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  1. Support and assessment for fall emergency referrals (SAFER 2) research protocol: cluster randomised trial of the clinical and cost effectiveness of new protocols for emergency ambulance paramedics to assess and refer to appropriate community-based care.

    PubMed

    Snooks, Helen; Anthony, Rebecca; Chatters, Robin; Cheung, Wai-Yee; Dale, Jeremy; Donohoe, Rachael; Gaze, Sarah; Halter, Mary; Koniotou, Marina; Logan, Phillippa; Lyons, Ronan; Mason, Suzanne; Nicholl, Jon; Phillips, Ceri; Phillips, Judith; Russell, Ian; Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Wani, Mushtaq; Watkins, Alan; Whitfield, Richard; Wilson, Lynsey

    2012-01-01

    Emergency calls to ambulance services are frequent for older people who have fallen, but ambulance crews often leave patients at the scene without ongoing care. Evidence shows that when left at home with no further support older people often experience subsequent falls which result in injury and emergency-department attendances. SAFER 2 is an evaluation of a new clinical protocol which allows paramedics to assess and refer older people who have fallen, and do not need hospital care, to community-based falls services. In this protocol paper, we report methods and progress during trial implementation. SAFER 2 is recruiting patients through three ambulance services. A successful trial will provide robust evidence about the value of this new model of care, and enable ambulance services to use resources efficiently. Pragmatic cluster randomised trial. We randomly allocated 25 participating ambulance stations (clusters) in three services to intervention or control group. Intervention paramedics received training and clinical protocols for assessing and referring older people who have fallen to community-based falls services when appropriate, while control paramedics deliver care as usual. Patients are eligible for the trial if they are aged 65 or over; resident in a participating falls service catchment area; and attended by a trial paramedic following an emergency call coded as a fall without priority symptoms. The principal outcome is the rate of further emergency contacts (or death), for any cause and for falls. Secondary outcomes include further falls, health-related quality of life, 'fear of falling', patient satisfaction reported by participants through postal questionnaires at 1 and 6 months, and quality and pathways of care at the index incident. We shall compare National Health Service (NHS) and patient/carer costs between intervention and control groups and estimate quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained from the intervention and thus incremental cost per

  2. Support and Assessment for Fall Emergency Referrals (SAFER 1) trial protocol. Computerised on-scene decision support for emergency ambulance staff to assess and plan care for older people who have fallen: evaluation of costs and benefits using a pragmatic cluster randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Snooks, Helen; Cheung, Wai-Yee; Close, Jacqueline; Dale, Jeremy; Gaze, Sarah; Humphreys, Ioan; Lyons, Ronan; Mason, Suzanne; Merali, Yasmin; Peconi, Julie; Phillips, Ceri; Phillips, Judith; Roberts, Stephen; Russell, Ian; Sánchez, Antonio; Wani, Mushtaq; Wells, Bridget; Whitfield, Richard

    2010-01-26

    Many emergency ambulance calls are for older people who have fallen. As half of them are left at home, a community-based response may often be more appropriate than hospital attendance. The SAFER 1 trial will assess the costs and benefits of a new healthcare technology--hand-held computers with computerised clinical decision support (CCDS) software--to help paramedics decide who needs hospital attendance, and who can be safely left at home with referral to community falls services. Pragmatic cluster randomised trial with a qualitative component. We shall allocate 72 paramedics ('clusters') at random between receiving the intervention and a control group delivering care as usual, of whom we expect 60 to complete the trial.Patients are eligible if they are aged 65 or older, live in the study area but not in residential care, and are attended by a study paramedic following an emergency call for a fall. Seven to 10 days after the index fall we shall offer patients the opportunity to opt out of further follow up. Continuing participants will receive questionnaires after one and 6 months, and we shall monitor their routine clinical data for 6 months. We shall interview 20 of these patients in depth. We shall conduct focus groups or semi-structured interviews with paramedics and other stakeholders.The primary outcome is the interval to the first subsequent reported fall (or death). We shall analyse this and other measures of outcome, process and cost by 'intention to treat'. We shall analyse qualitative data thematically. Since the SAFER 1 trial received funding in August 2006, implementation has come to terms with ambulance service reorganisation and a new national electronic patient record in England. In response to these hurdles the research team has adapted the research design, including aspects of the intervention, to meet the needs of the ambulance services.In conclusion this complex emergency care trial will provide rigorous evidence on the clinical and cost

  3. Support and Assessment for Fall Emergency Referrals (SAFER 1) trial protocol. Computerised on-scene decision support for emergency ambulance staff to assess and plan care for older people who have fallen: evaluation of costs and benefits using a pragmatic cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many emergency ambulance calls are for older people who have fallen. As half of them are left at home, a community-based response may often be more appropriate than hospital attendance. The SAFER 1 trial will assess the costs and benefits of a new healthcare technology - hand-held computers with computerised clinical decision support (CCDS) software - to help paramedics decide who needs hospital attendance, and who can be safely left at home with referral to community falls services. Methods/Design Pragmatic cluster randomised trial with a qualitative component. We shall allocate 72 paramedics ('clusters') at random between receiving the intervention and a control group delivering care as usual, of whom we expect 60 to complete the trial. Patients are eligible if they are aged 65 or older, live in the study area but not in residential care, and are attended by a study paramedic following an emergency call for a fall. Seven to 10 days after the index fall we shall offer patients the opportunity to opt out of further follow up. Continuing participants will receive questionnaires after one and 6 months, and we shall monitor their routine clinical data for 6 months. We shall interview 20 of these patients in depth. We shall conduct focus groups or semi-structured interviews with paramedics and other stakeholders. The primary outcome is the interval to the first subsequent reported fall (or death). We shall analyse this and other measures of outcome, process and cost by 'intention to treat'. We shall analyse qualitative data thematically. Discussion Since the SAFER 1 trial received funding in August 2006, implementation has come to terms with ambulance service reorganisation and a new national electronic patient record in England. In response to these hurdles the research team has adapted the research design, including aspects of the intervention, to meet the needs of the ambulance services. In conclusion this complex emergency care trial will provide

  4. Support and Assessment for Fall Emergency Referrals (SAFER) 2: a cluster randomised trial and systematic review of clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new protocols for emergency ambulance paramedics to assess older people following a fall with referral to community-based care when appropriate.

    PubMed

    Snooks, Helen A; Anthony, Rebecca; Chatters, Robin; Dale, Jeremy; Fothergill, Rachael; Gaze, Sarah; Halter, Mary; Humphreys, Ioan; Koniotou, Marina; Logan, Phillipa; Lyons, Ronan; Mason, Suzanne; Nicholl, Jon; Peconi, Julie; Phillips, Ceri; Phillips, Judith; Porter, Alison; Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Smith, Graham; Toghill, Alun; Wani, Mushtaq; Watkins, Alan; Whitfield, Richard; Wilson, Lynsey; Russell, Ian T

    2017-03-01

    Emergency calls are frequently made to ambulance services for older people who have fallen, but ambulance crews often leave patients at the scene without any ongoing care. We evaluated a new clinical protocol which allowed paramedics to assess older people who had fallen and, if appropriate, refer them to community-based falls services. To compare outcomes, processes and costs of care between intervention and control groups; and to understand factors which facilitate or hinder use. Cluster randomised controlled trial. Participating paramedics at three ambulance services in England and Wales were based at stations randomised to intervention or control arms. Participants were aged 65 years and over, attended by a study paramedic for a fall-related emergency service call, and resident in the trial catchment areas. Intervention paramedics received a clinical protocol with referral pathway, training and support to change practice. Control paramedics continued practice as normal. The primary outcome comprised subsequent emergency health-care contacts (emergency admissions, emergency department attendances, emergency service calls) or death at 1 month and 6 months. Secondary outcomes included pathway of care, ambulance service operational indicators, self-reported outcomes and costs of care. Those assessing outcomes remained blinded to group allocation. Across sites, 3073 eligible patients attended by 105 paramedics from 14 ambulance stations were randomly allocated to the intervention group, and 2841 eligible patients attended by 110 paramedics from 11 stations were randomly allocated to the control group. After excluding dissenting and unmatched patients, 2391 intervention group patients and 2264 control group patients were included in primary outcome analyses. We did not find an effect on our overall primary outcome at 1 month or 6 months. However, further emergency service calls were reduced at both 1 month and 6 months; a smaller proportion of patients had made

  5. Police referrals at the psychiatric emergency service in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jen-Pang; Wu, Chia-Yi; Chiu, Chih-Chiang; Yang, Tsu-Hui; Liu, Tzong-Hsien; Chou, Pesus

    2015-12-01

    The police are the frontline workers in crisis situations involving patients with severe mental illness and act as a primary referral source for psychiatric emergency services (PES) in the community. The aims of this study were to investigate the distribution and characteristics of police referral among psychiatric patients in Taiwan. The study cohort consisted of patients who visited the PES of Taipei City Psychiatric Center from January 2009 to December 2010. The associations between the factors of demographics, clinical characteristics, and psychiatric service utilization and police referral were evaluated. Among the 7656 psychiatric emergency visits, 3029 (39.6%) were referred by the police. These patients referred by police were more likely to be male and aged between 30 to 49 years. Clinical factors related to police referrals including a higher triage assessment level, chief problems included violence, disturbance, substance use, less anxiety, and a diagnosis of unspecified psychosis. The triage assessment level and chief problems assessed by nurses were major predictors. These patients tended to be referred from the catchment area and during the nighttime shift, were discharged during the daytime shift, and stayed longer in the PES. Disposition arrangements such as discharge against medical advice and involuntary admission were also associated with police referrals. Patients referred by the police to the PES were those with more severe psychiatric problems and illnesses assessed by psychiatric nurses and psychiatrists. They tended to have more complex service utilization at the PES. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Emerging Partnerships: Safer Communities, Transformed Offenders, Shared Educational Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockett, E. Anne; Gibbons, Virginia M.

    Applying the philosophy that strategic partnerships are the most effective way to share knowledge, skills, and resources, emerging community corrections adult education programs and existing community adult education service providers have begun to forge critical linkages. In Texas, the law now requires assessment of the educational level of all…

  7. Ambulance referral for emergency obstetric care in remote settings.

    PubMed

    Tsegaye, Ademe; Somigliana, Edgardo; Alemayehu, Tadesse; Calia, Federico; Maroli, Massimo; Barban, Paola; Manenti, Fabio; Putoto, Giovanni; Accorsi, Sandro

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the functionality of an ambulance service dedicated to emergency obstetric care (EmOC) that referred pregnant women to health centers for delivery assistance or to a hospital for the management of obstetric complications. A retrospective study investigated an ambulance referral system for EmOC in a rural area of Ethiopia between July 1 and December 31, 2013. The service was available 24h a day and was free of charge. Women requesting referral were transported to nearby health centers. Assistance was provided locally for uncomplicated deliveries. Women with obstetric complications were referred from health centers to a hospital. A total of 528 ambulance referrals were recorded. The majority of patients (314 [59.5%]) were transported from villages to health centers. The remaining individuals were brought to a hospital, having been referred from health centers (179 [33.9%]) or were referred directly from villages owing to hospital proximity (35 [6.6%]). Of the 179 patients referred to the hospital from health centers, 84 (46.9%) were diagnosed with major direct obstetric complications. No maternal deaths were recorded among patients using the ambulance service. The cost of the ambulance service was US$ 18.47 per referred patient. An ambulance service dedicated to EmOC that interconnected health centers and a hospital facilitated referrals and better utilized local resources. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Different causes of referral to ophthalmology emergency room

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Alireza Keshtkar; Bozorgui, Shima; Shahverdi, Nooshin; Ameri, Ahmad; Akbari, Mohammad Reza; Salmasian, Hojat

    2012-01-01

    Background: Eye-related complaints compose approximately 1–6% of complaints of patients referring to general emergency ward around the world. Eye injuries are the most common cause of referral to eye emergency ward. To understand the impact of eye injuries in Iran and to plan preventive strategies, it is important to understand the complete magnitude of the problem with regard to true population-based data and standard reproducible definitions. Aim: The main goal of this study was to identify the major causes of referrals to eye emergency ward in patients with eye-related complaints in an eye referral Hospital in Iran. Settings and Design: In a cross-sectional study, 3150 patients who referred to Farabi Hospital emergency ward, Tehran, Iran, from January to December 2007 were included in the study and their detailed information were recorded. Materials and Methods: The patients’ demographic data, medical history and final diagnosis were recorded in a questionnaire. Results: The mean age of patients was 33.2±16.8 years and 2380 patients (75.6%) were males. While 299 patients (9.5%) were referred for non-urgent reasons, work-related injuries were the most common cause of referral (955 patients; 30.3%). In patients referred due to trauma (1950 patients), work-related injuries occurred in 955 patients (49%) and occurred accidentally (by chance) in 819 patients (42%). The majority of patients referred with traumatic injuries were males (1708 patients; 87.6% versus 242 patients; 12.4%). The most common etiologies of eye trauma (1950 patients) were metal filings (814 patients; 41.8%), blunt trauma (338 patients; 17.3%), fireworks (236 patients; 12.1%) and sharp objects (222 patients; 11.4%). Globe injury was diagnosed in 1865 patients (95.7%) of trauma cases. In patients referred due to non-traumatic reason (1200 patients), eye infection occurred in 482 patients (40.2%) and 299 patients (24.9%) were referred for non-urgent reasons. There was little difference between

  9. Reliability of ophthalmic accident and emergency referrals: a new role for the emergency nurse practitioner?

    PubMed Central

    Ezra, D; Mellington, F; Cugnoni, H; Westcott, M

    2005-01-01

    Background and objectives: Annual attendances at the accident and emergency (A&E) department of St Bartholomew's and The Royal London NHS Trust exceed 100 000 people of which 6% are ophthalmic. This study evaluated the accuracy of eye referrals from A&E senior house officers (SHOs) and emergency nurse practitioners (ENPs) and the impact any inaccuracies may have had on out of hours work. Methods: Over a four week period a record of all referrals from the A&E department was made. The doctor receiving the referral made a note of clinical variables as reported by the referring clinician. When the patient was subsequently reviewed by an ophthalmologist, a record was again made of these findings. Any discrepancies were recorded. Results: A total of 67 patients were recruited. ENPs were found to be consistently more accurate than SHOs in every aspect of the assessment, most notably in visual acuity (p = 0.0029), and provisional diagnosis (p = 0.012). Furthermore, had the examination findings been accurate, 58% of all SHO referrals seen after hours would have been triaged to the next available clinic but only 10% of ENP referrals could have been seen at the next clinic session (p = 0.027). Conclusion: This study found ENPs to be more accurate than A&E SHOs in history taking, recording visual acuity, describing ocular anatomy, and making provisional diagnoses. A significant reduction in out of hours ophthalmic workload may be achieved in the authors' unit if ENPs were to see all eye emergencies. PMID:16189030

  10. Internet referrals for adolescent violence prevention: an innovative mechanism for inner-city emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Walton, Maureen; Cunningham, Rebecca; Xue, Yange; Trowbridge, Matthew; Zimmerman, Marc; Maio, Ronald F

    2008-09-01

    Internet referrals provide a potential solution to limited staff time in emergency departments for health education. One hundred fifteen adolescents were surveyed and referred to a violence prevention website; 22% logged on the website. Although this study bears replication, Internet referral may be a low-intensity intervention that could compliment other violence prevention strategies among adolescents.

  11. Emergency room (ER) referrals and health insurance in the United States.

    PubMed

    Amini, Reza; Swan, James; Yang, Philip; Ingman, Stanley Rusk; Turner, Keith; Sahaf, Robab

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to determine how various health insurance policies affect the rate of emergency room (ER) referrals in the United States. The secondary data, gathered in National Health Measurement Study (NHMS) in 2008 and 2010, was used. The authors identify the relationships between health insurance and ER referrals by using zero-inflated binomial and zero-inflated Poisson regression. About 17% (2008) and 20% (2010) of the respondents had one or more ER referrals in the 2 years; those who were under coverage of governmental health insurance are more likely to refer ER than uninsured group. The differences in ER referrals that ended with hospital admission across different insurance policies are not significant. Health insurance is a remarkable factor in ER referrals; the coverage of health insurance plans can affect consuming the services provided in ER. Governmental insurance plans can increase ER referrals.

  12. Understanding the Impact of Residents' Interpersonal Relationships During Emergency Department Referrals and Consultations

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Teresa; Sabir, Kameron; Sanhan, Sarila; Sherbino, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Background Communicating with colleagues is a key physician competency. Yet few studies have sought to uncover the complex nature of relationships between referring and consulting physicians, which may be affected by the inherent relationships between the participants. Objective Our study examines themes identified from discussions about communications and the role of relationships during the referral-consultation process. Methods From March to September 2010, 30 residents (10 emergency medicine, 10 general surgery, 10 internal medicine) were interviewed using a semistructured focus group protocol. Two investigators independently reviewed the transcripts using inductive methods and grounded theory to generate themes (using codes for ease of analysis) until saturation was reached. Disagreements were resolved by consensus, yielding an inventory of themes and subthemes. Measures for ensuring trustworthiness of the analysis included generating an audit trail and external auditing of the material by investigators not involved with the initial analysis. Results Two main relationship-related themes affected the referral-consultation process: familiarity and trust. Various subthemes were further delineated and studied in the context of pertinent literature. Conclusions Relationships between physicians have a powerful influence on the emergency department referral-consultation dynamic. The emergency department referral-consultation may be significantly altered by the familiarity and perceived trustworthiness of the referring and consulting physicians. Our proposed framework may further inform and improve instructional methods for teaching interpersonal communication. Most importantly, it may help junior learners understand inherent difficulties they may encounter during the referral process between emergency and consulting physicians. PMID:24455004

  13. Understanding the impact of residents' interpersonal relationships during emergency department referrals and consultations.

    PubMed

    Chan, Teresa; Sabir, Kameron; Sanhan, Sarila; Sherbino, Jonathan

    2013-12-01

    Communicating with colleagues is a key physician competency. Yet few studies have sought to uncover the complex nature of relationships between referring and consulting physicians, which may be affected by the inherent relationships between the participants. Our study examines themes identified from discussions about communications and the role of relationships during the referral-consultation process. From March to September 2010, 30 residents (10 emergency medicine, 10 general surgery, 10 internal medicine) were interviewed using a semistructured focus group protocol. Two investigators independently reviewed the transcripts using inductive methods and grounded theory to generate themes (using codes for ease of analysis) until saturation was reached. Disagreements were resolved by consensus, yielding an inventory of themes and subthemes. Measures for ensuring trustworthiness of the analysis included generating an audit trail and external auditing of the material by investigators not involved with the initial analysis. Two main relationship-related themes affected the referral-consultation process: familiarity and trust. Various subthemes were further delineated and studied in the context of pertinent literature. Relationships between physicians have a powerful influence on the emergency department referral-consultation dynamic. The emergency department referral-consultation may be significantly altered by the familiarity and perceived trustworthiness of the referring and consulting physicians. Our proposed framework may further inform and improve instructional methods for teaching interpersonal communication. Most importantly, it may help junior learners understand inherent difficulties they may encounter during the referral process between emergency and consulting physicians.

  14. Facilitating anticoagulation for safer transitions: preliminary outcomes from an emergency department deep vein thrombosis discharge program.

    PubMed

    Falconieri, Laura; Thomson, Lynda; Oettinger, Glenn; Pugliese, Robert; Palladino, Michael; Galanis, Taki; Merli, Geno

    2014-10-01

    Patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with an acute uncomplicated deep vein thrombosis (DVT) may be eligible for outpatient treatment. This study aims to establish a transition of care program in the ED for patients with DVT presenting with an acute uncomplicated DVT. This article specifies the transition of care program for DVT patients in the ED. Data was collected on patients admitted and discharged from the ED who had an acute DVT both prior to the initiation of facilitating anticoagulation for safer transitions (FAST) and after initiation of FAST. Follow-up phone calls were made to patients discharged from the ED after the initiation of FAST, and data were collected on follow-up appointments, anticoagulation adherence, readmission rates, and patient satisfaction. The FAST program has been successfully implemented. By the 30-day follow-up phone call, 100% of patients had attended a follow-up appointment. The average time to the follow-up appointment post-discharge was 4.4 days (range, 1-7 days). None of the patients at the 3- to 5-day follow-up phone call and 30-day phone call had any issues taking their anticoagulant, and none reported side effects of significant bleeding. One patient was re-admitted after discharge with a pulmonary embolism. Patient satisfaction has also been very high with the program, with all patients indicating at the 30-day phone call that they would recommend the program to a friend or family member. The educational components of this program also improved the discharge process for this population compared with patients discharged prior to the initiation of FAST. The FAST program is an example of a successful transition-of-care program for discharging DVT patients from the ED. Reassessment and improvements to the program are underway to ensure it remains current, sustainable, and provider friendly.

  15. Quality improvement in emergency obstetric referrals: qualitative study of provider perspectives in Assin North district, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Afari, Henrietta; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Michaelis, Annie; Barker, Pierre; Sodzi-Tettey, Sodzi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe healthcare worker (HCW)-identified system-based bottlenecks and the value of local engagement in designing strategies to improve referral processes related to emergency obstetric care in rural Ghana. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews of participants to obtain provider narratives. Setting Referral systems in obstetrics in Assin North Municipal Assembly, a rural district in Ghana. This included one district hospital, six health centres and four local health posts. This work was embedded in an ongoing quality improvement project in the district addressing barriers to existing referral protocols to lessen delays. Participants 18 HCWs (8 midwives, 4 community health officers, 3 medical assistants, 2 emergency room nurses, 1 doctor) at different facility levels within the district. Results We identified important gaps in referral processes in Assin North, with the most commonly noted including recognising danger signs, alerting receiving units, accompanying critically ill patients, documenting referral cases and giving and obtaining feedback on referred cases. Main root causes identified by providers were in four domains: (1) transportation, (2) communication, (3) clinical skills and management and (4) standards of care and monitoring, and suggested interventions that target these barriers. Mapping these challenges allowed for better understanding of next steps for developing comprehensive, evidence-based solutions to identified referral gaps within the district. Conclusions Providers are an important source of information on local referral delays and in the development of approaches to improvement responsive to these gaps. Better engagement of HCWs can help to identify and evaluate high-impact holistic interventions to address faulty referral systems which result in poor maternal outcomes in resource-poor settings. These perspectives need to be integrated with patient and community perspectives. PMID:24833695

  16. A multifaceted approach to improving the quality of ENT Emergency Clinic referrals

    PubMed Central

    Swords, Chloe; Leach, Laura; Kasbekar, Anand; Jani, Piyush

    2017-01-01

    It is imperative that primary care referrals are directed to the appropriate secondary care service. Patients presenting to a primary care physician with ENT conditions may require review in an Emergency Clinic. The latter clinics provide patients with rapid access to secondary care, for urgent, yet non-life-threatening conditions. In our department, we noticed that patients with conditions inappropriate to the capabilities of the Clinic were being booked in or reviewed too late; thus causing wasted journeys for the patient. We conducted a Quality Improvement Project to improve the efficiency of the referral process. A prospective evaluation of referrals was collected continuously over a two-month period. Overall, 5 domains were deemed crucial to enable timely and accurate booking of patients to clinic: booking date, urgency, legibility, patient identification and appropriateness. Our proposed standard set for this project was 100% compliance over the 5 domains. Three separate interventions were instigated following the first cycle. The main components of the intervention were the phased development of an electronic referral system and an educational initiative for junior doctors. 20 referral forms were analysed during the initial 3-week period. No referrals met the recommended overall compliance standard of 100% (mean number of domains achieved: 3.38; standard deviation (SD): 0.637). Legibility and patient information were included in 21% and 30% of referrals, respectively. There was a trend of improvement following initiation of interventions. The mean number of domains achieved was 4.27 (SD 0.647; n=13) in the second data collection period, 4.53 (SD 0.514; n=16) in the third, and 4.75 (SD 0.452; n=24) in the fourth. Using linear regression, this change demonstrates a statistically significant improvement (p<0.001). An e-Proforma referral system represents a safe and efficient communication technology. When implementing policy change, it is crucial to acquire

  17. Referrals between Public Sector Health Institutions for Women with Obstetric High Risk, Complications, or Emergencies in India - A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Samiksha; Doyle, Pat; Campbell, Oona M; Mathew, Manu; Murthy, G V S

    2016-01-01

    Emergency obstetric care (EmOC) within primary health care systems requires a linked referral system to be effective in reducing maternal death. This systematic review aimed to summarize evidence on the proportion of referrals between institutions during pregnancy and delivery, and the factors affecting referrals, in India. We searched 6 electronic databases, reviewed four regional databases and repositories, and relevant program reports from India published between 1994 and 2013. All types of study or reports (except editorials, comments and letters) which reported on institution-referrals (out-referral or in-referral) for obstetric care were included. Results were synthesized on the proportion and the reasons for referral, and factors affecting referrals. Of the 11,346 articles identified by the search, we included 232 articles in the full text review and extracted data from 16 studies that met our inclusion criteria Of the 16, one was RCT, seven intervention cohort (without controls), six cross-sectional, and three qualitative studies. Bias and quality of studies were reported. Between 25% and 52% of all pregnancies were referred from Sub-centres for antenatal high-risk, 14% to 36% from nurse run delivery or basic EmOC centres for complications or emergencies, and 2 to 7% were referred from doctor run basic EmOC centres for specialist care at comprehensive EmOC centres. Problems identified with referrals from peripheral health centres included low skills and confidence of staff, reluctance to induce labour, confusion over the clinical criteria for referral, non-uniform standards of care at referral institutions, a tendency to by-pass middle level institutions, a lack of referral communication and supervision, and poor compliance. The high proportion of referrals from peripheral health centers reflects the lack of appropriate clinical guidelines, processes, and skills for obstetric care and referral in India. This, combined with inadequate referral communication

  18. It Takes Two to Tango: Improving Patient Referrals from the Emergency Department to Inpatient Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Sean; Spencer, Lyndall M.; Sinnott, Michael; Eley, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background The transfer of responsibility for patient care across clinical specialties is a complex process. Published and anecdotal data suggest that referrals often fail to meet the needs of one or both parties and that patient focus can be lost during the process. Little is known about the Australian situation. Methods To obtain a more complete understanding of the referral process, including the nature of communication in an Australian context, we conducted semistructured interviews in a convenience sample of 25 volunteers. Two established strategies for analyzing qualitative data were used. Results All respondents considered the following information essential components of a referral: an account of the patient's current condition, a working diagnosis or problem statement and history of the presenting concern, key test results or tests awaiting results, a potential management plan, and any special characteristics of the patient. Respondents acknowledged implied, if not literal, power to accept or reject an emergency department (ED) referral and said the imbalance of power was reinforced when the ED physician was junior to the inpatient clinician. Respondents also noted that in addition to the predominant organizational culture, an independent culture is associated with specific shifts. Foremost among the nonclinical aspects of a referral considered to be important was the timeliness of the contact made to achieve the transition. Respondents also said the success of a referral depended on the speaking and listening abilities of all parties. The individual's motivation to accept or reject a referral can also have an impact on communication. Conclusion Respondents attributed the difficulty of negotiating the transfer of a patient's care across the ED and inpatient interface to three distinct factors: variations in the clinical information required, the culture of the organization and of the clinical team in which the transaction takes place, and the

  19. Patient compliance with managed care emergency department referral: an orthopaedic view.

    PubMed

    Saroff, Don; Dell, Rick; Brown, E Richard

    2002-04-01

    Patient compliance with emergency department (ED)-generated referral is an important part of the delivery of quality health care. Although many studies from non-managed care health centers have reported on ED patient compliance, no studies have reported on this in a managed care setting. The objective of this study is to examine patient compliance with ED-generated referral and to produce a benchmark of follow-up rates possible in a capitated managed care system. That is to say, in a health care system whose members pay a uniform per capita payment or fee, one that has salaried physicians, owns its own hospitals, and has a mechanism of transition from ED to outpatient clinic that ensures referral accessibility. Retrospective review of consecutive ED patient compliance with ED-generated referral. All consecutive patients who presented to a managed care hospital's ED with an acute fracture and who were given an outpatient referral during the period from 23rd December 1998 to 23rd January, 1999. Of 8000 consecutive ED patients, 234 were included in the study. Compliance with ED-generated referral was determined from outpatient clinic records. Of the 234 patients treated in the ED and referred, 222 (94.9%) complied with follow-up appointments. We have demonstrated that an ED patient follow-up compliance rate of 94.9% can be obtained. It is probable that the high compliance rate is due to the features of the system studied. The high rate may also be related to the specific diagnosis studied, although previous literature reports poor ED patient compliance for the same diagnosis in a different ED setting. Additional research is needed to determine whether the high compliance rate reported in this study can be obtained in ED settings that are not part of a similar managed care system and to determine the role of referral accessibility (or inaccessibility) in current ED settings.

  20. Dental Trauma in a Pediatric Emergency Department Referral Center.

    PubMed

    Hall, Emily; Hickey, Patricia; Nguyen-Tran, Thuy; Louie, Jeff

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe dental and associated oral injuries in a pediatric population that presents to an emergency department. We performed a retrospective study and identified children from January 2007 to September 2011. Charts were reviewed for any subject, age from newborn to younger than 19 years, based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for any dental or oral injury. Data abstraction included demographics, time of day of presentation, location and identification of tooth (s) injured, management, and disposition. We identified 108 children with dental and if present, associated oral injuries. The median age was 12.3 years, the most common tooth injured were the primary (25.9%) or permanent (62%) upper central incisors, and the majority of subjects presented in the afternoon (mean time was 3:50 PM, SD ±24 minutes). A large proportion of dental injuries occurred in patients with permanent dentation (62%) and half of all children had more than 1 tooth injury. The majority of children (75%) were evaluated by either pediatric dental, oral surgery, or otolaryngology services, whereas 3.7% of the cases required multiple services. Twenty-five percent of children had an associated jaw fracture. Eighty-three percent of children were discharged home, of those, 49.1% were prescribed opioids, and 38.3% oral antibiotics. Emergency departments are often relied upon to evaluate and treat simple and complex dental and oral injuries. The ability to use a multidisciplinary team to manage pediatric oral and dental trauma is essential for care.

  1. Referral of discharged emergency department patients to primary and specialty care follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ginde, Adit A; Talley, Brad E; Trent, Stacy A; Raja, Ali S; Sullivan, Ashley F; Camargo, Carlos A

    2012-08-01

    Emergency department (ED) patients often need urgent primary or specialty care follow-up, but access is particularly difficult for those without insurance. To characterize follow-up options for uninsured ED patients and to evaluate differences based on ED characteristics. We mailed a survey to all ED Directors in Colorado, Georgia, Massachusetts, and Oregon (n = 351 EDs). Typical referrals for urgent primary and specialty care follow-up for uninsured patients were classified as: a) private physician or clinic affiliated with the same hospital; b) external public clinic or university hospital; or c) no referral system/policy. Of the 298 (85%) responding EDs, 215 (72%) reported primary care referral to private physicians or clinics at the same hospital and 231 (78%) for specialty care. Twenty (7%) and 27 (9%) EDs had no referral system for primary and specialty care, respectively. Factors associated with typical referral to primary care follow-up at the same hospital were: lower visit volume (85% for EDs with < 1 patient per hour vs. 67% for EDs with ≥ 3 patients per hour); rural area (79% for rural vs. 68% for urban areas), and critical access hospital status (81% critical access vs. 69% non-critical access). Conversely, higher visit volume (87% vs. 58%), urban (81% vs. 72%), and non-critical access hospitals (83% vs. 53%) were more likely to refer for specialty care follow-up at the same hospital. Referral of uninsured ED patients to local follow-up was high for primary and specialty care. Smaller, rural EDs referred within their own hospital more often for primary care but less often for specialty care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of alarm features in referral of febrile children to the emergency department: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    van Ierland, Yvette; Elshout, Gijs; Moll, Henriëtte A; Nijman, Ruud G; Vergouwe, Yvonne; van der Lei, Johan; Berger, Marjolein Y; Oostenbrink, Rianne

    2014-01-01

    Background The diagnostic value of alarm features of serious infections in low prevalence settings is unclear. Aim To explore to what extent alarm features play a role in referral to the emergency department (ED) by GPs who face a febrile child during out-of-hours care. Design and setting Observational study using semi-structured, routine clinical practice data of febrile children (<16 years) presenting to GP out-of-hours care. Method Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between alarm features of serious infections (selected from two guidelines and one systematic review) and referral to the ED. Adherence to the guideline was explored by a 2×2 contingency table. Results In total 794 (8.1%) of 9794 eligible patients were referred to the ED. Alarm signs most strongly associated with referral were ‘age <1 month’, ‘decreased consciousness’, ‘meningeal irritation’, and ‘signs of dehydration’. Nineteen percent of 3424 children with a positive referral indication according to the guideline were referred to the ED. The majority of those not referred had only one or two alarm features present. A negative referral indication was adhered to for the majority of children. Still, in 20% of referred children, alarm features were absent. Conclusion In contrast to guidance, GPs working in primary out-of-hours care seem more conservative in referring febrile children to the ED, especially if only one or two alarm features of serious infection are present. In addition, in 20% of referred children, alarm features were absent, which suggests that other factors may be important in decisions about referral of febrile children to the hospital ED. PMID:24567576

  3. Use of alarm features in referral of febrile children to the emergency department: an observational study.

    PubMed

    van Ierland, Yvette; Elshout, Gijs; Moll, Henriëtte A; Nijman, Ruud G; Vergouwe, Yvonne; van der Lei, Johan; Berger, Marjolein Y; Oostenbrink, Rianne

    2014-01-01

    The diagnostic value of alarm features of serious infections in low prevalence settings is unclear. To explore to what extent alarm features play a role in referral to the emergency department (ED) by GPs who face a febrile child during out-of-hours care. Observational study using semi-structured, routine clinical practice data of febrile children (<16 years) presenting to GP out-of-hours care. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between alarm features of serious infections (selected from two guidelines and one systematic review) and referral to the ED. Adherence to the guideline was explored by a 2×2 contingency table. In total 794 (8.1%) of 9794 eligible patients were referred to the ED. Alarm signs most strongly associated with referral were 'age <1 month', 'decreased consciousness', 'meningeal irritation', and 'signs of dehydration'. Nineteen percent of 3424 children with a positive referral indication according to the guideline were referred to the ED. The majority of those not referred had only one or two alarm features present. A negative referral indication was adhered to for the majority of children. Still, in 20% of referred children, alarm features were absent. In contrast to guidance, GPs working in primary out-of-hours care seem more conservative in referring febrile children to the ED, especially if only one or two alarm features of serious infection are present. In addition, in 20% of referred children, alarm features were absent, which suggests that other factors may be important in decisions about referral of febrile children to the hospital ED.

  4. Nurse-led hypertension referral system in an emergency department for asymptomatic elevated blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Tsoi, Ludwig C H; Tung, Cora C H; Wong, Eliza L Y

    2012-06-01

    To determine the characteristics of asymptomatic elevated blood pressure patients in an accident and emergency setting and assess the effect of a nurse-led intervention system. Cross-sectional study. Accident and Emergency Department of a regional hospital in Hong Kong. Patients with blood pressures of 140/90 mm Hg or above recorded twice (at triage and discharge) with no previous history of hypertension. Exclusion criteria were: (1) admission to hospital; (2) known hypertension; (3) referral for hypertension; (4) blood pressure higher than 180/120 mm Hg on rechecking. Patients were issued a referral by the discharge nurse to follow-up for blood pressure monitoring in primary care. Diagnosis of hypertension, follow-up rate, and risk factors of hypertension. Of 245 patients with asymptomatic elevated blood pressure, we were able to contact 222 for follow-up, of whom 136 (61%) claimed to have been followed up for their blood pressure, and 48 (22%) were diagnosed to have hypertension. The nurse time for finding one case was 28 minutes. The projected impact could be large. If this simple nursing guideline is implemented territory-wide, more than 7000 new cases of asymptomatic hypertension might be picked up annually. The implementation of a simple nurse-led hypertension referral system is a cost-effective way to screen asymptomatic subjects with elevated blood pressures in the accident and emergency department.

  5. Self-referring patients at the emergency department: appropriateness of ED use and motives for self-referral

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nearly all Dutch citizens have a general practitioner (GP), acting as a gatekeeper to secondary care. Some patients bypass the GP and present to the emergency department (ED). To make best use of existing emergency care, Dutch health policy makers and insurance companies have proposed the integration of EDs and GP cooperatives (GPCs) into one facility. In this study, we examined ED use and assessed the characteristics of self-referrals and non-self-referrals, their need for hospital emergency care and self-referrals' motives for presenting at the ED. Methods A descriptive cohort study was conducted in a Dutch level 1 trauma centre. Differences in patient characteristics, time of presentation and need for hospital emergency care were analysed using χ2 tests and t tests. A patient was considered to need hospital emergency care when he/she was admitted to the hospital, had an extremity fracture and/or when diagnostic tests were performed. Main determinants of self-referral were identified via logistic regression. Results Of the 5,003 consecutive ED patients registering within the 5-week study period, 3,028 (60.5%) were self-referrals. Thirty-nine percent of the self-referrals had urgent acuity levels, as opposed to 65% of the non-self-referrals. Self-referrals more often suffered from injuries (49 vs. 20%). One third of the self-referrals presented during office hours. Of all self-referrals, 51% needed hospital emergency care. Younger age; non-urgent acuity level; chest pain, ear, nose or throat problems; and injuries were independent predictors for self-referral. Most cited motives for self-referring were ‘accessibility and convenience’ and perceived ‘medical necessity’. Conclusions A substantial part of the self-referrals needed hospital emergency care. The 49% self-referrals who were eligible for GP care presented during out-of-hours as well as during office hours. This calls for an integrative approach to this health care problem. PMID:25097670

  6. Referral letters to the emergency department: is the medication list accurate?

    PubMed

    McCullagh, M; O'Kelly, P; Gilligan, P

    2015-02-01

    Medication errors are common when patients transfer across healthcare boundaries. This study was designed to investigate the quality of information on medicines provided by general practitioners (GPs) on emergency department (ED) referral letters. A convenience sample of referral letters to the ED of a teaching hospital was reviewed. The medication list and/or patient's drug allergy status were noted. Medicines reconciliation including patient (or carer) interview was conducted to determine the patient's actual home medication list. This was compared with the GP list and any discrepancies were identified and addressed. A total of 92 referral letters were included in the analysis of which 60 were computer-generated and 32 were hand-written. GPs provided dose and frequency of administration information in 47 (51%) of the letters sampled i.e. 44 (71%) computer-generated versus 3 (10%) hand-written; p < 0.001. In addition, the patient was taking their medicines exactly as per the GP list in 20 (22%) of cases. The patient's drug allergy status was documented in 13 (14%) of the letters.

  7. Gender Differences in Emergency Department Visits and Detox Referrals for Illicit and Nonmedical Use of Opioids

    PubMed Central

    Ryoo, Hyeon-Ju; Choo, Esther K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Visits to the emergency department (ED) for use of illicit drugs and opioids have increased in the past decade. In the ED, little is known about how gender may play a role in drug-related visits and referrals to treatment. This study performs gender-based comparison analyses of drug-related ED visits nationwide. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis with data collected from 2004 to 2011 by the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN). All data were coded to capture major drug categories and opioids. We used logistic regression models to find associations between gender and odds of referral to treatment programs. A second set of models were controlled for patient “seeking detox,” or patient explicitly requesting for detox referral. Results Of the 27.9 million ED visits related to drug use in the DAWN database, visits by men were 2.69 times more likely to involve illicit drugs than visits by women (95% CI [2.56, 2.80]). Men were more likely than women to be referred to detox programs for any illicit drugs (OR 1.12, 95% CI [1.02–1.22]), for each of the major illicit drugs (e.g., cocaine: OR 1.27, 95% CI [1.15–1.40]), and for prescription opioids (OR 1.30, 95% CI [1.17–1.43]). This significant association prevailed after controlling for “seeking detox.” Conclusion Women are less likely to receive referrals to detox programs than men when presenting to the ED regardless of whether they are “seeking detox.” Future research may help determine the cause for this gender-based difference and its significance for healthcare costs and health outcomes. PMID:27330662

  8. Audit of Childbirth Emergency Referrals by Trained Traditional Birth Attendants in Enugu, Southeast, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okafor, II; Arinze-Onyia, SU; Ohayi, SAR; Onyekpa, JI; Ugwu, EO

    2015-01-01

    Background: The essence of training traditional birth attendants (TBAs) is to attend to women in uncomplicated labor and to refer them immediately to hospitals when complications develop. Aim: The aim was to audit childbirth emergency referrals by trained TBAs to a specialist hospital in Enugu, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A retrospective study of 205 childbirth emergencies referred to Semino Hospital and Maternity (SHM), Enugu by trained TBAs from August 1, 2011 to January 31, 2014. Data analysis was descriptive and inferential at 95% confidence level. Results: Most of the patients (185/205, 90.2%) were married and (100/205, 48.8%) had earlier booked for antenatal care in formal health facilities. There were obstetric danger signs or previous bad obstetric histories (pregnancies with unfavorable outcome) in 110 (110/205, 53.7%) women on admission at SHM. One hundred and fifteen (115/205, 56.1%) women walked into the hospital by themselves while 50 (50/205, 24.39%) could not walk. The fetal heart sounds were normal in 94 (94/205, 45.6%), abnormal in 65 (65/205, 31.8%) and absent in 42 (42/205, 20.4%) of the women on admission. Five healthy babies were delivered by the TBAs before referring their mothers. Delays of more than 12 h had occurred in 155 (155/205, 76.6%) of the women before referrals. Prolonged labor (100/205, 48.8%), obstructed labor (40/205, 19.5%), attempted vaginal birth after previous cesarean delivery (40/205, 19.5%) and malpresentation (30/205, 14.6%) were the common indications for referrals. The maternal mortality and perinatal mortality ratios were 610/100,000 live births and 228/1000 total births respectively. Conclusion: Delays at TBA centers are common before referral and most patients are referred in poor clinical state. Further training and re-training of the TBAs with more emphasis on recognition of obstetric danger signs and bad obstetric histories may help in screening high-risk patients for prompt referral to hospitals before

  9. Face mask removal is safer than helmet removal for emergent airway access in American football.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Erik E; Mihalik, Jason P; Beltz, Nora M; Day, Molly A; Decoster, Laura C

    2014-06-01

    -camera three-dimensional motion system and a three-point one-segment marker set were used to record motion of the head. Face mask removal resulted in less motion in all three planes, required less completion time, and was easier to perform than HR. The RIQ helmet resulted in less frontal plane motion and less time to task completion, and was easier to remove than VSR4 helmets. Inflated helmets-regardless of helmet type-required less removal time but did not result in greater cervical spine motion or difficulty. It is safer to remove the face mask in the prehospital setting for the potential spine-injured American football player than to remove the helmet, based on results from both a traditional and newer football helmet designs. Deflating the air bladder inside the helmet does not provide an advantage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy: experience of a major referral hospital in Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Danisman, N; Baser, E; Togrul, C; Kaymak, O; Tandogan, M; Gungor, T

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to report and discuss the incidence, clinical characteristics and outcomes of emergency peripartum hysterectomies (EPH) performed at a tertiary referral hospital in Ankara, Turkey. The labour and delivery unit database was retrospectively analysed for emergency peripartum hysterectomies (EPH) performed between January 2008 and January 2013, at the Zekai Tahir Burak Women's Health Training and Research Hospital. A total of 92,887 deliveries were accomplished within the study period. EPH was performed in 48 cases, and the incidence was 0.51 in 1,000. Abnormal placentation was the most common indication for EPH. Most common complications were blood product transfusion and postoperative fever. None of the cases resulted in maternal mortality. Serious maternal complication rates were relatively low in our study. In cases that are unresponsive to initial conservative measures, EPH should be performed without delay and a multidisciplinary team approach should be conducted whenever possible.

  11. Safer Choice

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Safer Choice is a voluntary program that works to advance the mission of EPA to protect human health and the environment by helping product manufacturers choose the safest chemical ingredients possible.

  12. An Evaluation of the Accuracy and Necessity of Fracture Clinic Referrals in a Busy Pediatric Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Ramasubbu, Benjamin; McNamara, Roisin; Deiratany, Samir; Okafor, Ike

    2016-02-01

    Injuries account for approximately 18% of all pediatric emergency department presentations. Of these, a significant amount will have fractures that will require orthopedic management usually in the orthopedic fracture clinic. Our aim was to assess the accuracy and necessity of fracture clinic referrals from our emergency department and to suggest an approach that might safely reduce the referral numbers. All fracture clinic referrals from Temple Street Emergency Department in August 2013 were retrospectively audited. There were 339 fracture clinic referrals in August 2013. Of these, 213 (63%) had fractures as reported by a consultant radiologist. One hundred twenty-six (37%) had no fracture confirmed, and of these, 24 (19%) had no fracture seen in the emergency department but were referred as clinically fractured. Thirty-three (10%) of the 339 were buckle fractures of the wrist. There were 21 (6.2%) finger injuries referred. Of ankle injuries referred to fracture clinic (n = 43), 14 (33%) were confirmed Salter-Harris 1 or 2 or avulsion fractures of the lateral malleolus and 16 (37%) were suspected Salter-Harris 1 or 2 fractures of the lateral malleolus. Through education and policy change such as the establishment of an Advanced Nurse Practioner (ANP)-led clinic or a virtual clinic within our emergency department, we could safely and efficiently reduce orthopedic fracture clinic referrals by more than 30%.

  13. Barriers to knowledge sharing in Chinese healthcare referral services: an emergent theoretical model

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Miguel Baptista

    2016-01-01

    Background This paper reports on a research study that aims to identify and explain barriers to knowledge sharing (KS) in the provision of healthcare referral services in Chinese healthcare organisations. Design An inductive case study approach was employed, in which 24 healthcare professionals and workers from four healthcare organisations in the province of Hubei, Central China, were interviewed using semi-structured scripts. Results Through data analysis, 14 KS barriers emerged in four main themes: interpersonal trust barriers, communication barriers, management and leadership barriers, and inter-institutional barriers. A cause–consequence analysis of the identified barriers revealed that three of them are at the core of the majority of problems, namely, the absence of national and local policies for inter-hospital KS, lack of a specific hospital KS requirement, and lack of mutual acquaintance. Conclusions To resolve KS problems, it is of great importance that healthcare governance agencies, both at the national and regional levels, take leadership in the process of KS implementation by establishing specific and strong policies for inter-institutional KS in the referral process. This paper raises important issues that exceed academic interests and are important to healthcare professionals, hospital managers, and Information communication technology (ICT) managers in hospitals, as well as healthcare politicians and policy makers. PMID:26895146

  14. Role of the emergency medical services system in regionwide health monitoring and referral.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, A K; Hedges, J R

    1993-11-01

    The emergency medical services (EMS) system of the future has the opportunity to serve as a regional community health monitoring and referral system. Such a system would shift attention from care of the individual to cost-effective community health efforts using community resource integration, while emphasizing individual responsibility for health. This health care system model requires the establishment of a centralized monitoring agency, the "regional center." The regional center would coordinate the monitoring of regional EMS use and linkage of patients with essential health promotion and behavior change organizations. Many of these supporting organizations are in place but are functioning without the benefit of communitywide health monitoring or effective referral and follow-up links with other resources. Coordination through the EMS system and a regional center would permit these resources to be used in an efficient and accountable fashion. We propose a model in which the EMS system could contribute to coordinated regional health monitoring and maintenance, timely and appropriate health care legislation and regulation, and high-impact health care education and intervention in the setting of self-destructive individual behavior.

  15. Referrals to hospital emergency departments from residential aged care facilities: stuck in a time warp.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Beverly; Hawkins, Mary; Considine, Julie; Au, Catherine

    2013-10-01

    This research aimed to describe the number and type of residents admitted to emergency departments (EDs) over 2 years; and to explore nurses' perceptions of the reasons why residential aged care facility (RACF) residents are referred to EDs. The research objective was addressed in a retrospective exploratory study using data on admissions to EDs from RACFs (N = 3,094) at the participating organisation over a 2-year period, and interview data on seven RACF and four ED nurses' perceptions of the issues involved. Most residents presenting at EDs required urgent medical attention. Major themes identified by RACF and ED nurses included issues related to staff competency, availability of general practitioners, lack of equipment in RACFs, residents and family members requesting referrals, communication difficulties, and poor attitudes towards RACF staff. There is a need to use strategies to detect residents whose conditions are deteriorating and treat them promptly in RACFs.

  16. Feasibility of emergency department bilingual computerized alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment.

    PubMed

    Vaca, Federico; Winn, Diane; Anderson, Craig; Kim, Doug; Arcila, Mauricio

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of utilizing a computerized alcohol screening and intervention (CASI) kiosk in an emergency department (ED). An interactive English and Spanish audiographical computer program, developed for used on a mobile computer cart, was administered to 5103 patients. Patients who screened at risk (19%) also received a fully computer-guided brief negotiated interview (BNI) and a printed personal alcohol reduction plan. A higher percentage of younger patients, and males (31% versus 16% females), screened at risk or dependent. Patient surveys indicated CASI was easy to use and over 75% did not prefer a medical professional over the computer. The ED-based bilingual computerized alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment required little time to administer, was acceptable to patients, identified at-risk and dependent drinkers, and was able to provide personalized feedback and brief intervention.

  17. Emergent mechanical support in the community: improvement with early transplant center referral.

    PubMed

    Morris, Rohinton J; Pochettino, Alberto; O'Hara, Marylou; Gardner, Timothy J; Acker, Michael A

    2005-06-01

    Emergent mechanical support for the failing ventricle, with eventual transfer for definitive care, is often required at non-transplant centers. Transfer for definitive care, in terms of bridge to transplant, may require ventricular assist device (VAD) placement at the primary institution or at the transplant center. Review of consecutive single transplant center referrals was conducted to decipher optimal management. From January 1997 to December 2000, 104 patients were transferred to the University of Pennsylvania Heart Failure/Transplant Service. Most were transferred from active cardiac surgical programs, with 56 patients having post-cardiotomy failure at the primary site. A VAD was placed in procedures done at the outside hospital (OSH) in 28 patients, most commonly (60%) an Abiomed device. Of the 76 patients that received a VAD at the transplant center (TxpC), 86% received a TCI or Thoratec device. Biventricular support was required in 34 patients. Overall survival was 57%, with 54 patients bridged to transplantation and 5 patients undergoing recovery. Patients having a VAD placed at the OSH had a 32% (9 of 28) survival, whereas at the TxpC survival was 65% (45 of 76) (p < 0.05). Mid-term follow-up showed that all 5 patients weaned are presently alive, and 52 patients are alive at >1-year post-transplant. The most common cause of death was multi-system organ failure (19 of 45), followed by major neurologic event (15 of 45). Infection was the cause of death in only 6 patients. Left ventricular failure can be treated by emergent VAD placement. Overall survival is substantial if these patients are referred to a transplant center with multiple options. In contrast to previous reports, survival rates may be improved by earlier referral, before VAD placement at non-transplant centers and use of a VAD with longer-term capability.

  18. Analysis of traumatic injuries presenting to a referral hospital emergency department in Moshi, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Casey, Erica R; Muro, Florida; Thielman, Nathan M; Maya, Elifuraha; Ossmann, Eric W; Hocker, Michael B; Gerardo, Charles J

    2012-06-08

    Injuries represent a significant and growing public health concern in the developing world, yet their impact on patients and the emergency health-care system in the countries of East Africa has received limited attention. This study evaluates the magnitude and scope of injury related disorders in the population presenting to a referral hospital emergency department in northern Tanzania. A retrospective chart review of patients presenting to the emergency department at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre was performed. A standardized data collection form was used for data abstraction from the emergency department logbook and the complete medical record for all injured patients. Patient demographics, mechanism of injury, location, type and outcomes were recorded. Ten thousand six hundred twenty-two patients presented to the emergency department for evaluation and treatment during the 7-month study period. One thousand two hundred twenty-four patients (11.5%) had injuries. Males and individuals aged 15 to 44 years were most frequently injured, representing 73.4% and 57.8%, respectively. Road traffic injuries were the most common mechanism of injury, representing 43.9% of injuries. Head injuries (36.5%) and extremity injuries (59.5%) were the most common location of injury. The majority of injured patients, 59.3%, were admitted from the emergency department to the hospital wards, and 5.6%, required admission to an intensive care unit. Death occurred in 5.4% of injured patients. These data give a detailed and more robust picture of the patient demographics, mechanisms of injury, types of injury and patient outcomes from similar resource-limited settings.

  19. Analysis of traumatic injuries presenting to a referral hospital emergency department in Moshi, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Injuries represent a significant and growing public health concern in the developing world, yet their impact on patients and the emergency health-care system in the countries of East Africa has received limited attention. This study evaluates the magnitude and scope of injury related disorders in the population presenting to a referral hospital emergency department in northern Tanzania. Methods A retrospective chart review of patients presenting to the emergency department at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre was performed. A standardized data collection form was used for data abstraction from the emergency department logbook and the complete medical record for all injured patients. Patient demographics, mechanism of injury, location, type and outcomes were recorded. Results Ten thousand six hundred twenty-two patients presented to the emergency department for evaluation and treatment during the 7-month study period. One thousand two hundred twenty-four patients (11.5%) had injuries. Males and individuals aged 15 to 44 years were most frequently injured, representing 73.4% and 57.8%, respectively. Road traffic injuries were the most common mechanism of injury, representing 43.9% of injuries. Head injuries (36.5%) and extremity injuries (59.5%) were the most common location of injury. The majority of injured patients, 59.3%, were admitted from the emergency department to the hospital wards, and 5.6%, required admission to an intensive care unit. Death occurred in 5.4% of injured patients. Conclusions These data give a detailed and more robust picture of the patient demographics, mechanisms of injury, types of injury and patient outcomes from similar resource-limited settings. PMID:22682499

  20. Safer Environment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) for power plants to limit mercury, acid gases and other toxic pollution from power plants. This page describes how new rules mean a safer environment.

  1. Referrals between Public Sector Health Institutions for Women with Obstetric High Risk, Complications, or Emergencies in India – A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Samiksha; Doyle, Pat; Campbell, Oona M.; Mathew, Manu; Murthy, G. V. S.

    2016-01-01

    Emergency obstetric care (EmOC) within primary health care systems requires a linked referral system to be effective in reducing maternal death. This systematic review aimed to summarize evidence on the proportion of referrals between institutions during pregnancy and delivery, and the factors affecting referrals, in India. We searched 6 electronic databases, reviewed four regional databases and repositories, and relevant program reports from India published between 1994 and 2013. All types of study or reports (except editorials, comments and letters) which reported on institution-referrals (out-referral or in-referral) for obstetric care were included. Results were synthesized on the proportion and the reasons for referral, and factors affecting referrals. Of the 11,346 articles identified by the search, we included 232 articles in the full text review and extracted data from 16 studies that met our inclusion criteria Of the 16, one was RCT, seven intervention cohort (without controls), six cross-sectional, and three qualitative studies. Bias and quality of studies were reported. Between 25% and 52% of all pregnancies were referred from Sub-centres for antenatal high-risk, 14% to 36% from nurse run delivery or basic EmOC centres for complications or emergencies, and 2 to 7% were referred from doctor run basic EmOC centres for specialist care at comprehensive EmOC centres. Problems identified with referrals from peripheral health centres included low skills and confidence of staff, reluctance to induce labour, confusion over the clinical criteria for referral, non-uniform standards of care at referral institutions, a tendency to by-pass middle level institutions, a lack of referral communication and supervision, and poor compliance. The high proportion of referrals from peripheral health centers reflects the lack of appropriate clinical guidelines, processes, and skills for obstetric care and referral in India. This, combined with inadequate referral communication

  2. Effects of emergency department Care Coordination Team referrals in older people presenting with a fall.

    PubMed

    Harper, Kristie J; Gibson, Nicholas P; Barton, Annette D; Petta, Antonio C; Pearson, Sara K; Celenza, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    The study aims to describe the characteristics of patients presenting to an ED with a fall and evaluate multidisciplinary Care Coordination Team (CCT) referrals on patient outcomes. A single-centred retrospective analysis of electronic data at an adult tertiary hospital was performed using data from 2004 to 2009 of presentations for patients aged 65 years or over with a fall. The primary outcome measure was representation to hospital within 30 days, comparing patients referred to CCT and those not referred. Secondary outcomes were differences in demographic characteristics, mode of arrival, triage score and readmission. The proportion of ED patients presenting with a fall and their mean age is stable over time. From 2006 to 2009, 5162 fallers were referred to CCT in a decreasing trend, but with increased urgency. Statistically significant predictors for being referred to CCT were increasing age, being female, arriving by ambulance, being transferred from a nursing home and higher socioeconomic category. Arrival by ambulance and a history of previous falls were associated with representation and readmission. A decreasing trend from 2006 to 2009 was seen in rate ratios and odds ratios via regression modelling for both representation and readmission in patients referred to CCT. Maturing of the CCT is associated with a decrease in representation and readmission rate. Over time, the CCT attended higher urgency patients associated with stable admission rates. These associations were not significant and the clinical effectiveness of ED CCTs requires further examination. © 2013 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  3. Police referral to psychiatric emergency services and its effect on disposition decisions.

    PubMed

    Watson, M A; Segal, S P; Newhill, C E

    1993-11-01

    Some clinicians and researchers have questioned the appropriateness of police referrals to psychiatric emergency services and have suggested that police exercise undue influence on hospital admission decisions. The purpose of this study was to test these assertions. Research clinicians in nine emergency services in California observed staff evaluations of 772 cases and rated patients' symptom severity, danger to self or others, and grave disability. They also reviewed the criminal justice records of these patients both before and for 18 months after the index evaluation. A total of 186 patients referred by police were compared with 577 patients not referred by police. Patients brought by police were more likely to be subsequently hospitalized, but they were also more psychiatrically disturbed. They were more dangerous to others and more gravely disabled. They were no more likely to have a criminal record than patients not referred by police. Police did not exercise undue influence on dispositions nor were the patients they brought in more "criminal" than others.

  4. Multicentre Italian analysis on cardiovascular diseases: impact of immigrants' referral to emergency department.

    PubMed

    Russo, Veronica; Santarelli, Simona; Magrini, Laura; Moscatelli, Paolo; Altomonte, Fiorella; Cremonesi, Giulia; Battista, Stefania; Maggiorotto, Matteo; Pinto, Natalia; Maroccia, Alessio; Glorioso, Nicola; Sircana, Antonio; Moro, Marta; Pugliese, Francesco Rocco; Revello, Alessandra; Di Somma, Salvatore

    2017-03-01

    During the recent years, immigration in Italy has increased. There are few data on the health status of immigrants and there is a need to improve their healthcare. Cardiovascular disorders account for 7.6% of immigrants' diseases and cause 3.6% of the total deaths. Lack of healthcare services to general medicine support and prescriptions leads immigrants to contact the Emergency Department (ED) to receive medical assistance. Primary endpoints of this study were to assess the use of national healthcare system by immigrants and to determine the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, and the frequency and type of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in these patients. A no-profit, observational, multicentre study was conducted from April to September 2012. We studied 642 foreign patients referring to the ED for various symptoms/signs. One hundred and fourteen patients referred for suspected cardiovascular disease and 105 had a confirmed final diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. The more represented ethnic origin was Caucasian (59%), whereas the most represented country was Romania (24%). The main symptom recorded at ED arrival was chest pain (37.1%). Final cardiovascular diagnoses were represented by: hypertensive crisis (28.5%), acute coronary syndrome (20%), acute heart failure (12.3%), atrial fibrillation (10.4%) and chest pain (10.4%). Past medical history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, obesity and male sex showed independent significant predictive value for cardiovascular disease diagnosis.Our study provides support for the development of specific primary prevention of cardiovascular risk factors in immigrants with the important role of culturally competent education of individuals and families. Better outpatient management seems to be needed in order to limit the need for emergency room referral.

  5. Conducting an audit to improve the facilitation of emergency maternal and newborn referral in northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Awoonor-Williams, John Koku; Bailey, Patricia E; Yeji, Francis; Adongo, Ayire Emmanuel; Baffoe, Peter; Williams, Afua; Mercer, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Ghana Health Service conducted an audit to strengthen the referral system for pregnant or recently pregnant women and newborns in northern Ghana. The audit took place in 16 facilities with two 3-month cycles of data collection in 2011. Midwife-led teams tracked 446 referred women until they received definitive treatment. Between the two audit cycles, teams identified and implemented interventions to address gaps in referral services. During this time period, we observed important increases in facilitating referral mechanisms, including a decrease in the dependence on taxis in favour of national or facility ambulances/vehicles; an increase in health workers escorting referrals to the appropriate receiving facility; greater use of referral slips and calling ahead to alert receiving facilities and higher feedback rates. As referral systems require attention from multiple levels of engagement, on the provider end we found that regional managers increasingly resolved staffing shortages; district management addressed the costliness and lack of transport and increased midwives' ability to communicate with pregnant women and drivers; and that facility staff increasingly adhered to guidelines and facilitating mechanisms. By conducting an audit of maternal and newborn referrals, the Ghana Health Service identified areas for improvement that service providers and management at multiple levels addressed, demonstrating a platform for problem solving that could be a model elsewhere.

  6. 'Heads you win, tails I lose': a critical incident study of GPs' decisions about emergency admission referrals.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Owen P; Bekker, Hilary L

    2002-12-01

    Acute hospital Trusts' inability to cope with the numbers of emergency admissions has led to the production of guidelines by the Department of Health aimed at reducing inappropriate admissions by GPs. There is a paucity of research describing GPs' decisions to (not) admit patients and it is unclear how effective these guidelines are in changing these practices. To describe GPs' decision-making about referrals for emergency hospital admissions. Observational design using the critical incident technique to elicit data. Eight GPs in West Yorkshire recorded details of memorable emergency admission decisions, both prospective and retrospective consultations. The transcript data were classified by theme using NUD*IST. Forty prospective and 8 retrospective consultations were analysed. Factors affecting GPs' decisions were:Identification of all consequences for all stakeholders in the decision. Emotional impact on the GP of managing these conflicting needs. 'Peer review' of the GP's professionalism about the decision. Contextual pressures limiting effectiveness of GPs' decision-making. Referral decisions require the evaluation of several conflicting consequences for many stakeholders in time-pressured and peer-reviewed situations. These factors encourage the use of heuristics, i.e. GPs' judgements will be influenced more by the social context of the choice than information about the patient's condition. Emergency referral guidelines provide more information to evaluate from another stakeholder; introducing guidelines is likely to increase GPs' use of heuristics and the making of less optimal decisions.

  7. Benefits and Limitations of a Community-Engaged Emergency Referral System in a Remote, Impoverished Setting of Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sneha; Koku Awoonor-Williams, John; Asuru, Rofina; Boyer, Christopher B; Awopole Yepakeh Tiah, Janet; Sheff, Mallory C; Schmitt, Margaret L; Alirigia, Robert; Jackson, Elizabeth F; Phillips, James F

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although Ghana has a well-organized primary health care system, it lacks policies and guidelines for developing or providing emergency referral services. In 2012, an emergency referral pilot—the Sustainable Emergency Referral Care (SERC) initiative—was launched by the Ghana Health Service in collaboration with community stakeholders and health workers in one subdistrict of the Upper East Region where approximately 20,000 people reside. The pilot program was scaled up in 2013 to a 3-district (12-subdistrict) plausibility trial that served a population of approximately 184,000 over 2 years from 2013 to 2015. The SERC initiative was fielded as a component of a 6-year health systems strengthening and capacity-building project known as the Ghana Essential Health Intervention Program. Implementation research using mixed methods, including quantitative analysis of key process and health indicators over time in the 12 intervention subdistricts compared with comparison districts, a survey of health workers, and qualitative systems appraisal with community members, provided data on effectiveness of the system as well as operational challenges and potential solutions. Monitoring data show that community exposure to SERC was associated with an increased volume of emergency referrals, diminished reliance on primary care facilities not staffed or equipped to provide surgical care, and increased caseloads at facilities capable of providing appropriate acute care (i.e., district hospitals). Community members strongly endorsed the program and expressed appreciation for the service. Low rates of adherence to some care protocols were noted: referring facilities often failed to alert receiving facilities of incoming patients, not all patients transported were accompanied by a health worker, and receiving facilities commonly failed to provide patient outcome feedback to the referring facility. Yet in areas where SERC worked to bypass substandard points of care, overall

  8. Benefits and Limitations of a Community-Engaged Emergency Referral System in a Remote, Impoverished Setting of Northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sneha; Koku Awoonor-Williams, John; Asuru, Rofina; Boyer, Christopher B; Awopole Yepakeh Tiah, Janet; Sheff, Mallory C; Schmitt, Margaret L; Alirigia, Robert; Jackson, Elizabeth F; Phillips, James F

    2016-12-23

    Although Ghana has a well-organized primary health care system, it lacks policies and guidelines for developing or providing emergency referral services. In 2012, an emergency referral pilot-the Sustainable Emergency Referral Care (SERC) initiative-was launched by the Ghana Health Service in collaboration with community stakeholders and health workers in one subdistrict of the Upper East Region where approximately 20,000 people reside. The pilot program was scaled up in 2013 to a 3-district (12-subdistrict) plausibility trial that served a population of approximately 184,000 over 2 years from 2013 to 2015. The SERC initiative was fielded as a component of a 6-year health systems strengthening and capacity-building project known as the Ghana Essential Health Intervention Program. Implementation research using mixed methods, including quantitative analysis of key process and health indicators over time in the 12 intervention subdistricts compared with comparison districts, a survey of health workers, and qualitative systems appraisal with community members, provided data on effectiveness of the system as well as operational challenges and potential solutions. Monitoring data show that community exposure to SERC was associated with an increased volume of emergency referrals, diminished reliance on primary care facilities not staffed or equipped to provide surgical care, and increased caseloads at facilities capable of providing appropriate acute care (i.e., district hospitals). Community members strongly endorsed the program and expressed appreciation for the service. Low rates of adherence to some care protocols were noted: referring facilities often failed to alert receiving facilities of incoming patients, not all patients transported were accompanied by a health worker, and receiving facilities commonly failed to provide patient outcome feedback to the referring facility. Yet in areas where SERC worked to bypass substandard points of care, overall facility

  9. Safer Bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Safer bridges are among a number of spinoff benefits from NASA procedures for testing 'cfracture toughness" of a structural part, meaning its ability to -siscracktsh at might cause failure. The New River Bridge in West Virginia, shown under construction, is the world's largest single span bridge. U.S. Steel fracture toughness requirements for such bridges include NASA-developed test procedures. Bridge materials and other metal structures may develop flaws during their service lifetimes. Such flaws can affect the structural integrity of the part. Thus, it is important to know the "fracture toughness" of a structural part, or its ability to resist cracks. NASA has long experience in developing fracture toughness tests for aerospace hardware. Since 1960, NASA-Lewis has worked closely with the American Society for Testing & Materials. Lewis and NASA-funded industrial contractors have made many important contributions to test procedures, now recommended by ASTM, for measuring fracture toughness.

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of stroke referrals from primary care, emergency room physicians, and ambulance staff using the face arm speech test.

    PubMed

    Harbison, Joseph; Hossain, Omar; Jenkinson, Damian; Davis, John; Louw, Stephen J; Ford, Gary A

    2003-01-01

    Timely referral of appropriate patients to acute stroke units is necessary for effective provision of skilled care. We compared the characteristics of referrals with suspected stroke to an academic acute stroke unit via 3 primary referral routes: ambulance paramedics using a rapid ambulance protocol and stroke recognition instrument, the Face Arm Speech Test; primary care doctors (PCDs); and emergency room (ER) referrals. Patient characteristics, final diagnosis, and admission delay were recorded in all suspected acute stroke referrals in a 6-month period. Four hundred eighty-seven patients (356 strokes/transient ischemic attacks) were admitted by the 3 routes: 178 by ambulance, 216 by PCDs, and 93 through the ER. The proportion of nonstrokes admitted by each route was similar (23%, 29%, and 29%, respectively). Ambulance paramedics' stroke diagnosis was correct in 144 of 183 (79%) stroke patients who initially presented to them. Thirty-nine of 66 strokes/transient ischemic attacks referred via ER were taken there following initial ambulance assessment. Compared with PCDs, paramedics referred more total anterior circulation (39% versus 14%, P<0.0001) and fewer lacunar strokes (14% versus 31%, P<0.001) and admitted more patients (46% versus 12%, P<0.01) within 3 hours of symptom onset. The most common nonstroke conditions were seizures, infections and confusion, cardiovascular collapse, and cerebral tumors. Paramedics admitted more patients with seizures. Misdiagnosis of stroke is common in the ER and by PCDs. Paramedics using the Face Arm Speech Test achieved high levels of detection and diagnostic accuracy of stroke.

  11. Prescriptions for self-injectable epinephrine and follow-up referral in emergency department patients presenting with anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Ronna L.; Luke, Anuradha; Weaver, Amy L.; St Sauver, Jennifer L.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Li, James T.; Manivannan, Veena; Decker, Wyatt W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Anaphylaxis guidelines recommend that patients with a history of anaphylactic reaction should carry self-injectable epinephrine and should be referred to an allergist. Objective To evaluate how frequently patients dismissed from the emergency department after treatment for anaphylaxis received a prescription for self-injectable epinephrine or allergist referral. Methods A retrospective medical record review identified patients with anaphylaxis in a community-based study from 1990 through 2000. Records of patients with Hospital Adaptation of the International Classification of Diseases, Second Edition or International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes representing anaphylaxis were reviewed, and a random sample of patients with associated diagnoses was also reviewed. Patients who met the criteria for diagnosis of anaphylaxis were included in the study. Results Among 208 patients identified with anaphylaxis, 134 (64.4%) were seen in the emergency department and discharged home. On dismissal, 49 patients (36.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 28.4%–44.7%) were prescribed self-injectable epinephrine, and 42 patients (31.3%; 95% CI, 23.5%–39.2%) were referred to an allergist. Treatment with epinephrine in the emergency department (odds ratio, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.6 –7.9; P = .001) and insect sting as the inciting allergen (odds ratio, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.6 –10.5; P = .004) were significantly associated with receiving a prescription for self-injectable epinephrine. Patient age younger than 18 years was the only factor associated with referral to an allergist (P = .007). Conclusions Most patients dismissed after treatment for anaphylaxis did not receive a self-injectable epinephrine prescription or allergist referral. Emergency physicians may be missing an important opportunity to ensure prompt treatment of future anaphylactic reactions and specialized follow-up care. PMID:19119708

  12. Prescriptions for self-injectable epinephrine and follow-up referral in emergency department patients presenting with anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Ronna L; Luke, Anuradha; Weaver, Amy L; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Bergstralh, Eric J; Li, James T; Manivannan, Veena; Decker, Wyatt W

    2008-12-01

    Anaphylaxis guidelines recommend that patients with a history of anaphylactic reaction should carry self-injectable epinephrine and should be referred to an allergist. To evaluate how frequently patients dismissed from the emergency department after treatment for anaphylaxis received a prescription for self-injectable epinephrine or allergist referral. A retrospective medical record review identified patients with anaphylaxis in a community-based study from 1990 through 2000. Records of patients with Hospital Adaptation of the International Classification of Diseases, Second Edition or International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes representing anaphylaxis were reviewed, and a random sample of patients with associated diagnoses was also reviewed. Patients who met the criteria for diagnosis of anaphylaxis were included in the study. Among 208 patients identified with anaphylaxis, 134 (64.4%) were seen in the emergency department and discharged home. On dismissal, 49 patients (36.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 28.4%-44.7%) were prescribed self-injectable epinephrine, and 42 patients (31.3%; 95% CI, 23.5%-39.2%) were referred to an allergist. Treatment with epinephrine in the emergency department (odds ratio, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.6-7.9; P = .001) and insect sting as the inciting allergen (odds ratio, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.6-10.5; P = .004) were significantly associated with receiving a prescription for self-injectable epinephrine. Patient age younger than 18 years was the only factor associated with referral to an allergist (P = .007). Most patients dismissed after treatment for anaphylaxis did not receive a self-injectable epinephrine prescription or allergist referral. Emergency physicians may be missing an important opportunity to ensure prompt treatment of future anaphylactic reactions and specialized follow-up care.

  13. Design of NIDA CTN Protocol 0047: screening, motivational assessment, referral, and treatment in emergency departments (SMART-ED).

    PubMed

    Bogenschutz, Michael P; Donovan, Dennis M; Adinoff, Bryon; Crandall, Cameron; Forcehimes, Alyssa A; Lindblad, Robert; Mandler, Raul N; Oden, Neal L; Perl, Harold I; Walker, Robrina

    2011-09-01

    Medical settings such as emergency departments (EDs) present an opportunity to identify and provide services for individuals with substance use problems who might otherwise never receive any form of assessment, referral, or intervention. Although screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment models have been extensively studied and are considered effective for individuals with alcohol problems presenting in EDs and other medical settings, the efficacy of such interventions has not been established for drug users presenting in EDs. This article describes the design of a NIDA Clinical Trials Network protocol testing the efficacy of an screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment model in medical EDs, highlighting considerations that are pertinent to the design of other studies targeting substance use behaviors in medical treatment settings. The protocol is described, and critical design decisions are discussed. Design challenges included defining treatment conditions, study population, and site characteristics; developing the screening process; choosing the primary outcome; balancing brevity and comprehensiveness of assessment; and selecting the strategy for statistical analysis. Many of the issues arising in the design of this study will be relevant to future studies of interventions for addictions in medical settings. Optimal trial design is critical to determining how best to integrate substance abuse interventions into medical care.

  14. Kaqchikel midwives, home births, and emergency obstetric referrals in Guatemala: contextualizing the choice to stay at home.

    PubMed

    Berry, Nicole S

    2006-04-01

    Maternal mortality is highest in those countries whose health budgets are restricted. Practical strategies employed in the International Safe Motherhood Initiative, therefore, must be both effective and economical. Investing in emergency obstetric care resources has been touted as one such strategy. This investment aims to insure significant improvements are made in regional health centers, and a chain of referral is put into place so that only problem cases are attended by the most skilled health workers. This article examines how this model of referral functions in Sololá, Guatemala, where most Kaqchikel Mayan women give birth at home with a traditional midwife, and no skilled biomedical attendant is available at the birth to make a referral. Ethnographic data is used to explore reasons why women do not go to the hospital at the first sign of difficulty. I argue that the problem frequently is not that Mayan midwives, their clients and families fail to understand the biomedical information about dangers in birth, but rather that this information fails to fit into an already existing social system of understanding birth and birth-related knowledge.

  15. Safer motherhood.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    Of the 500,000 maternal deaths that are recorded each year, 300,000 take place in South and West Asia, 150,000 in Africa, 34,000 in Latin America, and 12,000 in East Asia. Only 6,000 deaths related to pregnancy and childbirth occur in developed countries each year. The lifetime chance of dying in childbirth in a developing country ranges from 1 in 15 to 1 in 70, in marked contrast to the 1 in 3000 to 1 in 10,000 risk in developed countries. The most common medical causes of maternal mortality in Third World countries are hemorrhage, infection, and toxemia. Locations where access to health care is limited have high death rates attributable to obstructed labor and its complications. The poor nutritional status of women in developing countries is a contributing factor to maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. It has been estimated that 63-80% of direct maternal deaths and 88-98% of all maternal deaths could be avoided with proper health care. However, less than 50% of births in developing countries are attended by a physician, nurse, midwife, or trained traditional birth attendant and fewer than 50% of the women in some countries attend even 1 prenatal consultation with a trained person. Although the immediate causes of maternal deaths are generally medical factors, there are usually underlying socioeconomic causes such as poverty, malnutrition, place of residence, educational level, and women's status. Better education, special health programs directed toward men and the community, and more effective use of the media could help promote the socioeconomic changes necessary to enhance women's status. Improved access to maternal health and child spacing services can also be established through training traditional birth attendants, especially in the recognition and referral of complications of pregnancy and delivery. Also needed is the avoidance of unwanted pregnancy through the effective use of contraception. According to World Bank calculations, developing

  16. DESIGN OF NIDA CTN PROTOCOL 0047: SCREENING, MOTIVATIONAL ASSESSMENT, REFERRAL, AND TREATMENT IN EMERGENCY DEPARTMENTS (SMART-ED)

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Dennis M.; Adinoff, Bryon; Crandall, Cameron; Forcehimes, Alyssa A.; Lindblad, Robert; Mandler, Raul N.; Oden, Neal; Perl, Harold I.; Walker, Robrina

    2011-01-01

    Background Medical settings such as emergency departments (EDs) present an opportunity to identify and provide services for individuals with substance use problems who might otherwise never receive any form of assessment, referral, or intervention. Although Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) models have been extensively studied and are considered effective for individuals with alcohol problems presenting in emergency departments and other medical settings, the efficacy of such interventions has not been established for drug users presenting in EDs. Objectives This paper describes the design of a NIDA Clinical Trials Network protocol testing the efficacy of an SBIRT model in medical EDs, highlighting considerations that that are pertinent to the design of other studies targeting substance use behaviors in medical treatment settings. Methods The protocol is described, and critical design decisions are discussed. Results Design challenges included defining treatment conditions, study population, and site characteristics; developing the screening process; choosing the primary outcome; balancing brevity and comprehensiveness of assessment; and selecting the strategy for statistical analysis. Conclusion Many of the issues arising in the design of this study will be relevant to future studies of interventions for addictions in medical settings. Scientific Significance Optimal trial design is critical to determining how best to integrate substance abuse interventions into medical care. PMID:21854285

  17. Women's perceptions of the quality of emergency obstetric care in a referral hospital in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Stal, Karen Berit; Pallangyo, Pedro; van Elteren, Marianne; van den Akker, Thomas; van Roosmalen, Jos; Nyamtema, Angelo

    2015-07-01

    To assess perceptions of the quality of obstetric care of women who delivered in a rural Tanzanian referral hospital. A descriptive-exploratory qualitative study, using semistructured in-depth interviews and participatory observation. Nineteen recently delivered women and 3 health workers were interviewed. Although most women held positive views about the care they received in hospital, several participants expressed major concerns about negative attitudes of healthcare workers. Lack of medical communication given by care providers constituted a major complaint. A more positive attitude by health workers and the provision of adequate medical information may promote a more positive hospital experience of women in need of obstetric care and enhance attendance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. SaferProducts.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Register & Respond Search Recalls & Reports About Questions Welcome Consumers Report your unsafe product on SaferProducts.gov. Tell ... adequacy of the contents of the Publicly Available Consumer Product Safety Information Database on SaferProducts.gov, particularly ...

  19. SCREENING, BRIEF INTERVENTION AND REFERRAL TO TREATMENT (SBIRT) IN A POLISH EMERGENCY ROOM: CHALLENGES IN CULTURAL TRANSLATION OF SBIRT.

    PubMed

    Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Bernstein, Edward; Bernstein, Judith; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Swiatkiewicz, Grazyna

    2009-09-01

    A randomized clinical controlled trial of screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT) for drinking and related problems among at-risk and dependent drinkers, using nurse interventionists, was undertaken in an emergency room (ER) in Sosnowiec, Poland, the first level-one trauma center in that country. This study was the first outside of the U.S. to test protocols developed in a 14-site collaborative SBIRT study. Because Poland has both a pattern of heavy drinking and a highly accessible specialized alcohol treatment system, it offered a key setting for cultural translation of SBIRT to the international context of a new and emerging health care system. It also offered the opportunity to test the effectiveness of SBIRT with both at-risk and dependent drinkers, and to test the feasibility of using ER nursing staff to provide the brief intervention, serving as a potential model for ongoing implementation of SBIRT in ER settings. Findings suggest that the U.S.-based SBIRT protocols can be successfully translated to other cultures, and that nurses can be successfully trained to provide brief intervention for problem drinking in the ER setting.

  20. SCREENING, BRIEF INTERVENTION AND REFERRAL TO TREATMENT (SBIRT) IN A POLISH EMERGENCY ROOM: CHALLENGES IN CULTURAL TRANSLATION OF SBIRT

    PubMed Central

    Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Bernstein, Edward; Bernstein, Judith; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Swiatkiewicz, Grazyna

    2009-01-01

    A randomized clinical controlled trial of screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT) for drinking and related problems among at-risk and dependent drinkers, using nurse interventionists, was undertaken in an emergency room (ER) in Sosnowiec, Poland, the first level-one trauma center in that country. This study was the first outside of the U.S. to test protocols developed in a 14-site collaborative SBIRT study. Because Poland has both a pattern of heavy drinking and a highly accessible specialized alcohol treatment system, it offered a key setting for cultural translation of SBIRT to the international context of a new and emerging health care system. It also offered the opportunity to test the effectiveness of SBIRT with both at-risk and dependent drinkers, and to test the feasibility of using ER nursing staff to provide the brief intervention, serving as a potential model for ongoing implementation of SBIRT in ER settings. Findings suggest that the U.S.-based SBIRT protocols can be successfully translated to other cultures, and that nurses can be successfully trained to provide brief intervention for problem drinking in the ER setting. PMID:20046538

  1. The burden of bone, native joint and soft tissue infections on orthopaedic emergency referrals in a city hospital.

    PubMed

    Howell, A; Parker, S; Tsitskaris, K; Oddy, M J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bone, native joint and soft tissue infections are frequently referred to orthopaedic units although their volume as a proportion of the total emergency workload has not been reported previously. Geographic and socioeconomic variation may influence their presentation. The aim of this study was to quantify the burden of such infections on the orthopaedic department in an inner city hospital, determine patient demographics and associated risk factors, and review our current utilisation of specialist services. Methods All cases involving bone, native joint and soft tissue infections admitted under or referred to the orthopaedic team throughout 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. Prosthetic joint infections were excluded. Results Almost 15% of emergency admissions and referrals were associated with bone, native joint or soft tissue infection or suspected infection. The cohort consisted of 169 patients with a mean age of 43 years (range: 1-91 years). The most common diagnosis was cellulitis/other soft tissue infection and the mean length of stay was 13 days. Two-thirds of patients (n=112, 66%) underwent an operation. Fifteen per cent of patients were carrying at least one blood borne virus, eleven per cent were alcohol dependent, fifteen per cent were using or had been using intravenous drugs and nine per cent were homeless or vulnerably housed. Conclusions This study has shown that a significant number of patients are admitted for orthopaedic care as a result of infection. These patients are relatively young, with multiple complex medical and social co-morbidities, and a long length of stay.

  2. Ophthalmic referrals from emergency wards-a study of cases referred for urgent eye care (The R.E.S.C.U.E Study).

    PubMed

    Alangh, Manreet; Chaudhary, Varun; McLaughlin, Christopher; Chan, Brian; Mullen, Sarah J; Barbosa, Joshua

    2016-06-01

    To characterize emergency department (ED) referrals in order to identify the most common pathologies, compare accuracy of diagnosis, and measure correlation of visual acuity (VA) and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements between the ED and ophthalmology setting. Retrospective chart review of consecutive patients referred for an ocular emergency after hours to a tertiary care emergency eye clinic in Hamilton, Ontario, between February 17, 2015, and May 3, 2015 (n = 288). Variables extracted from the patients' charts included date of referral, age, sex, eye(s) under examination, VA at the time of referral, IOP at the time of the referral, site of referral, the referring physician's provisional diagnosis, VA at the time of the ophthalmologist consultation, IOP at the time of the ophthalmologist consultation, number of days between referral and ophthalmic consultation, and the ophthalmologist's diagnosis. Agreement between ED provisional diagnosis and ophthalmology was good at 79.4% when classified according to anatomic location of pathology. A strong correlation was found between VA measurements in the ED and ophthalmology setting (p < 0.001). IOP measurement was infrequently checked in ED and a significant difference existed between ER physician and ophthalmologist measurements (p = 0.010) where ophthalmology reported lower IOP. The 5 highest volume diagnoses in descending order were posterior vitreous detachment/vitreous syneresis, corneal abrasion, keratitis, anterior uveitis, and retinal tear/detachment. Visual acuity measurements in ED are reliable. IOP is infrequently checked in the ED and more unreliable when measured over 20 mm Hg. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The epidemiology and type of injuries seen at the accident and emergency unit of a Nigerian referral center

    PubMed Central

    Adoga, Adeyi A.; Ozoilo, Kenneth N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A plethora of injuries present at any accident and emergency unit, but the pattern of the injuries varies from region to region especially in ours with the increased ethno-religious clashes and terrorist attacks. This study aims to determine the epidemiology and type of injuries presenting to our center with the possibility of developing injury surveillance initiatives in our center and Nigeria as a whole. Materials and Methods: Injured patients consecutively presenting to the accident and emergency department of the Jos University Teaching Hospital within the period February 2011 to January 2012 were prospectively recorded. Results: A total of 720 injured patients admitted with an age range of 8 months to 75 years (mean = 37.9; SD = ±52.4), which consists of 544 males and 176 females giving a male to female ratio of 3.1:1. Patients aged 20-29 years were in the majority (n = 220, 30.6%) with peak incidences in the period of communal clashes. Injuries sustained from motorcycles were the highest (n = 248, 34.4%). Others were 160 (22.2%) in other vehicular and pedestrian injuries, machete (n = 128), gunshots (n = 92), burns (n = 36), bomb blast injuries (n = 16), fall from heights (n = 32) and miscellaneous (n = 8). Injuries sustained in communal clashes and terrorist attacks accounted for 236 (32.8%) presentations. The most common site of injury was the head (n = 30 4, 42.2%). Relatives, passersby and law enforcement agencies brought patients to the hospital with times between injury and presentation ranging from 1 h to 3 weeks. 40 (5.6%) patients were brought in dead. Conclusion: A collective effort - on the part of the government and the citizenry is required to ensure better outcomes and a safer society for all. PMID:24812451

  4. Determinants of out-of-hours service users' potentially inappropriate referral or non-referral to an emergency department: a retrospective cohort study in a local health authority, Veneto Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Toffanin, Roberto; Rigon, S; Sandonà, P; Carrara, T; Damiani, G; Baldo, V

    2016-01-01

    Background A growing presence of inappropriate patients has been recognised as one of the main factors influencing emergency department (ED) overcrowding, which is a very widespread problem all over the world. On the other hand, out-of-hours (OOH) physicians must avoid delaying the diagnostic and therapeutic course of patients with urgent medical conditions. The aim of this study was to analyse the appropriateness of patient management by OOH services, in terms of their potentially inappropriate referral or non-referral of non-emergency cases to the ED. Methods This was an observational retrospective cohort study based on data collected in 2011 by the local health authority No. 4 in the Veneto Region (Italy). After distinguishing between patients contacting the OOH service who were or were not referred to the ED, and checking for patients actually presenting to the ED within 24 hours thereafter, these patients’ medical management was judged as potentially appropriate or inappropriate. Results The analysis considered 22 662 OOH service contacts recorded in 2011. The cases of potentially inappropriate non-referral to the ED were 392 (1.7% of all contacts), as opposed to 1207 potentially inappropriate referrals (5.3% of all contacts). Age, nationality, type of disease and type of intervention by the OOH service were the main variables associated with the appropriateness of patient management. Conclusions These findings may be useful for pinpointing the factors associated with a potentially inappropriate patient management by OOH services and thus contribute to improving the deployment of healthcare and the quality of care delivered by OOH services. PMID:27503862

  5. Determinants of out-of-hours service users' potentially inappropriate referral or non-referral to an emergency department: a retrospective cohort study in a local health authority, Veneto Region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Buja, Alessandra; Toffanin, Roberto; Rigon, S; Sandonà, P; Carrara, T; Damiani, G; Baldo, V

    2016-08-08

    A growing presence of inappropriate patients has been recognised as one of the main factors influencing emergency department (ED) overcrowding, which is a very widespread problem all over the world. On the other hand, out-of-hours (OOH) physicians must avoid delaying the diagnostic and therapeutic course of patients with urgent medical conditions. The aim of this study was to analyse the appropriateness of patient management by OOH services, in terms of their potentially inappropriate referral or non-referral of non-emergency cases to the ED. This was an observational retrospective cohort study based on data collected in 2011 by the local health authority No. 4 in the Veneto Region (Italy). After distinguishing between patients contacting the OOH service who were or were not referred to the ED, and checking for patients actually presenting to the ED within 24 hours thereafter, these patients' medical management was judged as potentially appropriate or inappropriate. The analysis considered 22 662 OOH service contacts recorded in 2011. The cases of potentially inappropriate non-referral to the ED were 392 (1.7% of all contacts), as opposed to 1207 potentially inappropriate referrals (5.3% of all contacts). Age, nationality, type of disease and type of intervention by the OOH service were the main variables associated with the appropriateness of patient management. These findings may be useful for pinpointing the factors associated with a potentially inappropriate patient management by OOH services and thus contribute to improving the deployment of healthcare and the quality of care delivered by OOH services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. STS-64 SAFER Assembly

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-12-10

    S93-50137 (December 1993) --- This small mobility-aiding back harness, complemented in extravehicular activity (EVA) with a hand controller unit and called the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system, will get extensive in-space evaluation and testing during the STS-64 mission. In this view the SAFER is open to reveal the gas supply and thrusters. SAFER is to fly on STS-76 as well.

  7. Barriers to providing quality emergency obstetric care in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Healthcare providers' perspectives on training, referrals and supervision, a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Austin, Anne; Gulema, Hanna; Belizan, Maria; Colaci, Daniela S; Kendall, Tamil; Tebeka, Mahlet; Hailemariam, Mengistu; Bekele, Delayehu; Tadesse, Lia; Berhane, Yemane; Langer, Ana

    2015-03-29

    Increasing women's access to and use of facilities for childbirth is a critical national strategy to improve maternal health outcomes in Ethiopia; however coverage alone is not enough as the quality of emergency obstetric services affects maternal mortality and morbidity. Addis Ababa has a much higher proportion of facility-based births (82%) than the national average (11%), but timely provision of quality emergency obstetric care remains a significant challenge for reducing maternal mortality and improving maternal health. The purpose of this study was to assess barriers to the provision of emergency obstetric care in Addis Ababa from the perspective of healthcare providers by analyzing three factors: implementation of national referral guidelines, staff training, and staff supervision. A mixed methods approach was used to assess barriers to quality emergency obstetric care. Qualitative analyses included twenty-nine, semi-structured, key informant interviews with providers from an urban referral network consisting of a hospital and seven health centers. Quantitative survey data were collected from 111 providers, 80% (111/138) of those providing maternal health services in the same referral network. Respondents identified a lack of transportation and communication infrastructure, overcrowding at the referral hospital, insufficient pre-service and in-service training, and absence of supportive supervision as key barriers to provision of quality emergency obstetric care. Dedicated transportation and communication infrastructure, improvements in pre-service and in-service training, and supportive supervision are needed to maximize the effective use of existing human resources and infrastructure, thus increasing access to and the provision of timely, high quality emergency obstetric care in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

  8. Incidence and Etiology of Surgical Site Infections among Emergency Postoperative Patients in Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, South Western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Lubega, Abubaker; Joel, Bazira; Justina Lucy, Najjuka

    2017-01-01

    Background. This prospective hospital based study was conducted to determine the incidence, risk factors, and causative agents of surgical site infection their susceptibility to among 114 emergency postoperative patients at the Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital between September 2014 and January 2015. Methods. Consented patients were consecutively enrolled and their preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data were collected. Follow-ups were done in the surgical outpatient clinics. Wound specimens were collected and processed as per Sops; susceptibility testing was done using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. Data was analyzed using STATA 11.0. Results. Overall SSI incidence was 16.4%: 5.9% superficial and 47.1% deep and organ space SSIs each. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most predominant organism (50%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (27.8%). E. coli and P. aeruginosa both accounted for 11.1%. Wound class (p = 0.009), anaemia (p = 0.024), low serum albumin (p = 0.046), and property of suture material used (p = 0.006) were significantly associated with SSIs. All organisms had 100% resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, septrin, and erythromycin. Ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone are highly sensitive to all organisms. Conclusion. The incidence of SSI in this hospital is very high. Klebsiella pneumoniae is the predominant cause. Ciprofloxacin are very potent antibiotics against organisms that cause SSI.

  9. Incidence and Etiology of Surgical Site Infections among Emergency Postoperative Patients in Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, South Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Joel, Bazira; Justina Lucy, Najjuka

    2017-01-01

    Background. This prospective hospital based study was conducted to determine the incidence, risk factors, and causative agents of surgical site infection their susceptibility to among 114 emergency postoperative patients at the Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital between September 2014 and January 2015. Methods. Consented patients were consecutively enrolled and their preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data were collected. Follow-ups were done in the surgical outpatient clinics. Wound specimens were collected and processed as per Sops; susceptibility testing was done using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. Data was analyzed using STATA 11.0. Results. Overall SSI incidence was 16.4%: 5.9% superficial and 47.1% deep and organ space SSIs each. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most predominant organism (50%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (27.8%). E. coli and P. aeruginosa both accounted for 11.1%. Wound class (p = 0.009), anaemia (p = 0.024), low serum albumin (p = 0.046), and property of suture material used (p = 0.006) were significantly associated with SSIs. All organisms had 100% resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, septrin, and erythromycin. Ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone are highly sensitive to all organisms. Conclusion. The incidence of SSI in this hospital is very high. Klebsiella pneumoniae is the predominant cause. Ciprofloxacin are very potent antibiotics against organisms that cause SSI. PMID:28168215

  10. Emergency department waiting room: many requests, many insured and many primary care physician referrals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increase in waiting time often results in patients leaving the emergency department (ED) without being seen, ultimately decreasing patient satisfaction. We surveyed low-acuity patients in the ED waiting room to understand their preferences and expectations. Methods An IRB approved, 42-item survey was administered to 400 adult patients waiting in the ED waiting room for >15 min from April to August 2010. Demographics, visit reasons, triage and waiting room facility preferences were collected. Results The mean age of patients was 38.9 years (SD = 14.8), and 52.5% were females. About 53.8% of patients were employed, 79.4% had access to a primary care physician (PCP), and 17% did not have any medical insurance. The most common complaint was pain. A total of 44.4% respondents reported that they believed their problems were urgent and required immediate attention, prompting them to come to the ED, while 14.6% reported that they could not get a timely PCP appointment, and 42.9% were actually referred by their PCP to come to the ED. About 57.7% of patients considered leaving the ED if the waiting times were too long. The mean acceptable waiting time before leaving ED was 221 min (SD = 194; median 180 min, IQR 120–270). A total of 39.1% survey respondents reported being most comfortable being triaged by a physician. Respondents were least comfortable being triaged by residents. On analyzing waiting room expectations for the survey respondents, we found that 70% of the subjects wanted a better estimate of waiting time and 43.5% wanted better information on reasons for the long wait. Conclusion Contrary to popular belief, at our ED a large proportion of low-acuity patients has a PCP and is medically insured. Providing patients with appropriate reasons for the wait, an accurate estimate of waiting time and creating separate areas to examine minor illness/injuries would increase patient satisfaction within our population subset. PMID:24083339

  11. Referral for psychological therapy of people with long term conditions improves adherence to antidepressants and reduces emergency department attendance: Controlled before and after study

    PubMed Central

    de Lusignan, Simon; Chan, Tom; Tejerina Arreal, Maria C.; Parry, Glenys; Dent-Brown, Kim; Kendrick, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Background Referral to psychological therapies is recommended for people with common mental health problems (CMHP) however its impact on healthcare utilisation in people with long term conditions (LTCs) is not known. Method Routinely collected primary care, psychological therapy clinic and hospital data were extracted for the registered population of 20 practices (N = 121199). These data were linked using the SAPREL (Secure and Private Record Linkage) method. We linked the 1118 people referred to psychological therapies with 6711 controls, matched for age, gender and practice. We compared utilisation of healthcare resources by people with LTCs, 6 months before and after referral, and conducted a controlled before and after study to compare health utilisation with controls. We made the assumption that collection of a greater number of repeat prescriptions for antidepressants was associated with greater adherence. Results Overall 21.8% of people with an LTC had CMHP vs. 18.8% without (p < 0.001). People with LTCs before referral were more likely to use health care resources (2-tailed t-test p < 0.001). Cases with LTCs showed referral to the psychological therapies clinic was associated with increased antidepressant medication prescribing (mean differences 0.62, p < 0.001) and less use of emergency department than controls (mean difference −0.21, p = 0.003). Conclusions Referral to improved access to psychological therapies (IAPT) services appears of value to people with LTC. It is associated with the issue of a greater number of prescriptions for anti-depressant medicines and less use of emergency services. Further studies are needed to explore bed occupancy and outpatient attendance. PMID:23639304

  12. The Cost-effectiveness of Alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) in Emergency and Outpatient Medical Settings.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Carolina; Cowell, Alexander; Bray, Jeremy; Aldridge, Arnie

    2015-06-01

    This study analyzed the cost-effectiveness of delivering alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) in emergency departments (ED) when compared to outpatient medical settings. A probabilistic decision analytic tree categorized patients into health states. Utility weights and social costs were assigned to each health state. Health outcome measures were the proportion of patients not drinking above threshold levels at follow-up, the proportion of patients transitioning from above threshold levels at baseline to abstinent or below threshold levels at follow-up, and the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Expected costs under a provider perspective were the marginal costs of SBIRT, and under a societal perspective were the sum of SBIRT cost per patient and the change in social costs. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were computed. When considering provider costs only, compared to outpatient, SBIRT in ED cost $8.63 less, generated 0.005 more QALYs per patient, and resulted in 13.8% more patients drinking below threshold levels. Sensitivity analyses in which patients were assumed to receive a fixed number of treatment sessions that met clinical sites' guidelines made SBIRT more expensive in ED than outpatient; the ED remained more effective. In this sensitivity analysis, the ED was the most cost-effective setting if decision makers were willing to pay more than $1500 per QALY gained. Alcohol SBIRT generates costs savings and improves health in both ED and outpatient settings. EDs provide better effectiveness at a lower cost and greater social cost reductions than outpatient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Acute myocardial infarction. Experiences of the referral network of the Beaujon and Bichat hospitals (with the collaboration of the Emergency Medical and Resuscitation Service of Beaujon)].

    PubMed

    Logeart, D; Gace, A; Himbert, D; Ricard-Hibon, A; Cohen-Solal, A; Gourgon, R

    Hospital management of acute myocardial infarction raises many problems in terms of medical care and organization, especially concerning the use or not of emergency corongraphy and angiography. We assessed the pertinence and consequences of a referral network operating between two cardiology units at the Beaujon and Bichat hospitals in Paris. All interventional procedures were performed at the Bichat unit. Prehospital emergency care units were integrated into the exprience and informed of indications for first line coronarography. All cases of myocardial infarction admitted within 6 hours to the two units between 1993 to 1996 were analyzed and compared. Indications for referral from Beaujon to Bichat for emergency coronarography and possible angioplasy declined from 21% in 1993 to 10% in 1996. This decline was particularly noteworthy for first intention indications suggesting improved prehospital selection since the number of cases of acute myocardial infarction admitted to Beaujon remained unchanged. Certain patient characteristics differed between the two units: age (68.4 +/- 12.9 years at Beaujon versus 60.5 +/- 13.6 years at Bichat in 1996, p < 0.01) and reperfusion attempts (73% versus 90% in 1996 respectively, p < 0.01). The rate of fatal and non-fatal events were not different: 40 and 40% at Beaujon and 38 and 28% at Bichat in 1993 and 1996 respectively. These findings demonstrate that a management network can operate effectively between two hospital cardiology units and emergency care structures, allowing better patient selection for emergency coronography and possible angioplasty.

  14. Barriers to referral for elevated blood pressure in the emergency department and differences between provider-type

    PubMed Central

    Souffront, Kimberly; Chyun, Deborah; Kovner, Christine

    2015-01-01

    A multidisciplinary sample of ED providers across the United States (n = 450) were surveyed to identify barriers to referral for elevated blood pressure (BP) in the ED and differences between provider-type. RNs reported less knowledge of Stage I HTN (p = .043) and Pre-HTN (p<.01); were less aware of definitions for HTN (p<.001); reported more difficulty caring for patients who are asymptomatic (p = .007); required financial compensation to refer (p = .048); and perceived BP referrals are influenced by the medical director (p<.001). MDs reported more skills to refer (p = .008) and time as a barrier (p = .038); PAs were more likely to report patients are not aware of health benefits (p = .035) and doubted their concern for their BP (p = .023); and felt emotionally uncomfortable when referring (p = .025). Despite these differences, there was no significant difference between provider-type and referral. PMID:25582763

  15. Refusing to Be Excluded: Finding Ways of Integrating Psychotherapeutic Modalities to the Emerging Needs of a Pupil Referral Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malberg, Norka T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the application of child psychotherapy, its theory and practice, in a Pupil Referral Unit (PRU). It examines the importance of a flexible approach to outreach work and the implementation of interventions that take into consideration both the internal and the external world of the adolescent. Furthermore, the process of…

  16. [Negotiating safer sex].

    PubMed

    Gordon, G; Charnock, D

    1991-01-01

    Women have generally assumed responsibility for contraception since the appearance of oral contraceptives and IUDs. But AIDS prevention programs are now asking women to assume responsibility for safer sex through use of condoms, a male method. Women are being asked to carry condoms, to negotiate their use each time they have sex, and to insist if the partner resists. The problem with this strategy is that frequently it is the male partner who makes sexual decisions, and women have less negotiating power. Women are considered feminine if they assume a passive role in sexual activity. This work suggests strategies to improve the negotiating power of women. Options and problems of speaking about safer sex vary in accordance with the nature of the relationship. A woman with a new partner can try to ascertain his sexual history, but may gain no information on his probable health even if he tells her the truth. It may be easier to convince him to use a condom at least in the beginning of the romance. Women working in the sex industry often have greater trouble convincing their friends and lovers to use a condom than their clients. Some family planning workers have begun to speak of safer sex with all their clients. Role playing and workshops or discussions with small groups of women having similar problems may help women overcome their reticence about discussing sexual topics. Some general suggestions to help women negotiate safer sex include choosing an opportune moment and planning in advance what to say; daring to speak directly without beating around the bush (the partner may also be gathering courage to speak); practicing placing condoms on objects and if necessary placing one on the partner without speaking; being honest with the partner about sex, love, and fidelity; and remembering that protection from condoms is mutual given that it is not possible to know who is infected. Until now, programs to help women practice safer sex have concentrated on sex industry

  17. The impact of continuity of care on emergency room use in a health care system without referral management: an instrumental variable approach.

    PubMed

    Pu, Christy; Chou, Yiing-Jenq

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether continuity of care (COC) is beneficial in national health care systems without referral management by controlling for endogeneity of COC. We used National Health Insurance (Taiwan) claims data from 2008, encompassing approximately 23 million people, to determine whether COC is associated with reduced emergency room (ER) use by hypertension and diabetic patients in 2009. We used an instrumental variable approach to account for endogeneity associated with patients' COC levels. After controlling for endogeneity, the marginal effect of COC on ER use probability when the COC score increased from 0 to 1 was 7.6% (P < .001) and 14.8% (P < .001) for hypertension and diabetic patients, respectively. We determined that COC is more effective for reducing ER use than are models that assume that COC is exogenous. It has been argued that in many countries, health care systems without referral management encourage physician shopping and hinder physician-patient communication. However, there are benefits to disease-specific COC. Because current estimations have failed to take endogeneity biases into account, COC is more effective than is currently assumed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reducing rural maternal mortality and the equity gap in northern Nigeria: the public health evidence for the Community Communication Emergency Referral strategy.

    PubMed

    Aradeon, Susan B; Doctor, Henry V

    2016-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) maternal mortality target risks being underachieved like its Millennium Development Goal (MDG) predecessor. The MDG skilled birth attendant (SBA) strategy proved inadequate to end preventable maternal deaths for the millions of rural women living in resource-constrained settings. This equity gap has been successfully addressed by integrating a community-based emergency obstetric care strategy into the intrapartum care SBA delivery strategy in a large scale, northern Nigerian health systems strengthening project. The Community Communication Emergency Referral (CCER) strategy catalyzes community capacity for timely evacuations to emergency obstetric care facilities instead of promoting SBA deliveries in environments where SBA availability and accessibility will remain inadequate for the near and medium term. Community Communication is an innovative, efficient, equitable, and culturally appropriate community mobilization approach that empowers low- and nonliterate community members to become the communicators. For the CCER strategy, this community mobilization approach was used to establish and maintain emergency maternal care support structures. Public health evidence demonstrates the success of integrating the CCER strategy into the SBA strategy and the practicability of this combined strategy at scale. In intervention sites, the maternal mortality ratio reduced by 16.8% from extremely high levels within 4 years. Significantly, the CCER strategy contributed to saving one-third of the lives saved in the project sites, thereby maximizing the effectiveness of the SBAs and upgraded emergency obstetric care facilities. Pre- and postimplementation Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Survey results and qualitative assessments support the CCER theory of change. This theory of change rests on a set of implementation steps that rely on three innovative components: Community Communication, Rapid Imitation Practice, and CCER support

  19. Reducing rural maternal mortality and the equity gap in northern Nigeria: the public health evidence for the Community Communication Emergency Referral strategy

    PubMed Central

    Aradeon, Susan B; Doctor, Henry V

    2016-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) maternal mortality target risks being underachieved like its Millennium Development Goal (MDG) predecessor. The MDG skilled birth attendant (SBA) strategy proved inadequate to end preventable maternal deaths for the millions of rural women living in resource-constrained settings. This equity gap has been successfully addressed by integrating a community-based emergency obstetric care strategy into the intrapartum care SBA delivery strategy in a large scale, northern Nigerian health systems strengthening project. The Community Communication Emergency Referral (CCER) strategy catalyzes community capacity for timely evacuations to emergency obstetric care facilities instead of promoting SBA deliveries in environments where SBA availability and accessibility will remain inadequate for the near and medium term. Community Communication is an innovative, efficient, equitable, and culturally appropriate community mobilization approach that empowers low- and nonliterate community members to become the communicators. For the CCER strategy, this community mobilization approach was used to establish and maintain emergency maternal care support structures. Public health evidence demonstrates the success of integrating the CCER strategy into the SBA strategy and the practicability of this combined strategy at scale. In intervention sites, the maternal mortality ratio reduced by 16.8% from extremely high levels within 4 years. Significantly, the CCER strategy contributed to saving one-third of the lives saved in the project sites, thereby maximizing the effectiveness of the SBAs and upgraded emergency obstetric care facilities. Pre- and postimplementation Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Survey results and qualitative assessments support the CCER theory of change. This theory of change rests on a set of implementation steps that rely on three innovative components: Community Communication, Rapid Imitation Practice, and CCER support

  20. Student-selected component in the medical curriculum: investigations and psychiatric referral for paracetamol overdose in an accident and emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Cowman, James G; Bakheet, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Background A student-selected component (SSC) of the medical curriculum requires the student to be self-directed in locating and undertaking a placement in a clinical specialty of their choosing and completing a project. The clinical area for experience was an accident and emergency department, and our topic was a focused audit on the investigations and referral for paracetamol overdose. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to reflect on the education value to medical students of an SSC in a medical curriculum, and to highlight learning and understanding through completion of an audit. Materials and methods An audit approach was applied. The aim of the project study was to investigate the level of compliance with best-practice guidelines for investigations and psychiatric referral in paracetamol overdose. Results A total of 40 cases meeting the inclusion criteria were randomly selected. The sample had a mean age of 27 years, of whom 70.5% were female, and the ingested dose of paracetamol ranged from 0.864 to 80 g. Paracetamol abuse may present as intentional and unintentional overdose. In our study, 85% of cases were identified as intentional overdose and 76% had a history of psychiatric illness. Generally, medical management was compliant with guidelines, with some minor irregularities. The international normalized ratio was the most underperformed test. Conclusion Our choice of topic, paracetamol overdose, contributed to our understanding of the breadth of factors to be considered in the emergency medical management of a patient. In this regard, we had the benefit of understanding how the diagnostic and therapeutic factors, when applied in accordance with best-practice guidelines, work very effectively. The SSC impacted positively on our cognitive, personal, and professional development. In facilitating the student with choice, the SSC encouraged self-direction and proactivity. We gained experience in the discipline of research and acquired some skills in

  1. Student-selected component in the medical curriculum: investigations and psychiatric referral for paracetamol overdose in an accident and emergency department.

    PubMed

    Cowman, James G; Bakheet, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    A student-selected component (SSC) of the medical curriculum requires the student to be self-directed in locating and undertaking a placement in a clinical specialty of their choosing and completing a project. The clinical area for experience was an accident and emergency department, and our topic was a focused audit on the investigations and referral for paracetamol overdose. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to reflect on the education value to medical students of an SSC in a medical curriculum, and to highlight learning and understanding through completion of an audit. An audit approach was applied. The aim of the project study was to investigate the level of compliance with best-practice guidelines for investigations and psychiatric referral in paracetamol overdose. A total of 40 cases meeting the inclusion criteria were randomly selected. The sample had a mean age of 27 years, of whom 70.5% were female, and the ingested dose of paracetamol ranged from 0.864 to 80 g. Paracetamol abuse may present as intentional and unintentional overdose. In our study, 85% of cases were identified as intentional overdose and 76% had a history of psychiatric illness. Generally, medical management was compliant with guidelines, with some minor irregularities. The international normalized ratio was the most underperformed test. Our choice of topic, paracetamol overdose, contributed to our understanding of the breadth of factors to be considered in the emergency medical management of a patient. In this regard, we had the benefit of understanding how the diagnostic and therapeutic factors, when applied in accordance with best-practice guidelines, work very effectively. The SSC impacted positively on our cognitive, personal, and professional development. In facilitating the student with choice, the SSC encouraged self-direction and proactivity. We gained experience in the discipline of research and acquired some skills in independent thinking and analysis.

  2. The Impact of Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral for Treatment in Emergency Department Patients’ Alcohol Use: A 3-, 6- and 12-month Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Aims: This study aims to determine the impact of Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral for Treatment (SBIRT) in reducing alcohol consumption in emergency department (ED) patients at 3, 6, and 12 months following exposure to the intervention. Methods: Patients drinking above the low-risk limits (at-risk to dependence), as defined by National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), were recruited from 14 sites nationwide from April to August 2004. A quasi-experimental comparison group design included sequential recruitment of intervention and control patients at each site. Control patients received a written handout. The Intervention group received the handout and participated in a brief negotiated interview with direct referral for treatment if indicated. Follow-up surveys were conducted at 3, 6, and 12 months by telephone using an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system. Results: Of the 1132 eligible patients consented and enrolled (581 control, 551 intervention), 699 (63%), 575 (52%) and 433 (38%) completed follow-up surveys via IVR at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Regression analysis adjusting for the clustered sampling design and using multiple imputation procedures to account for subject attrition revealed that those receiving SBIRT reported roughly three drinks less per week than controls (B = −3.00, SE = 1.06, P < 0.05) and the level of maximum drinks per occasion was approximately three-fourths of a drink less than controls (B = -0.76, SE = 0.29, P < 0.05) at 3 months. At 6 and 12 months post-intervention, these effects had weakened considerably and were no longer statistically or substantively significant. Conclusion: SBIRT delivered by ED providers appears to have short-term effectiveness in reducing at-risk drinking, but multi-contact interventions or booster programs may be necessary to maintain long-term reductions in risky drinking. PMID:20876217

  3. An evidence based alcohol screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT) curriculum for emergency department (ED) providers improves skills and utilization.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Edward; Bernstein, Judith; Feldman, James; Fernandez, William; Hagan, Melissa; Mitchell, Patricia; Safi, Clara; Woolard, Robert; Mello, Mike; Baird, Janette; Lee, Christina; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Broderick, Kerry; Laperrier, Kathryn A; Kellermann, Arthur; Wald, Marlena M; Taylor, Robert E; Walton, Kim; Grant-Ervin, Michelle; Rollinson, Denise; Edwards, David; Chan, Theodore; Davis, Dan; Buchanan Marshall, Jean; Aseltine, Robert; James, Amy; Schilling, Elizabeth; Abu-Hasaballah, Khamis; Baumann, Brigitte M; Boudreaux, Edwin D; Maio, Ronald F; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Murrell, Teresa; Doezema, David; Anglin, Deirdre; Eliassen, Adriana; Martin, Marcus; Pines, Jesse; Buchanan, Leslie; Turner, James; D'Onofrio, Gail; Degutis, Linda C; Owens, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Emergency Departments (EDs) offer an opportunity to improve the care of patients with at-risk and dependent drinking by teaching staff to screen, perform brief intervention and refer to treatment (SBIRT). We describe here the implementation at 14 Academic EDs of a structured SBIRT curriculum to determine if this learning experience improves provider beliefs and practices. ED faculty, residents, nurses, physician extenders, social workers, and Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) were surveyed prior to participating in either a two hour interactive workshops with case simulations, or a web-based program (www.ed.bmc.org/sbirt). A pre-post repeated measures design assessed changes in provider beliefs and practices at three and 12 months post-exposure. Among 402 ED providers, 74% reported < 10 hours of prior professional alcohol-related education and 78% had < 2 hours exposure in the previous year. At 3-month follow-up, scores for self-reported confidence in ability, responsibility to intervene, and actual utilization of SBIRT skills all improved significantly over baseline. Gains decreased somewhat at 12 months, but remained above baseline. Length of time in practice was positively associated with SBIRT utilization, controlling for gender, race and type of profession. Persistent barriers included time limitations and lack of referral resources. ED providers respond favorably to SBIRT. Changes in utilization were substantial at three months post-exposure to a standardized curriculum, but less apparent after 12 months. Booster sessions, trained assistants and infrastructure supports may be needed to sustain changes over the longer term.

  4. Does a pre-hospital emergency pathway improve early diagnosis and referral in suspected stroke patients? – Study protocol of a cluster randomised trial [ISRCTN41456865

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Marica; De Luca, Assunta; Rossi, Paolo Giorgi; Lori, Giuliano; Guasticchi, Gabriella

    2005-01-01

    Background Early interventions proved to be able to improve prognosis in acute stroke patients. Prompt identification of symptoms, organised timely and efficient transportation towards appropriate facilities, become essential part of effective treatment. The implementation of an evidence based pre-hospital stroke care pathway may be a method for achieving the organizational standards required to grant appropriate care. We performed a systematic search for studies evaluating the effect of pre-hospital and emergency interventions for suspected stroke patients and we found that there seems to be only a few studies on the emergency field and none about implementation of clinical pathways. We will test the hypothesis that the adoption of emergency clinical pathway improves early diagnosis and referral in suspected stroke patients. We designed a cluster randomised controlled trial (C-RCT), the most powerful study design to assess the impact of complex interventions. The study was registered in the Current Controlled Trials Register: ISRCTN41456865 – Implementation of pre-hospital emergency pathway for stroke – a cluster randomised trial. Methods/design Two-arm cluster-randomised trial (C-RCT). 16 emergency services and 14 emergency rooms were randomised either to arm 1 (comprising a training module and administration of the guideline), or to arm 2 (no intervention, current practice). Arm 1 participants (152 physicians, 280 nurses, 50 drivers) attended an interactive two sessions course with continuous medical education CME credits on the contents of the clinical pathway. We estimated that around 750 patients will be met by the services in the 6 months of observation. This duration allows recruiting a sample of patients sufficient to observe a 30% improvement in the proportion of appropriate diagnoses. Data collection will be performed using current information systems. Process outcomes will be measured at the cluster level six months after the intervention. We will

  5. Safer Chemicals Research Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Chemical safety is a major priority of the U.S. EPA. Moving toward a healthier, more sustainable environment requires making safer, “greener” chemicals and producing new and existing chemicals in ways that are safer for humans and wildlife.

  6. Study design to examine the potential role of assessment reactivity in the Screening, Motivational Assessment, Referral, and Treatment in Emergency Departments (SMART-ED) protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) approaches to reducing hazardous alcohol and illicit drug use have been assessed in a variety of health care settings, including primary care, trauma centers, and emergency departments. A major methodological concern in these trials, however, is “assessment reactivity,” the hypothesized impact of intensive research assessments to reduce alcohol and drug use and thus mask the purported efficacy of the interventions under scrutiny. Thus, it has been recommended that prospective research designs take assessment reactivity into account. The present article describes the design of the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network protocol, Screening, Motivational Assessment, Referral, and Treatment in Emergency Departments (SMART-ED), which addresses the potential bias of assessment reactivity. Methods/design The protocol employs a 3-arm design. Following an initial brief screening, individuals identified as positive cases are consented, asked to provide demographic and locator information, and randomly assigned to one of the three conditions: minimal screening only, screening + assessment, or screening + assessment + brief intervention. In a two-stage process, the randomization procedure first reveals whether or not the participant will be in the minimal-screening-only condition. Participants in the other two groups receive a more extensive baseline assessment before it is revealed whether they have been randomized to also receive a brief intervention. Comparing the screening only and screening + assessment conditions will allow determination of the incremental effect of assessment reactivity. Discussion Assessment reactivity is a potential source of bias that may reduce and/or lead to an underestimation of the purported effectiveness of brief interventions. From a methodological perspective, it needs to be accounted for in research designs. The SMART-ED design

  7. Quantifying alcohol-related emergency admissions in a UK tertiary referral hospital: a cross-sectional study of chronic alcohol dependency and acute alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Vardy, J; Keliher, T; Fisher, J; Ritchie, F; Bell, C; Chekroud, M; Clarey, F; Blackwood, L; Barry, L; Paton, E; Clark, A; Connelly, R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Alcohol is responsible for a proportion of emergency admissions to hospital, with acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol dependency (CAD) implicated. This study aims to quantify the proportion of hospital admissions through our emergency department (ED) which were thought by the admitting doctor to be (largely or partially) a result of alcohol consumption. Setting ED of a UK tertiary referral hospital. Participants All ED admissions occurring over 14 weeks from 1 September to 8 December 2012. Data obtained for 5497 of 5746 admissions (95.67%). Primary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions related to alcohol as defined by the admitting ED clinician. Secondary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions due to alcohol diagnosed with acute alcohol intoxication or CAD according to ICD-10 criteria. Results 1152 (21.0%, 95% CI 19.9% to 22.0%) of emergency admissions were thought to be due to alcohol. 74.6% of patients admitted due to alcohol had CAD, and significantly greater than the 26.4% with ‘Severe’ or ‘Very Severe’ acute alcohol intoxication (p<0.001). Admissions due to alcohol differed to admissions not due to alcohol being on average younger (45 vs 56 years, p<0.001) more often male (73.4% vs 45.1% males, p<0.001) and more likely to have a diagnosis synonymous with alcohol or related to recreational drug use, pancreatitis, deliberate self-harm, head injury, gastritis, suicidal ideation, upper gastrointestinal bleeds or seizures (p<0.001). An increase in admissions due to alcohol on Saturdays reflects a surge in admissions with acute alcohol intoxication above the weekly average (p=0.003). Conclusions Alcohol was thought to be implicated in 21% of emergency admissions in this cohort. CAD is responsible for a significantly greater proportion of admissions due to alcohol than acute intoxication. Interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related admissions must incorporate measures to tackle CAD. PMID:27324707

  8. B-SAFER: A Web-Based Intervention for Drug Use and Intimate Partner Violence Demonstrates Feasibility and Acceptability Among Women in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Esther K.; Zlotnick, Caron; Strong, David R.; Squires, Daniel D.; Tapé, Chantal; Mello, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Addressing violence along with drug use change goals is critical for women with coexisting intimate partner violence (IPV) and substance use disorders (SUD). Methods This was an acceptability and feasibility study of BSAFER, a brief Web-based program and booster phone call addressing violence and drug use. A screening survey identified women with recent drug use and IPV in the emergency department (ED). Participants were randomized to BSAFER or a Web-based control program and booster call providing education about home fire safety. Program completion, usability, satisfaction and MI adherence were primary outcomes. Drug use and IPV outcomes were measured at baseline, one and three months. Results Forty women were enrolled (21 BSAFER, 19 control); 50% were non-white and mean age was 30 years. Most commonly used drugs were marijuana (88%) and cocaine (30%); 45% reported physical abuse and 33% severe combined physical and sexual abuse. Thirty-nine (98%) completed the Web program, 30 (75%) completed the booster, and 29 (73%) completed 3-month follow up. Mean System Usability Scale (SUS) for the BSAFER Web program was 84 (95% CI 78–89) of 100; mean Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8) was 28 (95% CI 26–29) of 32. MI adherence scores were high and similar for both the Web program and the booster. Both intervention and control groups had small mean decreases in weekly drug use days (0.7 days vs. 1.5 days); participants using drugs other than marijuana demonstrated greater average reductions in drug use than those using marijuana only. Conclusions An ED Web-based intervention for SUD and IPV in women demonstrated feasibility and acceptability. Future studies will examine efficacy of the BSAFER program and investigate whether specific subgroups of drug using women may be most responsive to ED-based Web interventions. PMID:26714233

  9. Reorganisation of acute referral to an emergency department resulted in fewer admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease but in higher rates of non-invasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Titlestad, Ingrid Louise; Bryde, Jonas; Øberg-Hansen, Bo; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2014-11-01

    We performed an audit on all admissions with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in ex-acerbation to the Department of Emergency Medicine, Odense University Hospital (DEM) in the second half of 2012 to evaluate if an organisational change had altered visitation, treatment, initiation of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and monitoring. We chose not to include the entire year to avoid data influenced by organisational start-up difficulties. The hypothesis was that NIV was initiated according to guidelines to the same extent as prior to the implementation of DEM. Data from medical records were retrieved from two COPD cohorts: 1) all patients admitted to DEM between 1 July and 31 December 2012 and 2) all patients admitted to the Medical Emergency Ward, Odense University Hospital (MEW) in 2010. There were 300 eligible admissions comprising 236 unique patients in DEM in the second half of 2012 compared with 393 admissions in MEW in the second half of 2010, a 24% reduction. The groups were similar in gender and age, but patients admitted in 2012 had higher registered co-morbidity rates, but no significant difference in lung function values. NIV was indicated in 91 admissions (30%) and initiated in 58 admissions (19.3%) in 2012. By comparison NIV was indicated in 193 admissions (24%) and initiated in 151 admissions (18.8%) in 2010. There was a statistically significant increase in NIV indication without initiation of treatment in 2012 (28 admissions; 9.3%) compared with 2010 (36 admissions; 4.5%), but no referrals to the intensive care unit or deaths were registered during the hospitalisation in either of the groups, but one patient died within 30 days after admission from the DEM. This project was funded by an Odense University Hospital research grant. The study was approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency (record no. 2011-41-6459).

  10. An Evidence-Based Alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) Curriculum for Emergency Department (ED) Providers Improves Skills and Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Edward; Bernstein, Judith; Feldman, James; Fernandez, William; Hagan, Melissa; Mitchell, Patricia; Safi, Clara; Woolard, Robert; Mello, Mike; Baird, Janette; Lee, Cristina; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Broderick, Kerry; LaPerrier, Kathryn A.; Kellermann, Arthur; Wald, Marlena M.; Taylor, Robert E.; Walton, Kim; Grant-Ervin, Michelle; Rollinson, Denise; Edwards, David; Chan, Theodore; Davis, Dan; Marshall, Jean Buchanan; Aseltine, Robert; James, Amy; Abu-Hasaballah, Khamis; Schilling, Elizabeth; Baumann, Brigitte M.; Boudreaux, Edwin D.; Maio, Ronald; Cunningham, Rebecca; Murrell, Teresa; Doezema, David; Bauer, Michael J.; Anglin, Deirdre; Eliassen, Adriana; Martin, Marcus; Pines, Jesse; Buchanan, Leslie; Turner, James; D'Onofrio, Gail; Degutis, Linda C.; Owens, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Emergency Departments (EDs) offer an opportunity to improve the care of patients with at-risk and dependent drinking by teaching staff to screen, perform brief intervention and refer to treatment (SBIRT). We describe here the implementation at 14 Academic EDs of a structured SBIRT curriculum to determine if this learning experience improves provider beliefs and practices. Methods ED faculty, residents, nurses, physician extenders, social workers, and Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) were surveyed prior to participating in either a two hour interactive workshops with case simulations, or a web-based program (www.ed.bmc.org/sbirt). A pre-post repeated measures design assessed changes in provider beliefs and practices at three and 12 months post-exposure. Results Among 402 ED providers, 74% reported < 10 hours of prior professional alcohol-related education and 78% had < 2 hours exposure in the previous year. At 3-month follow-up, scores for self-reported confidence in ability, responsibility to intervene, and actual utilization of SBIRT skills all improved significantly over baseline. Gains decreased somewhat at 12 months, but remained above baseline. Length of time in practice was positively associated with SBIRT utilization, controlling for gender, race and type of profession. Persistent barriers included time limitations and lack of referral resources. Conclusions ED providers respond favorably to SBIRT. Changes in utilization were substantial at three months post-exposure to a standardized curriculum, but less apparent after 12 months. Booster sessions, trained assistants and infrastructure supports may be needed to sustain changes over the longer term. PMID:18077305

  11. Is your plant inherently safer?

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, P.G.

    1996-07-01

    Managing process risk begins at the conceptual design stage. Using these guidelines, engineers can explore how to make existing and future plants inherently safer. Despite progress made in process design tools and development of industry standards for design, procurement and construction, the hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) struggles to improve the safety and operation of existing facilities. The paper discusses design standards and practices, plant design success stories, and achieving inherently safer plant designs.

  12. Adaptation of Screening, Brief Intervention, Referral to Treatment to Active Duty Military Personnel in an Emergency Department: Findings From a Formative Research Study.

    PubMed

    Holt, Megan; Reed, Mark; Woodruff, Susan I; DeMers, Gerard; Matteucci, Michael; Hurtado, Suzanne L

    2017-07-01

    The transient nature of military life coupled with environmental and psychosocial stressors increase the risk for alcohol misuse and abuse among active duty (AD) military service members and recent epidemiological studies demonstrate high rates of heavy drinking among AD personnel. Over the past decade, Department of Defense health care systems have observed increases in the utilization of substance use services among military personnel demobilizing from Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. Given the high rates of heavy drinking and increased use of substance use services in this population of AD personnel, the purpose of this study was to investigate how to best translate and implement an effective alcohol abuse prevention intervention tool (screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment [SBIRT]) used in civilian populations to a military emergency department (ED) setting. We conducted focus groups with ED staff as well as short interviews with AD personnel at a Naval Medical Center in the southwestern United States to determine the suitability of SBIRT with military populations as well as how to best translate SBIRT to a military hospital setting. Participants expressed support for utilizing civilian health educators to conduct the SBIRT intervention; however, many were concerned with issues of confidentiality and were skeptical of whether AD would speak truthfully about alcohol consumption. Results of this formative research study clearly indicate the implementation and translation of SBIRT into a military medical setting require attention to issues related to confidentiality, the veracity of alcohol reporting, as well as use of civilians over AD military personnel to deliver the SBIRT intervention. Furthermore, most participants expressed support for the SBIRT model and felt it could be implemented, with caveats, into a military health care setting such as an ED. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) in a Polish Emergency Department: Three-Month Outcomes of a Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial*

    PubMed Central

    Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Swiatkiewicz, Grazyna; Ye, Yu; Bond, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Objective: A randomized, controlled trial of screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) for drinking and related problems among at-risk and dependent drinkers was conducted in an emergency department (ED) in Sosnowiec, Poland, among patients ages 18 years and older. Method: Data were collected over a 23-week period, from 4:00 pm to midnight, and resulted in 446 patients being recruited into the study (90% of those who screened positive) and randomized to three conditions following a two-stage process: screened only (n = 147), assessed (n = 152), and received intervention (n = 147). Patients in the assessment (85%) and intervention (83%) conditions were blindly reassessed at 3 months via a telephone interview. Results: At 3-month follow-up, both groups showed significant decreases in the proportion who were positive for at-risk drinking, the primary outcome variable. Both groups also showed significant decreases in drinking days per week, drinks per drinking day, maximum drinks per occasion, and negative consequences of drinking. Using analysis of covariance to control for baseline measures and demographic characteristics, no difference in outcome measures was found between intervention and assessment conditions. Subgroup analysis found some significant interactions between intervention and secondary outcomes. Conclusions: Although the main findings were similar to those from other brief-intervention studies in Western cultures, findings here also suggest that intervention may have differential benefits for specific subgroups of patients in the ED, an area of research that may warrant additional study of brief intervention in the ED setting. PMID:19895777

  14. Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT): 12-month outcomes of a randomized controlled clinical trial in a Polish emergency department.

    PubMed

    Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Korcha, Rachael A; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Swiatkiewicz, Grazyna; Ye, Yu; Bond, Jason

    2010-11-01

     A randomized controlled trial of screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) among at-risk (based on average number of drinks per week and drinks per drinking day) and dependent drinkers was conducted in an emergency department (ED) among 446 patients 18 and older in Sosnowiec, Poland. Patients were recruited over a 23-week period (4:00 pm to 12:00 midnight) and randomized to 1 of 3 conditions: screened-only (n = 147), assessed (n = 152), and intervention (n = 147). Patients in the assessed and intervention conditions were blindly reassessed via a telephone interview at 3 months, and all 3 groups were assessed at 12 months (screened-only = 92, assessed = 99, and intervention = 87). No difference was found across the 3 conditions in at-risk drinking at 12 months, as the primary outcome variable, or in decrease in the number of drinks per drinking day, with all 3 groups showing a significant reduction in both. Significant declines between baseline and 12 months in secondary outcomes of the RAPS4, number of drinking days per week, and the maximum number of drinks on an occasion were seen only for the intervention condition, and in negative consequences for both the assessment and intervention conditions. Data suggest that improvements in drinking outcomes found in the assessment condition were not because of assessment reactivity, with both the screened and intervention conditions demonstrating greater (although nonsignificant) improvement than the assessed condition. Only those in the intervention condition showed significant improvement in all outcome variables from baseline to 12-month follow-up. Although group by time interaction effects were not found to be significant, these findings suggest that declines in drinking measures for those receiving a brief intervention can be maintained at long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. Social Workers as Workplace-Based Instructors of Alcohol and Drug Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) for Emergency Medicine Residents.

    PubMed

    Duong, David K; O'Sullivan, Patricia S; Satre, Derek D; Soskin, Philippa; Satterfield, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Residency education is challenged by a shortage of personnel and time, particularly for teaching behavioral interventions such as screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) to reduce hazardous drinking and drug use. However, social workers may be well placed to teach SBIRT in clinical training settings. We describe a curriculum with social workers as SBIRT trainers of emergency medicine (EM) residents during actual clinical shifts in an EM residency training program. The curriculum required 1 EM faculty member working with social workers and 1 additional hour of formal residency conference teaching time. We implemented the curriculum at both a university tertiary care hospital emergency department and a county trauma center. We trained 8 social workers at both sites as SBIRT superusers to teach and assess EM resident SBIRT performance with actual patients. We measured the length and number of sessions to attain SBIRT competence, residents' satisfaction, and resident comments (coded by authors). Five of the 8 social workers trained residents between June 2013 and May 2014, 31 EM residents trained to a level indicating SBIRT competence with 114 patients. Each patient interaction averaged 8.8 minutes and residents averaged 3.13 patients. Twenty-four (77%) residents gave ratings of 1.58 (SD = .58) for the quality of teaching, 2.33 (SD = .87) for recommending the training to a colleague, 1.38 (SD = .49) for superusers' knowledge, 1.88 (SD = .95) for usefulness of instruction, 1.54 (SD = .72) for workplace learning, and 1.58 (SD = .78) for valuing learning from social workers (on a scale of 1 [very satisfied/strongly agree] to 5 [very dissatisfied/strongly disagree]). Residents preferred learning SBIRT during the 1st and 2nd training years and in the workplace. Social work colleagues can be effective in teaching SBIRT to residents in the workplace, and our residents highly valued learning from social workers, who all had prior training in

  16. Safer sex in tourist resorts.

    PubMed

    Ford, N; Inman, M

    1992-01-01

    A survey in Torbay, England, indicated substantial sexual interaction of an unsafe kind between young residents and tourists. A pilot programme is described which sought to promote safer sexual behaviour: the attention of both tourists and local people who frequented nightclubs was engaged by peer groups who conveyed educational messages.

  17. Safer, More Effective Pain Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data Fentanyl Encounters Data CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain For Patients For Providers Guideline Resources Clinical Tools ... used carefully. The new CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain helps inform providers’ ability to offer safer, more ...

  18. How to sell safer sex.

    PubMed

    Overs, C

    1991-09-01

    Social and economic factors determine the extent of the sex industry in societies. Despite AIDS, the sex industry will continue to thrive. Accordingly, health promotion strategies aimed at sex workers and their clients should not stem from the belief that the industry should cease to exist. This paper offers advice in developing and implementing programs to promote safer sex among sex workers. The social context is 1 element to consider in planning successful campaigns. Interventions must be combined with well-planned prevention campaigns aimed at entire populations. The opinions and participation of those involved in the industry should also be sought, while worker discussion and action upon other community issues should not be discouraged. Care should be given to target the numerous and diverse sex worker audiences in addition to other persons related to and involved in the industry. Programs should address the main obstacles to practicing safer sex, and attention should be given to ensure the provision of an adequate and regular supply of cheap or free condoms through varied distribution channels. In the area of service provision, sex workers need easy access to social support and health care services from which they are often excluded. Activities conducted around the world include the marketing of safer sex, distributing printed information on HIV and AIDS to clients, training sex workers to pass designated constructive ideas to others involved in the sex industry, referring sex workers to sex businesses supportive of safer sex practices, and developing street theater and cabaret shows in bars.

  19. Safer Aviation Materials Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2001-01-01

    A series of thermally stable polymer samples were tested. These materials are called low heat release materials and are designed for aircraft interior decorative materials. The materials are designed to give off a minimum amount of noxious gases when heated, which increases the possibility that people can escape from a burning aircraft. New cabin materials have suitably low heat release so that fire does not spread, toxic chemicals are not given off, and the fire-emergency escape time for crew and passengers is lengthened. These low heat-release materials have a variety of advantages and applications: interiors for ground-based facilities, interiors of space vehicles, and many commercial fire-protection environments. A microscale combustion calorimeter at the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Technical Center tested NASA Langley Research Center materials samples. The calorimeter is shown. A sharp, quantitative, and reproducible heat-release-rate peak is obtained in the microscale heat-release-rate test. The newly tested NASA materials significantly reduced the heat release capacity and total heat release. The thermal stability and flammability behavior of the samples was very good. The new materials demonstrated a factor of 4 reduction in total heat release over ULTEM (a currently used material). This information is provided in the following barchart. In other tests, the materials showed greater than a factor 9 reduction in heat-release capacity over ULTEM. The newly tested materials were developed for low dielectric constant, low color, and good solubility. A scale up of the material samples is needed to determine the repeatability of the performance in larger samples. Larger panels composed of the best candidate materials will be tested in a larger scale FAA Technical Center fire facility. The NASA Glenn Research Center, Langley (Jeff Hinkley), and the FAA Technical Center (Richard Lyon) cooperatively tested these materials for the Accident Mitigation

  20. Chemical Safety Alert: Safer Technology and Alternatives

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This alert is intended to introduce safer technology concepts and general approaches, explains the concepts and principles, and gives brief examples of the integration of safer technologies into facility risk management activities.

  1. Qualitative study on maternal referrals in rural Tanzania: decision making and acceptance of referral advice.

    PubMed

    Pembe, Andrea B; Urassa, David P; Darj, Elisabeth; Carlsted, Anders; Olsson, Pia

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe perceptions of maternal referrals in a rural district in Tanzania. Focus group discussions (FGDs) with health workers and community members, stratified by age and gender, were conducted. The FGDs revealed that husbands and relatives are the decision makers in maternal referrals, whereas the women had limited influence, especially on emergency referrals. The process in deciding to seek referral care is envisaged within community perception of seriousness of the condition, difficulty to access and cost involved in transport, living expenses at the hospital, and perceived quality of care at facility level. The hospitals were seen as providing acceptable quality of care, whereas, the health centres had lower quality than expected. To improve maternal referral compliance and reduce perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality, community views of existing referral guidelines, poverty reduction, women's empowerment and male involvement in maternal care are necessary.

  2. The business case for transitioning to safer chemicals.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Roger D

    2011-01-01

    Emerging domestic and international chemical regulations and a heightened consumer awareness of chemicals of concern in products is challenging American businesses to reevaluate and reconsider their approaches to supply chain management and product design. Some of these companies recognize business opportunities and are responding proactively with innovative strategies and tactics. This article describes steps that Staples Inc., the world's largest office products provider, is taking to meet demand for products that are safer and more sustainable. In trying to meet the demand for safer products, Staples faces significant barriers, including the complexity of supply chains, data gaps, and confidential business information. New collaborations between companies, government, and advocates, and improved tools and criteria for defining safer products enhance the ability of businesses, like Staples, to meet new consumer demands.

  3. Communicating the Benefits of SAFER

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE JUL 2010 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3 . DATES COVERED...by the DDESB. DoD 6055.09-STD Chapter 17 provides guidance on preparing and submitting a risk-based site plan (Ref. 3 ). 3.2 RISK MANAGEMENT SAFER...Australian explosives safety seminars (PARARI), International Society of Explosives Engineers ( ISEE ) conferences, the International System Safety

  4. Anger as a moderator of safer sex motivation among low-income urban women.

    PubMed

    Schroder, Kerstin E E; Carey, Michael P

    2005-10-01

    Theoretical models suggest that both HIV knowledge and HIV risk perception inform rational decision making and, thus, predict safer sex motivation and behavior. However, the amount of variance explained by knowledge and risk perception is typically small. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated whether the predictive power of HIV knowledge and HIV risk perception on safer sex motivation is affected by trait anger. We hypothesized that anger may disrupt rational decision making, distorting the effects of both HIV knowledge and risk perception on safer sex intentions. Data from 232 low-income, urban women at risk for HIV infection were used to test a path model with past sexual risk behavior, HIV knowledge, and HIV risk perception as predictors of safer sex intentions. Moderator effects of anger on safer sex intentions were tested by simultaneous group comparisons between high-anger and low-anger women (median split). The theoretically expected "rational pattern" was found among low-anger women only, including (a) a positive effect of knowledge on safer sex intentions, and (b) buffer (inhibitor) effects of HIV knowledge and HIV risk perception on the negative path leading from past risk behavior to safer sex intentions. Among high-anger women, an "irrational pattern" emerged, with no effects of HIV knowledge and negative effects of both past risk behavior and HIV risk perception on safer sex intentions. In sum, the results suggest that rational knowledge- and risk-based decisions regarding safer sex may be limited to low-anger women.

  5. Toward a safer moral climate.

    PubMed

    Rodney, Patricia; Doane, Gweneth Hartrick; Storch, Janet; Varcoe, Colleen

    2006-10-01

    The authors define moral climate in the context of health care as the implicit and explicit values that drive health-care delivery and shape the workplaces in which care is delivered. Over the past six years, their research has focused on describing the moral climates of nurses' workplaces and improving them. In this article, the authors argue that nurses in direct care delivery roles have the insights, expertise and interpersonal skills required to create a much safer moral climate for practice. To make this happen, nurses require opportunities for self-reflection and for true collaboration with their colleagues in management and administration and other health-care disciplines.

  6. Predictors of Safer Sex Intentions and Protected Sex Among Heterosexual HIV-Negative Methamphetamine Users

    PubMed Central

    Mausbach, Brent T.; Semple, Shirley J.; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a version of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) for predicting safe sex behavior in a sample of 228 HIV-negative heterosexual methamphetamine users. We hypothesized that, in addition to TPB constructs, participants’ amount of methamphetamine use and desire to stop unsafe sex behaviors would predict intentions to engage in safer sex behaviors. In turn, we predicted that safer sex intentions would be positively correlated with participants’ percentage of protected sex. Hierarchical linear regression indicated that 48% of the total variance in safer sex intentions was predicted by our model, with less negative attitudes toward safer sex, greater normative beliefs, greater control beliefs, less methamphetamine use, less intent to have sex, and greater desire to stop unsafe sex emerging as significant predictors of greater safer sex intentions. Safer sex intentions were positively associated with future percent protected sex (p<.05). These findings suggest that, among heterosexual methamphetamine users, the TPB is an excellent model for predicting safer sex practices in this population, as are some additional factors (e.g., methamphetamine use). Effective interventions for increasing safer sex practices in methamphetamine user will likely include constructs from this model with augmentations to help reduce methamphetamine use. PMID:19085216

  7. Electronic referrals: what matters to the users.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jim; Gu, Yulong; Day, Karen; White, Sue; Pollock, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    Between September 2010 and May 2011 we evaluated three implementations of electronic referral (eReferral) systems at Hutt Valley, Northland and Canterbury District Health Boards in New Zealand. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered through project documentation, database records and stakeholder interviews. This paper reports on the user perspectives based on interviews with 78 clinical, management and operational stakeholders in the three regions. Themes that emerge across the regions are compared and synthesised. Interviews focused on pre-planned domains including quality of referral, ease of use and patient safety, but agendas were adapted progressively to elaborate and triangulate on themes emerging from earlier interviews and to clarify indications from analysis of database records. The eReferral users, including general practitioners, specialists and administrative staff, report benefits in the areas of: (1) availability and transparency of referral-related data; (2) work transformation; (3) improved data quality and (4) the convenience of auto-population from the practice management system into the referral forms. eReferral provides enhanced visibility of referral data and status within the limits of the implementation (which only goes to the hospital door in some cases). Users in all projects indicated the desire to further exploit IT to enhance two-way communication between community and hospital. Reduced administrative handling is a clear work transformation benefit with mixed feedback regarding clinical workload impact. Innovations such as GP eReferral triaging teams illustrate the further potential for workflow transformation. Consistent structure in eReferrals, as well as simple legibility, enhances data quality. Efficiency and completeness is provided by auto-population of forms from system data, but opens issues around data accuracy. All three projects highlight the importance of user involvement in design, implementation and refinement. In

  8. Referral physician marketing.

    PubMed

    Lewis, A

    1993-01-01

    Marketing of specialist services to referring physicians can be highly effective at influencing referral patterns if the referring physician's needs are taken into account. Furthermore, it is possible to generate referrals from nonreferring physicians by approaching them correctly. The ideal approach is for a specialist to treat non-referring physicians as though they referred the patient, even when they didn't. This practice allows the specialist to demonstrate communications service quality in a non-aggressive, non-sales context. The United Weight Control case study summarizes the impact of a referral-generation strategy with "before" and "after" analyses of the strategy's cost and effectiveness.

  9. Profile of microorganisms and antimicrobial resistance at a tertiary care referral burn centre in Iran: emergence of Citrobacter freundii as a common microorganism.

    PubMed

    Khorasani, G; Salehifar, E; Eslami, G

    2008-11-01

    Infection and antimicrobial resistance are important issues in severe burn. The aims of this prospective study were to investigate the profile of microorganisms and resistance to antimicrobial agents in a tertiary referral burn centre; 113 people aged >10 years, with partial- or full-thickness burns, were included in the study. A total of 733 samples including 275 swabs, 164 tissue biopsies, 258 urine samples, 26 blood samples and 10 sputum samples were collected, from which 124 microorganisms were isolated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Citrobacter spp were the most prevalent isolates (57.3% and 35.5%, respectively); 95.5% of Citrobacter. isolates were Citrobacter freundii. Antibiogram results obtained from 15 antimicrobial agents demonstrated that imipenem was the most effective agent against P. aeruginosa, followed by ciprofloxacin and piperacillin/tazobactam (67.9%, 43% and 37.5% sensitive, respectively). At least 60% of all Citrobacter isolates were sensitive to various antimicrobial agents, the highest sensitivity being obtained by ceftazidime and cefepime (81.6% and 78.4%, respectively). Sensitivity of P. aeruginosa isolates to the agents of each antimicrobial class was significantly different (p<0.001). The incidence of C. freundii and the resistance of P. aeruginosa to anti-pseudomonas agents were exceptionally high.

  10. HIV counselling and testing practices for children seen in an urban emergency department of a tertiary referral hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a retrospective cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sawe, Hendry R; Mfinanga, Juma A; Ringo, Faith H; Mwafongo, Victor; Reynolds, Teri A; Runyon, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the HIV counselling and testing practices for children presenting to an emergency department (ED) in a low-income country. Setting The ED of a large east African national referral hospital. Participants This retrospective review of all paediatric (<18 years old) ED visits in 2012 enrolled patients who had an HIV test ordered and excluded those without testing. Files were available for 5540/5774 (96%) eligible patients and 1632 (30%) were tested for HIV, median age 1.3 years (IQR 9 months to 4 years), 58% <18 months old and 61% male. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome measure was documentation of pretest and post-test counselling, or deferral of counselling, for children tested for HIV in the ED. Secondary measures included the overall rate of HIV testing, rate of counselling documented in the inpatient record when deferred in the ED, rate of counselling documented when testing was initiated by the inpatient service, rate of counselling documented by test result (positive vs negative) and the rate of referral to follow-up HIV care among patients testing positive. Results Of 418 patients tested in the ED, counselling, or deferral of counselling, was documented for 70 (17%). When deferred to the ward, subsequent counselling was documented for 15/42 (36%). Counselling was documented in 33% of patients testing positive versus 1.1% patients testing negative (OR 43 (95% CI 23 to 83). Of 199 patients who tested positive and survived to hospital discharge, 76 (38%) were referred for follow-up at the HIV clinic on discharge. Conclusions Physicians documented the provision, or deferral, of counselling for <20% of children tested for HIV in the ED. Counselling was much more likely to be documented when the test result was positive. Less than 40% of those testing positive were referred for follow-up care. PMID:26880672

  11. Discharge of Non-Acute Coronary Syndrome Chest Pain Patients From Emergency Care to an Advanced Nurse Practitioner-Led Chest Pain Clinic: A Cross-Sectional Study of Referral Source and Final Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Shirley J; McKee, Gabrielle; Quirke, Mary B; Kelly, Niamh; Moloney, Ashling

    Chest pain is a common presentation to emergency departments (EDs). Pathways for patients with non-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) chest pain are not optimal. An advanced cardiology nurse-led chest pain service was commenced to address this. The aim of the study was to assess the outcomes of non-ACS patients discharged from ED to an advanced cardiology nurse-led chest pain clinic and compare by referral type (nurse or ED physician). The service consisted of advanced cardiology nurse or ED physician consultation in the ED and discharge to advanced nurse-led chest pain clinic review less than 72 hours after discharge. Referrals were by the advanced nurses during consult hours and out-of-hours were by the ED physicians. Data were extracted from case notes. This was a 1-site cross-sectional study of patients attending the chest pain clinic over 2 years. Confirmed coronary disease was diagnosed in 24% of patients. Of the 1041 patients, 45% were referred by the advanced nurses, who referred significantly more patients who were older (56.5 years/52.3 years), had positive exercise stress test results (21%/12%), and were diagnosed with stable coronary artery disease (19%/11%) and less patients with musculoskeletal diagnosis (5%/13%) and other noncardiac pain (36%/45%). The study fills a gap in the literature on the follow up of non-ACS patients who present to ED and used advanced cardiology nursing expertise in the ED and chest pain clinic. The advanced nurse referred more patients who were diagnosed with coronary disease, reflecting the expertise, experience, and efficiency of the advanced cardiology nurse-led service.

  12. An Evidence-Based Alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) Curriculum for Emergency Department (ED) Providers Improves Skills and Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Emergency Departments (EDs) offer an opportunity to improve the care of patients with at-risk and dependent drinking by teaching staff to screen, perform brief intervention and refer to treatment (SBIRT). We describe here the implementation at 14 Academic EDs of a structured SBIRT curriculum to determine if this learning experience…

  13. Acute Care Referral Systems in Liberia: Transfer and Referral Capabilities in a Low-Income Country.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jimin; Barreix, Maria; Babcock, Christine; Bills, Corey B

    2017-07-27

    referral exist and could serve as the basis for a more robust system. Well-integrated acute care referral systems in low-income countries, like Liberia, may help to mitigate future public health crises by augmenting a country's capacity for emergency preparedness. Kim J , Barreix M , Babcock C , Bills CB . Acute care referral systems in Liberia: transfer and referral capabilities in a low-income country. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(6):1-9.

  14. Safer work clothing for fishermen.

    PubMed

    Geving, Ingunn Holmen; Reitan, Jarl; Sandsund, Mariann; Faerevik, Hilde; Reinertsen, Randi Eidsmo; Aasjord, Halvard

    2006-01-01

    The fisherman's work environment consists of many potential risks. A study of occupational accidents in the Norwegian fishing industry in the nine-year period from 1998 to 2006 shows that more than 3/4 of the deaths were caused by loss of fishing vessel or man-overboard accidents. Furthermore, the greatest risk of drowning is found in the smallest fleet. The aim of our project was to develop safer work clothing and through this contribute to a reduction in work accidents and injuries in the fishing fleet. We considered that it is possible to produce protective work clothing that satisfies a specification of requirements covering the fishermen's needs for protection and comfort during work. An end user-centred process including twenty-three personal interviews and a questionnaire was used to clarify the fishermen's needs and wishes before detailed design and product development. We identified an overview of all the fishermen's needs for protection during work, and produced a prioritised list of functional requirements for the clothing. The results show that the clothing previously preferred by fishermen does not satisfy all the users' demands for safety, functionality and comfort. These demands have been taken into consideration when designing improved work clothing for the fishing fleet. A selected number of prototypes were developed on the basis of the established specification of requirements. The prototypes were evaluated according to the users' requirements through tests in SINTEF's Work Physiology Laboratory and on board fishing vessels. The results demonstrate that the new protective clothing satisfies the fishermen's requirements.

  15. 70 Years Making the World Safer: Extended

    SciTech Connect

    2017-01-01

    Extended version with narration. This video shows our roles in making the world safer — working to end World War II, providing stable isotopes for research, providing unique precision manufacturing capabilities, and meeting nonproliferation and global security missions.

  16. 70 Years Making the World Safer

    SciTech Connect

    2017-01-01

    This video shows our roles in making the world safer — working to end World War II, providing stable isotopes for research, providing unique precision manufacturing capabilities, and meeting nonproliferation and global security missions.

  17. Consensus statement: Supporting Safer Conception and Pregnancy For Men And Women Living with and Affected by HIV.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Lynn T; Beyeza-Kashesya, Jolly; Cooke, Ian; Davies, Natasha; Heffron, Renee; Kaida, Angela; Kinuthia, John; Mmeje, Okeoma; Semprini, Augusto E; Weber, Shannon

    2017-05-13

    Safer conception interventions reduce HIV incidence while supporting the reproductive goals of people living with or affected by HIV. We developed a consensus statement to address demand, summarize science, identify information gaps, outline research and policy priorities, and advocate for safer conception services. This statement emerged from a process incorporating consultation from meetings, literature, and key stakeholders. Three co-authors developed an outline which was discussed and modified with co-authors, working group members, and additional clinical, policy, and community experts in safer conception, HIV, and fertility. Co-authors and working group members developed and approved the final manuscript. Consensus across themes of demand, safer conception strategies, and implementation were identified. There is demand for safer conception services. Access is limited by stigma towards PLWH having children and limits to provider knowledge. Efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and acceptability data support a range of safer conception strategies including ART, PrEP, limiting condomless sex to peak fertility, home insemination, male circumcision, STI treatment, couples-based HIV testing, semen processing, and fertility care. Lack of guidelines and training limit implementation. Key outstanding questions within each theme are identified. Consumer demand, scientific data, and global goals to reduce HIV incidence support safer conception service implementation. We recommend that providers offer services to HIV-affected men and women, and program administrators integrate safer conception care into HIV and reproductive health programs. Answers to outstanding questions will refine services but should not hinder steps to empower people to adopt safer conception strategies to meet reproductive goals.

  18. Intensive care unit occupancy after introduction of the emergency department 4-hour discharge rule at a tertiary referral hospital in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    van Heerden, Peter V; Blott, John A; Pinder, Mary; Cameron, Peter D; Roberts, Brigit L; Brinkworth, Anne; Stav, Ilana; Sviri, Sigal

    2013-12-01

    The 4-hour rule has been introduced in Western Australia, requiring that emergency department (ED) patients be admitted to hospital or discharged from the ED within 4 hours of presentation. We hypothesised that this rule might have been associated with changes in medical emergency team (MET) calls and intensive care unit exit bed block. Hospital databases were examined to determine compliance with the 4-hour rule, the effect on ICU exit bed block, and the number of MET calls, in 2008 (before introduction of the 4-hour rule) and 2011 (after introduction of the 4-hour rule). We also measured background ICU and hospital activity in 2008 and 2011. Monthly compliance with the 4-hour rule ranged from 35%-46% in 2008 to 64%-75% in 2011 (P < 0.0001). There was a marked increase in bed block days for patients in the ICU between 2008 (before introduction of the 4-hour rule) and 2011 (after introduction of the 4-hour rule) (P = 0.05). The increase in ICU bed block-days could not be explained by a difference in ICU occupancy, as there was a reduction in ICU bed-days between 2008 and 2011 (P = 0.014). There was a reduction in hospital mortality rate between 2008 and 2011 (P < 0.001). There was no significant increase in the number of MET calls from 2008 to 2011 (P = 0.221). Hospital activity (separations) increased from 2008 to 2011 (P < 0.0001). The introduction of the 4-hour rule was associated with increased exit block from the ICU, but not with increased MET calls to attend to unstable or deteriorating ward patients. Introduction of the 4-hour rule was associated with a small reduction in hospital mortality.

  19. Optimization of burn referrals.

    PubMed

    Reiband, Hanna K; Lundin, Kira; Alsbjørn, Bjarne; Sørensen, Anne Marie; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2014-05-01

    Correct estimation of the severity of burns is important to obtain the right treatment of the patient and to avoid over- and undertriage. In this study we aimed to assess how often the guidelines for referral of burn injured patients are met at the national burn centre (NBC), Denmark. We included burn patients referred to the NBC in a three-months period. Patient records were systematically analyzed and compared with the national guidelines for referral of burn injured patients. A total of 97 burn injured patients were transferred for treatment at the NBC and the most common reason for referral was partial thickness burn exceeding 3% estimated area of burn (55% of the patients) while facial burns (32%) and inhalational injury (25%) were other common reasons. We found that 29 (30%) of the referrals were considered potentially unnecessary according to the guidelines. The overtriage was highest among patients suffering of burns due to scalding and these were mostly children below 2 years of age. An overtriage of referred burn injured patient was found and 30% of the referred patients were treated as outpatients. A telemedicine solution may be useful in the evaluation of burn injured patients before transfer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Greener is Cleaner, and Safer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Scope, 2005

    2005-01-01

    One easy way to reduce the number of accidents in the lab is to go "green." Green chemistry, or sustainable chemistry, emerged about a decade ago, but the concept has been practiced for centuries by indigenous people of many continents. The basic principles of green chemistry are that you should use only what you need and recycle what you can.…

  1. Greener is Cleaner, and Safer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Scope, 2005

    2005-01-01

    One easy way to reduce the number of accidents in the lab is to go "green." Green chemistry, or sustainable chemistry, emerged about a decade ago, but the concept has been practiced for centuries by indigenous people of many continents. The basic principles of green chemistry are that you should use only what you need and recycle what you can.…

  2. The test characteristics of physician clinical gestalt for determining the presence and severity of anaemia in patients seen at the emergency department of a tertiary referral hospital in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Sawe, Hendry Robert; Mfinanga, Juma A; Mwafongo, Victor; Reynolds, Teri A; Runyon, Michael S

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the test characteristics of clinical gestalt for detecting the presence and severity of anaemia in emergency department patients at a tertiary referral hospital in Tanzania. This prospective study enrolled a convenience sample of emergency department patients who had a complete blood count ordered by the treating physician in the course of their clinical care. Physicians recorded their impression of the presence and severity of anaemia before viewing the laboratory results. To assess interobserver agreement, a second physician provided their blinded gestalt impression of the patient's haemoglobin level. We enrolled 216 patients and complete data were available for 210 patients (97%), 59% male, median age 30 years. The range of measured haemoglobin values was 1.5-15.4 g/dL. The physicians rated anaemia mild or absent in 74 (35%), moderate in 72 (34%) and severe in 64 patients (30%). These estimates were significantly concordant with the laboratory haemoglobin measurements (Kendall's τ b=0.63, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.69, p<0.0001). The test characteristics of physician gestalt estimates for severe anaemia were: sensitivity 64% (95% CI 53% to 74%), specificity 91% (95% CI 85% to 96%), positive likelihood ratio of 7.4 (95% CI 4.2 to 13.3) and negative likelihood ratio of 0.40 (0.3 to 0.5). The weighted Cohen's κ for interobserver agreement between physicians on the gestalt estimate of the degree of anaemia was 0.87 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.98). Physicians' estimates of the severity of anaemia were significantly concordant with laboratory haemoglobin measurements. Sensitivity of the gestalt estimate for severe anaemia was moderate. Interobserver agreement was 'almost perfect'. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. HIV counselling and testing practices for children seen in an urban emergency department of a tertiary referral hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sawe, Hendry R; Mfinanga, Juma A; Ringo, Faith H; Mwafongo, Victor; Reynolds, Teri A; Runyon, Michael S

    2016-02-15

    To describe the HIV counselling and testing practices for children presenting to an emergency department (ED) in a low-income country. The ED of a large east African national referral hospital. This retrospective review of all paediatric (<18 years old) ED visits in 2012 enrolled patients who had an HIV test ordered and excluded those without testing. Files were available for 5540/5774 (96%) eligible patients and 1632 (30%) were tested for HIV, median age 1.3 years (IQR 9 months to 4 years), 58% <18 months old and 61% male. The primary outcome measure was documentation of pretest and post-test counselling, or deferral of counselling, for children tested for HIV in the ED. Secondary measures included the overall rate of HIV testing, rate of counselling documented in the inpatient record when deferred in the ED, rate of counselling documented when testing was initiated by the inpatient service, rate of counselling documented by test result (positive vs negative) and the rate of referral to follow-up HIV care among patients testing positive. Of 418 patients tested in the ED, counselling, or deferral of counselling, was documented for 70 (17%). When deferred to the ward, subsequent counselling was documented for 15/42 (36%). Counselling was documented in 33% of patients testing positive versus 1.1% patients testing negative (OR 43 (95% CI 23 to 83). Of 199 patients who tested positive and survived to hospital discharge, 76 (38%) were referred for follow-up at the HIV clinic on discharge. Physicians documented the provision, or deferral, of counselling for <20% of children tested for HIV in the ED. Counselling was much more likely to be documented when the test result was positive. Less than 40% of those testing positive were referred for follow-up care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Expanded civil judicial referral procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-28

    The directive provides guidance on procedures for civil judicial referrals to the Department of Justice. The memorandum expands the current direct referral program, indicates that Headquarters should not establish mandatory requirements for pre-referral negotiations, mandates use of hold action cases only for strategic or tactical reasons and offers guidance on the preparation of bankruptcy cases.

  5. Improved and safer nuclear power.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J J

    1989-04-21

    Recent progress in advanced nuclear power development in the United States is revealing high potential for nuclear reactor systems that are smaller and easier to operate than the present generation. Passive, or intrinsic, characteristics are applied not only to provide inherent stability of the chain reaction but also to ensure continued cooling of the fuel and its containment systems even if a major breakdown of the normal cooling and control functions were to occur. The chance of a severe accident is thereby substantially reduced. The plant designs that are emerging are simpler and more rugged, have a longer life span, and place less burden on equipment and operating personnel. Modular design concepts and design standardization are also used to reduce construction time and engineering costs, giving promise that the cost of generating power from these systems will be competitive with alternative methods.

  6. Using Technology to Create Safer Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townley, Arthur J.; Martinez, Kenneth

    1995-01-01

    Although classes to create student self-esteem and antigang programs are gaining in popularity, most school districts have not used available technology to help create safer campuses. Increased availability of telephones and two-way radios would enhance school security, along with incorporation of newer technologies such as computers, digitized…

  7. Safer Choice Partner of the Year Awards Application Form

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Design for the Environment program developed the Safer Product Labeling Program Partner of the Year Award program to recognize DfE stakeholders that have furthered the safer chemistry goals of the program

  8. Prevalence of referral reasons and clinical symptoms for endodontic referrals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prevalence of different primary reasons for endodontic referrals and the clinical symptoms of the referred cases. Materials and Methods Clinical data of total endodontic treatment cases (1,014 teeth) including endodontic referral cases (224 teeth) between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012, at Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, were investigated retrospectively. The one major reason for referral, the clinical symptoms, and the resulting treatment procedures of referral cases were recorded. The percentages of clinical symptoms of the endodontic referral cases and the total endodontic treatment cases were compared by χ2 test for each symptom. Results Persistent pain was the most frequent reason for endodontic referral (29.5%), followed by presence of gingival swelling and sinus tract (24.1%), and apical radiolucency (12.9%). Referrals in cases involving endodontic difficulties such as canal calcification, broken instruments, post, perforation, and resorption were less than 5.0%, respectively. The percentages of four major clinical symptoms of pain, apical radiolucency, previous endodontic treatment, and gingival swelling and sinus tract were significantly higher in the endodontic referral cases than those in the total endodontic cases (p = 0.001). Among the included referral cases, 72.8% were treated with nonsurgical endodontic treatment only. Teeth other than the referred teeth were diagnosed as the origin of the problem in 5.8% of the referrals. Conclusions The high prevalence of pain, apical radiolucency, previous treatment, and gingival swelling and sinus tract in endodontic referral cases suggest that these symptoms may be what general practitioners consider to be difficult and refer to endodontists. PMID:25110645

  9. Understanding communication between emergency and consulting physicians: a qualitative study that describes and defines the essential elements of the emergency department consultation-referral process for the junior learner.

    PubMed

    Chan, Teresa; Orlich, Donika; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan; Sherbino, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    To define the important elements of an emergency department (ED) consultation request and to develop a simple model of the process. From March to September 2010, 61 physicians (21 emergency medicine [EM], 20 general surgery [GS], 20 internal medicine [IM]; 31 residents, 30 attending staff) were questioned about how junior learners should be taught about ED consultation. Two investigators independently reviewed focus group and interview transcripts using grounded theory to generate an index of themes until saturation was reached. Disagreements were resolved by consensus, yielding an inventory of themes and subthemes. All transcripts were coded using this index of themes; 30% of transcripts were coded in duplicate to determine the agreement. A total of 245 themes and subthemes were identified. The agreement between reviewers was 77%. Important themes in the process were as follows: initial preparation and review of investigations by EM physician (overall endorsement 87% [range 70-100% in different groups]); identification of involved parties (patient and involved physicians) (100%); hypothesis of patient's diagnosis (75% [range 62-83%]) or question for the consulting physician (70% [range 55-95%]); urgency (100%) and stability (74% [range 62-80%]); questions from the consultant (100%); discussion/communication (98% [range 95-100%]); and feedback (98% [range 95-100%]). These components were reorganized into a simple framework (PIQUED). Each clinical specialty significantly contributed to the model (χ2  =  7.9; p value  =  0.019). Each group contributed uniquely to the final list of important elements (percent contributions: EM, 57%; GS, 41%; IM, 64%). We define important elements of an ED consultation with input from emergency and consulting physicians. We propose a model that organizes these elements into a simple framework (PIQUED) that may be valuable for junior learners.

  10. Motivational Influences on the Safer Sex Behavior of Agency-based Male Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael D.; Seal, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Although indoor male sex workers (MSWs) have been found to engage in lower rates of HIV risk behavior with clients than street-based MSWs, few studies have examined the motivations behind such practices. We interviewed 30 MSWs working for the same escort agency regarding their safer sex practices with clients and their reasons for these. As in other research, MSWs reported little risk behavior with clients. Five motivational themes related to safer sex on the job emerged: health concerns, emotional intimacy, client attractiveness, relationships, and structural work factors. Results suggest that participants engaged in rational decision-making relative to sex with clients, facilitated by reduced economic incentive for riskier behavior and a supportive social context. MSWs desired a safe sexual work place, personal integrity, and minimal negative consequences to personal relationships. Collaborating with sex work employers to study their role in encouraging a safer workplace may be important to future research. PMID:18288599

  11. Towards successful coordination of electronic health record based-referrals: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Successful subspecialty referrals require considerable coordination and interactive communication among the primary care provider (PCP), the subspecialist, and the patient, which may be challenging in the outpatient setting. Even when referrals are facilitated by electronic health records (EHRs) (i.e., e-referrals), lapses in patient follow-up might occur. Although compelling reasons exist why referral coordination should be improved, little is known about which elements of the complex referral coordination process should be targeted for improvement. Using Okhuysen & Bechky's coordination framework, this paper aims to understand the barriers, facilitators, and suggestions for improving communication and coordination of EHR-based referrals in an integrated healthcare system. Methods We conducted a qualitative study to understand coordination breakdowns related to e-referrals in an integrated healthcare system and examined work-system factors that affect the timely receipt of subspecialty care. We conducted interviews with seven subject matter experts and six focus groups with a total of 30 PCPs and subspecialists at two tertiary care Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers. Using techniques from grounded theory and content analysis, we identified organizational themes that affected the referral process. Results Four themes emerged: lack of an institutional referral policy, lack of standardization in certain referral procedures, ambiguity in roles and responsibilities, and inadequate resources to adapt and respond to referral requests effectively. Marked differences in PCPs' and subspecialists' communication styles and individual mental models of the referral processes likely precluded the development of a shared mental model to facilitate coordination and successful referral completion. Notably, very few barriers related to the EHR were reported. Conclusions Despite facilitating information transfer between PCPs and subspecialists, e-referrals

  12. Under construction: building a safer industry.

    PubMed Central

    Tibbetts, John

    2002-01-01

    A revolution in the building industry over the past decade has spawned a new generation of safer materials and practices, decreasing some health risks for construction workers. Concerned consumers, builders, materials manufacturers, and government regulatory agencies have all contributed to a turn toward "green" building materials and practices, meaning that homeowners and office workers now are better able to live and work in healthier environments, and many construction workers are handling and installing less-toxic materials. PMID:11882489

  13. STS-64 SAFER Assembly development team members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system, to be tested on the STS-64 flight, is surrounded by the team members who have spent a number of recent man hours in preparation for the system's first test-flight. In front are (left to right) Russell L. Flack and Bob Lowe. In the back row are (left to right) Jack D. Humphreys, Chuck Deason, Bill Wood and James Brown.

  14. Brazilian Specialists’ Perspectives on the Patient Referral Process

    PubMed Central

    Juliani, Carmen; MacPhee, Maura; Spiri, Wilza

    2017-01-01

    Since 1988, healthcare has been considered a citizen’s right in Brazil. The Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), has undergone development and expansion to ensure universal health coverage for the Brazilian public, the world’s fifth largest population. The coordination of effective communications between primary care physicians, specialists and patients is a significant challenge, particularly the referral process. Our study objective was to understand the facilitators and barriers associated with referral process communications between primary care physicians and regional university hospital specialists in the State of Sao Paulo. This paper reports specialists’ perspectives of the referral process. This was a phenomenological study that employed a qualitative research method with three components (description, reduction and comprehension). We conducted focus groups with 54 hospital residents from different specialties (surgery, medicine, obstetrics/gynecology, pediatrics) from July to October 2014. The main results showed lack of an adequate referral-return referral process resulting in treatment delays and inappropriate use of emergency services. Communications were impeded by lack of integrated, computerized booking and standardized referral-return referral processes; underlying lack of trust in primary care physicians; and patients’ inappropriate use of healthcare services. Although computerized systems will facilitate communications between primary and specialty care, other strategies are needed to promote collaboration between services, and ensure appropriate utilization of them. PMID:28146046

  15. Lost opportunities to reduce periconception HIV transmission: safer conception counseling by South African providers addresses perinatal but not sexual HIV transmission.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Lynn T; Milford, Cecilia; Kaida, Angela; Ehrlich, Matthew J; Ng, Courtney; Greener, Ross; Mosery, F N; Harrison, Abigail; Psaros, Christina; Safren, Steven A; Bajunirwe, Francis; Wilson, Ira B; Bangsberg, David R; Smit, Jennifer A

    2014-12-01

    Safer conception strategies create opportunities for HIV-serodiscordant couples to realize fertility goals and minimize periconception HIV transmission. Patient-provider communication about fertility goals is the first step in safer conception counseling. We explored provider practices of assessing fertility intentions among HIV-infected men and women, attitudes toward people living with HIV (PLWH) having children, and knowledge and provision of safer conception advice. We conducted in-depth interviews (9 counselors, 15 nurses, 5 doctors) and focus group discussions (6 counselors, 7 professional nurses) in eThekwini District, South Africa. Data were translated, transcribed, and analyzed using content analysis with NVivo10 software. Among 42 participants, median age was 41 (range, 28-60) years, 93% (39) were women, and median years worked in the clinic was 7 (range, 1-27). Some providers assessed women's, not men's, plans for having children at antiretroviral therapy initiation, to avoid fetal exposure to efavirenz. When conducted, reproductive counseling included CD4 cell count and HIV viral load assessment, advising mutual HIV status disclosure, and referral to another provider. Barriers to safer conception counseling included provider assumptions of HIV seroconcordance, low knowledge of safer conception strategies, personal feelings toward PLWH having children, and challenges to tailoring safer sex messages. Providers need information about HIV serodiscordance and safer conception strategies to move beyond discussing only perinatal transmission and maternal health for PLWH who choose to conceive. Safer conception counseling may be more feasible if the message is distilled to delaying conception attempts until the infected partner is on antiretroviral therapy. Designated and motivated nurse providers may be required to provide comprehensive safer conception counseling.

  16. Lost Opportunities to Reduce Periconception HIV Transmission: Safer Conception Counseling By South African Providers Addresses Perinatal but not Sexual HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Milford, Cecilia; Kaida, Angela; Ehrlich, Matthew J.; Ng, Courtney; Greener, Ross; Mosery, F. N.; Harrison, Abigail; Psaros, Christina; Safren, Steven A.; Bajunirwe, Francis; Wilson, Ira B.; Bangsberg, David R.; Smit, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Safer conception strategies create opportunities for HIV-serodiscordant couples to realize fertility goals and minimize periconception HIV transmission. Patient–provider communication about fertility goals is the first step in safer conception counseling. Methods: We explored provider practices of assessing fertility intentions among HIV-infected men and women, attitudes toward people living with HIV (PLWH) having children, and knowledge and provision of safer conception advice. We conducted in-depth interviews (9 counselors, 15 nurses, 5 doctors) and focus group discussions (6 counselors, 7 professional nurses) in eThekwini District, South Africa. Data were translated, transcribed, and analyzed using content analysis with NVivo10 software. Results: Among 42 participants, median age was 41 (range, 28–60) years, 93% (39) were women, and median years worked in the clinic was 7 (range, 1–27). Some providers assessed women's, not men's, plans for having children at antiretroviral therapy initiation, to avoid fetal exposure to efavirenz. When conducted, reproductive counseling included CD4 cell count and HIV viral load assessment, advising mutual HIV status disclosure, and referral to another provider. Barriers to safer conception counseling included provider assumptions of HIV seroconcordance, low knowledge of safer conception strategies, personal feelings toward PLWH having children, and challenges to tailoring safer sex messages. Conclusions: Providers need information about HIV serodiscordance and safer conception strategies to move beyond discussing only perinatal transmission and maternal health for PLWH who choose to conceive. Safer conception counseling may be more feasible if the message is distilled to delaying conception attempts until the infected partner is on antiretroviral therapy. Designated and motivated nurse providers may be required to provide comprehensive safer conception counseling. PMID:25436820

  17. Informational influences on physician referrals.

    PubMed

    Beltramini, R F; Sirsi, A K

    1992-01-01

    Today's health care marketers are devoting significant resources to increase physician referrals, an area vital to their continued survival. The goal of this investigation was to integrate the findings of previous research on physician referrals, and to provide an up-to-date assessment of those influences underlying physician referral behavior. A questionnaire was mailed to 1,800 physicians differing in specialty and years in practice. Three informational influences were found to affect physician referrals: Program Information, Patient Input, and Location. The results suggest a need for specialists and other organizations interested in managing physician referrals to (a) establish and maintain a network of relationships among those physicians referring patients and specialists being referred to through personal communication, (b) maintain a pool of knowledgeable professionals willing to supply relevant and current information to physicians, and (c) provide complete and prompt feedback information to the referring physician. Managerial implications and directions for future research are also discussed.

  18. Gaming for Safer Sex: Young German and Turkish People Report No Specific Culture-Related Preferences Toward Educational Games Promoting Safer Sex.

    PubMed

    Brüll, Phil; Ruiter, Robert A C; Wiers, Reinout W; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-12-01

    Comprehensive sex education programs specifically designed for adolescents and young adults that take into account gender norms and cultural background have shown promise as a means of countering the high sexually transmitted infection rate in young people. Recently, digital gaming interventions delivered on computers or mobile devices have emerged as another way to promote safer sex behavior in a young population. Tailoring these computer-based interventions to their target population has been recognized to increase positive behavior outcomes. In this qualitative study, we investigated whether young female and male adults from two different cultural backgrounds (all living in Germany) would have different preferences and needs in relation to an educational game promoting safer sex. We conducted four semistructured focus group interviews comprising open-ended questions with male and female participants who had either a German or a Turkish background. In total, 20 individuals, aged between 18 and 22 years, from two socially diverse and ethnically mixed vocational schools in Germany participated. Independent of cultural background and gender, participants preferred a real-world design with a first-person visual perspective over a fantasy-like third-person perspective. Furthermore, they preferred highly customizable avatars. All participants mentioned the importance of including an alcohol-intoxicated avatar and most participants wanted there to be additional information available about various safer sex approaches and about the use of different barrier protection methods. Males and females reported similar preferences for the design of an educational game promoting safer sex, with the only difference being exactly how the topic of having sexual intercourse should be addressed in the game. Males preferred a direct approach, whereas females had a preference for treating this subject more sympathetically. Educational games offer anonymity and can provide young people

  19. The current state of electronic consultation and electronic referral systems in Canada: an environmental scan.

    PubMed

    Liddy, Clare; Hogel, Matthew; Blazkho, Valerie; Keely, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Access to specialist care is a point of concern for patients, primary care providers, and specialists in Canada. Innovative e-health platforms such as electronic consultation (eConsultation) and referral (eReferral) can improve access to specialist care. These systems allow physicians to communicate asynchronously and could reduce the number of unnecessary referrals that clog wait lists, provide a record of the patient's journey through the referral system, and lead to more efficient visits. Little is known about the current state of eConsultation and eReferral in Canada. The purpose of this work was to identify current systems and gain insight into the design and implementation process of existing systems. An environmental scan approach was used, consisting of a systematic and grey literature review, and targeted semi-structured key informant interviews. Only three eConsultation/eReferral systems are currently in operation in Canada. Four themes emerged from the interviews: eReferral is an end goal for those provinces without an active eReferral system, re-organization of the referral process is a necessity prior to automation, engaging the end-user is essential, and technological incompatibilities are major impediments to progress. Despite the acknowledged need to improve the referral system and increase government spending on health information technology, eConsultation and eReferral systems remain scarce as Canada lags behind the rest of the developed world.

  20. Retinoblastoma Referral Pattern in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Nyamori, Joseph M.; Kimani, Kahaki; Njuguna, Margaret W.; Dimaras, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Kenya is a large country with a widely dispersed population. As retinoblastoma requires specialized treatment, we determined the referral pattern for patients with retinoblastoma in Kenya to facilitate the formulation of a national policy. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was performed for retinoblastoma patients who presented from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2007. Data were collected on the referral process from presenting health facility to the hospital where patient was treated. Data were also collected on the time interval when the first symptoms were noticed to the time of presentation at a health facility (lag time). For cases that could be traced to a referral hospital, the time delay due to referral (referral lag time) was recorded. Results: There were 206 patients diagnosed with retinoblastoma in 51 Kenyan and 2 foreign healthcare facilities, and they received final treatment at a Kenyan hospital. Mean lag time was 6.8 months (±6.45). Of all patients, 18% (38/206) were treated at the hospital where they first presented and 82% (168/206) were referred elsewhere. Of those referred, 35% (58/168) were lost to follow-up. The mean referral lag time was 1.7 months (±2.5). Conclusions: A significant proportion of cases presented late, and either delayed seeking further treatment or were lost after initial referral. We recommend the implementation of a national strategy that emphasizes early detection, documentation and follow up of retinoblastoma patients. PMID:25371638

  1. Safer staining method for acid fast bacilli.

    PubMed

    Ellis, R C; Zabrowarny, L A

    1993-06-01

    To develop a method for staining acid fast bacilli which excluded highly toxic phenol from the staining solution. A lipophilic agent, a liquid organic detergent, LOC High Studs, distributed by Amway, was substituted. The acid fast bacilli stained red; nuclei, cytoplasm, and cytoplasmic elements stained blue on a clear background. These results compare very favourably with acid fast bacilli stained by the traditional method. Detergents are efficient lipophilic agents and safer to handle than phenol. The method described here stains acid fast bacilli as efficiently as traditional carbol fuchsin methods. LOC High Suds is considerably cheaper than phenol.

  2. Safer staining method for acid fast bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, R C; Zabrowarny, L A

    1993-01-01

    To develop a method for staining acid fast bacilli which excluded highly toxic phenol from the staining solution. A lipophilic agent, a liquid organic detergent, LOC High Studs, distributed by Amway, was substituted. The acid fast bacilli stained red; nuclei, cytoplasm, and cytoplasmic elements stained blue on a clear background. These results compare very favourably with acid fast bacilli stained by the traditional method. Detergents are efficient lipophilic agents and safer to handle than phenol. The method described here stains acid fast bacilli as efficiently as traditional carbol fuchsin methods. LOC High Suds is considerably cheaper than phenol. Images PMID:7687254

  3. Safer Systems: A NextGen Aviation Safety Strategic Goal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darr, Stephen T.; Ricks, Wendell R.; Lemos, Katherine A.

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO), is charged by Congress with developing the concepts and plans for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP), developed by the Safety Working Group of the JPDO, focuses on establishing the goals, objectives, and strategies needed to realize the safety objectives of the NextGen Integrated Plan. The three goal areas of the NASSP are Safer Practices, Safer Systems, and Safer Worldwide. Safer Practices emphasizes an integrated, systematic approach to safety risk management through implementation of formalized Safety Management Systems (SMS) that incorporate safety data analysis processes, and the enhancement of methods for ensuring safety is an inherent characteristic of NextGen. Safer Systems emphasizes implementation of safety-enhancing technologies, which will improve safety for human-centered interfaces and enhance the safety of airborne and ground-based systems. Safer Worldwide encourages coordinating the adoption of the safer practices and safer systems technologies, policies and procedures worldwide, such that the maximum level of safety is achieved across air transportation system boundaries. This paper introduces the NASSP and its development, and focuses on the Safer Systems elements of the NASSP, which incorporates three objectives for NextGen systems: 1) provide risk reducing system interfaces, 2) provide safety enhancements for airborne systems, and 3) provide safety enhancements for ground-based systems. The goal of this paper is to expose avionics and air traffic management system developers to NASSP objectives and Safer Systems strategies.

  4. Space Station Live: FLEX in Space for Safer Combustion

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Flame Extinguishment Experiment (FLEX) Principal Investigator Mark Hickman, from Glenn Research Center, discusses why scientists study flames in space. One reason is to create a safer environment t...

  5. Predictors of safer sex intentions and protected sex among heterosexual HIV-negative methamphetamine users: an expanded model of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Mausbach, Brent T; Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Patterson, Thomas L

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a version of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) for predicting safe sex behavior in a sample of 228 HIV-negative heterosexual methamphetamine users. We hypothesized that, in addition to TPB constructs, participants' amount of methamphetamine use and desire to stop unsafe sex behaviors would predict intentions to engage in safer sex behaviors. In turn, we predicted that safer sex intentions would be positively correlated with participants' percentage of protected sex. Hierarchical linear regression indicated that 48% of the total variance in safer sex intentions was predicted by our model, with less negative attitudes toward safer sex, greater normative beliefs, greater control beliefs, less methamphetamine use, less intent to have sex, and greater desire to stop unsafe sex emerging as significant predictors of greater safer sex intentions. Safer sex intentions were positively associated with future percent protected sex (p<0.05). These findings suggest that, among heterosexual methamphetamine users, the TPB is an excellent model for predicting safer sex practices in this population, as are some additional factors (e.g., methamphetamine use). Effective interventions for increasing safer sex practices in methamphetamine user will likely include constructs from this model with augmentations to help reduce methamphetamine use.

  6. Molecular approaches for safer and stronger vaccines.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, G; Rappuoli, R

    1999-11-20

    Progress in molecular biology and biotechnology is making possible the development of new vaccines or the improvement of already existing ones. Recombinant DNA technology, genetic attenuation of bacterial and viral pathogens and their use as vectors for heterologous proteins, expression of microbial antigens in transgenic edible plants, and naked nucleic acid technology represent the most popular approaches hitherto adopted. A successful biotechnological approach to the development of new and improved vaccines has been based on genetic detoxification of bacterial toxins, such as the toxin of Bordetella pertussis, the heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli, and the toxin of Vibrio cholerae. Genetically detoxified Bordetella pertussis is now included in a commercially available acellular vaccine against pertussis. Genetically detoxified Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae have been shown to behave as very strong and safe mucosal adjuvants and are now entering the clinical stage. These results demonstrate that a rational molecular approach to the development of safer and stronger vaccines is feasible.

  7. Parental influence, gay youths, and safer sex.

    PubMed

    LaSala, Michael C

    2007-02-01

    To begin to understand the role that family relationships and interactions play in young gay men's decisions to avoid unsafe sexual practices, parents and sons (ages 16 to 25) in 30 families were qualitatively interviewed about issues and concerns related to HIV risk. Most of the youths reported feeling obliged to their parents to stay healthy, and these feelings of obligation were important factors in their decisions to avoid unsafe sex. Youths who reported no parental influence came from families in which parents had historically been preoccupied with personal or marital problems or in which there was a history of parental rejection. On the basis of these exploratory findings, AIDS prevention specialists are advised to recruit parents, assess family relationships, and facilitate parent-child communication in their efforts to encourage gay youths to consistently engage in safer sex practices.

  8. Development of safer molecules through chirality.

    PubMed

    Patil, P A; Kothekar, M A

    2006-10-01

    Many of the drugs currently used in medical practice are mixtures of enantiomers (racemates). Many a times, the two enantiomers differ in their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Replacing existing racemates with single isomers has resulted in improved safety and/or efficacy profile of various racemates. In this review, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic implications of chirality are discussed in brief, followed by an overview of some important chiral switches that have yielded safer alternatives. These include levosalbutamol, S-ketamine, levobupivacaine, S-zopiclone, levocetirizine, S-amlodipine, S-atenolol, S-metoprolol, S-omeprazole, S-pantoprazole and R-ondansetron. Few potential chiral switches under evaluation and some chiral switches that have not been successful are also discussed.

  9. Motherhood: making it safer for Filipino women.

    PubMed

    Baylon, M C

    1996-01-01

    In November 1995, in the Philippines, the Department of Health implemented the Women's Health and Safe Motherhood Project. Its target audience is poor women in remote and underserved provinces. It addresses maternal health, reproductive tract infections (RTIs), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), cervical cancer, domestic violence, and the desire to space births. It aims to improve the quality of women's health services through training of health providers, providing women with information to help them make informed choices, providing regular supplies and drugs, privacy and infection control at service delivery points, providing follow-up care, and improved cost-effective and technically-sound referral systems. The project also aims to ensure accessible service delivery points, well-equipped and maintained facilities, client and community feedback in managing service delivery, and information provision in order to increase acceptability of health services. The major components of the project include service delivery, institutional strengthening (via information, education, and communication; training of health providers; and improvement of the logistics system), community partnership for women's health development, and policy and operations research. The service delivery component will adopt a life-cycle approach to service delivery in Region 8 (urban and rural communities). It will pilot the syndromic approach in the management and detection of RTIs and STDs in 10 provinces. The biggest tasks of the project are upgrading referral networks from provincial and district hospitals to rural health units and barangay health stations and upgrading primary hospitals.

  10. Determinants of Safer Sex Behaviors among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanekar, Amar; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Safer sex behaviors (monogamy, sexual abstinence, correct and consistent condom usage) are important for prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS among college students. The purpose of this article was to review studies addressing determinants of safer sex behaviors among college students. In order to collect materials for this…

  11. Initiating a Standardized Regional Referral and Counter-Referral System in Guatemala: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Rupa; Avendaño, Leslie; Sandoval, Maria Antonieta; Cruz, Andrea T.; Sampayo, Esther M.; Soto, Miguel A.; Camp, Elizabeth A.; Crouse, Heather L.

    2017-01-01

    Background:Few data exist for referral processes in resource-limited settings. We utilized mixed-methods to evaluate the impact of a standardized algorithm and training module developed for locally identified needs in referral/counter-referral procedures between primary health centers (PHCs) and a Guatemalan referral hospital. Methods: PHC personnel and hospital physicians participated in surveys and focus groups pre-implementation and 3, 6, and 12 months post-implementation to evaluate providers’ experience with the system. Referred patient records were reviewed to evaluate system effectiveness. Results: A total of 111 initial focus group participants included 96 (86.5%) from PHCs and 15 from the hospital. Of these participants, 53 PHC physicians and nurses and 15 hospital physicians initially completed written surveys. Convenience samples participated in follow-up. Eighteen focus groups achieved thematic saturation. Four themes emerged: effective communication; provision of timely, quality patient care with adequate resources; educational opportunities; and development of empowerment and relationships. Pre- and post-implementation surveys demonstrated significant improvement at the PHCs (P < .001) and the hospital (P = .02). Chart review included 435 referrals, 98 (22.5%) pre-implementation and 337 (77.5%) post-implementation. There was a trend toward an increased percentage of appropriately referred patients requiring medical intervention (30% vs 40%, P = .08) and of patients requiring intervention who received it prior to transport (55% vs 73%, P = .06). Conclusions: Standardizing a referral/counter-referral system improved communication, education, and trust across different levels of pediatric health care delivery. This model may be used for extension throughout Guatemala or be modified for use in other countries. Mixed-methods research design can evaluate complex systems in resource-limited settings. PMID:28812056

  12. Safer Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kejha, Joe; Smith, Novis; McCloseky, Joel

    2004-01-01

    A number of nonvolatile, low-flammability liquid oligomers and polymers based on aliphatic organic carbonate molecular structures have been found to be suitable to be blended with ethylene carbonate to make electrolytes for lithium-ion electrochemical cells. Heretofore, such electrolytes have often been made by blending ethylene carbonate with volatile, flammable organic carbonates. The present nonvolatile electrolytes have been found to have adequate conductivity (about 2 mS/cm) for lithium ions and to remain liquid at temperatures down to -5 C. At normal charge and discharge rates, lithiumion cells containing these nonvolatile electrolytes but otherwise of standard design have been found to operate at current and energy densities comparable to those of cells now in common use. They do not perform well at high charge and discharge rates -- an effect probably attributable to electrolyte viscosity. Cells containing the nonvolatile electrolytes have also been found to be, variously, nonflammable or at least self-extinguishing. Hence, there appears to be a basis for the development of safer high-performance lithium-ion cells.

  13. Referral Handbook of Community Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Renny J.; And Others

    This guide to community services is designed to assist financial counseling agencies in the development of community service handbooks with comprehensive listings of community resources and referral centers. The handbook is organized into sections according to problem areas and includes the following: (1) alcohol and drug treatment; (2) child…

  14. Referral Practices of School Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Martin H.; Partin, Ronald L.

    1994-01-01

    Surveyed school counselors (n=149) concerning their referral practices. Found that average number of students that counselors reported referring to other professionals during typical year was 30 (average of 6.5% of students they served). Emotional concerns, family concerns, alcoholism or drug abuse, and suspected child abuse were concerns most…

  15. Motherhood can be safer -- even where conditions are hard.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    The Prevention of Maternal Mortality (PMM) Network in West Africa has demonstrated that, even under sub-optimal conditions, motherhood can be safer and needless deaths can be avoided. The PMM Network's 10 teams from Ghana, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone designed projects to enable women with complications during pregnancy or delivery to overcome delays in deciding to seek medical help, travelling to a health facility, and receiving help after arriving at the facility. Operating rooms and blood banks were opened in some hospitals and health centers were upgraded at a cost under US $15,000. In one case, an abandoned warehouse was turned into a health center. Other PMM activities included staff training, making drugs more readily available, setting up a fund to lower drug prices, and increasing stocks of safe blood. The teams arranged for local truck drivers' unions to provide emergency transport and organized groups of men in remote villages to carry women in hammocks to motorized transport. The teams worked with traditional leaders and held educational sessions at community gatherings. Even in the poorest areas, the number of women seeking care for obstetric complications increased and their risk of dying dropped. The PMM Network is supported by Columbia University's School of Public Health, with funding from the Carnegie Corporation.

  16. GMES Sentinel-3: A Safer Satellite for a Safer Space World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, S.; Derenne, P.; Palmade, J. L.; Paoli, F.; Baillion, Y.; Berruti, B.

    2013-09-01

    The Sentinel-3 Mission is part of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) initiative whose overall objective is to support Europe's goals regarding sustainable development and global governance of the environment by providing timely and quality data, information, services and knowledge. In that way, Sentinel-3 will help humanity by contributing to the improvement of the life quality.The Sentinel-3 mission will be more particularly devoted to the provision of Ocean observation data in routine, long term (20 years of operations) and continuous fashion with a consistent quality and a very high level of availability. In addition, the mission will be designed to generate Land optical observation products, ice topography and land hydrology products.THALES ALENIA Space has successfully performed during past years the definition phase of this mission and the system together with ESA to come to an optimized system answering to the users' needs. The results of this development phase and the way forward for a successful implementation of the mission safety compliant to applicable standards will be presented in this paper. In particular, the technical baseline and evolutions will be presented in order to demonstrate the safety improvements versus the previous generation of similar spacecrafts in term of design and operations. A specific focus will be given on quality and safety topics raised and managed during satellite development.The intention of this paper is to present: * The benefits of GMES initiative and specifically of the Sentinel-3 mission for the global humanity to contribute "for a Safer World". * The improvements of Sentinel-3 satellite design & operations in term of Space Safety with regard to previous similar satellites in demonstrating complianceto IADCGuidelines"foraSaferSpace" * The specific Safety and Quality management process implemented daily and the safety concerns raised during Satellite development "for a Safer Satellite" * The

  17. Wear your hat: representational resistance in safer sex discourse.

    PubMed

    Nelson, S D

    1994-01-01

    Through an analysis of four posters used by the AIDS Action Committee of Massachusetts, this article asks how representation can effectively promote safer sex practices. The images under investigation have different targeted groups--one is aimed at African-American men, one at Latinas, and two at gay men. Using a frame-work that connects definitions of sex in the respective communities with differences surrounding gender, race, and class, the imagery is unpacked in order to expose the effects of safer sex representation. This essay then argues that the degree to which ingrained definitions of sex are challenged constitutes a determining factor in the success or failure of safer sex representations.

  18. 12 CFR 612.2301 - Referrals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM STANDARDS OF CONDUCT AND REFERRAL OF KNOWN OR SUSPECTED CRIMINAL VIOLATIONS Referral of Known or Suspected Criminal Violations § 612.2301 Referrals. (a..., appropriate investigation, and reporting of criminal activity. Within 30 calendar days of determining...

  19. 29 CFR 1626.9 - Referral to and from State agencies; referral States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral to and from State agencies; referral States. 1626.9 Section 1626.9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURES-AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT § 1626.9 Referral to and from State agencies; referral States. The Commission may refer all...

  20. Graduated driver licensing and safer driving.

    PubMed

    McKnight, A James; Peck, Raymond C

    2003-01-01

    Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) inserts between the leaner permit and full licensure an intermediate or "provisional" license that allows novices to drive unsupervised but subject to provisions intended to reduce the risks that accompany entry into highway traffic. Introduction of GDL has been followed by lowered accident rates, resulting from both limiting exposure of novices to unsafe situations and by helping them to deal with them more safely. Sources of safer driving include extended learning, early intervention, contingent advancement, and multistage instruction. To extend the learning process, most GDL systems lengthen the duration of the learner phase and require a specified level of adult-supervised driving. Results indicate that extended learning can reduce accidents substantially if well structured and highly controlled. Early intervention with novice traffic violators have shown both a general deterrent effect upon novice violators facing suspension and a specific effect upon those who have experienced it. Making advancement to full licensure contingent upon a violation-free record when driving on the provisional license has also evidenced a reduction in accidents and violations during that phase of licensure. Multistage instruction attempts development of advanced skills only after novices have had a chance to master more basic skills. Although this element of GDL has yet to be evaluated, research indicates crash reduction is possible in situations where it does not increase exposure to risk. While the various elements of GDL have demonstrated potential benefit in enhancing the safety of novice drivers, considerable improvement in the nature and enforcement of GDL requirements is needed to realize that potential.

  1. Salmonella Is a Sneaky Germ: Seven Tips for Safer Eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... Error processing SSI file Error processing SSI file Salmonella is a Sneaky Germ: Seven Tips for Safer Eating Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Salmonella can contaminate more than poultry and eggs. It ...

  2. The language of "Circule": discursive construction of false referral in Iranian teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Mirhosseini, Seyyed-Abdolhamid; Fattahi, Hossein

    2010-09-01

    This article explores the practice of false patient out-referral by medical students in Iranian teaching hospital emergency departments. Drawing on participant-observations and interviews during eight months in six hospitals in Tehran, we investigate how discourse is appropriated to construct and legitimate out-referrals through four general strategies of sympathy, mystification, intimidation, and procrastination. Based on a critical approach to false out-referral discourse, we revisit the medical and educational functioning of teaching hospitals in Iran: Focusing on medical students involved in false out-referrals, their discursive reproduction of deception is examined along with their legitimate challenges to institutional structures. Moreover, focusing on the institution of hospital, institutional corruption is discussed along with the problematic of covert cultural defiance faced by a modernist organizational construct in a nonmainstream cultural context. Finally, we argue that the discourse of false out-referral calls for more profound public awareness in dealing with health institutions.

  3. Swimming Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Beerman, Stephen B.

    1988-01-01

    Persons who have undergone swimming emergencies are seen in emergency departments everywhere. They are frequently young healthy citizens. In some instances they will receive better care in large specialized referral hospitals. Other problems can be managed well at local facilities. This article attempts to equip all family physicians with some knowledge and management guidelines for dealing with swimming emergencies, submersion injuries including near-drowning, accidental hypothermia, and triathalon hypothermia. The unique problems of hot tub near-drowning, infant water intoxication, and spinal injuries caused by diving are presented. PMID:21253260

  4. Correctional Service Canada to undertake Safer Tattooing Practices Initiative.

    PubMed

    2004-08-01

    In 1994, the Expert Committee on AIDS and Prisons recommended that tattooing equipment and supplies be authorized for use in federal correctional institutions, and that prisoners who would offer tattooing services to other prisoners be instructed on how to use tattooing equipment safely. Ten years later, Correctional Service Canada (CSC) has finally announced that, as part of a Safer Tattooing Practices Initiative, it will set up safer tattooing pilot projects in six federal prisons in 2004, and evaluate the initiative.

  5. Automatic referral to cardiac rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Jane P

    2008-01-01

    The pervasive negative impact of cardiovascular disease in the United States is well documented. Although advances have been made, the campaign to reduce the occurrence, progression, and mortality continues. Determining evidence-based data is only half the battle. Implementing new and updated clinical guidelines into daily practice is a challenging task. Cardiac rehabilitation is an example of a proven intervention whose benefit is hindered through erratic implementation. The American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation (AACVPR), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the American Heart Association (AHA) have responded to this problem by publishing the AACVPR/ACC/AHA 2007 Performance Measures on Cardiac Rehabilitation for Referral to and Delivery of Cardiac Rehabilitation/Secondary Prevention Services. This new national guideline recommends automatic referral to cardiac rehabilitation for every eligible patient (performance measure A-1). This article offers guidance for the initiation of an automatic referral system, including individualizing your protocol with regard to electronic or paper-based order entry structures.

  6. Safer Vehicles for People and the Planet

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, Thomas P; Wenzel, Thomas P; Ross, Marc

    2008-03-01

    those riding in them is flawed. For starters, all else is never equal; other aspects of vehicle design appear to control what really happens in a crash, as reflected in the safety record of different kinds of vehicles. What's more, the use of high-strength steel, light-weight metals such as aluminum and magnesium, and fiber-reinforced plastics now offers automotive engineers the means to fashion vehicles that are simultaneously safer and less massive than their predecessors, and such designs would, of course, enjoy the better fuel economy that shedding pounds brings.

  7. Dental Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Symington, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Patients with dental emergencies sometimes present to their physician. This article outlines the role of the physician in the management of dental patients who have suffered traumatic injuries, postoperative hemorrhage, pain, and infection. It deals with those difficulties for which the physician may easily prescribe treatment and outlines the treatment that would be undertaken by a dentist who receives such a patient on referral. PMID:21253249

  8. Association of holidays, full moon, Friday the 13th, day of week, time of day, day of week, and time of year on case distribution in an urban referral small animal emergency clinic.

    PubMed

    Drobatz, Kenneth J; Syring, Rebecca; Reineke, Erica; Meadows, Cheyney

    2009-10-01

    To interrogate the association of variables: day of week, time of day, day of the year (major holidays, Friday the 13th, and the full moon), and month of year with the caseload of an urban academic emergency service. Retrospective study. Urban small animal teaching hospital emergency clinic. Cats and dogs that were presented to the emergency clinic. None. The hospital computer database was searched for all visits to the Emergency Service of the Mathew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania from January 1, 1987 through December 31, 2002. Variables included in the electronic data were date of admission, time of day of admission, species (dog or cat), hospital service the case was transferred to for ongoing care and whether the case was discharged directly from the emergency service. The association of caseload with day of week, time of day, day of the year (major holidays, Friday the 13th, and the full moon), and month of year was described and statistically evaluated. Saturdays and Sundays were the busiest days of the week and significantly increased caseload was noted for the majority of holidays (except Easter Day and Thanksgiving Day) with Memorial Day being the busiest. Midweek evenings as well as Saturday and Sunday afternoons were the busiest periods of the day. There was no association with caseload and Halloween, the full moon, or Friday the 13th. The busiest times were midweek evenings, Saturday and Sunday afternoons, and most major holidays.

  9. A study of referral failures for potentially suicidal patients: a method of medical care evaluation.

    PubMed

    Knesper, D J

    1982-01-01

    To learn more about the methodological problems inherent in medical care evaluation studies, a quality assurance committee conducted a study of rates of referral failure for potentially suicidal patients seen in the psychiatry division of a university hospital's emergency room. A simple 5-point scale was used to identify for study a similarly ill patient group: 296 patients with moderately to extremely severe suicide potential. The rates of referral failure for the emergency room's psychiatry division were 24 per cent for referrals within the university hospital system and 33 per cent outside the system, which compared favorably with other facilities. Outlier analysis-a statistical procedure that holds promise for medical care evaluation studies-was used to identify clinicians whose rates of referral failure differed significantly from their peer's rates of. As a result, an instance of substandard performance was identified and corrected through the transfer of information about exceptionally good performance.

  10. Severe systolic hypertension and the search for safer motherhood.

    PubMed

    Martin, James N

    2016-03-01

    Timely and appropriate response to severe hypertension during gestation is an important component of quality, safe care for pregnant or puerperal mothers regardless of causation. The reduction of severe maternal morbidity and maternal mortality in the hypertensive mother is clearly enhanced by the addition of standard protocols for provider response to severe hypertension, particularly severe systolic hypertension. The program developed in New York State via the Safe Motherhood Initiative promotes the implementation of unit-specific safety bundles, especially one that is focused upon a standardized approach to handling the obstetric emergency of severe hypertension usually associated with preeclampsia/eclampsia. The comprehensive preeclampsia/eclampsia safety bundle as summarized by Drs. Moroz and colleagues is reviewed especially from the perspective of its focus on the timely and specific responses for health care providers to make when severe hypertension is detected in the pregnant patient. Evidence-based guidance to practice considerations and clinical care of patients with preeclampsia/eclampsia is embedded within the program outlined for New York State by Moroz and her District II ACOG colleagues. There is a central focus on timely and appropriate antepartum/postpartum management of severe hypertension, a core concept to lessen maternal risk for cerebral hemorrhage. Ten considerations for further integration into the New York program are suggested. Beyond blood pressure control, there is a need for systematic review of interventions and outcomes over time, attention to possible future variations of the protocol for racial/ethnic patient groups at highest risk for maternal morbidity and mortality, and the identification of biomarker(s) that further specify and quantify risk to the maternal brain and other organ systems when severe hypertension develops. Safer motherhood will happen when evidence for best practice is integrated into systems of care for all

  11. Safer Aircraft Possible With Nitrogen Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2001-01-01

    A system named On-Board Inert Gas Generation System/On-Board Oxygen Generation System (OBIGGS/OBOGS) was studied with Boeing. The study established the requirements for nitrogen purge (for fuel tank inerting and cargo compartment fire suppression) and oxygen (for passengers and crew). The nitrogen would be used for suppressing fires and fuel tank explosions on the aircraft, and the oxygen would be used for breathing gas during high-altitude or emergency operations.

  12. Misunderstanding of 'safer sex' by heterosexually active adults.

    PubMed Central

    Wenger, N S; Kusseling, F S; Shapiro, M F

    1995-01-01

    To assess the understanding of safer sex among heterosexual adults, people enrolled in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) education trials at a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic and a university student health service were surveyed concerning sexual behavior with their latest reported partner. Of 646 sexually active persons enrolled in the trials, 233 (36 percent) reported having had safer sex with their latest partner; 124 of them (53 percent) also reported having vaginal or anal intercourse without a condom during that sexual encounter. Among the 124 who reported safer sex despite having intercourse without a condom, only 23 percent reported asking partners about their HIV status, 46 percent had asked about intravenous drug use, and 47 percent had asked about the number of prior sexual partners. For 34 percent of those surveyed, the length of the sexual relationship with their latest partner was 1 month or less, and 18 percent estimated that this partner had had 11 or more prior sexual partners. STD clinic participants characterized intercourse without a condom as safer sex more often than student health service enrollees (76 percent versus 39 percent, P < 0.001). The concept of safer sex is often misunderstood by persons engaging in behavior at risk for HIV transmission, and the level of misunderstanding differs among samples. Interventions to reduce transmission of HIV must confront misconceptions about the risk of sexual intercourse without condoms and include specific instructions understood by the targeted group. PMID:7480617

  13. Understanding the Process of Medical Referral

    PubMed Central

    Muzzin, Linda J.

    1991-01-01

    In a critique of the existing literature, the author found that most studies simply calculate referral rates and count letters between referring physicians and specialists. Longitudinal studies that consider all participants' views and place referral in a broader context could reveal more about this complex process. This article is the first of a six-part series reporting on a longitudinal study of 50 referrals in Ontario and Manitoba. PMID:21229088

  14. Development of a quarterly referral productivity report.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cai; Sandoval, Alex; Hicks, Katrina N; Edwards, Tim J; Green, Lyle D

    2007-10-11

    The Office of Physician Relations at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) has developed a dynamic referral productivity reporting tool for its Multidisciplinary Care Centers (MCC). The tool leverages information within the institution's Enterprise Information Warehouse (EIW) using business intelligent software Hyperion Intelligent Explorer Suite 8.3. the referral productivity reports are intended to provide each MCC with detailed referral and registration data outlining how, and from where, patients arrive here for treatment. The reports supports operational and strategic initiatives aimed at improving referral processes and market related program development.

  15. GPs' payment contracts and their referral practice.

    PubMed

    Mariñoso, Begoña Garcia; Jelovac, Izabela

    2003-07-01

    This paper compares the role of general practitioners in determining access to specialists in two types of health care systems: gate-keeping systems, where a general practitioner (GP) referral is compulsory to visit a specialist, and non-gate-keeping systems, where this referral is optional. We model the dependence between the GP's diagnosis effort and her referral behaviour, and identify the optimal contracts that induce the best behaviour from a public insurer's point of view, where there is asymmetry of information between the insurer and the GP regarding diagnosis effort and referral decisions. We show that gate keeping is superior wherever GP's incentives matter.

  16. Referral to pediatric surgical specialists.

    PubMed

    Klein, Michael D

    2014-02-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics, with the collaboration of the Surgical Sections of the American Academy of Pediatrics, has created referral recommendations intended to serve as voluntary practice parameters to assist general pediatricians in determining when and to whom to refer their patients for pediatric surgical specialty care. It is recognized that these recommendations may be difficult to implement, because communities vary in terms of access to major pediatric medical centers. Limited access does not negate the value of the recommendations, however, because the child who needs specialized surgical and anesthetic care is best served by the skills of the appropriate pediatric surgical team. Major congenital anomalies, malignancies, major trauma, and chronic illnesses (including those associated with preterm birth) in infants and children should be managed by pediatric medical subspecialists and pediatric surgical specialists at pediatric referral centers that can provide expertise in many areas, including the pediatric medical subspecialties and surgical specialties of pediatric radiology, pediatric anesthesiology, pediatric pathology, and pediatric intensive care. The optimal management of the child with complex problems, chronic illness, or disabilities requires coordination, communication, and cooperation of the pediatric surgical specialist with the child's primary care pediatrician or physician.

  17. Client uptake of safer conception strategies: implementation outcomes from the Sakh'umndeni Safer Conception Clinic in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Sheree R; Bassett, Jean; Holmes, Charles B; Yende, Nompumelelo; Phofa, Rebecca; Sanne, Ian; Van Rie, Annelies

    2017-03-08

    Implementation of safer conception services for HIV-affected couples within primary healthcare clinics in resource-limited settings remains limited. We review service utilization and safer conception strategy uptake during the first three years of Sakh'umndeni, which is a safer conception clinic in South Africa. Sakh'umndeni is located at Witkoppen Health and Welfare Centre, a high-volume primary healthcare clinic in northern Johannesburg. Men and women desiring to conceive in less than or equal to six months and in relationships in which one or both partners are living with HIV are eligible for safer conception services. Clients receive a baseline health assessment and counselling around periconception HIV risk reduction strategies and choose which strategies they plan to use. Clients are followed-up monthly. We describe client service utilization and uptake and continuation of safer conception methods. Factors associated with male partner attendance are assessed using robust Poisson regression. Overall 440 individuals utilized the service including 157 couples in which both partners attended (55%) and 126 unaccompanied female partners. Over half of the couples (55%) represented were in serodiscordant/unknown status relationships. Higher economic status and HIV-negative status of the women increased male partner involvement, while HIV-negative status of the men decreased male involvement. Regarding safer conception strategies, uptake of antiretroviral therapy initiation (90%), vaginal self-insemination among partnerships with HIV-negative men (75%) and timed condomless intercourse strategies (48%) were variable, but generally high. Overall uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) was 23% and was lower among HIV-negative men than women (7% vs. 44%, p < 0.001). Male medical circumcision (MMC) was used by 28% of HIV-negative men. Over 80% of clients took up at least one recommended safer conception strategy. Continuation of selected strategies over attempted

  18. Discharge Planning: Screening Older Patients for Multidisciplinary Team Referral

    PubMed Central

    Hegarty, Carolyn; Buckley, Clare; Forrest, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine whether the Elders Risk Assessment Index can predict multi-disciplinary team referral of older patients (≥ 65 years) in Emergency Department same-day discharges. The study identified 1,376 qualifying individuals from a regional New Zealand hospital database. Of these, 12.7 % were referred to the multi-disciplinary team. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to explore associations between the Index, its components, and other demographic factors with referral. With every unit increase in the Index there was a 9% increase in the odds of being referred. When the components of the Index were analysed separately, an increased likelihood of being referred was associated with not being married, having had a previous hospital admission of more than five days, having chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and being older. Conversely, a decreased likelihood was associated with having diabetes. When non-Index items were analysed it was found that females were more likely to be referred than males and that Māori were less likely to be referred than New Zealand Europeans. With adaptation, the Elders Risk Assessment Index may provide a simple, cost-effective, and timely tool to assist in determining the need for multi-disciplinary team referral for older people who present to the Emergency Department. PMID:28413367

  19. Using a narrative to spark safer sex communication.

    PubMed

    Donné, Lennie; Hoeks, John; Jansen, Carel

    2017-10-01

    College students are a group at risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs). While they are generally well informed about STIs, they do not consistently use condoms. An important element in preventing STIs is safer sex communication, especially with a sexual partner. This may be difficult, however, because of a lack of experience in talking about safer sex or because of the absence of suitable role models. In this study, a narrative intervention was tested that was developed to provide receivers with a social script for safer sex communication. An experiment was conducted among college students (N = 225) who were exposed to either a narrative intervention or a non-narrative (brochure) intervention, followed by a post-test questionnaire. In the narrative condition, part of the participants completed a pre-test questionnaire before being exposed to the intervention. Compared to pre-test scores, the narrative positively influenced safer sex communication intentions. The results show no significant differences between post-test scores of the narrative and the non-narrative condition. Mediation analyses showed that narrative processes (identification and transportation) were positively related to safer sex communication. In this study, we investigated both the effects of a narrative intervention on safer sex communication intentions, and the mechanisms of narrative processing underlying these effects. The narrative turned out to be as effective as a brochure version with the same information. Our mediation analyses suggest that narratives can be made more persuasive by increasing the reader's involvement with the story as a whole, and with one of the characters in particular.

  20. The effect of an online referral system on referrals to bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Doumouras, Aristithes G; Anvari, Sama; Breau, Ruth; Anvari, Mehran; Hong, Dennis; Gmora, Scott

    2017-04-26

    The Ontario Bariatric Network implemented an online referral system to completely replace a fax-based system in 2015. Strategies such as electronic information transfer have been suggested to improve the bariatric referral process but few studies exist demonstrating their efficacy. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the impact on referral rates to bariatric surgery after converting to an online referral system from a fax-based system. All referrals from 2011 to 2015 were included in the study. The main outcomes included the total number of referrals and whether a practitioner increased referrals after the implementation of the online referral system. A hierarchical logistic regression model was used for the final analysis. Predictors of interest included physician and neighbourhood level factors RESULTS: Referrals more than doubled overall and increased significantly across all health regions. Compared to practitioners in their first five years, all other experience groups were approximately 50% less likely to increase referrals. Compared to those within 50 km of a bariatric facility, practitioners 50-99 km (OR 0.76 95% CI 0.58-0.98 p = 0.04) and 100-199 km (OR 0.73 95% CI 0.55-0.96 p = 0.03) away were both significantly less likely to increase referrals. This study found that referrals increased significantly after implementing an online referral system. Furthermore, physicians in their first five years of practice as well as those practicing closer to bariatric centers were more likely to increase referrals. Our findings demonstrate that an online referral system may aid in increasing referrals to bariatric surgery.

  1. Comprehensive arthritis referral study -- phase 2: analysis of the comprehensive arthritis referral tool.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Andrew E; Haig, Sara L; LeRiche, Nicole G H; Rohekar, Gina; Rohekar, Sherry; Pope, Janet E

    2014-10-01

    Rheumatologists triage referrals to assess those patients who may benefit from early intervention. We describe a referral tool and formally evaluate its sensitivity for urgent and early inflammatory arthritis (EIA) referrals. All referrals received on a standardized referral tool were reviewed by a rheumatologist and, based on the information conferred, assigned a triage grade using a previously described triage system. Each referral was also dichotomized as suspected EIA or not. After the initial rheumatologic assessment, the diagnosis was recorded and a consultation grade, blinded to referral grade, was assigned to each case. Agreement between referral and consultation grades was assessed. A regression analysis was performed to determine factors that predicted truly urgent referrals including EIA. We evaluated 696 referrals. A total of 210 (30.2%) were categorized as urgent at the time of consultation. The referral tool was able to successfully detect 169 of these referrals (sensitivity 80.5%, specificity 79.4%). EIA occurred in 95 (13.6%); of those referrals, 86 were correctly classified as urgent at the time of triage (sensitivity 90.5%, specificity 69.6%). Items that helped correctly discriminate urgent or EIA referrals included patient age < 60, duration of disease, morning stiffness, patient-reported joint swelling, a personal or family history of psoriasis, urgency as rated by referring physician, prior assessment by a rheumatologist, elevated C-reactive protein, and a positive rheumatoid factor. A 1-page referral tool that includes parts completed by the referring physician and patient has good sensitivity to detect urgent referrals including EIA.

  2. Astronauts Carl Meade and Mark Lee test SAFER during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Backdropped against the darkness of space some 130 nautical miles above Earth, astronaut Mark C. Lee (red stripe on EVA suit) tests the new Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system. Astronaut Carl J. Meade, tethered to Discovery, at bottom center, got his turn later using the new SAFER hardware. The scen was captured with a 70mm handheld Hasselblad camera operated by a fellow crew member in the shirt-sleeve environment of the Space Shuttle Discovery's cabin. Part of the hardware for the Lidar-In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) is in left foreground.

  3. Astronauts Carl Meade and Mark Lee test SAFER during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronauts Carl J. Meade and Mark C. Lee (red stripe on suit) test the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system some 130 nautical miles from Earth. The pair was actually performing an in-space rehearsal or demonstration of a contingency rescue using the never-before flown hardware. Meade, who here wears the small back-pack unit with its complementary chest-mounted control unit, and Lee, anchored to Discovery's Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robot arm, took turns using the SAFER hardware during their shared space walk of September 16, 1994.

  4. Astronauts Carl Meade and Mark Lee test SAFER during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Backdropped against the darkness of space some 130 nautical miles above Earth, astronaut Mark C. Lee (red stripe on EVA suit) tests the new Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system. Astronaut Carl J. Meade, tethered to Discovery, at bottom center, got his turn later using the new SAFER hardware. The scen was captured with a 70mm handheld Hasselblad camera operated by a fellow crew member in the shirt-sleeve environment of the Space Shuttle Discovery's cabin. Part of the hardware for the Lidar-In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) is in left foreground.

  5. Injury/illness physician referral profile from a youth university-sponsored summer sport camp program.

    PubMed

    Oller, Daria M; Vairo, Giampietro L; Sebastianelli, Wayne J; Buckley, William E

    2013-08-01

    Participation at university-sponsored summer sport camps is popular among youth athletes; however, there is a dearth of information to describe the injuries/illnesses experienced by camp participants. Data from a university-sponsored sport camp program from 2008 to 2011 were accessed retrospectively. The sport camp program had approximately 80 camps for 28 sports over 12 weeks annually. Male and female participants were 10 to 17 years old. Athletic trainers maintained medical documentation and provided medical referrals. Referrals were made for 9.9% (n=478) of all injuries/illnesses. Emergency department referrals were made for 2.9% of injuries/illnesses. University health services received 42.5% of referrals. There were 1.1 referrals per 100 participants. Boys comprised 60.7% of referrals. Rugby had the highest referral rate--5.0 per 100 participants. These data help increase physician preparedness and guide the delivery of sports medicine services for related sport camp programs as a means to improve quality of care delivered to participants.

  6. Inappropriate circumcision referrals by GPs.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, D; Frank, J D

    1992-01-01

    One hundred and twenty boys were referred by GPs over a 12-month period to a paediatric urologist for circumcision. The reasons for referral were: ballooning in 36, non-retraction in 28, balanoposthitis in 36 or a combination in 15. On examination 53% had a retractile, 21% a partially retractile and 21% a non-retractile foreskin. Six patients had obvious balanitis xerotica obliterans. Only one quarter of the patients required a circumcision. The penis was not examined by the referring doctor in 15 patients. The implications of this survey are that a large proportion of general practitioners have difficulty in discriminating between a true phimosis and a developmentally non-retractile foreskin. This diagnostic inaccuracy was greatest when the referring doctor did not examine the patient. PMID:1625262

  7. 34 CFR 303.303 - Referral procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the subject of a substantiated case of child abuse or neglect; or (2) Is identified as directly... DISABILITIES Child Find, Evaluations and Assessments, and Individualized Family Service Plans Referral Procedures § 303.303 Referral procedures. (a) General. (1) The lead agency's child find system described...

  8. 34 CFR 303.303 - Referral procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the subject of a substantiated case of child abuse or neglect; or (2) Is identified as directly... DISABILITIES Child Find, Evaluations and Assessments, and Individualized Family Service Plans Referral Procedures § 303.303 Referral procedures. (a) General. (1) The lead agency's child find system described...

  9. 34 CFR 303.303 - Referral procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the subject of a substantiated case of child abuse or neglect; or (2) Is identified as directly... DISABILITIES Child Find, Evaluations and Assessments, and Individualized Family Service Plans Referral Procedures § 303.303 Referral procedures. (a) General. (1) The lead agency's child find system described...

  10. Reading Intervention and Special Education Referrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polcyn, Dawn M.; Levine-Donnerstein, Deborah; Perfect, Michelle M.; Obrzut, John E.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether consistently implementing reading fluency interventions prior to referring students for a special education evaluation led to fewer overall special education referrals, as well as more accurate special education referrals. Results indicated that the implementation of a peer-mediated reading fluency intervention…

  11. 13 CFR 120.926 - Referral fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Loan Program (504) Third Party Loans § 120.926 Referral fee. The CDC can receive a reasonable referral fee from the Third Party Lender if the CDC secured the Third Party Lender for the Borrower under a written contract between the CDC and the Third Party Lender. Both the CDC and the Third Party Lender...

  12. 13 CFR 120.926 - Referral fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Loan Program (504) Third Party Loans § 120.926 Referral fee. The CDC can receive a reasonable referral fee from the Third Party Lender if the CDC secured the Third Party Lender for the Borrower under a written contract between the CDC and the Third Party Lender. Both the CDC and the Third Party Lender...

  13. 13 CFR 120.926 - Referral fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Loan Program (504) Third Party Loans § 120.926 Referral fee. The CDC can receive a reasonable referral fee from the Third Party Lender if the CDC secured the Third Party Lender for the Borrower under a written contract between the CDC and the Third Party Lender. Both the CDC and the Third Party Lender...

  14. 13 CFR 120.926 - Referral fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Loan Program (504) Third Party Loans § 120.926 Referral fee. The CDC can receive a reasonable referral fee from the Third Party Lender if the CDC secured the Third Party Lender for the Borrower under a written contract between the CDC and the Third Party Lender. Both the CDC and the Third Party Lender...

  15. 13 CFR 120.926 - Referral fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Loan Program (504) Third Party Loans § 120.926 Referral fee. The CDC can receive a reasonable referral fee from the Third Party Lender if the CDC secured the Third Party Lender for the Borrower under a written contract between the CDC and the Third Party Lender. Both the CDC and the Third Party Lender...

  16. 2 CFR 175.20 - Referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral. 175.20 Section 175.20 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved AWARD TERM FOR TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS § 175.20 Referral. An agency official should inform the agency's...

  17. The Adolescent Assessment/Referral System Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahdert, Elizabeth R., Ed.

    The goal of the Adolescent Assessment/Referral System (AARS) project was to identify, collect, and organize all the appropriate materials associated with assessment and treatment referral for troubled youth 12 through 19 years of age. This document discusses the components of the AARS. After an introduction to the AARS, the structure and function…

  18. 28 CFR 541.41 - Institutional referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Institutional referral. 541.41 Section 541.41 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS Control Unit Programs § 541.41 Institutional referral. (a...

  19. 28 CFR 35.174 - Referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Referral. 35.174 Section 35.174 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Compliance Procedures § 35.174 Referral. If the public entity declines to enter into...

  20. 28 CFR 35.174 - Referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral. 35.174 Section 35.174 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Compliance Procedures § 35.174 Referral. If the public entity declines to enter into...

  1. 2 CFR 175.20 - Referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Referral. 175.20 Section 175.20 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS AWARD TERM FOR TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS § 175.20 Referral. An...

  2. McArthur conducts SAFER onboard training during Expedition 12

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-10-21

    ISS012-E-06030 (21 October 2005) --- Astronaut William S. McArthur Jr., Expedition 12 commander and NASA science officer, holds a Hand Control Module (HCM) while looking at laptop computer graphics during a Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) training session in the Unity node of the international space station.

  3. McArthur conducts SAFER onboard training during Expedition 12

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-10-21

    ISS012-E-06035 (21 October 2005) --- Astronaut William S. McArthur Jr., Expedition 12 commander and NASA science officer, holds a Hand Control Module (HCM) while looking at laptop computer graphics during a Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) training session in the Unity node of the international space station.

  4. Safety Assessment for Explosive Risk (SAFER) peer review report.

    SciTech Connect

    Heimdahl, Olaf E. R.; LaHoud, Paul; Chapman, Leon Darrel

    2004-08-01

    At the direction of the Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board (DDESB), a Peer Review Team was established to review the status of development of the risk-based explosives safety siting process and criteria as currently implemented in the software 'Safety Assessment for Explosive Risk (SAFER)' Version 2.1. The objective of the Peer Review Team was to provide an independent evaluation of the components of the SAFER model, the ongoing development of the model and the risk assessment process and criteria. This peer review report addressed procedures; protocols; physical and statistical science algorithms; related documents; and software quality assurance, validation and verification. Overall, the risk-based method in SAFER represents a major improvement in the Department of Defense (DoD) approach to explosives safety management. The DDESB and Risk Based Explosives Safety Criteria Team (RBESCT) have made major strides in developing a methodology, which over time may become a worldwide model. The current status of all key areas of the SAFER code has been logically developed and is defensible. Continued improvement and refinement can be expected as implementation proceeds. A consistent approach to addressing and refining uncertainty in each of the primary areas (probability of event, consequences of event and exposure) will be a very beneficial future activity.

  5. Identifying Subtypes of Spousal Assaulters Using the B-SAFER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thijssen, Jill; de Ruiter, Corine

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, a structured risk assessment instrument for intimate partner violence, the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (B-SAFER), was coded for 146 files of spousal assault cases from the Dutch probation service, dating from 2004 and 2005. The aim of the study was twofold: (a) to validate Holtzworth-Munroe and…

  6. Using a Narrative to Spark Safer Sex Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donné, Lennie; Hoeks, John; Jansen, Carel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: College students are a group at risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs). While they are generally well informed about STIs, they do not consistently use condoms. An important element in preventing STIs is safer sex communication, especially with a sexual partner. This may be difficult, however, because of a lack of…

  7. Exercise in the 70s--Implications for Safer Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morehouse, Chauncey A.

    1981-01-01

    Precautionary measures that should be taken by individuals to provide for safer participation in a vigorous exercise program are outlined, including the need for physical examinations, physical conditioning and warm-up, proper clothing and equipment, and awareness of environmental hazards. (JMF)

  8. Tokarev conducts SAFER onboard training during Expedition 12

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-10-21

    ISS012-E-06025 (21 October 2005) --- Cosmonaut Valery I. Tokarev, Expedition 12 flight engineer representing Russia's Federal Space Agency, holds a Hand Control Module (HCM) while looking at laptop computer graphics during a Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) training session in the Unity node of the international space station.

  9. The Relationship of Assertiveness to College Students' Safer Sex Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yesmont, Georgia A.

    1992-01-01

    Investigated relationship between assertiveness tendencies and safer sex behaviors in 253 heterosexual college students. Hypothesized that assertiveness would vary positively, and nonassertiveness negatively, with caution about engaging in sexual intimacy, inquiring about potential partner's sexually transmitted disease risk history, and frequency…

  10. Nanosafety: Towards Safer Nanoparticles by Design.

    PubMed

    Bastús, Neus G; Puntes, Víctor

    2017-04-13

    The continuous development of Nanotechnology is progressively introducing nanoparticles into society. However, little is known about the safety of nanoparticles and functions of engineered nanomaterials, in particular how the physicochemical properties of the materials relate to mechanisms of injury at the nano-bio interface. While comprehensive knowledge on the potential toxicity of NPs is still lacking, as time goes by and research in the field continues, different aspects, such as interactions with the immune system, perturbation of cellular membranes, transportation of toxic moieties and others are emerging as potentially hazardous aspects of NPs. As a result, this rapidly advancing new field requires the development of novel test strategies based on the contribution of toxicological pathways to the pathophysiology of disease that allow complex toxicants to be screened in robust, mechanism-based assays in which the bulk of the investigation can be carried out at the cellular and biomolecular level whilst maintaining limited animal use. A review of these strategies will help to provide guidelines for synthetic nanochemists on how to design NPs to be safe during their full life cycle while maintaining their parental desired properties. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Comparison of referral and non-referral hypertensive disorders during pregnancy: an analysis of 271 consecutive cases at a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ching-Ming; Chang, Shuenn-Dyh; Cheng, Po-Jen

    2005-05-01

    This retrospective cohort study analyzed the clinical manifestations in patients with preeclampsia and eclampsia, assessed the risk factors compared to the severity of hypertensive disorders on maternal and perinatal morbidity, and mortality between the referral and non-referral patients. 271 pregnant women with preeclampsia and eclampsia were assessed (1993 to 1997). Chi-square analysis was used for the comparison of categorical variables, and the comparison of the two independent variables of proportions in estimation of confidence intervals and calculated odds ratio of the referral and non-referral groups. Multivariate logistic regression was used for adjusting potential confounding risk factors. Of the 271 patients included in this study, 71 (26.2%) patients were referrals from other hospitals. Most of the 62 (87.3%) referral patients were transferred during the period 21 and 37 weeks of gestation. Univariate analysis revealed that referral patients with hypertensive disorder were significantly associated with SBP > or =180, DBP > or =105, severe preclampsia, haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets (HELLP), emergency C/S, maternal complications, and low birth weight babies, as well as poor Apgar score. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the risk factors identified to be significantly associated with increased risk of referral patients included: diastolic blood pressure above 105 mmHg (adjusted odds ratio, 2.09; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.06 to 4.13; P = 0.034), severe preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio, 3.46; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.76 to 6.81; P < 0.001), eclampsia (adjusted odds ratio, 2.77; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.92 to 8.35; P = 0.071), HELLP syndrome (adjusted odds ratio, 18.81; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.14 to 164.99; P = 0.008). The significant factors associated with the referral patients with hypertensive disorders were severe preeclampsia, HELLP, and eclampsia. Lack of prenatal care was

  12. Referral patterns and the referral system for oral surgery care. Part 2: The referral system and telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, P; Kazakou, I; Koran, R; Worthington, H V

    2000-04-08

    To investigate GDP opinions of the current referral system and to investigate the need and demand for telemedicine in oral surgery referrals. Postal questionnaire. 400 GDPs in Greater Manchester. 84% participation rate. 48% were not satisfied overall with the service of their current specialist oral surgery referral site. The principal reason was the length of the waiting time for consultation and treatment. Distance for patients to travel to the specialist unit was also of concern, even though most patients (89%) travelled short distances (return journey of twelve miles or less). 23% of respondents wished to improve their ability to communicate with the oral surgeon and 70% wanted involvement in the patient consultation. Both of these requirements were more likely in younger practitioners. There is a need and demand for change in the referral system for oral surgery specialist care. Telemedicine could conceivably be one way to improve access to specialist oral surgery care.

  13. 75 FR 71123 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Safer Detergent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Safer Detergent... ICR, entitled: ``Safer Detergent Stewardship Initiative (SDSI) Program'' and identified by EPA ICR No... surfactants. Title: Safer Detergent Stewardship Initiative (SDSI) Program. ICR numbers: EPA ICR No. 2261.02...

  14. Integrating zebrafish toxicology and nanoscience for safer product development

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Tae; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    The design, manufacture and application of safer products and manufacturing processes have been important goals over the last decade and will advance in the future under the umbrella of "Green Chemistry". In this review, we focus on the burgeoning diversity of new engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and the prescient need for a nanotoxicology paradigm that quickly identifies potentially hazardous nanochemistries. Advances in predictive toxicological modeling in the developing zebrafish offer the most immediate translation to human hazard that is practically achievable with high throughput approaches. Translation in a vertebrate model that is also a low cost alternative to rodents for hazard prediction has been a desirable but elusive testing paradigm. The utility of zebrafish, if applied early in the ENM discovery pipeline, could greatly enhance efforts toward greener and more efficient nanoscience. Early pipeline detection of human and environmental health impacts will quickly inform decisions in the design and production of safer commercial ENMs. PMID:23772181

  15. Integrating zebrafish toxicology and nanoscience for safer product development.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Tae; Tanguay, Robert L

    2013-04-01

    The design, manufacture and application of safer products and manufacturing processes have been important goals over the last decade and will advance in the future under the umbrella of "Green Chemistry". In this review, we focus on the burgeoning diversity of new engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and the prescient need for a nanotoxicology paradigm that quickly identifies potentially hazardous nanochemistries. Advances in predictive toxicological modeling in the developing zebrafish offer the most immediate translation to human hazard that is practically achievable with high throughput approaches. Translation in a vertebrate model that is also a low cost alternative to rodents for hazard prediction has been a desirable but elusive testing paradigm. The utility of zebrafish, if applied early in the ENM discovery pipeline, could greatly enhance efforts toward greener and more efficient nanoscience. Early pipeline detection of human and environmental health impacts will quickly inform decisions in the design and production of safer commercial ENMs.

  16. 28 CFR 549.62 - Initial referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.62 Initial referral. (a) Staff shall refer an inmate who is observed to be on a hunger strike to medical or mental health staff for evaluation and, when appropriate,...

  17. 28 CFR 549.62 - Initial referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.62 Initial referral. (a) Staff shall refer an inmate who is observed to be on a hunger strike to medical or mental health staff for evaluation and, when appropriate,...

  18. 49 CFR 1018.70 - Prompt referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... referral is made as early as possible consistent with aggressive collection action and, in, any event, well... policy is involved in reducing a statutory penalty or forfeiture to judgment; or (2) Recovery of a...

  19. 32 CFR 2001.34 - Referrals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... classified information from inadvertent disclosure. (b) Automatic declassification. The referral process for records subject to automatic declassification entails identification of records containing classified... be completed prior to the date of automatic declassification established by section 3.3(a) of...

  20. 32 CFR 2001.34 - Referrals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... classified information from inadvertent disclosure. (b) Automatic declassification. The referral process for records subject to automatic declassification entails identification of records containing classified... be completed prior to the date of automatic declassification established by section 3.3(a) of...

  1. Astronaut Carl Meade tests SAFER system during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Carl J. Meade tests the new Simplified Aid for Eva Rescue (SAFER) system 130 nautical miles above Earth. The scene was captured with a 70mm handheld Hasselblad camera with a 30mm lens attached. The hardware supporting the LIDAR-in-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) is in the lower right. A TV camera on the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm records the space walk.

  2. Beyond stereotypes: promoting safer sex behaviors among Latino adolescents.

    PubMed

    Villarruel, Antonia M; Rodriguez, Dorothy

    2003-01-01

    Latino youth are at increasing risk for consequences of risky sexual behavior including pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases, as well as HIV infection. The diversity among Latinos and the prevalence of stereotypes about Latino sexual altitudes, beliefs, and behaviors present barriers in effective prevention and treatment. Strategies for promoting safe sex among Latino adolescents include recognizing the diversity among Latino adolescents and assessing attitudes, beliefs, and values that can be used to support safer sex behaviors.

  3. Psychosocial predictors of "safer sex" behaviors in young adults.

    PubMed

    Basen-Engquist, K

    1992-01-01

    This study tested a model of safer sex behavior using variables from social learning theory, the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action, and theories of cognitive coping style. Two types of safer sex behavior were measured: frequency of condom use and the discussion of AIDS and past partners with a sexual partner. The participants--275 undergraduate students--completed an anonymous written questionnaire. The variables (behavioral intention, perceived susceptibility, barriers, self-efficacy, monitoring, blunting, and social support) predicted 35% of the variance in condom use and 13% of the variance in discussion (adjusted R2s). Intention was the strongest predictor of both types of safer sex behavior. Perceived susceptibility and perceived barriers were associated with intention to use a condom; perceived barriers was inversely related to condom use. Self-efficacy was associated with the intention to discuss and reported discussion of AIDS and past partners with a sexual partner; social support was related to the intention to discuss. An information-avoiding coping style was negatively associated with condom use. Implications for future research and intervention efforts in the area of AIDS prevention are discussed.

  4. Referral patterns for endocrine surgical disease.

    PubMed

    Cervera, Ixel; Boucai, Laura; Andreopoulou, Panagiota; Libutti, Steven K; Hughes, David T

    2014-06-01

    Referrals between physician specialties are common practice, and clear patterns develop. The increasing availability of high-volume endocrine surgery subspecialists with better outcomes may change these patterns. This study aimed to determine what factors influence endocrinologists' referral patterns for the surgical treatment of endocrine disease. A national, cross-sectional, voluntary survey of members of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists examined physician demographics, physician's opinions on referral to endocrine surgery, preferred surgeon specialty, knowledge about surgeon characteristics, and how these factors influenced which surgeons they referred patients, as well as what changes in these factors would alter their referral patterns. The survey response rate was 15% (73/500), and 97% were endocrinologists. On average, 0 to 5 patients/week were referred for surgery. Most respondents (91.8%) felt that endocrinologists should decide which surgeon to refer. General surgery was the preferred surgeon specialty (43.7%), and endocrine surgery was the preferred subspecialty (70.8%). The factors most often cited as very important in referral to a surgeon included surgeon outcome/complications (71%), familiarity with surgeon (65%), surgeon's communication with referring physician (61%), and surgeon volume (59%). The factors most often cited as likely to change physician referral patterns included patient satisfaction (62%), complication rates (57%), surgeon outcomes (54%), and surgeon volume (50%). The factors most often cited as unlikely to change referral patterns included new surgeon availability (70%) and hospital/surgeon advertising (58%). Referring physicians want experienced endocrine surgeons with high operative volumes and good outcomes whom they are familiar with. The promotion of referral to high-volume surgeons requires communication, good outcomes, and satisfied patients.

  5. What's the Right Referral Rate? Specialty Referral Patterns and Curricula Across I3 Collaborative Primary Care Residencies.

    PubMed

    Gwynne, Mark; Page, Cristen; Reid, Alfred; Donahue, Katrina; Newton, Warren

    2017-02-01

    Specialty physician visits account for a significant portion of ambulatory visits nationally, contribute significantly to cost of care, and are increasing over the past decade. Marked variability in referral rates exists among primary care practices without obvious causality. We present data describing the referral process and specialty referral curriculum within the I3 collaborative. Residency directors were surveyed about residency characteristics related to referrals. Specialty physician referral rates were obtained from each program and then correlated to program characteristics referral rates in four domains: presence and type of referral curriculum, process of referral review, faculty preceptor characteristics, and use of referral data for administrative processes. The survey response rate was 87%; 10 programs submitted complete referral data. Three programs (23%) reported a formal curriculum addressing the process of making a referral, and four programs (31%) reported a curriculum on appropriateness of subspecialty referrals. Specialty referral rates varied from 7%-31% of active residency patients, with no relationship to age, payor status, or race. Marked variability in referral rates and patterns exist within primary care residency training programs. Specialty referral practices are a key driver of total cost of care yet few curricula exist that address appropriateness, quantity, or process of specialty referrals. Practice patterns often develop during residency training, therefore an opportunity exists to improve training and practice around referrals.

  6. Referral pathways for patients with TIA avoiding hospital admission: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Evans, Bridie Angela; Ali, Khalid; Bulger, Jenna; Ford, Gary A; Jones, Matthew; Moore, Chris; Porter, Alison; Pryce, Alan David; Quinn, Tom; Seagrove, Anne C; Snooks, Helen; Whitman, Shirley; Rees, Nigel

    2017-02-14

    To identify the features and effects of a pathway for emergency assessment and referral of patients with suspected transient ischaemic attack (TIA) in order to avoid admission to hospital. Scoping review. PubMed, CINAHL Web of Science, Scopus. Reports of primary research on referral of patients with suspected TIA directly to specialist outpatient services. We screened studies for eligibility and extracted data from relevant studies. Data were analysed to describe setting, assessment and referral processes, treatment, implementation and outcomes. 8 international studies were identified, mostly cohort designs. 4 pathways were used by family doctors and 3 pathways by emergency department physicians. No pathways used by paramedics were found. Referrals were made to specialist clinic either directly or via a 24-hour helpline. Practitioners identified TIA symptoms and risk of further events using a checklist including the ABCD2 tool or clinical assessment. Antiplatelet medication was often given, usually aspirin unless contraindicated. Some patients underwent tests before referral and discharge. 5 studies reported reduced incident of stroke at 90 days, from 6-10% predicted rate to 1.3-2.1% actual rate. Between 44% and 83% of suspected TIA cases in these studies were referred through the pathways. Research literature has focused on assessment and referral by family doctors and ED physicians to reduce hospitalisation of patients with TIA. No pathways for paramedical use were reported. We will use results of this scoping review to inform development of a paramedical referral pathway to be tested in a feasibility trial. ISRCTN85516498. Stage: pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Referral pathways for patients with TIA avoiding hospital admission: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Bridie Angela; Ali, Khalid; Bulger, Jenna; Ford, Gary A; Jones, Matthew; Moore, Chris; Porter, Alison; Pryce, Alan David; Quinn, Tom; Seagrove, Anne C; Whitman, Shirley; Rees, Nigel

    2017-01-01

    Objective To identify the features and effects of a pathway for emergency assessment and referral of patients with suspected transient ischaemic attack (TIA) in order to avoid admission to hospital. Design Scoping review. Data sources PubMed, CINAHL Web of Science, Scopus. Study selection Reports of primary research on referral of patients with suspected TIA directly to specialist outpatient services. Data extraction We screened studies for eligibility and extracted data from relevant studies. Data were analysed to describe setting, assessment and referral processes, treatment, implementation and outcomes. Results 8 international studies were identified, mostly cohort designs. 4 pathways were used by family doctors and 3 pathways by emergency department physicians. No pathways used by paramedics were found. Referrals were made to specialist clinic either directly or via a 24-hour helpline. Practitioners identified TIA symptoms and risk of further events using a checklist including the ABCD2 tool or clinical assessment. Antiplatelet medication was often given, usually aspirin unless contraindicated. Some patients underwent tests before referral and discharge. 5 studies reported reduced incident of stroke at 90 days, from 6–10% predicted rate to 1.3–2.1% actual rate. Between 44% and 83% of suspected TIA cases in these studies were referred through the pathways. Conclusions Research literature has focused on assessment and referral by family doctors and ED physicians to reduce hospitalisation of patients with TIA. No pathways for paramedical use were reported. We will use results of this scoping review to inform development of a paramedical referral pathway to be tested in a feasibility trial. Trial registration number ISRCTN85516498. Stage: pre-results. PMID:28196949

  8. 49 CFR 382.605 - Referral, evaluation, and treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Referral, evaluation, and treatment. 382.605..., Training, and Referral § 382.605 Referral, evaluation, and treatment. The requirements for referral, evaluation, and treatment must be performed in accordance with 49 CFR part 40, Subpart O. ...

  9. 49 CFR 382.605 - Referral, evaluation, and treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Referral, evaluation, and treatment. 382.605..., Training, and Referral § 382.605 Referral, evaluation, and treatment. The requirements for referral, evaluation, and treatment must be performed in accordance with 49 CFR part 40, Subpart O. ...

  10. SAFER Inspection of Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoville, Zebulon C.; Rajula, Sudhakar

    2005-01-01

    In the aftermath of the space shuttle Columbia accident, it quickly became clear that new methods would need to be developed that would provide the capability to inspect and repair the shuttle's thermal protection system (TPS). A boom extension to the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) with a laser topography sensor package was identified as the primary means for measuring the damage depth in acreage tile as well as scanning Reinforced Carbon- Carbon (RCC) surfaces. However, concern over the system's fault tolerance made it prudent to investigate alternate means of acquiring close range photographs and contour depth measurements in the event of a failure. One method that was identified early was to use the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER) propulsion system to allow EVA access to damaged areas of concern. Several issues were identified as potential hazards to SAFER use for this operation. First, the ability of an astronaut to maintain controlled flight depends upon efficient technique and hardware reliability. If either of these is insufficient during flight operations, a safety tether must be used to rescue the crewmember. This operation can jeopardize the integrity of the Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) or delicate TPS materials. Controls were developed to prevent the likelihood of requiring a tether rescue, and procedures were written to maximize the chances for success if it cannot be avoided. Crewmember ability to manage tether cable tension during nominal flight also had to be evaluated to ensure it would not negatively affect propellant consumption. Second, although propellant consumption, flight control, orbital dynamics, and flight complexity can all be accurately evaluated in Virtual Reality (VR) Laboratory at Johnson Space Center, there are some shortcomings. As a crewmember's hand is extended to simulate measurement of tile damage, it will pass through the vehicle without resistance. In reality, this force will push the crewmember away from the

  11. From passive tool holders to microsurgeons: safer, smaller, smarter surgical robots.

    PubMed

    Bergeles, Christos; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-05-01

    Within only a few decades from its initial introduction, the field of surgical robotics has evolved into a dynamic and rapidly growing research area with increasing clinical uptake worldwide. Initially introduced for stereotaxic neurosurgery, surgical robots are now involved in an increasing number of procedures, demonstrating their practical clinical potential while propelling further advances in surgical innovations. Emerging platforms are also able to perform complex interventions through only a single-entry incision, and navigate through natural anatomical pathways in a tethered or wireless fashion. New devices facilitate superhuman dexterity and enable the performance of surgical steps that are otherwise impossible. They also allow seamless integration of microimaging techniques at the cellular level, significantly expanding the capabilities of surgeons. This paper provides an overview of the significant achievements in surgical robotics and identifies the current trends and future research directions of the field in making surgical robots safer, smaller, and smarter.

  12. The Nature of All "Inappropriate Referrals" Made to a Countywide Physical Activity Referral Scheme: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lynne Halley; Warwick, Jane; De Ste Croix, Mark; Crone, Diane; Sldford, Adrienne

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a centralised referral mechanism (CRM) upon the number and type of "inappropriate referrals" made to a countywide physical activity referral scheme. Design: Case study. Method: Phase 1: Hierarchical Content Analysis of 458 "inappropriate referrals" made to a countywide scheme over a…

  13. The Nature of All "Inappropriate Referrals" Made to a Countywide Physical Activity Referral Scheme: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lynne Halley; Warwick, Jane; De Ste Croix, Mark; Crone, Diane; Sldford, Adrienne

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a centralised referral mechanism (CRM) upon the number and type of "inappropriate referrals" made to a countywide physical activity referral scheme. Design: Case study. Method: Phase 1: Hierarchical Content Analysis of 458 "inappropriate referrals" made to a countywide scheme over a…

  14. Improving developmental screening documentation and referral completion.

    PubMed

    Talmi, Ayelet; Bunik, Maya; Asherin, Ryan; Rannie, Michael; Watlington, Tyler; Beaty, Brenda; Berman, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Screening, early identification, and referral improves outcomes for young children at risk for developmental delays. Effective developmental screening processes should include efforts to ensure referral completion and documentation of evaluation results and service eligibility in the child's medical record. Our objectives were to improve provider documentation of actions taken after an abnormal developmental screening result and increase Early Intervention (State Part C) referrals. Various strategies including an electronic medical record template, monthly clinical informatics reporting, and a phone follow-up after an abnormal screening result were implemented to enhance provider documentation of screening results and improve referral actions and outcomes. Of the children eligible for screening (n = 3023), 2610 (86%) were screened, with 382 (15%) scoring in the abnormal range. With phone follow-up, 50% of the abnormal screenings were referred to community resources, including 43% to Early Intervention (EI), in contrast to 20% community referrals and 13% EI referrals with the screening template only (P < .0001). Provider documentation of EI outcomes increased when screening templates and follow-up calls were implemented together (31%) as compared with using the screening template alone (15%). Enhanced documentation of developmental screening efforts using screening templates and clinical informatics reporting in combination with phone follow-up after an abnormal screening result improved developmental screening outcomes, including referral rates, completed evaluations, and provider documentation of EI services. Such strategies can be effectively used in pediatric primary care settings to improve screening processes and ensure that young children access appropriate services. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. "I Always Worry about What Might Happen Ahead": Implementing Safer Conception Services in the Current Environment of Reproductive Counseling for HIV-Affected Men and Women in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Lynn T; Bajunirwe, Francis; Kastner, Jasmine; Sanyu, Naomi; Akatukwasa, Cecilia; Ng, Courtney; Rifkin, Rachel; Milford, Cecilia; Moore, Lizzie; Wilson, Ira B; Bangsberg, David R; Smit, Jennifer A; Kaida, Angela

    2016-01-01

    We explored healthcare provider perspectives and practices regarding safer conception counseling for HIV-affected clients. We conducted semistructured interviews with 38 providers (medical and clinical officers, nurses, peer counselors, and village health workers) delivering care to HIV-infected clients across 5 healthcare centres in Mbarara District, Uganda. Interview transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. Of 38 providers, 76% were women with median age 34 years (range 24-57). First, we discuss providers' reproductive counseling practices. Emergent themes include that providers (1) assess reproductive goals of HIV-infected female clients frequently, but infrequently for male clients; (2) offer counseling focused on "family planning" and maternal and child health; (3) empathize with the importance of having children for HIV-affected clients; and (4) describe opportunities to counsel HIV-serodiscordant couples. Second, we discuss provider-level challenges that impede safer conception counseling. Emergent themes included the following: (1) providers struggle to translate reproductive rights language into individualized risk reduction given concerns about maternal health and HIV transmission and (2) providers lack safer conception training and support needed to provide counseling. Tailored guidelines and training are required for providers to implement safer conception counseling. Such support must respond to provider experiences with adverse HIV-related maternal and child outcomes and a national emphasis on pregnancy prevention.

  16. Do referrals work? Responses of childbearing newcomers to referrals for care.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, A J; Carnevale, F A; Saucier, J F; Clausen, C; Jeannotte, J; Oxman-Martinez, J

    2010-08-01

    Health care post-birth may include referrals for additional care. Migrant (i.e., refugee, asylum-seeker, and immigrant) women frequently do not follow-up referrals for care and could be at increased health risk as a consequence. We sought to explore the inhibitors and facilitators of migrant women for following through with referrals for care. Twenty-five women living in Montreal who had received a referral completed semi-structured interviews. Inhibitors included language barriers, transportation problems, scheduling appointments, absence of husband, absence of childcare, cold weather, perceived inappropriate referrals, and cultural practice differences. Facilitators included choice of follow-up facilitator, appropriate services, empathetic professionals, and early receipt of information. Results indicate that migrant women may not be receiving the care they and their newborns need once a concern is identified. This suggests conceiving of a different approach to the care of this population post-birth, which could include partnering with social or religious networks.

  17. Referral Finder: Saving Time and Improving The Quality of In-hospital Referrals.

    PubMed

    Cathcart, Jennifer; Cowan, Neil; Tully, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Making referrals to other hospital specialties is one of the key duties of the foundation doctor, which can be difficult and time consuming. In Ninewells hospital, Scotland, in our experience the effectiveness of referrals is limited by contact details not being readily accessible and foundation doctors not knowing what information is relevant to each specialty. We surveyed foundation doctors on their experience of the existing referral process to identify where we needed to focus to improve the process. The doctors reported significant delays in obtaining contact details from the operator, and found they did not know the specific information needed in each referral. To increase the information available to foundation doctors, we set up a page on the staff intranet called 'Referral Finder'. This page includes contact details, guidelines for referral, and links to relevant protocols for each specialty. By making this information readily accessible our objective was to increase the speed and quality of referrals. When surveyed two months after the web page was established, foundation doctors reported a reduction in calls to operator from baseline and reported achieving more effective referrals. When asked to comment, many doctors asked if the page could include details for other hospitals in our health board and provide more specialty specific information. This feedback prompted us to extend the scope of the page to include the district general hospital in our region, and update many of the existing details. Doctors were then surveyed after the updates, 100% agreed that the website saved time and there was a 49.3% reduction in doctors who reported not knowing the specific information needed for a referral. Having adequate information improved referrals and resulted in time saved. This would allow more time for patient care. The quality improvement project was praised among doctors as a useful, innovative and replicable project.

  18. Seismographs, sensors, and satellites: Better technology for safer communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groat, C.G.

    2004-01-01

    In the past 25 years, our ability to measure, monitor, and model the processes that lead to natural disasters has increased dramatically. Equally important has been the improvement in our technological capability to communicate information about hazards to those whose lives may be affected. These innovations in tracking and communicating the changes-floods, earthquakes, wildfires, volcanic eruptions-in our dynamic planet, supported by a deeper understanding of earth processes, enable us to expand our predictive capabilities and point the way to a safer future. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Airport baggage scanning technology makes flying safer for Americans

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, Harry

    2013-08-28

    Each time you step on a commercial flight, you can feel safer because of a researcher you've probably never heard of. His name is Harry Martz. He's a veteran scientist at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) who wakes up every day thinking how his research can advance X-ray imaging technology to thwart the next terrorist attack. "My job is to improve national security," Martz said. "That's why my research team exists. We have to outsmart the terrorists. It's a constant battle."

  20. Electronic cigarettes: a safer alternative or potential poison?

    PubMed

    Smith, Janet E

    2014-10-01

    Electronic cigarettes have been marketed as a safer alternative to cigarettes, and their use is expanding exponentially. However, there is a severe lack of scientific data about the ingredients in the liquid used in the device and the health consequences of using electronic cigarettes. As technology has outpaced regulations, the production and sale of electronic cigarettes are, as yet, unregulated and do not fall under the purview of the Food and Drug Administration. This article will review the mechanism of action and what is currently known about the safety of electronic cigarettes. The risk of poisoning for children will also be identified, as well as the implications for home healthcare clinicians.

  1. Artificial Intelligence For A Safer And More Efficient Car Driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adorni, Giovanni

    1989-03-01

    In this paper a project, PROMETHEUS, is described in which fourteen of Europe's leading car manufacturers are to join with approximately forty research institutes and governmental agencies to make the traffic of Europe safer, more efficient and more economical. PROMETHEUS project is divided into seven areas. In this paper one of the seven areas, PRO-ART, is described. PRO-ART is aimed at clarifying the need for and the principles of the artificial intelligence to be used in the next generation automobile. After a brief description of the overhall project, the description of the seven years PRO-ART Italian research programme will be given.

  2. Integrating MBSE into Ongoing Projects: Requirements Validation and Test Planning for the ISS SAFER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Herbert A.; Williams, Antony; Pierce, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Simplified Aid for Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Rescue (SAFER) is the spacewalking astronaut's final safety measure against separating from the ISS and being unable to return safely. Since the late 1990s, the SAFER has been a standard element of the spacewalking astronaut's equipment. The ISS SAFER project was chartered to develop a new block of SAFER units using a highly similar design to the legacy SAFER (known as the USA SAFER). An on-orbit test module was also included in the project to enable periodic maintenance/propulsion system checkout on the ISS SAFER. On the ISS SAFER project, model-based systems engineering (MBSE) was not the initial systems engineering (SE) approach, given the volume of heritage systems engineering and integration (SE&I) products. The initial emphasis was ensuring traceability to ISS program standards as well as to legacy USA SAFER requirements. The requirements management capabilities of the Cradle systems engineering tool were to be utilized to that end. During development, however, MBSE approaches were applied selectively to address specific challenges in requirements validation and test and verification (T&V) planning, which provided measurable efficiencies to the project. From an MBSE perspective, ISS SAFER development presented a challenge and an opportunity. Addressing the challenge first, the project was tasked to use the original USA SAFER operational and design requirements baseline, with a number of additional ISS program requirements to address evolving certification expectations for systems operating on the ISS. Additionally, a need to redesign the ISS SAFER avionics architecture resulted in a set of changes to the design requirements baseline. Finally, the project added an entirely new functionality for on-orbit maintenance. After initial requirements integration, the system requirements count was approaching 1000, which represented a growth of 4x over the original USA SAFER system

  3. Vascular Surgical Emergencies: How will Future Surgeons be Trained?

    PubMed Central

    Richards, T; Pittathankal, AA; Kahn, PY; Magee, TR; Lewis, MH; Galland, RB

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We wished to assess whether pattern and impact of emergency vascular surgical referrals has altered since a previous study in 1990. Following introduction of shift working patterns, we wished to assess how these changes may affect vascular training and vascular on-call cover. PATIENTS AND METHODS Prospective survey of emergency vascular referrals at two district general hospitals (DGH-R and DGH-L) in 2003. DGH-R received only regional referrals whereas DGH-L also received ‘next day’ referrals from a smaller hospital. Results were compared between centres and with a previous study undertaken at DGH-R in 1990. RESULTS From 1990 to 2003 emergency vascular referrals at DGH-R increased by 51% (53 to 80). The number seen at DGH-R and DGH-L were similar in 2003. There were significantly more out-of-hours referrals in DGH-R than DGH-L (59% versus 35%; P = 0.0123). Referrals were more likely to be seen initially by the vascular team at DGH-L than DGH-R (80% versus 47%, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Vascular emergency referrals have increased. A trainee was likely to see more emergency referrals at DGH-L than DGH-R. This may impact on future training. PMID:17132313

  4. Primary care physician referral patterns in Ontario, Canada: a descriptive analysis of self-reported referral data.

    PubMed

    Liddy, Clare; Arbab-Tafti, Sadaf; Moroz, Isabella; Keely, Erin

    2017-08-22

    In many countries, the referral-consultation process faces a number of challenges from inefficiencies and rising demand, resulting in excessive wait times for many specialties. We collected referral data from a sample of family doctors across the province of Ontario, Canada as part of a larger program of research. The purpose of this study is to describe referral patterns from primary care to specialist and allied health services from the primary care perspective. We conducted a prospective study of patient referral data submitted by primary care providers (PCP) from 20 clinics across Ontario between June 2014 and January 2016. Monthly referral volumes expressed as a total number of referrals to all medical and allied health professionals per month. For each referral, we also collected data on the specialty type, reason for referral, and whether the referral was for a procedure. PCPs submitted a median of 26 referrals per month (interquartile range 11.5 to 31.8). Of 9509 referrals eligible for analysis, 97.8% were directed to medical professionals and 2.2% to allied health professionals. 55% of medical referrals were directed to non-surgical specialties and 44.8% to surgical specialties. Medical referrals were for procedures in 30.8% of cases and non-procedural in 40.9%. Gastroenterology received the largest share (11.2%) of medical referrals, of which 62.3% were for colonoscopies. Psychology received the largest share (28.3%) of referrals to allied health professionals. We described patterns of patient referral from primary care to specialist and allied health services for 30 PCPs in 20 clinics across Ontario. Gastroenterology received the largest share of referrals, nearly two-thirds of which were for colonoscopies. Future studies should explore the use of virtual care to help manage non-procedural referrals and examine the impact that procedural referrals have on wait times for gastroenterology.

  5. USAR Nurse Referral and Retention Program.

    PubMed

    Foley, J E; Foley, B J

    1992-09-01

    In 1987, the 804th Hospital Center made alleviating the shortfall of registered nurses in the Command a priority. The Command had only 79% of its registered nurse positions filled at the time. Using the recruitment strategies of an employee referral program and a mailing list, the Command reached 100% fill in 2 years and maintained those gains for an additional year. Retention strategies were also implemented which lowered the attrition rate. This paper describes the Army Nurse Referral and Retention Program developed and implemented at the 804th Hospital Center that relieved the shortfall of registered nurses in the United States Army Reserve in New England.

  6. Analysis of patch test referrals: influence of appropriateness of referrals on sensitization rate.

    PubMed

    Corazza, Monica; Borghi, Alessandro; Mantovani, Lucia; Virgili, Annarosa

    2012-02-01

    Few studies have addressed the frequency and the consequences of the appropriateness of referrals for patch testing. To analyse the appropriateness of referrals for patch testing among patients seen in the Allergy Unit, University of Ferrara, and to evaluate whether this selection influences the results of the test. One thousand six hundred and twenty-seven consecutive patients were enrolled, and 1528 patients were patch tested. On the basis of the history and clinical picture, the appropriateness of referrals for patch testing was judged. Of the patients, 82.30% attended the Allergy Unit with a clinical presentation and/or history considered to be an appropriate indication for patch testing. The rate of appropriate referrals for patch testing from dermatologists was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than that for referrals from other physicians. The sensitization rate was significantly higher among the appropriate referrals than among the inappropriate ones, both in the entire sample (p < 0.001) and in atopic patients (p = 0.012). Clinical experience was seen to be crucial for the appropriate selection of patients. Furthermore, appropriate referral for patch testing was shown to influence the sensitization rate. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. A safer alternative: Cannabis substitution as harm reduction.

    PubMed

    Lau, Nicholas; Sales, Paloma; Averill, Sheigla; Murphy, Fiona; Sato, Sye-Ok; Murphy, Sheigla

    2015-11-01

    Substitution is operationalised as a conscious choice made by users to use one drug instead of, or in conjunction with another based on: perceived safety, level of addiction potential, effectiveness in relieving symptoms, access and level of acceptance. Harm reduction is a set of strategies that aim to minimise problems associated with drug use while recognising that for some users, abstinence may be neither a realistic nor a desirable goal. In this paper, we aim for deeper understandings of older adult cannabis users' beliefs and substitution practices as part of the harm reduction framework. We present selected findings from our qualitative study of Baby Boomer (born 1946-1964) marijuana users in the San Francisco Bay Area. Although the sample consisted of primary cannabis users, many had personal experience with other drugs throughout their lifetimes. Data collection consisted of an audio-recorded, semi-structured in-depth life history interview followed by a questionnaire and health survey. Qualitative interviews were analysed to discover users' harm reduction beliefs and cannabis substitution practices. Study participants described using cannabis as a safer alternative for alcohol, illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals based on their perceptions of less adverse side effects, low-risk for addiction and greater effectiveness at relieving symptoms, such as chronic pain. Cannabis substitution can be an effective harm reduction method for those who are unable or unwilling to stop using drugs completely. More research is needed on cannabis as a safer alternative. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  8. A survey of referral patterns to a paediatric dentistry unit over a 2-year period.

    PubMed

    Shaw, A J; Nunn, J H; Welbury, R R

    1994-12-01

    Following the changes in October 1990 in the payment system for children's dental treatment within the General Dental Service in the UK there has been widespread concern that repercussions would be felt in other branches of dentistry. The aim of this survey was to investigate the referral of children for specialist care to the Department of Child Dental Health in Newcastle upon Tyne after the changes in 1990, so that consultant clinics and the provision of advice and treatment could be targeted more effectively. Information was obtained from the patients' referral letters and from their hospital records between March 1991 and March 1993. There were 513 referrals (excluding those for orthodontic treatment, extractions under general anaesthesia and acute emergencies), the number more than doubling during the 2-year survey period. 83% of these patients lived within 15 miles of the hospital. 84% of these referrals were from general dental practitioners, and the greater proportion were from those who graduated within the previous 4 years. The most common reason for referral involved behaviour problems. Changes in the payment system that occurred in 1990 may have been a contributory factor in explaining these findings.

  9. Patient perspectives on improving the depression referral processes in obstetrics settings: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Heather A.; Henshaw, Erin; O’Mahen, Heather; Forman, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Although depression screening in obstetrics settings has been recommended, little research exists to guide strategies for screening follow up and depression referral. The purpose of this qualitative study was to inform recommendations for depression screening follow up and referral in obstetrics settings based on responses from a key sample of women about influences on depression treatment use and engagement. Methods A stratified purposeful sampling based on pregnancy, socioeconomic status, and depression severity was used to identify 23 women who completed semi-structured interviews that centered on their beliefs about what would prevent or facilitate entry into depression treatment in the context of obstetrical care. We conducted a thematic analysis through an iterative process of expert transcript review, creation of and refining codes, and identifying themes. Results Two broad themes influencing depression treatment usage emerged including practical and psychological factors. Among practical factors, women reported a strong preference for treatment provided in the obstetric clinic or in the home with a desire for a proactive referral process and flexible options for receiving treatment. Psychological factors included differing conceptualizations of depression, knowledge about severity and treatment, and issues of stigma. Conclusions This study suggests that the current standard practice of depression screening and referral to specialty treatment does not match with perceived influences on treatment use among our sample of perinatal women. Recommendations derived from the results for improving follow up with screening and depression referral in obstetrics settings are provided as a platform for further research. PMID:20114123

  10. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration (SAFER): Development, implementation, and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Smyth, J.D.; Amaya, J.P.

    1994-05-01

    This report reviews the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) effort during FY 1992, FY 1993, and the first quarter of FY 1994. The report comprises three sections: Introduction, Activities Summary, and Lessons Learned and Related Activities. This section provides context for the report by briefly reviewing the development of SAFER and its operational assumptions. Section 2 describes SAFER workshops and site-specific SAFER implementation support. Additionally, Section 2 provides an update on the status of sites that initially received support from either Observational Approach or SAFER teams and subsequently implemented either of these two related approaches to site restoration streamlining. Section 3 describes lessons learned and upcoming SAFER activities.

  11. Responsible men, blameworthy women: Black heterosexual men's discursive constructions of safer sex and masculinity.

    PubMed

    Bowleg, Lisa; Heckert, Andrea L; Brown, Tia L; Massie, Jenné S

    2015-04-01

    Although Black heterosexual men (BHM) in the United States rank among those most affected by HIV, research about how safer sex messages shape their safer sex behaviors is rare, highlighting the need for innovative qualitative methodologies such as critical discursive psychology (CDP). This CDP study examined how: (a) BHM construct safer sex and masculinity; (b) BHM positioned themselves in relation to conventional masculinity; and (c) discursive context (individual interview vs. focus group) shaped talk about safer sex and masculinity. Data included individual interviews (n = 30) and 4 focus groups (n = 26) conducted with 56 self-identified Black/African American heterosexual men, ages 18 to 44. Analyses highlighted 5 main constructions: (a) condoms as signifiers of "safe" women; (b) blaming women for STI/responsibility for safer sex; (c) relationship/trust/knowledge; (d) condom mandates; and (e) public health safer sex. Discourses positioned BHM in terms of conventional masculinity when talk denied men's agency for safer sex and/or contraception, or positioned women as deceitful, or apathetic about sexual risk and/or pregnancy. Notably, discourses also spotlighted alternative masculinities relevant to taking responsibility for safer sex or sexual exclusivity. Discursive context, namely the homosocial nature of focus group discussions, shaped how participants conversed about safer sex, and masculinity but not the content of that talk. In denying BHM's responsibility for safer sex, BHM's discourses about safer sex and masculinity often mirror public health messages, underscoring a critical need to sync these discourses to reduce sexual risk, and develop gender-transformative safer sex interventions for BHM. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Alternative Education's Impact on Office Disciplinary Referrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gut, Eva; McLaughlin, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Disruptive behaviors negatively impact learning by taking time away from classroom instruction (Gottlieb and Polirstok 2005) and may also produce unsafe school environments. This study examined changes in the number of office disciplinary referrals (ODRs) received in public schools prior to and following the schools partnering with one particular…

  13. [A Paediatric Orthopaedic outpatient clinic referral patterns].

    PubMed

    Moraleda, L; Castellote, M

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the commonest referrals to a paediatric orthopaedic outpatient clinic and, therefore, to be able to improve the paediatric residency program in managing musculoskeletal problems. Demographic data, referrals and final diagnosis were collected prospectively on all patients that were evaluated in a paediatric orthopaedic outpatient clinic. The majority of referrals were to evaluate musculoskeletal pain (37%), foot deformity (20%), spine deformity (15%), walking pattern (11%), alignment of the lower limbs (4%), and development of the hip (4%). A normal physical examination or a normal variation was observed in 42% of patients. A mild condition was observed in 17% of patients that should have only been referred to a paediatric orthopaedic clinic after failing to resolve pain with anti-inflammatories or physiotherapy. A mild deformity that only needed treatment if it became symptomatic was seen in 8% of patients. The majority of referrals were due to a normal variation or mild conditions that only required symptomatic treatment. Paediatric residency programs do not reflect the prevalence of musculoskeletal conditions in clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. 48 CFR 619.602-1 - Referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Referral. 619.602-1 Section 619.602-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL... appropriate SBA Regional Office, a copy of the documentation supporting the determination that a small...

  15. 32 CFR 2001.34 - Referrals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... an NDC database system. (3) Notification of referral of records accessioned into NARA or in the... unmarked Restricted Data or Formerly Restricted Data shall be referred to the Department of Energy through the NDC. If the Department of Energy confirms that the document contains Restricted Data or...

  16. Descriptive Analysis of Selected Data Referral Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MAXIMA Corp., Silver Spring, MD.

    The National Environmental Data Referral Service (NEDRES) is being developed in response to a national need to improve the awareness of and access to a broad range of environmental data files. Two studies were conducted in support of this effort: a survey of prospective users confirming the need for and willingness to pay fees for the service and…

  17. Behavior Analytic Consultation for Academic Referral Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Zoder-Martell, Kimberly A.; Dieringe, Shannon Titus; Labrot, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis provides a technology of human behavior that demonstrates great potential for improving socially important outcomes for individuals. School-based consultation may provide a vehicle for delivering applied behavior analysis services in schools to address academic referral concerns. In this article, we propose that…

  18. Alternative Education's Impact on Office Disciplinary Referrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gut, Eva; McLaughlin, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Disruptive behaviors negatively impact learning by taking time away from classroom instruction (Gottlieb and Polirstok 2005) and may also produce unsafe school environments. This study examined changes in the number of office disciplinary referrals (ODRs) received in public schools prior to and following the schools partnering with one particular…

  19. Behavior Analytic Consultation for Academic Referral Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Zoder-Martell, Kimberly A.; Dieringe, Shannon Titus; Labrot, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis provides a technology of human behavior that demonstrates great potential for improving socially important outcomes for individuals. School-based consultation may provide a vehicle for delivering applied behavior analysis services in schools to address academic referral concerns. In this article, we propose that…

  20. Information and Referral Service, District Office Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health and Welfare Council of Central Maryland, Inc., Baltimore.

    Within a standard format the details of instruction and training in various areas (units) of information and referral (I and R) services are given for Social Security Administration workers. Each unit is specified by the following categories: objective, special consideration, background, presentation, participation, review, and examples. There are…

  1. 32 CFR 2001.34 - Referrals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... custody of the presidential libraries, and making the records available for review, is the responsibility... schedule for the resolution of referrals contained in accessioned Federal records and Presidential records... the NDC or the primary reviewing agency. (11) Remote Archives Capture (RAC). Presidential records or...

  2. 32 CFR 2001.34 - Referrals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... custody of the presidential libraries, and making the records available for review, is the responsibility... schedule for the resolution of referrals contained in accessioned Federal records and Presidential records... the NDC or the primary reviewing agency. (11) Remote Archives Capture (RAC). Presidential records or...

  3. Understanding the Process of Medical Referral

    PubMed Central

    Muzzin, Linda

    1991-01-01

    Fifty referrals from family physicians in Ontario were examined by interviewing the patients, referring physicians, consultants, and others involved at various points in the process. This, the second in a series of six articles, introduces the participants and describes how grounded theory methodology was used to analyze the approximately 3000 pages of field notes. PMID:21229052

  4. 28 CFR 35.174 - Referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Referral. 35.174 Section 35.174 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT... compliance negotiations or if negotiations are unsuccessful, the designated agency shall refer the matter to...

  5. 2 CFR 175.20 - Referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Referral. 175.20 Section 175.20 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS Reserved AWARD TERM FOR TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS § 175.20...

  6. 2 CFR 175.20 - Referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Referral. 175.20 Section 175.20 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS NATIONAL POLICY REQUIREMENTS AWARD TERM FOR TRAFFICKING IN...

  7. 2 CFR 175.20 - Referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Referral. 175.20 Section 175.20 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS NATIONAL POLICY REQUIREMENTS AWARD TERM FOR TRAFFICKING IN...

  8. A Safer Formulation Concept for Flame-Generated Engineered Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Gass, Samuel; Cohen, Joel M.; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Sotiriou, Georgios A.; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.; Demokritou, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The likely success or failure of the nanotechnology industry depends on the environmental health and safety of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). While efforts toward engineering safer ENMs are sparse, such efforts are considered crucial to the sustainability of the nanotech industry. A promising approach in this regard is to coat potentially toxic nanomaterials with a biologically inert layer of amorphous SiO2. Core-shell particles exhibit the surface properties of their amorphous SiO2 shell while maintaining specific functional properties of their core material. A major challenge in the development of functional core-shell particles is the design of scalable high-yield processes that can meet large-scale industrial demand. Here, we present a safer formulation concept for flame-generated ENMs based on a one-step, in flight SiO2 encapsulation process, which was recently introduced by the authors as a means for a scalable manufacturing of SiO2 coated ENMs. Firstly, the versatility of the SiO2-coating process is demonstrated by applying it to four ENMs (CeO2, ZnO, Fe2O3, Ag) marked by their prevalence in consumer products as well as their range in toxicity. The ENM-dependent coating fundamentals are assessed and process parameters are optimized for each ENM investigated. The effects of the SiO2-coating on core material structure, composition and morphology, as well as the coating efficiency on each nanostructured material, are evaluated using state-of-the-art analytical methods (XRD, N2 adsorption, TEM, XPS, isopropanol chemisorption). Finally, the biological interactions of SiO2-coated vs. uncoated ENMs are evaluated using cellular bioassays, providing valuable evidence for reduced toxicity for the SiO2-coated ENMs. Results indicate that the proposed ‘safer by design’ concept bears great promise for scaled-up application in industry in order to reduce the toxicological profile of ENMs for certain applications. PMID:23961338

  9. 49 CFR 655.62 - Referral, evaluation, and treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Referral, evaluation, and treatment. 655.62... OPERATIONS Consequences § 655.62 Referral, evaluation, and treatment. If a covered employee has a verified... and treatment programs....

  10. 49 CFR 655.62 - Referral, evaluation, and treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Referral, evaluation, and treatment. 655.62... OPERATIONS Consequences § 655.62 Referral, evaluation, and treatment. If a covered employee has a verified... and treatment programs. ...

  11. Patient pressure for referral for headache: a qualitative study of GPs'referral behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Myfanwy; Jenkins, Linda; Ridsdale, Leone

    2007-01-01

    Background Headache accounts for up to a third of new specialist neurology appointments, although brain lesions are extremely rare and there is little difference in clinical severity of referred patients and those managed in primary care. This study examines influences on GPs' referral for headache in the absence of clinical indicators. Design of study Qualitative interview study. Setting Eighteen urban and suburban general practices in the South Thames area, London. Method Purposive sample comprising GPs with varying numbers of referrals for headache over a 12-month period. Semi-structured interviews with 20 GPs were audio taped. Transcripts were analysed thematically using a framework approach. Results All GPs reported observing patient anxiety and experiencing pressure for referral. Readiness to refer in response to pressure was influenced by characteristics of the consultation, including frequent attendance, communication problems and time constraints. GPs' accounts showed variations in individual's willingness or ‘resistance’ to refer, reflecting differences in clinical confidence in identifying risks of brain tumour, personal tolerance of uncertainty, views of patients' ‘right’ to referral and perceptions of the therapeutic value of referral. A further source of variation was the local availability of services, including GPs with a specialist interest and charitably-funded clinics. Conclusion Referral for headache is often the outcome of patient pressure interacting with GP characteristics, organisational factors and service availability. Reducing specialist neurological referrals requires further training and support for some GPs in the diagnosis and management of headache. To reduce clinical uncertainty, good clinical prediction rules for headache and alternative referral pathways are required. PMID:17244421

  12. Sources of referral information: a marketing analysis of physician behavior.

    PubMed

    Powers, T L; Swan, J E; Taylor, J A; Bendall, D

    1998-01-01

    The referral process is an important means of obtaining patients and it is necessary to determine ways of influencing the referral process to increase the patient base. This article reports research based on a survey of the referral habits of 806 primary care physicians. The results are examined in the context of physician receptivity to marketer-controlled versus health services sources of referral information.

  13. Referrals to the Glasgow sheriff court liaison scheme since the introduction of referral criteria.

    PubMed

    Orr, Eilidh M; Baker, Melanie; Ramsay, Louise

    2007-10-01

    This study is an audit of a court liaison scheme operating in Glasgow sheriff court. It represents a follow-on of previous work after the introduction of referral criteria to delineate more closely the appropriate population to be seen. Results were compared with the previous audit. The total number of referrals decreased by 66%, however, the proportion with a psychotic illness increased to 33%. A high referral rate of prisoners with addictions continued, although the service was not primarily designed for them. Fewer patients with no psychiatric diagnosis were referred to the scheme. Outcomes were, however, similar with approximately the same admission rate to hospital. The introduction of criteria appears to have reduced the numbers of inappropriate referrals without excluding the population with serious mental disorder. The introduction of referral criteria seems to have been beneficial to the scheme. The scheme has since changed again and so there may be benefit for a further audit to monitor the continuing appropriateness of referrals. The provision of specific interventions targeting prisoners with addictions is also supported by this audit.

  14. Teamwork: building healthier workplaces and providing safer patient care.

    PubMed

    Clark, Paul R

    2009-01-01

    A changing healthcare landscape requires nurses to care for more patients with higher acuity during their shift than ever before. These more austere working conditions are leading to increased burnout. In addition, patient safety is not of the quality or level that is required. To build healthier workplaces where safe care is provided, formal teamwork training is recommended. Formal teamwork training programs, such as that provided by the MedTeams group, TeamSTEPPS (Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety), or participatory action research programs such as the Healthy Workplace Intervention, have decreased errors in the workplace, increased nurse satisfaction and retention rates, and decreased staff turnover. This article includes necessary determinants of teamwork, brief overviews of team-building programs, and examples of research programs that demonstrate how teamwork brings about healthier workplaces that are safer for patients. Teamwork programs can bring about these positive results when implemented and supported by the hospital system.

  15. Eight principles for safer opioid prescribing and cautions with benzodiazepines.

    PubMed

    Webster, Lynn R; Reisfield, Gary M; Dasgupta, Nabarun

    2015-01-01

    The provision of long-term opioid analgesic therapy for chronic pain requires a careful risk/benefit analysis followed by clinical safety measures to identify and reduce misuse, abuse, and addiction and their associated morbidity and mortality. Multiple data sources show that benzodiazepines, prescribed for comorbid insomnia, anxiety, and mood disorders, heighten the risk of respiratory depression and other adverse outcomes when combined with opioid therapy. Evidence is presented for hazards associated with coadministration of opioids and benzodiazepines and the need for caution when initiating opioid therapy for chronic pain. Clinical recommendations follow, as drawn from 2 previously published literature reviews, one of which proffers 8 principles for safer opioid prescribing; the other review presents risks associated with benzodiazepines, suggests alternatives for co-prescribing benzodiazepines and opioids, and outlines recommendations regarding co-prescribing if alternative therapies are ineffective.

  16. Safer lithium ion batteries based on nonflammable electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ziqi; Wu, Bingbin; Xiao, Lifen; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Yao; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang

    2015-04-01

    The safety of lithium ion batteries has long been a critical obstacle for their high-power and large-scale applications because of the flammable nature of their carbon anode and organic carbonate electrolytes. To eliminate the potential safety hazards, lithium ion batteries should be built up with thermal-stable electrodes and nonflammable electrolytes. Here we report safer lithium ion batteries using nonflammable phosphonate electrolyte, thermal-stable LiFePO4 cathode and alloy anodes. Benefiting from the electrochemical compatibility and strong fire-retardancy of the phosphonate electrolyte, the cathode and anode materials in the nonflammable phosphonate electrolyte demonstrate similar charge-discharge performances with those in the conventional carbonate electrolyte, showing a great prospect for large-scale applications in electric vehicles and grid-scale electric energy storage.

  17. Designing Safer Analgesics via μ-Opioid Receptor Pathways.

    PubMed

    Chan, H C Stephen; McCarthy, Dillon; Li, Jianing; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Yuan, Shuguang

    2017-09-19

    Pain is both a major clinical and economic problem, affecting more people than diabetes, heart disease, and cancer combined. While a variety of prescribed or over-the-counter (OTC) medications are available for pain management, opioid medications, especially those acting on the μ-opioid receptor (μOR) and related pathways, have proven to be the most effective, despite some serious side effects including respiration depression, pruritus, dependence, and constipation. It is therefore imperative that both academia and industry develop novel μOR analgesics which retain their opioid analgesic properties but with fewer or no adverse effects. In this review we outline recent progress towards the discovery of safer opioid analgesics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Percutaneous lithotripsy: how to make it safer. Personal experience].

    PubMed

    Granata, M; Costanzo, V; Condorelli, S; Pisciotta, F; Matera, M; Costantino, G

    2002-09-01

    Percutaneous surgery (PCN) is now a routinary method for the treatment of the majority of renal stones, since it has become safer than in the past, because, thanks to new endourologic instruments and to ultrasounds, it has been possible to reduce the mistakes of the renal puncture. Furthermore, the use of balloons catheters for the dilatation of the nephrostomic channel allows the reduction of operating time and hemorrhage risk. In this paper, the authors expose their experience in PCN operations carried out with the help of X-ray and ultrasonography, during the indirect laying of the stones, and the use of a balloon catheter for the creation of a working channel. The Authors report their experience with the use of ultrasounds and concomitant X-rays for renal puncture, and of balloon catheter as track dilator, during 68 consecutive PCN carried out for renal lithiasis, 55 primary and 13 secondary to ESWL treatments; every stone has been cracked by a "Swiss-lithoclast" balistic lithotripter. For every patient, time of operation, complications and hospitalization-days were registered. Only three patients (4.4%) had haemorrhages and in one case of A-V fistula nephrectomy was necessary. The patients stayed in hospital approx. four days; the nephrostomic drainage was generally removed 3 days after the operation. The very low incidence of complications and the very short time of hospitalization suggest that ultrasounds and balloon-catheters may be useful to this surgery and may make it safer than in the past. Moreover, ultrasonography reduces the rate of X-rays exposition for operators and patients; the cost of the balloon is easily balanced by the reduction of operating times and hospitalization-days.

  19. Building Safer Communities: The Integrated Community Safety Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Fawcett, Ricky Lee; Kerr, Thomas A; Jordan, Steven Albert

    2001-03-01

    This paper discusses an integrated community safety approach to creating safer communities. It defines community broadly to include two categories of community members: “industry” and “neighbors.” Potential community members within the “industry” category include facilities, government/regulators, customers, stockholders, and suppliers. Within the “neighbors” category are towns, cities, counties, states; people/commodity flow systems; news media and special interest groups; environment; and families of employees. Each of these potential community members and its characteristics are discussed. The integrated community safety approach consists of three major activities: (1) define the boundaries of the community; (2) facilitate the sense of community; and (3) address the needs of the community. Defining the boundaries of the community includes determining the geographical and social boundaries; this is accomplished through conducting a hazard analysis and community involvement to identify all of the community members. Facilitating the sense of community includes conducting a capability/needs assessment and continuing community involvement to identify the issues and concerns of community members. Addressing the needs of the community involves master planning to consider safety issues in all community development actions and continuing community education and involvement. The integrated community safety approach is a workable approach for existing industries and their neighbors as well as new projects that industries and their neighbors might be considering. By using this socio-technical approach to integrating industry and all of its neighbors into a safer community, the integrated community safety approach will better assure the viability and safety of industry and its neighbors while maintaining or improving the overall quality of life.

  20. Handedness, Birth Order, Reading Problems: Referrals to a School Psychologist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altus, Grace T.; Altus, William D.

    To investigate the influence of handedness in the referral of elementary school students to a school psychologist, 120 left-handed referrals were matched with 120 right-handed referrals by sex, full-scale intelligence quotient, and chronological age. Comparison of the groups revealed that twins were more numerous among the left-handed students.…

  1. 34 CFR 303.206 - Referral policies for specific children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Referral policies for specific children. 303.206... Referral policies for specific children. Each application must include the State's policies and procedures that require the referral for early intervention services under this part of specific children...

  2. Pre-referral rectal artesunate for severe malaria

    PubMed Central

    Okebe, Joseph; Eisenhut, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe or complicated malaria is a medical emergency and people die as a result of delays in starting treatment. Most patients need parenteral treatment, and in primary healthcare facilities, where intravenous therapy is not available but intramuscular injections can be given, intramuscular quinine, artesunate, and artemether have been used before transporting patients to hospital. However, in rural settings with limited access to health care, intramuscular injections may also be unavailable. In these situations, rectal artesunate given prior to transfer to hospital by volunteers with little medical training, may be a feasible option. Objectives To evaluate the effects of pre-referral treatment with rectal artesunate on mortality and morbidity in people with severe malaria. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) published in The Cochrane Library; MEDLINE; EMBASE and LILACS up to 21 May 2014. We also searched the WHO clinical trial registry platform and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) for ongoing trials. Selection criteria Individual or cluster-randomized controlled trials comparing pre-referral rectal artesunate with placebo or injectable antimalarials in children and children with severe malaria. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts for potentially eligible trials, and extracted data from the included trials. Dichotomous outcomes were summarized using risk ratios (RR) and presented with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Where data allowed, we conducted subgroup analyses by age, trial region and whether participants were included in the trial analysis. We assessed the quality of evidence for the most important outcomes using the GRADE approach. Main results One trial met the inclusion criteria; a placebo-controlled trial of 17,826 children and adults living in rural villages in Ghana and Tanzania (Africa) and Bangladesh (Asia). Villagers with no

  3. The SAFER Latinos Project: Addressing a Community Ecology Underlying Latino Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edberg, Mark; Cleary, Sean D.; Collins, Elizabeth; Klevens, Joanne; Leiva, Rodrigo; Bazurto, Martha; Rivera, Ivonne; del Cid, Alex Taylor; Montero, Luisa; Calderon, Melba

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the intervention model, early implementation experience, and challenges for the "Seguridad, Apoyo, Familia, Educacion, y Recursos" (SAFER) Latinos project. The SAFER Latinos project is an attempt to build the evidence for a multilevel participatory youth violence prevention model tailored to the specific circumstances of…

  4. EPA introduces new Safer Choice labels and recognizes five Chicago area partners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Chicago (July 21, 2015) - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 5 Administrator Susan Hedman today highlighted the benefits of the Agency's new Safer Choice label and congratulated five Chicago area Safer Choice award-winners at an event at the Loyol

  5. The SAFER Latinos Project: Addressing a Community Ecology Underlying Latino Youth Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edberg, Mark; Cleary, Sean D.; Collins, Elizabeth; Klevens, Joanne; Leiva, Rodrigo; Bazurto, Martha; Rivera, Ivonne; del Cid, Alex Taylor; Montero, Luisa; Calderon, Melba

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the intervention model, early implementation experience, and challenges for the "Seguridad, Apoyo, Familia, Educacion, y Recursos" (SAFER) Latinos project. The SAFER Latinos project is an attempt to build the evidence for a multilevel participatory youth violence prevention model tailored to the specific circumstances of…

  6. Determinants of Safer Sex Patterns among Gay/Bisexual Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotherram-Borus, Mary Jane; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined cognitive-behavioral (health-belief, social cognitive, peer support), risk-taking, and stress/coping models as predictors of safer sex practices among 136 gay/bisexual males, ages 14-19. Components of the health-belief, self-efficacy theories, and emotional distress models corresponded with safer sex practices; peer support was not…

  7. Follow-up care in cancer: adjusting for referral targets and extending choice.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kate; Lydon, Anne; Amir, Ziv

    2013-03-01

    Over recent years, several initiatives have impacted on the referral of patients to secondary care, most notably targets for urgent referral in suspected cancer and the patient choice agenda. At the same time, improved long-term survival in cancer has increased numbers attending follow-up, doubts about the effectiveness of specialist follow-up have emerged, and alternative models of follow-up have been tested. The aim of the study was to explore patient and carer perspectives on the flexibility and responsiveness of cancer services. This article focuses on findings relating to referral, subsequent outpatient appointments and cessation of outpatient follow-up. Issues were explored in a qualitative study using face-to-face interviews with a purposive sample of 54 people affected by cancer. Data were analysed concurrently with data collection, using qualitative analysis software. The study gave rise to a number of salient themes. Links were identified between three of these: choice and responsiveness during referral; the flexibility and responsiveness of outpatient appointment systems; and negotiating cessation of follow-up. It appeared that policy on urgent referrals might be adversely affecting practice relating to appointment systems and the continuance of follow-up. Hospital-based cancer follow-up is being given decreasing priority because of doubts about effectiveness and a target-driven focus on referral. This is impacting on patients, who may value outpatient follow-up as a 'safety net' but have difficulties in obtaining appointments, and may be discharged without negotiation or adequate support. For these reasons, new forms of flexible/responsive aftercare are urgently needed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Follow‐up care in cancer: adjusting for referral targets and extending choice

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Kate; Lydon, Anne; Amir, Ziv

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background  Over recent years, several initiatives have impacted on the referral of patients to secondary care, most notably targets for urgent referral in suspected cancer and the patient choice agenda. At the same time, improved long‐term survival in cancer has increased numbers attending follow‐up, doubts about the effectiveness of specialist follow‐up have emerged, and alternative models of follow‐up have been tested. Aim  The aim of the study was to explore patient and carer perspectives on the flexibility and responsiveness of cancer services. This article focuses on findings relating to referral, subsequent outpatient appointments and cessation of outpatient follow‐up. Methods  Issues were explored in a qualitative study using face‐to‐face interviews with a purposive sample of 54 people affected by cancer. Data were analysed concurrently with data collection, using qualitative analysis software. Findings  The study gave rise to a number of salient themes. Links were identified between three of these: choice and responsiveness during referral; the flexibility and responsiveness of outpatient appointment systems; and negotiating cessation of follow‐up. It appeared that policy on urgent referrals might be adversely affecting practice relating to appointment systems and the continuance of follow‐up. Discussion and conclusions  Hospital‐based cancer follow‐up is being given decreasing priority because of doubts about effectiveness and a target‐driven focus on referral. This is impacting on patients, who may value outpatient follow‐up as a ‘safety net’ but have difficulties in obtaining appointments, and may be discharged without negotiation or adequate support. For these reasons, new forms of flexible/responsive aftercare are urgently needed. PMID:21615642

  9. [Appropriateness of referrals for magnetic resonance imaging in Latium, Italy].

    PubMed

    Prota, Federica; Rosano, Aldo; San Martini, Elena; Cau, Norberto; Guasticchi, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Long wait times for access to Nuclear Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations are a concern and for this reason the project "Appropriateness of referrals for MRI examinations" has been launched in Latium (Italy). The aim of this preliminary study was to describe the main characteristics of MRI referrals in the region. Findings highlight a large variation in referral rates across the region, with 80% of MRI referrals being ordered by general practitioners and family pediatricians. The latter points to the possibility of inappropriate referrals for MRI imaging in Latium.

  10. Characteristics of Successful and Unsuccessful Mental Health Referrals of Refugees.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Patricia J; Vinson, Gregory A; Cook, Tonya L; Lennon, Evelyn

    2016-07-01

    In this community based participatory research study, we explored key characteristics of mental health referrals of refugees using stories of providers collected through an on-line survey. Ten coders sorted 60 stories of successful referrals and 34 stories of unsuccessful referrals into domains using the critical incident technique. Principal components analysis yielded categories of successful referrals that included: active care coordination, establishing trust, proactive resolution of barriers, and culturally responsive care. Unsuccessful referrals were characterized by cultural barriers, lack of care coordination, refusal to see refugees, and system and language barriers. Recommendations for training and policy are discussed.

  11. Depression in older adults: screening and referral.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Edgar Ramos; Brown, Ellen; Raue, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Depression is related to disability and affects rehabilitation participation, outcomes, and compliance with treatment. Improving older adult depression detection and referral requires knowledge, skills, supportive organizational policies, and access to mental health experts. This review provides a selected overview of evidence-based approaches for screening of suspected cases of depression in older adults by physical therapists and other non-mental health professionals and discusses procedures to refer suspected cases to primary care providers and/or mental health specialists for evaluation, including resources and a tool to assist in communicating depression-related information to the primary care provider or mental health specialist. We hope that this review will promote the incorporation of evidence-based screening and referral of suspected cases of depression in older adults into routine practice.

  12. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: Early detection and referral

    PubMed Central

    Oldham, Justin M.; Noth, Imre

    2016-01-01

    Summary Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a devastating progressive interstitial lung disease (ILD) with no known cause or cure, is the most common and deadly of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. With a median survival of 3–5 years following diagnosis, IPF is characterized by a progressive decline in lung function and quality of life in most patients. Vigilance among clinicians in recognizing IPF early in the disease course remains critical to properly caring for these patients, as this provides the widest range of management options. When IPF is suspected, a multidisciplinary evaluation (MDE) by a clinician, radiologist and pathologist with ILD expertise should occur, as this improves diagnostic agreement in both community and academic settings. When community MDE is not possible, or diagnostic doubt exists, referral to an ILD center should be considered. ILD center referral may also provide access specialized care, including clinical trials and lung transplantation, and should be considered for any patient with an established diagnosis of IPF. PMID:24746629

  13. Seriously mentally ill women's safer sex behaviors and the theory of reasoned action.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Mary E; Pinkerton, Steven D; Somlai, Anton M; Kelly, Jeffrey A; McAuliffe, Timothy L; Gibson, Richard H; Hackl, Kristin

    2009-10-01

    Seriously mentally ill women at risk for HIV infection (n = 96) participated in structured interviews assessing sexual and substance-use behavior over a 3-month period. The majority of the women (63.5%) did not use condoms. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action, attitudes toward condom use and perceived social norms about safer sex were associated with safer sex intentions. Supplementing variables from the theory of reasoned action with safer sex self-efficacy explained additional variance in safer sex intentions. Greater safer sex intentions were related to both greater condom use and less frequent unprotected intercourse. In addition, less frequent sex after drug use and a less fatalistic outlook were associated with less frequent unprotected intercourse. Life circumstances specific to this population are particularly important to examine to improve the effectiveness of risk reduction interventions for seriously mentally ill women.

  14. STS-64 SAFER exercise in bldg 9NW on the air-bearing floor

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-05-04

    S94-33357 (1994) --- Scott Bleiseth, top, prepares to spin Mike Hess, a fellow EVA engineer, during a test on the air-bearing floor in the Shuttle Mock-up and Integration Laboratory at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The hardware being tested is part of the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER). The pair was developing techniques by which the non-SAFER equipped spacewalker will impart a rotation to the SAFER-using spacewalker during the STS-64 mission. Once the SAFER astronaut is spinning, the device will be activated and its automatic attitude hold capability will be tested. SAFER is to fly on STS-76 as well. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  15. EPA Recognizes Partners for Creating and Using Safer Choice Products/June 22 is the first annual awards ceremony for 2015 Safer Choice Partner of the Year Award Winners

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is announcing 21 Safer Choice Partner of the Year winners across 15 states for outstanding achievement in the design, manufacture, promotion, and use of Safer Choice products for the nation.

  16. How Can We Make PV Modules Safer?: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    Safety is a prime concern for the photovoltaics (PV) industry. As a technology deployed on residential and commercial buildings, it is critical that PV not cause damage to the buildings nor harm the occupants. Many of the PV systems on buildings are of sufficiently high voltage (300 to 600 Volts dc) that they may present potential hazards. These PV systems must be safe in terms of mechanical damage (nothing falls on someone), shock hazard (no risk of electrical shock when touching an exposed circuit element), and fire (the modules neither cause nor promote a fire). The present safety standards (IEC 61730 and UL 1703) do a good job of providing for design rules and test requirements for mechanical, shock, and spread of flame dangers. However, neither standard addresses the issue of electrical arcing within a module that can cause a fire. To make PV modules, they must be designed, built, and installed with an emphasis on minimizing the potential for open circuits and ground faults. This paper provides recommendations on redundant connection designs, robust mounting methods, and changes to the safety standards to yield safer PV modules.

  17. The WIPP transportation system -- ``Safer than any other``

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, T.R.; Spooner, R.

    1991-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed an integrated transportation system to transport transuranic (TRU) waste from ten widely dispersed generator sites to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The system consists of a Type B container, a specially designed trailer, a lightweight tractor, the DOE TRANSCOM satellite-based vehicle tracking system, and uniquely qualified and highly trained drivers. The DOE has demonstrated that this system is ready to transport the TRU waste to the WIPP site efficiently and safely. Since the system was put in place in November 1988, it has been repeatedly upgraded and enhanced to incorporate additional safety measures. In June of 1989, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) reviewed the transportation system and concluded that ``the system proposed for transportation of TRU waste to WIPP is safer than that employed for any other hazardous material in the United States today and will reduce risk to very low levels`` (emphasis added). The NAS conclusion was made before the DOE implemented the Enhanced Driver Training Course for carrier drivers. The challenge facing the DOE was to examine the transportation system objectively and determine what additional improvements could be made to further enhance safety.

  18. Can we select health professionals who provide safer care.

    PubMed

    Firth-Cozens, J; Cording, H; Ginsburg, R

    2003-12-01

    In order to improve patient safety, health services are looking to other industries' experiences and as a result are adopting a systems approach to learning from error, rather than simply focusing the blame on the individual. However, in health care the individual will remain an important contributor to safety and this paper looks at other literatures besides health to consider a number of individual characteristics and the role they might play in terms of work practices that affect patient safety. It considers the effects of a variety of personality profiles including sensation seeking, Type A, and those with high self esteem; looks at our ability to select for psychological wellbeing; and discusses the ways that psychometrics have been used in medicine to predict performance. It concludes that although rarely used, psychometrics has been shown to be useful in predicting some aspects of performance in medicine and suggests that this is an area well worth further study for the benefit of patient care. Nevertheless, we are a long way away from being able to select safer staff and should instead be developing this knowledge to enable us to recognise and address potential difficulties.

  19. Maternal smoking and infant feeding: breastfeeding is better and safer.

    PubMed

    Dorea, Jose G

    2007-05-01

    The rise in smoking rates among young women has implications for children's health aggravated in lower social strata where infant morbidity and mortality rates are higher. The protection afforded by breastfeeding is beneficial to infants in rich and poor countries alike. Women (especially when young, uneducated, and unsupported) who are smokers constitute a risk group for abandoning breastfeeding; moreover, their bottle-fed newborns run a greater risk of morbidity and mortality. Bottle-feeding is attendant on maternal cigarette smoking. The advantages of breastfeeding over bottle-feeding are discussed with regard to systemic effects and the specific effects of cyanide (which can affect the iodine metabolism of infants) and nicotine derived from food and maternal smoking. Despite great strides in bans on smoking, public health policies should be designed to keep in perspective that breastfeeding is an effective tool to counterbalance the health disadvantages that under-privileged infants of smoking mothers face. This paper argues that infants born to smoking parents are better protected by breastfeeding than by formula feeding. Therefore, if public health policies cannot stop addicted mothers from smoking during pregnancy it is fundamental not to miss the chance of encouraging and supporting breastfeeding. The food and health inequalities of socially disadvantaged groups demand well crafted public-health policies to reduce the incidence of diseases and compress morbidity: these policies need to make it clear that breastfeeding is better and safer.

  20. Are other fluorescent tags used instead of ethidium bromide safer?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is a well-known fluorescent tag usually applied in molecular biological techniques like agarose gel electrophoresis. The mechanism of action for such compounds is known, in which these compounds are able to bind to the kinetoplastid DNA and to alter their conformation to Z-DNA molecules that stop replication of kinetoplastid DNA leading to Trypanosoma death. Although the usual amounts used in laboratories are considered as below the level required to cause toxicity (LD50 in oral administration in rat is 1.5 g/Kg), the mentioned concentrations are high enough to involve in replication of mitochondrial DNA in some human cell lines. Regarding the points that EtBr is very stable in the environment and if degraded especially by use of bleaches that result in formation of mutagenic compounds, there is a big concern about its use. Although application of EtBr is going to be restricted and replaced with other tags such as SYBR® products, the safety of the new substituted compounds are still in doubt and except a few data, there is no essential evidence available to confirm that they are safer than EtBr. Further investigations are recommended to compare their relative biosafety hazards. PMID:24355254

  1. The Nuclear Posture Review (NPR) : are we safer?

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, Nancy E.

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear Posture Review (NPR) is designed to make world safer by reducing the role of U.S. nuclear weapons and reducing the salience of nuclear weapons. U.S. also seeks to maintain a credible nuclear deterrent and reinforce regional security architectures with missile defenses and other conventional military capabilities. But recent studies suggest that nuclear proliferation is a direct response to the perceived threat of U.S. conventional capabilities not U.S. nuclear stockpile. If this is true, then the intent of the NPR to reduce the role and numbers of nuclear weapons and strengthen conventional military capabilities may actually make the world less safe. First stated objective of NPR is to reduce the role and numbers of U.S. nuclear weapons, reduce the salience of nuclear weapons and move step by step toward eliminating them. Second stated objective is a reaffirmation of U.S. commitment to maintaining a strong deterrent which forms the basis of U.S. assurances to allies and partners. The pathway - made explicit throughout the NPR - for reducing the role and numbers of nuclear weapons while maintaining a credible nuclear deterrent and reinforcing regional security architectures is to give conventional forces and capabilities and missile defenses (e.g. non-nuclear elements) a greater share of the deterrence burden.

  2. A mechanism of institutional isomorphism in referral networks among hospitals in Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo; Choi, Mankyu

    2010-01-01

    Hospitals engage in medical referral system relations voluntarily, by virtue of their own service capacities. These capacities include medical technology, equipment supply, and patient management, which are assessed individually by medical institutions in efforts to control costs and maintain efficiency in tertiary hospitals. This study assessed referral networks according to the institutional isomorphism theory of new economic sociology. As a result, the referral networks were shown to exhibit emergent structural hierarchy via cumulative clustering by established year and were not affected by attributive variables such as region, bed number, and year of establishment. In particular, the networks evidenced institutional isomorphism with certain central hospitals. As a consequence, personal indices were shown to decrease in accordance with its period, and only the structural index increased. Normative pressures cause organizations to become hierarchically homogenized, in accordance with the principle of organizational learning in specialized fields. Therefore, normative isomorphism on the basis of public domains should be considered an inherent factor in the development of referral networks.

  3. A Peer-Led, Social Media-Delivered, Safer Sex Intervention for Chinese College Students: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wai Han; Wong, Carlos King Ho

    2017-01-01

    Background The peer-led, social media-delivered intervention is an emerging method in sexual health promotion. However, no research has yet investigated its effectiveness as compared with other online channels or in an Asian population. Objective The objective of this study is to compare a peer-led, social media-delivered, safer sex intervention with a sexual health website. Both conditions target Chinese college students in Hong Kong. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted with a peer-led, safer sex Facebook group as the intervention and an existing online sexual health website as the control. The intervention materials were developed with peer input and followed the information-motivation-behavioral skills model; the intervention was moderated by peer educators. The participants filled out the online questionnaires before and after the 6-week intervention period. Outcome evaluations included safer sex attitudes, behavioral skills, and behaviors, while process evaluation focused on online experience, online-visiting frequency, and online engagement. The effect of online-visiting frequency and online engagement on outcome variables was investigated. Results Of 196 eligible participants—100 in the control group and 96 in the intervention group—who joined the study, 2 (1.0%) control participants joined the Facebook group and 24 of the remaining 194 participants (12.4%) were lost to follow-up. For the process evaluation, participants in the intervention group reported more satisfying online experiences (P<.001) and a higher level of online-visiting frequency (P<.001). They also had more positive comments when compared with the control group. For outcome evaluation, within-group analysis showed significant improvement in condom use attitude (P=.02) and behavioral skills (P<.001) in the intervention group, but not in the control group. No significant between-group difference was found. After adjusting for demographic data, increased online

  4. A Peer-Led, Social Media-Delivered, Safer Sex Intervention for Chinese College Students: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wai Han; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Wong, William Chi Wai

    2017-08-09

    The peer-led, social media-delivered intervention is an emerging method in sexual health promotion. However, no research has yet investigated its effectiveness as compared with other online channels or in an Asian population. The objective of this study is to compare a peer-led, social media-delivered, safer sex intervention with a sexual health website. Both conditions target Chinese college students in Hong Kong. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with a peer-led, safer sex Facebook group as the intervention and an existing online sexual health website as the control. The intervention materials were developed with peer input and followed the information-motivation-behavioral skills model; the intervention was moderated by peer educators. The participants filled out the online questionnaires before and after the 6-week intervention period. Outcome evaluations included safer sex attitudes, behavioral skills, and behaviors, while process evaluation focused on online experience, online-visiting frequency, and online engagement. The effect of online-visiting frequency and online engagement on outcome variables was investigated. Of 196 eligible participants-100 in the control group and 96 in the intervention group-who joined the study, 2 (1.0%) control participants joined the Facebook group and 24 of the remaining 194 participants (12.4%) were lost to follow-up. For the process evaluation, participants in the intervention group reported more satisfying online experiences (P<.001) and a higher level of online-visiting frequency (P<.001). They also had more positive comments when compared with the control group. For outcome evaluation, within-group analysis showed significant improvement in condom use attitude (P=.02) and behavioral skills (P<.001) in the intervention group, but not in the control group. No significant between-group difference was found. After adjusting for demographic data, increased online-visiting frequency was associated with better

  5. Vulnerable Decision Points for Disproportionate Office Discipline Referrals: Comparisons of Discipline for African American and White Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolkowski, Keith; Girvan, Erik J.; McIntosh, Kent; Nese, Rhonda N. T.; Horner, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Racial disparities in rates of exclusionary school discipline are well documented and seemingly intractable. However, emerging theories on implicit bias show promise in identifying effective interventions. In this study, we used school discipline data from 1,666 elementary schools and 483,686 office discipline referrals to identify specific…

  6. Expanded roles and responsibilities for nurses in screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) for alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Strobbe, Stephen; Perhats, Cydne; Broyles, Lauren M

    2013-01-01

    It is the position of the International Nurses Society on Addictions and the Emergency Nurses Association that nurses in all practice settings be prepared to deliver screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment, or SBIRT, to identify and effectively respond to alcohol use and related disorders across the lifespan.

  7. Safer obstetric anesthesia through education and mentorship: a model for knowledge translation in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Patricia; Evans, Faye; Nsereko, Etienne; Nyirigira, Gaston; Ruhato, Paulin; Sargeant, Joan; Chipp, Megan; Enright, Angela

    2014-11-01

    High rates of maternal mortality remain a widespread problem in the developing world. Skilled anesthesia providers are required for the safe conduct of Cesarean delivery and resuscitation during obstetrical crises. Few anesthesia providers in low-resource settings have access to continuing education. In Rwanda, anesthesia technicians with only three years of post-secondary training must manage complex maternal emergencies in geographically isolated areas. The purpose of this special article is to describe implementation of the SAFE (Safer Anesthesia From Education) Obstetric Anesthesia course in Rwanda, a three-day refresher course designed to improve obstetrical anesthesia knowledge and skills for practitioners in low-resource areas. In addition, we describe how the course facilitated the knowledge-to-action (KTA) cycle whereby a series of steps are followed to promote the uptake of new knowledge into clinical practice. The KTA cycle requires locally relevant teaching interventions and continuation of knowledge post intervention. In Rwanda, this meant carefully considering educational needs, revising curricula to suit the local context, employing active experiential learning during the SAFE Obstetric Anesthesia course, encouraging supportive relationships with peers and mentors, and using participant action plans for change, post-course logbooks, and follow-up interviews with participants six months after the course. During those interviews, participants reported improvements in clinical practice and greater confidence in coordinating team activities. Anesthesia safety remains challenged by resource limitations and resistance to change by health care providers who did not attend the course. Future teaching interventions will address the need for team training.

  8. Chemical Safety Alert: Use Multiple Data Sources for Safer Emergency Response

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Increases awareness of Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) limitations so that first responders to accidental releases can take proper precautions and identify additional sources of chemical information, such as reactivity and incompatibility.

  9. Referrals and relationships: in-practice referrals meetings in a general practice.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, G; Willis, S; Singleton, A

    2001-08-01

    GP referrals to secondary care are an important factor in the cost of running the NHS. The known variation in referral rates between doctors has the potential to cause tension within primary care which will be exacerbated by the latest reorganization of primary care and the trend towards capitation-based budgets. The importance of postgraduate learning for GPs has been recognized; continuing professional development is moving towards self-directed practice-based learning programmes. Educational interventions have been shown to alter doctors' prescribing behaviour. This, together with the pressure on accounting for referral activity, makes the prospect of improving, and possibly reducing, referral activity through educational interventions very attractive. This study complemented a randomized controlled trial (RCT) which investigated whether an intervention of the type which had reduced prescribing costs would have a similar effect on referral activity. The context of the study, description of the characteristics of the practice and the issues seen as important by the doctors and practice manager were identified through preliminary semi-structured interviews. The practice then held a series of educational in-practice meetings to discuss referrals and issues arising from referrals. The audio- and videotaped transcripts were interpreted using content and group dynamic analysis. Participants commented upon our preliminary findings. In addition, we used dimensional analysis to induce a preliminary theory describing the effect of the intervention on this general practice which enabled us to review the findings of the parallel RCT. The educational value of the meetings and the learning needs of the participants were also assessed. Our complementary study showed no alteration of practice referral rates following the educational intervention. The qualitative study, unencumbered by the assumptions inherent in the development of the hypothesis tested in the RCT, highlighted

  10. Fertility Decision-Making Among Kenyan HIV-Serodiscordant Couples Who Recently Conceived: Implications for Safer Conception Planning.

    PubMed

    Pintye, Jillian; Ngure, Kenneth; Curran, Kathryn; Vusha, Sophie; Mugo, Nelly; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M; Heffron, Renee

    2015-09-01

    HIV-serodiscordant couples often choose to attempt pregnancy despite their HIV transmission risk. Optimizing delivery of HIV risk reduction strategies during peri-conception periods (i.e., safer conception) requires understanding how HIV-serodiscordant couples approach fertility decisions. We conducted 36 in-depth individual interviews with male and female partners of Kenyan heterosexual HIV-serodiscordant couples who recently conceived. Transcripts were analyzed by gender and HIV serostatus using open coding. Matrices were used to identify patterns and emerging themes. Most participants expressed acceptance of being in an HIV-serodiscordant couple and affirmed their resilience to live with serodiscordance and achieve their fertility goals. Overall, while the goal for childbearing was unchanged, conception became an urgent desire so that both partners could experience childrearing together while the HIV-infected partner was still healthy. Children also add value to the relationship, and multiple children were a commonly expressed desire. Couples' desires dominated those of individual partners in fertility decision-making, but male preferences were more influential when the individual desires differed. Values and preferences of the couple as a unit may mediate fertility decision-making in HIV-discordant couples. Thus, it is important that safer conception programs include both partners when appropriate and consider the relationship context during risk reduction counseling and when recommending risk reduction interventions.

  11. Fertility Decision-Making Among Kenyan HIV-Serodiscordant Couples Who Recently Conceived: Implications for Safer Conception Planning

    PubMed Central

    Pintye, Jillian; Ngure, Kenneth; Curran, Kathryn; Vusha, Sophie; Mugo, Nelly; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract HIV-serodiscordant couples often choose to attempt pregnancy despite their HIV transmission risk. Optimizing delivery of HIV risk reduction strategies during peri-conception periods (i.e., safer conception) requires understanding how HIV-serodiscordant couples approach fertility decisions. We conducted 36 in-depth individual interviews with male and female partners of Kenyan heterosexual HIV-serodiscordant couples who recently conceived. Transcripts were analyzed by gender and HIV serostatus using open coding. Matrices were used to identify patterns and emerging themes. Most participants expressed acceptance of being in an HIV-serodiscordant couple and affirmed their resilience to live with serodiscordance and achieve their fertility goals. Overall, while the goal for childbearing was unchanged, conception became an urgent desire so that both partners could experience childrearing together while the HIV-infected partner was still healthy. Children also add value to the relationship, and multiple children were a commonly expressed desire. Couples' desires dominated those of individual partners in fertility decision-making, but male preferences were more influential when the individual desires differed. Values and preferences of the couple as a unit may mediate fertility decision-making in HIV-discordant couples. Thus, it is important that safer conception programs include both partners when appropriate and consider the relationship context during risk reduction counseling and when recommending risk reduction interventions. PMID:26301703

  12. Analysis of Physicians' Referrals: Is Further Diagnosis Needed?

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, James P.

    2006-01-01

    Background As physical therapy gradually evolves into a more autonomous profession, physicians continue to play a major role in the clinical practice of physical therapists, particularly as a source of patient referral. The analysis of physicians' referrals to physical therapy may be a practical and effective way to study the relationship between physicians and physical therapists. Objectives The objective of this study was to identify the primary reasons for physicians' referrals to an outpatient physical therapy clinic and to determine whether further diagnosis by the physical therapist is necessitated prior to treatment. Methods Between January 1, 2001 and March 31, 2003, 544 consecutive physicians' referrals were received in a rural physical therapy outpatient clinic. Physicians' specialties, diagnosis on referral (or reason for referral, if diagnosis not provided), and prescribed orders on referral were all reviewed by the authors. Results One-third (33%) of the referrals were sent to physical therapy with no medical diagnosis (non-specified referrals - NSRs), and the most common reason for the referral in this NSR category was “pain” (88%). Commonly recommended treatments accompanying the NSRs included: evaluation & treatment (60%) and routine rehabilitation protocol (24%) for the relevant joints. Conclusion One-third (33%) of the referrals sent to physical therapy included no medical diagnosis, with the most common reason for the referral listed as “pain.” Evaluation and treatment was the most recommended treatment accompanying these non-specific referrals (almost 2/3). Physical therapists cannot properly manage patients based on a physician referred diagnosis of “pain,” therefore, it is necessary for physical therapists to make further diagnoses. PMID:21522196

  13. Neurotology symptoms at referral to vestibular evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dizziness-vertigo is common in adults, but clinical providers may rarely diagnose vestibular impairment and referral could be delayed. To assess neurotology symptoms (including triggers) reported by patients with peripheral vestibular disease, during the year just before their referral to vestibular evaluation. Methods 282 patients with peripheral vestibular disease and 282 control subjects accepted to participate. They had no middle ear, retinal, neurological, psychiatric, autoimmune or autonomic disorders. They reported their symptoms by a standardized questionnaire along with their anxiety/depression symptoms. Results Patients were referred after months or years from the onset of their symptoms, 24% of them reported frequent falls with a long clinical evolution; 10% of them reported no vertigo but instability related to specific triggers; 86% patients and 12% control subjects reported instability when moving the head rapidly and 79% patients and 6% control subjects reported instability when changing posture. Seven out of the 9 symptoms explored by the questionnaire allowed the correct classification of circa 95% of the participants (Discriminant function analysis, p < 0.001). High blood pressure, dyslipidemia and anxiety/depression symptoms showed a mild correlation with the total score of symptoms (multiple R2 =0.18, p < 0.001). Conclusions Late referral to vestibular evaluation may underlie a history of frequent falls; some patients may not report vertigo, but instability related to specific triggers, which could be useful to prompt vestibular evaluation. High blood pressure, dyslipidemia and anxiety/depression symptoms may have a mild influence on the report of symptoms of vestibular disease in both, patients and control subjects. PMID:24279682

  14. Making safer preoperative arrangements for patients using vitamin K antagonists

    PubMed Central

    van Fessem, Joris; Willems, Jessica; Kruip, Marieke; Hoeks, Sanne; Jan Stolker, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Use of vitamin K antagonists creates a risk for patient health and safety. The Dutch framework “Nationwide Standard Integrated Care of Anticoagulation” propagates a shared plan and responsibility by surgeon and anesthesiologist together in the preoperative setting. In our institution, this framework had not been implemented. Therefore, a quality-improvement project was started at the Anesthesia Department to improve perioperative safety. After exploration of barriers, multiple interventions were carried out to encourage co-workers at the preoperative screening department to take shared responsibility: distribution of prints, adjustments in electronic patient records, introduction of a protocol and education sessions. Efficacy was measured retrospectively performing a before-after study collecting perioperative data of patients using vitamin K antagonists. The primary outcome measure was the percentage of predefined safe preoperative plans. Secondary outcome measures were (1) incidence of postoperative bleeding and thrombo-embolic events within the first 24 hours after intervention and (2) necessity to preoperative correction of anticoagulation. Before intervention 72 (29%) safe, 93 (38%) partially unsafe and 83 (33%) unsafe arrangements were made. After the intervention these numbers were 105 (80%), 23 (17%) en 4 (3%), respectively: a significant 51% increase in safe preoperative plans (P<0.001). We observed no significant difference (P=0.369) regarding bleeding and thrombo-embolic events: pre-intervention 12 (5%) cases of postoperative bleeding were documented, vs. 6 (5%) post intervention and the number of thrombo-embolic events was 5 (2%) vs. 0. Also, no significant differences concerning preoperative correction of anticoagulation were observed: 11 (4%) vs. 8 (6%) (P=0.489). This quality improvement project demonstrates a major improvement in safer preoperative arrangements in our institution regarding vitamin K antagonists, using the described interventions

  15. Developmental Screening Referrals: Child and Family Factors that Predict Referral Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Danielle J.; Hanline, Mary Frances

    2013-01-01

    This study researched the predictive impact of developmental screening results and the effects of child and family characteristics on completion of referrals given for evaluation. Logistical and hierarchical logistic regression analyses were used to determine the significance of 10 independent variables on the predictor variable. The number of…

  16. Referrals to Mental Health Services: Exploring the Referral Process in Genetic Counseling.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Mitchell; Morreale, Mary; Trepanier, Angela

    2017-09-13

    Genetic counselors (GCs) are trained to identify and attend to distress; however, GCs may have patients with distress better managed by mental health professionals (MHPs). To understand the GCs' role in mental health care, we explored patient cues prompting GCs to refer to MHPs and where GCs thought their expertise in managing patient distress ended. We recruited GCs who have referred a patient for mental health services within the last year to participate in an interview study. A twelve-question interview guide explored GC demographics, reasons for referrals to MHPs, the obstacles to referrals, and perceived differences in counseling competencies between GCs and MHPs. Twenty-eight semi-structured interviews were conducted, recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed using an inductive approach, consisting of reading a subset of transcripts and assigning codes to meaningful segments of text. Common reasons for referral included the GC's perception of the patient having limited social support, or when the patient indicated significant anxiety related to their at-risk status or recent diagnosis. GCs felt they referred when they were limited by time and training to provide adequate psychosocial services. The participants in this study acknowledged that their scope of practice is limited to short-term, client-centered counseling. Our findings are a first step in helping increase GCs' awareness of factors that contribute to the referral process to MHPs.

  17. Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND): Needs Assessment of a Social Service Referral Telephone Program for High Risk Youth

    PubMed Central

    SUSSMAN, STEVE; SKARA, SILVANA; PUMPUANG, PATCHAREEYA

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a needs assessment of a potential social service resource telephone program component among high risk youth who received the Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND) classroom-based program (approximately 1 year earlier). Results supported youths’ overwhelming receptiveness of a social service referral program. The vast majority of respondents indicated a strong desire for resource and referral information on vocational, educational, recreational, transportation, and mental health and drug counseling. Further research is needed to investigate the effectiveness of the provision of social service resource information on drug use among emerging adults. PMID:18720266

  18. Emergency management of alveolar osteitis.

    PubMed

    Summers, Anthony

    2011-12-01

    Patients with urgent dental problems who present to emergency departments (EDs) during weekday office hours are usually referred to their dentists, often after being provided with analgesia. Outside these hours, however, ED professionals may have to provide treatment before referral. One dental emergency with which patients may present but of which ED staff are unlikely to have experience is alveolar osteitis, a painful condition that occurs usually after tooth extraction. This article defines alveolar osteitis and describes management in an ED.

  19. Variation in periodontal referral by general dental practitioners.

    PubMed

    Linden, G J

    1998-08-01

    This study investigated the extent of and reasons for variation in the periodontal referral patterns of general dental practitioners in Northern Ireland. A questionnaire was circulated to all general dental practitioners in Northern Ireland. This questionnaire investigated the management of periodontal disease in the general dental service and referral for specialist periodontal advice and treatment. A usable return was made by 355 (68%) of those surveyed. The mean number of periodontal referrals by each respondent in the past year was 6.5 (SD 7.7), range 0 to 80. Backward stepwise logistic regression analysis indicated that independent predictors of high referral rate were practice location close to the referral centre (p<0.0001); dissatisfaction with ability to treat periodontal disease under the National Health Service (p=0.001); that previous refusals of referral had not dissuaded a dentist from continuing to offer referral (p=0.002); not offering root planing as a treatment (p=0.005); and perceived inadequate postgraduate education in periodontology (p=0.03). It is concluded that considerable variation exists between general dental practitioners working in Northern Ireland in relation to the referral of patients for specialist periodontal advice and treatment. It is further concluded that in many cases non-disease factors, such as the accessibility of the specialist service, have powerful effects on the decisions made by dentists and patients in relation to periodontal referral.

  20. Main Non-Clinical Factors Influencing Endodontic Referral.

    PubMed

    Broome, Joseph L

    2016-08-01

    Specialisation in endodontics allows for endodontic referrals by general dental practitioner (GDPs) and the study of factors influencing referral. These centre on a triad consisting of the referral process, non-clinical and clinical reasons for referral. Many non-clinical factors have been identified which may influence the referral process to the endodontist. A systematic review study was undertaken into the main non-clinical factors influencing endodontic referral by general dental practitioners to endodontists. Such awareness and appreciation of these factors benefits the commercial aspect of the referral practice, increases access by reducing barriers to care, and ultimately improves patient care. A literature search yielded three papers that met the eligibility criteria. All studies included were cross sectional survey studies completed by GDPs. The main non-clinical factors seen from the studies include: Availability. Personality, relationships and communication. Availability presented as a common thread throughout all the studies. In conclusion, endodontic referral is multifactorial and influenced by several factors, that are not related to the nature of the endodontic disease, and this is a dynamic process. Due to the lack of high level studies, and limitations of the available studies, further research is suggested into the relevant area of non-clinical endodontic factors for endodontic referral and thus allowing for further analysis.

  1. Verification in referral-based crowdsourcing.

    PubMed

    Naroditskiy, Victor; Rahwan, Iyad; Cebrian, Manuel; Jennings, Nicholas R

    2012-01-01

    Online social networks offer unprecedented potential for rallying a large number of people to accomplish a given task. Here we focus on information gathering tasks where rare information is sought through "referral-based crowdsourcing": the information request is propagated recursively through invitations among members of a social network. Whereas previous work analyzed incentives for the referral process in a setting with only correct reports, misreporting is known to be both pervasive in crowdsourcing applications, and difficult/costly to filter out. A motivating example for our work is the DARPA Red Balloon Challenge where the level of misreporting was very high. In order to undertake a formal study of verification, we introduce a model where agents can exert costly effort to perform verification and false reports can be penalized. This is the first model of verification and it provides many directions for future research, which we point out. Our main theoretical result is the compensation scheme that minimizes the cost of retrieving the correct answer. Notably, this optimal compensation scheme coincides with the winning strategy of the Red Balloon Challenge.

  2. What Happens After Referral For Sedation?

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Carole A; Newton, Tim; Heaton, Lisa; Afzali, Sonita; Milgrom, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective To follow up 100 referrals to the sedation clinic examining dental anxiety and background of patients and assess how many patients attended for treatment planning, initial treatment, and completed treatment and describe their characteristics. Among those who attended for initial treatment, which type of sedation they received at initial treatment and what level of clinician they saw. Design Descriptive, cross sectional survey and review of case notes. Subjects and Methods Subjects were 100 consecutive new patients in Sedation and Special Care Guy’s and St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust. The notes were analysed by an experienced member of staff (CAB) and data entered into an Excel spreadsheet and an SPSS datafile created. These data were merged with a dataset containing their responses to the intake questionnaire and medical history for analysis. Results Of the 100 patients initially referred, 72 attended the treatment planning session, 66 of the 72 (92%) attended for initial dental treatment, and 33 of 66 (50%) completed treatment. Dental Fear Survey (DFS) scores were related to attendance at the initial treatment visit but not to completion of treatment. Patients with mental health problems encountered more barriers. Only 33 of 100 patients referred completed treatment. Conclusions Attendance for treatment planning and initial treatment was high. Attendance is related to fear and mental health. Overall completion of treatment from referral was 33 percent. PMID:20512107

  3. Verification in Referral-Based Crowdsourcing

    PubMed Central

    Naroditskiy, Victor; Rahwan, Iyad; Cebrian, Manuel; Jennings, Nicholas R.

    2012-01-01

    Online social networks offer unprecedented potential for rallying a large number of people to accomplish a given task. Here we focus on information gathering tasks where rare information is sought through “referral-based crowdsourcing”: the information request is propagated recursively through invitations among members of a social network. Whereas previous work analyzed incentives for the referral process in a setting with only correct reports, misreporting is known to be both pervasive in crowdsourcing applications, and difficult/costly to filter out. A motivating example for our work is the DARPA Red Balloon Challenge where the level of misreporting was very high. In order to undertake a formal study of verification, we introduce a model where agents can exert costly effort to perform verification and false reports can be penalized. This is the first model of verification and it provides many directions for future research, which we point out. Our main theoretical result is the compensation scheme that minimizes the cost of retrieving the correct answer. Notably, this optimal compensation scheme coincides with the winning strategy of the Red Balloon Challenge. PMID:23071530

  4. EPA Honors PRIDE Industries with Safer Choice Partner of the Year Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency awarded its first ever Safer Choice Partner of the Year awards for outstanding achievement in the design, manufacture, promotion and use of environmentally friendly products in the nation's homes, sc

  5. CDC Vital Signs: Making Health Care Safer -- Antibiotic Rx in Hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... RSS VitalSigns RSS Error processing SSI file Making Health Care Safer Antibiotic Rx in Hospitals: Proceed with Caution ... resistance and improving prescribing practices. Work with other health care facilities to prevent infections, transmission, and resistance. Problem ...

  6. CDC Vital Signs: Making Health Care Safer -- Stop Infections from Lethal CRE Germs Now

    MedlinePlus

    ... processing SSI file Error processing SSI file Making Health Care Safer Stop Infections from Lethal CRE Germs Now ... to otherwise healthy people outside of medical facilities. Health Care Providers can Know if patients in your facility ...

  7. CDC Vital Signs: Making Health Care Safer -- Protect Patients from Antibiotic Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... processing SSI file Error processing SSI file Making Health Care Safer Protect patients from antibiotic resistance Language: English ... hours later. Know when to stop antibiotic treatment. Health care facility CEOs/ administrators can Prevent infections and their ...

  8. EPAs Safer Choice program encourages better decisions when choosing spring cleaning products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PHILADELPHIA (March 24, 2015) - The snow is gone and temperatures are rising. That means it is time for spring cleaning, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through its Safer Choice program this spring is encouraging consumers to loo

  9. EPA announces two Safer Choice Partners of the Year winners in Southern California

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency awarded its first ever Safer Choice Partner of the Year awards for outstanding achievement in the design, manufacture, promotion and use of environmentally friendly products in the nation's ho

  10. Do GP referral guidelines really work? Audit of an electronic urgent referral system for suspected head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Ann-Maree; Aziz, Abdul; Khalid, Sameena; Hurman, David

    2012-05-01

    We adapted the 2002 Scottish Referral Guidelines for suspected squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) as a set of "alarm symptoms." These were then incorporated into a new Suspected Cancer Urgent Referral Electronically (SeCURE) system enabling immediate electronic referral from primary care to the appropriate hospital-based multi-disciplinary cancer team. All referrals made via the SeCURE system during the first year of its implementation were reviewed retrospectively. One hundred and ninety patients were urgently referred, of whom 15 (8%) were ultimately diagnosed with SCCHN. This audit demonstrated overall poor compliance with the referral guidelines. Although the electronic referral system helped for speedy clinic appointments, there was a low pick up rate of positive head and neck cancer cases. Continuing education for GPs is important and following discussion with colleagues in primary care, steps have been taken to reinforce awareness and more appropriate use of the SeCURE system.

  11. Environmental Protection: Improved Inspections and Enforcement Would Ensure Safer Underground Storage Tanks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    Enforcement Would Ensure Safer Underground Storage Tanks Statement of John Stephenson, Director, Natural Resources and Environment GAO-01-176T Report...Inspections and Enforcement Would Ensure Safer Underground Storage Tanks Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Project Number...resources they need to improve tank compliance and safety. Therefore, to better ensure that underground storage tanks meet federal requirements to prevent

  12. Environmental Protection: Improved Inspections and Enforcement Would Ensure Safer Underground Storage Tanks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-08

    and Enforcement Would Ensure Safer Underground Storage Tanks Statement of John Stephenson, Director, Natural Resources and Environment GAO-02-712T...Inspections and Enforcement Would Ensure Safer Underground Storage Tanks Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Project Number...02-712T Underground Storage Tanks Madam Chairwoman and Members of the Subcommittee: I am pleased to have this opportunity to come before you today to

  13. Early Referral to a Nephrologist Improved Patient Survival: Prospective Cohort Study for End-Stage Renal Disease in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Hyoung; Kim, Myounghee; Kim, Ho; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kang, Shin-Wook; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Nam-Ho; Kim, Yon Su; Lee, Jung Pyo

    2013-01-01

    The timing of referral to a nephrologist may influence the outcome of chronic kidney disease patients, but its impact has not been evaluated thoroughly. The results of a recent study showing an association between early referral and patient survival are still being debated. A total of 1028 patients newly diagnosed as end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from July 2008 to October 2011 were enrolled. Early referral (ER) was defined as patients meeting with a nephrologist more than a year before dialysis and dialysis education were provided, and all others were considered late referral (LR). The relationship of referral pattern with mortality in ESRD patients was explored using a Cox proportional hazards regression models. Time from referral to dialysis was significantly longer in 599 ER patients than in 429 LR patients (62.3±58.9 versus 2.9±3.4 months, P<0.001). Emergency HD using a temporary vascular catheter was required in 485 (47.2%) out of all patients and in 262 (43.7%) of ER compared with 223 (52.0%) of LR (P = 0.009). After 2 years of follow-up, the survival rate in ER was better than that in LR (hazard ratio [HR] 2.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27–4.45, P = 0.007). In patients with diabetes nephropathy, patient survival was also significantly higher in ER than in LR (HR 4.74, 95% CI 1.73–13.00, P = 0.002). With increasing age, HR also increased. Timely referral to a nephrologist in the predialytic stage is associated with reduced mortality. PMID:23372849

  14. A real-life example of choosing an inherently safer process option.

    PubMed

    Study, Karen

    2007-04-11

    While choosing an inherently safer alternative may seem straightforward, sometimes what seems to be the most obvious alternative may not provide the best risk reduction. The process designer must maintain a broad perspective to be able to recognize all potential hazards when evaluating design options. All aspects of operation such as start-up, shut-down, utility failure, as well as normal operation should be considered. Choosing the inherently safer option is best accomplished early in the option selection phase of a project; however, recycle back to the option selection phase may be needed if an option is not thoroughly evaluated early in the process. In this paper, a project to supply ammonia to a catalytic reactor will be reviewed. During the course of the project, an "inherently safer" alternative was selected and later discarded due to issues uncovered during the detail design phase. The final option chosen will be compared to (1) the original design and (2) the initial "inherently safer" alternative. The final option was inherently safer than both the original design and the initial "inherently safer" alternative even though the design team initially believed that it would not be.

  15. Factors influencing accuracy of referral and the likelihood of false positive referral by optometrists in Bradford, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Davey, Christopher James; Scally, Andrew J; Green, Clare; Mitchell, Edwin S; Elliott, David B

    2016-01-01

    Levels of false positive referral to ophthalmology departments can be high. This study aimed to evaluate commonality between false positive referrals in order to find the factors which may influence referral accuracy. In 2007/08, a sample of 431 new Ophthalmology referrals from the catchment area of Bradford Royal Infirmary were retrospectively analysed. The proportion of false positive referrals generated by optometrists decreases with experience at a rate of 6.2% per year since registration (p<0.0001). Community services which involved further investigation done by the optometrist before directly referring to the hospital were 2.7 times less likely to refer false positively than other referral formats (p=0.007). Male optometrists were about half as likely to generate a false positive referral than females (OR=0.51, p=0.008) and as multiple/corporate practices in the Bradford area employ less experienced and more female staff, independent practices generate about half the number of false positive referrals (OR=0.52, p=0.005). Clinician experience has the greatest effect on referral accuracy although there is also a significant effect of gender with women tending to refer more false positives. This may be due to a different approach to patient care and possibly a greater sensitivity to litigation. The improved accuracy of community services (which often refer directly after further investigation) supports further growth of these schemes. Copyright © 2015 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Integrating screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) into clinical practice settings: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Agerwala, Suneel M; McCance-Katz, Elinore F

    2012-01-01

    Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is a public health approach to the delivery of early intervention and treatment services for individuals at risk of developing substance use disorders (SUDs) and those who have already developed these disorders. SBIRT can be flexibly applied; therefore, it can be delivered in many clinical care settings. SBIRT has been adapted for use in hospital emergency settings, primary care centers, office- and clinic-based practices, and other community settings, providing opportunities for early intervention with at-risk substance users before more severe consequences occur. In addition, SBIRT interventions can include the provision of brief treatment for those with less severe SUDs and referrals to specialized substance abuse treatment programs for those with more severe SUDs. Screening large numbers of individuals presents an opportunity to engage those who are in need of treatment. However, additional research is needed to determine how best to implement SBIRT.

  17. Integrating Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) into Clinical Practice Settings: A Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Agerwala, Suneel M.; McCance-Katz, Elinore F.

    2013-01-01

    Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is a public health approach to the delivery of early intervention and treatment services for individuals at risk of developing substance use disorders (SUDs) and those who have already developed these disorders. SBIRT can be flexibly applied; therefore, it can be delivered in many clinical care settings. SBIRT has been adapted for use in hospital emergency settings, primary care centers, office- and clinic-based practices, and other community settings, providing opportunities for early intervention with at-risk substance users before more severe consequences occur. In addition, SBIRT interventions can include the provision of brief treatment for those with less severe SUDs and referrals to specialized substance abuse treatment programs for those with more severe SUDs. Screening large numbers of individuals presents an opportunity to engage those who are in need of treatment. However, additional research is needed to determine how best to implement SBIRT. PMID:23210379

  18. Dropping the Baton: Specialty Referrals in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mehrotra, Ateev; Forrest, Christopher B; Lin, Caroline Y

    2011-01-01

    Context: In the United States, more than a third of patients are referred to a specialist each year, and specialist visits constitute more than half of outpatient visits. Despite the frequency of referrals and the importance of the specialty-referral process, the process itself has been a long-standing source of frustration among both primary care physicians (PCPs) and specialists. These frustrations, along with a desire to lower costs, have led to numerous strategies to improve the specialty-referral process, such as using gatekeepers and referral guidelines. Methods: This article reviews the literature on the specialty-referral process in order to better understand what is known about current problems with the referral process and what solutions have been proposed. The article first provides a conceptual framework and then reviews prior literature on the referral decision, care coordination including information transfer, and access to specialty care. Findings: PCPs vary in their threshold for referring a patient, which results in both the underuse and the overuse of specialists. Many referrals do not include a transfer of information, either to or from the specialist; and when they do, it often contains insufficient data for medical decision making. Care across the primary-specialty interface is poorly integrated; PCPs often do not know whether a patient actually went to the specialist, or what the specialist recommended. PCPs and specialists also frequently disagree on the specialist's role during the referral episode (e.g., single consultation or continuing co-management). Conclusions: There are breakdowns and inefficiencies in all components of the specialty-referral process. Despite many promising mechanisms to improve the referral process, rigorous evaluations of these improvements are needed. PMID:21418312

  19. AMPA receptor regulation mechanisms: future target for safer neuroprotective drugs.

    PubMed

    Jayakar, Selwyn S; Dikshit, Madhu

    2004-06-01

    transporters, which require high-frequency firing for activation. On activation they might enhance the activity of NMDA receptors at the synapse to increase the levels of AMPA receptors. AMPA receptors surfaced at this juncture can contribute to heavy Ca2+ influx. Thus, blocking this pathway could be of considerable importance in preventing the excitotoxicity. A number of proteins such as the GRIP, PICK, and NSF also modulate the functions of AMPA receptors. Polyamines also block Ca2+ permeable AMPA receptors and thus are protective. NO and cGMP also play an important role in negatively regulating AMPA receptors and thus could offer protection. Modulation of AMPA receptor by different mechanisms has been discussed in the present review to implicate importance of these targets/pathways for safer and future neuroprotective drugs.

  20. “I Always Worry about What Might Happen Ahead”: Implementing Safer Conception Services in the Current Environment of Reproductive Counseling for HIV-Affected Men and Women in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bajunirwe, Francis; Kastner, Jasmine; Sanyu, Naomi; Akatukwasa, Cecilia; Ng, Courtney; Rifkin, Rachel; Milford, Cecilia; Moore, Lizzie; Wilson, Ira B.; Bangsberg, David R.; Smit, Jennifer A.; Kaida, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Background. We explored healthcare provider perspectives and practices regarding safer conception counseling for HIV-affected clients. Methods. We conducted semistructured interviews with 38 providers (medical and clinical officers, nurses, peer counselors, and village health workers) delivering care to HIV-infected clients across 5 healthcare centres in Mbarara District, Uganda. Interview transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. Results. Of 38 providers, 76% were women with median age 34 years (range 24–57). First, we discuss providers' reproductive counseling practices. Emergent themes include that providers (1) assess reproductive goals of HIV-infected female clients frequently, but infrequently for male clients; (2) offer counseling focused on “family planning” and maternal and child health; (3) empathize with the importance of having children for HIV-affected clients; and (4) describe opportunities to counsel HIV-serodiscordant couples. Second, we discuss provider-level challenges that impede safer conception counseling. Emergent themes included the following: (1) providers struggle to translate reproductive rights language into individualized risk reduction given concerns about maternal health and HIV transmission and (2) providers lack safer conception training and support needed to provide counseling. Discussion. Tailored guidelines and training are required for providers to implement safer conception counseling. Such support must respond to provider experiences with adverse HIV-related maternal and child outcomes and a national emphasis on pregnancy prevention. PMID:27051664

  1. Medicare program: changes to the hospital inpatient prospective payment systems and fiscal year 2009 rates; payments for graduate medical education in certain emergency situations; changes to disclosure of physician ownership in hospitals and physician self-referral rules; updates to the long-term care prospective payment system; updates to certain IPPS-excluded hospitals; and collection of information regarding financial relationships between hospitals. Final rules.

    PubMed

    2008-08-19

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital related costs to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems, and to implement certain provisions made by the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005, the Medicare Improvements and Extension Act, Division B, Title I of the Tax Relief and Health Care Act of 2006, the TMA, Abstinence Education, and QI Programs Extension Act of 2007, and the Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act of 2008. In addition, in the Addendum to this final rule, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the rates for Medicare hospital inpatient services for operating costs and capital-related costs. These changes are generally applicable to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2008. We also are setting forth the update to the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals and hospital units excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits. The updated rate-of-increase limits are effective for cost reporting periods beginning on or after October 1, 2008. In addition to the changes for hospitals paid under the IPPS, this document contains revisions to the patient classifications and relative weights used under the long-term care hospital prospective payment system (LTCH PPS). This document also contains policy changes relating to the requirements for furnishing hospital emergency services under the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act of 1986 (EMTALA). In this document, we are responding to public comments and finalizing the policies contained in two interim final rules relating to payments for Medicare graduate medical education to affiliated teaching hospitals in certain emergency situations. We are revising the regulatory requirements relating to disclosure to patients of physician ownership or investment interests in hospitals and responding to public comments on a

  2. Primary care referral practice, variability and socio-economic deprivation in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Borowski, D W; Cawkwell, S; Zaidi, S M A; Toward, M; Maguire, N; Gill, T S

    2016-11-01

    The reasons for pre-hospital delay of the diagnosis of cancer are multifactorial, but include a physician-related component. Urgent cancer pathways and direct-to-test approaches have been implemented, but the emergency presentation of colorectal cancer (CRC) remains little changed over recent years. We examined the variability between primary care providers in referral patterns and its effect on outcome. A retrospective analysis was performed of a prospectively maintained database for 2009-2014 in a UK district hospital providing bowel cancer screening and tertiary rectal cancer services. Of 1145 CRC patients, 937 (81.8%) were diagnosed with a symptomatic cancer; 229/937 (24.4%) initially presented as an emergency. Between 44 primary care providers, emergency presentation varied between 8.3% and 57.1%. Patients of providers with high levels of emergency presentations (HV) had more advanced cancers than those of providers with medium (MV) or low levels (LV) [103/253 (40.7%), 154/461 (33.4%), 65/223 (29.1%); P = 0.025] and a lower 3-year overall survival (50.2%, 57.8%, 65.6%; P = 0.013), but with no difference in case-mix or deprivation levels. In adjusted analysis, this difference remained significant (advanced disease, OR 1.663, P = 0.011; 3-year hazard ratio 1.479, P = 0.010; comparing HV with LV). Conversely, elective suspected cancer referrals were less often used amongst diagnosed cancers [LV 136/223 (61.0%), MV 228/461 (49.5%), HV 114/253 (45.1%), P < 0.001] with limited evidence for a more selective approach in the use of the 2-week rule amongst all 2-week rule referrals [LV 136/2508 (5.4%); MV 228/4239 (5.4%); HV 115/1526 (7.8%); positive cancer diagnosis, P = 0.005]. Significant variability in emergency presentation of CRC requires local audit and examination of the reasons for delay in diagnosis and targeted measures to improve performance in non-emergency referral pathways. Colorectal Disease © 2016 The Association of Coloproctology of Great

  3. Mouth Cancer for Clinicians. Part 8: Referral.

    PubMed

    Kalavrezos, Nicholas; Scully, Crispian

    2016-03-01

    A MEDLINE search early in 2015 revealed more than 250,000 papers on head and neck cancer; over 100,000 on oral cancer; and over 60,000 on mouth cancer. Not all publications contain robust evidence. We endeavour to encapsulate the most important of the latest information and advances now employed in practice, in a form comprehensible to healthcare workers, patients and their carers. This series offers the primary care dental team in particular, an overview of the aetiopathogenesis, prevention, diagnosis and multidisciplinary care of mouth cancer, the functional and psychosocial implications, and minimization of the impact on the quality of life of patient and family. Clinical Relevance: This article offers the dental team an overview of referral procedures; oral diagnosis is not always simple and a second opinion can be valuable to all concerned in cases of doubt.

  4. 5 CFR 831.1309 - Referral for litigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral for litigation. 831.1309 Section 831.1309 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Collection of Debts § 831.1309 Referral for litigation. From time to time and in...

  5. 32 CFR 727.9 - Referrals to civilian lawyers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Referrals to civilian lawyers. 727.9 Section 727.9 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL LEGAL ASSISTANCE § 727.9 Referrals to civilian lawyers. (a) General. If it is determined that the legal assistance...

  6. 29 CFR 530.404 - Referral to Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral to Administrative Law Judge. 530.404 Section 530.404 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Administrative Procedures § 530.404 Referral to...

  7. User Satisfaction with Referrals at a Collaborative Virtual Reference Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Nahyun

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated unmonitored referrals in a nationwide, collaborative chat reference service. Specifically, it examined the extent to which questions are referred, the types of questions that are more likely to be referred than others, and the level of user satisfaction with the referrals in the collaborative chat reference…

  8. 28 CFR 902.3 - Referral to Dispute Resolution Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Referral to Dispute Resolution Committee. 902.3 Section 902.3 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.3 Referral to Dispute Resolution Committee. (a) The five...

  9. 28 CFR 902.3 - Referral to Dispute Resolution Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Referral to Dispute Resolution Committee. 902.3 Section 902.3 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.3 Referral to Dispute Resolution Committee. (a) The five...

  10. 28 CFR 902.3 - Referral to Dispute Resolution Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Referral to Dispute Resolution Committee. 902.3 Section 902.3 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.3 Referral to Dispute Resolution Committee. (a) The five...

  11. 28 CFR 902.3 - Referral to Dispute Resolution Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Referral to Dispute Resolution Committee. 902.3 Section 902.3 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.3 Referral to Dispute Resolution Committee. (a) The five...

  12. 28 CFR 902.3 - Referral to Dispute Resolution Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral to Dispute Resolution Committee. 902.3 Section 902.3 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.3 Referral to Dispute Resolution Committee. (a) The five...

  13. 40 CFR 1620.8 - Referral to Department of Justice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral to Department of Justice. 1620.8 Section 1620.8 Protection of Environment CHEMICAL SAFETY AND HAZARD INVESTIGATION BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS ARISING UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 1620.8 Referral to Department of Justice....

  14. 10 CFR 733.7 - Referral to the contracting officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to the contracting officer. 733.7 Section 733.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ALLEGATIONS OF RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 733.7 Referral to the contracting... misconduct, the DOE Element should forward the allegation to the contracting officer responsible...

  15. Developing At-Risk Referral Procedures for Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Jennifer; Bostick, Mary

    1986-01-01

    A screening and referral procedure for rural, at-risk infants was developed by a three-step process that: (1) identified key professionals; (2) educated rural medical personnel regarding benefits and strategies of early intervention; and (3) implemented a screening and referral system with low temporal and monetary costs for hospital personnel.…

  16. 29 CFR 502.37 - Referral to Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral to Administrative Law Judge. 502.37 Section 502.37... § 502.37 Referral to Administrative Law Judge. (a) Upon receipt of a timely request for a hearing filed... Judge, for a determination in an administrative proceeding as provided herein. The notice...

  17. 29 CFR 801.63 - Referral to Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral to Administrative Law Judge. 801.63 Section 801.63... § 801.63 Referral to Administrative Law Judge. (a) Upon receipt of a timely request for a hearing filed... Judge, for a determination in an administrative proceeding as provided herein. The notice...

  18. 29 CFR 500.224 - Referral to Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral to Administrative Law Judge. 500.224 Section 500... Hearing § 500.224 Referral to Administrative Law Judge. (a) Upon receipt of a timely request for a hearing... Administrative Law Judge, for a determination in an administrative proceeding as provided herein. The notice...

  19. 29 CFR 580.10 - Referral to Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral to Administrative Law Judge. 580.10 Section 580.10... Referral to Administrative Law Judge. (a) Upon receipt of a timely exception to a determination of... Administrative Law Judge, for a determination in an administrative proceeding as provided herein. A copy of...

  20. Referral for minor mental illness: a qualitative study.

    PubMed Central

    Nandy, S; Chalmers-Watson, C; Gantley, M; Underwood, M

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mild depression and anxiety are common problems in general practice. They can be managed by the general practitioner (GP) alone or referred. Previous quantitative studies have shown a large variation between GPs in terms of referral behaviour. The reasons for this variation are not fully understood. AIM: To describe and analyse GP's decision-making processes when considering who should be treating patients with minor mental illness, using a qualitative method. DESIGN OF STUDY: A qualitative interview study. SETTING: Twenty-three GPs in east London and Essex. METHOD: Subjects were chosen using a purposive sampling strategy and participated in one-to-one semi-structured interviews. A grounded theory approach was used for analysis. RESULTS: Two distinct referral strategies were identified--the 'containment' and the 'conduit' approaches. In addition, referrals were found to be of two types--proactive 'referrals to' and reactive 'referrals away'; for minor mental illness the 'referrals away' were found to predominate. Emotive as well as rational responses informed GP decision making on referral. CONCLUSIONS: Explanations of the variation in referral rates need to recognise the emotive responses of individual GPs to minor mental illness. The contribution of guidelines, which assume consistently rational responses to illness, may therefore be limited. PMID:11407051

  1. Referral for minor mental illness: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Nandy, S; Chalmers-Watson, C; Gantley, M; Underwood, M

    2001-06-01

    Mild depression and anxiety are common problems in general practice. They can be managed by the general practitioner (GP) alone or referred. Previous quantitative studies have shown a large variation between GPs in terms of referral behaviour. The reasons for this variation are not fully understood. To describe and analyse GP's decision-making processes when considering who should be treating patients with minor mental illness, using a qualitative method. A qualitative interview study. Twenty-three GPs in east London and Essex. Subjects were chosen using a purposive sampling strategy and participated in one-to-one semi-structured interviews. A grounded theory approach was used for analysis. Two distinct referral strategies were identified--the 'containment' and the 'conduit' approaches. In addition, referrals were found to be of two types--proactive 'referrals to' and reactive 'referrals away'; for minor mental illness the 'referrals away' were found to predominate. Emotive as well as rational responses informed GP decision making on referral. Explanations of the variation in referral rates need to recognise the emotive responses of individual GPs to minor mental illness. The contribution of guidelines, which assume consistently rational responses to illness, may therefore be limited.

  2. 32 CFR 727.9 - Referrals to civilian lawyers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Referrals to civilian lawyers. 727.9 Section 727... ASSISTANCE § 727.9 Referrals to civilian lawyers. (a) General. If it is determined that the legal assistance... the assistance requested, the client should be referred to a civilian lawyer. When the client does...

  3. 49 CFR 1503.703 - Civil penalty letter; referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Civil penalty letter; referral. 1503.703 Section... AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Judicial Assessment of Civil Penalties § 1503.703 Civil penalty letter; referral. (a) Issuance. In a civil penalty action in which the amount in controversy exceeds the...

  4. 45 CFR 30.36 - Minimum amount of referrals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum amount of referrals. 30.36 Section 30.36 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS COLLECTION Referrals... for enforcement; or (3) The debtor has the clear ability to pay the claim and the Government...

  5. 45 CFR 30.36 - Minimum amount of referrals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Minimum amount of referrals. 30.36 Section 30.36 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS COLLECTION Referrals... for enforcement; or (3) The debtor has the clear ability to pay the claim and the Government...

  6. 45 CFR 1619.3 - Referral to the Corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Referral to the Corporation. 1619.3 Section 1619.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION § 1619.3 Referral to the Corporation. If a person requests information, not...

  7. 10 CFR 430.54 - Referral to the Attorney General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Referral to the Attorney General. 430.54 Section 430.54 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.54 Referral to the Attorney General. Notice of the application for...

  8. 10 CFR 430.54 - Referral to the Attorney General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to the Attorney General. 430.54 Section 430.54 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.54 Referral to the Attorney General. Notice of the application for...

  9. 10 CFR 430.54 - Referral to the Attorney General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Referral to the Attorney General. 430.54 Section 430.54 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.54 Referral to the Attorney General. Notice of the application for...

  10. 10 CFR 430.54 - Referral to the Attorney General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Referral to the Attorney General. 430.54 Section 430.54 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.54 Referral to the Attorney General. Notice of the application for...

  11. 10 CFR 430.54 - Referral to the Attorney General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Referral to the Attorney General. 430.54 Section 430.54 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.54 Referral to the Attorney General. Notice of the application for...

  12. 42 CFR 412.96 - Special treatment: Referral centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special treatment: Referral centers. 412.96 Section 412.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... hospital as a referral center only if the hospital is a Medicare participating acute care hospital and...

  13. Observational Checklists for Referral: Technical Report. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Joyce S.

    Presented is the technical report on development of the Observational Checklists for Referral (OCR), developed to assist teachers of young children in identifying problems that interfere with learning, making appropriate referrals to other professionals, and communicating with parents and professionals. Sections cover summaries of external…

  14. NETWORK. A History of the Scottish Telephone Referral Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Vernon

    Since its beginnings in 1974 as an outgrowth of the BBC Adult Literacy project, NETWORK SCOTLAND LTD (formerly the Scottish Telephone Referral Service) has grown to play a key role in the provision of broadcast support and educational information services in the United Kingdom. The referral service was originally established to provide a mechanism…

  15. Statin intolerance in a referral lipid clinic.

    PubMed

    Lakey, Wanda C; Greyshock, Nicole G; Kelley, Carly E; Siddiqui, Mohammad A; Ahmad, Umar; Lokhnygina, Yuliya V; Guyton, John R

    2016-01-01

    Statins effectively prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, but rates of statin discontinuation after adverse events are high. Describe the range and relative frequencies of adverse events potentially attributable to statins in lipid referral practice and assess statin rechallenge outcomes. Retrospective cohort study of 642 patients with statin-associated adverse events evaluated in a referral lipid clinic between January 1, 2004 and January 27, 2011. Patients experiencing adverse events by organ system included 92% with musculoskeletal, 8% central nervous system, 10% liver, 8% gastrointestinal, 5% peripheral nervous system, 5% skin, and 3% other events. Overlap of organ system involvement occurred in 22.5%. At least 1 follow-up visit was made by 557 patients, among whom overall median follow-up was 25 months. Among patients treated with a statin in the clinic, 71% remained on a statin at the last follow-up visit. Patients with hepatic transaminase increases by history were numerically more likely than the overall group to resume or remain on statin treatment, whereas those reporting central nervous system or gastrointestinal symptoms trended lower for statin maintenance. Among patients who experienced an adverse event after statin rechallenge, the majority (64%) were being treated with intermittent, nondaily dosing at the time of the adverse event. Although musculoskeletal symptoms are reported by 90% of patients with statin intolerance, symptoms involving other organ systems may be more frequent than previously supposed. Understanding the range of symptoms, time course, and impact on daily activities informs counseling in patient-centered practice, but assessment of causation by statins remains challenging. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Aperture referral in heterocentric astigmatic systems.

    PubMed

    Harris, William F

    2011-11-01

    Retinal blur patch, effective corneal patch, projective field, field of view and other concepts are usually regarded as disjoint concepts to be treated separately. However they have in common the fact that an aperture, often the pupil of the eye, has its effect at some other longitudinal position. Here the effect is termed aperture referral. To develop a complete and general theory of aperture referral under which many ostensibly-distinct aperture-dependent concepts become unified and of which these concepts become particular applications. The theory allows for apertures to be elliptical and decentred and refracting surfaces in an eye or any other optical system to be astigmatic, heterocentric and tilted. The optical model used is linear optics, a three-dimensional generalization of Gaussian optics. Positional and inclinational invariants are defined along a ray through an arbitrary optical system. A pencil of rays through a system is defined by an object or image point and an aperture defines a subset of the pencil called a restricted pencil. Invariants are derived for four cases: an object and an image point at finite and at infinite distances. Formulae are obtained for the generalized magnification and transverse translation and for the geometry and location of an aperture referred to any other transverse plane. A restricted pencil is defined by an aperture and an object or image point. The intersection of the restricted pencil with a transverse plane is the aperture referred to that transverse plane. Many concepts, including effective corneal patch, retinal blur patch, projective field and visual field, can now be treated routinely as special cases of the general theory: having identified the aperture, the referred aperture and the referring point one applies the general formulae directly. The formulae are exact in linear optics, explicit and give insight into relationships. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2011 The College of Optometrists.

  17. District nurses' experiences and perceptions of cancer patient referrals.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Gretl; Pateman, Brian; Luker, Karen

    2003-02-01

    Traditionally palliative care of cancer patients has been seen as an important and defining aspect of district nursing. Care of the dying patient has been used to describe the ability and scope of the district nursing service to holistically provide for patient need. However health and social service changes in the last decade have refocused the district nurse's role away from holistic delivery to more specialized care. There is also research evidence that there are several contradictions in referral processes to the district nursing service. We conducted a study to explore district nurses' perceptions and experiences of referral of cancer patients to gain insight into these referral processes. We interviewed 20 nurses from three primary care trusts to explore the referral process of cancer patients to the district nursing service from the district nurses' point of view. The nurses expressed concerns regarding completeness, accuracy and appropriateness of referral and suggested improvements that could be made.

  18. Paediatric surgery for the busy GP - Getting the referral right.

    PubMed

    Teague, Warwick J; King, Sebastian K

    2015-12-01

    Is a child who presents with a possible non-acute surgical complaint a welcome prospect? Unavoidable deliberations follow: normal versus abnormal, common versus exotic, routine versus urgent, investigate or not, and reassurance versus referral. Delayed or inadequately investigated referrals are uncommon in general paediatric surgery; rather, those that may be unnecessary, inappropriately ascribed as 'urgent' or over-investigated are more commonplace. This article seeks to optimise a general practitioner's assessment of children with surgical presentations to ensure any resulting paediatric surgery referrals are necessary, timely and appropriately investigated. Common, non-acute complaints presenting in childhood, including testicular maldescent, inguinal hernia and hydrocoele, non-retractile foreskin, and abdominal wall herniae, are discussed in this article. Each summary outlines the basis of the complaint, recommended pre-referral work-up and typical management of these paediatric surgery referrals. Online guidelines may be useful (eg www.rch.org.au/kidsconnect/prereferral_guidelines).

  19. Abortion experiences among Zanzibari women: a chain-referral sampling study.

    PubMed

    Norris, Alison; Harrington, Bryna J; Grossman, Daniel; Hemed, Maryam; Hindin, Michelle J

    2016-03-11

    In Zanzibar, a semi-autonomous region of Tanzania, induced abortion is illegal but common, and fewer than 12% of married reproductive-aged women use modern contraception. As part of a multi-method study about contraception and consequences of unwanted pregnancies, the objective of this study was to understand the experiences of Zanzibari women who terminated pregnancies. The cross-sectional study was set in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Participants were a community-based sample of women who had terminated pregnancies. We carried out semi-structured interviews with 45 women recruited via chain-referral sampling. We report the characteristics of women who have had abortions, the reasons they had abortions, and the methods used to terminate their pregnancies. Women in Zanzibar terminate pregnancies that are unwanted for a range of reasons, at various points in their reproductive lives, and using multiple methods. While clinical methods were most effective, nearly half of our participants successfully terminated a pregnancy using non-clinical methods and very few had complications requiring post abortion care (PAC). Even in settings where abortion is illegal, some women experience illegal abortions without adverse health consequences, what we might call 'safer' unsafe abortions; these kinds of abortion experiences can be missed in studies about abortion conducted among women seeking PAC in hospitals.

  20. Doctors admitted to a Physicians' Health Program: a comparison of self-referrals versus directed referrals.

    PubMed

    Braquehais, María Dolores; Valero, Sergi; Bel, Miquel Jordi; Navarro, María Cecilia; Matalí, Josep Lluís; Nasillo, Viviana; Padrós, Jaume; Arteman, Antoni; Bruguera, Eugeni; Casas, Miquel

    2014-07-02

    To compare the profile of doctors with mental disorders admitted to a Physicians' Health Program (PHP) depending on their type of referral. Retrospective chart review. We analysed 1545 medical records of doctors admitted to the Barcelona PHP (PAIMM) from 1 February 1998 to 31 December 2012. Most doctors (83.2%) were self-referred to the programme. Patients non-self-referred were older ([Formula: see text]=55 vs [Formula: see text]=49.6 years; t=6.96, p<0.01) than those self-referred and there were more men (68.3%) than women (45.8%; OR=0.39; 95% CI 0.29 to 0.52). Self-referrals were more frequent among patients with non-addictive disorders (84.6% vs 15.4%; OR=4.52; 95% CI 3.23 to 28.45). Self-referred patients needed less inpatient admissions (16.8% vs30.9%; OR=2.22; 95% CI 1.63 to 3.01) and the length of their treatment episodes was shorter ([Formula: see text]=24.3 vs [Formula: see text] = 32.4 months; t=3.34; p<0.01). Logistic regression showed a significant model (χ(2)=67.52; df=3; p<0.001). Age, gender and diagnosis were statistically associated with type of referral to the programme. Type of referral to a PHP may be influenced not only by sick doctors' personal traits but also by each programme's design and how it is perceived by service users. Our findings should be taken into account when designing treatment and preventive interventions for this professional group. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Doctors admitted to a Physicians’ Health Program: a comparison of self-referrals versus directed referrals

    PubMed Central

    Braquehais, María Dolores; Valero, Sergi; Bel, Miquel Jordi; Navarro, María Cecilia; Matalí, Josep Lluís; Nasillo, Viviana; Padrós, Jaume; Arteman, Antoni; Bruguera, Eugeni; Casas, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the profile of doctors with mental disorders admitted to a Physicians’ Health Program (PHP) depending on their type of referral. Design Retrospective chart review. Method We analysed 1545 medical records of doctors admitted to the Barcelona PHP (PAIMM) from 1 February 1998 to 31 December 2012. Results Most doctors (83.2%) were self-referred to the programme. Patients non-self-referred were older (=55 vs =49.6 years; t=6.96, p<0.01) than those self-referred and there were more men (68.3%) than women (45.8%; OR=0.39; 95% CI 0.29 to 0.52). Self-referrals were more frequent among patients with non-addictive disorders (84.6% vs 15.4%; OR=4.52; 95% CI 3.23 to 28.45). Self-referred patients needed less inpatient admissions (16.8% vs30.9%; OR=2.22; 95% CI 1.63 to 3.01) and the length of their treatment episodes was shorter (=24.3 vs  = 32.4 months; t=3.34; p<0.01). Logistic regression showed a significant model (χ2=67.52; df=3; p<0.001). Age, gender and diagnosis were statistically associated with type of referral to the programme. Conclusions Type of referral to a PHP may be influenced not only by sick doctors’ personal traits but also by each programme's design and how it is perceived by service users. Our findings should be taken into account when designing treatment and preventive interventions for this professional group. PMID:24993767

  2. ER Doctor Offers Tips for Safer Snow Shoveling

    MedlinePlus

    ... of MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine, the National Institutes of Health, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. More Health News on: Heart Attack Winter Weather Emergencies Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics ...

  3. Topical anaesthesia in children: reducing the need for specialty referral.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Gabrielle; Mullarkey, Caitriona

    2010-04-01

    The management of wounds in children is stressful, not only for the child, but also for parents and staff. In our Emergency Department (ED), we currently do not have a paediatric sedation policy, and thus children requiring suturing, not amenable to distraction and infiltrative anaesthesia, are referred to specialty teams for general anaesthesia. We proposed that the introduction of a topical anaesthetic gel (lidocaine, adrenaline, tetracaine - LAT) might help to reduce the number of referrals, by allowing the ED staff to perform the procedures, in combination with nonpharmacological approaches. We carried out a retrospective review of ED records of all children aged 14 years or less attending with wounds, over an 8-month period, from 01 May 2007 to 31 January 2008. Two hundred and one (50.6%) patients presented before the introduction of LAT gel, whereas 196 (49.3%) patients presented afterwards. A total of 39 (19.4%) patients were referred for specialty review pre-LAT, whereas only 19 (9.7%) patients were referred in the LAT group. Of these, 31 (15.4%) pre-LAT and 15 (7.7%) LAT group required general anaesthesia. There is a significant difference between these two groups, using Fischer's exact test, P=0.018. We have found that the introduction of topical anaesthetic gel in ED has significantly reduced the number of children with wounds referred to specialty teams for general anaesthesia. This has important implications for patient safety and hospital resources.

  4. Introducing Technology in Child Welfare Referrals: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Lovato-Hermann, Kristina; Wolf, Jennifer Price; Curry, Susanna R.; Freisthler, Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Access to social services is important for the safety of children and ultimately for reunification of families involved in the child welfare system. The process of linking families to services however, varies by caseworker and can be cumbersome and time-consuming. The DCFS Needs Portal is an internet-based intervention to improve the timing and quality of social service referrals in Los Angeles County We used a case study approach including in-depth interviews, direct observations and user feedback obtained from the Needs Portal to 1) determine perceived benefits and barriers to adopting the Needs Portal and 2) report how the flow of information between users and developers was used to adapt to user needs. Our analyses revealed four major barriers: 1) caseworker apprehension regarding new technology, 2) variation in communication styles by user type, 3) lack of technological infrastructure and 4) competing workplace demands. Information sharing between developers and users has the potential to better meet the needs of users and ultimately maximize utilization of new technology. Although internet-based interventions are designed to inexpensively and effectively coordinate services, emerging interventions may require in-person assistance and modifications in order to succeed. PMID:27799852

  5. Safer-drinking Strategies Used by Chronically Homeless Individuals with Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Grazioli, Véronique S.; Hicks, Jennifer; Kaese, Greta; Lenert, James; Collins, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence experience severe alcohol-related consequences. It is therefore important to identify factors that might be associated with reduced alcohol-related harm, such as the use of safer-drinking strategies. Whereas effectiveness of safer-drinking strategies has been well-documented among young adults, no studies have explored this topic among more severely affected populations, such as chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence. The aims of this study were thus to qualitatively and quantitatively document safer-drinking strategies used in this population. Participants (N=31) were currently or formerly chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence participating in a pilot study of extended-release naltrexone and harm-reduction counseling. At weeks 0 and 8, research staff provided a list of safer-drinking strategies for participants to endorse. Implementation of endorsed safer-drinking strategies was recorded at the next appointment. At both time points, strategies to buffer the effects of alcohol on the body (e.g., eating prior to and during drinking) were most highly endorsed, followed by changing the manner in which one drinks (e.g., spacing drinks), and reducing alcohol consumption. Quantitative analyses indicated that all participants endorsed safer-drinking strategies, and nearly all strategies were implemented (80–90% at weeks 0 and 8, respectively). These preliminary findings indicate that chronically homeless people with alcohol dependence use strategies to reduce harm associated with their drinking. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to test whether interventions that teach safer-drinking strategies may reduce overall alcohol-related harm in this population. PMID:25690515

  6. Safer-drinking strategies used by chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Grazioli, Véronique S; Hicks, Jennifer; Kaese, Greta; Lenert, James; Collins, Susan E

    2015-07-01

    Chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence experience severe alcohol-related consequences. It is therefore important to identify factors that might be associated with reduced alcohol-related harm, such as the use of safer-drinking strategies. Whereas effectiveness of safer-drinking strategies has been well-documented among young adults, no studies have explored this topic among more severely affected populations, such as chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence. The aims of this study were thus to qualitatively and quantitatively document safer-drinking strategies used in this population. Participants (N=31) were currently or formerly chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence participating in a pilot study of extended-release naltrexone and harm-reduction counseling. At weeks 0 and 8, research staff provided a list of safer-drinking strategies for participants to endorse. Implementation of endorsed safer-drinking strategies was recorded at the next appointment. At both time points, strategies to buffer the effects of alcohol on the body (e.g., eating prior to and during drinking) were most highly endorsed, followed by changing the manner in which one drinks (e.g., spacing drinks), and reducing alcohol consumption. Quantitative analyses indicated that all participants endorsed safer-drinking strategies, and nearly all strategies were implemented (80-90% at weeks 0 and 8, respectively). These preliminary findings indicate that chronically homeless people with alcohol dependence use strategies to reduce harm associated with their drinking. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to test whether interventions that teach safer-drinking strategies may reduce overall alcohol-related harm in this population.

  7. Family Perspectives on High-Quality Pediatric Subspecialty Referrals.

    PubMed

    Ray, Kristin N; Ashcraft, Laura Ellen; Kahn, Jeremy M; Mehrotra, Ateev; Miller, Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    Although children are frequently referred to subspecialist physicians, many inadequacies in referral processes have been identified from physician and system perspectives. Little is known, however, about how to comprehensively measure or improve the quality of the referral systems from a family-centered perspective. To foster family-centered improvements to pediatric subspecialty referrals, we sought to develop a framework for high-quality, patient-centered referrals from the perspectives of patients and their families. We used stakeholder-informed qualitative analysis of parent, caregiver, and patient interviews to identify outcomes, processes, and structures of high-quality pediatric subspecialty referrals as perceived by patients and their family members. We interviewed 21 informants. Informants identified 5 desired outcomes of subspecialty referrals: improved functional status or symptoms; improved long-term outcomes; improved knowledge of their disease; informed expectations; and reduced anxiety about the child's health status. Processes that informants identified as supporting these outcomes centered around 6 key steps in subspecialty referrals, including the referral decision, previsit information transfer, appointment scheduling, subspecialist visit, postvisit information transfer, and ongoing care integration and communication. Health care delivery structures identified by informants as supporting these processes included physical infrastructure, human resources, and information technology systems. We identified family-centered outcomes, processes, and structures of high-quality pediatric subspecialty referrals. These domains can be used not only to improve measurement of the quality of existing referral systems but also to inform future interventions to improve patient-centered outcomes for children in need of specialty care. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Referral and Timing of Referral to Hospice Care in Nursing Homes: The Significant Role of Staff Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Lisa C.; Miller, Susan C.; Martin, Edward W.; Nanda, Aman

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Given concerns about end-of-life care for many nursing home (NH) residents, this study sought to understand factors influencing hospice referral or nonreferral as well as timing of referral. Design and Methods: We conducted semistructured interviews with personnel from seven participating NHs and two hospices. We interviewed NH directors…

  9. Referral and Timing of Referral to Hospice Care in Nursing Homes: The Significant Role of Staff Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Lisa C.; Miller, Susan C.; Martin, Edward W.; Nanda, Aman

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Given concerns about end-of-life care for many nursing home (NH) residents, this study sought to understand factors influencing hospice referral or nonreferral as well as timing of referral. Design and Methods: We conducted semistructured interviews with personnel from seven participating NHs and two hospices. We interviewed NH directors…

  10. 36 CFR 1260.44 - How does the NDC process RAC Project referrals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Declassification Center (NDC) § 1260.44 How does the NDC process RAC Project referrals? (a) The Presidential Libraries use the RAC Project to process referrals. (b) Agencies will be notified of RAC Project referrals...

  11. 36 CFR § 1260.44 - How does the NDC process RAC Project referrals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Declassification Center (NDC) § 1260.44 How does the NDC process RAC Project referrals? (a) The Presidential Libraries use the RAC Project to process referrals. (b) Agencies will be notified of RAC Project referrals...

  12. 36 CFR 1260.44 - How does the NDC process RAC Project referrals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Declassification Center (NDC) § 1260.44 How does the NDC process RAC Project referrals? (a) The Presidential Libraries use the RAC Project to process referrals. (b) Agencies will be notified of RAC Project referrals...

  13. Piroxicam-β-cyclodextrin: a GI safer piroxicam.

    PubMed

    Scarpignato, C

    2013-01-01

    more rapid onset of action after oral administration and improved GI tolerability because of minimization of the drug gastric effects. One such drug, piroxicam-β-cyclodextrin (PBC), has been used in Europe for 25 years. Preclinical and clinical pharmacology of PBC do show that the β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex of piroxicam is better tolerated from the upper GI tract than free piroxicam, while retaining all the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of the parent compound. In addition, the drug is endowed with a quick absorption rate, which translates into a faster onset of analgesic activity, an effect confirmed in several clinical studies. An analysis of the available trials show that PBC has a GI safety profile, which is better than that displayed by uncomplexed piroxicam. Being an inclusion complex of piroxicam, whose CV safety has been pointed out by several observational studies, PBC should be viewed as a CV safe anti-inflmmatory compound and a GI safer alternative to piroxicam. As a consequence, it should be considered as a useful addition to our therapeutic armamentarium.

  14. Piroxicam-β-Cyclodextrin: A GI Safer Piroxicam

    PubMed Central

    Scarpignato, C

    2013-01-01

    to a more rapid onset of action after oral administration and improved GI tolerability because of minimization of the drug gastric effects. One such drug, piroxicam-β-cyclodextrin (PBC), has been used in Europe for 25 years. Preclinical and clinical pharmacology of PBC do show that the β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex of piroxicam is better tolerated from the upper GI tract than free piroxicam, while retaining all the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of the parent compound. In addition, the drug is endowed with a quick absorption rate, which translates into a faster onset of analgesic activity, an effect confirmed in several clinical studies. An analysis of the available trials show that PBC has a GI safety profile, which is better than that displayed by uncomplexed piroxicam. Being an inclusion complex of piroxicam, whose CV safety has been pointed out by several observational studies, PBC should be viewed as a CV safe anti-inflmmatory compound and a GI safer alternative to piroxicam. As a consequence, it should be considered as a useful addition to our therapeutic armamentarium. PMID:23394552

  15. A shift in referral patterns for HIV/AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Phillip O; Savageau, Judith A; Baldor, Robert A

    2008-02-01

    With the rapid development (and complex prescribing patterns) of drugs for HIV/AIDS care, it is challenging for physicians to keep current. We conducted a follow-up study to a 1994 cohort study to see how care and referral patterns have changed over the last decade. In this study, we examined how family physicians in Massachusetts were caring for their HIV-infected patients, and to see whether FPs were referring more patients to specialists for care compared with a decade ago. We designed a cross-sectional survey as an 11-year follow-up to a previous study. It was mailed in 2005 to the active membership of the Massachusetts Academy of Family Physicians. Compared with the cohort of 1994, the number of HIV+ patients in individual practices remained about the same, but the number of practices with no AIDS patients was significantly higher. 85.3% of FPs noted that they were more likely to refer HIV/AIDS patients immediately compared with their own practice patterns a decade ago. In this study, 39.0% of current respondents referred HIV+ patients immediately, 57.0% co-managed patients, and 4.1% managed these patients alone (the data for the 1994 cohort was 7.0%, 45.8%, and 47.2%, respectively; P<.0001). Similar changes were seen in regard to care patterns for AIDS patients. Among the current cohort, 61.7% reported that they referred patients immediately, compared with only 18.3% in 1994; 36.8% noted that they co-managed these patients (vs 74.3% in 1994); and only 1.5% reported that they managed these patients alone (vs 7.4% in 1994; P<.0001). A significant shift amongst FPs with regard to their referral patterns for patients with HIV/AIDS has occurred over the last decade. The community health center has emerged as a resource for patients with HIV/AIDS. Funding for specific training programs on HIV/AIDS care should be targeted to community health centers.

  16. Examining the variation in GPs’ referral practice: a cross-sectional study of GPs’ reasons for referral

    PubMed Central

    Ringberg, Unni; Fleten, Nils; Førde, Olav Helge

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a large variation in referral rates to secondary care among GPs, which is partly unexplained. Aim To explore associations between reasons for referral to secondary care and patient, GP, and healthcare characteristics. Design and setting A cross-sectional study in Northern Norway. Method Data were derived from 44 (42%) of 104 randomly selected GPs between 2008 and 2010. GPs scored the relevance of nine predefined reasons for 595 referrals from 4350 consecutive consultations on a four-level categorical scale. Associations were examined by multivariable ordered and multivariable multilevel logistic regression analyses. Results Medical necessity was assessed as a relevant reason in 93% of the referrals, 43.7% by patient preference, 27.5% to avoid overlooking anything, and 14.6% to reassure the patient. The higher the referral rates, the more frequently the GPs referred to avoid overlooking anything. Female GPs referred to reassure the patient and due to perceived deficient medical knowledge significantly more often than male GPs. However, perceived easy accessibility of specialists was significantly less frequently given as a reason for referral by female GPs compared with male GPs. When the GPs scored the referrals to be of lesser medical necessity, male GPs referred significantly more frequently than female GPs to reassure the patient due to patient preference and perceived deficient medical knowledge. Conclusion There are striking differences in reasons for referral between Norwegian male and female GPs and between GPs with high and low referral rates, which reflects difficulties in handling professional uncertainty. Referring to reassure the patients, especially when referrals are less medically necessary, may reflect consideration and acquiescence towards the patients. PMID:24982495

  17. Community Influences on Married Women's Safer Sex Negotiation Attitudes in Bangladesh: A Multilevel Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jesmin, Syeda S; Cready, Cynthia M

    2016-02-01

    The influence of disadvantaged or deprived community on individuals' health risk-behaviors is increasingly being documented in a growing body of literature. However, little is known about the effects of community characteristics on women's sexual attitudes and behaviors. To examine community effects on married women's safer sex negotiation attitudes, we analyzed cross-sectional data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys on a sample of 15,134 married women in 600 communities. We estimated two multilevel logistic regression models. Model 1, which included only individual-level variables, showed that women's autonomy/empowerment, age, and HIV knowledge had significant associations with their safer sex negotiation attitudes. We did not find any socioeconomic status gradient in safer sex negotiation attitudes at the individual level. Adding community-level variables in Model 2 significantly improved the fit of the model. Strikingly, we found that higher community-level poverty was associated with greater positive safer sex negotiation attitudes. Prevailing gender norms and overall women's empowerment in the community also had significant effects. While research on community influences calls for focusing on disadvantaged communities, our research highlights the importance of not underestimating the challenges that married women in economically privileged communities may face in negotiating safer sex. To have sufficient and equitable impact on married women's sexual and reproductive health, sexual and reproductive health promotion policies and programs need to be directed to women in wealthier communities as well.

  18. Understanding barriers to safer sex practice in Zimbabwean marriages: implications for future HIV prevention interventions.

    PubMed

    Mugweni, Esther; Omar, Mayeh; Pearson, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Against the backdrop of high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in stable relationships in Southern Africa, our study presents sociocultural barriers to safer sex practice in Zimbabwean marriages. We conducted 36 in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with married men and women in Zimbabwe in 2008. Our aim was to identify barriers faced by married women when negotiating for safer sex. Participants identified individual, relational and community-level barriers. Individual level barriers made women voiceless to negotiate for safer sex. Being voiceless emanated from lack sexual decision-making power, economic dependence, low self-efficacy or fear of actual or perceived consequences of negotiating for safer sex. Relational barriers included trust and self-disclosure. At the community level, extended family members and religious leaders were said to explicitly or implicitly discourage women's safer sex negotiation. Given the complexity and multi-levelled nature of barriers affecting sexual behaviour in marriage, our findings suggest that HIV prevention interventions targeted at married women would benefit from empowering individual women, couples and also addressing the wider community.

  19. Strengthening the Tuberculosis Specimen Referral Network in Uganda: The Role of Public-Private Partnerships.

    PubMed

    Joloba, Moses; Mwangi, Christina; Alexander, Heather; Nadunga, Diana; Bwanga, Freddie; Modi, Nelson; Downing, Robert; Nabasirye, Agnes; Adatu, Francis E; Shrivastava, Ritu; Gadde, Renuka; Nkengasong, John N

    2016-04-15

    Diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and prompt initiation of effective treatment rely on access to rapid and reliable drug-susceptibility testing. Efficient specimen transport systems and appropriate training on specimen referral contribute to optimal and timely access to tuberculosis diagnostic services. With support and technical assistance from a public-private partnership (PPP) between Becton Dickinson and the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, the Uganda National TB Reference Laboratory (NTRL) and National TB and Leprosy Program redesigned the tuberculosis specimen transport network and trained healthcare workers with the goal of improving multidrug-resistant tuberculosis detection. Between 2008 and 2011, the PPP mapped 93% of health facilities and trained 724 healthcare and postal staff members covering 72% of districts. Strengthening the tuberculosis specimen referral system increased referrals from presumptive multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases by >10-fold, with 94% of specimens reaching the NTRL within the established target transport time. This study demonstrates the potential of PPP collaborations with ministries of health to positively influence patient care by strengthening laboratory systems through increased access to drug-susceptibility testing in Uganda. Ongoing efforts to integrate specimen transport networks will maximize resources and improve patient management. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. District nurses' triggers for referral of patients to the Macmillan nurse.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Alexandra

    2006-03-01

    This study aimed to identify the triggers which motivate district nurses to refer patients to the Macmillan nursing service and resulted from observation within the researcher's clinical practice, when it was noted that referral patterns from district nurses to the Macmillan nursing service were very inconsistent. A qualitative exploratory descriptive design was utilised and the analysis of the findings identified three 'key' themes, which motivate district nurses to refer: knowledge and skills, interprofessional issues and perception of Macmillan. Within each theme emerged an amalgam of triggers which were complex in nature, pertaining not only to patient need, but also to the needs of the district nursing service. However, it became apparent during the analysis that there was also a lack of knowledge regarding the role of the Macmillan nurse. This lack of knowledge relating to the Macmillan nurse role had been affirmed previously by several authors (Graves and Nash 1993, Clark et al 2002, Ahmed et al 2004) but the literature also reported that the Macmillan nurse role was open to confusion (Clark et al 2002, Corner 2003). This confusion may potentially affect referrals and prevent patients from receiving the services of the Macmillan nurse. This study has established a need for the development of referral criteria into the Macmillan nursing service and that there is also an identified need for further research, providing scope for the Macmillan nurse and district nurse to work collaboratively to improve palliative services in the community.

  1. Keeping mammography referral appointments: motivation, health beliefs, and access barriers experienced by older minority women.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, J; Mutschler, P; Bernstein, E

    2000-01-01

    Older women of color tend to have much lower rates of regular mammography screening for breast cancer than younger Caucasian women; yet, they have higher rates of mortality. This study was designed to increase mammography rates among inner-city women aged 50 years or older. Another goal was to investigate differences in mammography utilization related to race/ethnicity and language after barriers associated with cost and the difficulty of making an appointment are removed. A peer delivered intervention, which consisted of interview, mammography referral, and the scheduling of a next-day appointment, was conducted among a convenience sample of 151 culturally and racially diverse older women through a primary care referral project operating within an urban emergency department (ED). A brief motivational interview and mammography referral at the time of an ED visit, including scheduling of a next-day no cost appointment, was followed by a cross-sectional telephone survey of utilization and motivating and hindering factors. Follow-up was achieved with 96 women (66%). Fifty-eight women (60%) had a post-intervention mammogram; of those, 69% were first time users. More than 90% planned a repeat mammogram the following year. Of the 27 who did not receive a mammogram, 21 (77%) requested a "second try" appointment. These findings demonstrate that an interactive intervention among older women of color has the potential to dramatically increase mammography rates.

  2. Strengthening the Tuberculosis Specimen Referral Network in Uganda: The Role of Public-Private Partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Joloba, Moses; Mwangi, Christina; Alexander, Heather; Nadunga, Diana; Bwanga, Freddie; Modi, Nelson; Downing, Robert; Nabasirye, Agnes; Adatu, Francis E.; Shrivastava, Ritu; Gadde, Renuka; Nkengasong, John N.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and prompt initiation of effective treatment rely on access to rapid and reliable drug-susceptibility testing. Efficient specimen transport systems and appropriate training on specimen referral contribute to optimal and timely access to tuberculosis diagnostic services. Methods. With support and technical assistance from a public-private partnership (PPP) between Becton Dickinson and the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, the Uganda National TB Reference Laboratory (NTRL) and National TB and Leprosy Program redesigned the tuberculosis specimen transport network and trained healthcare workers with the goal of improving multidrug-resistant tuberculosis detection. Results. Between 2008 and 2011, the PPP mapped 93% of health facilities and trained 724 healthcare and postal staff members covering 72% of districts. Strengthening the tuberculosis specimen referral system increased referrals from presumptive multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases by >10-fold, with 94% of specimens reaching the NTRL within the established target transport time. Conclusions. This study demonstrates the potential of PPP collaborations with ministries of health to positively influence patient care by strengthening laboratory systems through increased access to drug-susceptibility testing in Uganda. Ongoing efforts to integrate specimen transport networks will maximize resources and improve patient management. PMID:27025697

  3. Nurture personal referrals--your best source of new patients.

    PubMed

    Jameson, C

    1996-01-01

    In your morning meetings, identify those patients who would be a great person to ask for a referral--patients who have expressed pleasure in receiving treatment from you. Then, determine who is going to ask for that referral. You wouldn't want to have EVERY-ONE ask them for a referral, so give someone that responsibility. Be sure that you have done some role playing and have practiced the verbal skills of "asking" for a referral. Get comfortable asking. Know that you will never know what you will get unless you ASK!!! All good businesses ask for referrals from their best customers. Learn from the masters. Pattern your own behavior after those who have acquired admirable results. When you identify patients who have accepted and have been pleased with your treatment, have come to their appointments on time, have gladly paid their bills, and have been a joy to treat, ASK these folks for a referral. More than likely they will refer others to you who are of like character. You can build a practice "on good patients just like you" and expect that to happen!!! Together, as a team, develop ways of acknowledging and nurturing your referral sources. If these wonderful people provide 70+ percent of your new patients, it benefits you to invest time and money in maximizing this source of practice growth.

  4. Determining factors for implant referral rates.

    PubMed

    Levin, Roger P

    2002-01-01

    The research findings indicate that the field of implant dentistry will only grow at a moderately low level unless certain changes are made. Findings indicated that the effort by the implant companies has been nothing short of dramatic, and yet almost 60% of restorative doctors do not participate annually in any implant case. There was no clear indication that younger restorative doctors will significantly increase the number of implant referrals, as their overall implant education has not dramatically differed from those dentists who graduated in earlier years. Once the research was completed, it became obvious to Levin Group that the driving force behind implant referral growth will be implant surgeons, because of their one-to-one relationship with restorative doctors. The Levin Group Implant Management and Marketing Consulting Program is based on approaching restorative doctors in several different levels, starting with awareness all the way through to case facilitation and long-term tracking and communication. Finally, a continuing marketing/education effort needs to be consistently in place with effective materials, not only to create a high level of awareness, but also to motivate restorative doctors to refer cases and then work through the case with the implant surgeon to a satisfactory completion for the restorative doctor, implant surgeon, and patient. While the surgical insertion of implants may seem to carry a high-profit margin relative to the restoration of implants, the truth is that the restoration of implants usually provides a 40% higher profit margin for the restorative doctor than traditional dental services. One of the key issues is that referring doctors have not necessarily learned how to set fees and present cases with regard to implant dentistry. The key factor here is to ensure that the patient understands that implant services involve higher fees than traditional services, because of the necessarily higher levels of experience, education

  5. Why Do Physicians Vary So Widely in Their Referral Rates?

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Peter; Williams, Geoffrey C; Zwanziger, Jack; Mooney, Cathleen; Sorbero, Melony

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine which physician practice and psychological factors contribute to observed variation in primary care physicians' referral rates. DESIGN Cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey and analysis of claims database. SETTING A large managed care organization in the Rochester, NY, metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS Internists and family physicians. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Patient referral status (referred or not) was derived from the 1995 claims database of the managed care organization. The claims data were also used to generate a predicted risk of referral based on patient age, gender, and case mix. A physician survey completed by a sample of 182 of the physicians (66% of those eligible) included items on their practice and validated psychological scales on anxiety from uncertainty, risk aversiveness, fear of malpractice, satisfaction with practice, autonomous and controlled motivation for referrals and test ordering, and psycho-social beliefs. The relation between the risk of referral and the physician practice and psychological factors was examined using logistic regression. After adjustment for predicted risk of referral (case mix), patients were more likely to be referred if their physician was female, had more years in practice, was an internist, and used a narrower range of diagnoses (a higher Herfindahl index, also derived from the claims data). Of the psychological factors, only greater psychosocial orientation and malpractice fear was associated with greater likelihood of referral. When the physician practice factors were excluded from the analysis, risk aversion was positively associated with referral likelihood. CONCLUSIONS Most of the explainable variation in referral likelihood was accounted for by patient and physician practice factors like case mix, physician gender, years in practice, specialty, and the Herfindahl index. Relatively little variation was explained by any of the examined physician psychological factors. PMID

  6. Expediting Groundwater Sampling at Hanford and Making It Safer - 13158

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, Carl W. Jr.; Conley, S.F.; Carr, Jennifer S.; Schatz, Aaron L.; Brown, W.L.; Hildebrand, R. Douglas

    2013-07-01

    documents, the system saves three-to-four man days each month for the field personnel taking the measurements and the scientists and administrators managing the data and the documentation. After the information has received technical review, FLEDG automatically updates the database for water-level measurements and loads the document management system with the completed sampling report. Due to safety considerations, access to wells is conditional. A spreadsheet with appropriate data not only lists the wells that are cleared for work, but also the safety personnel who must be present before work can start. This spreadsheet is used in planning daily activities. Daily plans are structured to ensure that the wells to be sampled are cleared for work and the appropriate safety personnel have been assigned and are present before the work starts. Historically, the spreadsheets have been prepared manually, and as a result, are potentially subject to human error. However, a companion database application has been developed to work with FLEDG - making the entire sampling process more efficient and safer for personnel. The Well Access List - Electronic, WAL-E, is a database that contains much the same information that was previously manually loaded into the spread sheet. In addition, WAL-E contains a managed work-flow application that shows the access requirements and allows for appropriate reviews of the compiled well. Various CHPRC organizations, including Industrial Hygiene, RADCON, and Well Maintenance and Sample Administration are able to enter and review the wells added or deleted from the WAL-E database. The FLEDG system then accesses this database information to identify appropriate support personnel and provide safety requirements to field personnel. In addition, WAL-E offers the assurance that wells have appropriate locks and are correctly labeled and electrically grounded as required, before well activities begin. This feature is an extremely important aspect of the FLEDG

  7. Graphene Based Ultra-Capacitors for Safer, More Efficient Energy Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberson, Luke B.; Mackey, Paul J.; Zide, Carson J.

    2016-01-01

    Current power storage methods must be continuously improved in order to keep up with the increasingly competitive electronics industry. This technological advancement is also essential for the continuation of deep space exploration. Today's energy storage industry relies heavily on the use of dangerous and corrosive chemicals such as lithium and phosphoric acid. These chemicals can prove hazardous to the user if the device is ruptured. Similarly they can damage the environment if they are disposed of improperly. A safer, more efficient alternative is needed across a wide range of NASA missions. One solution would a solid-state carbon based energy storage device. Carbon is a safer, less environmentally hazardous alternative to current energy storage materials. Using the amorphous carbon nanostructure, graphene, this idea of a safer portable energy is possible. Graphene was electrochemically produced in the lab and several coin cell devices were built this summer to create a working prototype of a solid-state graphene battery.

  8. Safer sexual practices among African American women: intersectional socialisation and sexual assertiveness.

    PubMed

    Brown, Danice L; Blackmon, Sha'Kema; Shiflett, Alexandra

    2017-09-18

    Scholars have posited that childhood socialisation experiences may play a key role in influencing behaviours and attitudes that contribute to the acquisition of HIV. This study examined the links between past ethnic-racial and gender socialisation, sexual assertiveness and the safe sexual practices of African American college women utilising a cluster analytic approach. After identifying separate racial-gender and ethnic-gender socialisation profiles, results indicated that ethnic-gender socialisation cluster profiles were directly associated with sexual assertiveness and safer sex behaviour. Greater levels of ethnic socialisation and low traditional gender role socialisation were found to be associated with greater sexual assertiveness and safer sex behaviour. Further analysis showed that sexual assertiveness mediated the links between the identified ethnic-gender socialisation profiles and safer sex behaviour. Implications for policy and programme development are discussed.

  9. The drive for a safer chemicals policy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Belliveau, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the history, policies and politics of the modern era of safer chemical policy reform in the United States. In the last decade, state laws have modeled a chemical policy framework to phase out unnecessary dangerous chemicals in favor of safer alternatives. These state drivers, along with market campaigns to reduce downstream business use of hazardous chemicals, have weakened the chemical industry's resistance to fixing the broken federal chemical safety system. The obsolete Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 (TSCA) has failed to protect public health and the environment and has stifled innovation toward greener chemistry. Health advocates with a progressive policy vision tempered by legislative pragmatism have launched a TSCA reform campaign to challenge chemical industry power in a weak Congress. The opportunity and limits to winning meaningful TSCA reform are characterized and marked as a critical milestone on the path to a truly comprehensive safer chemical policy for the United States.

  10. [Urine incontinence referral criteria for primary care].

    PubMed

    Brenes Bermúdez, F J; Cozar Olmo, J M; Esteban Fuertes, M; Fernández-Pro Ledesma, A; Molero García, J M

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high incidence of urinary incontinence (UI), health professional awareness of this disease is low, which in itself is not serious but significantly limits the lives of the patients. The Primary Care associations, Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria [SEMERGEN], Sociedad Española de Médicos Generales y de Familia [SEMG], Sociedad Española de Medicina de Familia y Comunitaria [semFYC]) along with the Asociación Española de Urología (EAU) have developed this consensus with the proposal of making GPs aware, and to help them in the diagnosis, treatment and referral to Urologists. The first goal in primary care must be the detection of UI, thus an opportunistic screening at least once in the lifetime of asymptomatic women > 40 years old and asymptomatic men > 55 years old. The diagnosis, based on medical history and physical examination, must determine the type and severity of the UI in order to refer severe cases to the Urologist. Except for overactive bladder (OAB), non-pharmacological conservative treatment is the first approach to uncomplicated UI in females and males. Antimuscarinics are the only drugs that have demonstrated efficacy and safety in urge urinary incontinence (UUI) and OAB. In men with mixed symptoms, excluding severe obstruction cases, a combination therapy of alpha-blockers and antimuscarinics should be chosen.

  11. [Urine incontinence referral criteria for primary care].

    PubMed

    Brenes Bermúdez, F J; Cozar Olmo, J M; Esteban Fuertes, M; Fernández-Pro Ledesma, A; Molero García, J M

    2013-05-01

    Despite the high incidence of urinary incontinence (UI), health professional awareness of this disease is low, which in itself is not serious but significantly limits the lives of the patients. The Primary Care associations, Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria [SEMERGEN], Sociedad Española de Médicos Generales y de Familia [SEMG], Sociedad Española de Medicina de Familia y Comunitaria [semFYC]) along with the Asociación Española de Urología (EAU) have developed this consensus with the proposal of making GPs aware, and to help them in the diagnosis, treatment and referral to Urologists. The first goal in primary care must be the detection of UI, thus an opportunistic screening at least once in the lifetime of asymptomatic women > 40 years old and asymptomatic men > 55 years old. The diagnosis, based on medical history and physical examination, must determine the type and severity of the UI in order to refer severe cases to the Urologist. Except for overactive bladder (OAB), non-pharmacological conservative treatment is the first approach to uncomplicated UI in females and males. Antimuscarinics are the only drugs that have demonstrated efficacy and safety in urge urinary incontinence (UUI) and OAB. In men with mixed symptoms, excluding severe obstruction cases, a combination therapy of alpha-blockers and antimuscarinics should be chosen. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. First flight test results of the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER) propulsion unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, Carl J.

    1995-01-01

    The Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) is a small, self-contained, propulsive-backpack system that provides free-flying mobility for an astronaut engaged in a space walk, also known as extravehicular activity (EVA.) SAFER contains no redundant systems and is intended for contingency use only. In essence, it is a small, simplified version of the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) last flown aboard the Space Shuttle in 1985. The operational SAFER unit will only be used to return an adrift EVA astronaut to the spacecraft. Currently, if an EVA crew member inadvertently becomes separated from the Space Shuttle, the Orbiter will maneuver to within the crew member's reach envelope, allowing the astronaut to regain contact with the Orbiter. However, with the advent of operations aboard the Russian MIR Space Station and the International Space Station, the Space Shuttle will not be available to effect a timely rescue. Under these conditions, a SAFER unit would be worn by each EVA crew member. Flight test of the pre-production model of SAFER occurred in September 1994. The crew of Space Shuttle Mission STS-64 flew a 6.9 hour test flight which included performance, flying qualities, systems, and operational utility evaluations. We found that the unit offers adequate propellant and control authority to stabilize and enable the return of a tumbling/separating crew member. With certain modifications, production model of SAFER can provide self-rescue capability to a separated crew member. This paper will present the program background, explain the flight test results and provide some insight into the complex operations of flight test in space.

  13. First flight test results of the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER) propulsion unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, Carl J.

    1995-01-01

    The Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) is a small, self-contained, propulsive-backpack system that provides free-flying mobility for an astronaut engaged in a space walk, also known as extravehicular activity (EVA.) SAFER contains no redundant systems and is intended for contingency use only. In essence, it is a small, simplified version of the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) last flown aboard the Space Shuttle in 1985. The operational SAFER unit will only be used to return an adrift EVA astronaut to the spacecraft. Currently, if an EVA crew member inadvertently becomes separated from the Space Shuttle, the Orbiter will maneuver to within the crew member's reach envelope, allowing the astronaut to regain contact with the Orbiter. However, with the advent of operations aboard the Russian MIR Space Station and the International Space Station, the Space Shuttle will not be available to effect a timely rescue. Under these conditions, a SAFER unit would be worn by each EVA crew member. Flight test of the pre-production model of SAFER occurred in September 1994. The crew of Space Shuttle Mission STS-64 flew a 6.9 hour test flight which included performance, flying qualities, systems, and operational utility evaluations. We found that the unit offers adequate propellant and control authority to stabilize and enable the return of a tumbling/separating crew member. With certain modifications, production model of SAFER can provide self-rescue capability to a separated crew member. This paper will present the program background, explain the flight test results and provide some insight into the complex operations of flight test in space.

  14. SAFE(R): A Matlab/Octave Toolbox (and R Package) for Global Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pianosi, Francesca; Sarrazin, Fanny; Gollini, Isabella; Wagener, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) is increasingly used in the development and assessment of hydrological models, as well as for dominant control analysis and for scenario discovery to support water resource management under deep uncertainty. Here we present a toolbox for the application of GSA, called SAFE (Sensitivity Analysis For Everybody) that implements several established GSA methods, including method of Morris, Regional Sensitivity Analysis, variance-based sensitivity Analysis (Sobol') and FAST. It also includes new approaches and visualization tools to complement these established methods. The Toolbox is released in two versions, one running under Matlab/Octave (called SAFE) and one running in R (called SAFER). Thanks to its modular structure, SAFE(R) can be easily integrated with other toolbox and packages, and with models running in a different computing environment. Another interesting feature of SAFE(R) is that all the implemented methods include specific functions for assessing the robustness and convergence of the sensitivity estimates. Furthermore, SAFE(R) includes numerous visualisation tools for the effective investigation and communication of GSA results. The toolbox is designed to make GSA accessible to non-specialist users, and to provide a fully commented code for more experienced users to complement their own tools. The documentation includes a set of workflow scripts with practical guidelines on how to apply GSA and how to use the toolbox. SAFE(R) is open source and freely available from the following website: http://bristol.ac.uk/cabot/resources/safe-toolbox/ Ultimately, SAFE(R) aims at improving the diffusion and quality of GSA practice in the hydrological modelling community.

  15. Urban women's negotiation strategies for safer sex with their male partners.

    PubMed

    Williams, S P; Gardos, P S; Ortiz-Torres, B; Tross, S; Ehrhardt, A A

    2001-01-01

    Heterosexual transmission of HIV is growing at an increasing rate. One primary prevention strategy is to consistently use condoms. With the exception of female condoms, women do not "wear" condoms and therefore must negotiate condom use with their male partners. This present study examines the strategies women believe they would use in a safer sex negotiation with a male partner including (1) initiating negotiations, (2) resolving conflict, and (3) maintaining the intention to practice safer sex. The findings highlight the importance of understanding women's patterns of negotiation as well as their repertoire of negotiation skills prior to their exposure to behavioral interventions and prevention programs.

  16. 40 CFR 1504.3 - Procedure for referrals and response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Contain a finding by the agency whether the issue raised is of national importance because of the threat... be determined on the record after opportunity for agency hearing, the referral shall be conducted in...

  17. 12 CFR 313.127 - Correcting and updating referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Tax Refund Offset § 313.127 Correcting and updating referral. If... increases to amounts owed. In the event FMS rejects an FDIC certification for failure to comply with § 323...

  18. Referrals for bereavement counselling in primary care: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Wiles, Rose; Jarrett, Nikki; Payne, Sheila; Field, David

    2002-09-01

    The growth in the provision of counselling services in British primary care offers an opportunity for general practitioners (GPs) to refer patients to counsellors following bereavement. This study explores the factors that influence GPs referral decisions. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 50 GPs from two cities in southern UK. The study found that GPs draw on notions of abnormal bereavement in making referral decisions. Indicators of bereavement problems related to: the nature of the death; level of social support; and reaction to the death. GPs views about the types of patients likely to benefit from counselling were further criteria employed in referral decisions. The study indicated that consideration of these factors may discriminate against certain types of patients being referred. Further education in the range of psychological theories of bereavement may assist GPs in understanding their bereaved patients' experiences and in developing their skills in recognising abnormal reactions and making appropriate referrals.

  19. Benefits of pre-referral preparation for rheumatology clinics.

    PubMed

    Murphy, C L; Sheane, B; Durcan, I; O'Shea, F D; Doran, M; Cunnane, G

    2013-10-01

    Appropriate allocation of rheumatology clinic appointments depends on the information contained in referral letters. Such letters were analysed for the presence of pertinent information and a scoring system was devised to assess the quality of enclosed data. In a smaller cohort, relevant basic tests were carried out prior to the appointment. 122 referral letters were received over a 1 month period. Symptom duration was documented in (39) 32%, while (64) 52.5% listed medications. Only (23) 17.2% indicated the urgency of the problem. Approximately (31) 25% of referrers performed relevant routine investigations. Mean score out of 10 was 5.1 (range 1.5-9). Of the 40 (33%) patients with pre-appointment investigations, the clinic attendance rate and subsequent discharge rate were significantly higher than those without these tests. This study shows that comprehensive referral letters and basic investigations significantly help to prioritize appointments and facilitate earlier diagnosis and treatment for patients with rheumatic disease.

  20. 12 CFR 313.123 - Certification and referral of debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Tax Refund Offset § 313.123 Certification and referral of debt. When... judgment debt or as otherwise allowed by law, the debt is referred for offset within ten years after...

  1. Effect of hospital referral networks on patient readmissions.

    PubMed

    Mascia, Daniele; Angeli, Federica; Di Vincenzo, Fausto

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that referral networks encompass important mechanisms of coordination and integration among hospitals, which enhance numerous organizational-level benefits, such as productivity, efficiency, and quality of care. The present study advances previous research by demonstrating how hospital referral networks influence patient readmissions. Data include 360,697 hospitalization events within a regional community of hospitals in the Italian National Health Service. Multilevel hierarchical regression analysis tests the impacts of referral networks' structural characteristics on patient hospital readmissions. The results demonstrate that organizational centrality in the overall referral network and ego-network density have opposing effects on the likelihood of readmission events within hospitals; greater centrality is negatively associated with readmissions, whereas greater ego-network density increases the likelihood of readmission events. Our findings support the (re)organization of healthcare systems and provide important indications for policymakers and practitioners. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sustaining SBIRT in the wild: simulating revenues and costs for Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Cowell, Alexander J; Dowd, William N; Mills, Michael J; Hinde, Jesse M; Bray, Jeremy W

    2017-02-01

    To examine the conditions under which Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) programs can be sustained by health insurance payments. A mathematical model was used to estimate the number of patients needed for revenues to exceed costs. Three medical settings in the United States were examined: in-patient, out-patient and emergency department. Components of SBIRT were delivered by combinations of health-care practitioners (generalists) and behavioral health specialists. Practitioners in seven SBIRT programs who received grants from the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Program costs and revenues were measured using data from grantees. Patient flows were measured from administrative data and adjusted with prevalence and screening estimates from the literature. SBIRT can be sustained through health insurance reimbursement in out-patient and emergency department settings in most staffing mixes. To sustain SBIRT in in-patient programs, a patient flow larger than the national average may be needed; if that flow is achieved, the range of screens required to maintain a surplus is narrow. Sensitivity analyses suggest that the results are very sensitive to changes in the proportion of insured patients. Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment programs in the United States can be sustained by health insurance payments under a variety of staffing models. Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment programs can be sustained only in an in-patient setting with above-average patient flow (more than 2500 screens). Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment programs in out-patient and emergency department settings can be sustained with below-average patient flows (fewer than 125 000 out-patient visits and fewer than 27 000 emergency department visits). © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Trends in NHS doctor and dentist referrals to occupational health.

    PubMed

    Lalloo, D; Demou, E; Macdonald, E B

    2016-06-01

    Ill-health in doctors can affect performance and fitness to practice, and consequently patient care and safety, placing an important responsibility on National Health Service (NHS) occupational health (OH) services. Anecdotal discussions amongst NHS occupational physicians suggest an increase in the number of doctor attendances over time, with continuing focus on mental illness. To analyse OH referrals in doctors and dentists over 3 years. A retrospective evaluation of all doctor and dentist referrals to the OH service in one Scottish NHS board from April 2011 to March 2014, comparing this to management-reported sickness absence (SA) data held by the organization. We found no significant change in overall OH referrals for doctors and dentists during the evaluation period. Mental illness was the commonest referral reason in all 3 years at 32, 38 and 30%, respectively, but no significant change in mental health referrals was demonstrated within the study period. SA events significantly increased during the three study years (356, 426 and 469, respectively; P < 0.05). OH referrals for those absent from work increased significantly between Years 1 and 3 (16 and 30, respectively; P < 0.05). SA events and OH referrals for those absent from work significantly increased between April 2011 and March 2014, but there was no commensurate (statistically significant) increase in overall OH referrals. These findings do not support anecdotal suggestions of increasing OH (or mental ill-health) attendances but can be used as a benchmark for other NHS organizations and for future trend comparisons. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  4. Online referrals one way capitated groups gain efficiencies, reduce errors.

    PubMed

    2002-08-01

    An online referral system is just the latest money and time-saving tool in the e-commerce arsenal at Hill Physicians Medical Group. Using a modified version of Healinx Corp.'s secure e-mail messaging platform, Hill is testing a custom-made online referral system at two primary care practices that appear to be helping the practice boost its bottom line under capitation.

  5. Young carer awareness, identification and referral.

    PubMed

    Sprung, Sally; Laing, Michelle

    2017-08-02

    Young carers often provide care because they have always done so for the people they care about, and because they believe that the care recipient could not manage without them. For many young carers, looking after their own health, combining caring with schoolwork, getting access to training or having time off from carer duties can be a major challenge ( Department of Health [DH], 2008 ). This paper presents evidence from a literature review that builds a substantial body of knowledge to suggest that community nursing teams must develop supportive approaches towards increasing an awareness of young carers' needs. Identification of young carers by community nurses will encourage referral to appropriate services and agencies. The aim of this study was to appraise, for the Queen's Nursing Institute, the published evidence base to explore young carers' needs and how community nurses could support young carers' needs in England. Databases were systematically searched. Title and abstract reviews found 606 potential studies (see Figure 1 ), which were identified around topics corresponding to the headings of three distinct categories: mental health and wellbeing; education needs and resilience; and development of coping strategies. Full-text review resulted in 26 publications that met the study's inclusion criteria. The results of this work show that there is a scarcity of publications around the community nursing needs of young carers. However, studies consistently report young carers are hidden from view and have a significant requirement for support and information. Therefore, effective ways of delivering community nursing support and information to young carers needs to be developed by service providers as a matter of priority, and implemented to give the support that young carers need.

  6. Quality indicators for the referral process from primary to specialised mental health care: an explorative study in accordance with the RAND appropriateness method.

    PubMed

    Hartveit, Miriam; Vanhaecht, Kris; Thorsen, Olav; Biringer, Eva; Haug, Kjell; Aslaksen, Aslak

    2017-01-03

    Communication between involved parties is essential to ensure coordinated and safe health care delivery. However, existing literature reveals that the information relayed in the referral process is seen as insufficient by the receivers. It is unknown how this insufficiency affects the quality of care, and valid performance measures to explore it are lacking. The aim of the present study was to develop quality indicators to detect the impact that the quality of referral letters from primary care to specialised mental health care has on the quality of mental health services. Using a modified version of the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method, a systematic literature review and focus group interviews were conducted to define quality indicators for mental health care expected to be affected by the quality of referral information. Focus group participants included psychiatrists, psychologists, general practitioners, patient representatives and managers. The existing evidence and suggested indicators were presented to expert panels, who assessed the indicators by their validity, reliability, sensitivity and feasibility. Sixteen preliminary indicators emerged during the focus group interviews and literature review. The expert panels recommended four of the 16 indicators. The recommended indicators measure a) timely access, b) delay in the process of assessing the referral, c) delay in the onset of care and d) the appropriateness of the referral. Adjustment was necessary for five other indicators, and seven indicators were rejected because of expected confounding factors reducing their validity and sensitivity. The quality of information relayed in the referral process from primary care to specialised mental health care is expected to affect a wide range of dimensions defining high quality care. The expected importance of the referral process for ensuring 'timely access'-one of the six aims of high-quality health care defined by the Institute of Medicine-is highlighted

  7. Lung cancer physicians' referral practices for palliative care consultation.

    PubMed

    Smith, C B; Nelson, J E; Berman, A R; Powell, C A; Fleischman, J; Salazar-Schicchi, J; Wisnivesky, J P

    2012-02-01

    Integration of palliative care with standard oncologic care improves quality of life and survival of lung cancer patients. We surveyed physicians to identify factors influencing their decisions for referral to palliative care. We provided a self-administered questionnaire to physicians caring for lung cancer patients at five medical centers. The questionnaire asked about practices and views with respect to palliative care referral. We used multiple regression analysis to identify predictors of low referral rates (<25%). Of 155 physicians who returned survey responses, 75 (48%) reported referring <25% of patients for palliative care consultation. Multivariate analysis, controlling for provider characteristics, found that low referral rates were associated with physicians' concerns that palliative care referral would alarm patients and families [odds ratio (OR) 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21-0.98], while the belief that palliative care specialists have more time to discuss complex issues (OR 3.07, 95% CI 1.56-6.02) was associated with higher rates of referral. Although palliative care consultation is increasingly available and recommended throughout the trajectory of lung cancer, our data indicate it is underutilized. Understanding factors influencing decisions to refer can be used to improve integration of palliative care as part of lung cancer management.

  8. An Empirical Model of Therapeutic Process for Psychiatric Emergency Room Clients with Dual Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loneck, Barry; Banks, Steven; Way, Bruce; Bonaparte, Ernest

    2002-01-01

    Many individuals with dual disorders of mental illness and substance abuse enter the mental health system through psychiatric emergency rooms, but may resist treatment and not follow through with referrals. This study examines the impact of therapeutic process on referral outcome. Finds that therapist warmth and friendliness had a positive…

  9. Improving the psychological evaluation of exercise referral: Psychometric properties of the Exercise Referral Quality of Life Scale.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Charlotte; Trigg, Richard; Minniti, Antoinette

    2015-07-01

    There is a growing need to assess the psychological outcomes of exercise referral and the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence has called for the routine assessment of life-quality. However, a quality of life scale specific to the requirements of exercise referral is currently unavailable. Therefore, the aim of this study was to produce a quality of life measure for this purpose. The Exercise Referral Quality of Life Scale is a 22-item measure comprising three domains: mental and physical health, injury pain and illness and physical activity facilitators. Exploratory factor analysis determined the initial factor structure and was subsequently confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. Additional scale properties were also assessed. The scale contributes to the global need for improved consistent psychological outcome assessment of exercise referral.

  10. Improving the psychological evaluation of exercise referral: Psychometric properties of the Exercise Referral Quality of Life Scale

    PubMed Central

    Trigg, Richard; Minniti, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing need to assess the psychological outcomes of exercise referral and the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence has called for the routine assessment of life-quality. However, a quality of life scale specific to the requirements of exercise referral is currently unavailable. Therefore, the aim of this study was to produce a quality of life measure for this purpose. The Exercise Referral Quality of Life Scale is a 22-item measure comprising three domains: mental and physical health, injury pain and illness and physical activity facilitators. Exploratory factor analysis determined the initial factor structure and was subsequently confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. Additional scale properties were also assessed. The scale contributes to the global need for improved consistent psychological outcome assessment of exercise referral. PMID:28070361

  11. Automatic referral to standardize palliative care access: an international Delphi survey.

    PubMed

    Hui, David; Mori, Masanori; Meng, Yee-Choon; Watanabe, Sharon M; Caraceni, Augusto; Strasser, Florian; Saarto, Tiina; Cherny, Nathan; Glare, Paul; Kaasa, Stein; Bruera, Eduardo

    2017-07-19

    Palliative care referral is primarily based on clinician judgment, contributing to highly variable access. Standardized criteria to trigger automatic referral have been proposed, but it remains unclear how best to apply them in practice. We conducted a Delphi study of international experts to identify a consensus for the use of standardized criteria to trigger automatic referral. Sixty international experts stated their level of agreement for 14 statements regarding the use of clinician-based referral and automatic referral over two Delphi rounds. A consensus was defined as an agreement of ≥70% a priori. The response rate was 59/60 (98%) for the first round and 56/60 (93%) for the second round. Twenty-six (43%), 19 (32%), and 11 (18%) respondents were from North America, Asia/Australia, and Europe, respectively. The panel reached consensus that outpatient palliative care referral should be based on both automatic referral and clinician-based referral (agreement = 86%). Only 18% felt that referral should be clinician-based alone, and only 7% agreed that referral should be based on automatic referral only. There was consensus that automatic referral criteria may increase the number of referrals (agreement = 98%), facilitate earlier palliative care access, and help administrators to set benchmarks for quality improvement (agreement = 86%). Our panelists favored the combination of automatic referral to augment clinician-based referral. This integrated referral framework may inform policy and program development.

  12. HIV-Positive Mothers' Communication about Safer Sex and Std Prevention with Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Debra A.; Roberts, Kathleen Johnston; Herbeck, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    Mothers play an important role in promoting the sexual health of their adolescent children. Fifty-seven HIV-positive mothers with adolescent children participated in an in-depth, qualitative interview regarding whether they have talked to their children about safer sex and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention, including at what age they…

  13. Seriously Mentally Ill Women's Safer Sex Behaviors and the Theory of Reasoned Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Mary E.; Pinkerton, Steven D.; Somlai, Anton M.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; McAuliffe, Timothy L.; Gibson, Richard H.; Hackl, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Seriously mentally ill women at risk for HIV infection (n = 96) participated in structured interviews assessing sexual and substance-use behavior over a 3-month period. The majority of the women (63.5%) did not use condoms. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action, attitudes toward condom use and perceived social norms about safer sex were…

  14. Are Schools Making the Grade? School Districts Nationwide Adopt Safer Pest Management Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Cortney; Owens, Kagan

    2002-01-01

    This report documents school districts that have adopted safer pest management policies, such as integrated pest management (IPM), in response to state requirements or as a voluntary measure that exceeds state law. It also documents the state of local school pest management policies and illustrates the opportunities that exist for better…

  15. Federal Policy Mandating Safer Cigarettes: A Hypothetical Simulation of the Anticipated Population Health Gains or Losses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tengs, Tammy O.; Ahmad, Sajjad; Moore, Rebecca; Gage, Eric

    2004-01-01

    If manufacturing a safer cigarette is technically possible--an open question--then mandating that tobacco manufacturers improve the safety of cigarettes would likely have both positive and negative implications for the nation's health. On the one hand, removing toxins may reduce the incidence of smoking-related diseases and premature mortality in…

  16. Guidance Notes on Safer School Construction: Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank Publications, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document provides a framework of guiding principles and general steps addressing the construction of safer and more disaster resilient education facilities. It is aimed to be adapted to the local context and used to develop a context-specific plan to address a critical gap to reaching the Education for All (EFA) and Millennium Development…

  17. Understanding Barriers to Safer Sex Practice in Zimbabwean Marriages: Implications for Future HIV Prevention Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugweni, Esther; Omar, Mayeh; Pearson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Against the backdrop of high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in stable relationships in Southern Africa, our study presents sociocultural barriers to safer sex practice in Zimbabwean marriages. We conducted 36 in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with married men and women in Zimbabwe in 2008. Our aim was to identify…

  18. Incorporating Risk Assessment and Inherently Safer Design Practices into Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seay, Jeffrey R.; Eden, Mario R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces, via case study example, the benefit of including risk assessment methodology and inherently safer design practices into the curriculum for chemical engineering students. This work illustrates how these tools can be applied during the earliest stages of conceptual process design. The impacts of decisions made during…

  19. Are Charter Schools Safer in Deindustrialized Cities with High Rates of Crime? Testing Hypotheses in Detroit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Families in deindustrialized cities with high crime rates report prioritizing school safety when opting for charter schools. Yet, very little research has investigated whether charter schools are safer than traditional public schools. This study compares charter and traditional public schools in Detroit, Michigan, on perceived school safety by…

  20. Incorporating Risk Assessment and Inherently Safer Design Practices into Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seay, Jeffrey R.; Eden, Mario R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces, via case study example, the benefit of including risk assessment methodology and inherently safer design practices into the curriculum for chemical engineering students. This work illustrates how these tools can be applied during the earliest stages of conceptual process design. The impacts of decisions made during…

  1. Are some "safer alternatives" hazardous as PBTs? The case study of new flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Gramatica, Paola; Cassani, Stefano; Sangion, Alessandro

    2016-04-05

    Some brominated flame retardants (BFRs), as PBDEs, are persistent, bioaccumulative, toxic (PBT) and are restricted/prohibited under various legislations. They are replaced by "safer" flame retardants (FRs), such as new BFRs or organophosphorous compounds. However, informations on the PBT behaviour of these substitutes are often lacking. The PBT assessment is required by the REACH regulation and the PBT chemicals should be subjected to authorization. Several new FRs, proposed and already used as safer alternatives to PBDEs, are here screened by the cumulative PBT Index model, implemented in QSARINS (QSAR-Insubria), new software for the development/validation of QSAR models. The results, obtained directly from the chemical structure for the three studied characteristics altogether, were compared with those from the US-EPA PBT Profiler: the two different approaches are in good agreement, supporting the utility of a consensus approach in these screenings. A priority list of the most harmful FRs, predicted in agreement by the two modelling tools, has been proposed, highlighting that some supposed "safer alternatives" are detected as intrinsically hazardous for their PBT properties. This study also shows that the PBT Index could be a valid tool to evaluate appropriate and safer substitutes, a priori from the chemical design, in a benign by design approach, avoiding unnecessary synthesis and tests.

  2. Federal Policy Mandating Safer Cigarettes: A Hypothetical Simulation of the Anticipated Population Health Gains or Losses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tengs, Tammy O.; Ahmad, Sajjad; Moore, Rebecca; Gage, Eric

    2004-01-01

    If manufacturing a safer cigarette is technically possible--an open question--then mandating that tobacco manufacturers improve the safety of cigarettes would likely have both positive and negative implications for the nation's health. On the one hand, removing toxins may reduce the incidence of smoking-related diseases and premature mortality in…

  3. Seriously Mentally Ill Women's Safer Sex Behaviors and the Theory of Reasoned Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Mary E.; Pinkerton, Steven D.; Somlai, Anton M.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; McAuliffe, Timothy L.; Gibson, Richard H.; Hackl, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Seriously mentally ill women at risk for HIV infection (n = 96) participated in structured interviews assessing sexual and substance-use behavior over a 3-month period. The majority of the women (63.5%) did not use condoms. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action, attitudes toward condom use and perceived social norms about safer sex were…

  4. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Predict Safer Sex Behaviors in African American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanekar, Amar; Sharma, Manoj

    2009-01-01

    Safer sex is important for protection against STDs and HIV/AIDS. Most of the HIV-related research is targeted towards high-risk groups such as prostitutes, gays and substance abusers there is evidence that HIV/AIDS is increasing in college students particularly among African-American college students. The purpose of this study was to study…

  5. HIV-Positive Mothers' Communication about Safer Sex and Std Prevention with Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Debra A.; Roberts, Kathleen Johnston; Herbeck, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    Mothers play an important role in promoting the sexual health of their adolescent children. Fifty-seven HIV-positive mothers with adolescent children participated in an in-depth, qualitative interview regarding whether they have talked to their children about safer sex and sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention, including at what age they…

  6. Guidance Notes on Safer School Construction: Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank Publications, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document provides a framework of guiding principles and general steps addressing the construction of safer and more disaster resilient education facilities. It is aimed to be adapted to the local context and used to develop a context-specific plan to address a critical gap to reaching the Education for All (EFA) and Millennium Development…

  7. Understanding Barriers to Safer Sex Practice in Zimbabwean Marriages: Implications for Future HIV Prevention Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugweni, Esther; Omar, Mayeh; Pearson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Against the backdrop of high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in stable relationships in Southern Africa, our study presents sociocultural barriers to safer sex practice in Zimbabwean marriages. We conducted 36 in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with married men and women in Zimbabwe in 2008. Our aim was to identify…

  8. A Safer and Convenient Synthesis of Sulfathiazole for Undergraduate Organic and Medicinal Chemistry Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Jeff; Otty, Sandra; Sarojini, Vijayalekshmi

    2012-01-01

    A safer method for the synthesis of the sulfonamide drug sulfathiazole, for undergraduate classes, is described. This method improves upon procedures currently followed in several undergraduate teaching laboratories for the synthesis of sulfathiazole. Key features of this procedure include the total exclusion of pyridine, which has potential…

  9. Achieving Safety: Safer Sex, Communication, and Desire among Young Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Anna; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Pingel, Emily; Johns, Michelle Marie; Santana, Matthew Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Conceptualizations of safer sex practices among young gay men (YGM) are frequently structured around communication between partners and the subsequent utilization or absence of condoms in a sexual encounter. Drawing on a sample of 34 in-depth interviews with YGM, ages 18 to 24, the authors explore the ways in which conceptualizations and…

  10. Predictors of safer sex on the college campus: a social cognitive theory analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, A; Goodhart, F; Jemmott, L S; Boccher-Lattimore, D

    1992-05-01

    In April and May 1989, the authors surveyed a sample of students enrolled on four college campuses in New Jersey (N = 923) concerning their HIV transmission-related behavior, knowledge, and a variety of conceptual variables taken primarily from social cognitive theory that were thought to be potentially predictive of safer sexual behavior. Analyses of sexually active, unmarried students' responses indicated that men expected more negative outcomes of condom use and were more likely to have sexual intercourse while under the influence of alcohol or other drugs, whereas women reported higher perceived self-efficacy to practice safer sex. Regression analyses indicated that, among the factors assessed, stronger perceptions of self-efficacy to engage in safer behavior, expecting fewer negative outcomes of condom use, and less frequency of sex in conjunction with alcohol or other drug use significantly predicted safer sexual behavior. Enhanced self-efficacy to discuss personal history with a new partner was associated with a greater number of risky encounters. Implications of these findings for intervention efforts with students are discussed.

  11. Achieving Safety: Safer Sex, Communication, and Desire among Young Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Anna; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Pingel, Emily; Johns, Michelle Marie; Santana, Matthew Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Conceptualizations of safer sex practices among young gay men (YGM) are frequently structured around communication between partners and the subsequent utilization or absence of condoms in a sexual encounter. Drawing on a sample of 34 in-depth interviews with YGM, ages 18 to 24, the authors explore the ways in which conceptualizations and…

  12. A Safer and Convenient Synthesis of Sulfathiazole for Undergraduate Organic and Medicinal Chemistry Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Jeff; Otty, Sandra; Sarojini, Vijayalekshmi

    2012-01-01

    A safer method for the synthesis of the sulfonamide drug sulfathiazole, for undergraduate classes, is described. This method improves upon procedures currently followed in several undergraduate teaching laboratories for the synthesis of sulfathiazole. Key features of this procedure include the total exclusion of pyridine, which has potential…

  13. Are the SDGs leaving safer surgical systems behind?

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Faheem; Michelen, Sophia; Massoud, Rashad; Kaafarani, Haytham

    2016-12-01

    The World Health Organisation (WHO) has set out its new aims for the post-2015 global agenda in the form of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Discussions around the historically neglected role of emergency and essential surgical interventions in global health has attracted widespread attention with the help of well-timed, high-profile reports including the Lancet Commission for Global Surgery [1]. The case for promoting safe surgery is clear with evidence suggesting that at least two-thirds of the years of life lost globally will be attributed to surgical conditions by 2025 [1]. In 2010 alone, almost 17 million lives, and more than 70 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were lost due to surgically treatable conditions [1]. A central component of the SDGs is its renewed focus on health as a human right in the form of Universal Health Coverage (UHC). However, there are doubts as to how nations will be able to keep the 'promise of leaving no-one behind' without explicit reference to global surgery within the SDG framework [2]. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Parameters for safer gambling behavior: examining the empirical research.

    PubMed

    Peller, Allyson J; LaPlante, Debi A; Shaffer, Howard J

    2008-12-01

    There have been claims that new gambling technology is hazardous to player health, and that technological interventions can alleviate gambling-related harm. In this paper, we systematically review the empirical research about the nexus between gambling and technology to evaluate the veracity of these claims. We use a public health perspective (i.e., the Epidemiologic Triangle) to organize and present study results (i.e., agent, host, and environment). This review intends to offer insight about emerging technology and identify areas that indicate a need for additional research. Forty-seven studies met our inclusion and exclusion criteria; a review of this body of work shows that attempts to develop and implement safety features for new gambling technology are promising, but methodologically are rudimentary and limited in scope. Increased attention to the dynamic interaction among host, agent, and environment factors hold potential to advance the field. In addition, improved study methods (e.g., longitudinal analyses of actual betting behavior), and collaboration among policymakers, manufacturers, and researchers can increase understanding of how new gambling technology affects the public health and stimulate new strategies for implementing effective public health interventions.

  15. Year of Safe Motherhood: making pregnancy and childbirth safer.

    PubMed

    1998-06-01

    On World Health Day 1998, an Inter-Agency group, including the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the World Health Organization, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, the Population Council, and Family Care International, launched a year-long campaign to promote awareness of what must be done to reduce maternal mortality and to gain commitments for implementing the affordable measures needed to prevent most of the 600,000 annual maternal deaths. To launch the campaign, health officials highlighted what must be done to improve maternal health worldwide, and the US First Lady pointed out the shocking facts that every minute a woman dies, 110 women experience a pregnancy-related injury, and 190 women face an unplanned or unwanted pregnancy because the political will does not exist to remedy this situation. Preparation for the "Year of Safe Motherhood" began with an October 1997 conference that reviewed the results of 10 years of research on safe motherhood. This research revealed that maternal deaths could be reduced drastically by provision of 1) routine perinatal care; 2) emergency care for life-threatening obstetric complications; 3) services to prevent and manage the complications of unsafe abortion; 4) family planning to prevent unwanted pregnancies; 5) health education and services for adolescents; and 6) community education for women, their families, and decision-makers. Maternal and newborn health services would cost as little as US$3/person/year in developing countries.

  16. Stigma to Sage: Learning and Teaching Safer Sex Practices Among Canadian Sex Trade Workers. NALL Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaghan, Diane

    A study interviewed 37 Canadian sex workers in 4 cities to determine how they acquire a working knowledge of safer sex practices and what that knowledge constituted. Findings indicated the vast majority exhibited high levels of knowledge and efficacy regarding safer sex practices; sex workers took the initiative to obtain information and engage in…

  17. 77 FR 26015 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for “Seeing My World through a Safer Lens: What...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... Safer Lens: What Does Injury and Violence Look Like in My Community?'' Video Contest AGENCY: Centers for...) announces the launch of the Seeing My World through a Safer Lens: What Does Injury and Violence Look Like in...) is reaching out to students, injury and violence professionals, and the general public throughout the...

  18. Short-Term Impact of Safer Choices: A Multicomponent, School-Based HIV, Other STD, and Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Karin; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Kirby, Douglas; Parcel, Guy; Banspach, Stephen; Harrist, Ronald; Baumler, Elizabeth; Weil, Marsha

    1999-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of the first year of "Safer Choices," a two-year, multicomponent HIV, STD, and pregnancy-prevention program for high school students based on social theory. Student self-report surveys indicated that "Safer Choices" succeeded in reducing selected risk behaviors and in enhancing selected protective…

  19. Alcohol risk management in college settings: the safer California universities randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Saltz, Robert F; Paschall, Mallie J; McGaffigan, Richard P; Nygaard, Peter M O

    2010-12-01

    Potentially effective environmental strategies have been recommended to reduce heavy alcohol use among college students. However, studies to date on environmental prevention strategies are few in number and have been limited by their nonexperimental designs, inadequate sample sizes, and lack of attention to settings where the majority of heavy drinking events occur. To determine whether environmental prevention strategies targeting off-campus settings would reduce the likelihood and incidence of student intoxication at those settings. The Safer California Universities study involved 14 large public universities, half of which were assigned randomly to the Safer intervention condition after baseline data collection in 2003. Environmental interventions took place in 2005 and 2006 after 1 year of planning with seven Safer intervention universities. Random cross-sectional samples of undergraduates completed online surveys in four consecutive fall semesters (2003-2006). Campuses and communities surrounding eight campuses of the University of California and six in the California State University system were utilized. The study used random samples of undergraduates (∼500-1000 per campus per year) attending the 14 public California universities. Safer environmental interventions included nuisance party enforcement operations, minor decoy operations, driving-under-the-influence checkpoints, social host ordinances, and use of campus and local media to increase the visibility of environmental strategies. Proportion of drinking occasions in which students drank to intoxication at six different settings during the fall semester (residence hall party, campus event, fraternity or sorority party, party at off-campus apartment or house, bar/restaurant, outdoor setting), any intoxication at each setting during the semester, and whether students drank to intoxication the last time they went to each setting. Significant reductions in the incidence and likelihood of intoxication at

  20. A NOVEL SAFER CONCEPTION COUNSELING TOOLKIT FOR THE PREVENTION OF HIV: A MIXED-METHODS EVALUATION IN KISUMU, KENYA

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Joelle; Njoroge, Betty; Akama, Eliud; Breitnauer, Brooke; Leddy, Anna; Darbes, Lynae; Omondi, Richard; Mmeje, Okeoma

    2017-01-01

    Safer conception strategies can prevent HIV transmission between HIV-discordant partners while allowing them to conceive. However, HIV care providers in sub-Saharan Africa report they are not trained in safer conception, and patients are not routinely offered safer conception services. This mixed-methods pilot study evaluated the impact, acceptability, and feasibility of a novel Safer Conception Counseling Toolkit among providers and patients in Kenya. We enrolled 20 HIV-positive women, 10 HIV-discordant couples, and 10 providers from HIV care and treatment clinics. Providers completed questionnaires before/after training, and then counseled HIV-affected patients. Change in patient knowledge was assessed before/after counseling. Qualitative interviews were conducted among providers and patients. The Toolkit was associated with large, significant increases in patient knowledge, and provider confidence, knowledge, and favorable attitudes toward safer conception counseling; 20% felt confident before versus 100% after training (p < 0.01). PMID:27925487

  1. Negotiation for safer sex among married women in Cambodia: the role of women's autonomy.

    PubMed

    Ung, Mengieng; Boateng, Godfred O; Armah, Frederick A; Amoyaw, Jonathan A; Luginaah, Isaac; Kuuire, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Negotiating safer sex among married women has been identified as an important determinant of vulnerability or resilience to new HIV infections. Using the Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey data of 2010, this paper examined negotiation for safer sex among 11,218 married women in the context of Cambodia's highly touted reduction in HIV/AIDS prevalence. The results from a complementary log-log regression model indicate that wealthier and highly educated married women were more likely to report that they can refuse sexual intercourse and ask their husbands to use a condom. Interestingly, while women who were fully involved in decision-making on their own health care were 19% more likely to refuse sex, they were 14% less likely to be able to ask their husbands to use a condom, compared with their counterparts who were not involved in this decision-making. Women who were partially involved in decision-making on family visits were 17% less likely to be able to ask their husbands to use a condom compared with those who were not involved. In this context, involvement in decision-making may have translated into trust and risk compensation. Those who believed in HIV transmission myths were less likely to negotiate safer sex relative to their counterparts who did not hold such myths to be true. Women's ability to negotiate for safer sex is, therefore, a function of their autonomy in terms of their full participation in decision-making in health care, household expenditure and mobility. Policy implications of the capacity of women to negotiate for safer sex are delineated.

  2. Making patients safer! Reducing error in Canadian healthcare.

    PubMed

    Baker, G R; Norton, P

    2001-01-01

    Media reports of adverse events experienced by patients raise questions about whether these are isolated exceptions or part of a larger problem. There is no reliable Canadian data on medical error; but there is little reason to expect that the situation differs markedly from Australia or the United States which have rigorously studied the problem. Research in Australia has concluded that as many as 16% of hospital patients are injured as a result of their treatment. The Australian study and more recent research in the United States have created widespread concern that an epidemic of error exists in healthcare. Fortunately, experts in healthcare and other industries, have pointed toward a number of solutions that will reduce these errors. Three key strategies need to be pursued First, better information about the numbers and types of errors that occur is needed to help pinpoint change efforts. Non-punitive reporting policies must be put in place, to assist in altering the traditional culture of blame that has discouraged error reporting. Second, a set of strategies have to focus on developing more effective systems, including physician-order entry and medication administration systems which have been shown to have a dramatic impact in reducing errors. These systems are expensive, but their importance in reducing injury - and greatly reducing the costs of additional care that come from such injuries - make them an essential part of the answer. Finally, healthcare organizations need to work to create more effective cultures oriented toward preventing errors and intercepting errors that inevitably occur. These cultures will require a new emphasis on teamwork, a continual focus on redesigning care systems, particularly in high risk areas such as operating rooms, intensive care units and emergency rooms. These are not easy tasks and will require investments in new equipment and new skills. These steps are essential if we are to maintain public confidence in healthcare.

  3. Lung Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at ... should be considered an emergency. Symptoms of sudden lung collapse (pneumothorax) Symptoms of a sudden lung collapse ...

  4. Emergency presentations by vulnerable road users: implications for injury prevention

    PubMed Central

    Meuleners, L B; Lee, A H; Haworth, C

    2006-01-01

    Most emergency presentations by vulnerable road users were the result of collisions that did not involve a motor vehicle. Many injuries occurred off‐road without police attendance. Hence, reliance on official police records would underestimate the magnitude and scope of these injuries. Suggestions to provide a safer road environment are given. PMID:16461413

  5. Impact of the establishment of a specialty hernia referral center.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kristopher B; Belyansky, Igor; Dacey, Kristian T; Yurko, Yuliya; Augenstein, Vedra A; Lincourt, Amy E; Horton, James; Kercher, Kent W; Heniford, B Todd

    2014-12-01

    Creating a surgical specialty referral center requires a strong interest, expertise, and a market demand in that particular field, as well as some form of promotion. In 2004, we established a tertiary hernia referral center. Our goal in this study was to examine its impact on institutional volume and economics. The database of all hernia repairs (2004-2011) was reviewed comparing hernia repair type and volume and center financial performance. The ventral hernia repair (VHR) patient subset was further analyzed with particular attention paid to previous repairs, comorbidities, referral patterns, and the concomitant involvement of plastic surgery. From 2004 to 2011, 4927 hernia repairs were performed: 39.3% inguinal, 35.5% ventral or incisional, 16.2% umbilical, 5.8% diaphragmatic, 1.6% femoral, and 1.5% other. Annual billing increased yearly from 7% to 85% and averaged 37% per year. Comparing 2004 with 2011, procedural volume increased 234%, and billing increased 713%. During that period, there was a 2.5-fold increase in open VHRs, and plastic surgeon involvement increased almost 8-fold, (P = .004). In 2005, 51 VHR patients had a previous repair, 27.0% with mesh, versus 114 previous VHR in 2011, 58.3% with mesh (P < .0001). For VHR, in-state referrals from 2004 to 2011 increased 340% while out-of-state referrals jumped 580%. In 2011, 21% of all patients had more than 4 comorbidities, significantly increased from 2004 (P = .02). The establishment of a tertiary, regional referral center for hernia repair has led to a substantial increase in surgical volume, complexity, referral geography, and financial benefit to the institution. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Social position and referral to rehabilitation among cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Moustsen, Ida R; Larsen, Signe B; Vibe-Petersen, Jette; Trier, Karen; Bidstrup, Pernille E; Andersen, Klaus K; Johansen, Christoffer; Dalton, Susanne O

    2015-05-01

    In Denmark, most healthcare services, including cancer treatment and rehabilitation, are offered free of charge by referral from a treating physician; thus, social equality should be expected. In a population-based cohort study of registry-based data, we examined the association between socioeconomic position, measured as educational level, and referral to rehabilitation services among cancer patients. Through the Danish Cancer Registry, we identified all people resident in the Municipality of Copenhagen with cancer diagnosed in 2007-2012. Information on all rehabilitation referrals was retrieved from the Municipal Centre for Cancer Rehabilitation for 2009-2012. Information on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics was obtained from national Danish registers. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate associations between educational level and referral to rehabilitation with adjustment for sex, age, diagnosis, disposable income, cohabitation status and number of children living at home at the time of diagnosis. A primary cancer was diagnosed in 13 840 people, of whom 2148 (16%) were referred to rehabilitation services during follow-up. In the fully adjusted model, we found education to be a predictor of referral, with a hazard ratio of 1.33 (95% CI 1.19-1.49) for patients with long education and a hazard ratio of 1.15 (95% CI 1.03-1.29) for patients with medium education as compared with patients with short education. Our findings suggest that, even after differences in demographics and cancer characteristics are accounted for, referral to rehabilitation services is not equally distributed by social group. Higher educational level is associated with a higher probability of referral to rehabilitation services.

  7. Urgent cancer referral guidelines: a retrospective cohort study of referrals for upper gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Panter, Simon J; Bramble, Mike G; O'Flanagan, Hilda; Hungin, A Pali S

    2004-08-01

    Dyspepsia in primary care is common and guidelines indicate that patients with alarm symptoms, as defined by the urgent cancer referral guidelines, should be investigated by gastroscopy. The specificity and sensitivity of alarm symptoms is poor and only a small percentage of patients will turn out to have malignant disease. This primary care study shows that employing current guidelines will identify only 72% of patients at their initial visit to a general practitioner, but this figure could be increased to 86% if the guidelines included patients with weight loss or anaemia in the absence of dyspepsia. Past performance indicates that the majority of patients with the commonest symptom complex were not referred quickly and less than half were seen within 4 weeks.

  8. Urgent cancer referral guidelines: a retrospective cohort study of referrals for upper gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Panter, Simon J; Bramble, Mike G; O'Flanagan, Hilda; Hungin, A Pali S

    2004-01-01

    Dyspepsia in primary care is common and guidelines indicate that patients with alarm symptoms, as defined by the urgent cancer referral guidelines, should be investigated by gastroscopy. The specificity and sensitivity of alarm symptoms is poor and only a small percentage of patients will turn out to have malignant disease. This primary care study shows that employing current guidelines will identify only 72% of patients at their initial visit to a general practitioner, but this figure could be increased to 86% if the guidelines included patients with weight loss or anaemia in the absence of dyspepsia. Past performance indicates that the majority of patients with the commonest symptom complex were not referred quickly and less than half were seen within 4 weeks. PMID:15296562

  9. Summary of hunting injuries in central Wisconsin: a 4-year experience at a rural referral center.

    PubMed

    Stueland, D; Carpenter, W S; Cleveland, D

    1995-05-01

    Surveillance of hunting-associated injuries was performed over a 4-year period at a rural Emergency Department in central Wisconsin. Over that period of time, 125 individuals sought treatment for hunting-related injuries. The majority of injuries were related to autumn deer hunting and included both gun and bow and arrow hunting. Over half of the persons injured while hunting with a bow and arrow fell from a height. The admission rate for persons in the immediate area was 35.1%, but for those from outside the area, it was 64.8%. The effects of the referral bias result in severe injuries being seen in rural Emergency Departments during hunting seasons, necessitating such departments to be prepared for a wide range of injuries.

  10. Impact of catheter and surgical ablation on arrhythmia treatment in a tertiary referral centre.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, D; Rowland, E

    1992-01-01

    Invasive cardiac electrophysiology studies began as diagnostic studies. The past decade has seen the introduction of several new treatments which have broadened the scope of invasive electrophysiology studies. In particular, the development of catheter ablation techniques increasingly allows curative treatment to be delivered in the catheter laboratory. The workload of electrophysiological procedures has steadily increased in our tertiary referral centre. Over 1000 patients have been treated in the past 20 years and it is projected that 219 new patients will be treated in 1991 and 342 procedures will be carried out. Over 25% of patients now receive either catheter or surgical ablation and almost 80% of these are cured permanently without the need for further drug treatment. The development of safer techniques for catheter ablation has led to its increased use and a decline in surgical ablations. Because catheter ablation is a much simpler and less traumatic procedure than surgical ablation there are great advantages both for the patient and in terms of cost-effectiveness. Antitachycardia pacing, relatively common in 1985, has now largely been supplanted by ablation and implantation of defibrillators. As the tendency to non-pharmacological treatment increases and evidence mounts that cost-effectiveness is greater for electrophysiological treatments, the implications for the funding of electrophysiology services grow. The initially high cost of curative treatment needs to be balanced against the longer term and potentially higher costs of palliative drug treatment. The potential to cure patients with catheter procedures may lead to a greater demand for this expertise and a need for an increase in training and facilities. PMID:1739536

  11. Bereavement referrals to a psychiatric service: an audit.

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Williams, M

    1995-03-01

    The majority of people who are bereaved will work through their grief with support from family and friends. Over 30%, however, may require professional support, and studies have shown that most people contact their General Practitioner and primary health-care team for counselling/support. Effective support and counselling can also be given by voluntary agencies. It was decided to audit the referrals made to a bereavement service for bereavement counselling to ascertain the level of support given prior to the referral and whether information had been given to the bereaved regarding the services available to them in the voluntary sector. Twelve referrals were received in the allotted time period, 10 of which were made within the first year of bereavement. Only one referral had been offered counselling by the primary health-care team and one other had been informed of voluntary bereavement support/counselling agencies. Two referrals had abnormal grief reactions requiring psychiatric intervention. Conclusions include raising the awareness of general practitioners and primary health-care teams of the normal grieving process, and increasing the provision of support for the bereaved. It is also suggested that the bereaved are made more aware of the services that voluntary agencies can provide.

  12. Negative Biopsy after Referral for Biopsy-Proven Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tae, Chung Hyun; Lee, Jun Haeng; Min, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Kim, Jae J.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Repeat endoscopy with biopsy is often performed in patients with previously diagnosed gastric cancer to determine further treatment plans. However, biopsy results may differ from the original pathologic report. We reviewed patients who had a negative biopsy after referral for gastric cancer. Methods A total of 116 patients with negative biopsy results after referral for biopsy-proven gastric cancer were enrolled. Outside pathology slides were reviewed. Images of the first and second endoscopic examinations were reviewed. We reviewed the clinical history from referral to the final treatment. Results Eighty-eight patients (76%) arrived with information about the lesion from the referring physician. Among 96 patients with available outside slides, the rate of interobserver variation was 24%. Endoscopy was repeated at our institution; 85 patients (73%) were found to have definite lesions, whereas 31 patients (27%) had indeterminate lesions. In the group with definite lesions, 71% of the lesions were depressed in shape. The most common cause of a negative biopsy was mistargeting. In the group with indeterminate lesions, 94% had insufficient information. All patients with adequate follow-up were successfully treated based on the findings in the follow-up endoscopy. Conclusions A negative biopsy after referral for biopsy-proven gastric cancer is mainly caused by mistargeting and insufficient information during the referral. PMID:25963084

  13. Old boys' network in general practitioners' referral behavior?

    PubMed

    Hackl, Franz; Hummer, Michael; Pruckner, Gerald J

    2015-09-01

    We analyzed the impact of social networks on general practitioners' (GPs) referral behavior based on administrative panel data from 2,684,273 referrals to specialists made between 1998 and 2007. For the definition of social networks, we used information on the doctors' place and time of study and their hospital work history. We found that GPs referred more patients to specialists within their personal networks and that patients referred within a social network had fewer follow-up consultations and less inpatient days thereafter. The effects on patient outcomes (e.g. waiting periods, days in hospital) of referrals within personal networks and affinity-based networks differed. Specifically, whereas empirical evidence showed a concentration on high-quality specialists for referrals within the personal network, suggesting that referrals within personal networks overcome information asymmetry with respect to specialists' abilities, the empirical evidence for affinity-based networks was different and less clear. Same-gender networks tended to refer patients to low-quality specialists.

  14. Do referral-management schemes reduce hospital outpatient attendances? Time-series evaluation of primary care referral management

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Jonathan MS; Steel, Nicholas; Clark, Allan B; Kumaravel, Bharathy; Bachmann, Max O

    2013-01-01

    Background Ninety-one per cent of primary care trusts were using some form of referral management in 2009, although evidence for its effectiveness is limited. Aim To assess the impact of three referral-management centres (RMCs) and two internal peer-review approaches to referral management on hospital outpatient attendance rates. Design and setting A retrospective time-series analysis of 376 000 outpatient attendances over 3 years from 85 practices divided into five groups, with 714 000 registered patients in one English primary care trust. Method The age-standardised GP-referred first outpatient monthly attendance rate was calculated for each group from April 2009 to March 2012. This was divided by the equivalent monthly England rate, to derive a rate ratio. Linear regression tested for association between the introduction of referral management and change in the outpatient attendance rate and rate ratio. Annual group budgets for referral management were obtained. Results Referral management was not associated with a reduction in the outpatient attendance rate in any group. There was a statistically significant increase in attendance rate in one group (a RMC), which had an increase of 1.05 attendances per 1000 persons per month (95% confidence interval = 0.46 to 1.64; attendance rate ratio increase of 0.07) after adjustment for autocorrelation. Mean annual budgets ranged from £0.55 to £6.23 per registered patient in 2011/2012. RMCs were more expensive (mean annual budget £5.18 per registered patient) than internal peer-review approaches (mean annual budget £0.97 per registered patient). Conclusion Referral-management schemes did not reduce outpatient attendance rates. RMCs were more expensive than internal peer review. PMID:23735409

  15. Parent-Adolescent Sexual Communication and Adolescent Safer Sex Behavior: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Noar, Seth M.; Nesi, Jacqueline; Garrett, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    Importance Parent-adolescent sexual communication has received considerable attention as one factor that can positively impact safer sex among youth; however, the evidence linking communication to youth contraceptive and condom use has not been empirically synthesized. Objective This meta-analysis examined the effect of parent-adolescent sexual communication on youth safer sex behavior and explored potential moderators of this association. Data Sources A systematic search was conducted of studies published through June 2014 using Medline, PsycINFO, and Communication & Mass Media Complete databases and relevant review articles. Study Selection Studies were included if they: 1) sampled adolescents (mean sample age≤18); 2) included an adolescent report of sexual communication with parent(s); 3) measured safer sex behavior; and 4) were published in English. Data Extraction and Synthesis Correlation coefficients (r) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed from studies and meta-analyzed using random-effects models. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was safer sex behavior, including use of contraceptives/birth control or condoms. Results Seventy-one independent effects representing over three decades of research on 25,314 adolescents (mean age = 15.1) were synthesized. Across studies, there was a small, significant weighted mean effect (r = .10, [95% CI:0.08–0.13]) linking parent-adolescent sexual communication to safer sex behavior, which was statistically heterogeneous (Q = 203.50, p < .001, I2 = 65.60). Moderation analyses revealed larger effects for communication with girls (r = .12) than boys (r = .04), and among youth who discussed sex with mothers (r = .14) compared to fathers (r = .03). Effects did not differ for contraceptive versus condom use, or among longitudinal versus cross-sectional studies, indicating parent sexual communication had a similar impact across study designs and outcomes. Several methodological issues were identified

  16. Parent-Adolescent Sexual Communication and Adolescent Safer Sex Behavior: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Noar, Seth M; Nesi, Jacqueline; Garrett, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    Parent-adolescent sexual communication has received considerable attention as a factor that can positively affect safer sex behavior among youth; however, the evidence linking such communication to youth contraceptive and condom use has not been empirically synthesized. To examine the effect of parent-adolescent sexual communication on safer sex behavior among youth and explore potential moderators of this association. A systematic search of studies published from database inception through June 30, 2014, using the MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Communication & Mass Media Complete databases and relevant review articles yielded 5098 studies, of which 52 studies with 25,314 adolescents met the study eligibility criteria. Analysis was conducted from July 1, 2014, to July 27, 2015. Studies were included if they sampled adolescents (mean sample age ≤18 years), included an adolescent report of sexual communication with one or both parents, measured safer sex behavior, and were published in English. Correlation coefficients (r) and 95% CIs were computed from studies and meta-analyzed using random-effects models. Safer sex behavior, including use of contraceptives or condoms. Fifty-two articles, including 71 independent effects representing more than 3 decades of research on 25,314 adolescents (weighted mean age, 15.2 years) were synthesized. Across studies, there was a significant weighted mean effect (r = 0.10; 95% CI, 0.08-0.13) linking parent-adolescent sexual communication with safer sex behavior, which was statistically heterogeneous (Q = 203.50, P < .001, I2 = 65.60). Moderation analyses revealed larger effects for communication with girls (r = 0.12) than boys (r = 0.04) and among youth who discussed sex with their mothers (r = 0.14) compared with their fathers (r = 0.03). Effects did not differ for contraceptive vs condom use or among longitudinal vs cross-sectional studies, indicating that parent sexual communication had a similar effect

  17. Innovative Opioid Peptides and Biased Agonism: Novel Avenues for More Effective and Safer Analgesics to Treat Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Bedini, Andrea; Spampinato, Santi Mario

    2017-02-15

    Chronic pain is a clinically relevant and yet unsolved conditions that is poorly treated with the currently available drugs, thus highlighting the urgent need of innovative analgesics. Although opiates are not very effective in the treatment of inflammatory and neuropathic pain, developing novel opioid receptor peptide agonists, as well as modulating the opioid receptor-mediated responses in a ligand-specific fashion, may represent an innovative and promising strategy to identify more efficacious and safer antalgic drugs. In this review, novel analogues of endomorphin 1 (a mu opioid receptor selective agonist able to induce analgesia in different animal models of pain - including neuropathic pain) and dermorphin (one of the most potent opioid peptide existing in nature) will be discussed as they are emerging as a promising starting point to develop novel opioid agonists: endomorphin 1 analogues, in fact, may determine antinociception in different models of neuropathic pain with reduced side effects as compared to classic opiates as morphine; dermorphin analogues may elicit analgesia in animal models of both inflammatory and neuropathic pain and with less severe adverse effects. Furthermore, such opioid peptides may allow to explore unprecedented modalities of ligand-receptor interactions, helping to characterize biased agonism at opioid receptors: exploiting functional selectivity at opioid receptor may lead to identify innovative analgesic with improved pharmacological responses and optimized side effects. Thus, innovative opioid peptides, as those outlined in this review, are promising candidates to develop more effective opioid analgesics to be employed as medications for chronic pain states, as inflammatory or neuropathic pain.

  18. Appropriateness of the study of iron deficiency anemia prior to referral for small bowel evaluation at a tertiary center

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Jaime Pereira; Pinho, Rolando; Silva, Joana; Ponte, Ana; Sousa, Mafalda; Silva, João Carlos; Carvalho, João

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the adequacy of the study of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in real life practice prior to referral to a gastroenterology department for small bowel evaluation. METHODS All consecutive patients referred to a gastroenterology department for small bowel investigation due to iron deficiency anemia, between January 2013 and December 2015 were included. Both patients referred from general practitioners or directly from different hospital departments were selected. Relevant clinical information regarding prior anemia workup was retrospectively collected from medical records. An appropriate pre-referral study was considered the execution of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) investigation, colonoscopy with quality standards (recent, total and with adequate preparation) and celiac disease (CD) screening (through serologic testing and/or histopathological investigation). RESULTS A total of 77 patients (58.4% female, mean age 67.1 ± 16.7 years) were included. Most (53.2%) patients were referred from general practitioners, 41.6% from other hospital specialties and 5.2% directly from the emergency department. The mean pre-referral hemoglobin concentration was 8.8 ± 2.0 g/dL and the majority of anemias had microcytic (71.4%) and hypochromic (72.7%) characteristics. 77.9% of patients presented with an incomplete pre-referral study: EGD in 97.4%, with H. pylori investigation in 58.3%, colonoscopy with quality criteria in 63.6%, and CD screening in 24.7%. Patients with an appropriate study at the time of referral were younger (48.7 ± 17.7 vs 72.3 ± 12.3 years, P < 0.001). Small bowel evaluation was ultimately undertaken in 72.7% of patients, with a more frequent evaluation in patients with a quality colonoscopy at referral (78.6% vs 23.8%); P < 0.001 (OR = 11.7, 95%CI: 3.6-38.6). The most common diagnosis regarded as the likely cause of IDA was small bowel angioectasia (18.2%) but additional causes were also found in the upper

  19. Development of an algorithm to identify urgent referrals for suspected cancer from the Danish Primary Care Referral Database

    PubMed Central

    Toftegaard, Berit Skjødeberg; Guldbrandt, Louise Mahncke; Flarup, Kaare Rud; Beyer, Hanne; Bro, Flemming; Vedsted, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate identification of specific patient populations is a crucial tool in health care. A prerequisite for exploring the actions taken by general practitioners (GPs) on symptoms of cancer is being able to identify patients urgently referred for suspected cancer. Such system is not available in Denmark; however, all referrals are electronically stored. This study aimed to develop and test an algorithm based on referral text to identify urgent cancer referrals from general practice. Methods Two urgently referred reference populations were extracted from a research database and linked with the Primary Care Referral (PCR) database through the unique Danish civil registration number to identify the corresponding electronic referrals. The PCR database included GP referrals directed to private specialists and hospital departments, and these referrals were scrutinized. The most frequently used words were integrated in the first version of the algorithm, which was further refined by an iterative process involving two population samples from the PCR database. The performance was finally evaluated for two other PCR population samples against manual assessment as the gold standard for urgent cancer referral. Results The final algorithm had a sensitivity of 0.939 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.905–0.963) and a specificity of 0.937 (95% CI: 0.925–0.963) compared to the gold standard. The positive and negative predictive values were 69.8% (95% CI: 65.0–74.3) and 99.0% (95% CI: 98.4–99.4), respectively. When applying the algorithm on referrals for a population without earlier cancer diagnoses, the positive predictive value increased to 83.6% (95% CI: 78.7–87.7) and the specificity to 97.3% (95% CI: 96.4–98.0). Conclusion The final algorithm identified 94% of the patients urgently referred for suspected cancer; less than 3% of the patients were incorrectly identified. It is now possible to identify patients urgently referred on cancer suspicion from

  20. What should prompt an urgent referral to a community mental health team?

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background There is often little guidance to advise general practitioners on whether a referral to a community mental health team should be classified as ‘urgent’ or not. Aims (1) To identify the proportion and appropriateness of referrals considered urgent by the referrer; (2) To develop a set of criteria to guide what should constitute an ‘urgent’ referral. Methods One hundred consecutive referral letters to a community mental health team were analysed to determine the proportion that were considered urgent by the referrer compared to a consensus panel of psychiatrists. A Delphi group was then used to develop a set of criteria to guide referrers as to what should be regarded as an urgent referral. Results Thirty-three percent of referrals were deemed urgent by the referrer, compared to 17% by the psychiatric consensus panel, with little agreement between the two (kappa = 0.021, P = 0.013). Referrals that were made using a single assessment process (SAP) form were significantly more likely to be inappropriately marked as being urgent (P < 0.001). A set of 12 criteria was developed using the Delphi technique. Conclusions There was significant disagreement between the referrers and the assessing team as to which referrals required urgent attention. The findings justified the creation of guidelines, and this paper outlines a set of 12 criteria to guide what should prompt an urgent referral. PMID:22477870

  1. Organization of the referral and counter-referral system in a speech-language pathology and audiology clinic-school.

    PubMed

    Molini-Avejonas, Daniela Regina; Estevam, Stephanie Falarara; Couto, Maria Inês Vieira

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the effectiveness of the referral and counter-referral flow in a speech-language pathology and audiology clinic-school and to characterize the patients' profiles. Evaluation, retrospective, and prospective study, in which 503 patient records, without age restriction, were selected from a clinic-school and the following variables were analyzed: demographic information, speech and hearing diagnosis, and references. Patients were distributed into two groups according to the referrals made: internal (G1, n=341) and external (G2, n=162) to the clinic-school. A prevalence of male subjects under 12 years of age and with diagnosis of language disorders (primary and secondary) was found. It was observed that 83% patients in G1 were recalled for evaluation and speech therapy after an average of 7 months of waiting; and from the patients in G2 that were contacted (n=101), 13.9% were summoned and are satisfied with the place indicated for therapy after an average of 4 months of waiting. From those who did not receive care, 46% sought another service, and of these, 72.5% were successful. The data show the effectiveness and appropriateness of referrals made internally, suggesting that, when the team works together, the network operates more adequately. However, in relation to external referrals, they did not reach the proposed goals, indicating a lack of speech-language pathologists in public services and the low interest of patients in looking for other places of care.

  2. Understanding referral patterns to an epilepsy clinic: professional perceptions of factors influencing the referral of older adults.

    PubMed

    Blank, Lindsay; Baxter, Susan; Baird, Wendy; Reuber, Markus

    2013-11-01

    The number of older patients with epilepsy has been increasing steadily, however older adults have been shown to be referred less commonly to specialist epilepsy services than younger individuals. The aim of this study was to explore staff perceptions of why older adults may be under-represented in epilepsy clinics. We conducted 19 interviews with potential referrers and staff providing services including GPs, geriatricians, neurologists, service and clinical managers and epilepsy nurses. Data were analysed using principles of thematic analysis to identify and examine recurring views and perceptions. Seven key factors were suggested as leading to under-referral of older adults: patient difficulties accessing hospital; patient reluctance to attend clinics; unclear referral pathway; complex differential diagnosis; gaps in referrer knowledge; the length of time since onset; and particular characteristics of older patients. While recognising the limitations of the study we believe that it provides valuable further understanding of referral patterns to specialist epilepsy services. Future studies will need to determine whether the assumptions made by the interviewees about the thoughts and wishes of older people with epilepsy were correct or not. To understand this issue more clearly, we plan to sample the views of patients directly. Of particular concern are assumptions regarding older patient's willingness to attend appointments and about the impact of seizures on the life of an older adult. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prediction of Mental Health Services Use One Year After Regular Referral to Specialized Care Versus Referral to Stepped Collaborative Care.

    PubMed

    van Orden, Mirjam; Leone, Stephanie; Haffmans, Judith; Spinhoven, Philip; Hoencamp, Erik

    2017-04-01

    Referral to collaborative mental health care within the primary care setting is a service concept that has shown to be as effective as direct referral to specialized mental health care for patients with common mental disorders. Additionally it is more efficient in terms of lower mental health services use. This post-hoc analysis examines if treatment intensity during 1-year of follow-up can be predicted prospectively by baseline characteristics. With multilevel multivariate regression analyses baseline characteristics were examined as potential predictors of visit counts. Results showed that only the enabling factors service concept and referral delay for treatment had a significant association with mental health visit counts, when outcome was dichotomized in five or more visits. Inclusion of the outcome variable as a count variable confirmed the predictive value of service concept and referral delay, but added marital status as a significant predictor. Overall, enabling factors (service concept and referral delay) seem to be important and dominant predictors of mental health services use.

  4. Assessing the Prioritization of Primary Care Referrals for Polysomnograms

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, J. Daryl; Chandriani, Kinnari; Thornton, Julia G.; Farooq, Sobia; Moallem, Moayyed; Krishnan, Vidya; Auckley, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Study Objective: The mortality attributed to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is comparable to that of breast cancer and colon cancer. We sought to determine if patients at high risk for OSA were less likely to be referred by their primary care physician for polysomnograms (PSG) than mammograms or endoscopies. Design: Prospective cohort study; patients were recruited between January 2007 and April 2007. Setting: Academic public hospital system Patients: 395 patients waiting for family or internal medicine primary care appointments were administered the Berlin questionnaire. Chart abstraction or interview determined demographics; insurance and employment status; body mass index (BMI); comorbidities; and prior PSG, mammography, or endoscopy referrals. Results: Mean BMI was 30 ± 7.4 kg/m2; 187 (47%) patients had high-risk Berlin scores. Overall, 19% of patients with high-risk Berlin scores were referred for PSG, compared to 63% of those eligible for mammograms and 80% of those eligible for endoscopies. Women (OR = 2.9, P = 0.02), COPD (OR = 4.6, P = 0.03), high-risk Berlin scores (OR = 3.4, P = 0.009), and higher BMI (OR = 1.1, P < 0.001) were positively associated with PSG referrals. Privately insured patients were less likely to be referred than uninsured patients (OR = 0.3, P = 0.04). There was no significant difference in referrals among those with other forms of insurance. Race was not associated with PSG referrals. Conclusion: In a public hospital, primary care patients were less likely to be referred for PSG compared to mammogram and endoscopy. Uninsured patients were more likely to be referred for PSG than those with private insurance. Further studies are needed to address the low PSG referral rates in high-risk populations. Citation: Thornton JD; Chandriani K; Thornton JG; Farooq S; Moallem M; Krishnan V; Auckley D. Assessing the prioritization of primary care referrals for polysomnograms. SLEEP 2010;33(9):1255-1260. PMID:20857874

  5. Skin conditions in primary care: an analysis of referral demand.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Arenas, E; Garrido, V; Serrano-Ortega, S

    2014-04-01

    Skin conditions are among the main reasons for seeking primary health care. Primary care physicians (PCPs) must diagnose skin conditions and determine their impact, and must therefore incorporate the relevant knowledge and skills into their education. The present study analyzes the reasons for primary care referral to dermatology (referral demand) as well as diagnostic agreement between PCPs and dermatologists informed by pathology where appropriate. Data were collected for 755 patients and 882 initial dermatology appointments from February 1, 2012 through April 30, 2012 following primary care referral. Data obtained included age, sex, occupation, reason for referral, primary care diagnosis, and dermatologic diagnosis. Statistical analysis of the data for each diagnosed condition identified frequency, reasons for referral, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and the κ statistic for diagnostic agreement. The most common diagnoses were seborrheic keratosis, melanocytic nevus, actinic keratosis, and acne. The main reason for referral was diagnostic assessment (52.5%). For skin tumors, sensitivity of primary care diagnosis was 22.4%, specificity 94.7%, PPV 40.7%, and NPV 88.3%, with a κ of 0.211. For the more common diagnoses, primary care sensitivity was generally low and specificity high. According to our results, primary care physicians are better qualified to rule out a given skin condition in a patient (high specificity) than to establish an accurate clinical diagnosis (poor sensitivity). This suggests that knowledge and skills training should be organized for primary care physicians to improve management of skin conditions-especially skin cancer, because of its impact. A more responsive system would ensue, with shorter waiting lists and better health care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical accuracy of the AAPOS pediatric vision screening referral criteria.

    PubMed

    Silbert, David I; Matta, Noelle S; Burkholder, Douglas; Gehman, Andrew; Fenwick, James

    2012-08-01

    The American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) referral criteria for amblyogenic risk factors are consensus criteria that were determined by the best-available data as well as survey results of pediatric ophthalmologists. In 2003 the AAPOS Vision Screening Committee published guidelines to standardize reporting the ability of vision screening devices to detect these factors. We attempted to assess the accuracy of the AAPOS referral criteria. Billing records of one pediatric ophthalmologist were reviewed to identify all children who were seen in 2002. Records were excluded if photoscreening had not been performed at the initial visit or if photoscreening results were not available in the record. Of the remaining records, one-half were randomly selected for analysis. Cycloplegic refraction and binocular alignment were evaluated to determine whether the child would have been considered to be at risk for amblyopia on the basis of AAPOS referral critera. The sensitivity and specificity of these factors for detecting amblyopia was then determined. A total of 1,575 records were identified, of which 529 were randomly selected; 7 were excluded for incomplete data. AAPOS referral criteria would have referred 266 patients, of whom 255 had amblyopia and 11 did not; of the 256 patients who would not have been referred, 46 had amblyopia and 210 did not. In this population, the AAPOS referral criteria would have had an 85% sensitivity, 95% specificity, a 5% false-positive rate and a 15% false-negative rate for detecting amblyopia. Application of the AAPOS referral criteria resulted in underreporting of amblyopia in this study. We propose modifications that may result in increased sensitivity and a lower false-negative rate. Copyright © 2012 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Referral pattern for epilepsy surgery after evidence-based recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Haneef, Zulfi; Stern, John; Dewar, Sandra; Engel, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    Background: Class I evidence for surgical effectiveness in refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in 2001 led to an American Academy of Neurology practice parameter in 2003 recommending “referral to a surgical epilepsy center on failing appropriate trials of first-line antiepileptic drugs.” We examined whether this led to a change in referral patterns to our epilepsy center. Methods: We compared referral data for patients with TLE at our center for 1995 to 1998 (group 1, n = 83) and 2005 to 2008 (group 2, n = 102) to determine whether these recommendations resulted in a change in referral patterns for surgical evaluation. Patients with brain tumors, previous epilepsy surgery evaluations, or brain surgery (including epilepsy surgery) were excluded. Results: We did not find a difference between the groups in the duration from the diagnosis of habitual seizures to referral (17.1 ± 10.0 vs 18.6 ± 12.6 years, p = 0.39) or the age at the time of evaluation (34.1 ± 10.3 vs 37.0 ± 11.8 years, p = 0.08). However, there was a difference in the distributions of age at evaluation (p = 0.03) and the duration of pharmacotherapy (p = 0.03) between the groups, with a greater proportion of patients in group 2 with drug-resistant epilepsy both earlier and later in their treatment course. Nonepileptic seizures were referred significantly earlier than TLE in either group or when combined. Conclusions: Our analysis does not identify a significantly earlier referral for epilepsy surgery evaluation as recommended in the practice parameter, but suggests a hopeful trend in this direction. GLOSSARY AAN = American Academy of Neurology; AED = antiepileptic drug; ERSET = Early Randomized Surgical Epilepsy Trial; NES = nonepileptic seizures; RCT = randomized controlled trial; TLE = temporal lobe epilepsy; VNS = vagus nerve stimulator. PMID:20733145

  8. Improving Appropriate Access to Care With Central Referral and Triage in Rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Hazlewood, Glen S; Barr, Susan G; Lopatina, Elena; Marshall, Deborah A; Lupton, Terri L; Fritzler, Marvin J; Mosher, Dianne P; Steber, Whitney A; Martin, Liam

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the short-term and long-term impact of a centralized system for the intake and triage of rheumatology referrals on access to care and referral quality. An innovative central referral process, the Central Referral and Triage in Rheumatology (CReATe Rheum) program, was implemented in 2006, serving a referral base of 2 million people. Referrals are received in a central office, triaged by trained nurses, and assigned to the next available appointment on a prioritized basis. To evaluate the short-term impact, we compared wait times, duplicate referrals, and no-shows from a pre-implementation practice audit to a 2-year post-implementation evaluation (January 2007 to December 2008). Rheumatologists also assessed the quality and completeness of the referral information and accuracy of the urgency category assigned during triage. We evaluated the long-term impact by tracking referral volume, wait times, and rheumatologist manpower each year until December, 2013. During the first 2 years, wait-time variability between rheumatologists decreased, and wait times were reduced for moderate and urgent referrals. CReATe Rheum improved the quality of referral information and eliminated duplicate referrals. The urgency of the referral was assigned correctly in 90% of referrals. Over the long term, CReATe Rheum maintained short wait times for more urgent patients despite a growing number of referrals and a stable number of rheumatologists. A centralized system for the intake and triage of rheumatology referrals improved referral quality, reduced system inefficiencies, and effectively managed wait times on a prioritized basis for a large referral population. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  9. Practices and attitudes of doctors and patients to downward referral in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wenya; Li, Meina; Nong, Xin; Ding, Tao; Ye, Feng; Liu, Jiazhen; Dai, Zhixing; Zhang, Lulu

    2017-01-01

    Objectives In China, the rate of downward referral is relatively low, as most people are unwilling to be referred from hospitals to community health systems (CHSs). The aim of this study was to explore the effect of doctors' and patients' practices and attitudes on their willingness for downward referral and the relationship between downward referral and sociodemographic characteristics. Methods Doctors and patients of 13 tertiary hospitals in Shanghai were stratified through random sampling. The questionnaire surveyed their sociodemographic characteristics, attitudes towards CHSs and hospitals, understanding of downward referral, recognition of the community first treatment system, and downward referral practices and willingness. Descriptive statistics, χ2 test and stepwise logistic regression analysis were employed for statistical analysis. Results Only 20.8% (161/773) of doctors were willing to accept downward referrals, although this proportion was higher among patients (37.6%, 326/866). Doctors' willingness was influenced by education, understanding of downward referral, and perception of health resources in hospitals. Patients' willingness was influenced by marital status, economic factors and recognition of the community first treatment system. Well-educated doctors who do not consider downward referral would increase their workloads and those with a more comprehensive understanding of hospitals and downward referral process were more likely to make a downward referral decision. Single-injury patients fully recognising the community first treatment system were more willing to accept downward referral. Patients' willingness was significantly increased if downward referral was cost-saving. A better medical insurance system was another key factor for patients to accept downward referral decisions, especially for the floating population. Conclusions To increase the rate of downward referral, the Chinese government should optimise the current referral system and

  10. Towards Safer Rocket Fuels: Hypergolic Imidazolylidene-Borane Compounds as Replacements for Hydrazine Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shi; Qi, Xiujuan; Liu, Tianlin; Wang, Kangcai; Zhang, Wenquan; Li, Jianlin; Zhang, Qinghua

    2016-07-11

    Currently, toxic and volatile hydrazine derivatives are still the main fuel choices for liquid bipropellants, especially in some traditional rocket propulsion systems. Therefore, the search for safer hypergolic fuels as replacements for hydrazine derivatives has been one of the most challenging tasks. In this study, six imidazolylidene-borane compounds with zwitterionic structure have been synthesized and characterized, and their hypergolic reactivity has been studied. As expected, these compounds exhibited fast spontaneous combustion upon contact with white fuming nitric acid (WFNA). Among them, compound 5 showed excellent integrated properties including wide liquid operating range (-70-160 °C), superior loading density (0.99 g cm(-3) ), ultrafast ignition delay times with WFNA (15 ms), and high specific impulse (303.5 s), suggesting promising application potential as safer hypergolic fuels in liquid bipropellant formulations. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The SAFER Latinos project: Addressing a community ecology underlying Latino youth violence.

    PubMed

    Edberg, Mark; Cleary, Sean D; Collins, Elizabeth; Klevens, Joanne; Leiva, Rodrigo; Bazurto, Martha; Rivera, Ivonne; del Cid, Alex Taylor; Montero, Luisa; Calderon, Melba

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes the intervention model, early implementation experience, and challenges for the Seguridad, Apoyo, Familia, Educacion, y Recursos (SAFER) Latinos project. The SAFER Latinos project is an attempt to build the evidence for a multilevel participatory youth violence prevention model tailored to the specific circumstances of Central American immigrants. Specific circumstances targeted in this intervention are decreased family cohesion as a result of sequential immigration (i.e., parents arriving first and bringing their children years later or youth arriving without parents); multiple school barriers; community disorganization and low community efficacy; limited access to services; and a social context (including gang presence) that is linked to youth norms supporting violence. In its implementation, the initial intervention model was adapted to address barriers and challenges. These are described, along with lessons learned and the ongoing evaluation.

  12. PFP Emergency Lighting Study

    SciTech Connect

    BUSCH, M.S.

    2000-02-02

    NFPA 101, section 5-9 mandates that, where required by building classification, all designated emergency egress routes be provided with adequate emergency lighting in the event of a normal lighting outage. Emergency lighting is to be arranged so that egress routes are illuminated to an average of 1.0 footcandle with a minimum at any point of 0.1 footcandle, as measured at floor level. These levels are permitted to drop to 60% of their original value over the required 90 minute emergency lighting duration after a power outage. The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) has two designations for battery powered egress lights ''Emergency Lights'' are those battery powered lights required by NFPA 101 to provide lighting along officially designated egress routes in those buildings meeting the correct occupancy requirements. Emergency Lights are maintained on a monthly basis by procedure ZSR-12N-001. ''Backup Lights'' are battery powered lights not required by NFPA, but installed in areas where additional light may be needed. The Backup Light locations were identified by PFP Safety and Engineering based on several factors. (1) General occupancy and type of work in the area. Areas occupied briefly during a shiftly surveillance do not require backup lighting while a room occupied fairly frequently or for significant lengths of time will need one or two Backup lights to provide general illumination of the egress points. (2) Complexity of the egress routes. Office spaces with a standard hallway/room configuration will not require Backup Lights while a large room with several subdivisions or irregularly placed rooms, doors, and equipment will require Backup Lights to make egress safer. (3) Reasonable balance between the safety benefits of additional lighting and the man-hours/exposure required for periodic light maintenance. In some plant areas such as building 236-Z, the additional maintenance time and risk of contamination do not warrant having Backup Lights installed in all rooms

  13. Diabetic Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sheet Health & Safety Tips Campaigns SUBSCRIBE Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Diabetic Emergencies It ... seek immediate medical assistance. READ IN EMERGENCIES A-Z Mental Health Emergencies - Waits for Care Grow Dramatically ...

  14. Out of the ashes: the life, death, and rebirth of the "safer" cigarette in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fairchild, Amy; Colgrove, James

    2004-02-01

    From 1964 through the early 1980s, both federal and voluntary agencies endorsed the concept of "safer" cigarettes. Beginning in the mid-1980s, several factors, including revelations of tobacco industry malfeasance, the development of nicotine replacement therapy, and the reconceptualization of smoking as a chronic disease, led to "safer" cigarettes being discredited. In the past few years, some public health professionals have begun to reconsider the viability of developing such products. The issue before us is stark: will a commitment to limiting the toll exacted by smoking preclude the tolerance of a product that while not safe may possibly be safer?

  15. Implementation of a safer conception service for HIV-affected couples in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Sheree R; Bassett, Jean; Sanne, Ian; Phofa, Rebecca; Yende, Nompumelelo; Van Rie, Annelies

    2014-07-01

    To describe the development and implementation of a safer conception service in a resource-limited setting. Qualitative work to inform the design of a safer conception service was conducted with clients and providers at Witkoppen Health and Welfare Centre, a primary health center in Johannesburg, South Africa. Services began in July 2013 for HIV-affected participants planning conception within 6 months and included counseling about timed unprotected intercourse and home-based self-insemination, early initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) for HIV-infected individuals, pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-uninfected partners and circumcision for men. Participants were enrolled into an implementation science study evaluating method uptake, acceptability, and pregnancy and HIV transmission outcomes. Findings to-date from 51 qualitative participants and 128 clinical cohort participants (82 women and 46 men, representing 82 partnerships) are presented. All men were accompanied by female partners, whereas 56% of women attended with their male partner. Fifteen of the 46 couples (33%) were in confirmed serodiscordant relationships; however, of the 36 additional women attending alone, 56% were unaware of their partners' HIV status or believed them to be HIV-uninfected. The majority of the HIV-infected women (86%) and men (71%) were on cART at enrollment; however, only 47% on cART were virally suppressed. Timed unprotected intercourse, self-insemination and cART were common choices for participants; few elected pre-exposure prophylaxis. Lessons learned from early implementation demonstrate feasibility of safer conception services; however, reaching discordant couples, cART-naïve infected partners, and men remain challenges. Creating demand for safer conception services among those at highest risk for HIV transmission is necessary.

  16. Implementation of a Safer Conception Service for HIV-Affected Couples in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Sheree R; Bassett, Jean; Sanne, Ian; Phofa, Rebecca; Yende, Nompumelelo; Van Rie, Annelies

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the development and implementation of a safer conception service in a resource-limited setting. Methods Qualitative work to inform the design of a safer conception service was conducted with clients and providers at Witkoppen Health and Welfare Centre, a primary health center in Johannesburg, South Africa. Services began in July 2013, for HIV-affected participants planning conception within six months and included counseling about timed unprotected intercourse and home-based self-insemination, early initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) for HIV-infected individuals, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV-uninfected partners and circumcision for men. Participants were enrolled into an implementation science study evaluating method uptake, acceptability, and pregnancy and HIV transmission outcomes. Results Findings to-date from 51 qualitative participants and 128 clinical cohort participants (82 women and 46 men, representing 82 partnerships) are presented. All men were accompanied by female partners, whereas 56% of women attended with their male partner. Fifteen of 46 couples (33%) were in confirmed serodiscordant relationships, however of the 36 additional women attending alone, 56% were unaware of their partners’ HIV status or believed them to be HIV-uninfected. The majority of HIV-infected women (86%) and men (71%) were on cART at enrollment, however only 47% on cART were virally suppressed. Timed unprotected intercourse, self-insemination and cART were common choices for participants; few elected PrEP. Conclusions Lessons learned from early implementation demonstrate feasibility of safer conception services, however reaching discordant couples, cART-naïve infected partners, and men remain challenges. Creating demand for safer conception services among those at highest risk for HIV transmission is necessary. PMID:24991901

  17. Immobilizer-assisted management of metal-contaminated agricultural soils for safer food production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwon-Rae; Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Park, Jeong-Sik; Kim, Min-Suk; Owens, Gary; Youn, Gyu-Hoon; Lee, Jin-Su

    2012-07-15

    Production of food crops on metal contaminated agricultural soils is of concern because consumers are potentially exposed to hazardous metals via dietary intake of such crops or crop derived products. Therefore, the current study was conducted to develop management protocols for crop cultivation to allow safer food production. Metal uptake, as influenced by pH change-induced immobilizing agents (dolomite, steel slag, and agricultural lime) and sorption agents (zeolite and compost), was monitored in three common plants representative of leafy (Chinese cabbage), root (spring onion) and fruit (red pepper) vegetables, in a field experiment. The efficiency of the immobilizing agents was assessed by their ability to decrease the phytoavailability of metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn). The fruit vegetable (red pepper) showed the least accumulation of Cd (0.16-0.29 mgkg(-1) DW) and Pb (0.2-0.9 mgkg(-1) DW) in edible parts regardless of treatment, indicating selection of low metal accumulating crops was a reasonable strategy for safer food production. However, safer food production was more likely to be achievable by combining crop selection with immobilizing agent amendment of soils. Among the immobilizing agents, pH change-induced immobilizers were more effective than sorption agents, showing decreases in Cd and Pb concentrations in each plant well below standard limits. The efficiency of pH change-induced immobilizers was also comparable to reductions obtained by 'clean soil cover' where the total metal concentrations of the plow layer was reduced via capping the surface with uncontaminated soil, implying that pH change-induced immobilizers can be practically applied to metal contaminated agricultural soils for safer food production.

  18. Can Computer-Mediated Interventions Change Theoretical Mediators of Safer Sex? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noar, Seth M.; Pierce, Larson B.; Black, Hulda G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of computer-mediated interventions (CMIs) aimed at changing theoretical mediators of safer sex. Meta-analytic aggregation of effect sizes from k = 20 studies indicated that CMIs significantly improved HIV/AIDS knowledge, d = 0.276, p less than 0.001, k = 15, N = 6,625; sexual/condom…

  19. Can Computer-Mediated Interventions Change Theoretical Mediators of Safer Sex? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noar, Seth M.; Pierce, Larson B.; Black, Hulda G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of computer-mediated interventions (CMIs) aimed at changing theoretical mediators of safer sex. Meta-analytic aggregation of effect sizes from k = 20 studies indicated that CMIs significantly improved HIV/AIDS knowledge, d = 0.276, p less than 0.001, k = 15, N = 6,625; sexual/condom…

  20. The SAFER-Project and Seismic Early Warning in Europe (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zschau, J.; Gasparini, P.

    2009-12-01

    SAFER (Seismic EArly Warning For EuRope) is the first large scale scientific project in Europe on earthquake early warning. It is funded by the European Commission in the context of Framework Program 6 under the theme Sustainable Development, Global Change and Ecosystems. Its general objective is to develop knowledge and tools for increasing the capability of effective earthquake early warning in Europe and to implement and test these tools in selected European cities. The SAFER project was carried out between 2006 and 2009 by a consortium formed by 20 institutes from 11 European and Mediterranean countries (Germany, Italy, Greece, Romania, Switzerland, Norway, France, the Netherlands, Iceland, Turkey and Egypt) and one each from Japan, Taiwan and USA. Five major earthquake prone cities were chosen as test areas: Athens, Bucharest, Cairo, Istanbul and Naples. The combined population of these cities is about 40 million inhabitants and all have experienced severe earthquakes in recent years. SAFER is strongly multi-disciplinary, calling upon expertise in seismology, structural and geotechnical engineering, informatics and statistics. Some of the specific problems addressed are related to - the rapid determination of earthquake size, complex earthquake features, and damage potential; - the implementation of a fully probabilistic framework for applications of earthquake early warning based on cost-benefit analysis; - the development of a new generation of early warning systems being decentralised and people-centred, and - the implementation of the real-time “shake map”-technology in large European cities. The presentation will review the major scientific findings, comment on the improvements of the earthquake early warning capabilities achieved by SAFER in the five test cities, and present some ideas for the future development of earthquake early warning in Europe.