusuke; Honda, Rio; Ohta, Toshihiko; Murakami, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Background Most patients with open globe eye injury are brought to hospital as emergency patients and usually require admission for emergency surgery. We analyzed the visual outcome in patients with open globe eye injury at our hospital over a 4-year period. Patients and methods This study reviewed 40 eyes of 40 patients with open globe eye injury who were presented to Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital and required emergency surgery during the 4 years from January 2010 to December 2014. Retrospective evaluation of the visual outcome was performed using data from the medical records, including assessment of the influence of sex, side of the eye injury, cause of injury, and site/severity of injury. Results The mean age (SD) at the time of the injury was 58.9 years (±25.1 years). There were 28 males (70.0%) and 12 females (30.0%). Statistically significant improvement in visual acuity after treatment was noted in the males (P=0.0015, Wilcoxon test), but not in the females. Twenty-five patients had injury to the right eye (62.5%) and 15 had injury to the left eye (37.5%). A significant improvement in visual acuity was achieved after treatment of injury to the right eye (P=0.021), but not the left eye (P=0.109). The most frequent cause of injury was an accident (15 eyes; 37.5%). The second most frequent cause was work-related injury (14 eyes; 35.0%), which only occurred in males, and the third cause was accident due to negligence (eleven eyes; 27.5%). Two patients developed sympathetic ophthalmia and one patient developed postoperative endophthalmitis. Conclusion The majority of patients with open globe eye injury were male workers in Japan. The visual outcome of work-related injury was better than that of injury due to other causes. The visual outcome was also better if the right eye was injured compared with the left eye. Patients with injuries due to negligence were older than the other groups, and this finding might be characteristic of an aging society. PMID

  6. Visual outcome after emergency surgery for open globe eye injury in Japan.

    PubMed

    Toride, Ai; Toshida, Hiroshi; Matsui, Asaki; Matsuzaki, Yusuke; Honda, Rio; Ohta, Toshihiko; Murakami, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with open globe eye injury are brought to hospital as emergency patients and usually require admission for emergency surgery. We analyzed the visual outcome in patients with open globe eye injury at our hospital over a 4-year period. This study reviewed 40 eyes of 40 patients with open globe eye injury who were presented to Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital and required emergency surgery during the 4 years from January 2010 to December 2014. Retrospective evaluation of the visual outcome was performed using data from the medical records, including assessment of the influence of sex, side of the eye injury, cause of injury, and site/severity of injury. The mean age (SD) at the time of the injury was 58.9 years (±25.1 years). There were 28 males (70.0%) and 12 females (30.0%). Statistically significant improvement in visual acuity after treatment was noted in the males (P=0.0015, Wilcoxon test), but not in the females. Twenty-five patients had injury to the right eye (62.5%) and 15 had injury to the left eye (37.5%). A significant improvement in visual acuity was achieved after treatment of injury to the right eye (P=0.021), but not the left eye (P=0.109). The most frequent cause of injury was an accident (15 eyes; 37.5%). The second most frequent cause was work-related injury (14 eyes; 35.0%), which only occurred in males, and the third cause was accident due to negligence (eleven eyes; 27.5%). Two patients developed sympathetic ophthalmia and one patient developed postoperative endophthalmitis. The majority of patients with open globe eye injury were male workers in Japan. The visual outcome of work-related injury was better than that of injury due to other causes. The visual outcome was also better if the right eye was injured compared with the left eye. Patients with injuries due to negligence were older than the other groups, and this finding might be characteristic of an aging society.

  7. Effects of seed weight and rate of emergence on early growth of open-pollinated Douglas-fir families.

    Treesearch

    J.B. St. Clair; W.T. Adams

    1991-01-01

    Seed weight, time of emergence, and three measures of seedling size were recorded for 39 open-pollinated Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii[Mirb.] Franco) families in order to assess family variation in seed weight and emergence, and the influence of these seed traits on early growth. Families were planted both...

  8. Synchronically performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy and hernioplasty.

    PubMed

    Simon, E; Kelemen, O; Knausz, J; Bodnár, S; Bátorfi, J

    1999-01-01

    Cholecystectomies and hernioplasties are the two most frequently performed surgical interventions. The laparoscopic technique can be offered for the simultaneous treatment with both operating indications. The synchronical operation can give all the advantages of the minimally invasive technique. Authors had performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy with laparoscopic hernioplasty in five cases. Two inguinal and three postoperative hernias were reconstructed. The cholecystectomy was performed with a "three punction method", and the hernioplasty by using the same approach, completed by inserting a fourth assisting trocar as required. The hernial ring was covered with an intraperitoneally placed mesh, which was fixed by staplers (the so-called "IPOM-method": intraperitoneal on-lay mesh). There was no intra-, nor postoperative complication. The hernioplasty combined with laparoscopic cholecystectomy did not have effect on postoperative pain and nursing time. The return to the normal physical activity was short, similar to laparoscopic hernioplasty (in 1-2 weeks). Authors conclude that the simultaneous, synchronous laparoscopic cholecystectomy and hernioplasty is recommended and should be the method of choice because it is more advantageous for patients.

  9. Prophylactic laparoscopic cholecystectomy in adult sickle cell disease patients with cholelithiasis: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Muroni, Mirko; Loi, Valeria; Lionnet, François; Girot, Robert; Houry, Sidney

    2015-10-01

    and 7.96 (4-18) days for the comparative symptomatic group. Postoperative complications related to SCD were less frequent for asymptomatic patients who had a laparoscopic prophylactic cholecystectomy. This intervention, if performed with perioperative specific management, is safe and helps avoid emergency operations for acute complications including cholecystitis, choledocholithiasis, and cholangitis. For SCD patients, a prophylactic cholecystectomy reduces hospital stays. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prospective Observational Study of Single-Site Multiport Per-umbilical Laparoscopic Endosurgery versus Conventional Multiport Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Critical Appraisal of a Unique Umbilical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jategaonkar, Priyadarshan Anand; Yadav, Sudeep Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. This prospective observational study compares an innovative approach of Single-Site Multi-Port Per-umbilical Laparoscopic Endo-surgery (SSMPPLE) cholecystectomy with the gold standard—Conventional Multi-port Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (CMLC)—to assess the feasibility and efficacy of the former. Methods. In all, 646 patients were studied. SSMPPLE cholecystectomy utilized three ports inserted through three independent mini-incisions at the umbilicus. Only the day-to-day rigid laparoscopic instruments were used in all cases. The SSMPPLE cholecystectomy group had 320 patients and the CMLC group had 326 patients. The outcomes were statistically compared. Results. SSMPPLE cholecystectomy had average operative time of 43.8 min and blood loss of 9.4 mL. Their duration of hospitalization was 1.3 days (range, 1–5). Six patients (1.9%) of this group were converted to CMLC. Eleven patients had controlled gallbladder perforations at dissection. The Visual Analogue Scores for pain on postoperative days 0 and 7, the operative time, and the scar grades were significantly better for SSMPPLE than CMLC. However, umbilical sepsis and seroma outcomes were similar. We had no bile-duct injuries or port-site hernias in this study. Conclusion. SSMPPLE cholecystectomy approach complies with the principles of laparoscopic triangulation; it seems feasible and safe method of minimally invasive cholecystectomy. Overall, it has a potential to emerge as an economically viable alternative to single-port surgery. PMID:24876955

  11. Association Between the Opening of Retail Clinics and Low-Acuity Emergency Department Visits.

    PubMed

    Martsolf, Grant; Fingar, Kathryn R; Coffey, Rosanna; Kandrack, Ryan; Charland, Tom; Eibner, Christine; Elixhauser, Anne; Steiner, Claudia; Mehrotra, Ateev

    2017-04-01

    We assess whether the opening of retail clinics near emergency departments (ED) is associated with decreased ED utilization for low-acuity conditions. We used data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Emergency Department Databases for 2,053 EDs in 23 states from 2007 to 2012. We used Poisson regression models to examine the association between retail clinic penetration and the rate of ED visits for 11 low-acuity conditions. Retail clinic "penetration" was measured as the percentage of the ED catchment area that overlapped with the 10-minute drive radius of a retail clinic. Rate ratios were calculated for a 10-percentage-point increase in retail clinic penetration per quarter. During the course of a year, this represents the effect of an increase in retail clinic penetration rate from 0% to 40%, which was approximately the average penetration rate observed in 2012. Among all patients, retail clinic penetration was not associated with a reduced rate of low-acuity ED visits (rate ratio=0.999; 95% confidence interval=0.997 to 1.000). Among patients with private insurance, there was a slight decrease in low-acuity ED visits (rate ratio=0.997; 95% confidence interval=0.994 to 0.999). For the average ED in a given quarter, this would equal a 0.3% reduction (95% confidence interval 0.1% to 0.6%) in low-acuity ED visits among the privately insured if retail clinic penetration rate increased by 10 percentage points per quarter. With increased patient demand resulting from the expansion of health insurance coverage, retail clinics may emerge as an important care location, but to date, they have not been associated with a meaningful reduction in low-acuity ED visits. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Combined cholecystectomy in gastric cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shuo-Lun; Yang, Jyh-Chin; Wu, Jin-Ming; Lai, I-Rue; Chen, Chiung-Nien; Lin, Ming-Tsan; Lai, Hong-Shiee

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have described the risk factors of gallstone formation in gastric cancer patients after gastrectomy, but few studies focus on the management of asymptomatic gallstones. Our goal is to examine the rationale of simultaneous cholecystectomy during gastric cancer surgery, and influence of surgical mortality, morbidity and overall survival after combined cholecystectomy and gastrectomy. We retrospectively reviewed 445 gastric cancer patients and the gallbladders evaluated by abdominal ultrasound or computed tomography preoperatively and postoperatively. Clinicopathologic factors, including surgical morbidity, mortality and overall survival of combined surgery, were compared between patients receiving gastrectomy with simultaneous cholecystectomy and patients receiving gastrectomy only. We also evaluated the risk factors of gallstone formation after gastrectomy and the probability of subsequent cholecystectomy after gastrectomy in gastric cancer patients with or without asymptomatic gallstones. Of 445 gastric cancer patients, 52 (11.7%) patients had asymptomatic gallstones upon diagnosis of gastric cancer. Among patients with healthy gallbladders, 15.2% developed gallstones after gastrectomy. Men and older patients (age over 60) had significantly higher risk of gallstone formation. Rate of subsequent cholecystectomy in patients with and without preoperative asymptomatic gallstones was 30.8% and 4.5%, respectively (p = 0.005). The rates of mortality and morbidity were not significantly different between combined surgery (3.4%, 24.2%) and gastrectomy only (3.1%, 22%). There was also no significant difference in 5-year survival between combined surgery (61%) and gastrectomy only (63%) groups. Combined cholecystectomy for asymptomatic gallstone in gastric cancer surgery may be considered. It was not associated with increased surgical morbidity or mortality, and had no significant effect on overall survival. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published

  13. Metallo-beta-lactamases as emerging resistance determinants in Gram-negative pathogens: open issues.

    PubMed

    Cornaglia, Giuseppe; Akova, Murat; Amicosante, Gianfranco; Cantón, Rafael; Cauda, Roberto; Docquier, Jean-Denis; Edelstein, Mikhail; Frère, Jean-Marie; Fuzi, Miklós; Galleni, Moreno; Giamarellou, Helen; Gniadkowski, Marek; Koncan, Raffaella; Libisch, Balázs; Luzzaro, Francesco; Miriagou, Vivi; Navarro, Ferran; Nordmann, Patrice; Pagani, Laura; Peixe, Luisa; Poirel, Laurent; Souli, Maria; Tacconelli, Evelina; Vatopoulos, Alkiviadis; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2007-04-01

    The rapid spread of acquired metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) among major Gram-negative pathogens is a matter of particular concern worldwide and primarily in Europe, one of first continents where the emergence of acquired MBLs has been reported and possibly the geographical area where the increasing diversity of these enzymes and the number of bacterial species affected are most impressive. This spread has not been paralleled by accuracy/standardisation of detection methods, completeness of epidemiological knowledge or a clear understanding of what MBL production entails in terms of clinical impact, hospital infection control and antimicrobial chemotherapy. A number of European experts in the field met to review the current knowledge on this phenomenon, to point out open issues and to reinforce and relate to one another the existing activities set forth by research institutes, scientific societies and European Union-driven networks.

  14. A portable fluorescence microscopic imaging system for cholecystectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jian; Yang, Chaoyu; Gan, Qi; Ma, Rong; Zhang, Zeshu; Chang, Shufang; Shao, Pengfei; Zhang, Shiwu; Liu, Chenhai; Xu, Ronald

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we proposed a portable fluorescence microscopic imaging system to prevent iatrogenic biliary injuries from occurring during cholecystectomy due to misidentification of the cystic structures. The system consisted of a light source module, a CMOS camera, a Raspberry Pi computer and a 5 inch HDMI LCD. Specifically, the light source module was composed of 690 nm and 850 nm LEDs, allowing the CMOS camera to simultaneously acquire both fluorescence and background images. The system was controlled by Raspberry Pi using Python programming with the OpenCV library under Linux. We chose Indocyanine green(ICG) as a fluorescent contrast agent and then tested fluorescence intensities of the ICG aqueous solution at different concentration levels by our fluorescence microscopic system compared with the commercial Xenogen IVIS system. The spatial resolution of the proposed fluorescence microscopic imaging system was measured by a 1951 USAF resolution target and the dynamic response was evaluated quantitatively with an automatic displacement platform. Finally, we verified the technical feasibility of the proposed system in mouse models of bile duct, performing both correct and incorrect gallbladder resection. Our experiments showed that the proposed system can provide clear visualization of the confluence between the cystic duct and common bile duct or common hepatic duct, suggesting that this is a potential method for guiding cholecystectomy. The proposed portable system only cost a total of $300, potentially promoting its use in resource-limited settings.

  15. Single Incision Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Gallbladder Duplication

    PubMed Central

    Kabul Gürbulak, Esin; Özşahin, Hamdi; Düzköylü, Yiğit; Akgün, Ismail Ethem; Battal, Muharrem; Gürbulak, Bünyamin

    2015-01-01

    Duplication of the gallbladder is a rare congenital anomaly of the gallbladder, with an estimated prevalence of 1–3 per 3800 individuals. Unless properly diagnosed preoperatively, it can lead to biliary tract injuries and postoperative complications which may require reoperative surgeries. While previously reported cases have been treated with conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), treatment with single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) has not been reported yet. We herein present the case of a 58-year-old female with gallbladder duplication who was successfully treated with SILS cholecystectomy. PMID:26266074

  16. Delayed intrahepatic subcapsular hematoma after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Steve M M; Reekers, Jim A; Dwars, Boudewijn J

    2012-01-01

    Intrahepatic subcapsular hematoma after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a rare complication and is potentially life threatening. When radiologic studies confirm the presence of the hematoma, the decision to follow a conservative treatment should involve clinical monitoring. If there are signs of infection, the collection can safely be drained percutaneously. If there are signs of active bleeding, a selective embolization should be attempted first. If unsuccessful, subsequent surgical evacuation should be performed. We report the case of a patient with an intrahepatic subcapsular hematoma after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which occurred 6 weeks after surgery, and review the literature concerning the management of these bleedings.

  17. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Leave no (spilled) stone unturned.

    PubMed

    Wilton, P B; Andy, O J; Peters, J J; Thomas, C F; Patel, V S; Scott-Conner, C E

    1993-01-01

    Stones are sometimes spilled at the time of cholecystectomy. Retrieval may be difficult, especially during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Little is known about the natural history of missed stones which are left behind in the peritoneal cavity. We present a case in which a patient developed an intraabdominal abscess around such a stone. The abscess recurred after drainage and removal of the stone was needed for resolution. This case suggests that care should be taken to avoid stone spillage, and that stones which are spilled into the abdomen should be retrieved.

  18. Review of 555 cholecystectomies without drainage.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, W S; Kambouris, A A; Allaben, R D

    1978-04-01

    During a 10-year period, 555 cholecystectomies were performed without drainage of the gallbladder bed or subhepatic space. Six per cent of the patients had acute cholecystitis or hydrops of the gallbaldder and 11% had common duct exploration. Only in those patients with frank infection, spillage of obviously infected bile or in whom satisfactory closure of the gallbladder bed could not be accomplished was a drain used. Meticulous closure of the gallbladder bed was performed to minimize leakage of bile. The series was critically studied to evaluate complications, morbidity, mortality and hospital stay. It was concluded that drainage following cholecystectomy or choledochotomy can safely be omitted except for the indications mentioned.

  19. Abdominal Wall Haematoma Complicating Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Tate, J. J. T.; Davidson, B. R.; Hobbs, K. E. F.

    1994-01-01

    Of 61 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 4 (6.25%) developed abdominal wall haematomas. This complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy may occur more commonly than existing literature suggests, and manifests in the post-operative period (days 2 to 6) by visible bruising, excessive pain or an asymptomatic drop in haematocrit. It is readily confirmed by ultrasonography. While no specific treatment is necessary apart from replacement of significant blood loss, the patient requires reassurance that this apparently alarming complication will rapidly resolve. PMID:8204548

  20. The impact of routine histopathological examination on cholecystectomy specimens from an Asian demographic.

    PubMed

    Chin, K F; Mohammad, A A; Khoo, Y Y; Krishnasamy, T

    2012-04-01

    Most gallbladder carcinoma cases are suspected pre-operatively or intra-operatively. In Malaysia histopathological examination of cholecystectomy specimens has become routine practice. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of routine histological examinations on cholecystectomy specimens from an Asian demographic, which may differ from a Caucasian demographic. A retrospective study was performed of all histopathology reports for cholecystectomies (laparoscopic and open) undertaken over a period of 12 years (1997-2008) in a single teaching hospital. A total of 1,375 gallbladder specimens were sent for histopathological analysis, with 7 (0.5%) being reported as malignant while only three (0.2%) were found to contain primary gallbladder carcinoma. Other premalignant findings included two specimens with dysplastic changes of the mucosa and one tubulovillous adenoma with a dysplastic epithelium. From the ten malignant and premalignant specimens, seven were diagnosed pre-operatively, two were suspected intra-operatively and one was diagnosed with dysplastic changes on the histopathology report post-operatively. This study supports earlier research carried out in the UK and the demographic difference does not affect the impact of the histology examination on cholecystectomy specimens in diagnosing this disease. A selective policy is recommended in Malaysia.

  1. Case Report: Modified Laparoscopic Subtotal Cholecystectomy: An Alternative Approach to the “Difficult Gallbladder”

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Michael S.; Huynh, Richard H.; Wright, George O.

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 56 Final Diagnosis: Acute cholecystitis Symptoms: Abdominal pain Medication:— Clinical Procedure: Laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy Specialty: Surgery Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a commonly performed surgical procedure. In certain situations visualization of the Callot triangle can become difficult due to inflammation, adhesions, and sclerosing of the anatomy. Without being able to obtain the “critical view of safety” (CVS), there is increased risk of damage to vital structures. An alternative approach to the conventional conversion to an open cholecystectomy (OC) would be a laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy (LSC). Case Report: We present a case of a 56-year-old male patient with acute cholecystitis with a “difficult gallbladder” managed with LSC. Due to poor visualization of the Callot triangle due to adhesions, safe dissection was not feasible. In an effort to avoid injury to the common bile duct (CBD), dissection began at the dome of the gallbladder allowing an alternative view while ensuring safety of critical structures. Conclusions: We discuss the potential benefits and risks of LSC versus conversion to OC. Our discussion incorporates the pathophysiology that allows LSC in this particular circumstance to be successful, and the considerations a surgeon faces in making a decision in management. PMID:28220035

  2. [Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in octogenarian patients. A comparative study between two geriatric population groups].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Beorlegui, Jesús; Soriano, Pablo; Monsalve, Eduardo; Moreno, Nuria; Cabezali, Roger; Navarro, Ana

    2009-04-01

    In the current article, we analyse the results and complications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in octogenarian patients. Retrospective study in patients older than 80 years, who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy between January 2002 and August 2007. Variables analysed were presentation, physical condition, anaesthetic risk, conversion rate, morbidity and hospital stay. A comparison was made with patients aged between 70 and 79 years old. The chi(2) and Student's t tests were used for statistical analysis. The level of significance was defined as a p value less than 0.05. A total of 64 patients were operated on, of which 39 (63%) were women and 25 men, with a mean age 83.7 years. Surgery was scheduled in 40 (62.5%) cases and urgent in 24 cases. The conversion rate to open cholecystectomy was 10.9% and the average hospital stay was 3.9 days. Two patients required re-intervention and two patients died. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the treatment of choice for symptomatic cholelithiasis in octogenarians. The laparoscopic approach should be considered for the management of acute cholecystitis in the very old (except where contraindicated) before the development of complications.

  3. The effect of single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy on systemic oxidative stress: a prospective clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Bahadir; Yilmaz, Huseyin; Yormaz, Serdar; Şahin, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) has become a more frequently performed method for benign gallbladder diseases all over the world. The effects of SILC technique on oxidative stress have not been well documented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of laparoscopic cholecystectomy techniques on systemic oxidative stress by using ischemia modified albumin (IMA). Methods In total, 70 patients who had been diagnosed with benign gallbladder pathology were enrolled for this prospective study. Twenty-one patients underwent SILC and 49 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). All operations were performed under a standard anesthesia protocol. Serum IMA levels were analysed before operation, 45 minutes and 24 hours after operation. Results Demographics and preoperative characteristics of the patients were similiar in each group. The mean duration of operation was 37.5 ± 12.5 and 44.6 ± 14.3 minutes in LC and SILC group, respectively. In both groups, there was no statistically significant difference in hospital stay, operative time, or conversion to open surgery. Operative technique did not effect the 45th minute and 24th hour IMA levels. However, prolonged operative time (>30 minutes) caused an early increase in the level of IMA. Twenty-fourth hour IMA levels were not different. Conclusion SILC is an effective and safe surgical prosedure for benign gallbladder diseases. Independent of the surgical technique for cholecystectomy, the prolonged operative time could increase the tissue ischemia. PMID:28382289

  4. [Laparoscopic cholecystectomy with three-port and 25 millimeters long incision.

    PubMed

    Gómez Tagle-Morales, Enrique David

    2013-01-01

    Background: three-port and 25 mm total incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy has shown benefits compared to conventional laparoscopy. The aim was to examine the safety and feasibility of this technique. Methods: a three-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy trial was conducted through Cinvestav metasearcher, Seriunam and Rencis. The eligibility criteria were: three port laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 25 mm total incision, and score = 17 on Data Review System. Trials which employed instruments smaller than 5 mm in diameter were excluded. The comparative variables were documented and results obtained in the selected trials were described. Results: four trials were selected, comprising 1767 cases (1329 females and 438 males), average age was 44.3 years. Chronic cholecystitis was documented in 84.3 %, and acute cholecystitis in 14.7 %. Average surgical time was 54.5 minutes. An additional port was required in 4.8 % and 1.4 % was converted to open technique. Bile duct injury was presented in 0.11 %. The success rate was 94.9 %. Conclusions: three port and 25 mm total incision in laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe and feasible.

  5. Emergency in-flight egress opening for general aviation aircraft. [pilot bailout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1980-01-01

    An emergency in-flight egress system was installed in a light general aviation airplane. The airplane had no provision for egress on the left side. To avoid a major structural redesign for a mechanical door, an add on 11.2 kg (24.6 lb) pyrotechnic-actuated system was developed to create an opening in the existing structure. The skin of the airplane was explosively severed around the side window, across a central stringer, and down to the floor, creating an opening of approximately 76 by 76 cm. The severed panel was jettisoned at an initial velocity of approximately 13.7 m/sec. System development included a total of 68 explosive severance tests on aluminum material using small samples, small and full scale flat panel aircraft structural mockups, and an actual aircraft fuselage. These tests proved explosive sizing/severance margins, explosive initiation, explosive product containment, and system dynamics. This technology is applicable to any aircraft of similar construction.

  6. Irreversible thermodynamics of open chemical networks. I. Emergent cycles and broken conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polettini, Matteo; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2014-07-01

    In this paper and Paper II, we outline a general framework for the thermodynamic description of open chemical reaction networks, with special regard to metabolic networks regulating cellular physiology and biochemical functions. We first introduce closed networks "in a box", whose thermodynamics is subjected to strict physical constraints: the mass-action law, elementarity of processes, and detailed balance. We further digress on the role of solvents and on the seemingly unacknowledged property of network independence of free energy landscapes. We then open the system by assuming that the concentrations of certain substrate species (the chemostats) are fixed, whether because promptly regulated by the environment via contact with reservoirs, or because nearly constant in a time window. As a result, the system is driven out of equilibrium. A rich algebraic and topological structure ensues in the network of internal species: Emergent irreversible cycles are associated with nonvanishing affinities, whose symmetries are dictated by the breakage of conservation laws. These central results are resumed in the relation a + b = sY between the number of fundamental affinities a, that of broken conservation laws b and the number of chemostats sY. We decompose the steady state entropy production rate in terms of fundamental fluxes and affinities in the spirit of Schnakenberg's theory of network thermodynamics, paving the way for the forthcoming treatment of the linear regime, of efficiency and tight coupling, of free energy transduction, and of thermodynamic constraints for network reconstruction.

  7. Irreversible thermodynamics of open chemical networks. I. Emergent cycles and broken conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Polettini, Matteo Esposito, Massimiliano

    2014-07-14

    In this paper and Paper II, we outline a general framework for the thermodynamic description of open chemical reaction networks, with special regard to metabolic networks regulating cellular physiology and biochemical functions. We first introduce closed networks “in a box”, whose thermodynamics is subjected to strict physical constraints: the mass-action law, elementarity of processes, and detailed balance. We further digress on the role of solvents and on the seemingly unacknowledged property of network independence of free energy landscapes. We then open the system by assuming that the concentrations of certain substrate species (the chemostats) are fixed, whether because promptly regulated by the environment via contact with reservoirs, or because nearly constant in a time window. As a result, the system is driven out of equilibrium. A rich algebraic and topological structure ensues in the network of internal species: Emergent irreversible cycles are associated with nonvanishing affinities, whose symmetries are dictated by the breakage of conservation laws. These central results are resumed in the relation a + b = s{sup Y} between the number of fundamental affinities a, that of broken conservation laws b and the number of chemostats s{sup Y}. We decompose the steady state entropy production rate in terms of fundamental fluxes and affinities in the spirit of Schnakenberg's theory of network thermodynamics, paving the way for the forthcoming treatment of the linear regime, of efficiency and tight coupling, of free energy transduction, and of thermodynamic constraints for network reconstruction.

  8. Irreversible thermodynamics of open chemical networks. I. Emergent cycles and broken conservation laws.

    PubMed

    Polettini, Matteo; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2014-07-14

    In this paper and Paper II, we outline a general framework for the thermodynamic description of open chemical reaction networks, with special regard to metabolic networks regulating cellular physiology and biochemical functions. We first introduce closed networks "in a box", whose thermodynamics is subjected to strict physical constraints: the mass-action law, elementarity of processes, and detailed balance. We further digress on the role of solvents and on the seemingly unacknowledged property of network independence of free energy landscapes. We then open the system by assuming that the concentrations of certain substrate species (the chemostats) are fixed, whether because promptly regulated by the environment via contact with reservoirs, or because nearly constant in a time window. As a result, the system is driven out of equilibrium. A rich algebraic and topological structure ensues in the network of internal species: Emergent irreversible cycles are associated with nonvanishing affinities, whose symmetries are dictated by the breakage of conservation laws. These central results are resumed in the relation a + b = s(Y) between the number of fundamental affinities a, that of broken conservation laws b and the number of chemostats s(Y). We decompose the steady state entropy production rate in terms of fundamental fluxes and affinities in the spirit of Schnakenberg's theory of network thermodynamics, paving the way for the forthcoming treatment of the linear regime, of efficiency and tight coupling, of free energy transduction, and of thermodynamic constraints for network reconstruction.

  9. Characteristics of flow past a slender, emergent cylinder in shallow open channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidari, Mehdi; Balachandar, Ram; Roussinova, Vesselina; Barron, Ronald M.

    2017-06-01

    The complex wake created by an emergent cylinder with a large aspect ratio in a shallow open channel flow is studied experimentally using particle image velocimetry. The unique characteristics of the bed-mounted slender cylinder wake are analysed. Velocity fields, turbulence parameters, and wake development in shallow open channel flow are studied at two different Reynolds numbers and subcritical Froude numbers by carrying out measurements in different horizontal and vertical planes. In the mid-depth plane, velocity and turbulence statistics are independent of Reynolds number, while higher turbulence intensities and Reynolds shear stresses were observed in the near-bed plane for the low Reynolds number case. The narrower wake is observed in the near-bed plane due to the effect of the bed. Combined with stronger vertical velocity and turbulence intensities noted near the bed in the vertical midplane, this suggests increased activity of the vortex structures in the low Reynolds number case. Under shallow conditions, stronger disturbances of the free surface are observed for the case of high Reynolds and Froude numbers. The study also revisits the definition of the wake stability parameter and proposes a new definition which incorporates not only the bed friction but also the drag experienced by the cylinder.

  10. Contaminants of emerging concern in the open sea waters of the Western Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Brumovský, Miroslav; Bečanová, Jitka; Kohoutek, Jiří; Borghini, Mireno; Nizzetto, Luca

    2017-10-01

    Pollution by chemical substances is of concern for the maintenance of healthy and sustainable aquatic environments. While the occurrence and fate of numerous emerging contaminants, especially pharmaceuticals, is well documented in freshwater, their occurrence and behavior in coastal and marine waters is much less studied and understood. This study investigates the occurrence of 58 chemicals in the open surface water of the Western Mediterranean Sea for the first time. 70 samples in total were collected in 10 different sampling areas. 3 pesticides, 11 pharmaceuticals and personal care products and 2 artificial sweeteners were detected at sub-ng to ng/L levels. Among them, the herbicide terbuthylazine, the pharmaceuticals caffeine, carbamazepine, naproxen and paracetamol, the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole, the antibacterial triclocarban and the two artificial sweeteners acesulfame and saccharin were detected in all samples. The compound detected at the highest concentration was saccharin (up to 5.23 ng/L). Generally small spatial differences among individual sampling areas point to a diffuse character of sources which are likely dominated by WWTP effluents and runoffs from agricultural areas or even, at least for pharmaceuticals and artificial food additives, from offshore sources such as ferries and cruising ships. The implications of the ubiquitous presence in the open sea of chemicals that are bio-active or toxic at low doses on photosynthetic organisms and/or bacteria (i.e., terbuthylazine, sulfamethoxazole or triclocarban) deserve scientific attention, especially concerning possible subtle impacts from chronic exposure of pelagic microorganisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Outcomes of primary fascial closure after open abdomen for nontrauma emergency general surgery patients.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, Lindsay; Ahmad, Sarwat B; Glaser, Jacob; Diaz, Jose J; Bruns, Brandon R

    2015-12-01

    Emergency general surgery patients are increasingly being managed with an open abdomen (OA). Factors associated with complications after primary fascial closure (PFC) are unknown. Demographic and operative variables for all emergency general surgery patients managed with OA at an academic medical center were prospectively examined from June to December 2013. Primary outcome was complication requiring reoperation. Of 58 patients, 37 managed with OA achieved PFC. Of these, 14 needed re-exploration for dehiscence, compartment syndrome, infection, or other. Complications after PFC were not associated with age, type of operative intervention, time to closure, re-explorations, comorbidities, or mortality. Complications correlated with higher body mass index (P = .02), skin closure (P = .04), plasma infusion (P = .01), and less intraoperative bleeding (P = .05). Deep surgical site infection correlated with fascial dehiscence (P = .02). Reoperation after PFC was more likely in obese and nonhemorrhagic patients. Recognition of these factors and strategies to reduce surgical site infection may improve outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Spontaneous bilateral adrenal hemorrhage following cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Meryl; Lim, Chetana; Salloum, Chady; Azoulay, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Postoperative bilateral adrenal hemorrhage is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication. This diagnosis is often missed because the symptoms and laboratory results are usually nonspecific. We report a case of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage associated with acute primary adrenal insufficiency following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The knowledge of this uncommon complication following any abdominal surgery allows timey diagnosis and rapid treatment.

  13. Spontaneous bilateral adrenal hemorrhage following cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Dahan, Meryl; Lim, Chetana; Salloum, Chady

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative bilateral adrenal hemorrhage is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication. This diagnosis is often missed because the symptoms and laboratory results are usually nonspecific. We report a case of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage associated with acute primary adrenal insufficiency following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The knowledge of this uncommon complication following any abdominal surgery allows timey diagnosis and rapid treatment. PMID:27275469

  14. International outreach for promoting open geoscience content in Finnish university libraries - libraries as the advocates of citizen science awareness on emerging open geospatial data repositories in Finnish society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousi, A. M.; Branch, B. D.; Kong, N.; Fosmire, M.

    2013-12-01

    In their Finnish National Spatial Strategy 2010-2015 the Finland's Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry delineated e.g. that spatial data skills should support citizens everyday activities and facilitate decision-making and participation of citizens. Studies also predict that open data, particularly open spatial data, would create, when fully realizing their potential, a 15% increase into the turnovers of Finnish private sector companies. Finnish libraries have a long tradition of serving at the heart of Finnish information society. However, with the emerging possibilities of educating their users on open spatial data a very few initiatives have been made. The National Survey of Finland opened its data in 2012. Finnish technology university libraries, such as Aalto University Library, are open environments for all citizens, and seem suitable of being the first thriving entities in educating citizens on open geospatial data. There are however many obstacles to overcome, such as lack of knowledge about policies, lack of understanding of geospatial data services and insufficient know-how of GIS software among the personnel. This framework examines the benefits derived from an international collaboration between Purdue University Libraries and Aalto University Library to create local strategies in implementing open spatial data education initiatives in Aalto University Library's context. The results of this international collaboration are explicated for the benefit of the field as a whole.

  15. Incidental non-benign gallbladder histopathology after cholecystectomy in an United Kingdom population: Need for routine histological analysis?

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Krashna; Dajani, Khaled; Iype, Satheesh; Chatzizacharias, Nikolaos A; Vickramarajah, Saranya; Singh, Prateush; Davies, Susan; Brais, Rebecca; Liau, Siong S; Harper, Simon; Jah, Asif; Praseedom, Raaj K; Huguet, Emmanuel L

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyse the range of histopathology detected in the largest published United Kingdom series of cholecystectomy specimens and to evaluate the rational for selective histopathological analysis. METHODS Incidental gallbladder malignancy is rare in the United Kingdom with recent literature supporting selective histological assessment of gallbladders after routine cholecystectomy. All cholecystectomy gallbladder specimens examined by the histopathology department at our hospital during a five year period between March 2008 and March 2013 were retrospectively analysed. Further data was collected on all specimens demonstrating carcinoma, dysplasia and polypoid growths. RESULTS The study included 4027 patients. The majority (97%) of specimens exhibited gallstone or cholecystitis related disease. Polyps were demonstrated in 44 (1.09%), the majority of which were cholesterol based (41/44). Dysplasia, ranging from low to multifocal high-grade was demonstrated in 55 (1.37%). Incidental primary gallbladder adenocarcinoma was detected in 6 specimens (0.15%, 5 female and 1 male), and a single gallbladder revealed carcinoma in situ (0.02%). This large single centre study demonstrated a full range of gallbladder disease from cholecystectomy specimens, including more than 1% neoplastic histology and two cases of macroscopically occult gallbladder malignancies. CONCLUSION Routine histological evaluation of all elective and emergency cholecystectomies is justified in a United Kingdom population as selective analysis has potential to miss potentially curable life threatening pathology. PMID:27830040

  16. Post Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Biloma in a Child Managed by Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio-Pancreatography and Stenting: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Charu; Makhija, Om Prakash; Makhija, Deepa; Jayaswal, Shalika

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, though an uncommon surgical procedure in paediatric age group is still associated with a higher risk of post-operative bile duct injuries when compared with the open procedure. Small leaks from extra hepatic biliary apparatus usually lead to the formation of a localized sub-hepatic bile collection, also known as biloma. Such leaks are rare complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, especially in paediatric age group. Minor bile leaks can usually be managed non-surgically by percutaneous drainage combined with endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP). However, surgical exploration is required in cases not responding to non-operative management. If not managed on time, such injuries can lead to severe hepatic damage. We describe a case of an eight-year-old girl who presented with biloma formation after laparoscopic cholecystectomy who was managed by ERCP. PMID:28090474

  17. An external audit of laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed in medical treatment facilities of the department of Defense.

    PubMed Central

    Wherry, D C; Rob, C G; Marohn, M R; Rich, N M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study provided an objective survey by an outside auditing group of a large, complete patient population undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomies, determined the frequency of complications, especially bile duct injuries, and presented a system for classifying and comparing the severity of bile duct injuries. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: This is the first study of laparoscopic cholecystectomy to encompass a large and complete patient population and to be based on objectively collected data rather than self-reported data. The Civilian External Peer Review Program (CEPRP) of the Department of Defense health care system conducted a retrospective study of 5642 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomies at 89 military medical treatment facilities from July 1990 through May 1992. METHODS: The study sample consisted of the complete records of 5607 (99.38%) of the 5642 laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients. RESULTS: Of the sample, 6.87% of patients experienced complications within 30 days of surgery, 0.57% sustained bile duct injuries, and 0.5% sustained bowel injuries. Among 5154 patients whose procedures were completed laparoscopically, 5.47% experienced complications. Laparoscopic procedures were converted to open cholecystectomies in 8.08% of cases. Intraoperative cholangiograms were attempted in 46.5% of cases and completed in 80.59% of those attempts. There were no intraoperative deaths; 0.04% of the patients died within 30 days of surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of complications found in this study is comparable to the frequency of complications reported in recent large civilian studies and earlier, smaller studies. The authors present a system for classifying bile duct injuries, which is designed to standardize references to such injuries and allow for accurate comparison of bile duct injuries in the future. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:7979610

  18. Incidental Gall Bladder Carcinoma in Patients Undergoing Cholecystectomy: A Report of 7 Cases.

    PubMed

    Waghmare, Ramesh S; Kamat, Rima N

    2014-09-01

    Carcinoma gall bladder accounts for 98% of all the gall bladder malignancies and is the sixth most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract worldwide. Incidental gall bladder carcinoma (IGBC) is an incidental finding of carcinoma diagnosed during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy or on histopathological examination of gall bladder specimen removed for benign gall bladder diseases. The incidence of IGBC is around 0.19 - 3.3% in the literature. The aim of the present study was to report our experience with gall bladder cancers which were incidentally diagnosed during histopathological examination of cholecystectomy specimens done for benign gall bladder disease and follow up of the cases. This study includes 270 cholecystectomy specimens which were removed, during June 2010 to July 2011 in a tertiary care hospital. The clinicopathological findings of cases with incidentally detected gall bladder cancers were recorded; age, sex, presenting symptoms, presence of gall stones and histologic grade and staging of tumours were included. Exclusion criteria included preoperative suspicion of malignancy before cholecystectomy. American joint committee on cancer (AJCC) staging system was used for staging incidental gall bladder carcinoma. In our study laparoscopy or open cholecystectomy was attempted in 270 cases during the one year period. Incidental gall bladder carcinomas were diagnosed in 7 cases (2.59%), with mean age of 50 years. Pain, vomiting, and dysphagia were the presenting complaints. USG revealed thickened gall bladder in 6 cases, and polyp in one case. Gall stones were seen in 6 cases. Histopathology showed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma in all the cases. AJCC staging of gall bladder carcinoma revealed 6 cases in pT2 stage and pT1 a stage in one case. On follow up at 22 months, 6 cases were alive while one expired due to tumour metastasis. Prognosis of incidental gall bladder carcinoma is better, if diagnosed in early stages.

  19. Acute Pancreatitis Caused by Hemobilia: An Unusual Complication of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dharmendra; Singh, Amandeep; Jakhmola, C. K.

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) in the early postlaparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) period is a rare complication. The cause is often a missed common bile duct stone. Having been reported only once before, we present a second case of AP after LC caused by hemobilia secondary to hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm. The management of this complication is distinctly different from the treatment for AP caused by a stone and must be done on an emergency basis. PMID:27921055

  20. Emerging Issues: Open Educational Resources--How Science Teachers Can Use Open Educational Resources to Revitalize Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Karen; Rice, Olivia

    2012-01-01

    The term "open educational resources" (OERs) was first coined by UNESCO in 2005 and refers to "teaching, learning or research materials that are in the public domain or released with an intellectual property license that allows for free use, adaptation, and/or distribution." OERs offer educators what might be termed "value neutral" online…

  1. Emerging Issues: Open Educational Resources--How Science Teachers Can Use Open Educational Resources to Revitalize Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Karen; Rice, Olivia

    2012-01-01

    The term "open educational resources" (OERs) was first coined by UNESCO in 2005 and refers to "teaching, learning or research materials that are in the public domain or released with an intellectual property license that allows for free use, adaptation, and/or distribution." OERs offer educators what might be termed "value neutral" online…

  2. Subcapsular liver haematoma as a complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Głuszek, Stanisław; Kot, Marta; Krawczyk, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Cholecystectomy is a common procedure for the treatment of symptomatic cholecystitis. A rare complication is the occurrence of subcapsular haematoma of the liver. In the literature, there are only a few case reports of this type. A 25-year-old woman was admitted to the Surgical Department for surgical treatment of cholecystitis. No complications were observed intra-operatively. On the first day after surgery, the patient manifested symptoms of hypovolaemic shock. The patient was qualified for surgical treatment in the mode of emergency surgery – a giant subcapsular haematoma was found. She was referred to the Clinic of General, Transplant and Liver Surgery of the Medical University of Warsaw for further treatment. This case shows the importance of monitoring the life parameters of patients who have undergone laparoscopic surgery due to symptomatic cholecystitis during the first day after surgery. PMID:26240636

  3. Subcapsular liver haematoma as a complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Głuszek, Stanisław; Kot, Marta; Nawacki, Łukasz; Krawczyk, Marek

    2015-07-01

    Cholecystectomy is a common procedure for the treatment of symptomatic cholecystitis. A rare complication is the occurrence of subcapsular haematoma of the liver. In the literature, there are only a few case reports of this type. A 25-year-old woman was admitted to the Surgical Department for surgical treatment of cholecystitis. No complications were observed intra-operatively. On the first day after surgery, the patient manifested symptoms of hypovolaemic shock. The patient was qualified for surgical treatment in the mode of emergency surgery - a giant subcapsular haematoma was found. She was referred to the Clinic of General, Transplant and Liver Surgery of the Medical University of Warsaw for further treatment. This case shows the importance of monitoring the life parameters of patients who have undergone laparoscopic surgery due to symptomatic cholecystitis during the first day after surgery.

  4. From "lists of traits" to "open-mindedness": emerging issues in cultural competence education.

    PubMed

    Jenks, Angela C

    2011-06-01

    The incorporation of "culture" into U.S. biomedicine has been increasing at a rapid pace over the last several decades. Advocates for "cultural competence" point to changing patient demographics and growing health disparities as they call for improved educational efforts that train health providers to care for patients from a variety of backgrounds. Medical anthropologists have long been critical of the approach to "culture" that emerges in cultural competence efforts, identifying an essentialized, static notion of culture that is conflated with racial and ethnic categories and seen to exist primarily among exotic "Others." With this approach, culture can become a "list of traits" associated with various racial and ethnic groups that must be mastered by health providers and applied to patients as necessary. This article uses an ethnographic examination of cultural competence training to highlight recent efforts to develop more nuanced approaches to teaching culture. I argue that much of contemporary cultural competence education has rejected the "list of traits" approach and instead aims to produce a new kind of health provider who is "open-minded," willing to learn about difference, and treats each patient as an individual. This shift, however, can ultimately reinforce behavioral understandings of culture and draw attention away from the social conditions and power differentials that underlie health inequalities.

  5. Exploring public discourses about emerging technologies through statistical clustering of open-ended survey questions

    PubMed Central

    Stoneman, Paul; Sturgis, Patrick; Allum, Nick

    2013-01-01

    The primary method by which social scientists describe public opinion about science and technology is to present frequencies from fixed response survey questions and to use multivariate statistical models to predict where different groups stand with regard to perceptions of risk and benefit. Such an approach requires measures of individual preference which can be aligned numerically in an ordinal or, preferably, a continuous manner along an underlying evaluative dimension – generally the standard 5- or 7-point attitude question. The key concern motivating the present paper is that, due to the low salience and “difficult” nature of science for members of the general public, it may not be sensible to require respondents to choose from amongst a small and predefined set of evaluative response categories. Here, we pursue a different methodological approach: the analysis of textual responses to “open-ended” questions, in which respondents are asked to state, in their own words, what they understand by the term “DNA.” To this textual data we apply the statistical clustering procedures encoded in the Alceste software package to detect and classify underlying discourse and narrative structures. We then examine the extent to which the classifications, thus derived, can aid our understanding of how the public develop and use “everyday” images of, and talk about, biomedicine to structure their evaluations of emerging technologies. PMID:23825238

  6. Exploring public discourses about emerging technologies through statistical clustering of open-ended survey questions.

    PubMed

    Stoneman, Paul; Sturgis, Patrick; Allum, Nick

    2013-10-01

    The primary method by which social scientists describe public opinion about science and technology is to present frequencies from fixed response survey questions and to use multivariate statistical models to predict where different groups stand with regard to perceptions of risk and benefit. Such an approach requires measures of individual preference which can be aligned numerically in an ordinal or, preferably, a continuous manner along an underlying evaluative dimension - generally the standard 5- or 7-point attitude question. The key concern motivating the present paper is that, due to the low salience and "difficult" nature of science for members of the general public, it may not be sensible to require respondents to choose from amongst a small and predefined set of evaluative response categories. Here, we pursue a different methodological approach: the analysis of textual responses to "open-ended" questions, in which respondents are asked to state, in their own words, what they understand by the term "DNA." To this textual data we apply the statistical clustering procedures encoded in the Alceste software package to detect and classify underlying discourse and narrative structures. We then examine the extent to which the classifications, thus derived, can aid our understanding of how the public develop and use "everyday" images of, and talk about, biomedicine to structure their evaluations of emerging technologies.

  7. Infection of laparoscopically inserted inguinal hernia repair mesh following subsequent emergency open surgery: a report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Panagiotopoulou, IG; Richardson, C; Gurunathan-Mani, S; Lagattolla, NRF

    2012-01-01

    We present two cases of laparoscopically inserted mesh for inguinal hernia repair that became infected following emergency open bowel surgery. We believe that there is an increased risk of infection due to the larger size of mesh used in the laparoscopic repair but also due to the patient not volunteering the information because of the minimally invasive nature of the procedure. PMID:22524902

  8. Can free open access resources strengthen knowledge-based emerging public health priorities, policies and programs in Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Tambo, Ernest; Madjou, Ghislaine; Khayeka-Wandabwa, Christopher; Tekwu, Emmanuel N.; Olalubi, Oluwasogo A.; Midzi, Nicolas; Bengyella, Louis; Adedeji, Ahmed A.; Ngogang, Jeanne Y.

    2016-01-01

    Tackling emerging epidemics and infectious diseases burden in Africa requires increasing unrestricted open access and free use or reuse of regional and global policies reforms as well as timely communication capabilities and strategies. Promoting, scaling up data and information sharing between African researchers and international partners are of vital importance in accelerating open access at no cost. Free Open Access (FOA) health data and information acceptability, uptake tactics and sustainable mechanisms are urgently needed. These are critical in establishing real time and effective knowledge or evidence-based translation, proven and validated approaches, strategies and tools to strengthen and revamp health systems.  As such, early and timely access to needed emerging public health information is meant to be instrumental and valuable for policy-makers, implementers, care providers, researchers, health-related institutions and stakeholders including populations when guiding health financing, and planning contextual programs. PMID:27508058

  9. Can free open access resources strengthen knowledge-based emerging public health priorities, policies and programs in Africa?

    PubMed

    Tambo, Ernest; Madjou, Ghislaine; Khayeka-Wandabwa, Christopher; Tekwu, Emmanuel N; Olalubi, Oluwasogo A; Midzi, Nicolas; Bengyella, Louis; Adedeji, Ahmed A; Ngogang, Jeanne Y

    2016-01-01

    Tackling emerging epidemics and infectious diseases burden in Africa requires increasing unrestricted open access and free use or reuse of regional and global policies reforms as well as timely communication capabilities and strategies. Promoting, scaling up data and information sharing between African researchers and international partners are of vital importance in accelerating open access at no cost. Free Open Access (FOA) health data and information acceptability, uptake tactics and sustainable mechanisms are urgently needed. These are critical in establishing real time and effective knowledge or evidence-based translation, proven and validated approaches, strategies and tools to strengthen and revamp health systems.  As such, early and timely access to needed emerging public health information is meant to be instrumental and valuable for policy-makers, implementers, care providers, researchers, health-related institutions and stakeholders including populations when guiding health financing, and planning contextual programs.

  10. MORTALITY OF URGENCY VERSUS ELECTIVE VIDEOLAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY FOR ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS.

    PubMed

    Felício, Saulo José Oliveira; Matos, Ediriomar Peixoto; Cerqueira, Antonio Maurício; Farias, Kurt Wolfgang Schindler Freire de; Silva, Ramon de Assis; Torres, Mateus de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Surgical approach is still controversial in patients with acute cholecystitis: to treat clinically the inflammatory process and operate electively later or to operate immediately on an emergency basis? To test the hypothesis that urgent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis has a higher mortality than elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. From the data available in Datasus, mortality was compared between patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis and in urgency. Calculations were made of the relative reduction in risk of death, absolute reduction of risk of death and number needed to treat. From 2009 to 2014 in Brazil, there were 250.439 laparoscopic cholecystectomy and 74.6% were electives. Mortality in the emergency group was 4.8 times higher compared to the elective group (0.0023% vs. 0.00048%). Despite the relative reduction in risk of death (RRR) was 83%, in the calculation of absolute risk was found 0.0018 and number needed to treat of 55,555. Despite the relative risk reduction for mortality was high comparing elective vs. urgent basis, the absolute risk reduction was minimal, since this outcome is very low in both groups, suggesting that mortality should not have much influence on surgical decision. Continua controversa a conduta nos pacientes com colecistite aguda: compensar o processo inflamatório e operar eletivamente ou operar imediatamente em caráter de urgência? Testar a hipótese de que a colecistectomia videolaparoscópica de urgência por colecistite aguda apresenta maior mortalidade que a colecistectomia videolaparoscópica eletiva. A partir dos dados disponíveis no Datasus, foi comparada a mortalidade entre os pacientes submetidos à colecistectomia videolaparoscópica eletiva por colelitíase e a de urgência. Foram realizados cálculos da redução relativa de risco de morte, redução absoluta do risco de morte e número necessário para tratar . De 2009 a 2014 no Brasil, foram realizadas

  11. Partial cholecystectomy resulting in recurrent acute cholecystitis and choledocholithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Sosulski, AB; Fei, JZ; DeMuro, JP

    2012-01-01

    Partial cholecystectomy has been documented in the literature as a safe alternative in the management of patients with acute cholecystitis when the degree of inflammation prevents a safe dissection to identify the biliary structures for complete removal of the gallbladder. Partial cholecystectomy however is not without risk of recurrence, and the need for further surgical or endoscopic intervention in management of complications. We review a case in which partial cholecystectomy was performed without any relief of symptoms, to review the possible postoperative complications, and caution that these patients will need to be considered for a completion cholecystectomy. PMID:24960803

  12. Ruptured hepatic subcapsular hematoma following laparoscopic cholecystectomy: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Kentaro; Midorikawa, Yutaka; Mushiake, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masato; Yamakawa, Tatsuo; Sugiyama, Yasuyuki

    2010-12-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is now a standard procedure for cholecystolithiasis because of its minimally invasive nature compared to the conventional method. However, severe complications that have never been seen for open surgery have also been reported. Here, we report the case of a 28-year-old woman who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and then developed a ruptured subcapsular hematoma. On postoperative day 1, she developed shock, and postoperative bleeding was suspected. During re-operation, a ruptured subcapsular hematoma of the whole right lobe of the liver with active bleeding was found, and hemostasis was achieved. In this case, it was assumed that the rupture of the subcapsular hematoma was due to compression of the liver by the clamp for retrieving the spilled gallstones during the first operation and perioperative administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  13. [Evaluation of a Legionella outbreak emerged in a recently opening hotel].

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Haluk; Arslan, Hande

    2013-04-01

    Legionnaires' disease (LD) is a systemic infection caused by Legionella species especially colonized in the water systems. Hotels are common locations in which waterwork-associated sporadic or epidemic legionellosis can be detected. The aim of this study was to evaluate a small Legionella outbreak emerged in a recently opened 600-bed hotel in Alanya, a touristic county in Mediterranean part of Turkey. A 66 years old male patient who stayed in this hotel opened on May 15th, 2009, was admitted to our hospital on May 21st, 2009 with the complaints of high fever, headache and diarrhea lasting for three days. Since chest X-ray revealed non-homogenous density increase in left middle and inferior zone, the patient was diagnosed as atypical pneumoniae and LD was confirmed by positive urinary Legionella antigen test (Card test, BinaxNOW®Legionella Urinary Antigen Test; Alere Co, USA) result. Following the identification of the index case, the records of our hospital were reviewed and revealed another case being treated with the diagnosis of community acquired pneumonia who was also the guest of the same hotel. This patient was then diagnosed as LD by positive urinary antigen test. Since new cases were identified during the following days (May 22, 25 and 26) the Antalya County Health Department and hotel management were informed about a cluster of LD. In addition subsequent investigation for environmental surveillance and water sampling were conducted. The LD diagnosis and environmental inspections were performed according to the procedure described in the guideline from "Turkish Ministry of Health Travel-Associated Legionnaires' Disease Control Programme". Five definitive cases and one presumptive case of LD were identified during the outbreak period (May 20-26, 2009). All of the cases were successfully treated (intravenous ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin or clarithromycin), however one patient died due to sudden death during sleep after being discharged. Since sputum

  14. OPERATING PARAMETERS TO MINIMIZE EMISSIONS DURING ROTARY KILN EMERGENCY SAFETY VENT OPENINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Certain designs of hazardous waste incinerator systems include emergency safety vents (ESVs). ESVs (also called dump stacks, vent stacks, emergency by-pass stacks, thermal relief valves, and pressure relief valves) are regarded as true emergency devices. Their purpose is to vent ...

  15. OPERATING PARAMETERS TO MINIMIZE EMISSIONS DURING ROTARY KILN EMERGENCY SAFETY VENT OPENINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Certain designs of hazardous waste incinerator systems include emergency safety vents (ESVs). ESVs (also called dump stacks, vent stacks, emergency by-pass stacks, thermal relief valves, and pressure relief valves) are regarded as true emergency devices. Their purpose is to vent ...

  16. Cystic duct variation detected by near-infrared fluorescent cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Seok; Jin, Hyeong Yong; Kim, Eun Young

    2017-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescent cholangiography (NIRFC) is an emerging technique for easy intraoperative recognition of biliary anatomy. We present a case of cystic duct variation detected by NIRFC which had a potential risk for biliary injury if not detected. A 32-year-old female was admitted to the Seoul St. Mary's Hospital for surgery for an incidental gallbladder polyp. We performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy with NIRFC. In fluorescence mode, a long cystic duct and an accessory short hepatic duct joining to the cystic duct were found and the operation was completed safely. The patient recovered successfully. NIRFC is expected to be a promising procedure that will help minimize biliary injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:28090506

  17. Seedling Emergence and Phenotypic Response of Common Bean Germplasm to Different Temperatures under Controlled Conditions and in Open Field.

    PubMed

    De Ron, Antonio M; Rodiño, Ana P; Santalla, Marta; González, Ana M; Lema, María J; Martín, Isaura; Kigel, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and uniform seed germination and seedling emergence under diverse environmental conditions is a desirable characteristic for crops. Common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) differ in their low temperature tolerance regarding growth and yield. Cultivars tolerant to low temperature during the germination and emergence stages and carriers of the grain quality standards demanded by consumers are needed for the success of the bean crop. The objectives of this study were (i) to screen the seedling emergence and the phenotypic response of bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled chamber and field conditions to display stress-tolerant genotypes with good agronomic performances and yield potential, and (ii) to compare the emergence of bean seedlings under controlled environment and in open field conditions to assess the efficiency of genebanks standard germination tests for predicting the performance of the seeds in the field. Three trials were conducted with 28 dry bean genotypes in open field and in growth chamber under low, moderate, and warm temperature. Morpho-agronomic data were used to evaluate the phenotypic performance of the different genotypes. Cool temperatures resulted in a reduction of the rate of emergence in the bean genotypes, however, emergence and early growth of bean could be under different genetic control and these processes need further research to be suitably modeled. Nine groups arose from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) representing variation in emergence time and proportion of emergence in the controlled chamber and in the open field indicating a trend to lower emergence in large and extra-large seeded genotypes. Screening of seedling emergence and phenotypic response of the bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled growth chambers and under field conditions showed several genotypes, as landraces 272, 501, 593, and the cultivar Borlotto, with stress-tolerance at emergence, and high yield

  18. Seedling Emergence and Phenotypic Response of Common Bean Germplasm to Different Temperatures under Controlled Conditions and in Open Field

    PubMed Central

    De Ron, Antonio M.; Rodiño, Ana P.; Santalla, Marta; González, Ana M.; Lema, María J.; Martín, Isaura; Kigel, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and uniform seed germination and seedling emergence under diverse environmental conditions is a desirable characteristic for crops. Common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) differ in their low temperature tolerance regarding growth and yield. Cultivars tolerant to low temperature during the germination and emergence stages and carriers of the grain quality standards demanded by consumers are needed for the success of the bean crop. The objectives of this study were (i) to screen the seedling emergence and the phenotypic response of bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled chamber and field conditions to display stress-tolerant genotypes with good agronomic performances and yield potential, and (ii) to compare the emergence of bean seedlings under controlled environment and in open field conditions to assess the efficiency of genebanks standard germination tests for predicting the performance of the seeds in the field. Three trials were conducted with 28 dry bean genotypes in open field and in growth chamber under low, moderate, and warm temperature. Morpho-agronomic data were used to evaluate the phenotypic performance of the different genotypes. Cool temperatures resulted in a reduction of the rate of emergence in the bean genotypes, however, emergence and early growth of bean could be under different genetic control and these processes need further research to be suitably modeled. Nine groups arose from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) representing variation in emergence time and proportion of emergence in the controlled chamber and in the open field indicating a trend to lower emergence in large and extra-large seeded genotypes. Screening of seedling emergence and phenotypic response of the bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled growth chambers and under field conditions showed several genotypes, as landraces 272, 501, 593, and the cultivar Borlotto, with stress-tolerance at emergence, and high yield

  19. Development of explicit criteria for cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, J; Cabriada, J; d Lopez; Varona, M; Oribe, V; Barrios, B; Arostegui, I; Bilbao, A

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Consensus development techniques were used in the late 1980s to create explicit criteria for the appropriateness of cholecystectomy. New diagnostic and treatment techniques have been developed in the last decade, so an updated appropriateness of indications tool was developed for cholecystectomy in patients with non-malignant diseases. The validity and reliability of panel results using this tool were tested. Methods: Criteria were developed using a modified Delphi panel judgement process. The level of agreement between the panellists (six gastroenterologists and six surgeons) was analysed and the ratings were compared with those of a second different panel using weighted kappa statistics. Results: The results of the main panel were presented as a decision tree. Of the 210 scenarios evaluated by the main panel in the second round, 51% were found appropriate, 26% uncertain, and 23% inappropriate. Agreement was achieved in 54% of the scenarios and disagreement in 3%. Although the gastroenterologists tended to score fewer scenarios as appropriate, as a group they did not differ from the surgeons. Comparison of the ratings of the main panel with those of a second panel resulted in a weighted kappa statistic of 0.75. Conclusions: The parameters tested showed acceptable validity and reliability results for an evaluation tool. These results support the use of this algorithm as a screening tool for assessing the appropriateness of cholecystectomy. PMID:12468691

  20. Openings

    PubMed Central

    Selwyn, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Reviewing his clinic patient schedule for the day, a physician reflects on the history of a young woman he has been caring for over the past 9 years. What starts out as a routine visit then turns into a unique opening for communication and connection. A chance glimpse out the window of the exam room leads to a deeper meditation on parenthood, survival, and healing, not only for the patient but also for the physician. How many missed opportunities have we all had, without even realizing it, to allow this kind of fleeting but profound opening? PMID:26195687

  1. Clinical reappraisal of vasculobiliary anatomy relevant to laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kuldip; Singh, Ranbir; Kaur, Manjot

    2017-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has many advantages as compared to open cholecystectomy. However, vasculobiliary injuries still continue to be a matter of concern despite advances in laparoscopic techniques. Misidentification and misperception of vasculobiliary structures is considered to be a pivotal factor leading to injuries. Although many studies since time immemorial have stressed on the importance of anatomy, an insight into laparoscopic anatomy is what essentially constitutes the need of the hour. To assess the frequency and the relevance of anatomical variations of extrahepatic biliary system in patients undergoing LC. The present study is an observational study performed for a period of 2 years from August 2014 to August 2016. It included all diagnosed patients of cholelithiasis undergoing routine LC performed by a single surgeon by achieving a critical view of safety. During dissection, vascular and ductal anomalies were noted and assessed for their relevance in LC. Seven hundred forty cases of cholelithiasis, irrespective of pathology, comprising 280 (37.83%) men and 460 (62.16%) females with a mean age of 39.85 ± 18.82 years were included in the study. Photodocumentation and operative recordings were available in 93% of cases. Operative findings revealed 197 (26.62%) vascular anomalies and 90 (12.16%) ductal anomalies. A single cystic artery was seen in 340 cases, and a normal cystic duct was seen in 650 cases. Variations in ductal anatomy were fewer than variations in vascular anatomy. Extra-biliary anatomy relevant to LC is unpredictable and varies from patient to patient. Vascular anomalies are more frequent than the ductal anomalies, and surgeon should be alert regarding their presence.

  2. Single-Port Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Gall Bladder Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Joong Choi, Chan; Kim, Min Chan; Choi, Hong Jo; Kim, Young Hoon; Jung, Ghap Joong

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SPLC) was introduced to improve patients' postoperative quality of life and cosmesis over the conventional approach (CLC). The purpose of this case–control study was to compare the outcome of SPLC with that of CLC in a specific disease: gall bladder (GB) polyps. Methods: Eligible for the study were all patients with GB polyps who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy between June 1, 2009, and June 30, 2011. The 112 patients studied (56 each for SPLC and CLC) were matched by using a propensity score that included gender, age, body mass index (BMI), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, history of previous abdominal operation, and pathology outcome. To avoid selection bias caused by the surgeon's choice (often dependent on the degree of inflammation) and to investigate the efficacy of SPLC for a single disease, GB polyps, we excluded patients with acute or chronic cholecystitis. Results: Characteristics of the patients matched by a propensity score between SPLC and CLC showed no significant difference. Incidentally detected malignancy was in postoperative pathology in cases in both groups. Although operative time was shorter for SPLC, there was no significant difference in time between the 2 groups. There were 3 open conversions in the CLC group, and an additional port was used in the SPLC group. There was no difference between the groups in hospital stay and postoperative complications. Conclusion: In the management of GB polyps, the operative results of SPLC are comparable to those of CLC. We conclude that SPLC is as safe as CLC and has the potential for greater cosmetic satisfaction for patients than CLC. Further trials for objective appraisal of cosmetic outcomes are needed. PMID:26229419

  3. From Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy to Liver Transplantation: When the Gallbladder Becomes the Pandora s Box.

    PubMed

    Sotiropoulos, Georgios C; Tsaparas, Peter; Kykalos, Stylianos; Machairas, Nikolaos; Molmenti, Ernesto P; Paul, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Bile duct injuries (BDI) tend to be more complex in laparoscopic than in open cholecystectomy procedures, and frequently involve young adults with benign pathologies. The ultimate consequence may be a liver transplantation (LT), making this situation one of the most rare transplant indications. Fatal post-transplant outcome is extreme infrequently reported. Aim of this study is to report on our single-case experience and to review the literature concerning lethal outcome after LT for major BDI following cholecystectomy. A 36-year old obese caucasian woman underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholecystolithiasis at an outside institution. Intraoperatively, she sustained an E4 BDI in conjunction with total transection of the right hepatic artery. The surgeon converted to an open laparotomy, examined the site, placed two drains, and immediately transferred the patient to our center for further evaluation and treatment. At relaparotomy, a dearterialized right liver as well as 7 bile duct orifices was found; a right hemihepatectomy and a Roux-en-Y drainage of 4 left-sided bile ducts were performed. The postoperative course was complicated by bile leaks requiring re-operation and relapsing episodes of cholangitis and intrahepatic bilomas, requiring re-submissions of the patient and conservative treatment with intravenous antibiotics and percutaneous drainage procedures, respectively. She subsequently developed severe endocarditis leading to cardiac mitral and aortic valves insufficiency (grade III and II, respectively) demanding mechanical replacement of them. The patient developed secondary biliary cirrhosis, was listed to Eurotransplant with a Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score of 39, and underwent LT 19 months after the laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Histology of the explanted liver showed 50% parenchymal necrosis, chronic cholestasis and cirrhosis. On post-transplant day 5, she developed cardiogenic shock associated with pericardial tamponade

  4. [Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and open cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis: critical analysis of 520 cases].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, João Araújo; Ribeiro, Carlos; Moreira, Luís M; de Sousa, Fabiana; Pinho, André; Graça, Luís; Maia, José Costa

    2014-01-01

    IntroduçÉo: Apesar do cepticismo com que inicialmente foi encarada, a colecistectomia laparoscópica é hoje a técnica de eleiçÉo na colecistite aguda. Torna-se, porém, importante avaliar os seus resultados, em comparaçÉo com a colecistectomia clássica, uma vez que esta última ainda é seguida por alguns cirurgiões em determinadas situações.Material e Métodos: No nosso estudo foram incluídos 520 doentes com colecistites agudas operados no Serviço de Cirurgia Geral do Hospital de S. JoÉo, entre 2007 e 2013, dos quais 412 (79,2%) por laparoscopia e 108 (20,8%) por via aberta, com uma incidência de conversÉo de 10,7%. Procedeu-se ao estudo relativo às doenças coexistentes, leucocitose, tempo decorrido entre o diagnóstico na urgência e a cirurgia, classificaçÉo ASA, complicações intra e pós-operatórias, mortalidade, reintervenções, lesÉo biliar e estadia hospitalar. Os doentes convertidos foram incluídos no grupo das colecistectomias laparoscópicas. A análise estatística baseou-se em processos descritivos e a avaliaçÉo das diferenças entre grupos foi realizada com base no teste exato de Fisher, sendo considerados valores significativos para p < 0,05.Resultados: Colecistectomia laparoscópica versus Colecistectomia aberta: Mortalidade: 0,7% vs 3,7% (p = 0,0369); Complicações per-operatórias: 3,6% vs 12,9% (p = 0,0006); Complicações pós-operatórias cirúrgicas: 7,7% vs 17,5% (p = 0,0055); Pós-operatórias médicas: 4,3% vs 5,5% (p = 0,6077); LesÉo da via biliar principal: 0,9% vs 1,8% (p = 0,6091); Reintervenções: 2,9% vs 5,5% (p = 0,2315); Internamento hospitalar inferior ou igual a quatro dias: 64,8% vs 18,5% (p < 0,0001). Na colecistectomia laparoscópica houve 10,7% de conversões: nas precoces (intervenções realizadas antes das 96 h após o diagnóstico na urgência) esta taxa foi de 8,8% e nas tardias (após aquele período de tempo mas no mesmo internamento) de 13,7% (p = 0,1425); Complicações nos doentes convertidos vs nÉo convertidos: nas cirúrgicas 20,4% vs 6,2% (p = 0,0034) e nas médicas 6,8% vs 4,1% (p = 0,4484). As causas de conversÉoforam condicionadas por complicações cirúrgicas (lesões biliares, lacerações entéricas, perfurações vesiculares com a disseminaçÉo de cálculos), intoler'ncia ao pneumoperitoneo, indefiniçÉo do pedículo biliar e escoliose.DiscussÉo: Há poucas investigações relativas à comparaçÉo da colecistectomia laparoscópica vs colecistectomia aberta nos doentes com colecistectomia aberta, correspondendo a maior parte delas a estudos multicêntricos. Por esta razÉo, julgamos de interesse proceder a uma análise inerente a 520 operados com aquela doença no Serviço de Cirurgia Geral do Hospital de S. JoÉo dos quais 412 por colecistectomia laparoscópica e 108 por colecistectomia aberta. Verificamos na colecistectomia laparoscópica melhores resultados do que na colecistectomia aberta no que se refere à mortalidade, complicações per e pós-operatórias cirúrgicas e estadia hospitalar. A incidência da via biliar principal, complicações médicas e reintervenções, embora menos evidentes na colecistectomia laparoscópica, nÉo se revelaram com significado estatístico. Merece referência o maior número de complicações no grupo das colecistectomias laparoscópicasconvertidas do que naquelas em que tal nÉo foi necessário confirmando-se, assim, o já referido em estudos multicêntricos citados na literatura. Este facto levanta a necessidade de, mediante complicações ocorridas durante a colecistectomia laparoscópica, nÉo se proceder à conversÉo tardiamente. A análise do presente estudo valoriza, assim, devidamente a colecistectomia laparoscópica na cirurgia dos doentes com colecistite aguda.ConclusÉo: Os resultados obtidos justificam a frequência com que a colecistectomia laparoscópica é realizada na colecistite aguda, em comparaçÉo com a via aberta, ocupando cada vez mais, um lugar primordial, no tratamento desta doença.

  5. Timing of cholecystectomy in biliary pancreatitis treatment

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Uygar; Yazıcı, Pınar; Bostancı, Özgür; Kaya, Cemal; Köksal, Hakan; Işıl, Gürhan; Bozdağ, Emre; Mihmanlı, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Gallstone pancreatitis constitutes 40% of all cases with pancreatitis while it constitutes up to 90% of cases with acute pancreatitis. The treatment modality in this patient population is still controversial. In this study, we aimed to compare the results of early and late cholecystectomy for patients with biliary pancreatitis. Material and Methods: Patients treated with a diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis in our clinics between January 2000 and December 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups: Group A, patients who underwent cholecystectomy during the first pancreatitis attack, Group B, patients who underwent an interval cholecystectomy at least 8 weeks after the first pancreatitis episode. The demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms, number of episodes, length of hospital stay, morbidity and mortality data were recorded. All data were evaluated with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 13.0 for windows and p <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: During the last 12 years, a total of 91 patients with surgical treatment for acute biliary pancreatitis were included into the study. There were 62 female and 29 male patients, with a mean age of 57.9±14.6 years (range: 21–89). A concomitant acute cholecystitis was present in 46.2% of the patients. Group A and B included 48 and 43 patients, respectively. The length of hospital stay was significantly higher in group B (9.4 vs. 6.8 days) (p<0,05). More than half of the patients in Group B were readmitted to the hospital for various reasons. No significant difference was observed between the two groups, one patient died due to heart failure in the postoperative period in group B. Conclusion: In-hospital cholecystectomy after remission of acute pancreatitis is feasible. It will not only result in lower recurrence and complication rates but also shorten length of hospital stay. We recommend performing cholecystectomy during the

  6. Routine abdominal drainage versus no abdominal drainage for uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Koti, Rahul; Davidson, Brian R

    2013-09-03

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the main method of treatment of symptomatic gallstones. Drains are used after laparoscopic cholecystectomy to prevent abdominal collections. However, drain use may increase infective complications and delay discharge. The aim is to assess the benefits and harms of routine abdominal drainage in uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded until February 2013. We included all randomised clinical trials comparing drainage versus no drainage after uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy irrespective of language and publication status. We used standard methodological procedures defined by The Cochrane Collaboration. A total of 1831 participants were randomised to drain (915 participants) versus 'no drain' (916 participants) in 12 trials included in this review. Only two trials including 199 participants were of low risk of bias. Nine trials included patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy exclusively. One trial included patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis exclusively. One trial included patients undergoing elective and emergency laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and one trial did not provide this information. The average age of participants in the trials ranged between 48 years and 63 years in the 10 trials that provided this information. The proportion of females ranged between 55.0% and 79.0% in the 11 trials that provided this information. There was no significant difference between the drain group (1/840) (adjusted proportion: 0.1%) and the 'no drain' group (2/841) (0.2%) (RR 0.41; 95% CI 0.04 to 4.37) in short-term mortality in the ten trials with 1681 participants reporting on this outcome. There was no significant difference between the drain group (7/567) (adjusted proportion: 1.1%) and the 'no drain' group (3/576) (0.5%) in the

  7. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in children with sickle cell anemia and the role of ERCP.

    PubMed

    Al-Salem, Ahmed Hassan; Issa, Hussain

    2012-04-01

    Patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) have a high incidence of cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis. This report is an analysis of our experience with laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for children with SCA and the role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The records of children with SCA who had cholecystectomy were retrospectively reviewed for age, sex, hemoglobin level, hemoglobin electrophoresis, indication for cholecystectomy, operative time, hospital stay, and postoperative complications. They were divided into 2 groups, open cholecystectomy (OC) group and LC group, and the 2 were compared in terms of operative time, hospital stay, and postoperative complications. Over a period of 15 years (January 1995 and December 2009), 94 children with SCA had cholecystectomy. Thirty-five (19 males and 16 females) had OC, 52 (28 males and 24 females) had LC, and 7 (4 males and 3 females) had LC and splenectomy. Their age ranged from 4 to 15 years (mean, 11.4 y). The indications for cholecystectomy were biliary dyspepsia and biliary colic (55), acute cholecystitis (7), obstructive jaundice (17), asymptomatic (12), and biliary pancreatitis (3). All those who had OC underwent intraoperative cholangiogram, 9 of them (25.7%) had common bile duct (CBD) exploration and 2 transduodenal sphincterotomy. Of those who had LC, 13 (25%) underwent preoperative ERCP, which was normal in 1, showed dilated CBD with no stones in 2, and dilated CBD with stones in 7. In 3, ERCP showed dilated CBD with enlarged, inflammed papilla suggestive of recent stone passage. Nine underwent endoscopic sphincterotomy and stone extraction followed by LC. There was no mortality; 1 (2.1%) required conversion to OC and another underwent postoperative exploration because of bleeding from an accessory cystic artery. In the LC group, 4 (7.7%) developed minor postoperative complications, whereas 8 (22.9%) in the OC group developed complications. With proper perioperative management, LC is

  8. Single-site robotic cholecystectomy (SSRC) versus single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC): comparison of learning curves. First European experience.

    PubMed

    Spinoglio, Giuseppe; Lenti, Luca Matteo; Maglione, Valeria; Lucido, Francesco Saverio; Priora, Fabio; Bianchi, Paolo Pietro; Grosso, Federica; Quarati, Raul

    2012-06-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic surgery is an emerging procedure developed to decrease parietal trauma and improve cosmetic results. However, many technical constraints, such as lack of triangulation, instrument collisions, and cross-handing, hamper this approach. Using a robotic platform may overcome these problems and enable more precise surgical actions by increasing freedom of movement and by restoring intuitive instrument control. We retrospectively collected, under institutional review board approval, data on the first 25 patients who underwent single-site robotic cholecystectomies (SSRC) at our center. Patients enrolled in this study underwent SSRC for symptomatic biliary gallstones or polyposis. Exclusion criteria were: BMI > 33; acute cholecystitis; previous upper abdominal surgery; ASA > II; and age >80 and <18 years. All procedures were performed with the da Vinci Si Surgical System and a dedicated SSRC kit (Intuitive). After discharge, patients were followed for 2 months. These SSRC cases were compared to our first 25 single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomies (SILC) and with the literature. There were no differences in patient characteristics between groups (gender, P = 0.4404; age, P = 0.7423; BMI, P = 0.5699), and there were no conversions or major complications in either cohort. Operative time was significantly longer for the SILC group compared with SSRC (83.2 vs. 62.7 min, P = 0.0006), and SSRC operative times did not change significantly along the series. The majority of patients in each group were discharged within 24 h, with an average length of hospital stay of 1.2 days for the SILC group and 1.1 days for the SSRC group (P = 0.2854). No wound complications (infection, incisional hernia) were observed in the SSRC group and in the SILC. Our preliminary experience shows that SSRC is safe, can easily be learned, and performed in a reproducible manner and is faster than SILC.

  9. Biliary-colonic fistula caused by cholecystectomy bile duct injury.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Francisco Igor B; Casillas, Victor J; Davis, James S; Levi, Joe U; Sleeman, Danny

    2013-08-01

    Biliary-colonic fistula is a rare complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We present a case of post-cholecystectomy iatrogenic biliary injury that resulted in a fistula between the common hepatic duct and large bowel. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography provided good visualization of injury even with concurrent normal level of alkaline phosphatase. Radiologic findings and surgical management of this condition are discussed in detail.

  10. "Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Single Surgeon's Experience in some of the Teaching Hospitals of West Bengal".

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Prosanta Kumar; Halder, Shyamal Kumar; Rai, Himanshu; Ray, Rajendra Pd

    2015-12-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has revolutionized the management of symptomatic gallstone disease since its introduction more than 20 years ago. It has gained widespread acceptance and is presently the gold standard for its management. This large study spanned over last 10 years and includes prospective data on 950 elective cases of laparoscopic cholecystectomy since 2002. All cases were operated personally by the author in different teaching hospitals of West Bengal. The following were looked into: profiles of the patients including major comorbidities requiring special precautions, the frequency of "difficult cholecystectomies," conversion rate, and operative and postoperative complications. The results showed that 75 % of the patients were females. The mean age of the female patients was 35 years (range15-75), while that of the male patients was 42 (range 18-68). Thirty-two patients had major comorbidities which required special precautions in the perioperative period. Twenty-six percent of the cases were categorized as "difficult," and 6 % of the cases had to be converted to open procedure. Major complications occurred in 11 patients of which five had to be converted. Fifty-five patients had port-site infection due to atypical mycobacteria species of which majority occurred in the last 1 year of the study. All of them responded to second-line antitubercular medications.

  11. Retraction and triangulation with neodymium magnetic forceps for single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Guillermo; Durand, Luis; De Rosa, Julián; Danguise, Eduardo; Arozamena, Carlos; Ferraina, Pedro A

    2009-07-01

    There have been attempts to minimize the invasiveness of laparoscopic cholecystectomy by reducing the size and/or the number of the operating ports and instruments. These attempts create technical challenges related principally to retraction and triangulation necessary to expose the surgical field for a safe surgery. A new technique based on retraction and triangulation with magnetic instruments for single port laparoscopic surgery is presented. Between March 2007 and December 2008, 40 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed with single-port laparoscopic surgery with the assistance of magnetic forceps (IMANLAP project). The surgical technique is described, and the intraoperative and postoperative course of the patients is assessed. There were no intraoperative complications, no need to convert to open surgery, and no need to add a second port. Depending on the patient's anatomy, a 1-mm needle was added in some cases. There were no interactions observed between the magnetic devices and the anesthetic monitoring and the rest of the devices of the operation room. This new procedure is feasible and safe. The main goal is control of the magnetic field, allowing enough controlled strength for retraction and sufficient triangulation for adequate exposure of the surgical field. This allows for the use of a single port through which an optic device with a working channel can perform the operation with safety. Finally, the procedure can be performed in a manner similar to the traditional laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and it also appears to be simple to learn.

  12. Racial Disparities in Access and Outcomes of Cholecystectomy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gahagan, John V; Hanna, Mark H; Whealon, Matthew D; Maximus, Steven; Phelan, Michael J; Lekawa, Michael; Barrios, Cristobal; Bernal, Nicole P

    2016-10-01

    Disparities in access to health care between white and minority patients are well described. We aimed to analyze the trends and outcomes of cholecystectomy based on racial classification. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was reviewed for all patients undergoing cholecystectomy from 2009 to 2012. Patients were stratified as white or non-white. A total of 243,536 patients were analyzed: 159,901 white and 83,635 non-white. Non-white patients had significantly higher proportions of Medicaid (25% vs 9.3%), self-pay (14% vs 7.1%), and no-charge (1.8% vs 0.64%). Non-white patients had significantly higher rates of emergent admission (84% vs 78%) compared with the white patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that non-whites had a significantly longer length of stay [mean difference of 0.14 days, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.20] and higher total hospital charges (mean difference of $6748.00, 95% CI 5994.19-7501.81) than whites, despite a lower morbidity (odds ratio 0.94, 95% CI 0.90-0.98). Use of laparoscopy and mortality were not different. These differences persisted on subgroup analysis by insurance type. These findings suggest a gap in access to and outcomes of cholecystectomy in the minority population nationwide.

  13. Multimedia article. The fear of transgastric cholecystectomy: misinterpretation of the biliary anatomy.

    PubMed

    Perretta, Silvana; Dallemagne, Bernard; Donatelli, Gianfranco; Mutter, Didier; Marescaux, Jacques

    2011-02-01

    Prevention of injury during cholecystectomy relies on accurate dissection of the cystic duct and artery and avoidance of major biliary and vascular structures. The advent of natural orifice translumenal surgery (NOTES) has led to a new look into the biliary anatomy, especially Calot's triangle. Here we show the clinical case of a NOTES transgastric cholecystectomy for uncomplicated cholelithiasis, in which misinterpretation of the biliary anatomy occurred. A 5-mm port was introduced at the umbilicus to ascertain the feasibility of transgastric cholecystectomy and to ensure safe gastrotomy creation and closure. Transgastric access was obtained using a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG)-like technique on the anterior mid body of the stomach to pass a 12-mm gastroscope (Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany). The laparoscope was switched to a grasper for gallbladder retraction. Dissection was started close to the gallbladder using the endoscope at the junction between the infundibulum and what was thought to be the cystic duct. During dissection, the size and the orientation of the cystic duct appeared to be unclear. The decision was made to switch to a laparoscopic view to reorient the dissection plane and clarify the anatomy. At laparoscopy, dissection of the triangle of Calot, although started close to the gallbladder, appeared far too low. The common bile duct had been mistaken for the cystic duct. Once the biliary anatomy was clarified, the vision was switched back to the endoscope, but an additional 2-mm grasper was introduced to improve exposure while cholecystectomy was performed in a standard fashion. Specific anatomic distortions due to NOTES technique together with the lack of exposure provided by current methods of retraction tend to distort Calot's triangle by flattening it rather than opening it out. At this stage, whenever the anatomy of the biliary tract is unclear, a temporary "conversion" to a laparoscopic view, more familiar to the surgeon's eye

  14. No 72-hour pathological boundary for safe early laparoscopic cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis: a clinicopathological study

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Rachel M.; Mehta, Niraj T.; Varik, Vanesha; Doctor, Nilesh H.

    2013-01-01

    Background The pathological boundary of acute cholecystitis (AC) between early edematous and late chronic fibrotic inflammation beyond 72 h is well-described. Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (ELC) is safe in AC but the timing still remains controversial. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the duration of symptoms on clinical severity, pathology and outcome in patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for AC during the urgent admission. Methods A retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database of 61 patients who underwent LC for AC over a 6-month period was performed. Results Of 61 patients 21 (34.43%) received ELC at <72 h and 40 (65.57%) received late LC (LLC) at >72 h. Clinically in the ELC group the majority were mild and in the LLC group the majority were moderate and severe in severity grading as per Tokyo guidelines (P<0.001). Surgical findings and histopathology showed no significant difference in the distribution of simple, phlegmonous and gangrenous cholecystitis between both groups (P=0.94). The majority were completed by a standard four port technique and only one required subtotal cholecystectomy. There was no significant difference between operating time, return to normal activities or hospital stay between both groups. There were no conversions to open cholecystectomy, no wound infections, no intra-abdominal collections, no biliary tract injury or mortality in either group. Conclusions The degree of inflammatory change in AC is not dependent on time. LC can be safely performed in AC regardless of timing with a standardized surgical strategy in experienced units. PMID:24714318

  15. A Comparative Study of Single Incision versus Conventional Four Ports Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hajong, Debobratta; Natung, Tanie; Anand, Madhur; Sharma, Girish

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cholelithiasis is one of the most common disorders of the digestive tract encountered by general surgeons worldwide. Conventional or open cholecystectomy was the mainstay of treatment for a long time for this disease. In the 1980s laparoscopic surgery revolutionized the management of biliary tract diseases. It brought about a revolutionary change in the basic concepts of surgical principles and minimal access surgery gradually started to be acknowledged as a safe means of carrying out surgeries. Aim To investigate the technical feasibility, safety and benefit of Single Incision Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (SILC) versus Conventional Four Port Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (C4PLC). Materials and Methods This prospective randomized control trial was conducted to compare the advantages if any between the SILC and C4PLC. Thirty two patients underwent SILC procedure and C4PLC, each. The age of the patients ranged from 16-60years. Other demographic data and indications for cholecystectomy were comparable in both the groups. Simple comparative statistical analysis was carried out in the present study. Results on continuous variables are shown in Mean ± SD; whereas results on categorical variables are shown in percentage (%) by keeping the level of significance at 5%. Intergroup analysis of the various study parameters was done by using Fisher exact test. SPSS version 22 was used for statistical analysis. Results The mean operating time was higher in the SILC group (69 ± 4.00 mins vs. 38.53 ± 4.00 mins) which was of statistical significance (p=<0.05). Furthermore, the patients of the SILC group had less post-operative pain, with lesser analgesic requirements (p=<0.05), shorter hospital stay and earlier return to normal activity. Conclusion SILC is feasible and safe in trained hands. It did not compromise the procedural safety, or lead to any complication. The operating time was longer otherwise it has almost similar clinical outcomes to those of C4PLC. PMID

  16. Day-case laparoscopic cholecystectomy: analysis of the factors allowing early discharge.

    PubMed

    Tebala, Giovanni Domenico; Belvedere, Angela; Keane, Sean; Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Osman, Abdelsalam

    2017-03-21

    Despite a number of studies have already demonstrated that majority of patients can be safely discharged early after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, this approach did not gain widespread diffusion yet. The present study was set up to assess safety and feasibility of 24 h or same-day discharge after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and to identify the prognostic factors. Perioperative variables of 229 patients undergoing cholecystectomy have been analyzed. Primary endpoints were: postoperative length of stay, rate of patients discharged within 24 h, and rate of those discharged on the same day. Secondary endpoints were rate of 30-day readmission and rate of 30-day postoperative complications. Two-hundred twenty-three cases have been started by laparoscopy. Conversion rate was 3.1%. Overall mean postoperative stay was 1.8 ± 3.5 days (median 1 day). Seventy-eight percent of patients have been discharged within 24 h, and 22.3% have been discharged on the same day. Postoperative morbidity was 2.2%. Readmission rate was 3.9%. At univariate analysis, factors related to early discharge were age (more or less than 65), diagnosis (simple symptomatic gallstones vs complicated gallstones), ASA score, timing of operation (elective vs emergency), history of CBD stones, laparoscopic operation, and use of drain. No single factor was significantly related to readmission rate, but the use of drains in laparoscopic cases. At multivariate analysis, only elective operation, simple symptomatic gallstones, no history of CBD stones, laparoscopic approach, and no abdominal drain resulted independently associated with discharge within 24 h from the operation. The predictive models are all fit and significant. Early postoperative discharge within 24 h should be considered in all patients with simple symptomatic gallstones who had laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Same-day discharge should be considered if no drain was left at the end of the operation.

  17. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in an adult with agenesis of right hemidiaphragm and limb reduction defects: First report in literature

    PubMed Central

    Sagiroglu, Julide; Tombalak, Ercument; Yilmaz, Sarenur Basaran; Balyemez, Fikret; Eren, Tunc; Alimoglu, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the complete absence of a hemidiaphragm or unilateral diaphragmatic agenesis in adulthood in relation to performing laparoscopic procedures has not been well documented. This article reports for the first time in literature a case of successful laparoscopic cholecystectomy in an adult with previously undiagnosed unilateral diaphragmatic agenesis. A 36-year-old female complaining of stubborn right upper abdominal pain radiating to her upper back was diagnosed as having cholelithiasis and was scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There were also bilateral upper extremity malformations to a certain level. Routine diagnostic tests demonstrated that her entire liver and some bowel loops were in the right hemithorax, suggesting right-sided diaphragmatic hernia. Laparoscopic procedure was performed with the insertion of four trocars. Exploration of abdomen revealed total absence of the right hemidiaphragm. Cholecystectomy was completed laparoscopically in about 45 minutes without need for additional trocars. Patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged on the second postoperative day without any complaint. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in adults with diaphragmatic agenesis and intrathoracic abdominal viscera can be performed successfully. Nevertheless, any bile duct aberrations must be documented prior to surgery, and the surgeon should be able to convert to open procedure if necessary. PMID:28058404

  18. National survey on cholecystectomy related bile duct injury--public health and financial aspects in Belgian hospitals--1997.

    PubMed

    Van de Sande, St; Bossens, M; Parmentier, Y; Gigot, J F

    2003-04-01

    Public health and financial aspects of cholecystectomy related bile duct injury (BDI) are highlighted in a National Cholecystectomy Survey carried out through 'datamining' the Federal State Medical Records Summaries and Financial Summaries of all Belgian hospitals in 1997. All cancer diagnoses, children < or = 10 years, cholecystectomies performed as an abdominal co-procedure or patients having undergone other non-related surgery were excluded from the study. 10.595 laparoscopic (LC) and 1.033 open cholecystectomies (OC) as well as 137 secondary BDI treatments (LC/OC) were included in the survey (total 11.765). Both LC and OC groups turned out to be significantly different as to distribution of patient's age and APR-DRG severity classes. Composite criteria in terms of ICD-9-CM and billing codes were elaborated to classify: 1) primary, intra-operatively detected and treated BDI (N = 30), 2) primary delayed BDI treatments (N = 38), 3) secondary BDI treatments (N = 137), 4) non-BDI abdomino-surgical complications (N = 119), 4) uneventful laparoscopic (N = 7.476) and 5) uneventful open cholecystectomy (N = 681). Complication rates, community costs of LC and OC groups, incidence of preoperative ERCP and/or intra-operative cholangiography as well as interventions for complications were studied. Incidence of cholecystectomy related BDI was 0.37% in LC, 2.81% in OC and 0.58% overall. Average costs amounted to [symbol: see text] 1.721 for uneventful LC, [symbol: see text] 2.924 for uneventful OC, [symbol: see text] 7.250 for primary, intra-operatively detected and immediately treated BDI [symbol: see text] 9.258 for primary delayed BDI treatments, [symbol: see text] 6.076 for secondary BDI treatments and [symbol: see text] 10.363 for non-BDI abdomino-surgical complications. In conclusion BDI with cholecystectomy reveals to be a serious complication increasing the overall average cost factor ninefold if not detected intra-operatively, in which case the raise is only fourfold

  19. Effects of laparoscopic cholecystectomy on lung function: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Bablekos, George D; Michaelides, Stylianos A; Analitis, Antonis; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos A

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To present and integrate findings of studies investigating the effects of laparoscopic cholecystectomy on various aspects of lung function. METHODS: We extensively reviewed literature of the past 24 years concerning the effects of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in comparison to the open procedure on many aspects of lung function including spirometric values, arterial blood gases, respiratory muscle performance and aspects of breathing control, by critically analyzing physiopathologic interpretations and clinically important conclusions. A total of thirty-four articles were used to extract information for the meta-analysis concerning the impact of the laparoscopic procedure on lung function and respiratory physiopathology. The quality of the literature reviewed was evaluated by the number of their citations and the total impact factor of the corresponding journals. A fixed and random effect meta-analysis was used to estimate the pooled standardized mean difference of studied parameters for laparoscopic (LC) and open (OC) procedures. A crude comparison of the two methods using all available information was performed testing the postoperative values expressed as percentages of the preoperative ones using the Mann-Whitney two-sample test. RESULTS: Most of the relevant studies have investigated and compared changes in spirometric parameters.The median percentage and interquartile range (IQR) of preoperative values in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced expiratory flow (FEF) at 25%-75% of FVC (FEF25%-75%) expressed as percentage of their preoperative values 24 h after LC and OC were respectively as follows: [77.6 (73.0, 80.0) L vs 55.4 (50.0, 64.0) L, P < 0.001; 76.0 (72.3, 81.0) L vs 52.5 (50.0, 56.7) L, P < 0.001; and 78.8 (68.8, 80.9) L/s vs 60.0 (36.1, 66.1) L/s, P = 0.005]. Concerning arterial blood gases, partial pressure of oxygen [PaO2 (kPa)] at 24 or 48 h after surgical treatment showed reductions that were significantly

  20. Techniques of laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Nomenclature and selection.

    PubMed

    Haribhakti, Sanjiv P; Mistry, Jitendra H

    2015-01-01

    There are more than 50 different techniques of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) available in literature mainly due to modifications by surgeons in aim to improve postoperative outcome and cosmesis. These modifications include reduction in port size and/or number than what is used in standard LC. There is no uniform nomenclature to describe these different techniques so that it is not possible to compare the outcomes of different techniques. We brief the advantages and disadvantages of each of these techniques and suggest the situation where particular technique would be useful. We also propose a nomenclature which is easy to remember and apply, so that any future comparison will be possible between the techniques.

  1. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in Situs Inversus Totalis

    PubMed Central

    S, Mahesh Shetty; BB, Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Situs inversus totalis is a rare condition where the organs in the body is placed in the opposite side. When such patient presents with the diseases of the intra abdominal organs the diagnosis is challenging and the operative procedure to be performed will be difficult. This may require the anticipation of variations in anatomy, ergonomic changes required during surgery and mastery over the operative skills in reversed anatomy. Cholelithiasis in situs inversus totalis is one such situation. Herein we report a case of situs inversus totalis who underwent successful laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallbladder calculi. PMID:25177601

  2. An Evaluation of Emergency Medicine Core Content Covered by Free Open Access Medical Education Resources.

    PubMed

    Stuntz, Robert; Clontz, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Emergency physicians are using free open access medical education (FOAM) resources at an increasing rate. The extent to which FOAM resources cover the breadth of emergency medicine core content is unknown. We hypothesize that the content of FOAM resources does not provide comprehensive or balanced coverage of the scope of knowledge necessary for emergency medicine providers. Our objective is to quantify emergency medicine core content covered by FOAM resources and identify the predominant FOAM topics. This is an institutional review board-approved, retrospective review of all English-language FOAM posts between July 1, 2013, and June 30, 2014, as aggregated on http://FOAMem.com. The topics of FOAM posts were compared with those of the emergency medicine core content, as defined by the American Board of Emergency Medicine's Model of the Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine (MCPEM). Each FOAM post could cover more than 1 topic. Repeated posts and summaries were excluded. Review of the MCPEM yielded 915 total emergency medicine topics grouped into 20 sections. Review of 6,424 FOAM posts yielded 7,279 total topics and 654 unique topics, representing 71.5% coverage of the 915 topics outlined by the MCPEM. The procedures section was covered most often, representing 2,285 (31.4%) FOAM topics. The 4 sections with the least coverage were cutaneous disorders, hematologic disorders, nontraumatic musculoskeletal disorders, and obstetric and gynecologic disorders, each representing 0.6% of FOAM topics. Airway techniques; ECG interpretation; research, evidence-based medicine, and interpretation of the literature; resuscitation; and ultrasonography were the most overrepresented subsections, equaling 1,674 (23.0%) FOAM topics when combined. The data suggest an imbalanced and incomplete coverage of emergency medicine core content in FOAM. The study is limited by its retrospective design and use of a single referral Web site to obtain available FOAM resources. More comprehensive

  3. Emerging ideas: Interleukin-12 nanocoatings prevent open fracture-associated infections.

    PubMed

    Li, Bingyun; McKeague, Anne L

    2011-11-01

    Infection is a major clinical complication of orthopaedic implants and prosthetic devices, and patients with traumatic open fractures have a high risk of infection that may exceed 30%. Surgical trauma, burns, and major injuries such as traumatic open fractures induce immunosuppression, decrease resistance to infection, and decrease production of T helper type 1 (Th1) cytokines. Exogenous interleukin-12 p70 (IL-12p70 or IL-12), a natural cytokine that plays a central role in Th1 response and bridges innate and adaptive immunities, will reduce open fracture-associated infection. We propose using exogenous IL-12 nanocoating to restore or enhance the body's natural defense system to combat pathogens. Rats will have a femur fractured, inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus or injected with phosphate buffered saline, left open for 1 hour, and then fixed with an intramedullary Kirschner wire with or without IL-12 nanocoating. Animals will be euthanized at postoperative Day 21; samples of blood, soft tissue, bone, and draining lymph nodes will be collected. Infection, bone healing, and local and systemic responses will be determined. IL-12 nanocoating is a promising prophylactic means to modulate the host immune response to help prevent open fracture-associated infections and to avoid the problem of antibiotic resistance.

  4. Mortality rates and risk factors for emergent open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms in the endovascular era.

    PubMed

    Pecoraro, Felice; Gloekler, Steffen; Mader, Caecilia E; Roos, Malgorzata; Chaykovska, Lyubov; Veith, Frank J; Cayne, Neal S; Mangialardi, Nicola; Neff, Thomas; Lachat, Mario

    2017-09-14

    The background of this paper is to report the mortality at 30 and 90 days and at mean follow-up after open abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) emergent repair and to identify predictive risk factors for 30- and 90-day mortality. Between 1997 and 2002, 104 patients underwent emergent AAA open surgery. Symptomatic and ruptured AAAs were observed, respectively, in 21 and 79% of cases. Mean patient age was 70 (SD 9.2) years. Mean aneurysm maximal diameter was 7.4 (SD 1.6) cm. Primary endpoints were 30- and 90-day mortality. Significant mortality-related risk factor identification was the secondary endpoint. Open repair trend and its related perioperative mortality with a per-year analysis and a correlation subanalysis to identify predictive mortality factor were performed. Mean follow-up time was 23 (SD 23) months. Overall, 30-day mortality was 30%. Significant mortality-related risk factors were the use of computed tomography (CT) as a preoperative diagnostic tool, AAA rupture, preoperative shock, intraoperative cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), use of aortic balloon occlusion, intraoperative massive blood transfusion (MBT), and development of abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Previous abdominal surgery was identified as a protective risk factor. The mortality rate at 90 days was 44%. Significant mortality-related risk factors were AAA rupture, aortocaval fistula, peripheral artery disease (PAD), preoperative shock, CPR, MBT, and ACS. The mortality rate at follow-up was 45%. Correlation analysis showed that MBT, shock, and ACS are the most relevant predictive mortality factor at 30 and 90 days. During the transition period from open to endovascular repair, open repair mortality outcomes remained comparable with other contemporary data despite a selection bias for higher risk patients. MBT, shock, and ACS are the most pronounced predictive mortality risk factors.

  5. Current practice of antibiotic prophylaxis during elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Macano, Caw; Griffiths, E A; Vohra, R S

    2017-03-01

    INTRODUCTION Current guidelines do not recommend antibiotic prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Despite this, there is wide variation in antibiotic prophylaxis during cholecystectomy in population-based studies. The aim of this survey was to establish the current rationale for antibiotic prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS A short questionnaire was designed and disseminated across collaborators for a population-based study investigating outcomes following cholecystectomy and via the Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons, Researchgate and Surginet membership. RESULTS Responses were received from 234 people; 50.9% had no written policy for the use of prophylactic antibiotics in elective cholecystectomy; 5.6% never used antibiotics, while 30.8% always did and 63.7% selectively used antibiotics. Contamination with bile, stones and pus were scenarios in which antibiotics were most commonly used in selective practices to reduce infective complications. Interestingly, 87% of respondents would be happy to participate in a trial investigating the effectiveness of antibiotics in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy where contamination has occurred. CONCLUSIONS The disparity between current practice and guidelines appears to arise because of a lack of evidence to show that antibiotics reduce surgical site infection following elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy where contamination has occurred. This question needs to addressed before practice will change.

  6. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCS): Emerging Trends in Assessment and Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauhan, Amit

    2014-01-01

    In 2014, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are expected to witness a phenomenal growth in student registration compared to the previous years (Lee, Stewart, & Claugar-Pop, 2014). As MOOCs continue to grow in number, there has been an increasing focus on assessment and evaluation. Because of the huge enrollments in a MOOC, it is impossible…

  7. Experimental Educational Networking on Open Research Issues: Studying PSS Applicability and Development in Emerging Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vezzoli, Carlo; Sciama, Dalia

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce the hypothesis that it is fruitful to study new areas within research for sustainability, through experimental education courses, that are based on international and multilateral (transcultural) learning processes. Design/methodology/approach: This way of introducing education into open research…

  8. Emerging Roles: Key Insights from Librarians in a Massive Open Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Michael; Jones, Kyle M. L.

    2015-01-01

    From the cutting edge of innovations in online education comes the MOOC (Massive Open Online Course), a potentially disruptive and transformational mechanism for large-scale learning. What's the role of librarians in a MOOC? What can librarians learn from participating in a large-scale professional development opportunity delivered in an open…

  9. Open and Distance Learning: An Emerging System for Alternative Higher Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibara, Emmanuel Chisa

    2008-01-01

    Nigeria no doubt is at the threshold of transformation in information and communication technology (ICT), a development that should be utilized to meet the demand of time, especially in the education sector. One area in which ICT has made enormous impact is in open and distance learning. Undoubtedly, the demand on the conventional higher education…

  10. Emerging Roles: Key Insights from Librarians in a Massive Open Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Michael; Jones, Kyle M. L.

    2015-01-01

    From the cutting edge of innovations in online education comes the MOOC (Massive Open Online Course), a potentially disruptive and transformational mechanism for large-scale learning. What's the role of librarians in a MOOC? What can librarians learn from participating in a large-scale professional development opportunity delivered in an open…

  11. Single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy: for what benefit?

    PubMed

    Tranchart, Hadrien; Ketoff, Serge; Lainas, Panagiotis; Pourcher, Guillaume; Di Giuro, Giuseppe; Tzanis, Dimitrios; Ferretti, Stefano; Dautruche, Antoine; Devaquet, Niaz; Dagher, Ibrahim

    2013-06-01

    A single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) was developed to improve outcomes as compared with the four-port classic laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CLC). Any potential benefits associated with a SILC have been suggested by previous studies reporting few patients with different surgical techniques. The aim of this study was to describe the experience with a standardized SILC as compared with CLC. From June 2010 to January 2012, 40 patients underwent a SILC [median age: 47.5 years (25-92)] and operative and peri-operative data were prospectively collected. Over the same period, 37 patients underwent a CLC. A 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) was used for qualitative data. The costs of SILC and CLC were also compared. For those patients undergoing a SILC the median operating time was 70 min (24-110). There were no conversions. An additional trocar was necessary in 16 patients. Four patients developed post-operative complications. The median immediate post-operative pain score was 5 (0-10). The median quality of life and cosmetic satisfaction at the initial post-operative visit were 10 (6-10) and 10 (5-10), respectively (VAS). Although the surgical results of both groups were similar, post-operative complications were exclusively reported in the SILC group (two incisional hernias). Standardization of SILC is possible but associated with an important rate of additional trocar placement and a disturbing rate of incisional hernias. © 2012 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  12. [Asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic CBD dilatation on US after cholecystectomy: management].

    PubMed

    Pilleul, F

    2006-04-01

    In western countries, 10-15% of the population has gallbladder stones with 46,000 cholecystectomies performed in France in 2003. So, daily ultrasonography of the abdomen performed in patients without gallbladder is a routine exam. However, identification of an enlarged common bile duct is frequent and the normal nature of this finding remains uncertain. The purpose of this article is to perform a literature review of the impact of cholecystectomy on the diameter of the common bile duct. Furthermore, it is important not to dismiss common bile duct dilatation after cholecystectomy because it may be the result of post operative complication or secondary to a congenital disease of bile duct.

  13. Networked Participatory Scholarship: Emergent Techno-Cultural Pressures toward Open and Digital Scholarship in Online Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veletsianos, George; Kimmons, Royce

    2012-01-01

    We examine the relationship between scholarly practice and participatory technologies and explore how such technologies invite and reflect the emergence of a new form of scholarship that we call "Networked Participatory Scholarship": scholars' participation in online social networks to share, reflect upon, critique, improve, validate, and…

  14. Opening School-Based Health Centers in a Rural Setting: Effects on Emergency Department Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Katherine E.; Monie, Daphne; Scribani, Melissa B.; Krupa, Nicole L.; Jenkins, Paul; Leinhart, August; Kjolhede, Chris L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of urban school-based health centers (SBHCs) have shown that SBHCs decrease emergency department (ED) utilization. This study seeks to evaluate the effect of SBHCs on ED utilization in a rural setting. Methods: This retrospective, controlled, quasi-experimental study used an ED patient data set from the Bassett…

  15. Opening School-Based Health Centers in a Rural Setting: Effects on Emergency Department Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Katherine E.; Monie, Daphne; Scribani, Melissa B.; Krupa, Nicole L.; Jenkins, Paul; Leinhart, August; Kjolhede, Chris L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of urban school-based health centers (SBHCs) have shown that SBHCs decrease emergency department (ED) utilization. This study seeks to evaluate the effect of SBHCs on ED utilization in a rural setting. Methods: This retrospective, controlled, quasi-experimental study used an ED patient data set from the Bassett…

  16. Networked Participatory Scholarship: Emergent Techno-Cultural Pressures toward Open and Digital Scholarship in Online Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veletsianos, George; Kimmons, Royce

    2012-01-01

    We examine the relationship between scholarly practice and participatory technologies and explore how such technologies invite and reflect the emergence of a new form of scholarship that we call "Networked Participatory Scholarship": scholars' participation in online social networks to share, reflect upon, critique, improve, validate, and…

  17. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TIMING OF EMERGENCY PROCEDURES AND LIMB AMPUTATION IN PATIENTS WITH OPEN TIBIA FRACTURE: UNITED STATES, 2003 – 2009

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Erika Davis; Davis, Matthew M.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2012-01-01

    Background We aimed to characterize patterns in the timing of initial emergency procedures for patients with open tibia fracture and examine the relationship between initial procedure timing and in-hospital amputation. Study Design Data were analyzed from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 2003–2009. Adult patients were included if they had a primary diagnosis code of open tibia fracture. Patients were excluded for the following: transferred from or to another hospital, an immediate amputation was performed, more than one amputation was performed, no emergency procedure was documented, or treated at a facility that did not perform any amputations. We evaluated the association between timing of the first procedure and the outcome of amputation using multiple logistic regression, controlled for patient risk factors and hospital characteristics. Results Of 7,560 patients included in the analysis, 1.3% (n=99 patients) underwent amputation on hospital day 2 or later. The majority of patients (52.6%) underwent first operative procedure on day 0 or 1. In adjusted analyses, timing of first operative procedure beyond the day of admission is associated with more than three times greater odds of amputation (day 1 OR 3.81, 95% CI 1.80–8.07). Conclusions Delay of first operative procedure beyond the day of admission appears to be associated with a significantly increased probability of amputation in patients with open tibia fracture. All practitioners involved in the management of patients with open tibia fracture should seek a solution for any barrier, other than medical stability of the patient, of achieving early operative intervention. PMID:22842411

  18. Antibiotic prophylaxis in elective cholecystectomy: Protocol adequacy and related outcomes in a retrospective single-centre analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Caravaca, Gil; Gil-Yonte, Pablo; Risco-Risco, Carlos; Latasa Zamalloa, Pello; Villar del Campo, M Concepcion; Fernández-Cebrián, Jose M; Valverde-Núñez, Ignacio; Lucendo, Alfredo J

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic prophylaxis is an effective tool to reduce surgical infection rates. However, antibiotic prophylaxis in cholecystectomy is controversial when non-high risk patients are considered. This research aims to evaluate the adherence with antibiotic prophylaxis protocol in patients undergoing cholecystectomy, and its impact in the outcomes of surgical infection. This single-center observational and retrospective study analyzed all elective cholecystectomy procedures carried out at the Fundación Alcorcón University Hospital in the period 2007-2014. Data were recovered from hospital records; rates of adherence to the available hospital protocols were evaluated for choice, initiation, duration, administration route and dosages of antibiotics, and the starting and duration of the prophylaxis. The overall adequacy rate to protocol was 72%. The adherence rates in both the administration route and dose were 100%. The most common violations of the protocol included the choice of antibiotic agent (19%), followed by the moment of initiating its administration (8.9%). The overall wound infection rate was lower in case of laparoscopy than in laparotomy cholecystectomy (1.4% vs. 4.3%, p < 0.05; odds rate [OR] 0.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1-0.6). No relationship between adequacy of antibiotic prophylaxis and surgical infection rate was documented, neither considering overall gallbladder surgeries (crude OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.1-2.0), nor laparoscopy vs. open surgery (MH adjusted OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.2-2.1). The overall adequacy rate to antibiotic prophylaxis protocol recommended for elective cholecystectomy in our hospital was high (72%). No significant association between the adequacy or antibiotic prophylaxis and surgical infection was found.

  19. Sea Spray and Icing in the Emerging Open Water of the Arctic Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-09

    sea spray over the open ocean and the severity of sea spray icing on fixed offshore structures. We will use existing information on the relationship...and the resulting spray icing on offshore structures, such as wind turbines and exploration, drilling , and production platforms. Our approach...International Ocean ( Offshore ) and Polar Engineering Conference, Anchorage, AK, 30 June–5 July 2013, International Society of Offshore and Polar

  20. Common Bile Duct Obstruction Due to Surgical Clips Following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Treated with Percutaneous Balloon Dilatation.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Mehmet; Adıgüzel, Ünal; Şanal, Bekir; Zeren, Sezgin; Ekici, Mehmet Fatih

    2016-06-01

    Bile duct injury is a commonly seen complication of the laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) approach, which can even lead to a life-threatening condition and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the first-line choice in treatment. Beside this, it can be concluded that percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) and balloon dilatation methods may also constitute a reasonable selection with non-invasive, feasible and effective aspects prior to open surgery. In the present case, we report the management of a bile duct obstruction due to surgical clips following LC, treated with PTC and balloon dilatation instead of surgical procedure in a child patient.

  1. [Comparative study of ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus management of laparoscopic cholecystectomy with conventional hospital stay].

    PubMed

    Lezana Pérez, María Ángeles; Carreño Villarreal, Guillermo; Lora Cumplido, Paola; Alvarez Obregón, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    To analyse the effectiveness and quality of ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CLCMA) versus management of laparoscopic cholecystectomy with conventional hospital stay (CLEST). A retrospective study was conducted on all patients ASA I-II, who had a laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) over a period of 6 years. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group CLCMA (n = 141 patients) and group CLEST (n = 286 patients). The effectiveness was analysed by evaluating morbidity, further surgery, re-admission and hospital stay. The quality analysis was performed using CLCMA group satisfaction surveys and subsequent assessment by indicators of satisfaction. There was no significant differences between groups (CLEST vs. CLCMA) in morbidity (5.24 vs 4.26), further surgery (2.45 vs. 1.42) or re-admissions (1.40 vs. 3.55). There was no postoperative mortality. In the CLCMA group 82% of patients were discharged on the same day of surgery, with a mean stay of 1.16 days, while in the CLEST group the mean hospital stay was 2.94 days (P=.003).The overall satisfaction rate was 82%, and the level of satisfaction of care received was 81%, both above the previously set standard. CLCMA is just as effective and safe as hospital based CLEST, with a good level of perceived quality. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. [Ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy by minilaparoscopy versus traditional multiport ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Prospective randomized trial].

    PubMed

    Planells Roig, Manuel; Arnal Bertomeu, Consuelo; Garcia Espinosa, Rafael; Cervera Delgado, Maria; Carrau Giner, Miguel

    2016-02-01

    Difference analysis of ambulatorization rate, pain, analgesic requirements and daily activities recovery in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy with standard multiport access (CLMP) versus a minilaparoscopic, 3mm size, technique. Prospective randomized trial of 40 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Comparison criteria included predictive ultrasound factors of difficult cholecystectomy, previous history of complicated biliary disease and demographics. Results are analyzed in terms of ambulatorization rate, pain, analgesic requirements, postoperative recovery, technical difficulty, hemorrhage intensity, overnight stay, readmission rate and total or partial conversion. Both procedures were similar in surgery time, technical score and hemorrhage score. MLC was associated with similar ambulatorization rate, 85%, and over-night stay 15%, with only 15% partial conversion rate. MLC showed less postoperative pain (P=.026), less analgesic consumption (P=.006) and similar DAR (P=.879). MLC is similar to CLMP in terms of ambulatorization with less postoperative pain and analgesic requirements without differences in postoperative recovery. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Timing of cholecystectomy after acute severe pancreatitis in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    TALEBI-BAKHSHAYESH, Mousa; MOHAMMADZADEH, Alireza; ZARGAR, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is one of the most common diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and is usually caused by gallstones; its occurrence in pregnancy is rare. Cholecystectomy for biliary pancreatitis during pregnancy is unavoidable, but its timing is controversial. We herein present the case of a patient who underwent termination of pregnancy due to deteriorated acute severe pancreatitis during the 27th week of gestation. Cholecystectomy was performed because of the relapse of acute biliary pancreatitis 10 days after being discharged. The interval from pancreatitis to cholecystectomy varies with its severity; in mild pancreatitis the interval may be one week, but in severe cases it maybe up to three weeks. Because pancreatitis may relapse during this interval, as occurred in the present case, a better solution for the timing of cholecystectomy must be sought. PMID:26715899

  4. Choledochoduodenal fistula caused by migration of endoclip after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Tao; Xu, Xie-Qun; He, Xiao-Dong; Qu, Qiang; Li, Bing-Lu; Zheng, Chao-Ji

    2014-01-01

    The wide use of surgical endoclips in laparoscopic surgery has led to a variety of complications. Post-cholecystectomy endoclips migrating into the common bile duct after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is rare. A migrated endoclip can cause obstruction, serve as a nidus for stone formation, and cause cholangitis. While the exact pathogenesis is still unknown, it is probably related to improper clip application, subclinical bile leak, inflammation, and subsequent necrosis, allowing the clips to erode directly into the common bile duct. We present a case of endoclip migrating into the common bile duct and duodenum, resulting in choledochoduodenal fistula after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and a successful reconstruction of the biliary tract by a hepaticojejunostomy with a Roux-en-Y procedure. This case shows that surgical endoclips can penetrate into the intact bile duct wall through serial maceration, and it is believed that careful application of clips may be the only way to prevent their migration after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:24782639

  5. Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy: How I do it?

    PubMed Central

    Bhandarkar, Deepraj; Mittal, Gaurav; Shah, Rasik; Katara, Avinash; Udwadia, Tehemton E

    2011-01-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) is a relatively new technique that is being increasingly used by surgeons around the world. Unlike the multi-port cholecystectomy, a standardised technique and detailed description of the operative steps of SILC is lacking in the literature. This article provides a stepwise account of the technique of SILC aimed at surgeons wishing to learn the procedure. A brief review of the current literature on SILC follows. PMID:21197237

  6. Emergence of influenza viruses with zoonotic potential: open issues which need to be addressed. A review.

    PubMed

    Capua, Ilaria; Munoz, Olga

    2013-07-26

    The real and perceived impact of influenza infections in animals has changed dramatically over the last 10 years, due mainly to the better understanding of the public health implications of avian and swine influenza viruses. On a number of occasions in the last decade avian-to-human transmissions of H5, H7 and H9 virus subtypes have occurred, and the first influenza pandemic of the new millennium occurred as a result of the emergence and spread of a virus from pigs. Although the mechanisms that allow influenza viruses to jump from one host species to another are not fully understood, several genetic signatures linked to the crossing of species barriers have been identified. This has led to a re-evaluation of the importance of understanding these viruses in the animal reservoir, to the extent that millions of euros have been invested in surveillance, research and capacity building worldwide. This has resulted in an enhanced collaboration with our medical counterparts, leading to many discoveries that will contribute to an understanding of the complex mechanisms that lead to the emergence of a pandemic virus.

  7. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (hybrid) cholecystectomy: The Dhillon technique

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Kanwarjit Singh; Awasthi, Divya; Dhillon, Arshbir Singh

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study presents a novel technique to perform cholecystectomy and assess its outcome and feasibility. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study presents the novel Dhillon technique and experience of hybrid natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) technique, that is, laparoscopic-assisted transvaginal cholecystectomy. We have evaluated the outcomes in terms of cosmesis, post-operative recovery and analgesic requirement. The study included 257 patients who underwent hybrid NOTES cholecystectomy at single tertiary hospital. The biographical data, surgical time, pain score on day 1 and 2, need of analgesia, intra- and post-operative complication and aesthetic assessment on day 7 were recorded. RESULTS: Out of a total of 1100 cases of laparoscopic cholecystectomy 257 had hybrid NOTES cholecystectomy. Only two of these cases were converted to standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The mean operative time was 31.5 ± 5.1 (25–40) min. None of the patients had any complication or biliary leakage. The mean pain score on day 1 and 2 was 3.6 ± 0.4 (3–4) and 1.0 ± 0.06 (1–2), respectively. The mean paracetamol (analgesic) dose requirement was 6.1 ± 0.6 (4–6.9) g. The aesthetic score was excellent in all the cases. CONCLUSIONS: Using the present technique of hybrid NOTES is beneficial in terms of cosmetic results, lesser need of analgesic and shorter hospital stay. PMID:28607283

  8. Techniques of laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Nomenclature and selection

    PubMed Central

    Haribhakti, Sanjiv P.; Mistry, Jitendra H.

    2015-01-01

    There are more than 50 different techniques of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) available in literature mainly due to modifications by surgeons in aim to improve postoperative outcome and cosmesis. These modifications include reduction in port size and/or number than what is used in standard LC. There is no uniform nomenclature to describe these different techniques so that it is not possible to compare the outcomes of different techniques. We brief the advantages and disadvantages of each of these techniques and suggest the situation where particular technique would be useful. We also propose a nomenclature which is easy to remember and apply, so that any future comparison will be possible between the techniques. PMID:25883450

  9. Miniature robots can assist in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Oleynikov, D; Rentschler, M; Hadzialic, A; Dumpert, J; Platt, S R; Farritor, S

    2005-04-01

    Laparoscopy reduces patient trauma but eliminates the surgeon's ability to directly view and touch the surgical environment. Although current robot-assisted laparoscopy improves the surgeon's ability to manipulate and visualize the target organs, the instruments and cameras remain constrained by the entry incision. This limits tool tip orientation and optimal camera placement. This article focuses on developing miniature in vivo robots to assist surgeons during laparoscopic surgery by providing an enhanced field of view from multiple angles and dexterous manipulators not constrained by the abdominal wall fulcrum effect. Miniature camera robots were inserted through a small incision into the insufflated abdominal cavity of an anesthetized pig. Trocar insertion and other laparoscopic tool placements were then viewed with these robotic cameras. The miniature robots provided additional camera angles that improved surgical visualization during a cholecystectomy. These successful prototype trials have demonstrated that miniature in vivo robots can provide surgeons with additional visual information that can increase procedural safety.

  10. Cholecystectomy: clinical experience with a large series.

    PubMed

    Ganey, J B; Johnson, P A; Prillaman, P E; McSwain, G R

    1986-03-01

    This large series of 1,035 consecutive operations with a primary diagnosis of inflammatory or calculus disease of the gallbladder included a large number of elderly patients with the greatest incidence in the seventh and eighth decades of life. Operation was performed after initial stabilization when acute illness presented and without prolonged delay of medical treatment. Cholecystectomy was almost always able to be performed successfully at the initial operation. This approach produced low rates of morbidity and mortality when compared with reports from large university centers and with reports advocating delayed operation for acute cholecystitis or planned cholecystostomy in elderly and high risk patients. Operative cholangiograms were rarely performed and rates of residual or retained common duct stones were low. Length of hospital stay was related to age and performance of a common duct exploration. Draining the subhepatic space routinely by way of a separate peritoneal stab incision and removing the drain within 48 hours produced a low rate of wound complications.

  11. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and the Peter Pan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Orlando, G; Bellini, P; Borioni, R; Pace, A

    2000-08-01

    We report the case of a patient who experienced hemobilia a few weeks after undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). This condition was due to the rupture of a pseudo-aneurysm of the right hepatic artery in the common bile duct, probably caused by a clip erroneously fired during LC on the lateral right wall of the vessel. It also caused the formation of multiple liver abscesses and the onset of sepsis. This life-threatening complication led to melena, fever, epigastric pain, pancreatitis, liver dysfunction, and severe anemia, requiring urgent hospitalization and operation. In the operating theater, the fistula was closed, the liver abscesses drained, and a Kehr tube inserted. Thereafter, the patient's general condition improved, and she is now well. LC is often considered to be the gold standard for the management of symptomatic cholelithiasis. However, recent data have undermined that opinion. The apparent advantages offered by LC in the short term (less pain, speedier recovery, shorter hospital stay, and lower costs) have been overwhelmed by the complications that occur during long-term follow-up. When the late downward trend in the bile duct and the vascular injury rate are taken into consideration, the learning curve is prolonged. Therefore, LC should be regarded as the surgical equivalent of a modern Peter Pan-i.e., it is like a young adult who should make definitive steps toward becoming an adult but does not succeed in doing so. We report the case of a patient who experienced hemobilia a few weeks after undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Based on the facts in this case, we argue that the endoscopic procedure still needs to be perfected and cannot yet be considered the gold standard for selected cases of gallstone disease.

  12. [Intra-operative cholangiography in laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Neufeld, D; Jessel, J; Freund, U

    1994-01-16

    Intraoperative cholangiography (IC) in laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a controversial issue. According to traditional teaching, the purpose of cholangiography in gallbladder surgery is to discover previously undiscovered common bile duct stones. This examination was extremely important in the era before ERCP. IC enabled surgeons to find stones and remove them at the same operation. With progress in ERCP, the importance of intraoperative cholangiography has diminished. A stone missed during surgery can most often be dealt with by the less invasive ERCP and papillotomy. There has been a difference of opinion in the literature as to whether to perform cholangiography routinely during gallbladder operations or only in cases in which there is a specific indication, such as an enlarged common bile duct, a history of pancreatitis, or elevated enzymes. Routine operative cholangiography prolongs operative time and carries its own inherent risks, such as injury to the bile ducts. The likelihood of stones is not high and over-diagnosis of stones would result in unwarranted common bile duct exploration and the danger of complications from the procedure. The tendency today is towards a more selective approach. In this era of laparoscopic gallbladder surgery, the controversy has come to the fore again, and there is now an additional aspect. In laparoscopic gallbladder surgery there is greater significance to the "road map" provided by X-rays. We rely mainly on the visual sense and have forgone the tactile sense. Therefore, any added visual input in this operation helps avoid the danger of injuring the main bile ducts. It is our contention that the indications for operative cholangiography in laparoscopic cholecystectomy should again be broadened.

  13. Results of treatment of patients with gallstone disease and ductal calculi by single-stage laparoscopic cholecystectomy and bile duct exploration.

    PubMed

    Naumowicz, Eryk; Białecki, Jacek; Kołomecki, Krzysztof

    2014-06-01

    Choledocholithiasis is the most common cause of obstructive jaundice. Common bile duct stones are observed in 10-14% of patients diagnosed with gall bladder stones. In the case of gall bladder and common bile duct stones the procedure involves not only performing cholecystectomy but also removing the stones from bile ducts. To compare the results of the treatment of patients with gallstone disease and ductal calculi by one-stage laparoscopic cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration with two other methods: one-stage open cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration, and a two-stage procedure involving endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Between 2004 and 2011 three groups of 100 patients were treated for obstructive jaundice caused by choledocholithiasis. The first group of 42 patients underwent ERCP followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The second group of 23 patients underwent open cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration, whereas the third group of 35 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy with common bile duct exploration. The data were analysed prospectively. The methods were compared according to complete execution, bile duct clearance and complication rate. Complications were analysed according to Clavien's Classification of Surgical Complications. The results were compared using the ANOVA statistical test and Student's t-test in Statistica. Value of p was calculated statistically. A p-value less than 0.05 (p < 0.05) signified that groups differed statistically, whereas a p-value more than 0.05 (p > 0.05) suggested no statistically significant differences between the groups. The procedure could not be performed in 11.9% of patients in the first group and in 14.3% of patients in the third group. Residual stones were found in 13.5% of the patients in the first group, in 4.3% of the patients in the second group and in 6.7% of the patients in the third group. According to

  14. Isolated Right Segmental Hepatic Duct Injury Following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Perini, Rafael F.; Uflacker, Renan Cunningham, John T.; Selby, J. Bayne; Adams, David

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the treatment of choice for gallstones. There is an increased incidence of bile duct injuries in LC compared with the open technique. Isolated right segmental hepatic duct injury (IRSHDI) represents a challenge not only for management but also for diagnosis. We present our experience in the management of IRSHDI, with long-term follow-up after treatment by a multidisciplinary approach. Methods. Twelve consecutive patients (9 women, mean age 48 years) were identified as having IRSHDI. Patients' demographics, clinical presentation, management and outcome were collected for analysis. The mean follow-up was 44 months (range 2-90 months). Results. Three patients had the LC immediately converted to open surgery without repair of the biliary injury before referral. Treatments before referral included endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), percutaneous drainage and surgery, isolated or in combination. The median interval from LC to referral was 32 days. Eleven patients presented with biliary leak and biloma, one with obstruction of an isolated right hepatic segment. Post-referral management of the biliary lesion used a combination of ERCP stenting, percutaneous drainage and stent placement and surgery. In 6 of 12 patients ERCP was the first procedure, and in only one case was IRSHDI identified. In 6 patients, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) was performed first and an isolated right hepatic segment was demonstrated in all. The final treatment modality was endoscopic management and/or percutaneous drainage and stenting in 6 patients, and surgery in 6. The mean follow-up was 44 months. No mortality or significant morbidity was observed. Conclusion. Successful management of IRSHDI after LC requires adequate identification of the lesion, and multidisciplinary treatment is necessary. Half of the patients can be treated successfully by nonsurgical procedures.

  15. Laparoscopic Resection of Cholecystocolic Fistula and Subtotal Cholecystectomy by Tri-Staple in a Type V Mirizzi Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yetişir, Fahri; Şarer, Akgün Ebru; Acar, Hasan Zafer; Parlak, Omer; Basaran, Basar; Yazıcıoğlu, Omer

    2016-01-01

    The Mirizzi syndrome (MS) is an impacted stone in the cystic duct or Hartmann's pouch that mechanically obstructs the common bile duct (CBD). We would like to report laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy (SC) and resection of cholecystocolic fistula by the help of Tri-Staple™ in a case with type V MS and cholecystocolic fistula, for first time in the literature. A 24-year-old man was admitted to emergency department with the complaint of abdominal pain, intermittent fever, jaundice, and diarrhea. Two months ago with the same complaint, ERCP was performed. Laparoscopic resection of cholecystocolic fistula and subtotal cholecystectomy were performed by the help of Tri-Staple. At the eight-month follow-up, he was symptom-free with normal liver function tests. In a patient with type V MS and cholecystocolic fistula, laparoscopic resection of cholecystocolic fistula and SC can be performed by using Tri-Staple safely. PMID:26904324

  16. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver in association with spilled gallstones 3 years after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Kayashima, H; Ikegami, T; Ueo, H; Tsubokawa, N; Matsuura, H; Okamoto, D; Nakashima, A; Okadome, K

    2011-11-01

    We report on a case of a female patient diagnosed with inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver in association with spilled gallstones 3 years after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for calculous acute cholecystitis. She was asymptomatic, but CT revealed an intrahepatic mass and two other extrahepatic masses between the liver and the diaphragm. Furthermore, diffusion-weighted MRI and PET suggested all three lesions could be malignant tumors. As the preoperative diagnosis was intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma with peritoneal disseminations, we performed a posterior segmentectomy of the liver combined with partial resection of the diaphragm. Histological examination showed the intrahepatic tumor was an inflammatory granuloma with abscess formations. There were bilirubin stones between the liver and the diaphragm. Therefore, the tumor was diagnosed as inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver in association with spilled gallstones. In conclusion, the liver tumor emerged after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and may involve inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver in association with spilled gallstones.

  17. Robotic single-site cholecystectomy in the obese: outcomes from a single institution.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, Shane; Qaqish, T Robert; Wilson, Ana; Park, Habeeba; Youssef, Yassar

    2015-01-01

    Robotic single-site cholecystectomy (RSSC) has been shown to be a safe alternative to the laparoscopic approach in selected patients. Patient exclusion criteria have prevented RSSC as a surgical option in many obese patients. This study reports the feasibility of performing RSSC in obese patients (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30). Between November 2012 and February 2014, a total of 200 patients underwent RSSC at our institution. All patients were offered the robotic procedure regardless of their BMI, age, previous surgery, and acuity of their disease with no exclusion criteria. All patients with BMI ≥ 30 were included in the study and were compared to nonobese patients for demographic characteristics, co-morbidities, and postoperative outcomes. Data were compared to RSSC performed in nonobese patients by the same surgeon, as well to published data for standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). A total of 112 cholecystectomies were successfully performed with the robotic approach in patients with BMI ≥ 30 without conversion to open, laparoscopic, or multiport procedures. The mean BMI was 39.5 (range 30.1-62.3). Twenty-eight patients had a BMI ≥ 40 (25%), and 13 patients had a BMI ≥ 50 (11.6%). Fifty-two patients (46.4%) had a history of prior abdominal surgery. Most procedures were nonelective (78.6%) with patients presenting with acute symptoms. Pathology showed chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis in 79 patients (70.5%), acute cholecystitis in 26 patients (23.3%), cholelithiasis in 4 patients (3.5%), and gangrenous cholecystitis in 3 patients (2.7%). Total mean operative time was 69.8 (26) minutes for obese patients compared to 59.2 (19.7) minutes in the nonobese, which was statistically significant (P = .0012). After a mean follow-up of 6 months, there were no major complications recorded including bile leak, hematoma, or ductal injury. There was 1 umbilical (incisional) hernia (0.9%) reported, and zero wound infections. When comparing RSSC performed in

  18. ASGARD: an open-access database of annotated transcriptomes for emerging model arthropod species

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Victor; Extavour, Cassandra G.

    2012-01-01

    The increased throughput and decreased cost of next-generation sequencing (NGS) have shifted the bottleneck genomic research from sequencing to annotation, analysis and accessibility. This is particularly challenging for research communities working on organisms that lack the basic infrastructure of a sequenced genome, or an efficient way to utilize whatever sequence data may be available. Here we present a new database, the Assembled Searchable Giant Arthropod Read Database (ASGARD). This database is a repository and search engine for transcriptomic data from arthropods that are of high interest to multiple research communities but currently lack sequenced genomes. We demonstrate the functionality and utility of ASGARD using de novo assembled transcriptomes from the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus and the amphipod crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis. We have annotated these transcriptomes to assign putative orthology, coding region determination, protein domain identification and Gene Ontology (GO) term annotation to all possible assembly products. ASGARD allows users to search all assemblies by orthology annotation, GO term annotation or Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. User-friendly features of ASGARD include search term auto-completion suggestions based on database content, the ability to download assembly product sequences in FASTA format, direct links to NCBI data for predicted orthologs and graphical representation of the location of protein domains and matches to similar sequences from the NCBI non-redundant database. ASGARD will be a useful repository for transcriptome data from future NGS studies on these and other emerging model arthropods, regardless of sequencing platform, assembly or annotation status. This database thus provides easy, one-stop access to multi-species annotated transcriptome information. We anticipate that this database will be useful for members of multiple research communities, including developmental

  19. ASGARD: an open-access database of annotated transcriptomes for emerging model arthropod species.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Victor; Extavour, Cassandra G

    2012-01-01

    The increased throughput and decreased cost of next-generation sequencing (NGS) have shifted the bottleneck genomic research from sequencing to annotation, analysis and accessibility. This is particularly challenging for research communities working on organisms that lack the basic infrastructure of a sequenced genome, or an efficient way to utilize whatever sequence data may be available. Here we present a new database, the Assembled Searchable Giant Arthropod Read Database (ASGARD). This database is a repository and search engine for transcriptomic data from arthropods that are of high interest to multiple research communities but currently lack sequenced genomes. We demonstrate the functionality and utility of ASGARD using de novo assembled transcriptomes from the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus, the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus and the amphipod crustacean Parhyale hawaiensis. We have annotated these transcriptomes to assign putative orthology, coding region determination, protein domain identification and Gene Ontology (GO) term annotation to all possible assembly products. ASGARD allows users to search all assemblies by orthology annotation, GO term annotation or Basic Local Alignment Search Tool. User-friendly features of ASGARD include search term auto-completion suggestions based on database content, the ability to download assembly product sequences in FASTA format, direct links to NCBI data for predicted orthologs and graphical representation of the location of protein domains and matches to similar sequences from the NCBI non-redundant database. ASGARD will be a useful repository for transcriptome data from future NGS studies on these and other emerging model arthropods, regardless of sequencing platform, assembly or annotation status. This database thus provides easy, one-stop access to multi-species annotated transcriptome information. We anticipate that this database will be useful for members of multiple research communities, including developmental

  20. Health-Related Quality of Life and Appropriateness of Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, José Ma; Cabriada, Jose; Aróstegui, Inmaculada; Oribe, Victor; Perdigo, Luis; Varona, Mercedes; Bilbao, Amaia

    2005-01-01

    Ojbective: To evaluate the relationship among appropriateness of the use of cholecystectomy and outcomes. Summary Background Data: The use of cholecystectomy varies widely across regions and countries. Explicit appropriateness criteria may help identify suitable candidates for this commonly performed procedure. This study evaluates the relationship among appropriateness of the use of cholecystectomy and outcomes. Methods: Prospective observational study in 6 public hospitals in Spain of all consecutive patients on waiting lists to undergo cholecystectomy for nonmalignant disease. Explicit appropriateness criteria for the use of cholecystectomy were developed by a panel of experts using the RAND appropriateness methodology and applied to recruited patients. Patients were asked to complete 2 questionnaires that measure health-related quality of life—the Short Form 36 (SF-36) and the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI)—before the intervention and 3 months after it. Results: Patients judged as being appropriate candidates for cholecystectomy, using the panel's explicit appropriateness criteria, had greater improvements in the bodily pain, vitality, and social function domains of the SF-36 than those judged to be inappropriate candidates. They also demonstrated improvements in the GIQLI's physical impairment domain. Interventions judged as inappropriate were performed primarily among patients without symptoms of cholelithiasis. Those asymptomatic had a lower improvement in the bodily pain, social functioning, and physical summary scale of the SF-36 and in the symptomatology, physical impairment, and total score domains of the GIQLI. Conclusions: These results suggest a direct relationship between the application of explicit appropriateness criteria and better outcomes, as measured by health-related quality of life. They also indicate that patients without symptoms are not good candidates for cholecystectomy. PMID:15621998

  1. Diarrhea after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: associated factors and predictors.

    PubMed

    Yueh, Tuan-Pin; Chen, Fong-Ying; Lin, Tsyr-En; Chuang, Mao-Te

    2014-10-01

    Diarrhea is part of the postlaparoscopic cholecystectomy syndrome, but is not well defined. Published reports have ignored possible associated factors such as the preoperative excretion pattern, gastrointestinal disorders, personality disorders, the effect of drugs, unsanitary food, and high-fat diets. The aim of this study was to define the associated factors and predictors of postlaparoscopic cholecystectomy diarrhea (PLCD) at different time intervals after the operation and to identify the possible associated factors and predictors of PLCD. We also aimed to determine the effectiveness of a low-fat diet in these patients and to educate the patients about their diet after the operation. Data were obtained from clinical records and preoperative interviews with patients, who were also interviewed or contacted by telephone 1 week after the operation, and then surveyed by telephone 3 months later using standardized questionnaires. A total of 125 consecutive patients who were adequately informed and who had assented to accepting a prescription of a low-fat diet after undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy participated in this prospective study. Thirty-eight patients (25.2%) had diarrhea 1 week after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and seven patients (5.7%) had diarrhea 3 months after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The important predictors of PLCD at 1 week were a low-fat diet (B = -0.177, p = 0.000) and a high score on a preoperative diarrhea scale (B = 0.311, p = 0.031). There was no predictor for PLCD 3 months after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We advise patients who have undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy to follow a low-fat diet for at least 1 week to reduce the possibility of diarrhea, especially when they are ≤45 years of age, of male sex, and had a high preoperative tendency for diarrhea. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Discriminating Between Legitimate and Predatory Open Access Journals: Report from the International Federation for Emergency Medicine Research Committee.

    PubMed

    Hansoti, Bhakti; Langdorf, Mark I; Murphy, Linda S

    2016-09-01

    Open access (OA) medical publishing is growing rapidly. While subscription-based publishing does not charge the author, OA does. This opens the door for "predatory" publishers who take authors' money but provide no substantial peer review or indexing to truly disseminate research findings. Discriminating between predatory and legitimate OA publishers is difficult. We searched a number of library indexing databases that were available to us through the University of California, Irvine Libraries for journals in the field of emergency medicine (EM). Using criteria from Jeffrey Beall, University of Colorado librarian and an expert on predatory publishing, and the Research Committee of the International Federation for EM, we categorized EM journals as legitimate or likely predatory. We identified 150 journal titles related to EM from all sources, 55 of which met our criteria for OA (37%, the rest subscription based). Of these 55, 25 (45%) were likely to be predatory. We present lists of clearly legitimate OA journals, and, conversely, likely predatory ones. We present criteria a researcher can use to discriminate between the two. We present the indexing profiles of legitimate EM OA journals, to inform the researcher about degree of dissemination of research findings by journal. OA journals are proliferating rapidly. About half in EM are legitimate. The rest take substantial money from unsuspecting, usually junior, researchers and provide no value for true dissemination of findings. Researchers should be educated and aware of scam journals.

  3. Discriminating Between Legitimate and Predatory Open Access Journals: Report from the International Federation for Emergency Medicine Research Committee

    PubMed Central

    Hansoti, Bhakti; Langdorf, Mark I.; Murphy, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Open access (OA) medical publishing is growing rapidly. While subscription-based publishing does not charge the author, OA does. This opens the door for “predatory” publishers who take authors’ money but provide no substantial peer review or indexing to truly disseminate research findings. Discriminating between predatory and legitimate OA publishers is difficult. Methods We searched a number of library indexing databases that were available to us through the University of California, Irvine Libraries for journals in the field of emergency medicine (EM). Using criteria from Jeffrey Beall, University of Colorado librarian and an expert on predatory publishing, and the Research Committee of the International Federation for EM, we categorized EM journals as legitimate or likely predatory. Results We identified 150 journal titles related to EM from all sources, 55 of which met our criteria for OA (37%, the rest subscription based). Of these 55, 25 (45%) were likely to be predatory. We present lists of clearly legitimate OA journals, and, conversely, likely predatory ones. We present criteria a researcher can use to discriminate between the two. We present the indexing profiles of legitimate EM OA journals, to inform the researcher about degree of dissemination of research findings by journal. Conclusion OA journals are proliferating rapidly. About half in EM are legitimate. The rest take substantial money from unsuspecting, usually junior, researchers and provide no value for true dissemination of findings. Researchers should be educated and aware of scam journals. PMID:27625710

  4. Meta-analysis comparing early versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Wu, X-D; Tian, X; Liu, M-M; Wu, L; Zhao, S; Zhao, L

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies comparing early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (ELC) with delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy (DLC) for acute cholecystitis were incomplete. A meta-analysis was undertaken to compare the cost-effectiveness, quality of life, safety and effectiveness of ELC versus DLC. PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science were searched for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that compared ELC (performed within 7 days of symptom onset) with DLC (undertaken at least 1 week after symptoms had subsided) for acute cholecystitis. Sixteen studies reporting on 15 RCTs comprising 1625 patients were included. Compared with DLC, ELC was associated with lower hospital costs, fewer work days lost (mean difference (MD) -11·07 (95 per cent c.i. -16·21 to -5·94) days; P < 0·001), higher patient satisfaction and quality of life, lower risk of wound infection (relative risk 0·65, 95 per cent c.i. 0·47 to 0·91; P = 0·01) and shorter hospital stay (MD -3·38 (-4·23 to -2·52) days; P < 0·001), but a longer duration of operation (MD 11·12 (4·57 to 17·67) min; P < 0·001). There were no significant differences between the two groups in mortality, bile duct injury, bile leakage, conversion to open cholecystectomy or overall complications. For patients with acute cholecystitis, ELC appears as safe and effective as DLC. ELC might be associated with lower hospital costs, fewer work days lost, and greater patient satisfaction. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Common bile duct evaluation in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. 1050 cases later.

    PubMed

    Voyles, C R; Sanders, D L; Hogan, R

    1994-06-01

    The authors documented the evolution of common bile duct (CBD) evaluation after the development of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and CBD exploration. Emphasis was placed on stratification of CBD stone risk so that subgroups could be selected appropriately for no further studies, preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiogram (ERC), or intraoperative intervention. Data were accumulated by the authors on presentation, findings, and outcomes of 1050 patients who underwent cholecystectomies. Risk stratification was based on the history, ultrasound findings, biochemical derangements, and operative findings. Fifty-seven per cent of patients met criteria to be "no/low" risk for CBD stones (CBD diameter < 5 mm, normal liver enzymes, and no history of acute cholecystitis, jaundice, or pancreatitis); in these patients, cholangiograms were not obtained, and there was no clinical evidence of CBD stones observed in follow-up at 45 months (sensitivity = 100%). As techniques developed for laparoscopic CBD exploration, there was a decreased incidence of open cholecystectomy (p < 0.05) and preoperative ERC (p < 0.05). The rate of operative cholangiogram increased from 13% to 23% during the series (p < 0.01). There were no CBD injuries or late strictures. The only bile leak occurred from a peripheral segmental duct in the gallbladder bed and was resolved with a laparotomy and suture. There were no transfusions. Three retained stones were documented in patients who had false-normal operative cholangiograms. Criteria were defined that delineate a "no/low" risk group of LC patients for whom operative cholangiograms were not indicated for excluding CBD stones. The routine use of operative cholangiography as a means of preventing CBD injury was not substantiated by this study. The indications for preoperative ERC should continue to decrease as laparoscopic techniques evolve.

  6. Intraperitoneal ropivacaine nebulization for pain management after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a comparison with intraperitoneal instillation.

    PubMed

    Bucciero, Mario; Ingelmo, Pablo M; Fumagalli, Roberto; Noll, Eric; Garbagnati, Andrea; Somaini, Marta; Joshi, Girish P; Vitale, Giovanni; Giardini, Vittorio; Diemunsch, Pierre

    2011-11-01

    Studies evaluating intraperitoneal local anesthetic instillation for pain relief after laparoscopic procedures have reported conflicting results. In this randomized, double-blind study we assessed the effects of intraperitoneal local anesthetic nebulization on pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly assigned to receive either instillation of ropivacaine 0.5%, 20 mL after induction of the pneumoperitoneum, or nebulization of ropivacaine 1%, 3 mL before and after surgery. Anesthetic and surgical techniques were standardized. Degree of pain at rest and on deep breathing, incidence of shoulder pain, morphine consumption, unassisted walking time, and postoperative nausea and vomiting were evaluated at 6, 24, and 48 hours after surgery. Of the 60 patients included, 3 exclusions occurred for conversion to open surgery. There were no differences between groups in pain scores or in morphine consumption. No patients in the nebulization group presented significant shoulder pain in comparison with 83% of patients in the instillation group (absolute risk reduction -83, 95% CI -97 to -70, P<0.001). Nineteen (70%) patients receiving nebulization walked without assistance within 12 hours after surgery in comparison with 14 (47%) patients receiving instillation (absolute risk reduction -24, 95% CI -48 to 1, P=0.04). One (3%) patient in the instillation group vomited in comparison with 6 (22%) patients in the nebulization group (absolute risk reduction -19%, 95% CI -36 to -2, P=0.03). Intraperitoneal ropivacaine nebulization was associated with reduced shoulder pain and unassisted walking time but with an increased incidence of postoperative vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  7. The anatomy of Rouviere's sulcus as seen during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A proposed classification

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mohinder; Prasad, Neeraj

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although Rouviere's sulcus is being increasingly mentioned as the first landmark to be seen so as to begin dissection during laparoscopic cholecystectomy to prevent bile duct injuries, the anatomy of the sulcus has not been described in clear and simple terms. OBJECTIVES: To define the detailed anatomy of Rouviere sulcus as seen during laparoscopic surgery in simple terms for the surgeons to refer to and begin their dissection from this, always staying above this sulcus in order to eliminate bile duct injury. METHODS: 100 recordings of laparoscopic cholecystectomy were analysed to define the anatomy of the Rouviere's sulcus. RESULTS: Majority of the sulci (71) were seen as a deep sulcus and were labelled as simply the ‘sulcus’. This was further seen to be of two types – open (60) or closed (11). Some of the sulci (23) were small and so narrow and shallow as to be labelled as a ‘slit’. Rarely, the sulcus was found to be fused and represented by a white fusion line (6 cases), and this was simply labelled as a ‘scar’. CONCLUSIONS: The Rouviere's sulcus can now be defined in three simple terms – a deep sulcus, or a slit or a scar. We recommend that as a first step in laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the surgeon must look for this reference point (whether it is in the form of a scar, or a slit or a real sulcus) which will be the plane of the main bile duct, and thus avoid any dissection below this point in order to eliminate any danger to the bile duct during surgery. PMID:28281470

  8. Post-Adoption Contact, Adoption Communicative Openness, and Satisfaction with Contact as Predictors of Externalizing Behavior in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Grotevant, Harold D.; Rueter, Martha; Von Korff, Lynn; Gonzalez, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Background This study examined the relation between three variables related to adoptive family relationships (post-adoption contact between adoptive and birth family members, adoption communicative openness, and satisfaction with contact) and adoptee externalizing behavior in adolescence and emerging adulthood. Method The study included 190 families of infant-placed, domestic adoptees during childhood, adolescence, and emerging adulthood. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze predictors of externalizing behavior from contact (adoptive parents and adolescent reports), adoption communicative openness (adoptive mothers), and satisfaction with contact (adoptive parents and adolescent). Results Externalizing behavior showed moderate stability across childhood, adolescence, and emerging adulthood. Contact and adoption communicative openness were related to each other, but not to externalizing behaviors in adolescence or emerging adulthood. Controlling for the effect of Childhood Externalizing, adoptive families most satisfied with contact reported relative declines in adoptee externalizing behavior during adolescence compared to those in less satisfied families. Satisfaction was also indirectly associated with Emerging Adult Externalizing, through its effect on Adolescent Externalizing. Conclusions Although contact and adoption communicative openness were highly correlated with each other, neither was related to adoptees’ externalizing behavior in adolescence or emerging adulthood. Family level satisfaction with contact was more predictive of externalizing outcomes. PMID:20955207

  9. Post-adoption contact, adoption communicative openness, and satisfaction with contact as predictors of externalizing behavior in adolescence and emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Grotevant, Harold D; Rueter, Martha; Von Korff, Lynn; Gonzalez, Christopher

    2011-05-01

    This study examined the relation between three variables related to adoptive family relationships (post-adoption contact between adoptive and birth family members, adoption communicative openness, and satisfaction with contact) and adoptee externalizing behavior in adolescence and emerging adulthood. The study included 190 families of infant-placed, domestic adoptees during childhood, adolescence, and emerging adulthood. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze predictors of externalizing behavior from contact (adoptive parents and adolescent reports), adoption communicative openness (adoptive mothers), and satisfaction with contact (adoptive parents and adolescent). Externalizing behavior showed moderate stability across childhood, adolescence, and emerging adulthood. Contact and adoption communicative openness were related to each other, but not to externalizing behaviors in adolescence or emerging adulthood. Controlling for the effect of Childhood Externalizing, adoptive families most satisfied with contact reported relative declines in adoptee externalizing behavior during adolescence compared to those in less satisfied families. Satisfaction was also indirectly associated with Emerging Adult Externalizing, through its effect on Adolescent Externalizing. Although contact and adoption communicative openness were highly correlated with each other, neither was related to adoptees' externalizing behavior in adolescence or emerging adulthood. Family-level satisfaction with contact was more predictive of externalizing outcomes. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2010 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  10. Complications After Laparoscopic and Conventional Cholecystectomy: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Brune, Iris B.; Schönleben, K.; Omran, S.

    1994-01-01

    The growing popularity of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has made extensive series comparing laparoscopic and conventional cholecystectomy in a prospective, randomized way nearly impossible. To evaluate LC we compared retrospectively 800 laparoscopic with 748 conventional cholecystectomies (CC). Of the 800 LC, 10 (1.2%) were converted to laparotomy. 6 conversions were related to aberrant anatomical features or features making dissection very difficult, 4 conversions were due to complications. There were 5 (0, 6%) intraoperative complications during LC and 4 (0.5%) during CC. Postoperative morbidity was 2.1% (n = 17) after LC and 3.7% (n = 28) after CC. Particularly the incidence of wound problems was only 0.5% (n = 4) after LC while it was 1.3% (n = 10) after CC. Overall morbidity was 2.7% (n = 22) for LC and 4.2% (n = 32) for CC. Mortality rate after CC was 0.4% (n = 3), there were no deaths after LC. Common bile duct-injury rate was 0.2% (n = 2) for both groups. Complication rates after LC have been rapidly decreasing with growing experience. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can safely be performed by appropriately trained surgeons in more than 90% of patients suffering from gallbladder disease. The low morbidity and mortality together with the significant advantages to patient recovery makes laparoscopic cholecystectomy the treatment of choice for symptomatic cholecystolithiasis. PMID:7993860

  11. Comparison of transumbilical single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy and fourth-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Guanxiong; Qin, Yong; Xu, Shengqian; Wu, Chengjun; Wang, Shi; Pan, Debiao; Wang, Xinmei

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to compare the curative effect of transumbilical single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (TUSPLC) and four-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (FPLC). 200 patients with cholecystolithiasis were enrolled in this study. They were randomly divided into TUSPLC group and FPLC group, 100 cases in each group, and the TUSPLC and FPLC was performed, respectively. The surgical time, intraoperative complication, conversions rate, postoperative pain, postoperative analgesic drug use, incision infection, postoperative hospitalization time and postoperative cosmetic results in two groups were compared. The total conversion rate, conversion rate with Nassar grade II, and conversion rate with Nassar grade III in TUSPLC group were significantly higher than FPLC group (P < 0.01), and the incision cosmetic result after 1 month in TUSPLC group was obviously better than FPLC group (P < 0.01), but the surgical time in TUSPLC group was significantly longer than FPLC group (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference of incision infection, intraoperative complication, and postoperative hospitalization time, incision pain in postoperative first and second day, postoperative use of analgesia drug and incision cosmetic result on discharge day between two groups (P > 0.05). TUSPLC has obvious advantage in treatment of Nassar grade I patients with cholecystolithiasis. It can be used as a supplement for standard laparoscopic gallbladder surgery. It is safe and feasible, without abdominal scar, thus achieving to excellent cosmetic result and high satisfaction in patients. PMID:26221325

  12. Evaluation of Early Cholecystectomy versus Delayed Cholecystectomy in the Treatment of Acute Cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Sanjuán, Juan C.; Martín-Acebes, Fernando; Llorca-Díaz, Francisco J.; Gómez-Fleitas, Manuel; Zambrano Muñoz, Rocío; Sánchez-Manuel, F. Javier

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate if early cholecystectomy (EC) is the most appropriate treatment for acute cholecystitis compared to delayed cholecystectomy (DC). Patients and Methods. A retrospective cohort study of 1043 patients was carried out, with a group of 531 EC cases and a group of 512 DC patients. The following parameters were recorded: (1) postoperative hospital morbidity, (2) hospital mortality, (3) days of hospital stay, (4) readmissions, (5) admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), (6) type of surgery, (7) operating time, and (8) reoperations. In addition, we estimated the direct cost savings of implementing an EC program. Results. The overall morbidity of the EC group (29.9%) was significantly lower than the DC group (38.7%). EC demonstrated significantly better results than DC in days of hospital stay (8.9 versus 15.8 days), readmission percentage (6.8% versus 21.9%), and percentage of ICU admission (2.3% versus 7.8%), which can result in reducing the direct costs. The patients who benefited most from an EC were those with a Charlson index > 3. Conclusions. EC is safe in patients with acute cholecystitis and could lead to a reduction in the direct costs of treatment. PMID:27803512

  13. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: technique, safety, and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simutis, Gintaras; Bubnys, A.; Vaitkuviene, Aurelija

    1994-12-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is a minimally invasive method of removing the diseased gallbladder. It was introduced into Lithuania in December 1992 and has gained wide acceptance. While LC offers many advantages over the conventional laparotomy procedure one of its drawbacks is delayed biliary complications. Those complications may be avoided with appropriate precautions. The aim of this research is to maximize the safety of LC. The potential way to solve this problem is to minimize the possible heat damage and electrical injury remote from the site of surgery during dissection of the cystic duct, cystic artery, and the gallbladder. Neodymium:YAG laser applications with endoscopic fiber have been investigated. The possibilities to use it as a scalpel and as coagulator to release the gallbladder from all its peritoneal attachments during LC have been investigated. The controversy over optimal sources for thermal dissection of the gallbladder has been performed. The potential benefits of Nd:YAG laser in surgery -- precise cutting, limited collateral tissue damage, and improved capillary and arteriole hemostasis -- have been found.

  14. [Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in elderly and old patients].

    PubMed

    Galashev, V I; Zotikov, S D; Gliantsev, S P

    2001-01-01

    The results of cholecystectomy from mini-approach (CEMA) in 111 elderly and old patients with acute and chronic cholecystitis living in European North of Russia were analyzed, and also 84 patients were operated by traditional approach (TCE). Duration of CEMA was less than TCE (75 +/- 3.2 and 95.2 +/- 4.6 min respectively; p < 0.05). Sutures after CEMA were removed on day 8.4 +/- 1.2 (after TCE--on day 13.8 +/- 2.4, p < 0.05). Postoperative period after CEMA was 11.4 +/- 2.1 days vs. 18.8 +/- 3.5 days after TCE (p < 0.05). Complications after CEMA were seen in 1.8% patients, after TCE--in 5.0%. Lethality was 0.9% after CEMA and 3.5% after TCE. The main advantages of CEMA are: reduction of surgery time, early activation of patients, decrease of postoperative complications number and reduction of postoperative treatment time (11.4 +/- 2.1 days after CEMA and 18.8 +/- 3.5 days after TCE, p < 0.05).

  15. Gall bladder flip technique in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Munish; Vindal, Anubhav; Lal, Pawanindra

    2017-01-01

    The precise steps for the removal of gall bladder from the gall bladder bed are not well standardised. The dissection becomes more difficult near the fundus where the assistant's grasper holding the fundus creates a 'tug of war' like situation. This is a description of a simple technique that aids in accurate dissection of the gallbladder from liver bed. As the gallbladder dissection approaches fundus and more than two-third of gallbladder is dissected from liver bed, the medial and lateral peritoneal folds of gall bladder are further incised. The assistant is asked to leave the traction from the gallbladder fundus, while the surgeon holds the dissected surface of gall bladder around 2-3 cm away from its attachment with liver and flip it above the liver. Further dissection is carried out using a hook or a dissector till it is disconnected completely from the liver bed. We have employed 'Flip technique' in around 645 consecutive cases of laparoscopic cholecystectomy operated in the past 3 years. Only one case of liver bed bleeding and two cases of injury to gall bladder wall were noted during this part of dissection in this study. Ease of dissection by surgeons was rated as 9.6 on a scale of 1-10. Gallbladder 'Flip technique' is a simple and easily reproducible technique employed for dissection of gall bladder from liver bed that reduces complications and makes dissection easier.

  16. The risk paradox: use of elective cholecystectomy in older patients is independent of their risk of developing complications.

    PubMed

    Riall, Taylor S; Adhikari, Deepak; Parmar, Abhishek D; Linder, Suzanne K; Dimou, Francesca M; Crowell, Winston; Tamirisa, Nina P; Townsend, Courtney M; Goodwin, James S

    2015-04-01

    We recently developed and validated a prognostic model that accurately predicts the 2-year risk of emergent gallstone-related hospitalization in older patients presenting with symptomatic gallstones. We used 100% Texas Medicare data (2000 to 2011) to identify patients aged 66 years and older with an initial episode of symptomatic gallstones not requiring emergency hospitalization. At presentation, we calculated each patient's risk of 2-year gallstone-related emergent hospitalization using the previously validated model. Patients were placed into the following risk groups based on model estimates: <30%, 30% to <60%, and ≥ 60%. Within each risk group, we calculated the percent of elective cholecystectomies (≤ 2.5 months from initial episode) performed. In all, 161,568 patients had an episode of symptomatic gallstones. Mean age was 76.5 ± 7.3 years and 59.9% were female. The 2-year risk of gallstone-related hospitalizations increased from 15.9% to 41.5% to 65.2% across risk groups. For the overall cohort, 22.3% in the low-risk group, 20.9% in the moderate-risk group, and 23.2% in the high-risk group underwent elective cholecystectomy in the 2.5 months after the initial symptomatic episode. In patients with no comorbidities, elective cholecystectomy rates decreased from 34.2% in the low-risk group to 26.7% in the high-risk group. Of patients who did not undergo cholecystectomy, only 9.5% were seen by a surgeon in the 2.5 months after the initial episode. The risk of recurrent acute biliary symptoms requiring hospitalization has no influence, or even a paradoxical negative influence, on the decision to perform elective cholecystectomy after an initial symptomatic episode. Translation of the risk prediction model into clinical practice can better align treatment with risk and improve outcomes in older patients with symptomatic gallstones. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: What is the price of conversion?

    PubMed

    Lengyel, Balazs I; Panizales, Maria T; Steinberg, Jill; Ashley, Stanley W; Tavakkoli, Ali

    2012-08-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the gold standard procedure for gallbladder removal. Conversion to an open procedure is sometimes deemed necessary, especially in complex cases in which a prolonged laparoscopic operative time is anticipated. A prolonged LC case is thought to be associated with increased complications and cost and therefore generally discouraged. The purpose of this study was to test this assumption, and compare outcomes and cost of converted and prolonged LC cases. By using institutional National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and financial databases, we retrospectively reviewed and compared prolonged laparoscopic cases (Long-LC) with converted (CONV) procedures. Surgical times, length of stay (LOS), 30-day complications, operative room, and total hospital charges were compared between the 2 groups. A total of 101 Long-LC and 66 CONV cases met our inclusion criteria. Long-LC cases were 19 minutes longer than CONV cases (123 vs 104 min; P < .01). No differences in postoperative complications were found between the 2 groups (P > .05). When Poisson regression was used, we found that LOS was significantly shorter in the Long-LC compared with CONV group (1 day vs 4 days; P < .01). Long-LC cases had greater operative charges ($15,278 vs $13,128; P < .01). However, hospital charges for Long-LC cases were 26% less than for CONV cases ($23,946 vs $32,446; P < .01). Conversion is associated with a 3-day increase in LOS. Long-LC cases have greater operative room charges, but overall hospital charges were 26% less than CONV cases. Our data suggest that decision making regarding conversion should focus on safety and not time considerations. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: What is the price of conversion?

    PubMed Central

    Lengyel, Balazs I.; Panizales, Maria T.; Steinberg, Jill; Ashley, Stanley W.; Tavakkoli, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the gold standard procedure for gallbladder removal. Conversion to an open procedure is sometimes deemed necessary, especially in complex cases in which a prolonged laparoscopic operative time is anticipated. A prolonged LC case is thought to be associated with increased complications and cost and therefore generally discouraged. The purpose of this study was to test this assumption, and compare outcomes and cost of converted and prolonged LC cases. Methods By using institutional National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and financial databases, we retrospectively reviewed and compared prolonged laparoscopic cases (Long-LC) with converted (CONV) procedures. Surgical times, length of stay (LOS), 30-day complications, operative room, and total hospital charges were compared between the 2 groups. Results A total of 101 Long-LC and 66 CONV cases met our inclusion criteria. Long-LC cases were 19 minutes longer than CONV cases (123 vs 104 min; P <.01). No differences in postoperative complications were found between the 2 groups (P > .05). When Poisson regression was used, we found that LOS was significantly shorter in the Long-LC compared with CONV group (1 day vs 4 days; P < .01). Long-LC cases had greater operative charges ($15,278 vs $13,128; P < .01). However, hospital charges for Long-LC cases were 26% less than for CONV cases ($23,946 vs $32,446; P < .01). Conclusion Conversion is associated with a 3-day increase in LOS. Long-LC cases have greater operative room charges, but overall hospital charges were 26% less than CONV cases. Our data suggest that decision making regarding conversion should focus on safety and not time considerations. PMID:22503324

  19. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF IMMUNOLOGICAL PROFILES IN WOMEN UNDERGOING CONVENTIONAL AND SINGLE-PORT LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY.

    PubMed

    Borges, Marisa de Carvalho; Takeuti, Tharsus Dias; Terra, Guilherme Azevedo; Ribeiro, Betânia Maria; Rodrigues-Júnior, Virmondes; Crema, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Surgical trauma triggers an important postoperative stress response characterized by significantly elevated levels of cytokines, an event that can favor the emergence of immune disorders which lead to disturbances in the patient's body defense. The magnitude of postoperative stress is related to the degree of surgical trauma. To evaluate the expression of pro-inflammatory (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and IL-17) and anti-inflammatory (IL-4) cytokines in patients submitted to conventional and single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy before and 24 h after surgery. Forty women with symptomatic cholelithiasis, ranging in age from 18 to 70 years, participated in the study. The patients were divided into two groups: 21 submitted to conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy and 19 to single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Evaluation of the immune response showed no significant difference in IFN-γ and IL-1β levels between the groups or time points analyzed. With respect to TNF-α and IL-4, serum levels below the detection limit (10 pg/ml) were observed in the two groups and at the time points analyzed. Significantly higher postoperative expression of IL-17A was detected in patients submitted to single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy when compared to preoperative levels (p=0.0094). Significant postoperative expression of IL-17 was observed in the group submitted to single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy when compared to preoperative levels, indicating that surgical stress in this group was higher compared to the conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy. O trauma cirúrgico induz resposta de estresse pós-operatório significativo, evidenciado pelos níveis elevados de citocinas, podendo favorecer o surgimento de distúrbios imunológicos. A magnitude de estresse está relacionada ao grau do trauma cirúrgico. Avaliar a expressão das citocinas pró-inflamatórias (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-17) e da anti-inflamatória (IL-4) no pré e pós-operatório de pacientes

  20. Does ultrasongraphy predict intraoperative findings at cholecystectomy? An institutional review

    PubMed Central

    Stogryn, Shannon; Metcalfe, Jennifer; Vergis, Ashley; Hardy, Krista

    2016-01-01

    Background Ultrasonography (US) is the mainstay of biliary tract imaging, but few recent studies have tested its ability to diagnose acute cholecystitis (AC). Our objective was to determine how well a US diagnosis of AC correlates with the intraoperative diagnosis. We hypothesize that US underestimates this diagnosis, potentially leading to unexpected findings in the operating room (OR). Methods This retrospective review included all patients admitted to the acute care surgical service of a tertiary hospital in 2011 with suspected biliary pathology who underwent US and subsequent cholecystectomy. We determined the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of US using the intraoperative diagnosis as the gold standard. Further analysis identified which US findings were most predictive of an intraoperative diagnosis of AC. We used a recursive partitioning method with random forests to identify unique combinations of US findings that, together, are most predictive of AC. Results In total, 254 patients underwent US for biliary symptoms; 152 had AC diagnosed, and 143 (94%) of them underwent emergency surgery (median time to OR 23.03 hr). Ultrasonography predicted intraoperative findings with a sensitivity of 73.2%, specificity of 85.5% and PPV of 93.7%. The NPV (52.0%) was quite low. The US indicators most predictive of AC were a thick wall, a positive sonographic Murphy sign and cholelithiasis. Recursive partitioning demonstrated that a positive sonographic Murphy sign is highly predictive of intraoperative AC. Conclusion Ultrasonography is highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing AC. The poor NPV confirms our hypothesis that US can underestimate AC. PMID:26574703

  1. Factors influencing waiting times for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Richard; Vair, Brock A.; Porter, Geoffrey A.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Health Canada states that waiting list information and management systems in Canada are woefully inadequate, especially for elective surgical procedures. Understanding the reasons for waiting is paramount to achieving fairness and equity. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of demographic and clinical factors and surgeon volume on waiting times for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Methods We comprehensively applied a wait-list database for all surgical procedures across a division of general surgery and performed a chart review of all patients undergoing LC in 2002 to collect additional demographic and clinical data. We excluded patients undergoing LC on an emergent basis or as a secondary procedure. For each patient, we calculated 2 time intervals: time from the receipt of consult to the surgical consult (interval A) and time from the surgical consult to the LC (interval B). Surgeons were categorized a priori into low-and high-volume groups, based on the median number of procedures they had performed. All analyses examining waiting times were performed with nonparametric methods. Results The study cohort included 294 patients; most (94.6%) underwent LC for biliary colic. The median waiting times for interval A and interval B were 22 days and 50 days, respectively. No associations were identified between any of the examined waiting times, sex, diagnosis or Charlston Comorbidity Index. High surgeon volume was associated with longer waiting times for interval A (median 26 v. 19 d; p = 0.04) and interval B (median 58 v. 35 d; p = 0.003) and was also associated with a greater number of episodes of biliary colic (2.7 v. 2.0; p = 0.03). Conclusion There is significant variability in specific waiting times for LC, which appears to be associated with surgeon volume. Better prioritization of patients undergoing nonemergent LC is required to improve patient care. PMID:17391614

  2. [Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in pregnant patient: experience in hospital General de Mexico in a period of 5 years (2008-2012)].

    PubMed

    del Avila-Silva, María Rocío; Zavala-Castillo, Julio César; Coronel-Cruz, Fausto Moisés

    2014-08-01

    Cholecystitis is the second cause of abdominal pain during pregnancy. 1-8 of 10,000 requiring surgery, being performed in the first and second quarter laparoscopically. 100% of patients with cholecystitis, about 12% are associated with pancreatitis with high rates of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. To evaluate advantages--disadvantages of maternal-fetal pregnancy laparoscopic cholecystectomy and its preventive character avoiding cases of pancreatitis. We analyze the results obtained in Perinatology Service in General Hospital of Mexico (2008 to 2012) comparing them with the current literature. A retrospective, cross sectional, descriptive. Analyzing the following variables: maternal age, gestational age, number of gestations, surgical technique, and postoperative complications trans, maternal and perinatal morbidity, gallbladder colic episodes prior, liver ultrasound report--bile ducts, tocolytic management. 20 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed in pregnant patients. Maternal age 21-38 years, mostly multigesta. 5 patients was performed at weeks 9, 14, 20 and 25 between the SDG and 1 at 27.5 SDG.Vesicular colicky eight previous USG mostly with gallstones.Two cases of mild acute pancreatitis satisfactorily resolved. No trans or postoperative complications. Open technique for performing pneumoperitoneum (Hasson). Tocolytic management indomethacin in 100% of cases. The results obtained are consistent with the current literature, confirming that laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the best treatment option with minimal fetal maternal morbidity, reducing the incidence of pancreatitis and maternal- fetal consequences.

  3. Laparoscopic management of post-cholecystectomy sectoral artery pseudoaneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Nilanjan; Narasimhan, Mohan; Gunaraj, Alwin; Ardhanari, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Vascular injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy can occur similar to biliary injuries and mostly represented by intraoperative bleeding. Hepatic artery system pseudoaneurysm are rare. It occurs in the early or late postoperative course. Patients present with pallor, signs of haemobillia and altered liver function. We report a case of right posterior sectoral artery pseudoaneurysm detected 2 weeks after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and successfully repaired laparoscopically. We also describe how laparoscopic pringle clamping saved the conversion. The actively bleeding right posterior sectoral artery pseudoaneurysm was diagnosed by CT angiogram. Embolisation, usually the treatment of choice, would have risked liver insufficiency as hepatic artery proper was at risk because the origin the bleeding artery was just after its bifurcation. Isolated right hepatic artery embolisation can also cause hepatic insufficiency. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of laparoscopic repair of post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy bleeding sectoral artery pseudoaneurysm. PMID:24501508

  4. Transdiaphragmatic abscess: late thoracic complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Preciado, A; Matthews, B D; Scarborough, T K; Marti, J L; Reardon, P R; Weinstein, G S; Bennett, M

    1999-12-01

    Spillage of gallstones into the peritoneal cavity is a frequent problem during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (as much as 30%) and is frequently dismissed as a benign occurrence. However, several complications associated with spillage of gallstones have been reported recently. Most of these complications presented late after the original procedure, many with clinical pictures not related to biliary etiology, confounding and delaying adequate management. For patients presenting with intraabdominal or thoracic abscesses of unknown etiology, if there is a history of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, regardless of the time interval, certain evaluations should be considered. A sonogram and a CT scan are advisable to detect retained extraluminal gallstones, as most patients will require, not only drainage of fluid collections, but also removal of the stones. A case is described of a patient who presented with a right empyema and transdiaphragmatic abscess 18 months after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Treatment included decortication, enbloc resection of the abscess, repair of the diaphragm, and drainage.

  5. General stress response to conventional and laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, F; Sannwald, G A; Buhr, H J; Kuntz, C; Mayer, H; Klee, F; Herfarth, C

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In many retrospective and prospective observational studies, laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) compares favorably with conventional cholecystectomy (CC), with respect to length of hospital stay, postoperative pain, and pulmonary function, indicating a diminished operative trauma. Comparison of laboratory findings (stress hormones, blood glucose, interleukins) are a possibility to objectify stress and tissue trauma of laparoscopic and conventional cholecystectomy. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Major body injury, surgical or accidental, evokes reproducible hormonal and immunologic responses. The magnitude of many of these changes essentially is proportional to the extent of the injury. METHODS: In a prospective study, biochemical stress parameters were measured in the blood of patients undergoing elective cholecystectomy because of symptomatic cholecystolithiasis. Patients with acute cholecystitis, pancreatitis, choledocholithiasis, or malignant disease were excluded. Values from 40 patients after LC and from 18 patients after CC were compared. Both groups had similar patient characteristics, baseline values, and perioperative care, except for deeper anesthesia during CC. RESULTS: On postoperative day 1, epinephrine (p = 0,05), norepinephrine (p = 0.02), and glucose (p = 0.02) responses were higher after CC. Two days postoperatively, norepinephrine remained higher after CC (p < 0.01). Interleukin-1 beta responses were higher during (p < 0.01) and 6 hours after CC (p = 0.03). Interleukin-6 responses were higher 6 hours (p = 0.03), 1 day (p = 0.02), and 2 days (p < 0.01) after CC. CONCLUSIONS: The results show significant lower values of intraoperatively and postoperatively measured epinephrine, norepinephrine, interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-6 in patients with laparoscopic cholecystectomy, indicating a minor stress response and tissue trauma in this group of patients. The results correspond to the favorable results of most other trials evaluating clinical

  6. Use of Free, Open Access Medical Education and Perceived Emergency Medicine Educational Needs Among Rural Physicians in Southwestern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Folkl, Alex; Chan, Teresa; Blau, Elaine

    2016-09-21

    Free, open access medical education (FOAM) has the potential to revolutionize continuing medical education, particularly for rural physicians who practice emergency medicine (EM) as part of a generalist practice. However, there has been little study of rural physicians' educational needs since the advent of FOAM. We asked how rural physicians in Southwestern Ontario obtained their continuing EM education. We asked them to assess their perceived level of comfort in different areas of EM. To understand how FOAM resources might serve the rural EM community, we compared their responses with urban emergency physicians. Responses were collected via survey and interview. There was no significant difference between groups in reported use of FOAM resources. However, there was a significant difference between rural and urban physicians' perceived level of EM knowledge, with urban physicians reporting a higher degree of confidence for most knowledge categories, particularly those related to critical care and rare procedures. This study provides the first description of EM knowledge and FOAM resource utilization among rural physicians in Southwestern Ontario. It also highlights an area of educational need -- that is, critical care and rare procedures. Future work should address whether rural physicians are using FOAM specifically to improve their critical care and procedural knowledge. As well, because of the generalist nature of rural practice, future work should clarify whether there is an opportunity cost to rural physicians' knowledge of other clinical domains if they chose to focus more time on continuing education in critical care EM.

  7. Use of Free, Open Access Medical Education and Perceived Emergency Medicine Educational Needs Among Rural Physicians in Southwestern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Teresa; Blau, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Free, open access medical education (FOAM) has the potential to revolutionize continuing medical education, particularly for rural physicians who practice emergency medicine (EM) as part of a generalist practice. However, there has been little study of rural physicians’ educational needs since the advent of FOAM. We asked how rural physicians in Southwestern Ontario obtained their continuing EM education. We asked them to assess their perceived level of comfort in different areas of EM. To understand how FOAM resources might serve the rural EM community, we compared their responses with urban emergency physicians. Responses were collected via survey and interview. There was no significant difference between groups in reported use of FOAM resources. However, there was a significant difference between rural and urban physicians’ perceived level of EM knowledge, with urban physicians reporting a higher degree of confidence for most knowledge categories, particularly those related to critical care and rare procedures. This study provides the first description of EM knowledge and FOAM resource utilization among rural physicians in Southwestern Ontario. It also highlights an area of educational need -- that is, critical care and rare procedures. Future work should address whether rural physicians are using FOAM specifically to improve their critical care and procedural knowledge. As well, because of the generalist nature of rural practice, future work should clarify whether there is an opportunity cost to rural physicians’ knowledge of other clinical domains if they chose to focus more time on continuing education in critical care EM. PMID:27790389

  8. Predictive Factors for a Long Hospital Stay in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ko-iam, Wasana; Sandhu, Trichak; Paiboonworachat, Sahattaya; Pongchairerks, Paisal; Chotirosniramit, Anon; Chotirosniramit, Narain; Chandacham, Kamtone; Jirapongcharoenlap, Tidarat

    2017-01-01

    Background. Although the advantages of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) over open cholecystectomy are immediately obvious and appreciated, several patients need a postoperative hospital stay of more than 24 hours. Thus, the predictive factors for this longer stay need to be investigated. The aim of this study was to identify the causes of a long hospital stay after LC. Methods. This is a retrospective cohort study with 500 successful elective LC patients being included in the analysis. Short hospital stay was defined as being discharged within 24 hours after the operation, whereas long hospital stay was defined as the need for a stay of more than 24 hours after the operation. Results. Using multivariable analysis, ten independent predictive factors were identified for a long hospital stay. These included patients with cirrhosis, patients with a history of previous acute cholecystitis, cholangitis, or pancreatitis, patients on anticoagulation with warfarin, patients with standard-pressure pneumoperitoneum, patients who had been given metoclopramide as an intraoperative antiemetic drug, patients who had been using abdominal drain, patients who had numeric rating scale for pain > 3, patients with an oral analgesia requirement > 2 doses, complications, and private ward admission. Conclusions. LC difficulties were important predictive factors for a long hospital stay, as well as medication and operative factors. PMID:28239497

  9. Short-stay daycare laparoscopic cholecystectomy at a dedicated daycare centre: Feasible or futile

    PubMed Central

    Zirpe, Dinesh; Swain, Sudeepta K.; Das, Somak; Gopakumar, CV; Kollu, Sriharsha; Patel, Darshan; Patta, Radhakrishna; Balachandar, Tirupporur G.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the last decade, laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has become a regular daycare surgery at many centres across the world. However, only a few centres in India have a dedicated daycare surgery centre, and very few of them have reported their experience. Concerns remain regarding the feasibility, safety and acceptability of the introduction of daycare laparoscopic cholecystectomy (DCLC) in India. There is a need to assess the safety and acceptability of the implementation of short-stay DCLC service at a centre completely dedicated to daycare surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Comprehensive care and operative data were retrospectively collected from a daycare centre of our hospital. Postoperative recovery was monitored by telephone questionnaire on days 0, 1 and 5 postoperatively, including adverse outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 211 patients were admitted for DCLC during the period from November 2011 till November 2014, of whom 211 were discharged on the day of surgery. Two hundred and two patients could be discharged within 6 h of surgery. Mean operation time was 72 min. No patient required admission. No patient needed conversion to open surgery. Only 1 patient was re-admitted due to bilioma formation and was managed with minimal intervention. CONCLUSION: The introduction of short-stay DCLC in India is feasible and acceptable to patients. High body mass index (BMI) in otherwise healthy patients and selective additional procedures are not contraindications for DCLC. PMID:27251816

  10. Embolization of an Hepatic Artery Pseudoaneurysm Following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Rivitz, S. Mitchell; Waltman, Arthur C.; Kelsey, Peter B.

    1996-11-15

    Vascular injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy can occur in an analogous fashion to biliary injuries, with potential laceration, transection, and occlusion of blood vessels. A patient presented with symptomatic hemobilia 1 month following laparoscopic cholecystectomy and was found to have a right hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm which communicated with the common bile duct. This was successfully embolized with several embolic agents, resulting in rapid resolution of all signs and symptoms. The patient has been free of symptoms during a follow-up period of 1 year. A brief discussion of hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms is presented.

  11. [A possible protocol for postoperative management in laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Ionescu, D; Vlad, L; Iancu, C; Puia, C; Al Hajjar, N; Munteanu, D; Bălă, O; Pop, F

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the "Prospect" programme (sponsored by Pfizer) is to create possible evidence-based protocols related to the management of postoperative pain after certain type of surgical intervention (e.g. hernia repairs, hysterectomies, etc.). This article is introducing the protocol for laparoscopic cholecystectomy for both day-case and longer hospital admission cases. The protocol is designed for preoperative, intra and postoperative period, choosing only those measures which were effective for postoperative pain, published in the literature. We are also presenting an analyze of our 13,000 laparoscopic cholecystectomies, from "Prospect" protocol point of view, and what we should do to improve the management of postoperative pain.

  12. Laparoendoscopic single-site cholecystectomy in a pregnant patient

    PubMed Central

    Behera, Ramya Ranjan; Salgaonkar, Hrishikesh P; Bhandarkar, Deepraj S; Gupta, Tarun; Desai, Shyam

    2013-01-01

    Feasibility and safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy during pregnancy for patients with symptomatic or complicated gallstone disease is well established. Laparoendoscopic single-site cholecystectomy (LESS-chole) is a new modality in which the entire surgery is undertaken via a transumbilical incision. We describe a 33-year-old patient who underwent a LESS-chole in the 20th week of pregnancy for gallstone disease complicated by episodes of obstructive jaundice and acute pancreatitis. This is the first reported case of LESS-chole performed using conventional laparoscopic instruments. The technical aspects as well as the various perioperative measures utilized to undertake this procedure safely are outlined. PMID:24250067

  13. One-year experience with single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a single center: without the use of inverse triangulation.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Yun Beom; Lee, Jung Woo; Park, Yo Han; Lim, Man Sup; Cho, Ji Woong; Jeon, Jang Yong

    2016-02-01

    Single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) is generally performed with the use of inverse triangulation. In this study, we performed 3-channel or 4-channel SILC without the use of inverse triangulation. We evaluated the adequacy and feasibility of SILC using our surgical method. We retrospectively reviewed our series of 309 SILCs performed between March 2014 and February 2015. Among 309 SILCs, male were 148 and female were 161 patients, mean age was 48.7 ± 15.3 years old and mean body mass index was 24.8 ± 3.8 kg/m(2). Forty patients had previously undergone abdominal surgery including 6 cases of upper abdominal surgery. SILC after percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder (GB) drainage was completed in 8.7% of cases. There were 10 cases of emergency SILC. SILC was performed for noncomplicated GB including symptomatic GB stone and polyp in 66.7% of cases, acute cholecystitis in 33.3%. Overall, 96.8% of procedures were successfully completed without additional port. The reason for addition of an extra port or open conversion included technical difficulties due to severe adhesion and bleeding. The mean operating time was 60.7 ± 22.3 minutes. The overall complication rate was 4.8%: 9 patients of wound seroma, 1 case of bile leakage from GB bed, 4 cases of intra-abdominal abscess or fluid collection, and 1 case of incisional hernia were developed. There was no case of common bile duct injury. Our surgical method of SILC without the use of inverse triangulation is safe, feasible and effective technique.

  14. Cholecystectomy in Emilia-Romagna region (Italy): A retrospective cohort study based on a large administrative database.

    PubMed

    Catena, Fausto; Melotti, Rita Maria; Louis, Daniel; Fortuna, Daniela; Ansaloni, Luca; Coccolini, Federico; Di Saverio, Salomone; Sartelli, Massimo; Tarasconi, Antonio; Baiocchi, Gianluca; Portolani, Nazario; Napoli, Josephine; De Simone, Belinda; Catena, Rodolfo; De Palma, Rossana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the variability and to identify a trend for the outcome of cholecystectomy surgery when used to treat cholelithiasis and acute cholecystitis. This was a large retrospective cohort study following patients up to 11 years post surgery, based on administrative data collected from 2002 to 2012 in the Emilia-Romagna Region (Northern Italy) and comparing the effectiveness and efficiency of surgical activity (laparoscopic (LC) and open cholecystectomy (OC)). Analyses included patient characteristics, length of hospital stay, type of admission and mortality risk. Outcomes considered were death from all causes (during the index hospital admission or thereafter), hospital readmissions with cholecystitis or cholelithiasis as principal diagnosis and time to surgery. A total of 84,628 cholecystomies were performed from 2002 to 2012 out of 123,061 admissions with primary diagnostic category of cholecystitis or cholelitiasis. Laparoscopic procedure was used in 69,842 patients. Over time there was a rising linear statistically significant trend in the use of LC. Mortality rate at 1 year of OC treated patients showed a statistically significant difference compared to LC treated patients (using a cohorts match with propensity score). Only a small number of patients with acute cholecystitis was operated according guidelines within 72 hours. The analysis of aggregate administrative data is a powerful tool to support regional health management, improve the quality of medical care, and assess the appropriateness of therapeutic or diagnostic approaches. It is important to stress a short hospital stay for laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients (50% less than open surgery): this shorter hospital stay leads to a significant economic advantage. Moreover, mortality is significantly higher in open surgery for acute cholecystitis. Interestingly, the same finding was confirmed after 30 days and 1 year, probably due to comorbidities that are more evident in

  15. Emergency Department Visit Forecasting and Dynamic Nursing Staff Allocation Using Machine Learning Techniques With Readily Available Open-Source Software.

    PubMed

    Zlotnik, Alexander; Gallardo-Antolín, Ascensión; Cuchí Alfaro, Miguel; Pérez Pérez, María Carmen; Montero Martínez, Juan Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Although emergency department visit forecasting can be of use for nurse staff planning, previous research has focused on models that lacked sufficient resolution and realistic error metrics for these predictions to be applied in practice. Using data from a 1100-bed specialized care hospital with 553,000 patients assigned to its healthcare area, forecasts with different prediction horizons, from 2 to 24 weeks ahead, with an 8-hour granularity, using support vector regression, M5P, and stratified average time-series models were generated with an open-source software package. As overstaffing and understaffing errors have different implications, error metrics and potential personnel monetary savings were calculated with a custom validation scheme, which simulated subsequent generation of predictions during a 4-year period. Results were then compared with a generalized estimating equation regression. Support vector regression and M5P models were found to be superior to the stratified average model with a 95% confidence interval. Our findings suggest that medium and severe understaffing situations could be reduced in more than an order of magnitude and average yearly savings of up to €683,500 could be achieved if dynamic nursing staff allocation was performed with support vector regression instead of the static staffing levels currently in use.

  16. Post-Adoption Contact, Adoption Communicative Openness, and Satisfaction with Contact as Predictors of Externalizing Behavior in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotevant, Harold D.; Rueter, Martha; Von Korff, Lynn; Gonzalez, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study examined the relation between three variables related to adoptive family relationships (post-adoption contact between adoptive and birth family members, adoption communicative openness, and satisfaction with contact) and adoptee externalizing behavior in adolescence and emerging adulthood. Method: The study included 190…

  17. Post-Adoption Contact, Adoption Communicative Openness, and Satisfaction with Contact as Predictors of Externalizing Behavior in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotevant, Harold D.; Rueter, Martha; Von Korff, Lynn; Gonzalez, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study examined the relation between three variables related to adoptive family relationships (post-adoption contact between adoptive and birth family members, adoption communicative openness, and satisfaction with contact) and adoptee externalizing behavior in adolescence and emerging adulthood. Method: The study included 190…

  18. Open Education and the Open Science Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Openness as a complex code word for a variety of digital trends and movements has emerged as an alternative mode of "social production" based on the growing and overlapping complexities of open source, open access, open archiving, open publishing, and open science. This paper argues that the openness movement with its reinforcing structure of…

  19. Open Education and the Open Science Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Openness as a complex code word for a variety of digital trends and movements has emerged as an alternative mode of "social production" based on the growing and overlapping complexities of open source, open access, open archiving, open publishing, and open science. This paper argues that the openness movement with its reinforcing structure of…

  20. Laparoendoscopic single-site cholecystectomy vs three-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A large-scale retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuan; Jiang, Ze-Sheng; Xu, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Zhi; Xu, Ting-Cheng; Zhou, Chen-Jie; Qin, Jia-Sheng; He, Guo-Lin; Gao, Yi; Pan, Ming-Xin

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To perform a large-scale retrospective comparison of laparoendoscopic single-site cholecystectomy (LESSC) and three-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (TPLC) in a single institution. METHODS: Data were collected from 366 patients undergoing LESSC between January 2005 and July 2008 and were compared with the data from 355 patients undergoing TPLC between August 2008 and November 2011 in our department. Patients with body mass index greater than 35 kg/m2, a history of major upper abdominal surgery, signs of acute cholecystitis, such as fever, right upper quadrant tenderness with or without Murphy’s sign, elevated white blood cell count, imaging findings suggestive of pericholecystic fluid, gallbladder wall thickening > 4 mm, and gallstones > 3 cm, were excluded to avoid bias. RESULTS: Altogether, 298 LESSC and 315 TPLC patients met the inclusion criteria. The groups were well matched with regard to demographic data. There were no significant differences in terms of postoperative complications (contusion: 19 vs 25 and hematoma at incision: 11 vs 19), hospital stay (mean ± SD, 1.4 ± 0.2 d vs 1.4 ± 0.7 d) and visual analogue pain score (mean ± SD, 8 h after surgery: 2.3 ± 1.4 vs 2.3 ± 1.3 and at day 1: 1.2 ± 0.4 vs 1.3 ± 1.2) between the LESSC and TPLC patients. Four patients required the addition of extra ports and 2 patients were converted to open surgery in the LESSC group, which was not significantly different when compared with TPLC patients converted to laparotomy (2 vs 2). LESSC resulted in a longer operating time (mean ± SD, 54.8 ± 11.0 min vs 33.5 ± 9.0 min), a higher incidence of intraoperative gallbladder perforation (56 vs 6) and higher operating cost (mean ± SD, 1933.7 ± 64.4 USD vs 1874.7 ± 46.2 USD) than TPLC. No significant differences in operating time (mean ± SD, 34.3 ± 6.0 min vs 32.7 ± 8.7 min) and total cost (mean ± SD, 1881.3 ± 32.8 USD vs 1876.2 ± 33.4 USD) were found when the last 100 cases in the two groups were

  1. Risk Assessment in Cholelithiasis: Is Cholecystectomy Always to be Preferred?

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, Marlies C.; Roukema, Jan A.; Scholtes, Vincent P. W.

    2010-01-01

    Background As many patients with gallstone disease do not benefit from cholecystectomy, preoperative recognition of such high-risk patients is important. The aim of the study is to identify predictors of persisting symptoms at 6 months after cholecystectomy for patients with different preoperative symptomatology. Method Participants in this prospective study were consecutive patients (n = 172), age 18–65 years, with symptomatic cholelithiasis, undergoing a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Predictors were identified using uni- and multivariate regression analyses. Results At 6 months postcholecystectomy, patients with only preoperative biliary symptoms were most often free of symptoms (62.5%). Patients with only dyspeptic symptoms most often reported persistence of preexisting symptoms (63.2%). Preoperative non-specific symptoms predicted the report of postoperative biliary and/or dyspeptic symptoms (OR = 4.5–6.1). Persistence of preexisting pattern of symptoms was predicted by the use of psychotropic medication (OR = 5.3) and dyspeptic symptoms (OR = 4.5). Postoperative biliary symptoms were predicted by High Trait Anxiety (HTA) (OR = 10.6). Conclusion Surgeons should take account of individual risks of patients in the management of cholelithiasis. Instead of cholecystectomy, expectative management should be the first choice in patients with non-specific symptoms, with dyspeptic symptoms only, with HTA and in patients using psychotropic medication. PMID:20502977

  2. Development of a virtual reality training curriculum for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, R; Crochet, P; Dias, A; Misra, A; Ziprin, P; Darzi, A

    2009-09-01

    Training within a proficiency-based virtual reality (VR) curriculum may reduce errors during real surgical procedures. This study used a scientific methodology for development of a VR training curriculum for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Inexperienced (had performed fewer than ten laparoscopic cholecystectomies), intermediate (20-50) and experienced (more than 100) surgeons were recruited. Construct validity was defined as the ability to differentiate between the three levels of experience, based on simulator-derived metrics for nine basic skills, four procedural tasks and full laparoscopic cholecystectomy on a high-fidelity VR simulator. Inexperienced subjects performed ten repetitions for learning curve analysis. Proficiency measures were based on the performance of experienced surgeons. Thirty inexperienced, 11 intermediate and 16 experienced operators were recruited. Eight of nine basic skills and three of four procedural tasks were found to be construct valid. The full procedure revealed significant intergroup differences for time (1541, 673 and 816 s; P = 0.002), movements (1021, 595 and 638; P = 0.006) and path length (2038, 1235 and 1303 cm; P = 0.033). Learning curves plateaued between the second and ninth sessions. This study shows that it is possible to define and develop a whole-procedure VR training curriculum for laparoscopic cholecystectomy using structured scientific methodology. (c) 2009 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. ICG-loaded microbubbles for multimodal billiary imaging in cholecystectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Ruogu; Melvin, Scott; Xu, Ronald X.

    2012-12-01

    A dual-mode imaging technique has been developed for intraoperative imaging of bile ducts and real-time identification of iatrogenic injuries in cholecystectomy. The technique is based on ultrasound (US) and fluorescence (FL) imaging of a dual-mode microbubble (MB) agent comprising a poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) shell and a core of Indocyanine Green. During cholecystectomy, a clinical US probe is used to localize the bile duct structure after bolus injection of dual-mode MBs. As the surrounding adipose tissue is removed and the Calot's triangle is exposed, FL imaging is used to identify the MB distribution and to determine the potential bile duct injury. The contrast-enhanced bile duct imaging technique has been demonstrated in both a surgical simulation model and an ex vivo porcine tissue model under two surgical scenarios. The first scenario simulates the correct procedure where the cystic duct is clipped. The second scenario simulates the incorrect procedure where the common bile duct is clipped, leading to consequent bile duct injury. Benchtop experiments in both the phantom and the ex vivo models show that the dual-mode imaging technique is able to identify the potential bile duct injury during cholecystectomy. A phantom system has also been established for future device calibration and surgical training in image-guided cholecystectomy. Further in vivo animal validation tests are necessary before the technique can be implemented in a clinical setting.

  4. Single-site robotic cholecystectomy: efficiency and cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Buzad, Francis A; Corne, Louis M; Brown, Thomas C; Fagin, Randy S; Hebert, April E; Kaczmarek, Charles A; Pack, Angie N; Payne, Thomas N

    2013-09-01

    Single-incision surgery has gained in popularity, and the recent development of specialized robotic and laparoscopic instruments may remove some of the ergonomic and technical difficulties associated with this approach. However, questions of cost and efficiency remain. We prospectively collected perioperative outcome and efficiency (operative time, case volume) data for our single-site robotic cholecystectomy cases and retrospectively reviewed data for our single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy cases. There were no differences in patient characteristics or perioperative outcomes between the robotic (n = 20) and laparoscopic (n = 10) groups; operative times were equivalent (84.6 vs 85.5 min; p = 0.8737) and blood loss and complications were minimal. There was a higher robotic case volume, with an average of two robotic cases (range 1-4)/day vs one/day for laparoscopic cases (range 1-1; p = 0.0306). Streamlined instrument costs were essentially equivalent. Robotic single-site cholecystectomy is a safe, cost-effective alternative to single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a robot-existing model. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Hydro-dissection - A simple Solution in Difficult Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Lubna, H; Masoom, M R

    2015-07-01

    This Quasi-experimental study was done to assess the effectiveness of hydro-dissection in difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomies in Hamdard University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, from April 2012 to March 2014. All consecutive patients who presented with cholelithiasis and planned for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled in this study. Per-operatively the degree of difficulty of the operation was assessed by Cuschieri's scale after grading; Grade II, III and IV cholecystectomies were included in this study. Hydro dissection with saline jet through 5mm simple irrigation and suction probe was used, Operative findings and the total number of patients, in whom anatomy of calot's triangle was clearly displayed with hydro-dissection, was recorded. A total 55 patients were included in the study after assessing the degree of difficulty per operatively by Cuschieri Scale. Thirty one (31) patients were in Group II, 22 in Group III and 02 were included in group IV of Cuschieri scale in which hydro-dissection was used. This method cleared the obscure anatomy in all patients in Group II but in 3 patients of Group III, dense adhesions required sharp dissection to clear the operative field. Two patients, in whom conversion was required, were grouped in Cuschieri's scale IV. Methods of dissection in difficult cholecystectomies are of paramount importance to avoid iatrogenic injuries. Hydro-dissection using suction irrigation probe is a safe and effective technique to clear the difficult anatomy.

  6. Rectus sheath hematoma: a complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, D; Jessel, J; Freund, U

    1992-12-01

    We describe a complication in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The routine introduction of a midclavicular secondary trocar resulted in a large hematoma of the rectus sheath. The patient developed atelectasis and pneumonia and required extended hospitalization. This previously described complication is detailed with recommendations to prevent its occurrence.

  7. Role of sonography in assessing complications after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Starzyńska, Teresa; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Kładny, Józef

    2014-06-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which was introduced to the arsenal of surgical procedures in the middle of the 1980s, is a common alternative for conventional cholecystectomy. Its primary advantage is less invasive character which entails shorter hospitalization and faster recovery. Nevertheless, the complications of both procedures are comparable and encompass multiple organs and tissues. The paper presents ultrasound presentation of the surgical bed after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and of complications associated with this procedure. In the first week following the surgery, the presence of up to 60 ml of fluid in the removed gallbladder bed should be considered normal in certain patients. The fluid will gradually absorb. In single cases, slight amounts of fluid are detected in the peritoneal cavity, which also should not be alarming. Carbon dioxide absorbs from the peritoneal cavity within two days. Ultrasound assessment of the surgical bed after cholecystectomy is inhibited by hemostatic material left during the surgery. Its presentation may mimic an abscess. In such cases, the decisive examination is magnetic resonance imaging but not computed tomography. On the other hand, rapidly accumulating fluid around the liver is an alarming symptom, particularly when there is inadequate blood supply or when peritoneum irritation symptoms develop. Depending on the suspected cause of the patient's deteriorating condition, it is essential to perform urgent computed tomography angiography, celiac angiography or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. The character of the fluid collection may be determined by its ultrasound-guided puncture. This procedure allows for aspiration of fluid and placement of a drain. Moreover, transabdominal ultrasound examination after laparoscopic cholecystectomy may contribute to the identification of: dropped stones in the right hypochondriac region, residual fragment of the gallbladder

  8. Role of sonography in assessing complications after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Starzyńska, Teresa; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Kładny, Józef

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which was introduced to the arsenal of surgical procedures in the middle of the 1980s, is a common alternative for conventional cholecystectomy. Its primary advantage is less invasive character which entails shorter hospitalization and faster recovery. Nevertheless, the complications of both procedures are comparable and encompass multiple organs and tissues. The paper presents ultrasound presentation of the surgical bed after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and of complications associated with this procedure. In the first week following the surgery, the presence of up to 60 ml of fluid in the removed gallbladder bed should be considered normal in certain patients. The fluid will gradually absorb. In single cases, slight amounts of fluid are detected in the peritoneal cavity, which also should not be alarming. Carbon dioxide absorbs from the peritoneal cavity within two days. Ultrasound assessment of the surgical bed after cholecystectomy is inhibited by hemostatic material left during the surgery. Its presentation may mimic an abscess. In such cases, the decisive examination is magnetic resonance imaging but not computed tomography. On the other hand, rapidly accumulating fluid around the liver is an alarming symptom, particularly when there is inadequate blood supply or when peritoneum irritation symptoms develop. Depending on the suspected cause of the patient's deteriorating condition, it is essential to perform urgent computed tomography angiography, celiac angiography or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. The character of the fluid collection may be determined by its ultrasound-guided puncture. This procedure allows for aspiration of fluid and placement of a drain. Moreover, transabdominal ultrasound examination after laparoscopic cholecystectomy may contribute to the identification of: dropped stones in the right hypochondriac region, residual fragment of the gallbladder

  9. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anaesthesia: A prospective, randomised study

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Sangeeta; Chauhan, Ashutosh; Chaterjee, Pallab; Alam, Mohammed T

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: Spinal anaesthesia has been reported as an alternative to general anaesthesia for performing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). AIMS: Study aimed to evaluate efficacy, safety and cost benefit of conducting laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anaesthesia (SA) in comparison to general anaesthesia(GA) SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A prospective, randomised study conducted over a two year period at an urban, non teaching hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients meeting inclusion criteria e randomised into two groups. Group A and Group B received general and spinal anaesthesia by standardised techniques. Both groups underwent standard four port laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Mean anaesthesia time, pneumoperitoneum time and surgery time defined primary outcome measures. Intraoperative events and post operative pain score were secondary outcome measure. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The Student t test, Pearson′s chi-square test and Fisher exact test. RESULTS: Out of 235 cases enrolled in the study, 114 cases in Group A and 110 in Group B analysed. Mean anaesthesia time appeared to be more in the GA group (49.45 vs. 40.64, P = 0.02) while pneumoperitoneum time and corresponding the total surgery time was slightly longer in the SA group. 27/117 cases who received SA experienced intraoperative events, four significant enough to convert to GA. No postoperative complications noted in either group. Pain relief significantly more in SA group in immediate post operative period (06 and 12 hours) but same as GA group at time of discharge (24 hours). No late postoperative complication or readmission noted in either group. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy done under spinal anaesthesia as a routine anaesthesia of choice is feasible and safe. Spinal anaesthesia can be recommended to be the anaesthesia technique of choice for conducting laparoscopic cholecystectomy in hospital setups in developing countries where cost factor is a major factor. PMID:23741111

  10. Pediatric cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstones unrelated to hematologic disorder

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Sang Gyun; Choi, Yoo-Shin; Park, Kwi-Won

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Gallstones are being increasingly diagnosed in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to determine characteristics of pediatric patients who underwent cholecystectomy because of symptomatic gallstone disease unrelated to hemolytic disorder. Methods We reviewed cases of pediatric patients (under 18 years old) who underwent cholecystectomy between May 2005 and December 2015. Results A total 20 pediatric patients (under 18 years old) underwent cholecystectomy during the study period. One patient was excluded because cholecystectomy was performed due to gall stones caused by hemolytic anemia. The 19 cases comprised 9 male (47.3%) and 10 female (52.7%) subjects. The mean age was 14.9 years (range, 5-18), and 66.7% of patients were older than 12 years of age. Mean body weight was 65.0 kg (range, 13.9-93.3), and mean body mass index was 21.7 kg/m2 (range, 12.3-35.1), with 26.37% of patients being overweight. All 19 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There were no postoperative complications and no mortality. Comparison between overweight and non-overweight patients indicated that significantly more overweight patients had cholesterol stones (5/5 vs. 7/14, p=0.036) and were classified as complicated disease (3/5 vs. 1/14, p=0.037). Conclusions The more frequent occurrence of complications such as choledocholithiasis or gallstone pancreatitis, in overweight patients indicates the need for more careful evaluation and management in these patients. Pediatricians and surgeons should always consider gallstone disease in pediatric patients despite difficulty in suspecting symptomatic gallstones in cases who present with abdominal pain that is rarely clear-cut. PMID:28261698

  11. Carbon dioxide embolism during laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to a patent paraumbilical vein.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Peter; Tyler, Donald C

    2007-03-01

    Carbon dioxide embolism is a rare but potentially fatal complication of laparoscopic surgery. The most common cause is inadvertent injection of carbon dioxide into a large vein or solid organ during initial peritoneal insufflation. We describe a case of carbon dioxide embolism in a 13-year-old boy during an elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy, caused by injection of carbon dioxide into a large paraumbilical vein. The clinical manifestations of carbon dioxide embolism were hypotension, bradycardia, and an abrupt drop in end-tidal CO2. He subsequently did well and had no sequelae. Carbon dioxide embolism is a recognized complication of laparoscopic surgery, although the risk to the patient may be minimized by the surgical team's awareness of the problem, continuous intraoperative monitoring of end-tidal CO2, and using an open technique for initial access to the peritoneum.

  12. Overview of the program to assess the reliability of emerging nondestructive techniques open testing and study of flaw type effect on NDE response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Komura, Ichiro; Kim, Kyung-cho; Zetterwall, Tommy; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Prokofiev, Iouri

    2016-02-01

    In February 2012, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) executed agreements with VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Japan (NRA, former JNES), Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM), and Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) to establish the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT). The goal of PARENT is to investigate the effectiveness of current emerging and perspective novel nondestructive examination procedures and techniques to find flaws in nickel-alloy welds and base materials. This is done by conducting a series of open and blind international round-robin tests on a set of large-bore dissimilar metal welds (LBDMW), small-bore dissimilar metal welds (SBDMW), and bottom-mounted instrumentation (BMI) penetration weld test blocks. The purpose of blind testing is to study the reliability of more established techniques and included only qualified teams and procedures. The purpose of open testing is aimed at a more basic capability assessment of emerging and novel technologies. The range of techniques applied in open testing varied with respect to maturity and performance uncertainty and were applied to a variety of simulated flaws. This paper will include a brief overview of the PARENT blind and open testing techniques and test blocks and present some of the blind testing results.

  13. The efficacy of laparoscopic cholecystectomy without discontinuation in patients on antithrombotic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jong Hyuk; Jung, Hae Il; Lee, Hyoung Uk; Baek, Moo-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is one of the most commonly performed surgeries in the world today. However, there is no consensus regarding whether LC can be performed in patients with acute cholecystitis while on antithrombotic therapy. The objective of our study was to describe postoperative outcomes of patients who underwent emergent LC without interruption to antithrombotic therapy. Methods We performed a retrospective review of patients who underwent LC for acute cholecystitis while on antithrombotic therapy from 2010 to 2015 at Soonchunhyang Universtiy Cheonan Hospital. Patients were divided into 2 groups as underwent emergent LC and elective LC. Results A total of 67 patients (emergent group, 22; elective group, 45) were included in the analysis. Elective group had significantly longer duration between the admission and operation (8 [7–10] days vs. 2 [1–3] days, P < 0.001) and longer duration of antithrombotic drugs discontinuation (7 days vs. 1 [0–3] days, P < 0.001). Emergent group had significantly more postoperative anemia (6 patients vs. 0 patient, P = 0.001) and 3 of 6 patients received packed RBC transfusion in postoperative period. However, there was no significant difference in length of postoperative stays, length of intensive care unit stays and mortality rates. Conclusion Emergent LC without interruption to antithrombotic therapy was relatively safe and useful. A well-designed multicenter study is needed to confirm the safety and efficacy of LC without suspension of antithrombotic therapy and to provide a simple guideline. PMID:28289668

  14. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis: early or delayed?

    PubMed Central

    Song, Guo-Min; Bian, Wei; Zeng, Xian-Tao; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Luo, Yong-Qiang; Tian, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is an important approach of treating acute cholecystitis and the timing of performing this given treatment is associated with clinical outcomes. Although several meta-analyses have been done to investigate the optimal timing of implementing this treatment, the conflicting findings from these meta-analyses still confuse decision-making. And thus, we performed this systematic review to assess discordant meta-analyses and generate conclusive findings to facilitate informed decision-making in clinical context eventually. We electronically searched the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE to include meta-analysis comparing early (within 7 days of the onset of symptoms) with delayed LC (at least 1 week after initial conservative treatment) for acute cholecystitis through August 2015. Two independent investigators completed all tasks including scanning and appraising eligibility, abstracting essential information using prespecified extraction form, assessing methodological quality using Oxford Levels of Evidence and Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool, and assessing the reporting quality using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), as well as implementing Jadad algorithm in each step for the whole process. A heterogeneity degree of ≤50% is accepted. Seven eligible meta-analyses were included eventually. Only one was Level I of evidence and remaining studies were Level II of evidence. The AMSTAR scores varied from 8 to 11 with a median of 9. The PRISMA scores varied from 19 to 26. The most heterogeneity level fell into the desired criteria. After implementing Jadad algorithm, 2 meta-analyses with more eligible RCTs were selected based on search strategies and implication of selection. The best available evidence indicated a nonsignificant difference in mortality, bile duct injury, bile leakage, overall complications, and conversion to open surgery, but a significant

  15. Preliminary experience with laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a nigerian teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Afuwape, O O; Akute, O O; Adebanjo, A T

    2012-01-01

    Presently many centers have facilities for laparoscopic surgery in Nigeria, but the practice is just evolving in most of these centers. This article presents the preliminary experience of the endoscopic surgery unit (general surgery) at the University College Hospital Ibadan Nigeria. The University College Hospital is the premier Nigerian teaching hospital and is located in the south-western part of the country. All the patients who had laparoscopic cholecystectomy at the University College Hospital between June 2009 and January 2011 were included in this study. The patients' demographic data, diagnosis, results of investigations and intra-operative findings were obtained from the records. Additional information extracted from the records was the duration of surgery, complications, outcome and discharge periods. There were thirteen patients over the twenty month period consisting of twelve females and one male. The age range was twenty six to sixty seven years with a mean of 44.6 years. The duration of surgery ranged from 90 to 189 minutes with a mean of 124 minutes. There were two complications. These were adhesive bowel obstruction and common bile duct injury. The duration of admission ranged from four to thirty two days with a mean of 7.53SD ± 8.5 days. There was one conversion to open surgery due to intra-operative gallbladder perforation with consequent dispersal of multiple gall stones within the peritoneal cavity. The common bile duct injury was diagnosed four days following surgery for which a choledochojejunostomy was done after initial conservative treatment. There was no mortality. Laparoscopic surgery is feasible in Nigeria and is likely to show increasing popularity among patients and surgeons. A careful patient selection protocol is necessary for an acceptable success rate with minimal complications. Our protocol of patient selection eliminated the need for intra-operative common bile duct exploration which requires expensive instruments. However, to

  16. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management.

  17. Single-port transumbilical laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A prospective randomised comparison of clinical results of 140 cases

    PubMed Central

    Vilallonga, Ramon; Barbaros, Umut; Sümer, Aziz; Demirel, Tuğrul; Fort, José Manuel; González, Oscar; Rodriguez, Nivardo; Carrasco, Manuel Armengol

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A novel single port access (SPA) cholecystectomy approach is described in this study. We have designed a randomised comparative study in order to elucidate any possible differences between the standard treatment and this novel technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between July 2009 and March 2010, 140 adult patients with gallbladder pathologies were enrolled in this multicentre study. Two surgeons (RV and UB) randomised patients to either a standard laparoscopic (SL) approach group or to an SPA cholecystectomy group. Two types of trocars were used for this study: the TriPort™ and the SILS™ Port. Outcomes including blood loss, operative time, complications, length of stay and pain were recorded. RESULTS: There were 69 patients in the SPA group and 71 patients in the SL group. The mean age of the patients was 43.2 (17-77) for the SPA group and 42.6 (19-70) for the SL group. The mean operative time was 63.9 min in the SPA group and 58.4 min in the SL group. For one patient, the SPA procedure was converted to a standard laparoscopic technique and to open approach in the SL group. Complications occurred in eight patients: Five seromas (two in the SPA group) and three hernias (one in the SPA group).The mean hospital stay was 38.5 h in the SPA group and 24.1 h in the SL group. Pain was evaluated and was 2 in the SPA and 2.9 in the SL group, according to the visual analogue scale (VAS) after 24 h (P<0.001). The degree of satisfaction was higher in the SPA group (8.3 versus 6.7). Similar results were found for the aesthetic result (8.8 versus 7.5). (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Single-port transumbilical laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be feasible and safe. When technical difficulties arise, early conversion to a standard laparoscopic technique is advised to avoid serious complications. The SPA approach can be undertaken without the expense of additional operative time and provides patients with minimal scarring. The cosmetic results and the degree of satisfaction

  18. A rare case of subcapsular liver haematoma following laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Victoria; Martin, Jennifer; Magee, Damian

    2015-06-25

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a commonly performed surgical procedure for the treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis. As with all surgical procedures, it carries risk, with the most commonly reported complications including infection, bile leak and bleeding. One unusual complication is subcapsular liver haematoma, the diagnosis presented here. This is a rare occurrence; only a small number of cases have been reported in the literature and as yet no conclusive cause or management plan has been found. Iatrogenic liver trauma, the use of oral and intravenous non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and anticoagulants have all been named as possible contributing factors. Particularly, the use of ketorolac has been associated with four reported cases of subcapsular haematoma following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The case reported here refutes that hypothesis, as neither NSAIDs nor anticoagulants were used during the treatment of this patient.

  19. Alterations in respiratory mechanics after laparoscopic and open surgical procedures

    PubMed Central

    Kimberley, Nicholas A.; Kirkpatrick, Susan M.; Watters, James M.

    1996-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of laparoscopic and open surgical procedures on postoperative strength and respiratory mechanics. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Adult university hospital. Participants Fifty-one women aged 21 to 62 years scheduled to undergo elective cholecystectomy or hysterectomy (or related procedures), otherwise in good health. Intervention Open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy or hysterectomy (or related procedures). Main Outcome Measures Maximum voluntary handgrip strength (HGS), forced vital capacity (VC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) were each measured preoperatively and on the first postoperative morning. A visual analogue pain scale score was evaluated in relation to performance of the postoperative strength and respiratory measurements. Results VC, FEV1 and MIP, but not HGS, were decreased after surgery. Postoperative VC, FEV1 and MIP were lower after open procedures than after laparoscopic procedures and after cholecystectomy than after hysterectomy (all p < 0.001). Pain scores were lower after laparoscopic than after open procedures (p < 0.005) and could account in part for differences in postoperative respiratory mechanics. Conclusions Cholecystectomy and hysterectomy do not result in generalized muscle weakness, unlike more major abdominal procedures. Postoperative alterations in respiratory mechanics are related to the site of the surgery, the use of an open versus a laparoscopic approach and postoperative pain. PMID:8697322

  20. [Warming up with endotrainer prior to laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Troncoso-Bacelis, Alicia; Soto-Amaro, Jaime; Ramírez-Velázquez, Carlos

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a safe and effective treatment and remains the gold standard in patients with benign disease. However it presents difficulties such as: the limited movement range of the instruments, the loss of depth perception, haptic feedback and the fulcrum effect. Previous training can optimize surgical performance in patients to master basic skills. Assess the effectiveness of surgeons warming up with an endotrainer before performing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Single-blind controlled clinical trial with 16 surgeons who performed 2 laparoscopic cholecystectomies, the first according to standard practice and the second with warm-up comprising 5 MISTELS system exercises. Patient and surgeon demographics were recorded, in addition to findings and complications during and after surgery for each procedured. We found a decrease in surgical time of 76.88 (±18.87) minutes in the group that did not warm up to prior to surgery compared with 72.81 (±35.5) minutes in the group with warm-up (p=0.0196). In addition, increased bleeding occurred in the procedures performed with warm-up 31.25 (±30.85) ml compared with the group that had no warm-up 23.94 (±15.9) (p=0.0146). Performing warm up on a MISTELS system endotrainer before performing laparoscopic cholecystectomy reduces the operating time of surgery for all surgeons. Surgery bleeding increases in operations performed by surgeons with less experience in laparoscopic surgery. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. Hepatic Subcapsular Biloma: A Rare Complication of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Georganas, Marios; Delaporta, Eirini; Karallas, Emmanouil; Koutsopoulos, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    The development of an intra-abdominal bile collection (biloma) is an infrequent complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). These bilomas develop in the subhepatic space most often secondary to iatrogenic injury of the extrahepatic ducts. We present a case of hepatic subcapsular biloma following LC and we discuss its etiology and management. Early diagnosis is crucial and percutaneous drainage under CT guidance should be employed to resolve this complication. PMID:25177507

  2. Hepatic subcapsular biloma: a rare complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulos, Vassilios; Georganas, Marios; Stratakis, Konstantinos; Delaporta, Eirini; Karallas, Emmanouil; Koutsopoulos, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    The development of an intra-abdominal bile collection (biloma) is an infrequent complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). These bilomas develop in the subhepatic space most often secondary to iatrogenic injury of the extrahepatic ducts. We present a case of hepatic subcapsular biloma following LC and we discuss its etiology and management. Early diagnosis is crucial and percutaneous drainage under CT guidance should be employed to resolve this complication.

  3. Intercostal neuroma pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Dellon, A Lee

    2014-03-01

    Chest wall or abdominal pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is perceived as residual gastrointestinal problems. Some patients will have tenderness at the laparoscopic portal site(s), representing injury to one or more intercostal nerves. The author describes this patient population for the first time, outlining a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm. Inclusion criteria included (1) right chest wall or abdominal pain persisting more than 1 year after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, (2) relief of that pain with intercostal nerve block, (3) resection of intercostal nerves identified by nerve block, and (4) at least a 6-month postoperative follow-up by telephone. Review from 2009 through 2011 identified one man and seven women meeting these criteria. Mean age was 44 years (range, 18 to 74 years). Mean interval between cholecystectomy and intercostal neurectomy was 44.3 months (range, 13 to 72 months). Two intercostal nerves were resected in two patients, three in four patients, four in one patient, and five in one patient, most commonly intercostal nerves T6, T7, and T8. Proximal nerves were implanted into the serratus or latissimus dorsi. At a mean period of 18.3 months after surgery, the preoperative mean visual analogue score of 8.9 (range, 7 to 10) decreased to 3.6 (range, 0 to 6) (p < 0.01). Overall results were excellent in five (63 percent) and good in two (25 percent), with one failure (12 percent). Pain following laparoscopic cholecystectomy may represent intercostal nerve injury. Diagnostic blocks are essential to confirm diagnosis. Nerve resection and implantation of the proximal ends into muscle can give good to excellent results in most patients. Therapeutic, IV.

  4. Gallstones, cholecystectomy, and risk of digestive system cancers.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Leticia; Freedman, Neal D; Engels, Eric A; Warren, Joan L; Castro, Felipe; Koshiol, Jill

    2014-03-15

    Gallstones and cholecystectomy may be related to digestive system cancer through inflammation, altered bile flux, and changes in metabolic hormone levels. Although gallstones are recognized causes of gallbladder cancer, associations with other cancers of the digestive system are poorly established. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database (1992-2005), which includes 17 cancer registries that cover approximately 26% of the US population, to identify first primary cancers (n = 236,850) occurring in persons aged ≥66 years and 100,000 cancer-free population-based controls frequency-matched by calendar year, age, and gender. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression analysis, adjusting for the matching factors. Gallstones and cholecystectomy were associated with increased risk of noncardia gastric cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 1.21 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11, 1.32) and OR = 1.26 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.40), respectively), small-intestine carcinoid (OR = 1.27 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.60) and OR = 1.78 (95% CI: 1.41, 2.25)), liver cancer (OR = 2.35 (95% CI: 2.18, 2.54) and OR = 1.26 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.41)), and pancreatic cancer (OR = 1.24 (95% CI: 1.16, 1.31) and OR = 1.23 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.33)). Colorectal cancer risk associated with gallstones and cholecystectomy decreased with increasing distance from the common bile duct (P-trend < 0.001). Hence, gallstones and cholecystectomy are associated with the risk of cancers occurring throughout the digestive tract.

  5. Improvement in the quality of life following cholecystectomy: a randomized multicenter study of health status (RAND-36) in patients with laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus minilaparotomy cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Aspinen, Samuli; Kärkkäinen, Jari; Harju, Jukka; Juvonen, Petri; Kokki, Hannu; Eskelinen, Matti

    2017-03-01

    The assessment of the quality of life (QoL) in minilaparotomy cholecystectomy (MC) versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) with the ultrasonic dissection in both groups has not been addressed earlier. Initially, 109 patients with non-complicated symptomatic gallstone disease were randomized to undergo either MC (n = 59) or LC (n = 50). RAND-36 survey was conducted preoperatively and at 4 weeks and 6 months postoperatively. The end point of our study was to determine differences in health status in MC versus LC groups. QoL improved significantly in both groups, and the recovery was similar in the two groups, except from the higher score in 'health change' subscale at 4 weeks in MC group [MC score 75.0 (25.0) vs. LC score 56.5 (23.2), p = 0.008]. The MC and LC groups combined, RAND-36 scores increased significantly in 'physical functioning' [combined mean (SD) preoperative score 80.5 (23.9) vs. 6-month postoperative score 86.5 (21.7), p = 0.015], 'vitality' [64.5 (19.2) vs. 73.5 (18.3), p = 0.001], 'health change' [43.0 (21.6) vs. 74.6 (25.4), p = 0.0001] and 'bodily pain' scores [57.7 (26.3) vs. 75.5 (25.5), p = 0.001], respectively. Four RAND-36 domains indicated statistically significant health status differences in comparing the preoperative and postoperative RAND-36 scores in LC and MC groups combined. Four RAND-36 domains indicated a significant positive change in QoL after cholecystectomy.

  6. Active gas aspiration to reduce pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Atak, Ibrahim; Ozbagriacik, Mustafa; Akinci, Omer Faruk; Bildik, Nejdet; Subasi, Ismail Ege; Ozdemir, Mehtap; Ayta, Nejla Inan

    2011-04-01

    To investigate to what effect active subdiaphragmatic gas aspiration reduces pain after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A total of 104 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly placed into 2 groups. Group I included active subdiaphragmatic gas aspiration (n=52) while group II included simple evacuation (n=52) without any additional procedures. Postoperative analgesic requirements were recorded and the level of postoperative abdominal and shoulder pain was assessed using a numeric scale after 24 postoperative hours. Data were analyzed using the χ test for nonparametric data and Student t test for parametric data. Age, volume of CO2 used during surgery, and operation duration were similar in the 2 groups. The simple evacuation group (group II) experienced more shoulder and abdominal pain postoperatively when compared with the active subdiaphragmatic aspiration group (group I) and had a higher use of analgesics during the postoperative period. Active subdiaphragmatic gas aspiration after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a simple procedure that can effectively reduce postoperative abdominal and shoulder pain and as a result the need for analgesics.

  7. Use of CO2 laser flexible waveguides during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzafame, Raymond J.

    1992-06-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has revolutionized the management of symptomatic cholelithiasis and cholecystitis. Although electrosurgery devices are used by a majority of surgeons, laser technology is a valued addition to the armamentarium of the skilled laser laparoscopist. A variety of fiberoptic capable wavelengths have been applied successfully during this procedure. Use of the CO2 laser for this purpose has lagged due to difficulties encountered with free-beam and rigid waveguide dissections via the laparoscope. Recent developments in flexible waveguide technology have the potential to expand the role of the CO2 laser for laparoscopic cholecystectomy and other procedures. Twelve laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed using Luxar (Bothell, WA) flexible microwaveguides of various configurations. In each case, dissection of the gallbladder from the gallbladder bed was accomplished with acceptable speed and hemostasis. There were no complications. Shortcomings include coupling and positioning with an articulated arm and occasional clogging of some waveguide tips with debris. Modifications of this technology are suggested. Flexible waveguides make the CO2 laser a practical alternative for surgical laparoscopy.

  8. Virtual reality simulator training of laparoscopic cholecystectomies - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ikonen, T S; Antikainen, T; Silvennoinen, M; Isojärvi, J; Mäkinen, E; Scheinin, T M

    2012-01-01

    Simulators are widely used in occupations where practice in authentic environments would involve high human or economic risks. Surgical procedures can be simulated by increasingly complex and expensive techniques. This review gives an update on computer-based virtual reality (VR) simulators in training for laparoscopic cholecystectomies. From leading databases (Medline, Cochrane, Embase), randomised or controlled trials and the latest systematic reviews were systematically searched and reviewed. Twelve randomised trials involving simulators were identified and analysed, as well as four controlled studies. Furthermore, seven studies comparing black boxes and simulators were included. The results indicated any kind of simulator training (black box, VR) to be beneficial at novice level. After VR training, novice surgeons seemed to be able to perform their first live cholecystectomies with fewer errors, and in one trial the positive effect remained during the first ten cholecystectomies. No clinical follow-up data were found. Optimal learning requires skills training to be conducted as part of a systematic training program. No data on the cost-benefit of simulators were found, the price of a VR simulator begins at EUR 60 000. Theoretical background to learning and limited research data support the use of simulators in the early phases of surgical training. The cost of buying and using simulators is justified if the risk of injuries and complications to patients can be reduced. Developing surgical skills requires repeated training. In order to achieve optimal learning a validated training program is needed.

  9. Consensus statement of the consortium for LESS cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Ross, Sharona; Rosemurgy, Alexander; Albrink, Michael; Choung, Edward; Dapri, Giovanni; Gallagher, Scott; Hernandez, Jonathan; Horgan, Santiago; Kelley, William; Kia, Michael; Marks, Jeffrey; Martinez, Jose; Mintz, Yoav; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Pryor, Aurora; Rattner, David; Rivas, Homero; Roberts, Kurt; Rubach, Eugene; Schwaitzberg, Steven; Swanstrom, Lee; Sweeney, John; Wilson, Erik; Zemon, Harry; Zundel, Natan

    2012-10-01

    Many surgeons attempting Laparo-Endoscopic Single Site (LESS) cholecystectomy have found the operation difficult, which is inconsistent with our experience. This article is an attempt to promote a standardized approach that we feel surgeons with laparoscopic skills can perform safely and efficiently. This is a four-trocar approach consistent with the four incisions utilized in conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy. After administration of general anesthesia, marcaine is injected at the umbilicus and a 12-mm vertical incision is made through the already existing anatomical scar of the umbilicus. A single four-trocar port is inserted. A 5-mm deflectable-tip laparoscope is placed through the trocar at the 8 o'clock position, a bariatric length rigid grasper is inserted through the trocar at the 4 o'clock position (to grasp the fundus), and a rigid bent grasper is placed through the 10-mm port (to grasp the infundibulum). This arrangement of the instruments promotes minimal internal and external instrument clashing with simultaneous optimization of the operative view. This orientation allows retraction of the gallbladder in a cephalad and lateral direction, development of a window between the gallbladder and the liver which promotes the "critical view" of the cystic duct and artery, and provides triangulation with excellent visualization of the operative field. The operation is concluded with diaphragmatic irrigation of marcaine solution to minimize postoperative pain. Standardization of LESS cholecystectomy will speed adoption, reduce intraoperative complications, and improve the efficiency and safety of the approach.

  10. [Transumbilical cholecystectomy using hybrid technique: a new promising approach].

    PubMed

    Lasso Betancor, C E; Domínguez, G; Millán, C; Bignon, H; Buela, E; Bellia, G; Albertal, M; Martínez Ferro, M

    2012-10-01

    The use of magnets in transumbilical cholecystectomy improves triangulation and achieves optimal critical view. However, the attraction between magnets can cause collisions and their management complicates the procedure, and this will become more important in children. In order to simplify the technique, we have developed a hybrid model with a single magnet. Retrospective review of cholecystectomies performed in our department between June 2011 and July 2012. The technique combines the use of a magnet and a curved grasper. Through transumbilical incision, a 12 mm trocar and another flexible 5 mm are placed. Laparoscope with working channel uses the 12 mm trocar. The magnet is introduced to the abdominal cavity using the working channel to provide cephalad retraction of gallbladder fundus. Curved grasper is run by the assistant to mobilize the infundibulum across flexible trocar. The surgeon operates through the working channel of the laparoscope. Twenty-six patients were operated on with this technique. Mean age was 14 years (4-17) and weight 50 kg (18-90). 65% were girls. The mean operative time was 62 minutes (50-70) and the critical view of safety was achieved in all cases. Instrumental collision or hands crossing were not seen. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. The hospital stay was 1.4 +/- 0.6 days and the median follow-up 201 days (42-429). The hybrid technique, combining magnet and a curved grasper, simplifies transumbilical surgery. It seems a feasible and safe for transumbilical cholecystectomy and potentially reproducible.

  11. A different perspective on macroscopic sampling of cholecystectomy specimens.

    PubMed

    Argon, Asuman; Yağcı, Ayşe; Taşlı, Funda; Kebat, Tulu; Deniz, Senem; Erkan, Nazif; Kitapçıoğlu, Gül; Vardar, Enver

    2013-12-01

    Because there may be interdepartmental differences in macroscopic sampling of cholecystectomy specimens, we aimed to investigate differences between the longitudinal sampling technique and our classical sampling technique in cholecystectomy specimens in which there was no obvious malignancy. Six hundred eight cholecystectomy specimens that were collected between 2011 and 2012 were included in this study. The first group included 273 specimens for which one sample was taken from each of the fundus, body, and neck regions (our classical technique). The second group included 335 specimens for which samples taken from the neck region and lengthwise from the fundus toward the neck were placed together in one cassette (longitudinal sampling). The Pearson chi-square, Fisher exact, and ANOVA tests were used and differences were considered significant at p<.05. In the statistical analysis, although gallbladders in the first group were bigger, the average length of the samples taken in the second group was greater. Inflammatory cells, pyloric metaplasia, intestinal metaplasia, low grade dysplasia, and invasive carcinoma were seen more often in the second group. In our study, the use of a longitudinal sampling technique enabled us to examine a longer mucosa and to detect more mucosal lesions than did our classical technique. Thus, longitudinal sampling can be an effective technique in detecting preinvasive lesions.

  12. Deep neuromuscular block reduces intra-abdominal pressure requirements during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Van Wijk, R M; Watts, R W; Ledowski, T; Trochsler, M; Moran, J L; Arenas, G W N

    2015-04-01

    Laparoscopic surgery causes specific post-operative discomfort and intraoperative cardiovascular, pulmonary, and splanchnic changes. The CO2 pneumoperitoneum-related intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) remains one of the main drivers of these changes. We investigated the influence of deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB) on IAP and surgical conditions. This is an open prospective single-subject design study in 20 patients (14 female/6 male) undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Inclusion criteria were 18 years or older, and American Society of Anesthesiologists classification 1 to 3. Under a standardised anaesthesia, lowest IAP providing adequate surgical conditions was assessed without NMB and with deep NMB [post-tetanic count (PTC)<2] with rocuronium. The differences between IAP allowing for an adequate surgical field before and after administration of rocuronium were determined, as were effects of patient gender, age, and body mass index. Mean IAP without NMB was 12.75 (standard deviation 4.49) mmHg. Immediately after achieving a deep NMB, this was 7.20 (2.51). This pressure difference of 5.55 mmHg (5.08, P<0.001) dropped to 3.00 mmHg (4.30, P<0.01) after 15 min. Higher IAP differences were found in women compared with men. A modest inverse relationship was found between pressure difference and age. We found an almost 25% lower IAP after a deep NMB compared with no block in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Younger and female patients appear to benefit more from deep neuromuscular blockade to reduce IAP. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Association between cholecystectomy with vs without intraoperative cholangiography and risk of common duct injury.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, Kristin M; Riall, Taylor S; Han, Yimei; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Townsend, Courtney M; Goodwin, James S

    2013-08-28

    Significant controversy exists regarding routine intraoperative cholangiography in preventing common duct injury during cholecystectomy. To investigate the association between intraoperative cholangiography use during cholecystectomy and common duct injury. Retrospective cohort study of all Texas Medicare claims data from 2000 through 2009. We identified Medicare beneficiaries 66 years or older who underwent inpatient or outpatient cholecystectomy for biliary colic or biliary dyskinesia, acute cholecystitis, or chronic cholecystitis. We compared results from multilevel logistic regression models to the instrumental variable analyses. Intraoperative cholangiography use during cholecystectomy was determined at the level of the patients (yes/no), hospitals (percentage intraoperative cholangiography use for all cholecystectomies at the hospital), and surgeons (percentage use for all cholecystectomies performed by the surgeon). Percentage of use at the hospital and percentage of use by surgeon were the instrumental variables. Patients with claims for common duct repair operations within 1 year of cholecystectomy were considered as having major common duct injury. Of 92,932 patients undergoing cholecystectomy, 37,533 (40.4%) underwent concurrent intraoperative cholangiography and 280 (0.30%) had a common duct injury. The common duct injury rate was 0.21% among patients with intraoperative cholangiography and 0.36% among patients without it. In a logistic regression model controlling for patient, surgeon, and hospital characteristics, the odds of common duct injury for cholecystectomies performed without intraoperative cholangiography were increased compared with those performed with it (OR, 1.79 [95% CI, 1.35-2.36]; P < .001). When confounding was controlled with instrumental variable analysis, the association between cholecystectomy performed without intraoperative cholangiography and duct injury was no longer significant (OR, 1.26 [95% CI, 0.81-1.96]; P

  14. Day-case versus overnight stay in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Gurusamy, K S; Junnarkar, S; Farouk, M; Davidson, B R

    2008-01-23

    Although day-case elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy can save bed costs, its safety remains to be established. To assess the safety and benefits of day-case surgery compared to overnight stay in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded until February 2007 for identifying randomised trials using search strategies. Only randomised clinical trials, irrespective of language, blinding, or publication status, comparing day-case and overnight stay in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were considered for the review. We collected the data on the characteristics of the trial, methodological quality of the trials, morbidity, prolonged hospitalisation, re-admissions, pain and quality of life from each trial. We analysed the data with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models using RevMan Analysis. For each outcome we calculated the relative risk, weighted mean difference, or standardised mean difference with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on available case-analysis. Five trials with 429 patients randomised to the day-case group (215) and overnight stay group (214) were included in the review. Four of the five trials were of low risk of bias regarding randomisation and follow up, but all lacked blinding. The trials recruited 49% of patients undergoing cholecystectomy. The selection criteria varied, but most included only patients without other diseases. The patients were living in easy reach of the hospital and with a responsible adult to take care of them. On the day of surgery, 81% of day-case patients were discharged. The drop-out rate after randomisation varied from 6.5% to 12.7%. There was no significant difference between day-case and overnight stay group as regards to morbidity, prolongation of hospital stay, re

  15. Day-case versus overnight stay for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Junnarkar, Sameer; Farouk, Marwan; Davidson, Brian R

    2008-07-16

    Although day-case elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy can save bed costs, its safety remains to be established. To assess the safety and benefits of day-case surgery compared to overnight stay in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded until April 2008 for identifying randomised trials using search strategies. Only randomised clinical trials, irrespective of language, blinding, or publication status, comparing day-case and overnight stay in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were considered for the review. We collected the data on the characteristics of the trial, methodological quality of the trials, morbidity, prolonged hospitalisation, re-admissions, pain and quality of life from each trial. We analysed the data with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models using RevMan Analysis. For each outcome we calculated the risk ratio, weighted mean difference, or standardised mean difference with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on available case-analysis. Five trials with 429 patients randomised to the day-case group (215) and overnight stay group (214) were included in the review. All the trials were of high risk of bias. The trials recruited 49% of patients undergoing cholecystectomy. The selection criteria varied, but most included only patients without other diseases. The patients were living in easy reach of the hospital and with a responsible adult to take care of them. On the day of surgery, 81% of day-case patients were discharged. The drop-out rate after randomisation varied from 6.5% to 12.7%. There was no significant difference between day-case and overnight stay group as regards to morbidity, prolongation of hospital stay, re-admission rates, pain, quality of life, patient satisfaction and return to normal

  16. Advanced laparoscopic fellowship training decreases conversion rates during laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute biliary diseases: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Abelson, Jonathan S; Afaneh, Cheguevara; Rich, Barrie S; Dakin, Gregory; Zarnegar, Rasa; Fahey, Thomas J; Pomp, Alfons

    2015-01-01

    Acute biliary pathology is a risk factor for conversion to open surgery and increased surgical morbidity during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). The purpose of our study was to examine the impact of an advanced laparoscopic fellowship-trained surgeon on risks of conversion, surgical morbidity, and postoperative complications in this patient population. Of 1382 patients who underwent an LC from January 2008 to August 2011, 592 patients were diagnosed with an acute biliary process and were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups; those operated on by an advanced laparoscopic fellowship-trained surgeon (N=237), and those operated on by a non-laparoscopic fellowship-trained surgeon (N=355). The primary end-points were conversion rates and surgical morbidity. The secondary end-point was operative time. Fellowship-trained surgeons were more likely to perform IOC (57%) versus non-fellowship trained surgeons (20%) (p<0.0001). The conversion rate for the fellowship-trained group was significantly lower than for the non-fellowship trained group (1.7% vs 8.5%, p=0.0004). The intraoperative and postoperative complication rates for the fellowship-trained group were not significantly different. The operative time was slightly longer in the non-fellowship trained group compared to the fellowship-trained group (104 min vs 111 min, p=0.04). Our data demonstrate that advanced laparoscopic fellowship training decreases conversion rates of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute biliary pathology. Moreover, given the lower conversion rates, patients may have experienced shorter hospitalizations. Formal advanced laparoscopic fellowship training may decrease length of stay among patients presenting with acute biliary pathology who undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Two-Port Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: 18 Patients Human Experience Using the Dynamic Laparoscopic NovaTract Retractor.

    PubMed

    Sucandy, Iswanto; Nadzam, Geoffrey; Duffy, Andrew J; Roberts, Kurt E

    2016-08-01

    The concept of reducing the number of transabdominal access ports has been criticized for violating basic tenets of traditional multiport laparoscopy. Potential benefits of reduced port surgery may include decreased pain, improved cosmesis, less hernia formation, and fewer wound complications. However, technical challenges associated with these access methods have not been adequately addressed by advancement in instrumentations. We describe our initial experience with the NovaTract™ Laparoscopic Dynamic Retractor. A retrospective review of all patients who underwent two-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy between 2013 and 2014 using the NovaTract retractor was performed. The patients were equally divided into three groups (Group A, B, C) based on the order of case performed. Eighteen consecutive patients underwent successful two-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis. Mean age was 39.9 years and mean body mass index was 28.1 kg/m(2) (range 21-39.4). Overall mean operative time was 65 minutes (range 42-105), with Group A of 70 minutes, Group B of 65 minutes, and Group C of 58 minutes (P = .58). All cases were completed laparoscopically using the retraction system, without a need for additional ports or open conversion. No intra- or postoperative complications were seen. All patients were discharged on the same day of surgery. No mortality found in this series. The NovaTract laparoscopic dynamic retractor is safe and easy to use, which is reflected by acceptable operative time for a laparoscopic cholecystectomy using only two ports. The system allows surgical approach to mimic the conventional laparoscopic techniques, while eliminating or reducing the number of retraction ports.

  18. Surgical outcome and midterm follow-up after transvaginal NOTES hybrid cholecystectomy: analysis of a prospective clinical series.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Mario; Schernikau, Utz; Schmidt, Axel; Arlt, Georg

    2011-03-01

    In the last 3 years transvaginal hybrid cholecystectomy (TV-ChE) has gained widespread interest as a potential alternative to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. However, substantial doubts about the transvaginal access and possibly associated complaints and complications have been raised. This was a prospective clinical series of 80 consecutive female patients, nonrandomly chosen and without a control group, who underwent a TV-ChE. All patients were evaluated with special regard to outcome data such as surgical complications and gynecological complaints. Perioperative clinical data were collected and a gynecological examination was performed 3 weeks after surgery as well as a follow-up survey 3 months after surgery. The TV-ChE was performed in all patients without conversion to laparoscopy or open surgery. Two surgical complications occurred (1 urinary bladder injury and 1 case of bleeding). No infections of the surgical wound or any other complications were seen in the gynecological follow-up examination 3 weeks after the operation. After a follow-up of 3 months, 4% of the patients under 50 years of age reported slight and temporary problems after transvaginal cholecystectomy (dyspareunia and episodes of unclear lower abdominal pain), whereas such phenomena were seen in about 9% of women over 50 years of age (P < .05). A 33-year-old woman became pregnant 3 weeks after the operation. TV-ChE is a safe and less invasive surgical technique. Doubts about this operating technique with regard to an increased risk of infection or surgical complications as well as subsequent gynecological problems seem to be unfounded.

  19. Does the cost of robotic cholecystectomy translate to a financial burden?

    PubMed

    Rosemurgy, Alexander; Ryan, Carrie; Klein, Richard; Sukharamwala, Prashant; Wood, Thomas; Ross, Sharona

    2015-08-01

    Robotic application to cholecystectomy has dramatically increased, though its impact on cost of care and reimbursement has not been elucidated. We undertook this study to evaluate and compare cost of care and reimbursement with robotic versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The charges and reimbursement of all robotic and laparoscopic cholecystectomies at one hospital undertaken from June 2012 to June 2013 were determined. Operative duration is defined as time into and time out of the operating room. Data are presented as median data. Comparisons were undertaken using the Mann-Whitney U-test with significance accepted at p ≤ 0.05. Robotic cholecystectomy took longer (47 min longer) and had greater charges ($8,182.57 greater) than laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p < 0.05 for each). However, revenue, earnings before depreciation, interest, and taxes (EBDIT), and Net Income were not impacted by approach. Relative to laparoscopic cholecystectomy, robotic cholecystectomy takes longer and has greater charges. Revenue, EBDIT, and Net Income are similar after either approach; this indicates that costs with either approach are similar. Notably, this is possible because much of hospital-based costs are determined by cost allocation and not cost accounting. Thus, the cost of longer operations and costs inherent to the robotic approach for cholecystectomy do not translate to a perceived financial burden.

  20. Urgent and Elective Robotic Single-Site Cholecystectomy: Analysis and Learning Curve of 150 Consecutive Cases.

    PubMed

    Kubat, Eric; Hansen, Nathan; Nguyen, Huy; Wren, Sherry M; Eisenberg, Dan

    2016-03-01

    The use of robotic single-site cholecystectomy has increased exponentially. There are few reports describing the safety, efficacy, and operative learning curve of robotic single-site cholecystectomy either in the community setting or with nonelective surgery. We performed a retrospective review of a prospective database of our initial experience with robotic single-site cholecystectomy. Demographics and perioperative outcomes were evaluated for both urgent and elective cholecystectomy. Cumulative sum analysis was performed to determine the surgeon's learning curve. One hundred fifty patients underwent robotic single-site cholecystectomy. Seventy-four (49.3%) patients underwent urgent robotic single-site cholecystectomy, and 76 (50.7%) underwent elective robotic single-site cholecystectomy. Mean total operative time for robotic single-site cholecystectomy was 83.3 ± 2.7 minutes. Mean operative time for the urgent cohort was significantly longer than for the elective cohort (95.0 ± 4.4 versus 71.9 ± 2.6 minutes; P < .001). There was one conversion in the urgent cohort and none in the elective cohort. There was one bile duct injury (0.7%) in the urgent cohort. Perioperative complications occurred in 8.7% of patients, and most consisted of superficial surgical-site infections. There were no incisional hernias detected. The surgeon's learning curve, inclusive of urgent and elective cases, was 48 operations. Robotic single-site cholecystectomy can be performed safely and effectively in both elective and urgent cholecystectomy with a reasonable learning curve and acceptable perioperative outcomes.

  1. Surgical Management of Gallbladder Cancer: Simple Versus Extended Cholecystectomy and the Role of Adjuvant Therapy.

    PubMed

    Kasumova, Gyulnara G; Tabatabaie, Omidreza; Najarian, Robert M; Callery, Mark P; Ng, Sing Chau; Bullock, Andrea J; Fisher, Robert A; Tseng, Jennifer F

    2017-10-01

    To assess if simple cholecystectomy with adjuvant therapy could provide outcomes comparable to extended cholecystectomy. Current guidelines recommend extended/radical cholecystectomy for T2/T3 gallbladder cancer; however, many tumors are discovered incidentally at laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The national Cancer Data Base 2004 to 2014 was queried for patients with pT2/T3 gallbladder adenocarcinoma who underwent resection. Adjuvant therapy was defined as chemotherapy, with or without radiotherapy, within 90 days of surgery. Baseline characteristics and overall survival were compared by χ and Kaplan-Meier method, respectively. One-to-one propensity score matching for receipt of adjuvant therapy was used to account for potential selection bias. A total of 6825 patients were identified. Diagnosis was made predominantly (78.9%) at the time of surgery or on pathology; 31.8% (2168) received adjuvant therapy. The majority, 88.8% (6060), had a simple cholecystectomy. Patients who received adjuvant therapy versus surgery alone were more likely to: be younger, privately insured, have no comorbidities, pT3 disease, positive lymph nodes, positive resection margins, and extended cholecystectomy. After matching, median survival was significantly longer for extended cholecystectomy with adjuvant therapy (23.3 months) than cholecystectomy with adjuvant therapy (16.4 months), which was significantly longer than either simple (12.4 months) or extended (10.7 months) cholecystectomy alone (all log-rank P<0.001). Adjuvant therapy prolongs survival after resection of T2/T3 tumors. Simple cholecystectomy with adjuvant therapy appears to be superior to extended resection alone in the short term and may serve as a potential alternative to re-resection in select high-risk individuals.

  2. Free Open Access Meducation (FOAM): the rise of emergency medicine and critical care blogs and podcasts (2002-2013).

    PubMed

    Cadogan, Mike; Thoma, Brent; Chan, Teresa M; Lin, Michelle

    2014-10-01

    Disruptive technologies are revolutionising continuing professional development in emergency medicine and critical care (EMCC). Data on EMCC blogs and podcasts were gathered prospectively from 2002 through November 2013. During this time there was a rapid expansion of EMCC websites, from two blogs and one podcast in 2002 to 141 blogs and 42 podcasts in 2013. This paper illustrates the explosive growth of EMCC websites and provides a foundation that will anchor future research in this burgeoning field.

  3. Evaluation of protocol uniformity concerning laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Wauben, Linda S G L; Goossens, Richard H M; van Eijk, Daan J; Lange, Johan F

    2008-04-01

    Iatrogenic bile duct injury remains a current complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. One uniform and standardized protocol, based on the "critical view of safety" concept of Strasberg, should reduce the incidence of this complication. Furthermore, owing to the rapid development of minimally invasive surgery, technicians are becoming more frequently involved. To improve communication between the operating team and technicians, standardized actions should also be defined. The aim of this study was to compare existing protocols for laparoscopic cholecystectomy from various Dutch hospitals. Fifteen Dutch hospitals were contacted for evaluation of their protocols for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. All evaluated protocols were divided into six steps and were compared accordingly. In total, 13 hospitals responded--5 academic hospitals, 5 teaching hospitals, 3 community hospitals--of which 10 protocols were usable for comparison. Concerning the trocar positions, only minor differences were found. The concept of "critical view of safety" was represented in just one protocol. Furthermore, the order of clipping and cutting the cystic artery and duct differed. Descriptions of instruments and apparatus were also inconsistent. Present protocols differ too much to define a universal procedure among surgeons in The Netherlands. The authors propose one (inter)national standardized protocol, including standardized actions. This uniform standardized protocol has to be officially released and recommended by national scientific associations (e.g., the Dutch Society of Surgery) or international societies (e.g., European Association for Endoscopic Surgery and Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons). The aim is to improve patient safety and professional communication, which are necessary for new developments.

  4. Single Incision Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in situs Inversus Totalis

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Suleyman; Coskun, Halil; Atak, Tuba; Kadioglu, Huseyin

    2012-01-01

    Situs inversus totalis (SIT) is a rare genetic anomaly characterized by arrangement of the abdominal and thoracic organs in a perfect mirror image reversal of the normal positioning. Transposition of the organs causes difficulty in diagnosis and treatment of the diseases related to abdomen and thorax. Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is a new technique and it is increasingly used with better cosmetic results. In this paper, a single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) performed in a patient with SIT is presented. SILC can be performed safely in the patients with SIT with better cosmetic results. PMID:23741594

  5. Single Incision Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in situs Inversus Totalis.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Suleyman; Coskun, Halil; Atak, Tuba; Kadioglu, Huseyin

    2012-07-01

    Situs inversus totalis (SIT) is a rare genetic anomaly characterized by arrangement of the abdominal and thoracic organs in a perfect mirror image reversal of the normal positioning. Transposition of the organs causes difficulty in diagnosis and treatment of the diseases related to abdomen and thorax. Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is a new technique and it is increasingly used with better cosmetic results. In this paper, a single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) performed in a patient with SIT is presented. SILC can be performed safely in the patients with SIT with better cosmetic results.

  6. Surgeons' anonymous response after bile duct injury during cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Francoeur, Jason R; Wiseman, Kevin; Buczkowski, Andrzej K; Chung, Stephen W; Scudamore, Charles H

    2003-05-01

    Bile duct injuries remain one of the most devastating injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Few studies target surgeons who have experienced bile duct injuries for their insight, their perspective, and their suggestions concerning this problem. A confidential questionnaire was sent to all practicing general surgeons under the age of 65 years in British Columbia, Canada. Seventy-five percent of surgeons responded to the survey. Of the 114 questionnaires completed, more than 97% of respondents had completed formal training in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. One half of surgeons reported experience with laparoscopic bile duct injury. A significant difference in years in practice between surgeons with injury and surgeons without injury was noted. The majority of injuries occurred after the surgeons's first 100 cholecystectomies performed. The first thoughts of surgeons after injury uniformly concerned the patient's well being. The next most common thoughts were in relation to obtaining help or a second opinion from another surgeon. Surgeons cited inflammation and short or anomalous cystic ducts as the most responsible factors contributing to injury. The majority of surgeons felt that these injuries are unavoidable and less than half felt that it was always a surgical error. Fewer than 15% thought injuries could be avoided by performing a cholangiogram. Surgeons suggested meticulous dissection and less haste to divide structures may prevent an injury. Surgeons recommend educating colleagues to remove the stigma of failure associated with conversion to laparotomy. General surgeons in British Columbia have a one in two chance of experiencing a bile duct injury in their career. There were more injuries in surgeons who had already been in practice for 10 years at the time of introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The injuries are likely to occur despite high volumes of procedures and increased experience. The incidence of bile duct injuries does not seem to be

  7. Two rare cases of intrahepatic subcapsular hematoma after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Minaya Bravo, Ana María; González González, Enrique; Ortíz Aguilar, Manuel; Larrañaga Barrera, Eduardo

    2010-12-01

    The appearance of subcapsular liver hematoma after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is an infrequent complication and seldom studied. Some cases have been connected to ketorolac given during surgery and after surgery. Other described causes are : hemangiomas or small iatrogenic lesions that could be aggravated by administration of ketorolac. Coagulation dysfunction like circulating heparin as seen in hemathological diseases is cause of bleeding after aggressive procedures. We describe two cases of subcapsular liver hematoma after LC, both of them have been given intravenous ketorolac and one of them had multiple myeloma. We discuss the causes and treatment of it.

  8. Gallbladder Fossa Abscess Masquerading as Cholecystitis After Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Rodrigue, Paul; Fakhri, Asif; Baumgartner, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    We present a case of a 59-y-old woman who had undergone cholecystectomy and was subsequently found to have an abscess within the gallbladder fossa. A hepatobiliary scan using (99m)Tc-diisopropyliminodiacetic acid demonstrated the characteristic rim sign, a photopenic defect surrounded by a rim of mildly increased activity immediately adjacent to the gallbladder fossa. The rim sign was thought to be the result of reactive inflammation in the hepatic tissue adjacent to a postoperative abscess within the gallbladder fossa. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  9. [Video-laparoscopic cholecystectomy: first years of experience].

    PubMed

    Guadagno, P; Caracò, C; Candela, G; Conzo, G; Santini, L

    1995-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is became the elective operation in the treatment of symptomatic lithiasis of gallbladder, and it represent the surgical choice in 96% of cases. The authors on the base of their first years experience analyzes the results of literature with particular reference to the complications, like lesion of principal biliary tract and of other organs or vessels, underlining how the right selection of patients can be reduce morbidity. In this direction the subdivision of contraindication, in relative and absolute, already described in literature, represent an obliged chose to respect the mini-invasive principle which laparoscopic technique mean.

  10. Anaesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy in Bartter’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Bala S; Rao, GV; Joshi, Sanjeev B; Arun, SK; Ajay, SK

    2010-01-01

    Bartter’s syndrome is a rare inherited anamoly with defect in the thick segment of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle, with reduced reabsorption of potassium. Growth is affected with worsening renal function, hypokalaemia, hypochloraemic metabolic alkalosis, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, increased levels of aldosterone, renin and angiotensin without hypertension and lack of responses to vasopressors. Treatment consists of potassium supplementation along with other medications. We present the case report, probably the first, of a child suffering from Bartter’s syndrome with gall stones posted for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The pre-operative correction of hypokalemia and successful anaesthetic and fluid and electrolyte management of the patient are discussed. PMID:20882176

  11. Combined lower segment cesarean section and cholecystectomy in single sitting-our initial experience.

    PubMed

    Mushtaque, Majid; Guru, Ibrahim R; Malik, Tajamul N; Khanday, Samina A

    2012-01-01

    To study feasibility and results of cholecystectomy at the time of cesarean section. Thirty-two patients were subjected to cholecystectomy at cesarean section. Most of them were diagnosed with cholelithiasis at or before the first antenatal scan. Cholecystectomy was performed by subcostal mini-laparotomy, after assessing the anatomy via the cesarean wound. Cholecystectomy was combined with lower segment cesarean section in all the patients. Under general anaesthesia, surgeries were performed with an mean duration of 90 minutes. Difficult anatomy at calots was found in 3 patients, who required extension of subcostal incision by 3-4 cm. One woman required blood transfusion during operation. There were no other intraoperative or postoperative complications. No extra antibiotics or analgesics doses were needed. Patients were discharged on 5(th)-7(th) postoperative day. Combined cesarean section and cholecystectomy avoids rehospitalisation for separate cholecystectomy. With an additional small subcostal incision, single anaesthesia, and single hospital stay, the combined procedure confers valuable advantages for both patient and hospital in time, cost, and convenience, including avoiding the separation of mother from newborn entailed by reoperation. It also prevents the possibility of developing acute cholecystitis while the patient is waiting for cholecystectomy. Our results indicate that the combination approach is safe, effective, and well accepted.

  12. Post cholecystectomy gossypiboma mimicking a liver hydatid cyst: comprehensive literature review.

    PubMed

    Yagmur, Yusuf; Akbulut, Sami; Gumus, Serdar

    2015-04-01

    Gossypiboma is the term for forgotten textile products such as a surgical sponge and compress in the body cavity after a surgical procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate previously published articles related to post cholecystectomy gossypiboma. We conducted a systematic search using PubMed, Medline, Google and Google Scholar on post cholecystectomy gossypiboma. The keywords used were: gossypiboma and cholecystectomy, textiloma and cholecystectomy and post cholecystectomy gossypiboma. Furthermore, we also present a new case of post cholecystectomy gossypiboma. A total of 32 articles concerning 38 patients with post cholecystectomy gossypiboma that met the aforementioned criteria were included. Detailed intraoperative findings and surgical management were provided. The patients were aged from 26 to 79 years (Mean ± SD: 47 ± 13.6 years); 32 were female and six were male. The time from the causative operation to presentation with a retained surgical sponge ranged from one to 480 months (Mean ± SD: 56.5 ± 93.5 months). Gossypiboma may not be symptomatic for many years or could be symptomatic for a short duration of time. Besides being a rare surgical complication, gossypiboma can lead to serious morbidity and mortality that may cause medico-legal problems. Diagnosis with imaging methods is difficult.

  13. Prevention and acute management of biliary injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Expert consensus statement

    PubMed Central

    Abbasoğlu, Osman; Tekant, Yaman; Alper, Aydın; Aydın, Ünal; Balık, Ahmet; Bostancı, Birol; Coker, Ahmet; Doğanay, Mutlu; Gündoğdu, Haldun; Hamaloğlu, Erhan; Kapan, Metin; Karademir, Sedat; Karayalçın, Kaan; Kılıçturgay, Sadık; Şare, Mustafa; Tümer, Ali Rıza; Yağcı, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    Gallstone disease is very common and laparoscopic cholecystectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures all over the world. Parallel to the increase in the number of laparoscopic cholecystectomies, bile duct injuries also increased. The reported incidence of bile duct injuries ranges from 0.3% to 1.4%. Many of the bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy are not due to inexperience, but are the result of basic technical failures and misinterpretations. A working group of expert hepatopancreatobiliary surgeons, an endoscopist, and a specialist of forensic medicine study searched and analyzed the publications on safe cholecystectomy and biliary injuries complicating laparoscopic cholecystectomy under the organization of Turkish Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery Association. After a series of e-mail communications and two conferences, the expert panel developed consensus statements for safe cholecystectomy, management of biliary injuries and medicolegal issues. The panel concluded that iatrogenic biliary injury is an overwhelming complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and an important issue in malpractice claims. Misidentification of the biliary system is the major cause of biliary injuries. To avoid this, the “critical view of safety” technique should be employed in all the cases. If biliary injury is identified intraoperatively, reconstruction should only be performed by experienced hepatobiliary surgeons. In the postoperative period, any deviation from the expected clinical course of recovery should alert the surgeon about the possibility of biliary injury. PMID:28149133

  14. Does single-dose preoperative dexamethasone minimize stress response and improve recovery after laparoscopic cholecystectomy?

    PubMed

    Sistla, Sarath; Rajesh, Rajalingam; Sadasivan, Jagdish; Kundra, Pankaj; Sistla, Sujatha

    2009-12-01

    Stress response after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is less compared with open cholecystectomy, but is still responsible for significant postoperative morbidity. Though preoperative glucocorticoids were found to be effective in reducing the response in open surgical procedures, their role in minimal access surgery is not clear. To evaluate the efficacy of single-dose preoperative dexamethasone in reducing the stress response and postoperative morbidity after LC. In a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 70 patients undergoing elective LC were randomized to receive either dexamethasone (8 mg intravenously), or placebo. The change in C-reactive protein levels after LC, pain scores at rest, and on exertion and narcotic requirements, the incidence and severity of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), anti-emetic requirement, peak expiratory flow rate in both groups were compared. Dexamethasone was more effective in controlling late PONV (P=0.05). The antiemetic requirement was significantly less in the dexamethasone group (0.56 mg vs. 2.24 mg; P=0.02). Median pain scores were significantly less in the dexamethasone group at 24 hours at rest (P=0.002) and on exertion at 24 and 48 hours (P=0.03 and 0.001). Analgesic requirement was less in the test group (22.9 mg vs. 29.9 mg; P=0.054). The peak expiratory flow rate at 48 hours was higher in the dexamethasone group (315.28 vs. 285.8 l/min; P=0.04). The dexamethasone group showed significantly less elevation of C-reactive protein levels at 24 hours (7.17 microg/mL vs. 17.53 microg/mL; P=0.003) and 48 hours (10.65 microg/mL vs. 23.18 microg/mL; P=0.02) postoperatively. Preoperative single-dose dexamethasone significantly reduces the pain scores, PONV, and antiemetic requirements while improving the respiratory function in the postoperative period after LC.

  15. Quality of life and psychological and gastrointestinal symptoms after cholecystectomy: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Talseth, Arne; Edna, Tom-Harald; Hveem, Kristian; Lydersen, Stian; Ness-Jensen, Eivind

    2017-01-01

    Objective The study aims to examine gastrointestinal symptoms, quality of life and the risk of psychological symptoms after cholecystectomy. Design This is a prospective population-based cohort study based on the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT) Norway. HUNT is a repeated health survey of the county population and includes a wide range of health-related items. In the present study, all 3 HUNT surveys were included, performed between 1984 and 2008. Selected items were scores on quality of life, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and selected gastrointestinal symptoms. Participants who underwent cholecystectomy for gallstone disease between 1 January 1990 and until 1 year before attending HUNT3 were compared with the remaining non-operated cohort. Associations between cholecystectomy and the postoperative scores and symptoms were assessed by multivariable regression models. Results Participants in HUNT1, HUNT2 and HUNT3 were 77 212 (89.4% of those invited), 65 237 (69.5%) and 50 807 (54.1%), respectively. In the study period, 931 participants were operated with cholecystectomy. Cholecystectomy was associated with an increased risk of diarrhoea and stomach pain postoperatively. In addition, cholecystectomy was associated with an increased risk of nausea postoperatively in men. We found no associations between cholecystectomy and quality of life, symptoms of anxiety and depression, constipation, heartburn, or acid regurgitation following surgery. Conclusions In this large population-based cohort study, cholecystectomy was associated with postoperative diarrhoea and stomach pain. Cholecystectomy for gallstone colic was associated with nausea in men. There were no associations between quality of life, symptoms of anxiety and depression, constipation, heartburn, or acid regurgitation. PMID:28761686

  16. Effects of Combined Rocuronium and Cisatracurium in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Woo Young; Lee, Kwang Ho; Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Myeong Hoon; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Choi, Jong Bum

    2017-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic upper abdominal surgery can cause spontaneous respiration due to diaphragmatic stimulation and intra-abdominal CO2 inflation. Therefore, sufficient muscle relaxation is necessary for a safe surgical environment. Methods We investigated if the combination of rocuronium and cisatracurium can counteract the delayed onset of cisatracurium’s action and delayed recovery of muscle relaxation and whether the dosage of rocuronium, which is metabolized hepatically, can be reduced. A total of 75 patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy with an American Society of Anesthesiology physical status I-II, in the age range of 20–60 years, and with a 20–30 kg/m2 body mass index were included in the study. Results The patients were divided into the following groups: combination group (Group RC, rocuronium 0.3 mg/kg and cisatracurium 0.05 mg/kg), rocuronium group (Group R, rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg), and cisatracurium group (Group C, cisatracurium 0.1 mg/kg), and the onset, 25% duration, recovery index, and addition/time ratio were measured. Patients in Group RC exhibited a significantly different addition/time ratio compared with patients in the other two groups (p = 0.003). Conclusion During laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the 95% effective dose of rocuronium in combination with cisatracurium is expected to provide a sufficient muscle relaxant effect. PMID:28261559

  17. Early visceral pain predicts chronic pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Blichfeldt-Eckhardt, Morten Rune; Ording, Helle; Andersen, Claus; Licht, Peter B; Toft, Palle

    2014-11-01

    Chronic pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is related to postoperative pain during the first postoperative week, but it is unknown which components of the early pain response is important. In this prospective study, 100 consecutive patients were examined preoperatively, 1 week postoperatively, and 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively for pain, psychological factors, and signs of hypersensitivity. Overall pain, incisional pain (somatic pain component), deep abdominal pain (visceral pain component), and shoulder pain (referred pain component) were registered on a 100-mm visual analogue scale during the first postoperative week. Nine patients developed chronic unexplained pain 12 months postoperatively. In a multivariate analysis model, cumulated visceral pain during the first week and number of preoperative biliary pain attacks were identified as independent risk factors for unexplained chronic pain 12 months postoperatively. There were no consistent signs of hypersensitivity in the referred pain area either pre- or postoperatively. There were no significant associations to any other variables examined. The risk of chronic pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is relatively low, but significantly related to the visceral pain response during the first postoperative week. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Acute Cholecystitis in Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Euler de Medeiros Ázaro; Galvão, Thales Delmondes; Ettinger, João Eduardo Marques de Menezes; Silva Reis, Jadson Murilo; Lima, Marcos; Fahel, Edvaldo

    2006-01-01

    Background: Acute cholecystitis is the major complication of biliary lithiasis, for which laparoscopic treatment has been established as the standard therapy. With longer life expectancy, acute cholecystitis has often been seen in elderly patients (>65 years old) and is often accompanied by comorbity and severe complications. We sought to compare the outcome of laparoscopic treatment for acute cholecystitis with special focus on comparison between elderly and nonelderly patients. Method: This study was a prospective analysis of 190 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to acute cholecystitis or chronic acute cholecystitis, comparing elderly and nonelderly patients. Results: Of 190 patients, 39 (21%) were elderly (>65 years old) and 151 (79%) were not elderly (≤65 years), with conversion rates of 10.3% and 6.6% (P=0.49), respectively. The incidence of postoperative complications in elderly and nonelderly patients were the following, respectively: atelectasis 5.1% and 2.0% (P=0.27); respiratory infection 5.1% and 2.7% (P=0.6); bile leakage 5.1% and 2.0% (P=0.27), and intraabdominal abscess 1 case (0.7%) and no incidence (P=1). Conclusion: According to our data, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a safe and efficient procedure for the treatment of acute cholecystitis in patients older than 65 years of age. PMID:17575761

  19. Early cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis: experience at DHQ Hospital Abbottabad.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Asif; Nawaz, Muhammad; Noreen, Aysha; Ahmad, Sarfraz

    2010-01-01

    Cholelithiasis is a common disorder affecting the females more commonly. Most of the population carrying the gallstones remains asymptomatic, however biliary colic and acute cholecystitis is a common complication. Most surgeons agree that early cholecystectomy is safe and should be the procedure of choice in acute cholecystitis. Objective of this study was to determine the frequency of patients with acute cholecystitis, and morbidity and mortality in such cases. A prospective study, conducted at DHQ Hospital Abbottabad, and Yahya Welfare Hospital, Haripur simultaneously on 162 patients having symptomatic gall stones. All patients were admitted on presentation and surgical intervention done within 72 hours on patients fit for surgery. Patients with cardiac problem, HCV positive, and with radiologic evidence of Common Bile Duct (CBD) stones were excluded. Ultrasonography abdomen was the main investigation. Postoperative complications, hospital stay and return to routine activities was evaluated. The postoperative complications were seroma formation in 3 cases (1.9%), liver trauma resulting in bleeding and prolonged hospital stay in 1 case (0.6%). In 1 patient stones slipped into CBD resulting in CBD exploration. Early cholecystectomy with upper right transverse incision and muscle retraction in acute cholecystitis is a safe, and cost effective procedure with fewer complications, better cosmesis and early return to work.

  20. Direct Gallbladder Indocyanine Green Injection Fluorescence Cholangiography During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Graves, Claire; Ely, Sora; Idowu, Olajire; Newton, Christopher; Kim, Sunghoon

    2017-06-02

    Intravenous injection of indocyanine green (ICG) is used to illuminate extrahepatic biliary anatomy. Fluorescence of biliary structures may lower surgical complications that can arise due to inadvertent injury to the common bile duct. We describe a method of injecting ICG directly into the gallbladder to define the cystic duct and common bile duct anatomy. A standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed using a laparoscope with near-infrared imaging capability. Before dissection, the gallbladder was punctured with a cholangiogram catheter or a pigtail catheter to aspirate the bile within the gallbladder. The aspirated bile is mixed with ICG solution, which is reinjected into the gallbladder to fluoresce the gallbladder, cystic duct, and common bile duct structures. Eleven patients underwent direct gallbladder ICG injection for fluorescence cholangiography during cholecystectomy. Direct gallbladder ICG injection clearly defined the extrahepatic biliary anatomy, including the cystic duct-common bile duct junction, by fluorescence. In addition, the dissection plane between the gallbladder and the liver is highlighted with the gallbladder ICG fluorescence. Direct gallbladder ICG injection provides immediate visualization of extrahepatic biliary structures and clarifies the dissection plane between the gallbladder and the liver bed.

  1. A national audit of antibiotic prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Vasireddy, A; Nehra, D

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Laparoscopic surgeons in Great Britain and Ireland were surveyed to assess their use of antibiotic prophylaxis in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This followed a Cochrane review that found no evidence to support the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in routine cases. Methods Data were collected on routine use of antibiotics in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and how that was influenced by factors such as bile spillage, patient co-morbidities and surgeons’ experience. An online questionnaire was sent to 450 laparoscopic surgeons in December 2011. Results Data were received from 111 surgeons (87 consultants) representing over 7,000 cases per year. In routine cases without bile spillage, 64% of respondents gave no antibiotics and 36% gave a single dose. In cases with bile spillage, 11% gave no antibiotics. However, 80% gave one dose and 7% gave three doses. Co-amoxiclav was used by 75% of surgeons. Surgeons are more likely to give antibiotics when patients have risk factors for infective endocarditis. Conclusions This study suggests over 20,000 doses of antibiotics and over £100,000 could be saved annually if surgeons modified their practice to follow current guidelines. PMID:24992423

  2. [Expression of proliferation and apoptosis markers in neoplasms of colon mucosa after cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Galitskiĭ, M V; Khomeriki, S G; Nikiforov, P A

    2009-01-01

    The cholecystectomy results in change of cholic acids flow into intestine. Permanent type of the bile flow provokes the increase of proliferation of colic epithelial cells and increases the risk for development of right-sided colorectal tumors. Meanwhile morphological features of colorectal tumors at the patients with cholecystectomy are still remaining to be clarified. The goal of the study was to investigate immunohistochemical markers of proliferation and apoptosis in colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas at the patients with cholecystectomy. Fifty patients (40 with retained function of gallbladder and 10 patients with cholecystectomy) histologically diagnosed as proximal colon adenoma or adenocarcinoma were included into the study. Colonoscopic biopsies have been taken from the lesion in cancer patients, and colonoscopic polypectomy has been performed for adenomas. In addition, biopsies have been taken from the adjacent healthy colon mucosa at least 5 cm from the lesion in each patient. 83 tumors and 49 samples of mucosa were immunostained with monoclonal mouse anti-human p53 protein (Dako) and monoclonal mouse anti-human Ki-67 antigen (Novocastra). The index of Ki-67 expression in healthy colon mucosa at the patients with cholecystectomy was 37,5 +/- 1,8% (p < 0,05) as compared to 31,36 +/- 1,9 at the patients without cholecystectomy. No significant difference was detected in the comparison of Ki-67 expression levels between the healthy mucosa and adenomas at the patients with cholecystectomy 43,4 +/- 3,45 (p > 0,05), but more prominent increase was revealed in adenocarcinomas 64,33 +/- 7,67% (p < 0,01). Protein p53 expression in healthy mucosa at the patients with a cholecystectomy was at the same level as at the patients without cholecystectomy (37%). At the patients without cholecystectomy the frequency of revealing p53 in adenomas does not vary, compared with healthy mucosa, however in adenocarcinomas p53 was not revealed at none case. As a contrast, in

  3. Laparoscopic repair for intraoperative injury of the right hepatic artery during cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Shuichi; Fuke, Azusa; Funamizu, Naotake; Nakayoshi, Tomoko; Okamoto, Tomoyoshi; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2015-02-01

    Right hepatic artery (RHA) injury is a complication that occurs during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which can sometimes cause hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm or ischemic hepatic necrosis. Therefore, RHA should be managed carefully. Herein, we report a case of intraoperative RHA injury that was successfully repaired during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Bleeding was controlled prior to the cholecystectomy with vascular clamp forceps that had been inserted through an additional trocar, and repair of the RHA injury was then performed laparoscopically. The postoperative course was uneventful, and patency of the RHA and its sectional arteries were confirmed by CT arteriography. Laparoscopic repair of minor RHA injuries can be managed safely if bleeding is adequately controlled.

  4. Incidental gallbladder cancer during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Managing an unexpected finding

    PubMed Central

    Cavallaro, Andrea; Piccolo, Gaetano; Panebianco, Vincenzo; Menzo, Emanuele Lo; Berretta, Massimiliano; Zanghì, Antonio; Vita, Maria Di; Cappellani, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of incidental gallbladder cancer on surgical experience. METHODS: Between 1998 and 2008 all cases of cholecystectomy at two divisions of general surgery, one university based and one at a public hospital, were retrospectively reviewed. Gallbladder pathology was diagnosed by history, physical examination, and laboratory and imaging studies [ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT)]. Patients with gallbladder cancer (GBC) were further analyzed for demographic data, and type of operation, surgical morbidity and mortality, histopathological classification, and survival. Incidental GBC was compared with suspected or preoperatively diagnosed GBC. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS). The secondary endpoint was the difference in DFS between patients previously treated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy and those who had oncological resection as first intervention. RESULTS: Nineteen patients (11 women and eight men) were found to have GBC. The male to female ratio was 1:1.4 and the mean age was 68 years (range: 45-82 years). Preoperative diagnosis was made in 10 cases, and eight were diagnosed postoperatively. One was suspected intraoperatively and confirmed by frozen sections. The ratio between incidental and nonincidental cases was 9/19. The tumor node metastasis stage was: pTis (1), pT1a (2), pT1b (4), pT2 (6), pT3 (4), pT4 (2); five cases with stage Ia (T1 a-b); two with stage Ib (T2 N0); one with stage IIa (T3 N0); six with stage IIb (T1-T3 N1); two with stage III (T4 Nx Nx); and one with stage IV (Tx Nx Mx). Eighty-eight percent of the incidental cases were discovered at an early stage (≤ II). Preoperative diagnosis of the 19 patients with GBC was: GBC with liver invasion diagnosed by preoperative CT (nine cases), gallbladder abscess perforated into hepatic parenchyma and involving the transversal mesocolon and hepatic hilum (one case), porcelain gallbladder (one case), gallbladder adenoma (one case), and

  5. Impact of early haemodynamic goal-directed therapy in patients undergoing emergency surgery: an open prospective, randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Pavlovic, Gordana; Diaper, John; Ellenberger, Christoph; Frei, Angela; Bendjelid, Karim; Bonhomme, Fanny; Licker, Marc

    2016-02-01

    Haemodynamic goal-directed therapies (GDT) may improve outcome following elective major surgery. So far, few data exist regarding haemodynamic optimization during emergency surgery. In this randomized, controlled trial, 50 surgical patients with hypovolemic or septic conditions were enrolled and we compared two algorithms of GDTs based either on conventional parameters and pressure pulse variation (control group) or on cardiac index, global end-diastolic volume index and stroke volume variation as derived from the PiCCO monitoring system (optimized group). Postoperative outcome was estimated by a composite index including major complications and by the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) Score within the first 3 days after surgery (POD1, POD2 and POD3). Data from 43 patients were analyzed (control group, N = 23; optimized group, N = 20). Similar amounts of fluid were given in the two groups. Intraoperatively, dobutamine was given in 45 % optimized patients but in no control patients. Major complications occurred more frequently in the optimized group [19 (95 %) versus 10 (40 %) in the control group, P < 0.001]. Likewise, SOFA scores were higher in the optimized group on POD1 (10.2 ± 2.5 versus 6.6 ± 2.2 in the control group, P = 0.001), POD2 (8.4 ± 2.6 vs 5.0 ± 2.4 in the control group, P = 0.002) and POD 3 (5.2 ± 3.6 and 2.2 ± 1.3 in the control group, P = 0.01). There was no significant difference in hospital mortality (13 % in the control group and 25 % in the optimized group). Haemodynamic optimization based on volumetric and flow PiCCO-derived parameters was associated with a less favorable postoperative outcome compared with a conventional GDT protocol during emergency surgery.

  6. Event-based quantification of emerging pollutant removal for an open stormwater retention basin - loads, efficiency and importance of uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Sébastian, C; Becouze-Lareure, C; Lipeme Kouyi, G; Barraud, S

    2015-04-01

    Up to now, emerging contaminants have not been further-studied in in-situ stormwater best management practices and especially in detention basins. In this article, the efficiency of a dry stormwater detention basin was investigated regarding the removal of 7 alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates, 9 polybrominated diphenyl ethers, 45 pesticides and bisphenol A. Concentrations of contaminants were obtained by chemical analysis on dissolved and particulate phase distinctly. The removal efficiency was assessed on total, dissolved and particulate phase accounting for the global chain of uncertainty with a 95% confidence interval. Results showed that pesticides (rather hydrophilic) are not trapped in the detention basin but are released contrarily to B209 which is mostly in particulate phase. Alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates are present in both phases and the efficiency is storm event-dependent. Uncertainty consideration in efficiency determination revealed efficiency data, usually presented by raw values are not relevant to conclude on the performance of a detention basin. In this case study, efficiency data with a 95% confidence interval indicate that only 35%, 50% and 41% of campaigns showed an impact (in trapping or releasing) of the detention basin on alkylphenols and ethoxylates, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and pesticides respectively.

  7. A confounding coincidence: epidural anesthesia and paraplegia due to intramedullary tuberculoma in a patient who underwent cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Changyi; Zhang, Ying; Xu, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    Paraplegia associated with epidural anesthesia or caused by intramedullary spinal tuberculoma is rare but catastrophic. We present a case of paraplegia following epidural anesthesia in a patient with an undiagnosed intramedullary spinal tuberculoma. A 42-year-old man developed paraplegia after an open cholecystectomy under epidural anesthesia. Spinal cord infarction, acute transverse myelitis, and intramedullary neoplasms were ruled out by histopathologic examination, and intramedullary spinal tuberculoma at the T6-T7 level was identified. Despite surgical treatment and subsequent antituberculous therapy, the patient retained some disability attributable to the delay in diagnosis. Physicians should be aware of coexisting disease as a cause of paraplegia following procedures using epidural anesthesia. Magnetic resonance imaging is the most sensitive diagnostic test, although it is still difficult to differentiate spinal cord infarction, myelitis, intramedullary spinal tuberculoma, and neoplasms from imaging features alone.

  8. Day-surgery versus overnight stay surgery for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Jessica; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Davidson, Brian R

    2013-07-31

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is used to manage symptomatic gallstones. There is considerable controversy regarding whether it should be done as day-surgery or as an overnight stay surgery with regards to patient safety. To assess the impact of day-surgery versus overnight stay laparoscopic cholecystectomy on patient-oriented outcomes such as mortality, severe adverse events, and quality of life. We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, and mRCT until September 2012. We included randomised clinical trials comparing day-surgery versus overnight stay surgery for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, irrespective of language or publication status. Two authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and independently extracted the data. We analysed the data with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models using Review Manager 5 analysis. We calculated the risk ratio (RR), mean difference (MD), or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on intention-to-treat or available case analysis. We identified a total of six trials at high risk of bias involving 492 participants undergoing day-case laparoscopic cholecystectomy (n = 239) versus overnight stay laparoscopic cholecystectomy (n = 253) for symptomatic gallstones. The number of participants in each trial ranged from 28 to 150. The proportion of women in the trials varied between 74% and 84%. The mean or median age in the trials varied between 40 and 47 years.With regards to primary outcomes, only one trial reported short-term mortality. However, the trial stated that there were no deaths in either of the groups. We inferred from the other outcomes that there was no short-term mortality in the remaining trials. Long-term mortality was not reported in any of the trials. There was no significant difference in the

  9. Elective cholecystectomy performed on patient with variegate porphyria-Propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia with target-controlled infusion.

    PubMed

    Kuźmiński, Adam; Aporowicz, Michał; Brol, Monika; Żołnowska, Anna; Masternak, Maciej

    2016-12-01

    Porphyria is caused by disorders of enzymes that synthetize porphyrins. Both elective and emergency surgical procedures on patient suffering from porphyria may provoke acute symptoms. These patients require special anesthetic management since some of commonly used anesthetic agents may also induce acute manifestation of porphyria. We present the case of 53-year-old woman previously diagnosed with porphyria who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia with target-controlled infusion was used. Such conduct proved to be safe regarding clinical symptoms, although biochemical markers were slightly elevated after procedure. Propofol seems to be the safest hypnotic drug to use in porphyria; however, special care should be taken is such cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hepatocolonic fistula: a rare consequence of retained gallstones after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Laliotis, A; Gould, SWT

    2013-01-01

    Spillage of gallstones during laparoscopic cholecystectomy occurs in up to 30% of cases but complications due to stone retention are less frequent. We report the first case of a hepatocolonic fistula as a consequence of a retained gallstone. PMID:24165331

  11. [Apropos of a case of gas gangrene of the abdominal wall after cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Mohammadine, E; Benamr, S; Abbassi, A; Serhane, K; Essadel, A; Lahlou, M K; Taghy, A; Chad, B; Zizi, A; Belmahi, A

    1996-01-01

    The authors report a new case of gas gangrene following cholecystectomy with a fatal outcome. Mode of infection and principles of diagnosis and therapy are discussed together with a review of the literature.

  12. Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy with the x-cone: a feasibility study in 9 pigs.

    PubMed

    Krajinovic, Katica; Pelz, Joerg; Germer, Christoph-Thomas; Georg Kerscher, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    Virtually any port system for single-port laparoscopic surgery is for single usage only. The aim of this study was to trial the novel and completely reusable port X-Cone in order to perform a cholecystectomy by one infraumbilical incision. Single access cholecystectomies were performed in 9 anesthetized domestic pigs in nonsurvival studies. Only one infraumbilical incision was performed for placing the reusable, multichannel steel port system. A newly developed angulated forceps was used besides regularly used instruments in laparoscopic surgery. The gallbladder was successfully removed in 9 pigs. At postmortem examination, the clips placed on the cystic duct and the cystic artery. No bile leakage was found at the operative field. Single-port cholecystectomy with the reusable X-Cone single-port system is safe and feasible. No additional incisions were needed. The system is ergonomically designed, easy to handle, and the learning curve for cholecystectomy is steep.

  13. Hepatocolonic fistula: a rare consequence of retained gallstones after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Stevens, J L; Laliotis, A; Gould, S W T

    2013-11-01

    Spillage of gallstones during laparoscopic cholecystectomy occurs in up to 30% of cases but complications due to stone retention are less frequent. We report the first case of a hepatocolonic fistula as a consequence of a retained gallstone.

  14. Complications of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Our Experience from a Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Radunovic, Miodrag; Lazovic, Ranko; Popovic, Natasa; Magdelinic, Milorad; Bulajic, Milutin; Radunovic, Lenka; Vukovic, Marko; Radunovic, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the intraoperative and postoperative complications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, as well as the frequency of conversions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical records of 740 patients who had laparoscopic cholecystectomy were analysed retrospectively. We evaluated patients for the presence of potential risk factors that could predict the development of complications such as age, gender, body mass index, white blood cell count and C-reactive protein (CRP), gallbladder ultrasonographic findings, and pathohistological analysis of removed gallbladders. The correlation between these risk factors was also analysed. RESULTS: There were 97 (13.1%) intraoperative complications (IOC). Iatrogenic perforations of a gallbladder were the most common complication - 39 patients (5.27%). Among the postoperative complications (POC), the most common ones were bleeding from abdominal cavity 27 (3.64%), biliary duct leaks 14 (1.89%), and infection of the surgical wound 7 patients (0.94%). There were 29 conversions (3.91%). The presence of more than one complication was more common in males (OR = 2.95, CI 95%, 1.42-4.23, p < 0.001). An especially high incidence of complications was noted in patients with elevated white blood cell count (OR = 3.98, CI 95% 1.68-16.92, p < 0.01), and CRP (OR = 2.42, CI 95% 1.23-12.54, p < 0.01). The increased incidence of complications was noted in patients with ultrasonographic finding of gallbladder empyema and increased thickness of the gallbladder wall > 3 mm (OR = 4.63, CI 95% 1.56-17.33, p < 0.001), as well as in patients with acute cholecystitis that was confirmed by pathohistological analysis (OR = 1.75, CI 95% 2.39-16.46, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Adopting laparoscopic cholecystectomy as a new technique for treatment of cholelithiasis, introduced a new spectrum of complications. Major biliary and vascular complications are life threatening, while minor complications cause patient discomfort and prolongation of

  15. Major bile duct injury requiring operative reconstruction after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a follow-on study.

    PubMed

    Worth, Patrick J; Kaur, Taranjeet; Diggs, Brian S; Sheppard, Brett C; Hunter, John G; Dolan, James P

    2016-05-01

    Bile duct injury (BDI) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has significant cost impact and is a significant source of morbidity and mortality. We undertook a population-based assessment of the national experience with BDI between 2001 and 2011 and compared this to our report for the prior decade. Using the nationwide inpatient sample (NIS) for 2001-2011, we identified patients who underwent LC or partial cholecystectomy, with and without biliary reconstruction. Data were analyzed using methods that accounted for the hierarchical, stratified random sampling of the NIS. Both univariate modeling and multivariate modeling were performed. LCs increased from 71.1 % in 2001 to 79.0 % in 2011 (p < 0.0001). Annual mortality decreased from 0.56 to 0.38 % (p = 0.002). In 2001, 0.11 % of LCs were associated with biliary reconstruction versus 0.09 % in 2011 (p = 0.15) with rates ranging from 0.08 to 0.12 %. The need for reconstruction was associated with an average in-hospital mortality rate of 4.4 %. Mortality rates from LC remained consistent across the study period (average mortality, 0.10 %, p = 0.57). Under multivariate analysis, admission to rural or urban non-teaching centers was associated with a decreased rate of injury; the majority of major BDIs were admitted from clinic or outpatient settings. These results are consistent with results from the prior decade. Neither emergent admission nor race was associated with increased odds of BDI, and this differs from our prior analysis. LC continued to increase in utilization between 2001 and 2011. Although rates of BDI have decreased, the need for reconstruction continues to be associated with a significant mortality. In addition, mortality related to biliary reconstruction is also higher than previously published series and may reflect the complexity of managing biliary injury as well as the higher likelihood of these patients having comorbid conditions.

  16. Cholelithiasis, cholecystectomy and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lingyun; Mao, Jie; Li, Yumin; Jiao, Zuoyi; Guo, Jiwu; Zhang, Junqiang; Zhao, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Available evidence of the relationship between cholelithiasis, cholecystectomy, and risk of liver cancer and hence we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the relationships. PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched to identify all published cohort studies and case-control studies that evaluated the relationships of cholelithiasis, cholecystectomy and risk of liver cancer and single-cohort studies which evaluated the incidence of liver cancer among patients who understood cholecystectomy (up to February 2013). Comprehensive meta-analysis software was used for meta-analysis. A total of 11 observational studies (six cohort studies and five case-control studies) were included in this meta-analysis. The result from meta-analysis showed that cholecystectomy (risk ratio [RR]: 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-2.51, I2=72%) and cholecystolithiasis (RR: 5.40, 95% CI: 3.69-7.89, I2=93%) was associated with more liver cancer, especially for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) (cholecystectomy: RR: 3.51, 95% CI: 1.84-6.71, I2=26%; cholecystolithiasis: RR: 11.06, 95% CI: 6.99-17.52, I2=0%). The pooled standardized incidence rates (SIR) of liver cancer in patients who understood cholecystectomy showed cholecystectomy might increase the incidence of liver cancer (SIR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.13-2.20, I2=15%). Based on the results of the meta-analysis, cholecystectomy and cholecystolithiasis seemed to be involved in the development of liver cancer, especially for ICC. However, most available studies were case-control studies and short-term cohort studies, so the future studies should more long-term cohort studies should be well-conducted to evaluate the long-term relationship.

  17. Gallstone obstructive ileus 3 years post-cholecystectomy to a patient with an old ileoileal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Papavramidis, T S; Potsi, S; Paramythiotis, D; Michalopoulos, A; Papadopoulos, V N; Douros, V; Pantoleon, A; Foutzila-Kalogera, A; Ekonomou, I; Harlaftis, N

    2009-12-01

    The present case is one of gallstone obstructive ileus due to gallstones 3 yr after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. It is interesting because of the sex of the patient, the fact that ileus occurred 3 yr after cholecystectomy and that the localization of the obstruction was an old side-to-side ileoileal anastomosis due to a diverticulectomy following intussusception of Meckels' diverticulum at the age of 3.

  18. Closure of a controlled biliary fistula complicating partial cholecystectomy with endoscopic biliary stenting.

    PubMed

    Gholson, C F; Burton, F

    1992-02-01

    An elderly woman presented 2 months after partial cholecystectomy performed for gangrenous cholecystitis with choledocholithiasis and a controlled biliary fistula. Despite ductal clearance of stones via endoscopic retrograde sphincterotomy and stone extraction, bilious drainage via the fistulous tract persisted. Endoscopic insertion of a 10F Amsterdam endoprosthesis resulted in complete closure of the fistula within 6 wk. This case represents the first example of closure of a biliary fistula after partial cholecystectomy.

  19. Hemobilia Due to Cystic Artery Pseudoaneurysm: A Rare Late Complication of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Darcy, Michael D.; Kushnir, Vladimir M.

    2017-01-01

    We discuss a patient with late presentation of hemobilia following cholecystectomy, which is unusual because pseudoaneurysm caused by vascular injury during surgery typically presents soon after surgery. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed a large blood clot arising from the biliary orifice with subsequent computed tomography angiography diagnosing a large pseudoaneurysm in the region of the cystic artery adjacent to the cholecystectomy clips. Embolization was performed via direct percutaneous puncture of the pseudoaneurysm. PMID:28331877

  20. Clostridial Gas Gangrene of the Abdominal Wall After Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Case Report and Review.

    PubMed

    Harmsen, Annelieke M K; van Tol, Erik; Giannakopoulos, Georgios F; de Brauw, L Maurits

    2016-08-01

    Clostridial gas gangrene is a rare, yet severe, complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We present a case report of a 48-year-old man with obesity, coronary artery disease, and diabetes, who developed clostridial gas gangrene of the abdominal wall after an uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Although the diagnosis was missed initially, successful radical surgical debridement was performed and the patient survived. Pathogenesis, symptoms, prognostic factors, and the best treatment are discussed.

  1. Overcoming of a "surgical dogma" in acute cholecystitis treated in postponed emergency.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Pierpaolo; Rossi, Giorgio; Faccini, Massimo; Carzaniga, Pierluigi

    2009-01-01

    To demonstrate the overcoming of a surgical dogma related to acute cholecystitis treatment, in particular to the timing of the operation. One hundred cases of observed acute cholecystitis, submitted to an emergency postponed laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgery and histological control of specimens to evaluate rate of surgical complications and rate of reconver-tion to open surgery The complications rate observed and the surgical conversion to open technique was only 1% where in 96% of the cases the histological examination of the specimen confirmed the state of acute inflammation. Therefore there was a substantial success rate of laparoscopic therapy even in emergency situations, in spite of an overcoming of the conventional timing within 72 hours of surgery for acute cases, which has few restrictions from some authors. The reasons allowing in safety that time extension were ascribed to the laparoscopic procedure, apt to overcome the anatomo-pathological barriers through an accurate vision of the operative field, and the use of specialized devices allowing the coagulative dissection of inflamed tissues. Postponed colecistectomy in acute cholecystitis, in extention of the canonical coded timing of 72 hours, confirmed to be a safe and successful procedure, even in emergency, with only rare exceptions.

  2. Increased incidence of gallstones and prior cholecystectomy in patients with large bowel cancer.

    PubMed

    Paul, J; Gessner, F; Wechsler, J G; Kuhn, K; Orth, K; Ditschuneit, H

    1992-09-01

    In a retrospective study, the frequency of occurrence of gallstones and cholecystectomy in 479 patients with colorectal cancer was compared with that of 483 matched control patients with other malignancies. The mean interval between cholecystectomy and colon cancer diagnosis was 15.1 +/- 9.9 yr (range 2-53 yr), and there was no statistically significant difference, compared with the control group at 13.9 +/- 8.2 yr (range 2-31 yr). In patients with colon cancer, the general increased relative risk of concomitant diagnosed gallstones (relative risk 1.73, p = 0.0123) and the relative risk of cholecystectomy (relative risk 2.08, p = 0.0074) was statistically significant. However, when the data with regard to sex were analyzed, significant differences were observed only in women. Women affected by right colon cancer also had a statistically significant higher incidence of previous cholecystectomy (relative risk 2.86, p = 0.0096), but no significantly higher incidence of concomitant gallstones. The general increased relative risk in patients with right colon cancer and decreased risk in patients with left colon cancer of concomitant gallstones and prior cholecystectomy was statistically significant. Our data provide evidence for the hypothesis that both gallstones and cholecystectomy increase the general risk of large bowel cancer. Therefore, they are also compatible with the possibility that common risk factors causes the association between gallstones and large bowel cancer.

  3. Single-Incision Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: our experience and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    ZANGHÌ, G.; LEANZA, V.; VECCHIO, R.; MALAGUARNERA, M.; ROMANO, G.; RINZIVILLO, N.M.A.; CATANIA, V.; BASILE, F.

    2015-01-01

    Aim After the revolution in the surgery of gallbladder stones represented by the laparoscopic cholecystectomy, we tried a new technique that further maximize the aesthetic results and that at the same time is of easy learning for young surgeons. Patients and methods From January 2011 to December 2012 we performed at our department 320 cholecystectomy: 27 in laparotomy and 293 in laparoscopy. Of these, 88 underwent to Single Incision Laparoscopic Surgery (SILS), namely the Single Incision Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (SILC), in recruited patients aged between 19–65 years; 56 patients were females and 32 were males. Results The laparoscopic cholecystectomy with the SILS methodology is a safe technique. Respect to multi-port Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (LC), we have cosmetic advances. The pain is less in extra-umbilical sites, and the major umbilical pain can be prevented by local anaesthesia. The times are slightly longer, especially at the beginning of training, but after a few of operations it is reduced to about one hour. We didn’t found any other difference in vantage and advantage between the two technics, only a case of postoperative umbilical hernia in SILS. Conclusion We found the SILS a safe and effective technique for the cholecystectomy. PMID:26888698

  4. Should Delayed Cholecystectomy Following Acute Calculous Cholecystitis Be Discouraged in a Resource-restricted Setting?

    PubMed Central

    Leake, PA; Roberts, PO; Pitzul, K; Plummer, JM

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Early cholecystectomy for acute calculous cholecystitis (ACC) reduces hospital stay and complications during the waiting period. The purpose of this study is to establish the patterns of management of ACC at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI) and to evaluate the advantages of early versus delayed cholecystectomy. Methods: This was a retrospective chart review of patients admitted with a diagnosis of ACC. Data collection included demographics, management strategy, timing to cholecystectomy, significant events while awaiting cholecystectomy and duration of hospital stay. Mann-Whitney U and Chi-square tests were used for analysis. P-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 102 patient charts were extracted, 59 of which were managed conservatively and 43 managed with early cholecystectomy. The mean time to surgery after conservative management was 173 days. About 30% of persons managed conservatively had significant attacks while awaiting surgery, which included need for re-admission and earlier intervention. There was a trend toward longer mean total hospital stay in the conservative group (x sx = 5.03, x Cons = 6.12; p = 0.054). Conclusion: Conservative management of ACC results in significant delays in definitive management and risks of complications during the waiting period. Early cholecystectomy should be encouraged even in a resource-restricted setting. PMID:26624592

  5. Comparative analysis of iatrogenic injury of biliary tract in laparotomic and laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    FORTUNATO, André Augusto; GENTILE, João Kleber de Almeida; CAETANO, Diogo Peral; GOMES, Marcus Aurélio Zaia; BASSI, Marco Antônio

    2014-01-01

    Background Iatrogenic injury to the bile ducts is the most feared complication of cholecystectomy and several are the possibilities to occur. Aim To compare the cases of iatrogenic lesions of the biliary tract occurring in conventional and laparoscopic cholecystectomy, assessing the likely causal factors, complications and postoperative follow-up. Methods Retrospective cohort study with analysis of records of patients undergoing conventional and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. All the patients were analyzed in two years. The only criterion for inclusion was to be operative bile duct injury, regardless of location or time of diagnosis. There were no exclusion criteria. Epidemiological data of patients, time of diagnosis of the lesion and its location were analyzed. Results Total of 515 patients with gallstones was operated, 320 (62.1 %) by laparotomy cholecystectomy and 195 by laparoscopic approach. The age of patients with bile duct injury ranged from 29-70 years. Among those who underwent laparotomy cholecystectomy, four cases were diagnosed (1.25 %) with lesions, corresponding to 0.77 % of the total patients. No patient had iatrogenic interventions with laparoscopic surgery. Conclusion Laparoscopic cholecystectomy compared to laparotomy, had a lower rate of bile duct injury. PMID:25626937

  6. Hospital Readmission Following Emergency Room Visit for Cholelithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Taylor P.; Dimou, Francesca M.; Adhikari, Deepak; Kimbrough, Thomas D.; Riall, Taylor S.

    2015-01-01

    Background For patients presenting with symptomatic cholelithiasis, cholecystectomy is the definitive treatment modality. Our goal was to evaluate the surgical follow-up and outcomes in patients seen in the Emergency Department (ED) for an episode of symptomatic cholelithiasis and discharged home for elective follow-up. Methods We performed a retrospective review of consecutive patients seen in the ED for cholelithiasis and discharged without hospital admission between August 2009 and May 2014. All patients were followed for two years from the date of initial ED visit. We evaluated outpatient surgeon visits, elective and emergent cholecystectomy rates, and additional ED visits. Cumulative incidence and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to examine the time from the initial ED visit to outpatient surgeon evaluation and the time from initial ED visit to ED readmission. Results Seventy-one patients were discharged from the ED with a diagnosis of symptomatic gallstones. 12.6% of patients had an elective cholecystectomy in the two years after the initial visit. In this group, the mean time from the initial ED visit to outpatient surgeon follow-up was 7.7 days and all elective cholecystectomies occurred within one month of the initial visit. Of the 62 patients who did not have an elective cholecystectomy, only 14.5% of patients in this group had outpatient surgeon follow-up at mean time of 137 days from the initial ED visit for symptomatic gallstones. In addition, 37.1% of patients in this group had additional ED visits for gallstone-related symptoms, with 17.7 % of patients having two or more additional ED visits, and 12.9% required emergent/urgent cholecystectomy. 43.5% of additional ED visits occurred within one month and 60.9% within three months of their initial ED visit. In patients with additional ED visits for symptomatic cholelithiasis, 60.9% had more than one abdominal Ultrasound (US) or Computed Tomography (CT) scan during the course of multiple visits. Conclusion

  7. Hospital readmission after emergency room visit for cholelithiasis.

    PubMed

    Williams, Taylor P; Dimou, Francesca M; Adhikari, Deepak; Kimbrough, Thomas D; Riall, Taylor S

    2015-08-01

    For patients presenting with symptomatic cholelithiasis, cholecystectomy is the definitive treatment modality. Our goal was to evaluate the surgical follow-up and outcomes in patients seen in the emergency department (ED) for an episode of symptomatic cholelithiasis and discharged home for elective follow-up. We performed a retrospective review of consecutive patients seen in the ED for cholelithiasis and discharged without hospital admission between August 2009 and May 2014. All patients were followed for 2 y from the date of the initial ED visit. We evaluated outpatient surgeon visits, elective and emergent cholecystectomy rates, and additional ED visits. Cumulative incidence and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to examine the time from the initial ED visit to outpatient surgeon evaluation and the time from the initial ED visit to ED readmission. Seventy-one patients were discharged from the ED with a diagnosis of symptomatic gallstones. Patients who had an elective cholecystectomy in the 2 y after the initial visit were 12.6%. In this group, the mean time from the initial ED visit to outpatient surgeon follow-up was 7.7 d, and all elective cholecystectomies occurred within 1 mo of the initial visit. Of the 62 patients who did not have an elective cholecystectomy, only 14.5% of patients in this group had outpatient surgeon follow-up at mean time of 137 d from the initial ED visit for symptomatic gallstones. In addition, 37.1% of patients in this group had additional ED visits for gallstone-related symptoms, with 17.7% of patients having two or more additional ED visits, and 12.9% required emergent and/or urgent cholecystectomy. Additional ED visits (43.5%) occurred within 1 mo and 60.9% within 3 mo of their initial ED visit. In patients with additional ED visits for symptomatic cholelithiasis, 60.9% had more than one abdominal ultrasound or computed tomography scan during the course of multiple visits. Failure to achieve a timely surgical follow-up leads to multiple

  8. Transgastric cholecystectomy: From the laboratory to clinical implementation

    PubMed Central

    Dallemagne, Bernard; Perretta, Silvana; Allemann, Pierre; Donatelli, Gianfranco; Asakuma, Mitsuhiro; Mutter, Didier; Marescaux, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    After the first report by Kalloo et al on transgastric peritoneoscopy in pigs, it rapidly became apparent that there was no room for an under-evaluated concept and blind adoption of an appealing (r)evolution in minimal access surgery. Systematic experimental work became mandatory before any translation to the clinical setting. Choice and management of the access site, techniques of dissection, exposure, retraction and tissue approximation-sealing were the basics that needed to be evaluated before considering any surgical procedure or study of the relevance of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). After several years of testing in experimental labs, the revolutionary concept of NOTES, is now progressively being experimented on in clinical settings. In this paper the authors analyse the challenges, limitations and solutions to assess how to move from the lab to clinical implementation of transgastric endoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:21160872

  9. The usefulness of intraoperative drip infusion cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Nagai, K; Matsumoto, S; Kanemaki, T; Ooshima, T; Mori, K; Funabiki, T

    1992-12-01

    Intraoperative cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been considered to be a necessary examination because incidental injury to the common bile duct must be avoided. We performed 93 intraoperative drip infusion cholangiographies among 103 laparoscopic cholecystectomized patients as simple examinations by using iotroxic acid. The best drip infusion time was determined to be 20 min and good pictures were obtained from 10 to 60 min after the end of the drip. Nine patients with liver dysfunction and a poor radiograph had poor cholangiograms. Clear cholangiograms were obtained in 79 patients: four had a long remnant cystic duct and, in one case, a common bile duct stenosis was found by endoclip. The findings in these five cases helped us to correct failures during operation.

  10. Formal education of patients about to undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Vaughan, Jessica; Davidson, Brian R

    2014-02-28

    Generally, before being operated on, patients will be given informal information by the healthcare providers involved in the care of the patients (doctors, nurses, ward clerks, or healthcare assistants). This information can also be provided formally in different formats including written information, formal lectures, or audio-visual recorded information. To compare the benefits and harms of formal preoperative patient education for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 2, 2013), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded to March 2013. We included only randomised clinical trials irrespective of language and publication status. Two review authors independently extracted the data. We planned to calculate the risk ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous outcomes, and mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% CI for continuous outcomes based on intention-to-treat analyses when data were available. A total of 431 participants undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomised to formal patient education (215 participants) versus standard care (216 participants) in four trials. The patient education included verbal education, multimedia DVD programme, computer-based multimedia programme, and Power Point presentation in the four trials. All the trials were of high risk of bias. One trial including 212 patients reported mortality. There was no mortality in either group in this trial. None of the trials reported surgery-related morbidity, quality of life, proportion of patients discharged as day-procedure laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the length of hospital stay, return to work, or the number of unplanned visits to the doctor. There were insufficient details to calculate the mean difference and 95% CI for the difference in pain scores at 9 to 24 hours (1 trial; 93 patients); and we did not identify clear evidence of

  11. [Selection criteria for endoscopic cholangiopancreatography before laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Güitrón-Cantú, Alfredo; Adalid-Martínez, Raúl; Gutiérrez-Bermúdez, José A

    2002-01-01

    The unexpected detection of stones in common bile duct during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a concern for laparoscopic surgeons. Immediate laparoscopic removal may not always be feasible due to inadequate operating facilities, surgeons, and assistants. Attempts have been made to identify clinical and biochemical predictor of common bile duct stones, the results of which have not been consistent. The aim of this study was to define patients with risk for common bile duct stones based on history, abdominal ultrasound, and biochemical derangements, as well as to evaluate the role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) for diagnosis and duct clearance if necessary. This is a prospective cross sectional analysis of 82 patients (66 females and 16 males) with gallstones on whom were performed clinical examination, laboratory test, and abdominal ultrasound to identify predictors of common bile duct stones. Preoperative ERCP was carried out and patients underwent ES for stone retrieval. Clinical evidence of jaundice or pancreatitis, elevated serum amylase, and ultrasonographic evidence of biliary tree dilation or common bile duct stone were considered risk factors. In 45 patients, common bile duct stones were identified at preoperative ERCP patients underwent ES, and stones were removed with 100% success. All patients were scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy 24 h later. There was no mortality in this series. Clinical evidence of jaundice or pancreatitis, elevation of serum amylase and dilated common bile duct or presence of common bile duct stones were considered risk factors for choledocholithiasis. Use of such a model rather than individual criteria would improve selection of patients for preoperative ERCP, optimizing its role in the laparoscopic era.

  12. Evaluation of the clinical pathway for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Soria, Víctor; Pellicer, Enrique; Flores, Benito; Carrasco, Milagros; Candel Maria, Fe; Aguayo, Jose Luis

    2005-01-01

    Clinical pathways are comprehensive systematized patient care plans for specific procedures. The clinical pathway for laparoscopic cholecystectomy was implemented in our department in March 2002. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical pathway for this procedure 1 year after implementation. A study was conducted on all the patients included in the clinical pathway since its implementation. The assessment criteria include degree of compliance, indicators of clinical care effectiveness, financial impact, and survey-based indicators of satisfaction. The results are compared to a series of patients undergoing surgery the year prior to implementation of the clinical pathway. As our hospital has a system of cost management, we analyzed the mean cost per procedure before and after clinical pathway implementation. Evaluation was made of a series of 160 consecutive patients who underwent surgery during the period 1 year prior to development of the clinical pathway and met the accepted inclusion criteria. The mean length of hospital stay was 3.27 days, and the mean cost per procedure before pathway implementation was 2149 (+/-768) euros. One year after implementation of the pathway, 140 patients were included (i.e., an inclusion rate of 100%). The mean length of hospital stay of the patients included in the clinical pathway was 2.2 days. The degree of compliance with stays was 66.7 per cent. The most frequent reasons for noncompliance were staff-dependent, followed by patient-dependent causes (oral intolerance, pain, etc.). The mean cost in the series of patients included in the clinical pathway was 1845 (+/-618) euros. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is an ideal procedure for commencing the systemization of clinical pathways. Results show that it has significantly reduced the length of hospital stay and mean cost per procedure with no increased morbidity and with a high degree of patient satisfaction.

  13. Perioperative management for cholecystectomy in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, N; Wayne, A S; Kevy, S V; Shamberger, R C

    1993-01-01

    Perioperative complications of surgical procedures are frequently encountered in patients with sickle cell disease. We have reviewed our series of patients with hemoglobinopathies who underwent cholecystectomy from 1978 to 1991 to evaluate their perioperative management and clinical outcome. Twenty-two children with major sickle hemoglobinopathy underwent cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis. All 22 were transfused to achieve a hemoglobin (Hgb) level greater than 9 g/dL and hemoglobin S (HbS) less than 37%. Fourteen underwent immediate preoperative automated red cell exchange (ARCE). The median preexchange Hgb of these patients was 8.1 g/dL (range, 6.8 to 10.5). Their median HbS was 84% (range, 53% to 97%). These patients underwent placement of an apheresis catheter under local anesthesia followed by red cell exchange. The median volume of packed red blood cells (PRBC) exchanged was 28.1 mL/kg (range, 13.8 to 58.7). The median HbS after exchange was 21% (range, 16% to 37%) and the median Hgb was 10.6 g/dL (range, 6.5 to 16.7). Eight other patients underwent sequential transfusion (3 after an exchange for an acute pulmonary vasoocclusive crisis). These patients had been prepared over an interval of 2 to 8 weeks preoperatively and had received a median of 26.9 mL PRBC/kg (range, 12.8 to 95). Following sequential transfusion the median Hgb was 11.8 g/dL (range, 9 to 15.7) and the median HbS was 19% (range, 5% to 32%) at the time of surgery. All patients received extended antigen matched blood. Complications of preoperative transfusion were minor and included two febrile-/allergic reactions and one mild superficial catheter-induced phlebitis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Quality of information available over internet on laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Jayaweera, Jayaweera Muhandiramge Uthpala; De Zoysa, Merrenna Ishan Malith

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of information available on the internet to patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The sources of information were obtained the keyword 'laparoscopic cholecystectomy', from internet searches using Google, Bing, Yahoo!, Ask and AOL search engines with default settings. The first 50 web links were evaluated for their accessibility, usability and reliability using the LIDA tool (validation instrument for healthcare websites by Minervation).The readability of the websites was assessed by using the Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES) and the Gunning Fog Index (GFI). Of the 250 links, 90 were new links. Others were repetitions, restricted access sites or inactive links. The websites had an average accessibility score of 52/63 (83.2%; range 40-62), a usability score of 39/54 (73.1%; range 23-49) and a reliability score of 14/27 (51.6%; range 5-24). Average FRES was 41.07 (4.3-86.4) and average GFI was 11.2 (0.6-86.4). Today, most people use the internet as a convenient source of information. With regard to health issues, the information available on the internet varies greatly in accessibility, usability and reliability. Websites appearing at the top of the search results page may not be the most appropriate sites for the target audience. Generally, the websites scored low on reliability with low scores on content production and conflict-of-interest declaration. Therefore, previously evaluated references on the World Wide Web should be given to patients and caregivers to prevent them from being exposed to commercially motivated or inaccurate information.

  15. Limited value of haptics in virtual reality laparoscopic cholecystectomy training.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jonathan R; Leonard, Anthony C; Doarn, Charles R; Roesch, Matt J; Broderick, Timothy J

    2011-04-01

    Haptics is an expensive addition to virtual reality (VR) simulators, and the added value to training has not been proven. This study evaluated the benefit of haptics in VR laparoscopic surgery training for novices. The Simbionix LapMentor II haptic VR simulator was used in the study. Randomly, 33 laparoscopic novice students were placed in one of three groups: control, haptics-trained, or nonhaptics-trained group. The control group performed nine basic laparoscopy tasks and four cholecystectomy procedural tasks one time with haptics engaged at the default setting. The haptics group was trained to proficiency in the basic tasks and then performed each of the procedural tasks one time with haptics engaged. The nonhaptics group used the same training protocol except that haptics was disengaged. The proficiency values used were previously published expert values. Each group was assessed in the performance of 10 laparoscopic cholecystectomies (alternating with and without haptics). Performance was measured via automatically collected simulator data. The three groups exhibited no differences in terms of sex, education level, hand dominance, video game experience, surgical experience, and nonsurgical simulator experience. The number of attempts required to reach proficiency did not differ between the haptics- and nonhaptics-training groups. The haptics and nonhaptics groups exhibited no difference in performance. Both training groups outperformed the control group in number of movements as well as path length of the left instrument. In addition, the nonhaptics group outperformed the control group in total time. Haptics does not improve the efficiency or effectiveness of LapMentor II VR laparoscopic surgery training. The limited benefit and the significant cost of haptics suggest that haptics should not be included routinely in VR laparoscopic surgery training.

  16. Techniques of Fluorescence Cholangiography During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Better Delineation of the Bile Duct Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Yoshiharu; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Tani, Keigo; Harada, Nobuhiro; Kaneko, Junichi; Saiura, Akio; Bandai, Yasutsugu; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the clinical and technical factors affecting the ability of fluorescence cholangiography (FC) using indocyanine green (ICG) to delineate the bile duct anatomy during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Application of FC during LC began after laparoscopic fluorescence imaging systems became commercially available. In 108 patients undergoing LC, FC was performed by preoperative intravenous injection of ICG (2.5 mg) during dissection of Calot's triangle, and clinical factors affecting the ability of FC to delineate the extrahepatic bile ducts were evaluated. Equipment-related factors associated with bile duct detectability were also assessed among 5 laparoscopic systems and 1 open fluorescence imaging system in ex vivo studies. FC delineated the confluence between the cystic duct and common hepatic duct (CyD–CHD) before and after dissection of Calot's triangle in 80 patients (74%) and 99 patients (92%), respectively. The interval between ICG injection and FC before dissection of Calot's triangle was significantly longer in the 80 patients in whom the CyD–CHD confluence was detected by fluorescence imaging before dissection (median, 90 min; range, 15–165 min) than in the remaining 28 patients in whom the confluence was undetectable (median, 47 min; range, 21–205 min; P < 0.01). The signal contrast on the fluorescence images of the bile duct samples was significantly different among the laparoscopic imaging systems and tended to decrease more steeply than those of the open imaging system as the target-laparoscope distance increased and porcine tissues covering the samples became thicker. FC is a simple navigation tool for obtaining a biliary roadmap to reach the “critical view of safety” during LC. Key factors for better bile duct identification by FC are administration of ICG as far in advance as possible before surgery, sufficient extension of connective tissues around the bile ducts, and placement of the tip of

  17. The "right" way is not always popular: comparison of surgeons' perceptions during laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis among experts from Japan, Korea and Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hibi, Taizo; Iwashita, Yukio; Ohyama, Tetsuji; Honda, Goro; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takada, Tadahiro; Han, Ho-Seong; Hwang, Tsann-Long; Shinya, Satoshi; Suzuki, Kenji; Umezawa, Akiko; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Choi, In-Seok; Huang, Wayne Shih-Wei; Chen, Kuo-Hsin; Miura, Fumihiko; Watanabe, Manabu; Abe, Yuta; Misawa, Takeyuki; Nagakawa, Yuichi; Yoon, Dong-Sup; Jang, Jin-Young; Yu, Hee Chul; Ahn, Keun Soo; Kim, Song Cheol; Song, In Sang; Kim, Ji Hoon; Yun, Sung Su; Choi, Seong Ho; Jan, Yi-Yin; Sheen-Chen, Shyr-Ming; Shan, Yan-Shen; Ker, Chen-Guo; Chan, De-Chuan; Wu, Cheng-Chung; Toyota, Naoyuki; Higuchi, Ryota; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Yutaka; Ito, Masahiro; Norimizu, Shinji; Yamada, Shigetoshi; Matsumura, Naoki; Shindoh, Junichi; Sunagawa, Hiroki; Gocho, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Rikiyama, Toshiki; Sata, Naohiro; Kano, Nobuyasu; Kitano, Seigo; Tokumura, Hiromi; Yamashita, Yuichi; Watanabe, Goro; Nakagawa, Kunitoshi; Kimura, Taizo; Yamakawa, Tatsuo; Wakabayashi, Go; Endo, Itaru; Miyazaki, Masaru; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2017-01-01

    Generally, surgeons' perceptions of surgical safety are based on experience and institutional policy. Our recent pilot survey demonstrated that the acceptable duration of surgery and criteria for open conversion during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) vary among workplaces. A web-based survey was distributed to 554 expert LC surgeons in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. The questionnaire covered LC experience, safety measures and recognition of landmarks, decision-making regarding conversion to open/partial cholecystectomy and the implications of this decision. Overall responses were compared among nations, and then stratified by LC experience level (lifetime cases 200-499, 500-999, and ≥1,000). The response rate was 92.6% (513/554); 67 surgeons with ≤199 LCs were excluded, and responses from 446 surgeons were analyzed. We observed significant differences among nations on almost all questions. Differences that remained after stratification by LC experience were on questions related to acceptable duration of surgery, adoption rates of intraoperative cholangiography, the "critical view of safety" technique, identification of Rouvière's sulcus, recognition of the SS-Inner layer theory, and intraoperative judgment to abandon conventional LC. Even among experts, surgeons' perceptions during LC are workplace-dependent. A novel grading system of surgical difficulty and standardized LC procedures are paramount to generate high-level evidence. © 2016 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  18. Cancer risk in patients with cholelithiasis and after cholecystectomy: a nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Kung; Yeh, Jiann-Horng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Peng, Chiao-Ling; Sung, Fung-Chang; Hwang, Ing-Ming; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the association of cholelithiasis post-cholecystectomy with subsequent cancers and evaluated the risk of cancer in patients with both cholelithiasis and cholecystectomy. The Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database was used to identify 15545 newly diagnosed cholelithiasis patients from 2000 to 2010, and 62180 frequency-matched non-cholelithiasis patients. A total of 5850 (37.6 %) with cholelithiasis patients received a cholecystectomy. The risk of developing cancer after cholecystectomy was measured using the Cox proportional-hazards model. The incidence of developing cancer in the cholelithiasis cohort was 1.52-fold higher than that in the comparison cohort (p < 0.001). Compared with patients aged 20-34 years, patients in older age groups had a higher risk of developing cancer. The hazard ratio (HR) for developing gallbladder, extrahepatic bile duct, pancreatic, liver, stomach, and colorectal cancer was 59.3, 10.7, 3.12, 1.90, 1.71, and 1.36-fold higher for patients with cholelithiasis, respectively. After a cholecystectomy, the HR for developing stomach and colorectal cancer was 1.81-fold and 1.56-fold, respectively. The incidence rate ratio was higher for the first 5 years and over 5 years (5.05 and 4.46, respectively) (95 % confidence interval 4.73-5.39 and 4.11-4.84, respectively) in proximal colon and stomach cancer patients with cholecystectomies. Cholelithiasis patients have a higher risk of gastrointestinal cancer, particularly of gallbladder and extrahepatic bile duct cancer. Post-cholecystectomy patients have a risk of colorectal and stomach cancer within the first 5 years and persisting after 5 years, respectively. This paper proposes strategies for preventing gastrointestinal cancer.

  19. Getting started with robotics in general surgery with cholecystectomy: the Canadian experience.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Shiva; Davies, Ward; Schlachta, Christopher M

    2009-10-01

    The value of robotics in general surgery may be for advanced minimally invasive procedures. Unlike other specialties, formal fellowship training opportunities for robotic general surgery are few. As a result, most surgeons currently develop robotic skills in practice. Our goal was to determine whether robotic cholecystectomy is a safe and effective bridge to advanced robotics in general surgery. Before performing advanced robotic procedures, 2 surgeons completed the Intuitive Surgical da Vinci training course and agreed to work together on all procedures. Clinical surgery began with da Vinci cholecystectomy with a plan to begin advanced procedures after at least 10 cholecystectomies. We performed a retrospective review of our pilot series of robotic cholecystectomies and compared them with contemporaneous laparoscopic controls. The primary outcome was safety, and the secondary outcome was learning curve. There were 16 procedures in the robotics arm and 20 in the laparoscopic arm. Two complications (da Vinci port-site hernia, transient elevation of liver enzymes) occurred in the robotic arm, whereas only 1 laparoscopic patient (slow to awaken from anesthetic) experienced a complication. None was significant. The mean time required to perform robotic cholecystectomy was significantly longer than laparoscopic surgery (91 v. 41 min, p < 0.001). The mean time to clear the operating room was significantly longer for robotic procedures (14 v. 11 min, p = 0.015). We observed a trend showing longer mean anesthesia time for robotic procedures (23 v. 15 min). Regarding learning curve, the mean operative time needed for the first 3 robotic procedures was longer than for the last 3 (101 v. 80 min); however, this difference was not significant. Since this experience, the team has confidently gone on to perform robotic biliary, pancreatic, gastresophageal, intestinal and colorectal operations. Robotic cholecystectomy can be performed reliably; however, owing to the significant

  20. Oral risperidone with lorazepam versus oral zuclopenthixol with lorazepam in the treatment of acute psychosis in emergency psychiatry: a prospective, comparative, open-label study.

    PubMed

    Hovens, J E; Dries, P J T; Melman, C T M; Wapenaar, R J C; Loonen, A J M

    2005-01-01

    Acutely psychotic patients presenting as psychiatric emergencies with aggression or agitation are often administered conventional antipsychotics intramuscularly. However, patients view intramuscular administration as coercive, and conventional antipsychotics are often associated with adverse events. In this open study, consecutive adult patients presenting with an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder were assigned to oral risperidone 2-6 mg/day (n = 48) or oral zuclopenthixol 20-50 mg/day (n = 27) for 7-14 days. Lorazepam (either oral or intramuscular) was administered to both groups as needed. Patients were assessed regularly until day 14 or discharge. Mean Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) aggression scores (sum of item scores on excitement, poor impulse control, hostility and uncooperativeness) decreased steadily and similarly in both groups; the mean changes from baseline were statistically significant at days 10 and 14 and at study end-point. The mean decrease at study end-point in the PANSS component score for hostility was statistically significant in the risperidone group, but not in the zuclopenthixol group. Social Dysfunction and Aggression Scale aggression scores and Clinical Global Impression scores decreased significantly and similarly in both groups. Overall, 18.7% of patients showed minor extrapyramidal symptoms during the study, but only 16.7% of risperidone-treated patients, compared to 59.3% of zuclopenthixol-treated patients, received anti-parkinsonian medication (p < 0.001). Lorazepam was administered to all of the patients assigned to risperidone and to 89% of those assigned to zuclopenthixol. Oral risperidone plus lorazepam is a convenient, effective and well-tolerated alternative to conventional antipsychotics for the treatment of acute psychosis in emergency psychiatry.

  1. Single-site multiport combined splenectomy and cholecystectomy with conventional laparoscopic instruments: Case series and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Ozemir, Ibrahim Ali; Bayraktar, Baris; Bayraktar, Onur; Tosun, Salih; Bilgic, Cagri; Demiral, Gokhan; Ozturk, Erman; Yigitbasi, Rafet; Alimoglu, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Conventional laparoscopic procedures have been used for splenic diseases and concomitant gallbladder stones, frequently in patients with hereditary spherocytosis since 1990’s. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of single-site surgery with conventional instruments in combined procedures. Presentation of case series Six consecutive patients who scheduled for combined cholecystectomy and splenectomy because of hereditary spherocytosis or autoimmune hemolytic anemia were included this study. Both procedures were performed via trans-umbilical single-site multiport approach using conventional instruments. All procedures completed successfully without conversion to open surgery or conventional laparoscopic surgery. An additional trocar was required for only one patient. The mean operation time was 190 min (150–275 min). The mean blood loss was 185 ml (70–300 ml). Median postoperative hospital stay was two days. No perioperative mortality or major complications occurred in our series. Recurrent anemia, hernia formation or wound infection was not observed during the follow-up period. Discussion Nowadays, publications are arising about laparoscopic or single site surgery for combined diseases. Surgery for combined diseases has some difficulties owing to the placement of organs and position of the patient during laparoscopic surgery. Single site laparoscopic surgery has been proposed to have better cosmetic outcome, less postoperative pain, greater patient satisfaction and faster recovery compared to standard laparoscopy. Conclusion We consider that single-site multiport laparoscopic approach for combined splenectomy and cholecystectomy is a safe and feasible technique, after gaining enough experience on single site surgery. PMID:26708949

  2. The Feasibility and Safety of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Approach without the Intraopertative Cholangiography Use: A Retrospective Study on 750 Consecutive Patients.

    PubMed

    Atahan, Kemal; Gur, Serhat; Durak, Evren; Cokmez, Atilla; Tarcan, Ercument

    2012-08-01

    We have retrospectively reviewed the results of all common bile duct (CBD)-stone preoperative asymptomatic patients operated on our unit to point out the feasibility and safety of the laparoscopic cholecystectomy approach without the IOC use. From January 2004 and June 2008 we analyzed all the data from hospital records and follow up results of all the patients who underwent LC. The indications for performing preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or selective IOC were abnormal liver function tests, history of jaundice, cholangitis or pancreatitis, and ultrasonographic evidence of CBD stone or dilation (≥ 10 mm). These patients were excluded from study. The follow up of the all patients were done by liver function tests and abdominal ultrasonography when needed at the time of the visit. Between January 2006 and June 2010, 750 patients were operated in our clinic. In 34 patients, operations were converted to open cholecystectomy (OC). Of these 750 patients, 98 of them had one or more exclusion criteria and were excluded from the further analyzes. We did not perform any IOC during LC. Regular follow up of at least two years was obtained in 618 (618/657, 94.0%) patients. No operative mortality was encountered among the patients. Postoperative morbidity was detected in 15 of the patients (2.5%). In one patient, CBD injury was detected (0.017%). The mean follow up was 35 (24 - 74) months. Retained stone was detected in three patients (3/577, 0.5%) during the follow up. This approach allows to omit routine IOC and to perform LC safely in selected patients group given the low percentage of both CBD injuries and symptomatic retained stones observed in the late follow up period in our 618 operated patients, we consider our approach a feasible and safe approach to manage patients with gallbladder stones re-confirming the results of other studies.

  3. Management of a Septic Open Abdomen Patient with Spontaneous Jejunal Perforation after Emergent C/S with Confounding Factor of Mild Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yetisir, Fahri; Sarer, Akgün Ebru; Acar, Hasan Zafer; Osmanoglu, Gokhan; Özer, Mehmet; Yaylak, Faik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. We report the management of a septic Open Abdomen (OA) patient by the help of negative pressure therapy (NPT) and abdominal reapproximation anchor (ABRA) system in pregnant woman with spontaneous jejunal perforation after emergent cesarean section (C/S) with confounding factor of mild acute pancreatitis (AP). Presentation of Case. A 29-year-old and 34-week pregnant woman with AP underwent C/S. She was arrested after anesthesia induction and responded to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). There were only ash-colored serosanguinous fluid within abdomen during C/S. After C/S, she was transferred to intensive care unit (ICU) with vasopressor support. On postoperative 1st day, she underwent reoperation due to fecal fluid coming near the drainage. Leakage point could not be identified exactly and operation had to be deliberately abbreviated due to hemodynamic instability. NPT was applied. Two days later source control was provided by conversion of enteroatmospheric fistula (EAF) to jejunostomy. ABRA was added and OA was closed. No hernia developed at 10-month follow-up period. Conclusion. NPT application in septic OA patient may gain time to patient until adequate source control could be achieved. Using ABRA in conjunction with NPT increases the fascial closure rate in infected OA patient. PMID:27006853

  4. Single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Less scar, less pain

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Shantanu; Sinha, Rajeev; Tyagi, Aarti

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT AND AIMS: Our study aims to evaluate the post-operative pain and cosmesis of single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) in comparison with the standard, 3-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SLC) with respect to the length of incision, cosmetic scores, post-operative pain scores and duration of hospital stay. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This comparative randomised study was conducted in a tertiary care centre teaching hospital between September 2012 and 2014. One hundred and fifty consecutive patients, who qualified as per inclusion criteria, were included in the study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Seventy-five patients were included in the SLC arm and 75 in the SILC arm. SILC procedure was carried out as transumbilical multiport technique and SLC as 3-port technique utilizing - 5, 5, 10 mm ports. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The data for the primary observations (post-operative pain scores, cosmetic score and incision length) and secondary observation (post-operative hospital stay) were noted. Weighted mean difference was used for calculation of quantitative variables, and odds ratios were used for pooling qualitative variables. RESULTS: Pain scores at 4 and 24 h were significantly better for SILC arm than SLC arm (at 4 h - 4.84 ± 0.95 vs. 6.17 ± 0.98, P < 0.05 and at 24 h - 3.84 ± 0.96 vs. 5.17 ± 0.09, P < 0.05). Length of incision was significantly smaller (SILC - 2.631 ± 0.44 cm vs. SLC - 5.11 ± 0.44 cm), P < 0.05 and cosmetic score was significantly better in SILC arm (6.25 ± 1.24) than SLC arm (4.71 ± 1.04), P < 0.05. Difference between the hospital stay is insignificant for two arms SILC (2.12 ± 0.34) and SLC (2.13 ± 0.35), P > 0.05. DISCUSSION: Significant difference was found in duration and intensity of pain between two procedures at 4 and 24 h. Cosmesis was significantly better in SILC than SLC group, the sample size in our study was small to arrive at a definite conclusion. The procedure can be selectively and judiciously performed by surgeons

  5. Spinal anesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Thoracic vs. Lumbar Technique

    PubMed Central

    Imbelloni, Luiz Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Aims: In our group, after a study showing that spinal anesthesia is safe when compared with general anesthesia, spinal anesthesia has been the technique of choice for this procedure. This is a prospective study with all patients undergoing LC under spinal anesthesia in our department since 2007. Settings and Design: Prospective observational. Materials and Methods: From 2007 to 2011, 369 patients with symptoms of colelithiasis, laparoscopic cholecystectomy were operated under spinal anesthesia with pneumoperitoneum and low pressure CO2. We compared 15 mg of hyperbaric bupivacaine and lumbar puncture with 10 or 7.5 mg of hyperbaric bupivacaine thoracic puncture, all with 25 μg fentanyl until the sensory level reached T3. Intraoperative parameters, post-operative pain, complications, recovery, patient satisfaction, and cost were compared between both groups. Statistical Analysis Used: Means were compared by ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test, the percentages of the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test when appropriate. Time of motor and sensory block in spinal anesthesia group was compared by paired t test or Mann-Whitney test. Differences were considered significant when P ≤ 0.05, and for comparisons of mean pain visual scale, we employed the Bonferroni correction applied to be considered significant only with P ≤ 0.0125 Results: All procedures were completed under spinal anesthesia. The use of lidocaine 1% was successful in the prevention of shoulder pain in 329 (89%) patients. There were significant differences in time to reach T3, obtaining 15 mg > 10 mg = 7.5 mg. There is a positive correlation between the dose and the incidence of hypotension. The lowest doses gave a decrease of 52.2% in the incidence of hypotension. There was a positive correlation between the dose and duration of sensory and motor block. Sensory block was almost twice the motor block at all doses. With low doses, 60% of patients went from table to stretcher. Satisfaction occurred in 99% of

  6. Treatment of bile duct lesions after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, J J; van den Brink, G R; Rauws, E A; de Wit, L; Obertop, H; Huibregtse, K; Tytgat, G N; Gouma, D J

    1996-01-01

    From January 1990 to June 1994, 53 patients who sustained bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy were treated at the Amsterdam Academic Medical Centre. There were 16 men and 37 women with a mean age of 47 years. Follow up was established in all patients for a median of 17 months. Four types of ductal injury were identified. Type A (18 patients) had leakage from cystic ducts or peripheral hepatic radicles, type B (11 patients) had major bile duct leakage, type C (nine patients) had an isolated ductal stricture, and type D (15 patients) had complete transection of the bile duct. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) established the diagnosis in all type A, B, and C lesions. In type D lesions percutaneous cholangiography was required to delineate the proximal extent of the injury. Initial treatment (until resolution of symptoms and discharge from hospital) comprised endoscopy in 36 patients and surgery in 26 patients. Endoscopic treatment was possible and successful in 16 of 18 of type A lesions, five of seven of type B lesions, and three of nine of type C lesions. Most failures resulted from inability to pass strictures or leaks at the initial endoscopy. During initial treatment additional surgery was required in seven patients. Fourteen patients underwent percutaneous or surgical drainage of bile collections, or both. After endoscopic treatment early complications occurred in three patients, with a fatal outcome in two (not related to the endoscopic therapy). During follow up six patients developed late complications. All 15 patients with complete transection and four patients with major bile duct leakage were initially treated surgically. During initial treatment additional endoscopy was required in two patients. Early complications occurred in eight patients. During follow up seven patients developed stenosis of the anastomosis or bile duct. Reconstructive surgery in the early postoperative phase was associated with more

  7. Current Status of Single-Site Robotic Cholecystectomy, its feasibility, economic and overall impact

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Arpita K

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews recent, though limited, articles on the topic of robotic single-site cholecystectomy (RSSC), a relatively new approach that is rapidly advancing in both research and clinical application. Laparoscopy has typically been the standard method of performing a cholecystectomy, but recent medical advances have led to usage of the da Vinci® Surgical System robot technology to assist in performing the procedure. Several studies have compared outcomes of the RSSC to single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomies and to the traditional multiport laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Single port advocates think it as a tool with better cosmetic results and questionable less post-operative pain; however, single port also limits the maneuverability of the instrument arms, making some tasks more difficult, bigger single incision, more chances of post operative hernia. Overall, the RSSC is considered as safe with no worse outcomes regarding pain, hospital stay length, operative time, and patient satisfaction when compared to other cholecystectomy methods. Future direction includes expanding use of the miniature instruments and further advanced tools to overcome manipulation and visualization limitations. Thus far, though, there may be enough evidence with these smaller studies to support lack of harm with more use of resources. PMID:26425733

  8. Cholecystectomy and Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRGs): patient classification and hospital reimbursement in 11 European countries

    PubMed Central

    Paat-Ahi, Gerli; Aaviksoo, Ain; Świderek, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background: As part of the EuroDRG project, researchers from eleven countries (i.e. Austria, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, and Spain) compared how their Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRG) systems deal with cholecystectomy patients. The study aims to assist surgeons and national authorities to optimize their DRG systems. Methods: National or regional databases were used to identify hospital cases with a procedure of cholecystectomy. DRG classification algorithms and indicators of resource consumption were compared for those DRGs that individually contained at least 1% of cases. Six standardised case vignettes were defined, and quasi prices according to national DRG-based hospital payment systems were ascertained and compared to an index case. Results: European DRG systems vary widely: they classify cholecystectomy patients according to different sets of variables into diverging numbers of DRGs (between two DRGs in Austria and Poland to nine DRGs in England). The most complex DRG is valued at four times more resource intensive than the index case in Ireland but only 1.3 times more resource intensive than the index case in Austria. Conclusion: Large variations in the classification of cholecystectomy patients raise concerns whether all systems rely on the most appropriate classification variables. Surgeons, hospital managers and national DRG authorities should consider how other countries’ DRG systems classify cholecystectomy patients in order to optimize their DRG systems and to ensure fair and appropriate reimbursement. PMID:25489596

  9. Current Status of Single-Site Robotic Cholecystectomy, its feasibility, economic and overall impact.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Dinesh; Weiner, Cara; Vyas, Arpita K

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews recent, though limited, articles on the topic of robotic single-site cholecystectomy (RSSC), a relatively new approach that is rapidly advancing in both research and clinical application. Laparoscopy has typically been the standard method of performing a cholecystectomy, but recent medical advances have led to usage of the da Vinci(®) Surgical System robot technology to assist in performing the procedure. Several studies have compared outcomes of the RSSC to single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomies and to the traditional multiport laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Single port advocates think it as a tool with better cosmetic results and questionable less post-operative pain; however, single port also limits the maneuverability of the instrument arms, making some tasks more difficult, bigger single incision, more chances of post operative hernia. Overall, the RSSC is considered as safe with no worse outcomes regarding pain, hospital stay length, operative time, and patient satisfaction when compared to other cholecystectomy methods. Future direction includes expanding use of the miniature instruments and further advanced tools to overcome manipulation and visualization limitations. Thus far, though, there may be enough evidence with these smaller studies to support lack of harm with more use of resources.

  10. Two-week target for laparoscopic cholecystectomy following gallstone pancreatitis is achievable and cost neutral.

    PubMed

    Monkhouse, S J W; Court, E L; Dash, I; Coombs, N J

    2009-07-01

    The British Society of Gastroenterology recommends that all patients with gallstone pancreatitis should undergo cholecystectomy within 2 weeks. This study assessed whether these guidelines are feasible and cost-effective. Admissions for gallstone pancreatitis between January 2006 and January 2008 were reviewed. Readmissions for subsequent pancreatitis or biliary pathology were noted together with additional investigations, severity scores, hospital stay and time to cholecystectomy. The costs of readmission and theoretical costs of developing a dedicated operating list were provided by independent accountants. During the 2 years, 153 patients were admitted. Twenty-one patients (13.7 per cent) had further attacks requiring 40 readmissions. There were no deaths. Additional hospital costs related to readmissions were 172,170 pound sterling, including bed occupancy (67,860 pound sterling), investigations (12,510 pound sterling) and 153 cholecystectomies on an existing theatre list (91,800 pound sterling). The estimated cost of staffing a half-day theatre list every fortnight, performing 153 cholecystectomies, was 170,391 pound sterling. Instigating a dedicated theatre for cholecystectomy after biliary pancreatitis has many potential benefits. The costs of readmissions and ad hoc operating are balanced by those of a dedicated theatre list in the long term. Implementation of the guidelines would save approximately 900 pound sterling annually and be cost neutral. Copyright 2009 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.

  11. Day surgery versus overnight stay laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Huairong; Dong, Aihua; Yan, Lunan

    2015-07-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomies are being increasingly performed as a day surgery procedure. To systematically assess the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic cholecystectomy as a day surgery procedure compared to overnight stay. Randomized controlled trials and clinical controlled trials involving day surgery laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in a systematic literature search. Two authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion and extracted the data. A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the safety and feasibility of day surgery compared to overnight stay laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Twelve studies were selected for our meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups on morbidity (P=0.65). The mean in-hospital admission and readmission rates were 13.1% and 2.4% in the day surgery group, respectively. The two groups had similar prolonged hospitalization (P=0.27), readmission rate (P=0.58) and consultation rate (P=0.73). In addition, there was no significant difference in the visual analogue scale score, postoperative nausea and vomiting scale, time to return to activity and work between the two groups (P>0.05). Currently available evidence demonstrates that laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be performed safely in selected patients as a day surgery procedure, though further studies are needed. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Need for Prophylactic Cholecystectomy in Silent Gall Stones in North India.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Alok Vardhan

    2015-09-01

    One of the criteria for recommending cholecystectomy for silent gall stones, is gall stones in regions with high incidence of gall bladder cancer. Both gall stones and gall bladder cancer are common in North India. All tertiary care centres in India report high rates of gall bladder cancer (GBC) incidence and poor treatment outcomes in the majority of cases due to advanced stage of presentation. Csendes of Chile has reported very high incidence of gallbladder cancer in Chile and Bolivia and advocated prophylactic cholecystectomy in asymptomatic patients. Incidence rate of gall bladder cancer in Indian males is equal to that of Chile, whereas in females, the rates are almost double the rates of Chile. Indians have also been found to have high concentrations of heavy metals in gall bladder wall, and antibodies to tumor suppressor genes. In India, gall bladder cancer is the commonest GI cancer in women and fourth commonest cancer overall in the female population. In view of the epidemiology and clinical scenario of gall bladder cancer and proven safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, there is a need to act before it is too late in the current rates of gall bladder cancer. This study looks at the evidence correlating gall stones and gall bladder cancer, in relation to India. There is pressing evidence today to justify a strategy of prophylactic cholecystectomy in silent gall stones in North India. Data for this study was selected through an internet based search for literature concerning gall stones and gall bladder cancer in India, and for prophylactic cholecystectomy.

  13. Acetic Acid Sclerotherapy for Treatment of a Bile Leak from an Isolated Bile Duct After Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Gibok Eun, Choong Ki; Choi, HyunWook

    2011-02-15

    Bile leak after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not uncommon, and it mainly occurs from the cystic duct stump and can be easily treated by endoscopic techniques. However, treatment for leakage from an isolated bile duct can be troublesome. We report a successful case of acetic acid sclerotherapy for bile leak from an isolated bile duct after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  14. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open

    MedlinePlus

    AAA - open; Repair - aortic aneurysm - open ... Open surgery to repair an AAA is sometimes done as an emergency procedure when there is bleeding inside your body from the aneurysm. You may have an ...

  15. Protocol for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Is it rocket science?

    PubMed

    Hori, Tomohide; Oike, Fumitaka; Furuyama, Hiroaki; Machimoto, Takafumi; Kadokawa, Yoshio; Hata, Toshiyuki; Kato, Shigeru; Yasukawa, Daiki; Aisu, Yuki; Sasaki, Maho; Kimura, Yusuke; Takamatsu, Yuichiro; Naito, Masato; Nakauchi, Masaya; Tanaka, Takahiro; Gunji, Daigo; Nakamura, Kiyokuni; Sato, Kiyoko; Mizuno, Masahiro; Iida, Taku; Yagi, Shintaro; Uemoto, Shinji; Yoshimura, Tsunehiro

    2016-12-21

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) does not require advanced techniques, and its performance has therefore rapidly spread worldwide. However, the rate of biliary injuries has not decreased. The concept of the critical view of safety (CVS) was first documented two decades ago. Unexpected injuries are principally due to misidentification of human factors. The surgeon's assumption is a major cause of misidentification, and a high level of experience alone is not sufficient for successful LC. We herein describe tips and pitfalls of LC in detail and discuss various technical considerations. Finally, based on a review of important papers and our own experience, we summarize the following mandatory protocol for safe LC: (1) consideration that a high level of experience alone is not enough; (2) recognition of the plateau involving the common hepatic duct and hepatic hilum; (3) blunt dissection until CVS exposure; (4) Calot's triangle clearance in the overhead view; (5) Calot's triangle clearance in the view from underneath; (6) dissection of the posterior right side of Calot's triangle; (7) removal of the gallbladder body; and (8) positive CVS exposure. We believe that adherence to this protocol will ensure successful and beneficial LC worldwide, even in patients with inflammatory changes and rare anatomies.

  16. One, Two, or Three Ports in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy?

    PubMed Central

    Justo-Janeiro, Jaime Manuel; Vincent, Gustavo Theurel; Vázquez de Lara, Fernando; de la Rosa Paredes, René; Orozco, Eduardo Prado; Vázquez de Lara, Luis G.

    2014-01-01

    Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has been compared with 3- or 4-port LC. To our knowledge, there are no studies comparing the 3-, 2-, and 1-port techniques. Patients were randomized into 3 groups: LC 1-port using SILS, LC 2-port using a laparoscope with a working channel, and LC 3-port using the standard ports. Pain was evaluated at recovery, 4 hours, 24 hours, day 5, and day 8, using an analog visual scale. Homogenous groups in their demographic characteristics; all confirmed gallbladder lithiasis. At recovery, there was less pain in group 1 (P = 0.002); at 4 hours pain was similar in all groups (P = 0.899); at 24 hours there was less pain in groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.031); and at days 5 and 8 there was marginal (P = 0.053) and significant (P = 0.003) relevance. In terms of pain perception, LC performed through 1 port does not offer advantages when compared with 2 or 3 ports. More clinical trials are needed to confirm these data. PMID:25437581

  17. Indocyanine-green-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Kinshuk; Melvin, James; Chang, Shufang; Park, Kyoungjin; Yilmaz, Alper; Melvin, Scott; Xu, Ronald X.

    2012-11-01

    We encapsulate indocyanine green (ICG) in poly[(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-co-PEG] diblock (PLGA-PEG) microballoons for real-time fluorescence and hyperspectral imaging of biliary anatomy. ICG-loaded microballoons show superior fluorescence characteristics and slower degradation in comparison with pure ICG. The use of ICG-loaded microballoons in biliary imaging is demonstrated in both biliary-simulating phantoms and an ex vivo tissue model. The biliary-simulating phantoms are prepared by embedding ICG-loaded microballoons in agar gel and imaged by a fluorescence imaging module in a Da Vinci surgical robot. The ex vivo model consists of liver, gallbladder, common bile duct, and part of the duodenum freshly dissected from a domestic swine. After ICG-loaded microballoons are injected into the gallbladder, the biliary structure is imaged by both hyperspectral and fluorescence imaging modalities. Advanced spectral analysis and image processing algorithms are developed to classify the tissue types and identify the biliary anatomy. While fluorescence imaging provides dynamic information of movement and flow in the surgical region of interest, data from hyperspectral imaging allow for rapid identification of the bile duct and safe exclusion of any contaminant fluorescence from tissue not part of the biliary anatomy. Our experiments demonstrate the technical feasibility of using ICG-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy.

  18. Use of Stapling Devices for Safe Cholecystectomy in Acute Cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Odabasi, Mehmet; Muftuoglu, M. A. Tolga; Ozkan, Erkan; Eris, Cengiz; Yildiz, Mehmet Kamil; Gunay, Emre; Abuoglu, Haci Hasan; Tekesin, Kemal; Akbulut, Sami

    2014-01-01

    Many techniques are described for the ligation of a difficult cystic duct (CD). The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and safety of stapling of a difficult CD in acute cholecystitis using Endo-GIA. From January 2008 to June 2012, 1441 patients with cholelithiasis underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) at the Department of General Surgery, Haydarpasa Numune Education and Research Hospital. Of these, 19 (0.62%) were identified as having a difficult CD and were ligated using an Endo-GIA stapler. All patients were successfully treated with a laparoscopic approach. The length of hospital stay was 3.4 days. There were umbilical wound infections in 4 patients (21%). The length of follow-up ranged from 1.0 to 50.4 months. In conclusion, Endo-GIA is a safe and easy treatment method for patients with a dilated and difficult CD. The cystic artery should be isolated and ligated if possible before firing the Endo-GIA stapler. If isolation and stapling are not possible, fibrin sealant can be applied to avoid bleeding. The vascular Endo-GIA can be applied in a large CD, but for acute cholecystitis with an edematous CD, the Endo-GIA roticulator 4.8 or 3.5 stapler is preferred. PMID:25216423

  19. Use of stapling devices for safe cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Odabasi, Mehmet; Muftuoglu, M A Tolga; Ozkan, Erkan; Eris, Cengiz; Yildiz, Mehmet Kamil; Gunay, Emre; Abuoglu, Haci Hasan; Tekesin, Kemal; Akbulut, Sami

    2014-01-01

    Many techniques are described for the ligation of a difficult cystic duct (CD). The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and safety of stapling of a difficult CD in acute cholecystitis using Endo-GIA. From January 2008 to June 2012, 1441 patients with cholelithiasis underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) at the Department of General Surgery, Haydarpasa Numune Education and Research Hospital. Of these, 19 (0.62%) were identified as having a difficult CD and were ligated using an Endo-GIA stapler. All patients were successfully treated with a laparoscopic approach. The length of hospital stay was 3.4 days. There were umbilical wound infections in 4 patients (21%). The length of follow-up ranged from 1.0 to 50.4 months. In conclusion, Endo-GIA is a safe and easy treatment method for patients with a dilated and difficult CD. The cystic artery should be isolated and ligated if possible before firing the Endo-GIA stapler. If isolation and stapling are not possible, fibrin sealant can be applied to avoid bleeding. The vascular Endo-GIA can be applied in a large CD, but for acute cholecystitis with an edematous CD, the Endo-GIA roticulator 4.8 or 3.5 stapler is preferred.

  20. Cytokine and hormonal changes after cholecystectomy. Effect of ibuprofen pretreatment.

    PubMed Central

    Chambrier, C; Chassard, D; Bienvenu, J; Saudin, F; Paturel, B; Garrigue, C; Barbier, Y; Boulétreau, P

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Surgical stress induces hormonal and cytokine responses proportional to the extent of the injury. Therefore, the authors assessed the effect of ibuprofen pretreatment on metabolic and hormonal changes after surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Postoperative administration of cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor reduces cytokine production and nitrogen losses. METHODS: The authors studied the plasma hormones and metabolic and cytokines changes after perioperative ibuprofen administration in 22 patients undergoing cholecystectomy under inhalational anesthesia. Suppositories containing ibuprofen (500 mg) or placebo were administered 12 and 2 hours before surgery, and every 8 hours until the third postoperative day. Blood samples were collected 24 and 2 hours before surgery and 2, 4, 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours after surgery for glucose, C-reactive protein, leukocytes, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 determinations. RESULTS: In both groups, plasma cortisol levels remained elevated for 3 days, whereas plasma ACTH levels returned to the basal level at day 1. The ACTH (p < 0.01), cortisol (p < 0.01), and glucose changes (p < 0.001) were smaller in the ibuprofen group and their duration was shorter. The interleukin-6 levels increased gradually after skin incision until the sixth hour and were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the ibuprofen group. CONCLUSION: Ibuprofen pretreatment in perioperative course is able to reduce the endocrine response and cytokine release. Therefore, ibuprofen may be useful in decreasing the stress response in severely surgical patients. PMID:8757381

  1. Protocol for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Is it rocket science?

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Tomohide; Oike, Fumitaka; Furuyama, Hiroaki; Machimoto, Takafumi; Kadokawa, Yoshio; Hata, Toshiyuki; Kato, Shigeru; Yasukawa, Daiki; Aisu, Yuki; Sasaki, Maho; Kimura, Yusuke; Takamatsu, Yuichiro; Naito, Masato; Nakauchi, Masaya; Tanaka, Takahiro; Gunji, Daigo; Nakamura, Kiyokuni; Sato, Kiyoko; Mizuno, Masahiro; Iida, Taku; Yagi, Shintaro; Uemoto, Shinji; Yoshimura, Tsunehiro

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) does not require advanced techniques, and its performance has therefore rapidly spread worldwide. However, the rate of biliary injuries has not decreased. The concept of the critical view of safety (CVS) was first documented two decades ago. Unexpected injuries are principally due to misidentification of human factors. The surgeon’s assumption is a major cause of misidentification, and a high level of experience alone is not sufficient for successful LC. We herein describe tips and pitfalls of LC in detail and discuss various technical considerations. Finally, based on a review of important papers and our own experience, we summarize the following mandatory protocol for safe LC: (1) consideration that a high level of experience alone is not enough; (2) recognition of the plateau involving the common hepatic duct and hepatic hilum; (3) blunt dissection until CVS exposure; (4) Calot’s triangle clearance in the overhead view; (5) Calot’s triangle clearance in the view from underneath; (6) dissection of the posterior right side of Calot’s triangle; (7) removal of the gallbladder body; and (8) positive CVS exposure. We believe that adherence to this protocol will ensure successful and beneficial LC worldwide, even in patients with inflammatory changes and rare anatomies. PMID:28058010

  2. Analgesic Effect of Preoperative Pentazocine for Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Na; Wang, Lei; Gao, Yang; Zhou, Honglan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether preoperative pentazocine can reduce intraoperative hemodynamic changes and postoperative pain. Methods: Fifty patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized into two groups. Group P received intravenous 0.5 mg/kg pentazocine 10 min before surgery, and Group C received normal saline as a placebo. A standardized general anesthesia was conducted in all patients. Mean blood pressure (MBP), heart rate (HR), and visual analog scale (VAS) scores at various time points were recorded. The tramadol consumption during the study period was recorded. Results: Group P had lower VAS scores at two, four, and eight hours postoperatively compared with Group C. MBP and HR rose significantly because of pneumoperitoneum within Group C, and no significant changes were detected in MBP and HR within Group P. Tramadol doses given were statistically fewer in Group P. Conclusion: Preoperative intravenous pentazocine can decrease intraoperative hemodynamic changes and postoperative pain. PMID:28168126

  3. Indocyanine-green-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Kinshuk; Melvin, James; Chang, Shufang; Park, Kyoungjin; Yilmaz, Alper; Melvin, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. We encapsulate indocyanine green (ICG) in poly[(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-co-PEG] diblock (PLGA-PEG) microballoons for real-time fluorescence and hyperspectral imaging of biliary anatomy. ICG-loaded microballoons show superior fluorescence characteristics and slower degradation in comparison with pure ICG. The use of ICG-loaded microballoons in biliary imaging is demonstrated in both biliary-simulating phantoms and an ex vivo tissue model. The biliary-simulating phantoms are prepared by embedding ICG-loaded microballoons in agar gel and imaged by a fluorescence imaging module in a Da Vinci surgical robot. The ex vivo model consists of liver, gallbladder, common bile duct, and part of the duodenum freshly dissected from a domestic swine. After ICG-loaded microballoons are injected into the gallbladder, the biliary structure is imaged by both hyperspectral and fluorescence imaging modalities. Advanced spectral analysis and image processing algorithms are developed to classify the tissue types and identify the biliary anatomy. While fluorescence imaging provides dynamic information of movement and flow in the surgical region of interest, data from hyperspectral imaging allow for rapid identification of the bile duct and safe exclusion of any contaminant fluorescence from tissue not part of the biliary anatomy. Our experiments demonstrate the technical feasibility of using ICG-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy. PMID:23214186

  4. Obesity Increases Operative Time in Children Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Pandian, T K; Ubl, Daniel S; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Moir, Christopher R; Ishitani, Michael B

    2017-03-01

    Few studies have assessed the impact of obesity on laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in pediatric patients. Children who underwent LC were identified from the 2012 to 2013 American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pediatrics data. Patient characteristics, operative details, and outcomes were compared. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to identify predictors of increased operative time (OT) and duration of anesthesia (DOAn). In total, 1757 patients were identified. Due to low rates of obesity in children <9 years old, analyses were limited to those 9-17 (n = 1611, 43% obese). Among obese children, 80.6% were girls. A higher proportion of obese patients had diabetes (3.0% versus 1.0%, P < .01) and contaminated or dirty/infected wounds (15.1% versus 9.4%, P < .01). Complication rates were low. The most frequent indications for surgery were cholelithiasis/biliary colic (34.3%), chronic cholecystitis (26.9%), and biliary dyskinesia (18.2%). On multivariable analysis, obesity was an independent predictor of OT >90 (odds ratio [OR] 2.02; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.55-2.63), and DOAn >140 minutes (OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.42-2.43). Obesity is an independent risk factor for increased OT in children undergoing LC. Pediatric surgeons and anesthesiologists should be prepared for the technical and physiological challenges that obesity may pose in this patient population.

  5. Agenesis of gall bladder in laparoscopic cholecystectomy-A case report.

    PubMed

    Al-Hakkak, Samer Makki Mohamed

    2017-08-03

    Agenesis of gallbladder is a rare congenital anomaly of biliary tree that may be associated with other biliary and extra biliary congenital anomalies. A 43- year- old female presented with a 4 months history of upper abdominal pain associated with nausea and vomiting. It was associated with dyspeptic symptoms and become worse following ingestion of high-fat meal contents. Clinically, a differential of gall stone disease was considered. Ultrasonography of abdomen revealed a contracted gallbladder with multiple stones with normal wall thickness, so the fact of clinical diagnosis considering finding cholithiasis. She was submitted to laparoscopic exploration which revealed that the gall bladder was absent within gall bladder fossa. In this case, the differential of cholithiasis symptoms considered support by ultrasonography, symptomatic gall stones presented more than half of cases of gall bladder agenesis, Diagnosis of gall bladder disease usually done by ultrasound modality, it must be done by expert one. Awareness of this entity by clinicians, surgeons and radiologists are essential because many of these patients present with biliary symptoms and have unnecessary operations. Agenesis of gallbladder should be kept in mind whenever the gall bladder was improperly visualized in routine imaging methods. Ultrasonography operated dependent we must not depend on single one or even multiple done by the same person. Avoid a needless surgical exploration, which might be risky. Non-visualized gall bladder during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is challenging should not convert to open unless sure that the gall bladder was present. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Pancreatitis of biliary origin, optimal timing of cholecystectomy (PONCHO trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background After an initial attack of biliary pancreatitis, cholecystectomy minimizes the risk of recurrent biliary pancreatitis and other gallstone-related complications. Guidelines advocate performing cholecystectomy within 2 to 4 weeks after discharge for mild biliary pancreatitis. During this waiting period, the patient is at risk of recurrent biliary events. In current clinical practice, surgeons usually postpone cholecystectomy for 6 weeks due to a perceived risk of a more difficult dissection in the early days following pancreatitis and for logistical reasons. We hypothesize that early laparoscopic cholecystectomy minimizes the risk of recurrent biliary pancreatitis or other complications of gallstone disease in patients with mild biliary pancreatitis without increasing the difficulty of dissection and the surgical complication rate compared with interval laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods/Design PONCHO is a randomized controlled, parallel-group, assessor-blinded, superiority multicenter trial. Patients are randomly allocated to undergo early laparoscopic cholecystectomy, within 72 hours after randomization, or interval laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 25 to 30 days after randomization. During a 30-month period, 266 patients will be enrolled from 18 hospitals of the Dutch Pancreatitis Study Group. The primary endpoint is a composite endpoint of mortality and acute re-admissions for biliary events (that is, recurrent biliary pancreatitis, acute cholecystitis, symptomatic/obstructive choledocholithiasis requiring endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography including cholangitis (with/without endoscopic sphincterotomy), and uncomplicated biliary colics) occurring within 6 months following randomization. Secondary endpoints include the individual endpoints of the composite endpoint, surgical and other complications, technical difficulty of cholecystectomy and costs. Discussion The PONCHO trial is designed to show that early laparoscopic cholecystectomy

  7. Histological assessment of cholecystectomy specimens performed for symptomatic cholelithiasis: routine or selective?

    PubMed Central

    de Silva, WMM

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, all cholecystectomy specimens resected for symptomatic cholelithiasis were sent for histological evaluation. The objectives of such evaluation are to confirm the clinicoradiological diagnosis, identification of unsuspected findings including incidental gallbladder malignancy, audit and research purposes, and quality control issues. Currently, there is a developing trend to consider selective histological evaluation of surgical specimens removed for clinically benign disease. This article discusses the need for routine or selective histopathological evaluation of gallbladder specimens following cholecystectomy. Although several retrospective studies have suggested selective histological evaluation of cholecystectomy specimens performed for symptomatic cholelithiasis, the evidence is not adequate at present to recommend selective histological evaluation globally. However, it may be appropriate to consider selective histological evaluation on a regional basis in areas of extremely low incidence of gallbladder cancer only after unanimous agreement between the governing bodies of surgical and histopathological expertise. PMID:23838492

  8. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed under regional anesthesia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Gramatica, L; Brasesco, O E; Mercado Luna, A; Martinessi, V; Panebianco, G; Labaque, F; Rosin, D; Rosenthal, R J; Gramatica, L

    2002-03-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been successfully performed using epidural anesthesia. We evaluated our experience with this surgical approach in high-risk patients. We present the results of 29 patients with gallstones who, between 1998 and 1999, underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy with epidural anesthesia. All but 1 patient had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. All 29 surgeries were successfully completed via laparoscopy and with the patients under epidural anesthesia. No patient required endotracheal intubation during surgery or pain medication afterward. Postoperatively, 1 patient developed a wound infection and 3 patients developed urinary retention. At last follow-up (12 months postop), all patients were in good health. In this series, laparoscopic cholecystectomy was feasible under epidural anesthesia and it eliminated the need for postoperative analgesia. We believe that this approach should be considered for patients who require biliary surgery but who are not good candidates for general anesthesia due to cardiorespiratory problems.

  9. Laparoscopic drainage of abdominal wall abscess from spilled stones post-cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Vincent; Ram, Rishi

    2015-01-01

    We present a case on abdominal wall abscess from spilled stones post-cholecystectomy and describe laparoscopic drainage as our choice of management. Mr M is a 75-year-old male who presented on multiple occasions to the hospital with right upper quadrant pain and fever post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He also required multiple courses of antibiotics. Subsequent computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scan confirmed a number of retained stone with signs of chronic inflammation. Hence, 6 months after his initial laparoscopic cholecystectomy, he proceeded to an exploratory laparoscopy. We found an abscess cavity measuring 3 × 4 cm over the anterior abdominal wall. The cavity was de-roofed, drained and washed out. The tissue culture grew Klebsiella pneumoniae. Laparoscopic approach is optimal as the abscess cavity can be clearly identified, stones visualized and removed under direct vision. Patient does not require a laparotomy. PMID:26183574

  10. LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY VERSUS MINILAPAROTOMY IN CHOLELITHIASIS: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    CASTRO, Paula Marcela Vilela; AKERMAN, Denise; MUNHOZ, Carolina Brito; do SACRAMENTO, Iara; MAZZURANA, Mônica; ALVAREZ, Guines Antunes

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A introdução da técnica laparoscópica em 1985 foi um fator importante na colecistectomia por representar técnica menos invasiva, resultado estético melhor e menor risco cirúrgico comparado ao procedimento laparotômico. Aim To compare laparoscopic and minilaparotomy cholecystectomy in the treatment of cholelithiasis. Methods A systematic review of randomized clinical trials, which included studies from four databases (Medline, Embase, Cochrane and Lilacs) was performed. The keywords used were "Cholecystectomy", "Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic" and "Laparotomy". The methodological quality of primary studies was assessed by the Grade system. Results Ten randomized controlled trials were included, totaling 2043 patients, 1020 in Laparoscopy group and 1023 in Minilaparotomy group. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy dispensed shorter length of hospital stay (p<0.00001) and return to work activities (p<0.00001) compared to minilaparotomy, and the minilaparotomy shorter operative time (p<0.00001) compared to laparoscopy. Laparoscopy decrease the risk of postoperative pain (NNT=7) and infectious complications (NNT=50). There was no statistical difference between the two groups regarding conversion (p=0,06) and surgical reinterventions (p=0,27), gall bladder's perforation (p=0,98), incidence of common bile duct injury (p=1.00), surgical site infection (p=0,52) and paralytic ileus (p=0,22). Conclusion In cholelithiasis, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is associated with a lower incidence of postoperative pain and infectious complications, as well as shorter length of hospital stay and time to return to work activities compared to minilaparotomy cholecystectomy. PMID:25004295

  11. Routine histopathology of gallbladder after elective cholecystectomy for gallstones: waste of resources or a justified act?

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Faisal G; Memon, Ahmer A; Abro, Arshad H; Sasoli, Nazeer A; Ahmad, Lubna

    2013-07-08

    Selective approach for sending cholecystectomy specimens for histopathology results in missing discrete pathologies such as premalignant benign lesions such as porcelain gallbladder, carcinoma-in-situ, and early carcinomas. To avoid such blunders therefore, every cholecystectomy specimen should be routinely examined histologically. Unfortunately, the practice of discarding gallbladder specimen is standard in most tertiary care hospitals of Pakistan including the primary investigators' own institution. This study was conducted to assess the feasibility or otherwise of performing histopathology in every specimen of gallbladder. This cohort study included 220 patients with gallstones for cholecystectomy. All cases with known secondaries from gallbladder, local invasion from other viscera, traumatic rupture of gallbladder, gross malignancy of gallbladder found during surgery was excluded from the study. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed in majority of cases except in those cases where anatomical distortion and dense adhesions prevented laparoscopy. All gallbladder specimens were sent for histopathology, irrespective of their gross appearance. Over a period of two years, 220 patients with symptomatic gallstones were admitted for cholecystectomy. Most of the patients were females (88%). Ninety two per cent patients presented with upper abdominal pain of varying duration. All specimens were sent for histopathology. Two hundred and three of the specimens showed evidence chronic cholecystitis, 7 acute cholecystitis with mucocele, 3 acute cholecystitis with empyema and one chronic cholecystitis associated with poly. Six gallbladders (2.8%) showed adenocarcinoma of varying differentiation along with cholelithiasis. The histopathological spectrum of gallbladder is extremely variable. Incidental diagnosis of carcinoma gall bladder is not rare; if the protocol of routine histopathology of all gallbladder specimens is not followed, subclinical malignancies would fail to

  12. A 21-year analysis of stage I gallbladder carcinoma: is cholecystectomy alone adequate?

    PubMed Central

    Hari, Danielle M; Howard, J Harrison; Leung, Anna M; Chui, Connie G; Sim, Myung-Shin; Bilchik, Anton J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is a rare disease that is often diagnosed incidentally in its early stages. Simple cholecystectomy is considered the standard treatment for stage I GBC. This study was conducted in a large cohort of patients with stage I GBC to test the hypothesis that the extent of surgery affects survival. Methods The National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database was queried to identify patients in whom microscopically confirmed, localized (stage I) GBC was diagnosed between 1988 and 2008. Surgical treatment was categorized as cholecystectomy alone, cholecystectomy with lymph node dissection (C + LN) or radical cholecystectomy (RC). Age, gender, race, ethnicity, T1 sub-stage [T1a, T1b, T1NOS (T1 not otherwise specified)], radiation treatment, extent of surgery, cause of death and survival were assessed by log-rank and Cox's regression analyses. Results Of 2788 patients with localized GBC, 1115 (40.0%) had pathologically confirmed T1a, T1b or T1NOS cancer. At a median follow-up of 22 months, 288 (25.8%) had died of GBC. Five-year survival rates associated with cholecystectomy, C + LN and RC were 50%, 70% and 79%, respectively (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that surgical treatment and younger age were predictive of improved disease-specific survival (P < 0.001), whereas radiation therapy portended worse survival (P = 0.013). Conclusions In the largest series of patients with stage I GBC to be reported, survival was significantly impacted by the extent of surgery (LN dissection and RC). Cholecystectomy alone is inadequate in stage I GBC and its use as standard treatment should be reconsidered. PMID:23216778

  13. Are we meeting the British Society of Gastroenterology guidelines for cholecystectomy post-gallstone pancreatitis?

    PubMed

    Creedon, Lee R; Neophytou, Chris; Leeder, Paul C; Awan, Altaf K

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to audit the current management of patients suffering with gallstone pancreatitis (GSP) at a university teaching hospital for compliance with the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) guidelines regarding cholecystectomy post-GSP. Data were collected on all patients identified via the hospital coding department that presented with GSP between January 2011 and November 2013. Patients with alcoholic pancreatitis were excluded. The primary outcome was the length of time in days from diagnosis of GSP to cholecystectomy. Secondary outcomes included readmission with gallstone-related disease prior to definitive management and admitting speciality. One hundred and fifty-eight patients were identified with a presentation of GSP during the study period. Thirty-nine patients were treated conservatively. One hundred and six patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy a median (interquartile range) interval of 33.5 days (64 days) post-admission. Patients with a severe attack as classified by the Glasgow severity score (n = 16) waited a median of 79.5 days (71.5) for cholecystectomy. Only 32% (n = 34) of patients with mild disease underwent cholecystectomy during the index admission or within 2 weeks. When grouped by admitting speciality, patients admitted initially under hepatobiliary surgery waited significantly fewer days for definitive treatment compared with other specialities (P < 0.0001). Twenty-one patients (19.8%) re-presented with gallstone-related pathology prior to undergoing cholecystectomy. Only 32.1% were treated as per BSG guidelines. About 19.8% (n = 21) of the patients suffered further morbidity as a result of a delayed operation and there is a clear difference between admitting speciality and the median time to operation. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  14. Single-Port Robotic Cholecystectomy in Pediatric Patients: Single Institution Experience.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Velderrain, Armando; Alkhoury, Fuad

    2017-04-01

    Modifications to conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy are aimed to decrease abdominal pain and improve cosmetic results. Single-port robotic cholecystectomy is a safe and feasible approach that has been reported in adults, though reports are limited in children. This study aims to report our experience with single-port robotic cholecystectomy in children, and to evaluate the safety, feasibility, and outcomes of this approach. After single-port robotic approach was available at our institution, we prospectively followed our patients who underwent a single-port robotic cholecystectomy from March 2013 to May 2015 in our children's hospital. There were 14 patients [female 11 (79%) versus male 3 (21%)], the average age was 12.20 ± 4.97 years, with a mean body mass index of 28.01 ± 8.57 m/kg(2). Of the 14 patients, 4 (29%) had cholelithiasis with choledocolithiasis and had undergone an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography before the operation, 6 (43%) had symptomatic cholelithiasis, and 4 (28%) had acute cholecystitis. The median operative room time was 125 minutes (range 60-202), the median time of operation was 77.5 minutes (range 64-169), the median estimated blood loss was 2 mL (range 2-25), and a median length of stay was 1 day (range 0-2). There were no conversions to another approach. The median follow-up was 7 months (range 3-22). One patient (7%) developed an umbilical port site seroma, which was managed conservatively, no other complications occurred. Single-port robotic cholecystectomy is a feasible and safe approach for cholecystectomy in the pediatric population. More studies are required to compare it to different approaches.

  15. Long-term risk of pancreatitis and diabetes after cholecystectomy in patients with cholelithiasis but no pancreatitis history: a 13-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Shian; Lin, Cheng-Li; Hsu, Yao-Chun; Lee, Hui-Ming; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-09-01

    Patients with biliary pancreatitis are suggested to undergo cholecystectomy to prevent the recurrence of pancreatitis. However, it remains controversial whether cholecystectomy is associated with reduced risks of pancreatitis and diabetes in patients with cholelithiasis and no history of pancreatitis. From Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified the following cohorts and analyzed the long-term risks of pancreatitis and diabetes in each cohort: 1) cholecystectomy cohort: cholelithiasis patients who had no history of pancreatitis and diabetes and underwent cholecystectomy; and 2) comparison cohort: cholelithiasis patients who had no history of pancreatitis and diabetes and did not undergo cholecystectomy. The cholecystectomy group and the comparison group had similar distributions of age, sex, and comorbidities, except for hyperlipidemia. The proportion of patients in the cholecystectomy group who underwent endoscopic cholangiographic procedures was higher than that in the comparison group. Cholecystectomy was associated with a reduced risk of pancreatitis (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36-0.68). Age-specific analyses showed that pancreatitis risk was decreased in patients younger than 50 and older than 65years. Both men and women exhibited reduced risks of pancreatitis after cholecystectomy. However, cholecystectomy was not associated with changes in the risk for diabetes. Cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis is associated with a reduced risk of pancreatitis, but not of diabetes, in patients without previous history of pancreatitis and diabetes. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Intraluminal Bowel Erosion: A Rare Complication of Retained Gallstones after Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    McQuay, Nathaniel

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis and cholelithiasis is one of the most common operations performed in the United States. Inadvertent perforation and spillage of gallbladder contents are not uncommon. The potential impact of subsequent retained gallstones is understated. We present the case of an intraperitoneal gallstone retained from a previous cholecystectomy eroding into the bowel and leading to intraluminal mechanical bowel obstruction requiring operative intervention. This case illustrates the potential risks of retained gallstones and reinforces the need to diligently collect any dropped stones at the time of initial operation. PMID:27703833

  17. Retroperitoneal abscess with retained gall-stones as a late complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Kamiński, Mateusz; Nowicki, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the golden standard, considering treatment of cholelithiasis. During the laparoscopic procedure one may often observe damage to the gall-bladder wall, as well as presence of gall-stones in the peritoneal cavity, as compared to classical surgery. These gall-stones may be associated with the occurrence of various complications following surgery. The study presented a rare case of a retroperitoneal abscess, as a consequence of retained gall-stones, in a female patient who was subject to laparoscopic cholecystectomy two years earlier.

  18. Chemical composition of surgical smoke formed in the abdominal cavity during laparoscopic cholecystectomy--assessment of the risk to the patient.

    PubMed

    Dobrogowski, Miłosz; Wesołowski, Wiktor; Kucharska, Małgorzata; Sapota, Andrzej; Pomorski, Lech Sylwester

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the exposure of patients to organic substances produced and identified in surgical smoke formed in the abdominal cavity during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Identification of these substances in surgical smoke was performed by the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with selective ion monitoring (SIM). The selected biomarkers of exposure to surgical smoke included benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene. Their concentrations in the urine samples collected from each patient before and after the surgery were determined by SPME-GC/MS. Qualitative analysis of the smoke produced during laparoscopic procedures revealed the presence of a wide variety of potentially toxic chemicals such as benzene, toluene, xylene, dioxins and other substances. The average concentrations of benzene and toluene in the urine of the patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, in contrast to the other determined compounds, were significantly higher after the surgery than before it, which indicates that they were absorbed. The source of the compounds produced in the abdominal cavity during the surgery is tissue pyrolysis in the presence of carbon dioxide atmosphere. All patients undergoing laparoscopic procedures are at risk of absorbing and excreting smoke by-products. Exposure of the patient to emerging chemical compounds is usually a one-time and short-term incident, yet concentrations of benzene and toluene found in the urine were significantly higher after the surgery than before it.

  19. Impact of Fellowship During Single-Incision Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Rey Jesús; Arad, Jonathan Kirsch; Kosanovic, Radomir; Lamoureux, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Minimally invasive surgery fellowship programs have been created in response to advancements in technology and patient's demands. Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) is a technique that has been shown to be safe and feasible, but this appears to be the case only for experienced surgeons. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of minimally invasive surgery fellow participation during SILC. Methods: We reviewed data from our experience with SILC during 3 years. The cases were divided in two groups: group 1 comprised procedures performed by the main attending without the presence of the fellow, and group 2 comprised procedures performed with the fellow present during the operation. Demographic characteristics, comorbidities, indication for surgery, total surgical time, hospital length of stay, and complications were evaluated. Results: The cohort included 229 patients: 142 (62%) were included in group 1 and 87 (38%) in group 2. No differences were found in demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and indication for surgery between groups. The total surgical time was 34.4 ± 11.4 minutes for group 1 and 46.8 ± 16.0 minutes for group 2 (P < .001). The hospital length of stay was 0.89 ± 0.32 days for group 1 and 1.01 ± 0.40 days for group 2 (P = .027). No intraoperative complications were seen in either group. There were 3 postoperative complications (2.1%) in group 1 and none in group 2 (P = .172). Conclusion: Adoption of SILC during an established fellowship program is safe and feasible. A longer surgical time is expected during the teaching process. PMID:24809141

  20. Incidental gallbladder cancer diagnosed during and after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Tetsuya; Arima, Yasuo; Yokomuro, Shigeki; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Mamada, Yasuhiro; Nomura, Tsutomu; Taniai, Nobuhiko; Aimoto, Takayuki; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Kawahigashi, Yutaka; Uchida, Eiji; Akimaru, Koho; Tajiri, Takashi

    2006-06-01

    With the increasingly widespread acceptance of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), the number of cases of incidental gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) has increased; however, management of incidental GBC is a difficult issue in the absence of established guidelines. The present study aims to evaluate the treatment of patients with incidental GBC diagnosed with LC. We performed a 14-year review of 10 patients with GBC discovered with LC. From April 1991 through March 2004, we performed LC for 1,195 patients at Nippon Medical School Mai