Science.gov

Sample records for emergency tasks stipulated

  1. Emergency Medical Technician Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for 12 duties in the occupation of emergency medical technician. Each duty is divided into a number of tasks. A separate page for each duty lists the task with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space for comments. The 12 duties…

  2. Research Project Leadership Stipulation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taghavi, Mona; Taghavi, Hamed; Taghavi, Milad

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Due to the increased research funding which academic institutions receive to perform advanced R&D, there is an indispensable need to have a systematic approach for selecting competent academicians capable of leading such projects. This paper aims to propose an approach to develop a system for Research Project Leadership Stipulation in…

  3. Research Project Leadership Stipulation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taghavi, Mona; Taghavi, Hamed; Taghavi, Milad

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Due to the increased research funding which academic institutions receive to perform advanced R&D, there is an indispensable need to have a systematic approach for selecting competent academicians capable of leading such projects. This paper aims to propose an approach to develop a system for Research Project Leadership Stipulation in…

  4. Stipules in Apocynaceae: an ontogenetic perspective

    PubMed Central

    do Valle Capelli, Natalie; Alonso Rodrigues, Bruna

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Stipules are leaf structures common in many groups of plants that can take a variety of forms. In Gentianales, interpetiolar stipules are considered a synapomorphy of Rubiaceae; however, some reports in the literature refer to their presence in other families. The goal of this study was to analyze the development of leaf primordia to investigate the possible presence of reduced or modified stipules in Apocynaceae. Shoot apices of 12 genera were analyzed under light and scanning electron microscopy comparatively with one species of Rubiaceae. Early in their development, leaf primordia form two lateral expansions at the base of the petiole (stipules) that give rise to colleters in 11 of the 12 genera of Apocynaceae studied, similarly to the Rubiaceae species. The basal genera have pairs of stipules modified into colleters positioned laterally to the petiole, while other species belonging to the derived subfamilies have interpetiolar stipules that each project towards the opposite stipule and merge, forming a sheathing stipule and from this arc the interpetiolar colleters originate. The ontogenetic study proved for the first time that Apocynaceae is a stipulate family whose stipules are modified into colleters and their absence might be a secondary loss, changing the interpretation of stipule evolution in Gentianales. PMID:28694936

  5. Stipules in Apocynaceae: an ontogenetic perspective.

    PubMed

    do Valle Capelli, Natalie; Alonso Rodrigues, Bruna; Demarco, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Stipules are leaf structures common in many groups of plants that can take a variety of forms. In Gentianales, interpetiolar stipules are considered a synapomorphy of Rubiaceae; however, some reports in the literature refer to their presence in other families. The goal of this study was to analyze the development of leaf primordia to investigate the possible presence of reduced or modified stipules in Apocynaceae. Shoot apices of 12 genera were analyzed under light and scanning electron microscopy comparatively with one species of Rubiaceae. Early in their development, leaf primordia form two lateral expansions at the base of the petiole (stipules) that give rise to colleters in 11 of the 12 genera of Apocynaceae studied, similarly to the Rubiaceae species. The basal genera have pairs of stipules modified into colleters positioned laterally to the petiole, while other species belonging to the derived subfamilies have interpetiolar stipules that each project towards the opposite stipule and merge, forming a sheathing stipule and from this arc the interpetiolar colleters originate. The ontogenetic study proved for the first time that Apocynaceae is a stipulate family whose stipules are modified into colleters and their absence might be a secondary loss, changing the interpretation of stipule evolution in Gentianales.

  6. 25 CFR 227.27 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stipulations. 227.27 Section 227.27 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 227.27 Stipulations. The lessee...

  7. 25 CFR 227.27 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stipulations. 227.27 Section 227.27 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 227.27 Stipulations. The lessee...

  8. 28 CFR 68.47 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ALIENS, UNFAIR IMMIGRATION-RELATED EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES, AND DOCUMENT FRAUD § 68.47 Stipulations. The... upon so far as and whenever practicable. Stipulations may be received in evidence at a hearing or prior thereto, and when received in evidence, shall be binding on the parties thereto....

  9. 25 CFR 227.27 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stipulations. 227.27 Section 227.27 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 227.27 Stipulations. The lessee under...

  10. 25 CFR 227.27 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stipulations. 227.27 Section 227.27 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 227.27 Stipulations. The lessee under...

  11. 25 CFR 227.27 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Stipulations. 227.27 Section 227.27 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF CERTAIN LANDS IN WIND RIVER INDIAN RESERVATION, WYOMING, FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 227.27 Stipulations. The lessee under...

  12. 25 CFR 213.39 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Stipulations. 213.39 Section 213.39 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.39 Stipulations. The lessee under any...

  13. 25 CFR 213.39 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stipulations. 213.39 Section 213.39 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.39 Stipulations. The lessee under any...

  14. 25 CFR 213.39 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stipulations. 213.39 Section 213.39 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.39 Stipulations. The lessee under any...

  15. 25 CFR 213.39 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stipulations. 213.39 Section 213.39 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.39 Stipulations. The lessee under any...

  16. 25 CFR 213.39 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stipulations. 213.39 Section 213.39 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.39 Stipulations. The lessee under any...

  17. Assessing Mental Models of Emergencies Through Two Knowledge Elicitation Tasks.

    PubMed

    Whitmer, Daphne E; Sims, Valerie K; Torres, Michael E

    2017-05-01

    The goals of this study were to assess the risk identification aspect of mental models using standard elicitation methods and how university campus alerts were related to these mental models. People fail to follow protective action recommendations in emergency warnings. Past research has yet to examine cognitive processes that influence emergency decision-making. Study 1 examined 2 years of emergency alerts distributed by a large southeastern university. In Study 2, participants listed emergencies in a thought-listing task. Study 3 measured participants' time to decide if a situation was an emergency. The university distributed the most alerts about an armed person, theft, and fire. In Study 2, participants most frequently listed fire, car accident, heart attack, and theft. In Study 3, participants quickly decided a bomb, murder, fire, tornado, and rape were emergencies. They most slowly decided that a suspicious package and identify theft were emergencies. Recent interaction with warnings was only somewhat related to participants' mental models of emergencies. Risk identification precedes decision-making and applying protective actions. Examining these characteristics of people's mental representations of emergencies is fundamental to further understand why some emergency warnings go ignored. Someone must believe a situation is serious to categorize it as an emergency before taking the protective action recommendations in an emergency warning. Present-day research must continue to examine the problem of people ignoring warning communication, as there are important cognitive factors that have not yet been explored until the present research.

  18. Emergency obstetric care: Making the impossible possible through task shifting.

    PubMed

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Mathai, Matthews

    2015-10-01

    Task shifting-moving tasks to healthcare workers with a shorter training-for emergency obstetric care (EmOC) can potentially improve access to lifesaving interventions and thereby contribute to reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The present paper reviews studies on task shifting for the provision of EmOC. Most studies were performed in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia and focused primarily on task shifting for the performance of cesarean deliveries. Cesarean delivery rates increased following EmOC training without significant increase in adverse outcomes. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of task shifting in EmOC and the role of this approach in improving maternal and newborn health in the short and long term.

  19. Scheduling for Emergency Tasks in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Xia, Changqing; Jin, Xi; Kong, Linghe; Zeng, Peng

    2017-07-20

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are widely applied in industrial manufacturing systems. By means of centralized control, the real-time requirement and reliability can be provided by WSNs in industrial production. Furthermore, many approaches reserve resources for situations in which the controller cannot perform centralized resource allocation. The controller assigns these resources as it becomes aware of when and where accidents have occurred. However, the reserved resources are limited, and such incidents are low-probability events. In addition, resource reservation may not be effective since the controller does not know when and where accidents will actually occur. To address this issue, we improve the reliability of scheduling for emergency tasks by proposing a method based on a stealing mechanism. In our method, an emergency task is transmitted by stealing resources allocated to regular flows. The challenges addressed in our work are as follows: (1) emergencies occur only occasionally, but the industrial system must deliver the corresponding flows within their deadlines when they occur; (2) we wish to minimize the impact of emergency flows by reducing the number of stolen flows. The contributions of this work are two-fold: (1) we first define intersections and blocking as new characteristics of flows; and (2) we propose a series of distributed routing algorithms to improve the schedulability and to reduce the impact of emergency flows. We demonstrate that our scheduling algorithm and analysis approach are better than the existing ones by extensive simulations.

  20. 28 CFR 68.47 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stipulations. 68.47 Section 68.47 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES IN CASES INVOLVING ALLEGATIONS OF UNLAWFUL EMPLOYMENT OF...

  1. 15 CFR 719.15 - Procedural stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedural stipulations. 719.15 Section 719.15 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION...

  2. 9 CFR 4.11 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stipulations. 4.11 Section 4.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE ANIMAL WELFARE ACT Supplemental Rules of...

  3. 9 CFR 4.11 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stipulations. 4.11 Section 4.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE ANIMAL WELFARE ACT Supplemental Rules of...

  4. 9 CFR 4.11 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stipulations. 4.11 Section 4.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE ANIMAL WELFARE ACT Supplemental Rules of...

  5. 9 CFR 4.11 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stipulations. 4.11 Section 4.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE ANIMAL WELFARE ACT Supplemental Rules of...

  6. 9 CFR 4.11 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stipulations. 4.11 Section 4.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE ANIMAL WELFARE ACT Supplemental Rules of...

  7. 9 CFR 12.10 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stipulations. 12.10 Section 12.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE HORSE PROTECTION ACT Supplemental Rules of...

  8. 9 CFR 12.10 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stipulations. 12.10 Section 12.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE HORSE PROTECTION ACT Supplemental Rules of...

  9. 9 CFR 167.10 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stipulations. 167.10 Section 167.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION ACT...

  10. 9 CFR 167.10 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stipulations. 167.10 Section 167.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION ACT...

  11. 9 CFR 167.10 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stipulations. 167.10 Section 167.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION ACT...

  12. 9 CFR 167.10 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stipulations. 167.10 Section 167.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION ACT...

  13. 9 CFR 167.10 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stipulations. 167.10 Section 167.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION ACT...

  14. 9 CFR 202.210 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... opportunity for a hearing and agree to pay a specified civil penalty within a designated time; (3) The Administrator will agree to settle the matter by accepting payment of the specified civil penalty within a designated time; (4) If the person does not agree to the stipulation, or does not pay the penalty within...

  15. 9 CFR 202.210 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... opportunity for a hearing and agree to pay a specified civil penalty within a designated time; (3) The Administrator will agree to settle the matter by accepting payment of the specified civil penalty within a designated time; (4) If the person does not agree to the stipulation, or does not pay the penalty within...

  16. 7 CFR 1.75 - General stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General stipulations. 1.75 Section 1.75 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Cooperative Production of Television... direct or implied, by the U.S. Department of Agriculture or its agencies, of the sponsor's product....

  17. 7 CFR 380.10 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stipulations. 380.10 Section 380.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER CERTAIN ACTS Supplemental Rules of...

  18. 9 CFR 12.10 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stipulations. 12.10 Section 12.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE HORSE PROTECTION ACT Supplemental Rules...

  19. 9 CFR 12.10 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stipulations. 12.10 Section 12.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE HORSE PROTECTION ACT Supplemental Rules...

  20. 9 CFR 12.10 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stipulations. 12.10 Section 12.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE HORSE PROTECTION ACT Supplemental Rules...

  1. 15 CFR 719.15 - Procedural stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedural stipulations. 719.15 Section 719.15 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS...

  2. 49 CFR 386.41 - Stipulations regarding discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... other methods of discovery. ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stipulations regarding discovery. 386.41 Section... MATERIALS PROCEEDINGS General Rules and Hearings § 386.41 Stipulations regarding discovery. Unless...

  3. 29 CFR 102.40 - Stipulations of fact admissible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stipulations of fact admissible. 102.40 Section 102.40 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8... § 102.40 Stipulations of fact admissible. In any such proceeding stipulations of fact may be...

  4. 29 CFR 102.40 - Stipulations of fact admissible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stipulations of fact admissible. 102.40 Section 102.40 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8... § 102.40 Stipulations of fact admissible. In any such proceeding stipulations of fact may be...

  5. Effective Behavior Management in Preschool Classrooms and Children's Task Orientation: Enhancing Emergent Literacy and Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer; Kaderavek, Joan N.; Guo, Ying; Justice, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among preschool teachers' behavior management, children's task orientation, and children's emergent literacy and language development, as well as the extent to which task orientation moderated the relation between teachers' behavior management and children's emergent literacy and language development.…

  6. 32 CFR 644.115 - Revestment of title by stipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Required information. A sample stipulation for revestment is contained in Figure 5-8 in ER 405-1-12 which... (where applicable). (5) The stipulation will include, as an exhibit, maps delineating the fee area in red, the easement area in blue, and the area to be revested in yellow. (6) The letter of transmittal...

  7. 5 CFR 2423.26 - Stipulations of fact submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... material issue of fact exists, the parties may jointly submit a motion to the Administrative Law Judge or Authority requesting consideration of the matter based upon stipulations of fact. Briefs of the parties are... shall be ruled upon expeditiously. (b) Stipulations to the Administrative Law Judge. Where...

  8. 41 CFR 50-201.201 - Breach of stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Breach of stipulations... Public Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.201 Breach of... is liable for liquidated damages by reason of a breach of stipulations as provided in section 2...

  9. 5 CFR 2423.26 - Stipulations of fact submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stipulations of fact submissions. 2423.26..., Prehearing Procedures § 2423.26 Stipulations of fact submissions. (a) General. When all parties agree that no material issue of fact exists, the parties may jointly submit a motion to the Administrative Law Judge...

  10. 41 CFR 50-201.3 - Insertion of stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... original contract, charging any additional cost to the original contractor. Any sums of money due to the... stipulations in a prominent and readily accessible place at the site of the contract work and shall keep such...

  11. 29 CFR 1921.7 - Stipulations of compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT Prehearing Procedures § 1921.7 Stipulations of compliance. At any time prior to the issuance of a complaint in the proceeding, the Assistant Solicitor in charge of trial litigation...

  12. Can You Multitask? Evidence and Limitations of Task Switching and Multitasking in Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Skaugset, L Melissa; Farrell, Susan; Carney, Michele; Wolff, Margaret; Santen, Sally A; Perry, Marcia; Cico, Stephen John

    2016-08-01

    Emergency physicians work in a fast-paced environment that is characterized by frequent interruptions and the expectation that they will perform multiple tasks efficiently and without error while maintaining oversight of the entire emergency department. However, there is a lack of definition and understanding of the behaviors that constitute effective task switching and multitasking, as well as how to improve these skills. This article reviews the literature on task switching and multitasking in a variety of disciplines-including cognitive science, human factors engineering, business, and medicine-to define and describe the successful performance of task switching and multitasking in emergency medicine. Multitasking, defined as the performance of two tasks simultaneously, is not possible except when behaviors become completely automatic; instead, physicians rapidly switch between small tasks. This task switching causes disruption in the primary task and may contribute to error. A framework is described to enhance the understanding and practice of these behaviors. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of Medical Task Times in an Emergency Center Setting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    procedures are readily available in any standard textbook of surgery , but details of treatment protocols are still lacking. Given this situation, the...traumatic injuries with particular attention to penetrating injury to the thorax and abdomen was reviewed in current textbooks and review books of surgery ...Philadelphia, 1986. Klippel, A. and Anderson, C., eds. Manual of Emergency and Outpatient Techniques: Washington University Department of Surgery . Little, Brown

  14. Job task characteristics of Australian emergency services volunteers during search and rescue operations.

    PubMed

    Silk, Aaron; Lenton, Gavin; Savage, Robbie; Aisbett, Brad

    2017-07-28

    Search and rescue operations are necessary in locating, assisting and recovering individuals lost or in distress. In Australia, land-based search and rescue roles require a range of physically demanding tasks undertaken in dynamic and challenging environments. The aim of the current research was to identify and characterise the physically demanding tasks inherent to search and rescue operation personnel within Australia. These aims were met through a subjective job task analysis approach. In total, 11 criterion tasks were identified by personnel. These tasks were the most physically demanding, frequently occurring and operationally important tasks to these specialist roles. Muscular strength was the dominant fitness component for 7 of the 11 tasks. In addition to the discrete criterion tasks, an operational scenario was established. With the tasks and operational scenario identified, objective task analysis procedures can be undertaken so that practitioners can implement evidence-based strategies, such as physical selection procedures and task-based physical training programs, commensurate with the physical demands of search and rescue job roles. Practitioner Summary: The identification of physically demanding tasks amongst specialist emergency service roles predicates health and safety strategies which can be incorporated into organisations. Knowledge of physical task parameters allows employers to mitigate injury risk through the implementation of strategies modelled on the precise physical demands of the role.

  15. 32 CFR 644.115 - Revestment of title by stipulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Revestment of title by stipulation. 644.115 Section 644.115 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Acquisition Acquisition by Condemnation Proceedings § 644.115 Revestment of...

  16. 43 CFR 2932.41 - What stipulations must I follow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) PERMITS FOR RECREATION ON PUBLIC LANDS Special Recreation Permits for Commercial Use, Competitive Events, Organized Groups, and Recreation Use in... Special Recreation Permit. BLM may impose stipulations and conditions to meet management goals...

  17. 43 CFR 4120.3-4 - Standards, design and stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-4 Standards, design and stipulations. Range improvement permits and cooperative range improvement agreements shall specify the standards, design, construction and maintenance...

  18. 43 CFR 4120.3-4 - Standards, design and stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-4 Standards, design and stipulations. Range improvement permits and cooperative range improvement agreements shall specify the standards, design, construction and maintenance...

  19. 43 CFR 4120.3-4 - Standards, design and stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Grazing Management § 4120.3-4 Standards, design and stipulations. Range improvement permits and cooperative range improvement agreements shall specify the standards, design, construction and maintenance...

  20. 15 CFR 280.217 - Procedural stipulations; extension of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS FASTENER QUALITY Enforcement § 280.217 Procedural stipulations; extension of time. (a... with the administrative law judge will modify any procedures established by this part. (b) Extension...

  1. 15 CFR 280.217 - Procedural stipulations; extension of time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS FASTENER QUALITY Enforcement § 280.217 Procedural stipulations; extension of time. (a... with the administrative law judge will modify any procedures established by this part. (b) Extension...

  2. Students' Expectations from Technology in Mathematical Tasks: Mathematical Relationships between Objects, Instrumental Genesis and Emergent Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laina, Vasiliki; Monaghan, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on two students' work on geometry tasks in a dynamic geometry system. It augments prior work on students' instrumental geneses via a consideration of emergent goals that arise in students' work. It offers a way to interpret students' (working with new software) awareness of what software can and cannot do and students'…

  3. Language Creativity and Co-Emergence of Form and Meaning in Creative Writing Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tin, Tan Bee

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on various theoretical approaches to creativity and the emergentist perspectives, this study examines the opportunities for creative language use and emergence of complex language in creative writing tasks with high formal constraints (acrostics) and those with looser formal constraints (similes). It indicates that formal constraints lead…

  4. Students' Expectations from Technology in Mathematical Tasks: Mathematical Relationships between Objects, Instrumental Genesis and Emergent Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laina, Vasiliki; Monaghan, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on two students' work on geometry tasks in a dynamic geometry system. It augments prior work on students' instrumental geneses via a consideration of emergent goals that arise in students' work. It offers a way to interpret students' (working with new software) awareness of what software can and cannot do and students'…

  5. Video as a tool for improving tracheal intubation tasks for emergency medical and trauma care.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Colin F; Xiao, Yan; Hu, Fu-Ming; Seagull, F Jacob; Fitzgerald, Mark

    2007-10-01

    We illustrate how audio-video data records can improve emergency medical care, using airway management to show how such video data may help to identify unsafe acts, accident precursors, and latent and systems failures and to evaluate performance. This was a retrospective analysis of videos of real patient resuscitation in a trauma center. Participant care providers reviewing their own videos of tracheal intubation identified failures to use diagnostic equipment, fixation errors, and team and communication errors. Neutral expert observers noted team coordination failures and poor error recovery. Comparison with a consensus guideline for a tracheal intubation task/communication pathway showed that communications were unclear or not made, and key tasks were omitted by team members. Differences were detected between performance of tracheal intubation in elective and emergency circumstances. Revised practices ("3 Cs": clinical examination, communication, carbon dioxide) mitigated task performance and communication deficiencies. Video is complementary to traditional quality improvement methods for improving performance in airway management and emergency medical and trauma care, assessing standard operating procedures, and reviewing communications. Video data identify performance details not found in quality improvement approaches, including medical record review or recall by participant care providers. Weaknesses in using video for data include lengthy video review processes, poor audio, and the inability to adequately analyze events outside the field of view. Opportunities are to use video audit for quality improvement of other emergency tasks. Video buffering reduces personnel requirements for capture and simplifies data extraction. Medicolegal and confidentiality threats are significant.

  6. Language Creativity and Co-Emergence of Form and Meaning in Creative Writing Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tin, Tan Bee

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on various theoretical approaches to creativity and the emergentist perspectives, this study examines the opportunities for creative language use and emergence of complex language in creative writing tasks with high formal constraints (acrostics) and those with looser formal constraints (similes). It indicates that formal constraints lead…

  7. Tasks completed by nursing members of a teaching hospital Medical Emergency Team.

    PubMed

    Topple, Michelle; Ryan, Brooke; Baldwin, Ian; McKay, Richard; Blythe, Damien; Rogan, John; Radford, Sam; Jones, Daryl

    2016-02-01

    To assess tasks completed by intensive care medical emergency team nurses. Prospective observational study. Australian teaching hospital. Nursing-related technical and non-technical tasks and level of self-reported confidence and competence. Amongst 400 calls, triggers and nursing tasks were captured in 93.5% and 77.3% of cases, respectively. The median patient age was 73 years. The four most common triggers were hypotension (22.0%), tachycardia (21.1%), low SpO2 (17.4%), and altered conscious state (10.1%). Non-technical skills included investigation review (33.7%), history acquisition (18.4%), contribution to the management plan (40.5%) and explanation to bedside nurses (78.3%), doctors (13.6%), allied health (3.9%) or patient/relative (39.5%). Technical tasks included examining the circulation (32%), conscious state (29.4%), and chest (26.5%). Additional tasks included adjusting oxygen (23.9%), humidification (8.4%), non-invasive ventilation (6.5%), performing an ECG (22%), and administrating fluid as a bolus (17.5%) or maintenance (16, 5.2%), or medication as a statim dose (16.8%) or infusion (5.2%). Self-reported competence and confidence appeared to be high overall amongst our MET nurses. Our findings provide important information on the tasks completed by Medical Emergency Team nurses and will guide future training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Emergence of Visual Awareness: Temporal Dynamics in Relation to Task and Mask Type

    PubMed Central

    Kiefer, Markus; Kammer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    One aspect of consciousness phenomena, the temporal emergence of visual awareness, has been subject of a controversial debate. How can visual awareness, that is the experiential quality of visual stimuli, be characterized best? Is there a sharp discontinuous or dichotomous transition between unaware and fully aware states, or does awareness emerge gradually encompassing intermediate states? Previous studies yielded conflicting results and supported both dichotomous and gradual views. It is well conceivable that these conflicting results are more than noise, but reflect the dynamic nature of the temporal emergence of visual awareness. Using a psychophysical approach, the present research tested whether the emergence of visual awareness is context-dependent with a temporal two-alternative forced choice task. During backward masking of word targets, it was assessed whether the relative temporal sequence of stimulus thresholds is modulated by the task (stimulus presence, letter case, lexical decision, and semantic category) and by mask type. Four masks with different similarity to the target features were created. Psychophysical functions were then fitted to the accuracy data in the different task conditions as a function of the stimulus mask SOA in order to determine the inflection point (conscious threshold of each feature) and slope of the psychophysical function (transition from unaware to aware within each feature). Depending on feature-mask similarity, thresholds in the different tasks were highly dispersed suggesting a graded transition from unawareness to awareness or had less differentiated thresholds indicating that clusters of features probed by the tasks quite simultaneously contribute to the percept. The latter observation, although not compatible with the notion of a sharp all-or-none transition between unaware and aware states, suggests a less gradual or more discontinuous emergence of awareness. Analyses of slopes of the fitted psychophysical functions

  9. Sex differences in verbal working memory performance emerge at very high loads of common neuroimaging tasks.

    PubMed

    Reed, Jessica L; Gallagher, Natalie M; Sullivan, Marie; Callicott, Joseph H; Green, Adam E

    2017-04-01

    Working memory (WM) supports a broad range of intelligent cognition and has been the subject of rich cognitive and neural characterization. However, the highest ranges of WM have not been fully characterized, especially for verbal information. Tasks developed to test multiple levels of WM demand (load) currently predominate brain-based WM research. These tasks are typically used at loads that allow most healthy participants to perform well, which facilitates neuroimaging data collection. Critically, however, high performance at lower loads may obscure differences that emerge at higher loads. A key question not yet addressed at high loads concerns the effect of sex. Thoroughgoing investigation of high-load verbal WM is thus timely to test for potential hidden effects, and to provide behavioral context for effects of sex observed in WM-related brain structure and function. We tested 111 young adults, matched on genotype for the WM-associated COMT-Val(108/158)Met polymorphism, on three classic WM tasks using verbal information. Each task was tested at four WM loads, including higher loads than those used in previous studies of sex differences. All tasks loaded on a single factor, enabling comparison of verbal WM ability at a construct level. Results indicated sex effects at high loads across tasks and within each task, such that males had higher accuracy, even among groups that were matched for performance at lower loads.

  10. Variations in task constraints shape emergent performance outcomes and complexity levels in balancing.

    PubMed

    Caballero Sánchez, Carla; Barbado Murillo, David; Davids, Keith; Moreno Hernández, Francisco J

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the extent to which specific interacting constraints of performance might increase or decrease the emergent complexity in a movement system, and whether this could affect the relationship between observed movement variability and the central nervous system's capacity to adapt to perturbations during balancing. Fifty-two healthy volunteers performed eight trials where different performance constraints were manipulated: task difficulty (three levels) and visual biofeedback conditions (with and without the center of pressure (COP) displacement and a target displayed). Balance performance was assessed using COP-based measures: mean velocity magnitude (MVM) and bivariate variable error (BVE). To assess the complexity of COP, fuzzy entropy (FE) and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) were computed. ANOVAs showed that MVM and BVE increased when task difficulty increased. During biofeedback conditions, individuals showed higher MVM but lower BVE at the easiest level of task difficulty. Overall, higher FE and lower DFA values were observed when biofeedback was available. On the other hand, FE reduced and DFA increased as difficulty level increased, in the presence of biofeedback. However, when biofeedback was not available, the opposite trend in FE and DFA values was observed. Regardless of changes to task constraints and the variable investigated, balance performance was positively related to complexity in every condition. Data revealed how specificity of task constraints can result in an increase or decrease in complexity emerging in a neurobiological system during balance performance.

  11. Realism of procedural task trainers in a pediatric emergency medicine procedures course.

    PubMed

    Shefrin, Allan; Khazei, Afshin; Cheng, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) physicians have minimal experience in life saving procedures and have turned to task trainers to learn these skills. Realism of these models is an important consideration that has received little study. PEM physicians and trainees participated in a day long procedural training course that utilized commercially available and homemade task trainers to teach pericardiocentesis, chest tube insertion, cricothyroidotomy and central line insertion. Participants rated the realism of the task trainers as part of a post-course survey. The homemade task trainers received variable realism ratings, with 91% of participants rating the pork rib chest tube model as realistic, 82% rating the gelatin pericardiocentesis mold as realistic and 36% rating the ventilator tubing cricothyroidotomy model as realistic. Commercial trainers also received variable ratings, with 45% rating the chest drain and pericardiocentesis simulator as realistic, 74% rating the crichotracheotomy trainer as realistic and 80% rating the central line insertion trainer as realistic. Task training models utilized in our course received variable realism ratings. When deciding what type of task trainer to use future courses should carefully consider the desired aspect of realism, and how it aligns with the procedural skill, balanced with cost considerations.

  12. Realism of procedural task trainers in a pediatric emergency medicine procedures course

    PubMed Central

    Shefrin, Allan; Khazei, Afshin; Cheng, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Background Pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) physicians have minimal experience in life saving procedures and have turned to task trainers to learn these skills. Realism of these models is an important consideration that has received little study. Method PEM physicians and trainees participated in a day long procedural training course that utilized commercially available and homemade task trainers to teach pericardiocentesis, chest tube insertion, cricothyroidotomy and central line insertion. Participants rated the realism of the task trainers as part of a post-course survey. Results The homemade task trainers received variable realism ratings, with 91% of participants rating the pork rib chest tube model as realistic, 82% rating the gelatin pericardiocentesis mold as realistic and 36% rating the ventilator tubing cricothyroidotomy model as realistic. Commercial trainers also received variable ratings, with 45% rating the chest drain and pericardiocentesis simulator as realistic, 74% rating the crichotracheotomy trainer as realistic and 80% rating the central line insertion trainer as realistic. Conclusions Task training models utilized in our course received variable realism ratings. When deciding what type of task trainer to use future courses should carefully consider the desired aspect of realism, and how it aligns with the procedural skill, balanced with cost considerations. PMID:26451232

  13. 32 CFR 644.465 - Physical restoration where stipulation not obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Physical restoration where stipulation not obtained. 644.465 Section 644.465 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... § 644.465 Physical restoration where stipulation not obtained. If such stipulation is not obtainable...

  14. The Effects of Guided Imagery on Heart Rate Variability in Simulated Spaceflight Emergency Tasks Performers

    PubMed Central

    Yijing, Zhang; Xiaoping, Du; Fang, Liu; Xiaolu, Jing; Bin, Wu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of guided imagery training on heart rate variability in individuals while performing spaceflight emergency tasks. Materials and Methods. Twenty-one student subjects were recruited for the experiment and randomly divided into two groups: imagery group (n = 11) and control group (n = 10). The imagery group received instructor-guided imagery (session 1) and self-guided imagery training (session 2) consecutively, while the control group only received conventional training. Electrocardiograms of the subjects were recorded during their performance of nine spaceflight emergency tasks after imagery training. Results. In both of the sessions, the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), the standard deviation of all normal NN (SDNN), the proportion of NN50 divided by the total number of NNs (PNN50), the very low frequency (VLF), the low frequency (LF), the high frequency (HF), and the total power (TP) in the imagery group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Moreover, LF/HF of the subjects after instructor-guided imagery training was lower than that after self-guided imagery training. Conclusions. Guided imagery was an effective regulator for HRV indices and could be a potential stress countermeasure in performing spaceflight tasks. PMID:26137491

  15. The Stance Leads the Dance: The Emergence of Role in a Joint Supra-Postural Task

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Tehran J.; Pinto, Gabriela B.; Kiefer, Adam W.

    2017-01-01

    Successfully meeting a shared goal usually requires co-actors to adopt complementary roles. However, in many cases, who adopts what role is not explicitly predetermined, but instead emerges as a consequence of the differences in the individual abilities and constraints imposed upon each actor. Perhaps the most basic of roles are leader and follower. Here, we investigated the emergence of “leader-follower” dynamics in inter-personal coordination using a joint supra-postural task paradigm (Ramenzoni et al., 2011; Athreya et al., 2014). Pairs of actors were tasked with holding two objects in alignment (each actor manually controlled one of the objects) as they faced different demands for stance (stable vs. difficult) and control (which actor controlled the larger or smaller object). Our results indicate that when actors were in identical stances, neither led the inter-personal (between actors) coordination by any systematic fashion. Alternatively, when asymmetries in postural demands were introduced, the actor with the more difficult stance led the coordination (as determined using cross-recurrence quantification analysis). Moreover, changes in individual stance difficulty resulted in similar changes in the structure of both intra-personal (individual) and inter-personal (dyadic) coordination, suggesting a scale invariance of the task dynamics. Implications for the study of interpersonal coordination are discussed. PMID:28536547

  16. Multi-Satellite Scheduling Approach for Dynamic Areal Tasks Triggered by Emergent Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, X. N.; Zhai, X. J.; Tang, H.; Wu, L. X.

    2016-06-01

    The process of satellite mission scheduling, which plays a significant role in rapid response to emergent disasters, e.g. earthquake, is used to allocate the observation resources and execution time to a series of imaging tasks by maximizing one or more objectives while satisfying certain given constraints. In practice, the information obtained of disaster situation changes dynamically, which accordingly leads to the dynamic imaging requirement of users. We propose a satellite scheduling model to address dynamic imaging tasks triggered by emergent disasters. The goal of proposed model is to meet the emergency response requirements so as to make an imaging plan to acquire rapid and effective information of affected area. In the model, the reward of the schedule is maximized. To solve the model, we firstly present a dynamic segmenting algorithm to partition area targets. Then the dynamic heuristic algorithm embedding in a greedy criterion is designed to obtain the optimal solution. To evaluate the model, we conduct experimental simulations in the scene of Wenchuan Earthquake. The results show that the simulated imaging plan can schedule satellites to observe a wider scope of target area. We conclude that our satellite scheduling model can optimize the usage of satellite resources so as to obtain images in disaster response in a more timely and efficient manner.

  17. Multi-agent Architecture for the Multi-Skill Tasks Modeling at the Pediatric Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Ajmi, Ines; Zgaya, Hayfa; Hammadi, Slim; Gammoudi, Lotfi; Martinot, Alain; Beuscart, Régis; Renard, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Patient journey in the Pediatric Emergency Department is a highly complex process. Current approaches for modeling are insufficient because they either focus only on the single ancillary units, or therefore do not consider the entire treatment process of the patients, or they do not account for the dynamics of the patient journey modeling. Therefore, we propose an agent based approach in which patients and emergency department human resources are represented as autonomous agents who are able to react flexible to changes and disturbances through pro-activeness and reactiveness. The main aim of this paper is to present the overall design of the proposed multi-agent system, emphasizing its architecture and the behavior of each agent of the model. Besides, we describe inter-agent communication based on the agent interaction protocol to ensure cooperation between agents when they perform the coordination of tasks for the users. This work is integrated into the ANR HOST project (ANR-11-TecSan-010).

  18. Visual strategies for enhancing user perception of task relationships in emergency operations centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudzic, Stephanie; Godwin, Alex; Kilgore, Ryan

    2010-04-01

    In time-sensitive environments, such as DHS emergency operations centers (EOCs), it is imperative for decision makers to rapidly understand and address key logical relationships that exist between tasks, entities, and events, even as conditions fluctuate. These relationships often have important temporal characteristics, such as tasks that must be completed before others can be started (e.g., buses must be transported to an area before an evacuation process can begin). Unfortunately, traditional temporal display methods, such as mission timelines, typically reveal only rudimentary event details and fail to support user understanding of and reasoning about critical temporal constraints and interrelationships across multiple mission components. To address these shortcomings, we developed a visual language to enhance temporal data displays by explicitly and intuitively conveying these constraints and relationships to decision makers. In this paper, we detail these design strategies and describe ongoing evaluation efforts to assess their usability and effectiveness to support decision-making tasks in complex, time-sensitive environments. We present a case study in which we applied our visual enhancements to a timeline display, improving the perception of logical relationships among events in a Master Scenario Event List (MSEL). These methods reduce the cognitive workload of decision makers and improve the efficacy of identification.

  19. Neuronal processes involved in subjective feeling emergence: oscillatory activity during an emotional monitoring task.

    PubMed

    Dan Glauser, Elise S; Scherer, Klaus R

    2008-06-01

    Subjective feeling, defined as the conscious experience of emotion and measured by self-report, is generally used as a manipulation check in studying emotional processes, rather than being the primary focus of research. In this paper, we report a first investigation into the processes involved in the emergence of a subjective feeling. We hypothesized that the oscillatory brain activity presumed to underlie the emergence of a subjective feeling can be measured by electroencephalographic (EEG) frequency band activity, similar to what has been shown in the literature for the conscious representation of objects. Emotional reactions were induced in participants using static visual stimuli. Episodes for which participants reported a subjective feeling were compared to those that did not lead to a conscious emotional experience, in order to identify potential differences between these two kinds of reactions at the oscillatory level. Discrete wavelet transforms of the EEG signal in gamma (31-63 Hz) and beta (15-31 Hz) bands showed significant differences between these two types of reactions. In addition, whereas beta band activities were widely distributed, differences in gamma band activity were predominantly observed in the frontal and prefrontal regions. The results are interpreted and discussed in terms of the complexity of the processes required to perform the affective monitoring task. It is suggested that future work on coherent mental representation of multimodal reaction patterns leading to the emergence of conscious emotional experience should include modifications in the time window examined and an extension of the frequency range to be considered.

  20. Auxin transport inhibitor induced low complexity petiolated leaves and sessile leaf-like stipules and architectures of heritable leaf and stipule mutants in Pisum sativum suggest that its simple lobed stipules and compound leaf represent ancestral forms in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arvind; Sharma, Vishakha; Khan, Moinuddin; Hindala, Mali Ram; Kumar, Sushil

    2013-04-01

    In angiosperms, leaf and stipule architectures are inherited species-specific traits. Variation in leaf and stipule sizes, and forms result from the interaction between abiotic and biotic stimuli, and gene regulatory network(s) that underlie the leaf and stipule developmental programme(s). Here, correspondence between variation in leaf and stipule architectures described for extant angiosperms and that induced mutationally and by imposition of stress in model angiosperm species, especially in Pisum sativum, was detected. Following inferences were drawn from the observations. (i) Several leaf forms in P. sativum have origin in fusion of stipule and leaf primordia. Perfoliate (and amplexicaul and connate) simple sessile leaves and sessile adnate leaves are the result of such primordial fusions. Reversal of changes in the gene regulatory network responsible for fusion products are thought to restore original stipule and leaf conditions. (ii) Compound leaf formation in several different model plants, is a result of promotion of pathways for such condition by gene regulatory networks directed by KNOx1 and LEAFY transcription factors or intercalation of the gene networks directed by them. (iii) Gene regulatory network for compound leaves in P. sativum when mutated generates highly complex compound leaves on one hand and simple leaves on other hand. These altered conditions are mutationally reversible. (vi) Simple leaves in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana despite overexpression of KNOx1 orthologues do not become compound. (v) All forms of leaves, including simple leaf, probably have origins in a gene regulatory network of the kind present in P. sativum.

  1. A qualitative study of dietary discussions as an emerging task for cancer clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Katherine C; Coa, Kisha I; Klassen, Ann C

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Improvements in cancer detection and treatment create a need for care that prioritizes acute treatment and ongoing needs. There have been calls to include health promotion in cancer care, but little empirical consideration of the work involved in such an expansion of services. In this article, we adopt a constructionist position to explore clinicians’ perspectives on capacity for health promotion, specifically dietary counseling. Methods: Our data result from 33 semi-structured qualitative interviews with members of cancer care teams. All interviewees were affiliated with one of two contrasting medical systems located in Baltimore, MD, USA. Interviews focused on professional roles and responsibilities around health promotion for cancer survivors. We employed both purposive and snowball sampling. We conducted a thematic analysis informed by the sociology of professions literature of discussions of dietary change by provider type. Results: We discuss four emergent themes that relate to the work of providing dietary counseling: (1) prioritization of behavior change in survivorship care, (2) evidence base for dietary messaging, (3) available time and clinical priorities and (4) clinical expertise. Interviewees generally expressed support for the importance of diet for healthy cancer survivorship. However, while there was broad support for dietary change and health promotion, we found little evidence of an emerging consensus on how this work should be accomplished, nor an indication of any occupational group expanding their professional remit to prioritize health promotion tasks. Conclusions: Health promotion is the key to any efficient and effective model of cancer care. Careful attention to the impact of the task on key patient outcomes as well as system capacity for the provision of dietary counseling and its fit with a specific professional remit will be critical for successful integration of health promotion into routine cancer care. PMID:27635247

  2. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Environmental Justice Task Force draft final report executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Over the last decade, concern about the impact of environmental pollution on particular population groups has been growing. There is a widespread belief that low-income and/or minority groups may bear disproportionate high and adverse human health and environmental effects from pollution. This belief has resulted in a movement to assure environmental justice for all populations. Early in her tenure as the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Administrator, Carol Browner designated the pursuit of environmental justice as one of the Agency`s top priorities. In response to concerns voiced by many groups outside the Agency, the Assistant Administrator of the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER), Elliott P. Laws, on November 29, 1993, directed the formation of a task force to analyze environmental justice issues specific to waste programs and develop recommendations to address these issues. President Clinton signed an Executive Order on Environmental Justice (February 11, 1994) (Executive Order) which focused the attention of all Federal agencies on environmental justice issues. EPA is currently developing an Agency-wide strategy pursuant to the Executive Order. The requirements of the Executive Order proved extra emphasis to the mission of the OSWER task force.

  3. 30 CFR 550.222 - What lease stipulations information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What lease stipulations information must accompany the EP? 550.222 Section 550.222 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.222 What lease stipulations information must...

  4. 30 CFR 550.222 - What lease stipulations information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What lease stipulations information must accompany the EP? 550.222 Section 550.222 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... Information Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 550.222 What lease stipulations information must...

  5. 30 CFR 250.222 - What lease stipulations information must accompany the EP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What lease stipulations information must accompany the EP? 250.222 Section 250.222 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Contents of Exploration Plans (ep) § 250.222 What lease stipulations information must accompany the EP?...

  6. Effects of different instructional constraints on task performance and emergence of coordination in children.

    PubMed

    Chow, Jia Yi; Koh, Michael; Davids, Keith; Button, Chris; Rein, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of different instructional constraints on standing board jump (sbj) performance in children and understand the underlying changes in emergent movement patterns. Two groups of novice participants were provided with either externally or internally focused attentional instructions during an intervention phase. Pre- and post-test sessions were undertaken to determine changes to performance and movement patterns. Thirty-six primary fourth-grade male students were recruited for this study and randomly assigned to either an external, internal focus or control group. Different instructional constraints with either an external focus (image of the achievement) or an internal focus (image of the act) were provided to the participants. Performance scores (jump distances), and data from key kinematic (joint range of motion, ROM) and kinetic variables (jump impulses) were collected. Instructional constraints with an emphasis on an external focus of attention were generally more effective in assisting learners to improve jump distances. Intra-individual analyses highlighted how enhanced jump distances for successful participants may be concomitant with specific changes to kinematic and kinetic variables. Larger joint ROM and adjustment to a comparatively larger horizontal impulse to a vertical impulse were observed for more successful participants at post-test performance. From a constraints-led perspective, the inclusion of instructional constraints encouraging self-adjustments in the control of movements (i.e., image of achievement) had a beneficial effect on individuals performing the standing broad jump task. However, the advantage of using an external focus of attentional instructions could be task- and individual-specific.

  7. Imaging Tasks Scheduling for High-Altitude Airship in Emergency Condition Based on Energy-Aware Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Zhimeng, Li; Chuan, He; Dishan, Qiu; Jin, Liu; Manhao, Ma

    2013-01-01

    Aiming to the imaging tasks scheduling problem on high-altitude airship in emergency condition, the programming models are constructed by analyzing the main constraints, which take the maximum task benefit and the minimum energy consumption as two optimization objectives. Firstly, the hierarchy architecture is adopted to convert this scheduling problem into three subproblems, that is, the task ranking, value task detecting, and energy conservation optimization. Then, the algorithms are designed for the sub-problems, and the solving results are corresponding to feasible solution, efficient solution, and optimization solution of original problem, respectively. This paper makes detailed introduction to the energy-aware optimization strategy, which can rationally adjust airship's cruising speed based on the distribution of task's deadline, so as to decrease the total energy consumption caused by cruising activities. Finally, the application results and comparison analysis show that the proposed strategy and algorithm are effective and feasible. PMID:23864822

  8. Imaging tasks scheduling for high-altitude airship in emergency condition based on energy-aware strategy.

    PubMed

    Zhimeng, Li; Chuan, He; Dishan, Qiu; Jin, Liu; Manhao, Ma

    2013-01-01

    Aiming to the imaging tasks scheduling problem on high-altitude airship in emergency condition, the programming models are constructed by analyzing the main constraints, which take the maximum task benefit and the minimum energy consumption as two optimization objectives. Firstly, the hierarchy architecture is adopted to convert this scheduling problem into three subproblems, that is, the task ranking, value task detecting, and energy conservation optimization. Then, the algorithms are designed for the sub-problems, and the solving results are corresponding to feasible solution, efficient solution, and optimization solution of original problem, respectively. This paper makes detailed introduction to the energy-aware optimization strategy, which can rationally adjust airship's cruising speed based on the distribution of task's deadline, so as to decrease the total energy consumption caused by cruising activities. Finally, the application results and comparison analysis show that the proposed strategy and algorithm are effective and feasible.

  9. Implementation of crowding solutions from the American College of Emergency Physicians Task Force Report on Boarding

    PubMed Central

    Ginde, Adit A.; Raja, Ali S.; Rogers, John; Sullivan, Ashley F.; Espinola, Janice A.; Camargo, Carlos A.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objective We sought to measure the self-reported implementation of the crowding solutions outlined in the 2008 American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) Boarding Task Force report “Emergency Department Crowding: High-Impact Solutions.” We also tested the hypothesis that the self-reported crowding of emergency departments (EDs) was positively associated with the implementation of these solutions. Methods In early 2009, we mailed a survey to all medical or nursing directors from EDs in four US states asking for information regarding their EDs in 2008. Geographic information about the EDs was included in the analysis, along with survey responses about their ED capacity status and implementation of specific ACEP crowding solutions. Results A total of 284 of 351 EDs responded (81%). The majority of EDs were in urban areas (56%), non-teaching hospitals (93%), and not critical access hospitals (76%). The percentage of EDs “over capacity” ranged from 10–49% in each state. The mean number of crowding solutions used in EDs that were at or over capacity ranged from 3.6–4.6 in each state. EDs with visit volumes greater than or equal to three patients/hour were more likely to be over capacity than at capacity or at a good balance (46% vs. 31% and 15%, respectively). In terms of the use of high-impact crowding solutions, hospitals over capacity were more likely to utilize inpatient full capacity protocols (40% vs. 25% and 25%) but not inpatient discharge coordination (29% vs. 27% and 34%) or surgical schedule smoothing (31% vs. 28% and 32%). Hospitals over capacity were also more likely to have fast track units (44% vs. 32% and 16%) and physicians at triage (48% vs. 29% and 17%). Conclusion Less than half of EDs in each state reported operation above capacity. Implementation of some crowding solutions was more common in the above-capacity EDs, although these solutions were not consistently used across geographic locations and hospitals. Given that the

  10. Playing ‘Pong’ Together: Emergent Coordination in a Doubles Interception Task

    PubMed Central

    Benerink, Niek H.; Zaal, Frank T. J. M.; Casanova, Remy; Bonnardel, Nathalie; Bootsma, Reinoud J.

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution we set out to study how a team of two players coordinated their actions so as to intercept an approaching ball. Adopting a doubles-pong task, six teams of two participants each intercepted balls moving downward across a screen toward an interception axis by laterally displacing participant-controlled on-screen paddles. With collisions between paddles resulting in unsuccessful interception, on each trial participants had to decide amongst them who would intercept the ball and who would not. In the absence of possibilities for overt communication, such team decisions were informed exclusively by the visual information provided on the screen. Results demonstrated that collisions were rare and that 91.3 ± 3.4% of all balls were intercepted. While all teams demonstrated a global division of interception space, boundaries between interception domains were fuzzy and could moreover be shifted away from the center of the screen. Balls arriving between the participants’ initial paddle positions often gave rise to both participants initiating an interception movement, requiring one of the participants to abandon the interception attempt at some point so as to allow the other participant to intercept the ball. A simulation of on-the-fly decision making of who intercepted the ball based on a measure capturing the triangular relations between the two paddles and the ball allowed the qualitative aspects of the pattern of observed results to be reproduced, including the timing of abandoning. Overall, the results thus suggest that decisions regarding who intercepts the ball emerge from between-participant interactions. PMID:27999557

  11. 78 FR 68863 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Stipulation, Consent Decree and Settlement Agreement Under the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Stipulation, Consent Decree and Settlement Agreement Under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act On... Agreement. Comments should be addressed to the Assistant Attorney General, Environment and Natural...

  12. Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis for Health Care Decision Making--Emerging Good Practices: Report 2 of the ISPOR MCDA Emerging Good Practices Task Force.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Kevin; IJzerman, Maarten; Thokala, Praveen; Baltussen, Rob; Boysen, Meindert; Kaló, Zoltán; Lönngren, Thomas; Mussen, Filip; Peacock, Stuart; Watkins, John; Devlin, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Health care decisions are complex and involve confronting trade-offs between multiple, often conflicting objectives. Using structured, explicit approaches to decisions involving multiple criteria can improve the quality of decision making. A set of techniques, known under the collective heading, multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA), are useful for this purpose. In 2014, ISPOR established an Emerging Good Practices Task Force. The task force's first report defined MCDA, provided examples of its use in health care, described the key steps, and provided an overview of the principal methods of MCDA. This second task force report provides emerging good-practice guidance on the implementation of MCDA to support health care decisions. The report includes: a checklist to support the design, implementation and review of an MCDA; guidance to support the implementation of the checklist; the order in which the steps should be implemented; illustrates how to incorporate budget constraints into an MCDA; provides an overview of the skills and resources, including available software, required to implement MCDA; and future research directions. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Posture stress on firefighters and emergency medical technicians (EMTs) associated with repetitive reaching, bending, lifting, and pulling tasks.

    PubMed

    Gentzler, Marc; Stader, Sally

    2010-01-01

    These ergonomic evaluations analyze the threat of musculoskeletal injuries primarily due to awkward and extreme postures across two post-fire tasks and a patient care task. The participants were firefighters and emergency medical technicians (EMTs) in an urban U.S. fire department. Ergonomic tools used for the evaluation included the National Institute of Occupational Safety Health (NIOSH) lifting equation, Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), and anthropometric measurements of equipment and persons. High to very high risks were found for lifting the hose above the shoulder to drain it of excess water and for rolling the hoses on the ground. Extreme risk was found for lifting the hose from chest height to above the shoulders during hose drainage. High risk was found for EMT patient care tasks that require reaching for overhead equipment or seated tasks that require horizontal bending and twisting. The risk was high enough for these tasks to warrant modification and changes. The recommendations given included creating new mechanical and technical devices, modifying existing devises, and making workers aware of associated risks to reduce the threat of injury.

  14. The effect of a performance-based intra-procedural checklist on a simulated emergency laparoscopic task in novice surgeons.

    PubMed

    El Boghdady, Michael; Tang, Benjie; Alijani, Afshin

    2017-05-01

    Surgical checklists are in use as means to reduce errors. Checklists are infrequently applied during emergency situations in surgery. We aimed to study the effect of a simple self-administered performance-based checklist on the laparoscopic task when applied during an emergency-simulated scenario. The aviation checklist for unexpected situations is commonly used for simulated training of pilots to handle emergency during flights. This checklist was adopted for use as a standardised-performance-based checklist during emergency surgical tasks. Thirty consented laparoscopic novices were exposed unexpectedly to a bleeding vessel in a laparoscopic virtual reality simulator as an emergency scenario. The task consisted of using laparoscopic clips to achieve haemostasis. Subjects were randomly allocated into two equal groups; those using the checklist that was applied once every 20 s (checklist group) and those without (control group). The checklist group performed significantly better in 5 out of 7 technical factors when compared to the control group: right instrument path length (m), median (IQR) 1.44 [1.22] versus 2.06 [1.70] (p = 0.029), right instrument angular path (degree) 312.10 (269.44 versus 541.80 [455.16] (p = 0.014), left instrument path length (m) 1.20 [0.60] versus 2.08 [2.02] (p = 0.004), and left instrument angular path (degree) 277.62 [132.11] versus 385.88 [428.42] (p = 0.017). The checklist group committed significantly fewer number of errors in the application of haemostatic clips, 3 versus 28 (p = 0.006). Although statistically not significant, total blood loss (lit) decreased in the checklist group from 0.83 [1.23] to 0.78 [0.28] (p = 0.724) and total time (sec) from 186.51 [145.69] to 125.14 [101.46] (p = 0.165). The performance-based intra-procedural checklist significantly enhanced the surgical task performance of novices in an emergency-simulated scenario.

  15. Emergence of tables as first-graders cope with modelling tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peled, Irit; Keisar, Einav

    2015-05-01

    In this action research, first-graders were challenged to cope with a sequence of modelling tasks involving an analysis of given situations and choices of mathematical tools. In the course of the sequence, they underwent a change in the nature of their problem-solving processes and developed modelling competencies. Moreover, during the task sequence, the first-graders spontaneously discovered the power of organizing problem data in a table. They did not merely use their existing mathematical knowledge, but also 'reinvented' tables as a new mathematical tool. This paper describes the gradual development of this tool as the children moved along the task sequence. Notably, the first-graders exhibited this progress in spite of having relatively little mathematical knowledge.

  16. Emergence of Tables as First-Graders Cope with Modelling Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peled, Irit; Keisar, Einav

    2015-01-01

    In this action research, first-graders were challenged to cope with a sequence of modelling tasks involving an analysis of given situations and choices of mathematical tools. In the course of the sequence, they underwent a change in the nature of their problem-solving processes and developed modelling competencies. Moreover, during the task…

  17. Emergence of Tables as First-Graders Cope with Modelling Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peled, Irit; Keisar, Einav

    2015-01-01

    In this action research, first-graders were challenged to cope with a sequence of modelling tasks involving an analysis of given situations and choices of mathematical tools. In the course of the sequence, they underwent a change in the nature of their problem-solving processes and developed modelling competencies. Moreover, during the task…

  18. Students' Production of Narrative and AAE Features during an Emergent Literacy Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Rachel E.; Craig, Holly K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined child production of narrative features and of African American English (AAE) during a wordless storybook oral narrative task. Method: Participants were 30 AAE-speaking African American kindergarten and 1st grade students from low- and mid-socioeconomic status homes. Story grammar (SG), story literary technique (SLT),…

  19. Emergent selectivity for task-relevant stimuli in higher-order auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Atiani, Serin; David, Stephen V; Elgueda, Diego; Locastro, Michael; Radtke-Schuller, Susanne; Shamma, Shihab A; Fritz, Jonathan B

    2014-04-16

    A variety of attention-related effects have been demonstrated in primary auditory cortex (A1). However, an understanding of the functional role of higher auditory cortical areas in guiding attention to acoustic stimuli has been elusive. We recorded from neurons in two tonotopic cortical belt areas in the dorsal posterior ectosylvian gyrus (dPEG) of ferrets trained on a simple auditory discrimination task. Neurons in dPEG showed similar basic auditory tuning properties to A1, but during behavior we observed marked differences between these areas. In the belt areas, changes in neuronal firing rate and response dynamics greatly enhanced responses to target stimuli relative to distractors, allowing for greater attentional selection during active listening. Consistent with existing anatomical evidence, the pattern of sensory tuning and behavioral modulation in auditory belt cortex links the spectrotemporal representation of the whole acoustic scene in A1 to a more abstracted representation of task-relevant stimuli observed in frontal cortex.

  20. Task 1.5 Genomic Shift and Drift Trends of Emerging Pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    Borucki, M

    2010-01-05

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Bioinformatics group has recently taken on a role in DTRA's Transformation Medical Technologies Initiative (TMTI). The high-level goal of TMTI is to accelerate the development of broad-spectrum countermeasures. To achieve those goals, TMTI has a near term need to conduct analyses of genomic shift and drift trends of emerging pathogens, with a focused eye on select agent pathogens, as well as antibiotic and virulence markers. Most emerging human pathogens are zoonotic viruses with a genome composed of RNA. The high mutation rate of the replication enzymes of RNA viruses contributes to sequence drift and provides one mechanism for these viruses to adapt to diverse hosts (interspecies transmission events) and cause new human and zoonotic diseases. Additionally, new viral pathogens frequently emerge due to genetic shift (recombination and segment reassortment) which allows for dramatic genotypic and phenotypic changes to occur rapidly. Bacterial pathogens also evolve via genetic drift and shift, although sequence drift generally occurs at a much slower rate for bacteria as compared to RNA viruses. However, genetic shift such as lateral gene transfer and inter- and intragenomic recombination enables bacteria to rapidly acquire new mechanisms of survival and antibiotic resistance. New technologies such as rapid whole genome sequencing of bacterial genomes, ultra-deep sequencing of RNA virus populations, metagenomic studies of environments rich in antibiotic resistance genes, and the use of microarrays for the detection and characterization of emerging pathogens provide mechanisms to address the challenges posed by the rapid emergence of pathogens. Bioinformatic algorithms that enable efficient analysis of the massive amounts of data generated by these technologies as well computational modeling of protein structures and evolutionary processes need to be developed to allow the technology to fulfill its potential.

  1. Task Force Report on Emergency Evacuation of Transport Airplanes. Volume 1. Summary report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    Slides: Ken Dunkley, Qantas Airways Russell Welker, Boeing Commercial Airplane Company Janna Harkrider, Joint Council of Flight Attendant Unions Vern...Engineer Jeanne Elliott Qantas Airways Training -P.O. Box 3707 Emergency Procedures Seattle, WA 98124 Republic Airlines 16215 SE 31st St.Barbara Dunn...Pilots Association Francesco Friscia Qantas Airways Flight Operations Engineer Alitalia Gary Goodwin Rome-Fiumicino Leonardo Federal Aviation Da Vinci

  2. Emergent selectivity for task-relevant stimuli in higher-order auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Atiani, Serin; David, Stephen V.; Elgueda, Diego; Locastro, Michael; Radtke-Schuller, Susanne; Shamma, Shihab A.; Fritz, Jonathan B.

    2014-01-01

    A variety of attention-related effects have been demonstrated in primary auditory cortex (A1). However, an understanding of the functional role of higher auditory cortical areas in guiding attention to acoustic stimuli has been elusive. We recorded from neurons in two tonotopic cortical belt areas in the dorsal posterior ectosylvian gyrus (dPEG) of ferrets trained on a simple auditory discrimination task. Neurons in dPEG showed similar basic auditory tuning properties to A1, but during behavior we observed marked differences between these areas. In the belt areas, changes in neuronal firing rate and response dynamics greatly enhanced responses to target stimuli relative to distractors, allowing for greater attentional selection during active listening. Consistent with existing anatomical evidence, the pattern of sensory tuning and behavioral modulation in auditory belt cortex links the spectro-temporal representation of the whole acoustic scene in A1 to a more abstracted representation of task-relevant stimuli observed in frontal cortex. PMID:24742467

  3. Language, culture, and task shifting--an emerging challenge for global mental health.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Leslie; Kilian, Sanja; Twesigye, Justus; Attah, Dzifa; Chiliza, Bonginkosi

    2014-01-01

    Language is at the heart of mental health care. Many high-income countries have sophisticated interpreter services, but in low- and middle-income countries there are not sufficient professional services, let alone interpreter services, and task shifting is used. In this article, we discuss this neglected issue in the context of low- and middle-income countries, where task shifting has been suggested as a solution to the problem of scarce mental health resources. The large diversity of languages in low- and middle-income countries, exacerbated by wide-scale migration, has implications for the scale-up of services. We suggest that it would be useful for those who are working innovatively to develop locally delivered mental health programmes in low- and middle-income countries to explore and report on issues of language and how these have been addressed. We need to know more about local challenges, but also about local solutions which seem to work, and for this we need more information from the field than is currently available.

  4. Language, culture, and task shifting – an emerging challenge for global mental health

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Leslie; Kilian, Sanja; Twesigye, Justus; Attah, Dzifa; Chiliza, Bonginkosi

    2014-01-01

    Language is at the heart of mental health care. Many high-income countries have sophisticated interpreter services, but in low- and middle-income countries there are not sufficient professional services, let alone interpreter services, and task shifting is used. In this article, we discuss this neglected issue in the context of low- and middle-income countries, where task shifting has been suggested as a solution to the problem of scarce mental health resources. The large diversity of languages in low- and middle-income countries, exacerbated by wide-scale migration, has implications for the scale-up of services. We suggest that it would be useful for those who are working innovatively to develop locally delivered mental health programmes in low- and middle-income countries to explore and report on issues of language and how these have been addressed. We need to know more about local challenges, but also about local solutions which seem to work, and for this we need more information from the field than is currently available. PMID:24581319

  5. 76 FR 46325 - Notice of Lodging of Stipulated Order Under the Clean Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... of Lodging of Stipulated Order Under the Clean Water Act Notice is hereby given that on July 22, 2011... as a result of the failure of the Figtree Pump Station located on St. Croix, and (b) implement repairs at the Figtree Pump Station, the Barren Spot Pump Station, also located on St. Croix, and...

  6. 30 CFR 250.253 - What lease stipulations information must accompany the DPP or DOCD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What lease stipulations information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.253 Section 250.253 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Information Contents of Development and Production Plans (dpp) and Development Operations...

  7. 32 CFR 644.464 - Negotiating stipulation where proposed settlement not acceptable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... other property damaged, destroyed or lost by the Government. DAEN-REM upon recommendation of the DE will... the event the landowner will not agree to settle, his best offer will be submitted to DAEN-REM, with... included in a stipulation to be filed in the condemnation proceedings, after approval by DAEN-REM and the...

  8. 32 CFR 644.464 - Negotiating stipulation where proposed settlement not acceptable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... other property damaged, destroyed or lost by the Government. DAEN-REM upon recommendation of the DE will... the event the landowner will not agree to settle, his best offer will be submitted to DAEN-REM, with... included in a stipulation to be filed in the condemnation proceedings, after approval by DAEN-REM and the...

  9. 32 CFR 644.464 - Negotiating stipulation where proposed settlement not acceptable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... other property damaged, destroyed or lost by the Government. DAEN-REM upon recommendation of the DE will... the event the landowner will not agree to settle, his best offer will be submitted to DAEN-REM, with... included in a stipulation to be filed in the condemnation proceedings, after approval by DAEN-REM and the...

  10. 32 CFR 644.464 - Negotiating stipulation where proposed settlement not acceptable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... other property damaged, destroyed or lost by the Government. DAEN-REM upon recommendation of the DE will... the event the landowner will not agree to settle, his best offer will be submitted to DAEN-REM, with... included in a stipulation to be filed in the condemnation proceedings, after approval by DAEN-REM and the...

  11. 32 CFR 644.464 - Negotiating stipulation where proposed settlement not acceptable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... other property damaged, destroyed or lost by the Government. DAEN-REM upon recommendation of the DE will... the event the landowner will not agree to settle, his best offer will be submitted to DAEN-REM, with... included in a stipulation to be filed in the condemnation proceedings, after approval by DAEN-REM and the...

  12. Photosynthetic carbon metabolism in leaflets, stipules and tendrils of Pisum sativum L

    SciTech Connect

    Cote, R.; Grodzinski, B. )

    1990-05-01

    Gas exchange and photosynthetic carbon metabolism have been investigated for each of the dominant parts of the pea leaf (P. sativum) in a normal and a semi-leafless phenotype (cv. Improved Laxton's Progress, and cv. Curly, respectively). On a fresh weight basis, net photosynthesis of leaflets and stipules have similar rates, while in tendrils the rte is 40% lower. However, on a surface area basis, tendrils are only 5-10% less efficient photosynthetically when the area is corrected by a factor {pi}/2. Transpiration rates are similar for leaflets and stipules, but double for tendrils even though stomatal frequency on tendrils is reduced by 50%. Dark respiration is higher in tendrils than leaflets and stipules. Gas exchange is comparable in both cultivars. The early {sup 14}C-labelled products of stipules, leaflets and tendrils are similar in both phenotypes, however the tendrils clearly partition about 2-3 times more of the newly fixed {sup 14}CO{sub 2} into the amino acid fraction. These data will be discussed in relation to the anatomy and function of pea tendrils.

  13. 7 CFR 1.654 - What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations? 1.654 Section 1.654 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses Hearing, Briefing, and Decision § 1.654...

  14. 7 CFR 1.654 - What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations? 1.654 Section 1.654 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses Hearing, Briefing, and Decision § 1.654...

  15. 43 CFR 45.54 - What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations? 45.54 Section 45.54 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process...

  16. 7 CFR 1.654 - What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations? 1.654 Section 1.654 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses Hearing, Briefing, and Decision § 1.654...

  17. 7 CFR 1.654 - What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations? 1.654 Section 1.654 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses Hearing, Briefing, and Decision § 1.654...

  18. 7 CFR 1.654 - What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations? 1.654 Section 1.654 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses Hearing, Briefing, and Decision § 1.654...

  19. 43 CFR 45.54 - What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations? 45.54 Section 45.54 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process...

  20. 43 CFR 45.54 - What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations? 45.54 Section 45.54 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process...

  1. 43 CFR 45.54 - What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations? 45.54 Section 45.54 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process...

  2. 43 CFR 45.54 - What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true What are the requirements for exhibits, official notice, and stipulations? 45.54 Section 45.54 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process...

  3. Reactivation of emergent task-related ensembles during slow-wave sleep after neuroprosthetic learning

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Tanuj; Ramanathan, Dhakshin; Wong, Chelsea; Ganguly, Karunesh

    2017-01-01

    Brain-Machine Interfaces can allow neural control over assistive devices. They also provide an important platform to study neural plasticity. Recent studies indicate that optimal engagement of learning is essential for robust neuroprosthetic control. However, little is known about the neural processes that may consolidate a neuroprosthetic skill. Based on the growing body of evidence linking slow-wave activity (SWA) during sleep to consolidation, we examined if there is ‘offline’ processing after neuroprosthetic learning. Using a rodent model, here we show that after successful learning, task-related units specifically experienced increased locking and coherency to SWA during sleep. Moreover, spike-spike coherence among these units was significantly enhanced. These changes were not present with poor skill acquisition or after control awake periods, demonstrating specificity of our observations to learning. Interestingly, time spent in SWA predicted performance gains. Thus, SWA appears to play a role in offline processing after neuroprosthetic learning. PMID:24997761

  4. Teaching the Emergency Department Patient Experience: Needs Assessment from the CORD-EM Task Force

    PubMed Central

    London, Kory S.; Druck, Jeffrey; Silver, Matthew; Finefrock, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Since the creation of Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) patient satisfaction (PS) scores, patient experience (PE) has become a metric that can profoundly affect the fiscal balance of hospital systems, reputation of entire departments and welfare of individual physicians. While government and hospital mandates demonstrate the prominence of PE as a quality measure, no such mandate exists for its education. The objective of this study was to determine the education and evaluation landscape for PE in categorical emergency medicine (EM) residencies. Methods This was a prospective survey analysis of the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD) membership. Program directors (PDs), assistant PDs and core faculty who are part of the CORD listserv were sent an email link to a brief, anonymous electronic survey. Respondents were asked their position in the residency, the name of their department, and questions regarding the presence and types of PS evaluative data and PE education they provide. Results We obtained 168 responses from 139 individual residencies, representing 72% of all categorical EM residencies. This survey found that only 27% of responding residencies provide PS data to their residents. Of those programs, 61% offer simulation scores, 39% provide third-party attending data on cases with resident participation, 37% provide third-party acquired data specifically about residents and 37% provide internally acquired quantitative data. Only 35% of residencies reported having any organized PE curricula. Of the programs that provide an organized PE curriculum, most offer multiple modalities; 96% provide didactic lectures, 49% small group sessions, 47% simulation sessions and 27% specifically use standardized patient encounters in their simulation sessions. Conclusion The majority of categorical EM residencies do not provide either PS data or any organized PE curriculum. Those that do use a

  5. 77 FR 15803 - Notice of Lodging of Stipulated Order Regarding Modification of Consent Decree in United States v...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Stipulated Order Regarding Modification of Consent Decree in United States v. Kentucky Utilities Company Under the Clean Air Act Under 28 CFR 50.7, notice is hereby given that on March 12, 2012, a proposed Stipulated Order Regarding...

  6. 29 CFR 102.35 - Duties and powers of administrative law judges; stipulations of cases to administrative law...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... consolidated or severed prior to issuance of administrative law judge decisions; (9) To approve stipulations, including stipulations of facts that waive a hearing and provide for a decision by the administrative law judge. Alternatively, the parties may agree to waive a hearing and decision by an administrative law...

  7. 29 CFR 102.35 - Duties and powers of administrative law judges; stipulations of cases to administrative law...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... consolidated or severed prior to issuance of administrative law judge decisions; (9) To approve stipulations, including stipulations of facts that waive a hearing and provide for a decision by the administrative law judge. Alternatively, the parties may agree to waive a hearing and decision by an administrative...

  8. 29 CFR 102.35 - Duties and powers of administrative law judges; stipulations of cases to administrative law...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... consolidated or severed prior to issuance of administrative law judge decisions; (9) To approve stipulations, including stipulations of facts that waive a hearing and provide for a decision by the administrative law judge. Alternatively, the parties may agree to waive a hearing and decision by an administrative...

  9. 29 CFR 102.35 - Duties and powers of administrative law judges; stipulations of cases to administrative law...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... consolidated or severed prior to issuance of administrative law judge decisions; (9) To approve stipulations, including stipulations of facts that waive a hearing and provide for a decision by the administrative law judge. Alternatively, the parties may agree to waive a hearing and decision by an administrative...

  10. Enabling Healthcare IT Governance: Human Task Management Service for Administering Emergency Department's Resources for Efficient Patient Flow.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Salvador; Aziz, Ayesha; Chatwin, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The use of Health Information Technology (HIT) to improve healthcare service delivery is constantly increasing due to research advances in medical science and information systems. Having a fully automated process solution for a Healthcare Organization (HCO) requires a combination of organizational strategies along with a selection of technologies that facilitate the goal of improving clinical outcomes. HCOs, requires dynamic management of care capability to realize the full potential of HIT. Business Process Management (BPM) is being increasingly adopted to streamline the healthcare service delivery and management processes. Emergency Departments (EDs) provide a case in point, which require multidisciplinary resources and services to deliver effective clinical outcomes. Managed care involves the coordination of a range of services in an ED. Although fully automated processes in emergency care provide a cutting edge example of service delivery, there are many situations that require human interactions with the computerized systems; e.g. Medication Approvals, care transfer, acute patient care. This requires a coordination mechanism for all the resources, computer and human, to work side by side to provide the best care. To ensure evidence-based medical practice in ED, we have designed a Human Task Management service to model the process of coordination of ED resources based on the UK's NICE Clinical guideline for managing the care of acutely ill patients. This functionality is implemented using Java Business process Management (jBPM).

  11. Interaction between cochleata and stipule-reduced mutations results in exstipulate hypertrophied leaves in Pisum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arvind; Sharma, Vishakha; Kumar, Sushil

    2013-07-01

    In the wild type P. sativum, each of the adult plant stem nodes, bears a pair of sessile foliaceous stipules and a petiolated unipinnately compound leaf of 4 to 6 leaflets and 7-9 tendrils. The stipule-reduced (st) and cochleata (coch) single null mutants and coch st double null mutant differ fom the wild type in respectively having sessile stipules of much reduced size, petiolated simple and/or compound leaf-like stipules and no stipules. It is also known that coch leaves are somewhat bigger than st and wild type leaves. Here, pleiotropic phenotype of coch st double mutant was investigated. The morphologies of stipules and leaf were quantified in the field grown plants and microcultured shoots, latter in the presence and absence of gibberellic acid and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid. The observations showed that as compared to the corresponding plants or shoots of COCH ST (WT) genotype, (a) coch st plants bore leaves in which all the organs were hypertrophied; (b) full complement of leaflets and 3-5 tendrils were formed on leaf; (c) the microcultured coch st shoots were taller despite lower number of nodes, and (d) they also produced leaves in which all the organs were bigger and the ratio of leaflets/tendrils was higher. It was concluded that in coch st double mutant (a) ST function is essential for stipule primordium differentiation, in the absence of COCH function and (b) absence of negative feedback loops between simple stipules and compound leaf for metabolite utilization allows hypertrophied growth in leaves.

  12. Clinician-Reported Outcome Assessments of Treatment Benefit: Report of the ISPOR Clinical Outcome Assessment Emerging Good Practices Task Force

    PubMed Central

    Powers, John H.; Patrick, Donald L.; Walton, Marc K.; Marquis, Patrick; Cano, Stefan; Hobart, Jeremy; Isaac, Maria; Vamvakas, Spiros; Slagle, Ashley; Molsen, Elizabeth; Burke, Laurie B.

    2017-01-01

    A clinician-reported outcome (ClinRO) assessment is a type of clinical outcome assessment (COA). ClinRO assessments, like all COAs (patient-reported, observer-reported, or performance outcome assessments), are used to 1) measure patients’ health status and 2) define end points that can be interpreted as treatment benefits of medical interventions on how patients feel, function, or survive in clinical trials. Like other COAs, ClinRO assessments can be influenced by human choices, judgment, or motivation. A ClinRO assessment is conducted and reported by a trained health care professional and requires specialized professional training to evaluate the patient’s health status. This is the second of two reports by the ISPOR Clinical Outcomes Assessment—Emerging Good Practices for Outcomes Research Task Force. The first report provided an overview of COAs including definitions important for an understanding of COA measurement practices. This report focuses specifically on issues related to ClinRO assessments. In this report, we define three types of ClinRO assessments (readings, ratings, and clinician global assessments) and describe emerging good measurement practices in their development and evaluation. The good measurement practices include 1) defining the context of use; 2) identifying the concept of interest measured; 3) defining the intended treatment benefit on how patients feel, function, or survive reflected by the ClinRO assessment and evaluating the relationship between that intended treatment benefit and the concept of interest; 4) documenting content validity; 5) evaluating other measurement properties once content validity is established (including intra- and inter-rater reliability); 6) defining study objectives and end point(s) objectives, and defining study end points and placing study end points within the hierarchy of end points; 7) establishing interpretability in trial results; and 8) evaluating operational considerations for the implementation

  13. A survey to identify physically demanding tasks performed during storm damage operations by Australian State Emergency Services personnel.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Brianna; Graham, Tony; Aisbett, Brad

    2013-01-01

    To identify and characterize the physically demanding tasks performed by SES personnel during storm damage work. Thirty-six tasks identified as the most operationally important to storm damage work were included in a survey which was available to all SES volunteers. The survey aimed to identify the physical demand, operational importance, frequency, duration, principal actions and fitness components of each task. Twelve tasks were identified as the most physically demanding. Of these, carrying sandbags, lifting sandbags and shoveling sand (with hands) rated highest. Covering roof damages with tarpaulin and erecting external weather proofing were ranked highest for operational importance. Box lifting (single-person) and erecting external weather proofing returned the highest mode values for frequency, whereas tasks involving handling sandbags returned the highest mean and median frequency values. Covering roof damages with tarpaulin was identified as the longest task. Bending, lifting, twisting and carrying were the most common actions identified for the physically demanding tasks. Muscular strength and muscular endurance were the primary fitness components identified for the twelve tasks. SES personnel perform a variety of storm response tasks, many of which are physically demanding. All or most of the physically demanding tasks contain elements of bending, lifting, twisting and carrying, and call upon personnel's muscular strength and muscular endurance capabilities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  14. The creosote content of used railway crossties as compared with European stipulations for hazardous waste.

    PubMed

    Thierfelder, Tomas; Sandström, Elin

    2008-08-25

    Through the history of railways, wooden crossties impregnated with potentially hazardous creosote tar have supported the rails. With impregnated crossties having a lifespan of approximately 50 years, their creosote content is considered as quite safely stored while in dug-down usage. This situation of relative safety does, however, change into acute risk upon replacement and destruction. Carrying a highly flammable content, creosote crossties discharge a pulse of carcinogenic PAH compounds if burnt as ordinary waste. Safe destruction is therefore required if concentrations exceed a critical limit stipulated by the European Union. Since safe destruction is a process of considerable expense, there is a tendency among financial stakeholders to underestimate the creosote content of used railway crossties. In order to actually test whether concentrations generally exceed the critical limit, a set of used creosote ties was therefore sampled while still situated in the railway embankment. With a standard sum of sixteen PAH compounds used as an expression of their total creosote content, the generic concentration was formally inferred and found to significantly exceed the critical limit. The same applies to the fraction of seven carcinogenic PAH compounds, that alone exceed the stipulated limit for hazardous waste. It was also found that the material of railway embankments, whether or not the crossties were used in switches and/or railway yards, and sample depth within the crossties, has a significant effect on creosote concentrations. Regardless of the status of these factors, the concentrations significantly exceed the critical limit that defines hazardous waste within the European Union.

  15. American Association for Emergency Psychiatry Task Force on Medical Clearance of Adult Psychiatric Patients. Part II: Controversies over Medical Assessment, and Consensus Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael P; Nordstrom, Kimberly; Anderson, Eric L; Ng, Anthony T; Zun, Leslie S; Peltzer-Jones, Jennifer M; Allen, Michael H

    2017-06-01

    The emergency medical evaluation of psychiatric patients presenting to United States emergency departments (ED), usually termed "medical clearance," often varies between EDs. A task force of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry (AAEP), consisting of physicians from emergency medicine, physicians from psychiatry and a psychologist, was convened to form consensus recommendations for the medical evaluation of psychiatric patients presenting to U.S.EDs. The task force reviewed existing literature on the topic of medical evaluation of psychiatric patients in the ED and then combined this with expert consensus. Consensus was achieved by group discussion as well as iterative revisions of the written document. The document was reviewed and approved by the AAEP Board of Directors. Eight recommendations were formulated. These recommendations cover various topics in emergency medical examination of psychiatric patients, including goals of medical screening in the ED, the identification of patients at low risk for co-existing medical disease, key elements in the ED evaluation of psychiatric patients including those with cognitive disorders, specific language replacing the term "medical clearance," and the need for better science in this area. The evidence indicates that a thorough history and physical examination, including vital signs and mental status examination, are the minimum necessary elements in the evaluation of psychiatric patients. With respect to laboratory testing, the picture is less clear and much more controversial.

  16. Percolation transition, stipulated by the generation of ice in the sugar-beet tissue. (in Ukrainian)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulavin, L. A.; Zabashta, Yu. F.; Fridman, A. Ya.; Kostyuk, A. I.

    The temperature dependence of sugar-beet parenchyma tissue dynamic shear modulus has been studied. The dynamic shear modulus investigation was performed employing low frequency reverse torsional pendulum at the temperature ranging from 200 to 280 K. Percolation transition (T_0 = 251 K), stipulated by the generation of ice in the sugar-beet tissue, is discovered. The quantity of ice in the sugar-beet at the temperatures lower than the percolation transition temperature was calculated on the dynamic shear modulus temperature dependence in terms of the percolation theory. It is concluded that this transition corresponds to the appearance of an infinite ice cluster. One can maintain that the sugar-beet survives above the percolation transition temperature.

  17. American Association for Emergency Psychiatry Task Force on Medical Clearance of Adults Part I: Introduction, Review and Evidence-Based Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Eric L; Nordstrom, Kimberly; Wilson, Michael P; Peltzer-Jones, Jennifer M; Zun, Leslie; Ng, Anthony; Allen, Michael H

    2017-02-01

    In the United States, the number of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) for a mental health concern is significant and expected to grow. The breadth of the medical evaluation of these patients is controversial. Attempts have been made to establish a standard evaluation for these patients, but to date no nationally accepted standards exist. A task force of the American Association of Emergency Psychiatry, consisting of physicians from emergency medicine and psychiatry, and a psychologist was convened to form consensus recommendations on the medical evaluation of psychiatric patients presenting to EDs. The task force reviewed existing literature on the topic of medical evaluation of psychiatric patients in the ED (Part I) and then combined this with expert consensus (Part II). In Part I, we discuss terminological issues and existing evidence on medical exams and laboratory studies of psychiatric patients in the ED. Emergency physicians should work cooperatively with psychiatric receiving facilities to decrease unnecessary testing while increasing the quality of medical screening exams for psychiatric patients who present to EDs.

  18. American Association for Emergency Psychiatry Task Force on Medical Clearance of Adults Part I: Introduction, Review and Evidence-Based Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Eric L.; Nordstrom, Kimberly; Wilson, Michael P.; Peltzer-Jones, Jennifer M.; Zun, Leslie; Ng, Anthony; Allen, Michael H.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In the United States, the number of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) for a mental health concern is significant and expected to grow. The breadth of the medical evaluation of these patients is controversial. Attempts have been made to establish a standard evaluation for these patients, but to date no nationally accepted standards exist. A task force of the American Association of Emergency Psychiatry, consisting of physicians from emergency medicine and psychiatry, and a psychologist was convened to form consensus recommendations on the medical evaluation of psychiatric patients presenting to EDs. Methods The task force reviewed existing literature on the topic of medical evaluation of psychiatric patients in the ED (Part I) and then combined this with expert consensus (Part II). Results In Part I, we discuss terminological issues and existing evidence on medical exams and laboratory studies of psychiatric patients in the ED. Conclusion Emergency physicians should work cooperatively with psychiatric receiving facilities to decrease unnecessary testing while increasing the quality of medical screening exams for psychiatric patients who present to EDs. PMID:28210358

  19. Emerging Concepts of Social-Developmental Tasks of the Young Black Adolescent in Ten Selected Black Junior Novels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Estelle Woodland

    It was the purpose of this study to identify and to describe black developmental tasks as treated in 10 randomly-selected black junior novels and to measure the extent to which they were present in the novels. Nineteen judges rated books appearing on the judges' list of 32 black junior novels, published during the period 1962-72. From these…

  20. Trajectories Emerging from Discrete versus Continuous Processing Models in Phonological Competitor Tasks: A Commentary on Spivey, Grosjean, and Knoblich (2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Wel, Robrecht P. R. D.; Eder, Jeffrey R.; Mitchel, Aaron D.; Walsh, Matthew M.; Rosenbaum, David A.

    2009-01-01

    M. J. Spivey, M. Grosjean, and G. Knoblich (2005) showed that in a phonological competitor task, participants' mouse cursor movements showed more curvature toward the competitor item when the competitor and target were phonologically similar than when the competitor and target were phonologically dissimilar. Spivey et al. interpreted this result…

  1. 78 FR 31975 - Notice of Proposed Joint Stipulation to Consent Decree Entered Into Pursuant to the Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... Focused Feasibility Study (FFS). The parties have reached a proposed joint stipulation that the Settling..., including the Performance Standards, FFS and any implementation of Work resulting therefrom, now and into... resulting from the FFS has not yet been determined, and the Settling Work Defendants and/or the City shall...

  2. 43 CFR 3461.5 - Criteria for assessing lands unsuitable for all or certain stipulated methods of coal mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... food or fiber production, natural resources, or technology demonstrations and experiments shall be... stipulated mining technology will result in no significant adverse impact to the area or site; or (ii) The... Reclamation Act of 1977, where mining would interrupt, discontinue, or preclude farming, shall be considered...

  3. 36 CFR 228.104 - Consideration of requests to modify, waive, or grant exceptions to lease stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Oil and Gas Resources Leasing § 228... Forest Service. The person making the request is encouraged to submit any information which might assist... led the Forest Service to require the inclusion of the stipulation in the lease can be met...

  4. Inter-Association Task Force Recommendations on Emergency Preparedness and Management of Sudden Cardiac Arrest in High School and College Athletic Programs: A Consensus Statement

    PubMed Central

    Drezner, Jonathan A; Courson, Ron W; Roberts, William O; Mosesso, Vincent N; Link, Mark S; Maron, Barry J

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assist high school and college athletic programs prepare for and respond to a sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). This consensus statement summarizes our current understanding of SCA in young athletes, defines the necessary elements for emergency preparedness, and establishes uniform treatment protocols for the management of SCA. Background: Sudden cardiac arrest is the leading cause of death in young athletes. The increasing presence of and timely access to automated external defibrillators (AEDs) at sporting events provides a means of early defibrillation and the potential for effective secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death. An Inter-Association Task Force was sponsored by the National Athletic Trainers' Association to develop consensus recommendations on emergency preparedness and management of SCA in athletes. Recommendations: Comprehensive emergency planning is needed for high school and college athletic programs to ensure an efficient and structured response to SCA. Essential elements of an emergency action plan include establishment of an effective communication system, training of anticipated responders in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and AED use, access to an AED for early defibrillation, acquisition of necessary emergency equipment, coordination and integration of on-site responder and AED programs with the local emergency medical services system, and practice and review of the response plan. Prompt recognition of SCA, early activation of the emergency medical services system, the presence of a trained rescuer to initiate cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and access to early defibrillation are critical in the management of SCA. In any collapsed and unresponsive athlete, SCA should be suspected and an AED applied as soon as possible for rhythm analysis and defibrillation if indicated. PMID:17597956

  5. Application of the radiating effect concept to implement measures stipulated by the European Water Framework Directive.

    PubMed

    Meier, Georg; Zumbroich, Thomas; Roehrig, Jackson; Souvignet, Maxime

    2012-01-01

    Hydromorphological deficits of European rivers and creeks are a major reason for the fact that the good ecological status stipulated by the European Water Framework Directive has not been achieved. In order to overcome these deficits, the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia calls for the implementation of a radiating effect concept to facilitate the planning of cost-effective restoration measures. The radiating effect concept states that natural or near-natural sections of water bodies have a positive impact on adjacent hydromorphologically altered sections. Transforming this concept into concrete measures will contribute to creating and boosting such radiating effects. We have applied the radiating effect concept to 11 small streams in a low mountain range and assessed its efficiency by comparing the biological and hydromorphological data of 48 sampling sites. Our findings show that near-natural stream sections have a positive effect on the ecological status of adjacent hydromorphologically altered sections. This study provides an innovative approach to the implementation of Integrated River Basin Management at a local scale. Its results are potentially of major interest to water managers dealing with the challenge of prioritizing river restoration measures. Nevertheless, specific issues such as assessing the influence of artificial barriers limiting the radiating effects need to be further investigated.

  6. Globalization, Children's Study Abroad, and Transnationalism as an Emerging Context for Language Learning: A New Task for Language Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Juyoung

    2011-01-01

    Amidst emerging trends in transnational migration via globalization, an increasing number of families have gone abroad to help their school-aged children and youth gain international education credentials and provide them an opportunity to acquire English as a global language as early as possible. This early study abroad before college (ESA) has…

  7. Investigating the Emerging Generic Features of the Blog Writing Task across Three Discrete Learner Groups at a Higher Education Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hourigan, Triona; Murray, Liam

    2010-01-01

    Because of the recent revolutionary developments brought about by Web 2.0, the emergence and popularity of blogs as learning tools represent an important area of consideration by the higher education sector. Indeed, while many researchers have acknowledged the advantages of using blogs in this environment, it is clear that more investigation is…

  8. Globalization, Children's Study Abroad, and Transnationalism as an Emerging Context for Language Learning: A New Task for Language Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Juyoung

    2011-01-01

    Amidst emerging trends in transnational migration via globalization, an increasing number of families have gone abroad to help their school-aged children and youth gain international education credentials and provide them an opportunity to acquire English as a global language as early as possible. This early study abroad before college (ESA) has…

  9. Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis for Health Care Decision Making--An Introduction: Report 1 of the ISPOR MCDA Emerging Good Practices Task Force.

    PubMed

    Thokala, Praveen; Devlin, Nancy; Marsh, Kevin; Baltussen, Rob; Boysen, Meindert; Kalo, Zoltan; Longrenn, Thomas; Mussen, Filip; Peacock, Stuart; Watkins, John; Ijzerman, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Health care decisions are complex and involve confronting trade-offs between multiple, often conflicting, objectives. Using structured, explicit approaches to decisions involving multiple criteria can improve the quality of decision making and a set of techniques, known under the collective heading multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA), are useful for this purpose. MCDA methods are widely used in other sectors, and recently there has been an increase in health care applications. In 2014, ISPOR established an MCDA Emerging Good Practices Task Force. It was charged with establishing a common definition for MCDA in health care decision making and developing good practice guidelines for conducting MCDA to aid health care decision making. This initial ISPOR MCDA task force report provides an introduction to MCDA - it defines MCDA; provides examples of its use in different kinds of decision making in health care (including benefit risk analysis, health technology assessment, resource allocation, portfolio decision analysis, shared patient clinician decision making and prioritizing patients' access to services); provides an overview of the principal methods of MCDA; and describes the key steps involved. Upon reviewing this report, readers should have a solid overview of MCDA methods and their potential for supporting health care decision making.

  10. The emergence of symmetry in a conditional discrimination task using different responses as propioceptive samples in pigeons.

    PubMed

    García, Andrés; Benjumea, Santiago

    2006-07-01

    In Experiment 1, 10 pigeons were exposed to a successive symbolic matching-to-sample procedure in which the sample was generated by the pigeons' own behavior. Each trial began with both response keys illuminated white, one being the "correct" key and the other the "incorrect" key. The pigeons had no way of discriminating which key was correct and which incorrect, since these roles were assigned on a random basis with the same probability of 0.5 for each key. A fixed ratio of five responses was required on the correct key. However, each time the pigeon pecked the incorrect key, the correct key response counter reset. Five consecutive pecks on the correct key was the only way to end this component, and switch off both key lights. Two seconds later, these same keys were illuminated again, one green and the other red (comparison stimuli). Now, if the correct white key had been on the left, a peck at one color produced food, and if the correct white key had been on the right, a peck at the other color produced food. When the pigeons had learned this discrimination, they were exposed to several symmetry tests (simultaneous presentations of both keys illuminated the same color-i.e., both red or both green), in order to interchange the sample with the comparison stimuli. In Experiment 2, the importance of requiring discrimination between the samples and between the comparisons was analyzed. In Experiment 3, we compared the results of Experiment 1 with a slightly different experiment, which resulted in discrimination of key position, an exteroceptive stimulus. The results showed that symmetry emerged only when different responses were used as samples.

  11. Senior house officers' work related stressors, psychological distress, and confidence in performing clinical tasks in accident and emergency: a questionnaire study.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, S.; Dale, J.; Glucksman, E.; Wellesley, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between accident and emergency senior house officers' psychological distress and confidence in performing clinical tasks and to describe work related stressors. DESIGN: Questionnaire survey with data collected at four points during senior house officers' six month attachment to accident and emergency departments. SUBJECTS: 171 newly appointed accident and emergency senior house officers from 27 hospitals in the South Thames region. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Psychological distress measured with a 25 item questionnaire; confidence in performing a range of 35 clinical and practical activities (visual analogue scales); reported consultation stress factors, other work related stressors, and personal stressors. RESULTS: Overall confidence scores in carrying out a range of clinical and practical activities increased significantly between the end of the first and the end of the fourth month (Z = -6.05, P < 0.001). Senior house officers with higher psychological distress scores at the end of their first and fourth month had significantly lower confidence scores (Z = -3.20, P < 0.001; Z = -1.90, P < 0.05). Senior house officers with lower increases in confidence between the first and fourth month had significantly higher distress than those with greater increases (Z = -2.62, P < 0.001). Factors identified as causing stress during consultations included difficulties with communication, certain clinical presentations, and department organisational factors (particularly the intensity of workload). CONCLUSIONS: Psychological distress is linked to confidence in senior house officers. This supports the need to monitor and build confidence in senior house officers and to address work related stressors. Additional communication skills training needs to be considered. PMID:9116547

  12. Self-Reference Emerges Earlier than Emotion during an Implicit Self-Referential Emotion Processing Task: Event-Related Potential Evidence.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haiyan; Guo, Jialiang; Ma, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Minghui; Liu, Liqing; Feng, Lei; Yang, Jie; Wang, Zhijiang; Wang, Gang; Zhong, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Self-referential emotion refers to the process of evaluating emotional stimuli with respect to the self. Processes indicative of a self-positivity bias are reflected in electroencephalogram (EEG) signals at ~400 ms when the task does not require a discrimination of self from other. However, when distinguishing between self-referential and other-referential emotions is required, previous studies have shown inconsistent temporal dynamics of EEG signals in slightly different tasks. Based on the observation of early self-other discrimination, we hypothesized that self would be rapidly activated in the early stage to modulate emotional processing in the late stage during an implicit self-referential emotion. To test this hypothesis, we employed an implicit task in which participants were asked to judge the order of Chinese characters of trait adjectives preceded by a self ("I") or other pronoun ("He" or "She"). This study aimed to explore the difference of social-related emotional evaluation from self-reference; the other pronoun was not defined to a specific person, rather it referred to the general concept. Sixteen healthy Chinese subjects participated in the experiment. Event-related potentials (ERPs) showed that there were self-other discrimination effects in the N1 (80-110 ms) and P1 (170-200 ms) components in the anterior brain. The emotional valence was discriminated in the later component of N2 (220-250 ms). The interaction between self-reference and emotional valence occurred during the late positive potential (LPP; 400-500 ms). Moreover, there was a positive correlation between response time (RT) and N1 in the self-reference condition based on the positive-negative contrast, suggesting a modulatory effect of the self-positivity bias. The results indicate that self-reference emerges earlier than emotion and then combines with emotional processing in an implicit task. The findings extend the view that the self plays a highly integrated and modulated role in self

  13. Self-Reference Emerges Earlier than Emotion during an Implicit Self-Referential Emotion Processing Task: Event-Related Potential Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Haiyan; Guo, Jialiang; Ma, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Minghui; Liu, Liqing; Feng, Lei; Yang, Jie; Wang, Zhijiang; Wang, Gang; Zhong, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Self-referential emotion refers to the process of evaluating emotional stimuli with respect to the self. Processes indicative of a self-positivity bias are reflected in electroencephalogram (EEG) signals at ~400 ms when the task does not require a discrimination of self from other. However, when distinguishing between self-referential and other-referential emotions is required, previous studies have shown inconsistent temporal dynamics of EEG signals in slightly different tasks. Based on the observation of early self–other discrimination, we hypothesized that self would be rapidly activated in the early stage to modulate emotional processing in the late stage during an implicit self-referential emotion. To test this hypothesis, we employed an implicit task in which participants were asked to judge the order of Chinese characters of trait adjectives preceded by a self (“I”) or other pronoun (“He” or “She”). This study aimed to explore the difference of social-related emotional evaluation from self-reference; the other pronoun was not defined to a specific person, rather it referred to the general concept. Sixteen healthy Chinese subjects participated in the experiment. Event-related potentials (ERPs) showed that there were self-other discrimination effects in the N1 (80–110 ms) and P1 (170–200 ms) components in the anterior brain. The emotional valence was discriminated in the later component of N2 (220–250 ms). The interaction between self-reference and emotional valence occurred during the late positive potential (LPP; 400–500 ms). Moreover, there was a positive correlation between response time (RT) and N1 in the self-reference condition based on the positive-negative contrast, suggesting a modulatory effect of the self-positivity bias. The results indicate that self-reference emerges earlier than emotion and then combines with emotional processing in an implicit task. The findings extend the view that the self plays a highly integrated and

  14. Selecting a dynamic simulation modeling method for health care delivery research-part 2: report of the ISPOR Dynamic Simulation Modeling Emerging Good Practices Task Force.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Deborah A; Burgos-Liz, Lina; IJzerman, Maarten J; Crown, William; Padula, William V; Wong, Peter K; Pasupathy, Kalyan S; Higashi, Mitchell K; Osgood, Nathaniel D

    2015-03-01

    In a previous report, the ISPOR Task Force on Dynamic Simulation Modeling Applications in Health Care Delivery Research Emerging Good Practices introduced the fundamentals of dynamic simulation modeling and identified the types of health care delivery problems for which dynamic simulation modeling can be used more effectively than other modeling methods. The hierarchical relationship between the health care delivery system, providers, patients, and other stakeholders exhibits a level of complexity that ought to be captured using dynamic simulation modeling methods. As a tool to help researchers decide whether dynamic simulation modeling is an appropriate method for modeling the effects of an intervention on a health care system, we presented the System, Interactions, Multilevel, Understanding, Loops, Agents, Time, Emergence (SIMULATE) checklist consisting of eight elements. This report builds on the previous work, systematically comparing each of the three most commonly used dynamic simulation modeling methods-system dynamics, discrete-event simulation, and agent-based modeling. We review criteria for selecting the most suitable method depending on 1) the purpose-type of problem and research questions being investigated, 2) the object-scope of the model, and 3) the method to model the object to achieve the purpose. Finally, we provide guidance for emerging good practices for dynamic simulation modeling in the health sector, covering all aspects, from the engagement of decision makers in the model design through model maintenance and upkeep. We conclude by providing some recommendations about the application of these methods to add value to informed decision making, with an emphasis on stakeholder engagement, starting with the problem definition. Finally, we identify areas in which further methodological development will likely occur given the growing "volume, velocity and variety" and availability of "big data" to provide empirical evidence and techniques

  15. Acceptance Control Charts with Stipulated Error Probabilities Based on Poisson Count Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-01-01

    Richard L / Scheaffer ’.* Richard S eavenwort December,... 198 *Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering University of Florida Gainesville...L. Scheaffer N00014-75-C-0783 Richard S. Leavenworth 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS . PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK Industrial and...PROBABILITIES BASED ON POISSON COUNT DATA by Suresh 1Ihatre Richard L. Scheaffer S..Richard S. Leavenworth ABSTRACT An acceptance control charting

  16. Task Shifting: The Use of Laypersons for Acquisition of Vital Signs Data for Clinical Decision Making in the Emergency Room Following Traumatic Injury.

    PubMed

    Haac, Bryce E; Gallaher, Jared R; Mabedi, Charles; Geyer, Andrew J; Charles, Anthony G

    2017-07-18

    In resource-limited settings, identification of successful and sustainable task-shifting interventions is important for improving care. To determine whether the training of lay people to take vital signs as trauma clerks is an effective and sustainable method to increase availability of vital signs in the initial evaluation of trauma patients. We conducted a quasi-experimental study of patients presenting with traumatic injury pre- and post-intervention. The study was conducted at Kamuzu Central Hospital, a tertiary care referral hospital, in Lilongwe, Malawi. All adult (age ≥ 18 years) trauma patients presenting to emergency department over a six-month period from January to June prior to intervention (2011), immediately post-intervention (2012), 1 year post-intervention (2013) and 2 years post-intervention (2014). Lay people were trained to take and record vital signs. The number of patients with recorded vital signs pre- and post-intervention and sustainability of the intervention as determined by time-series analysis. Availability of vital signs on initial evaluation of trauma patients increased significantly post-intervention. The percentage of patients with at least one vital sign recorded increased from 23.5 to 92.1%, and the percentage of patients with all vital signs recorded increased from 4.1 to 91.4%. Availability of Glasgow Coma Scale also increased from 40.3 to 88.6%. Increased documentation of vital signs continued at 1 year and 2 years post-intervention. However, the percentage of documented vital signs did decrease slightly after the US-trained medical student and surgeon who trained the trauma clerks were no longer available in country, except for Glasgow Coma Scale. Patients who died during emergency department evaluation were significantly less likely to have vital signs recorded. The training of lay people to collect vital signs and Glasgow Coma Scale is an effective and sustainable method of task shifting in a resource-limited setting.

  17. Creating Flickr Photo-Narratives with First-Year Teacher Education Students: The Possibilities and Pitfalls of Designing Emergent Learning Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawka, Marta; Larkin, Kevin M.; Danaher, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the implementation of a Flickr (Web 2.0 photo sharing software) learning task in a first year primary education course. The context for the task was a Multiliteracies course where students designed digital media activities for later use with primary age students. The Flickr task was constructed to determine how a learning…

  18. Task-shifting Using a Pain Management Protocol in an Emergency Care Service: Nurses' Perception through the Eye of the Rogers's Diffusion of Innovation Theory.

    PubMed

    Hadorn, Fabienne; Comte, Pascal; Foucault, Eliane; Morin, Diane; Hugli, Olivier

    2016-02-01

    It has been shown that over 70% of patients waiting in emergency departments (EDs) do not receive analgesics, despite the fact that more than 78% complain of pain. A clinical innovation in the form of a pain management protocol that includes task-shifting has been implemented in the ED of a university hospital in Switzerland in order to improve pain-related outcomes in patients. This innovation involves a change in clinical practice for physicians and nurses. The aim of this study is to explore nurses' perceptions on how well this innovation is adopted. This descriptive correlational study took place in the ED of a Swiss university hospital; the hospital provides healthcare for the city, the canton, and adjoining cantons. A convenience sample of 37 ED nurses participated. They were asked to complete a questionnaire comprising 56 statements based on Rogers's "Diffusion of Innovation" theory. Nurses' opinions (on a 1-10 Likert scale) indicate that the new protocol benefits the ED (mean [M] = 7.4, standard deviation [SD] = 1.21), is compatible with nursing roles (M = 8.0, SD = 1.9), is not too complicated to apply (M = 2.7, SD = 1.7), provides observable positive effects in patients (M = 7.0, SD = 1.28), and is relatively easy to introduce into daily practice (M = 6.5, SD = 1.0). Further studies are now needed to examine patients' experiences of this innovation.

  19. NSI security task: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tencati, Ron

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Science Internet (NSI) security task. The task includes the following: policies and security documentation; risk analysis and management; computer emergency response team; incident handling; toolkit development; user consulting; and working groups, conferences, and committees.

  20. 15 CFR Appendix B to Subpart L of... - Coordinates for the Department of the Interior Topographic Lease Stipulations for OCS Lease Sale 171

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Interior Topographic Lease Stipulations for OCS Lease Sale 171 B Appendix B to Subpart L of Part 922... MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. L, App. B Appendix B to Subpart L of Part 922—Coordinates for the Department of the Interior Topographic...

  1. 15 CFR Appendix B to Subpart L of... - Coordinates for the Department of the Interior Topographic Lease Stipulations for OCS Lease Sale 171

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Interior Topographic Lease Stipulations for OCS Lease Sale 171 B Appendix B to Subpart L of Part 922... MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. L, App. B Appendix B to Subpart L of Part 922—Coordinates for the Department of the Interior Topographic...

  2. 15 CFR Appendix B to Subpart L of... - Coordinates for the Department of the Interior Topographic Lease Stipulations for OCS Lease Sale 171

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Interior Topographic Lease Stipulations for OCS Lease Sale 171 B Appendix B to Subpart L of Part 922... MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. L, App. B Appendix B to Subpart L of Part 922—Coordinates for the Department of the Interior Topographic...

  3. 15 CFR Appendix B to Subpart L of... - Coordinates for the Department of the Interior Topographic Lease Stipulations for OCS Lease Sale 171

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Interior Topographic Lease Stipulations for OCS Lease Sale 171 B Appendix B to Subpart L of Part 922... MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. L, App. B Appendix B to Subpart L of Part 922—Coordinates for the Department of the Interior Topographic...

  4. 15 CFR Appendix B to Subpart L of... - Coordinates for the Department of the Interior Topographic Lease Stipulations for OCS Lease Sale 171

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Interior Topographic Lease Stipulations for OCS Lease Sale 171 B Appendix B to Subpart L of Part 922... MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. L, App. B Appendix B to Subpart L of Part 922—Coordinates for the Department of the Interior Topographic...

  5. Clinical Outcome Assessments: Conceptual Foundation-Report of the ISPOR Clinical Outcomes Assessment - Emerging Good Practices for Outcomes Research Task Force.

    PubMed

    Walton, Marc K; Powers, John H; Hobart, Jeremy; Patrick, Donald; Marquis, Patrick; Vamvakas, Spiros; Isaac, Maria; Molsen, Elizabeth; Cano, Stefan; Burke, Laurie B

    2015-09-01

    An outcome assessment, the patient assessment used in an endpoint, is the measuring instrument that provides a rating or score (categorical or continuous) that is intended to represent some aspect of the patient's health status. Outcome assessments are used to define efficacy endpoints when developing a therapy for a disease or condition. Most efficacy endpoints are based on specified clinical assessments of patients. When clinical assessments are used as clinical trial outcomes, they are called clinical outcome assessments (COAs). COAs include any assessment that may be influenced by human choices, judgment, or motivation. COAs must be well-defined and possess adequate measurement properties to demonstrate (directly or indirectly) the benefits of a treatment. In contrast, a biomarker assessment is one that is subject to little, if any, patient motivational or rater judgmental influence. This is the first of two reports by the ISPOR Clinical Outcomes Assessment - Emerging Good Practices for Outcomes Research Task Force. This report provides foundational definitions important for an understanding of COA measurement principles. The foundation provided in this report includes what it means to demonstrate a beneficial effect, how assessments of patients relate to the objective of showing a treatment's benefit, and how these assessments are used in clinical trial endpoints. In addition, this report describes intrinsic attributes of patient assessments and clinical trial factors that can affect the properties of the measurements. These factors should be considered when developing or refining assessments. These considerations will aid investigators designing trials in their choice of using an existing assessment or developing a new outcome assessment. Although the focus of this report is on the development of a new COA to define endpoints in a clinical trial, these principles may be applied more generally. A critical element in appraising or developing a COA is to

  6. To direct the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency to designate New Jersey Task Force 1 as part of the National Urban Search and Rescue System.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Frelinghuysen, Rodney P. [R-NJ-11

    2013-05-22

    05/23/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. To direct the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency to designate New Jersey Task Force 1 as part of the National Urban Search and Rescue System.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Frelinghuysen, Rodney P. [R-NJ-11

    2013-05-22

    House - 05/23/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Full Scale Evaluation of How Task-Based Overview Displays Impact Operator Workload and Situation Awareness When in Emergency Procedure Space

    SciTech Connect

    Spielman, Zachary; Hill, Racheal; LeBlanc, Katya; Rice, Brandon; Bower, Gordon; Joe, Jeffrey; Powers, David

    2016-07-01

    Control room modernization is critical to extending the life of the 99 operating commercial nuclear power plants (NPP) within the United States. However, due to the lack of evidence demonstrating the efficiency and effectiveness of recent candidate technologies, current NPP control rooms operate without the benefit of various newer technologies now available. As nuclear power plants begin to extend their licenses to continue operating for another 20 years, there is increased interest in modernizing the control room and supplementing the existing control boards with advanced technologies. As part of a series of studies investigating the benefits of advanced control room technologies, the researchers conducted an experimental study to observe the effect of Task-Based Overview Displays (TODs) on operator workload and situation awareness (SA) while completing typical operating scenarios. Researchers employed the Situation Awareness Rating Technique (SART) and the NASA Task Load Index (TLX) as construct measures.

  9. Analytic Support of Emergency Response and Recovery for the Wide-Area Recovery & Resiliency Program (WARRP) Task 1: Medical Countermeasures Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-23

    Zoonotic Disease Exercise – RAND - Understanding Psychological Consequence of Bioterror 2003 – RAND – Research Related to Countermeasure Distribution...those exposed to anthrax – Acad - Mitchell Critical Incident Stress Management defined – Acad - Psychological Issues Older Adults – Acad - Threat of bw...Material Findings Brief”, covering efforts related to Task 1 of the subject Statement of Work under CDRL A008 . If there are any questions

  10. Management of opioid use disorders among veterans in subacute rehab: Use of an interdisciplinary task force to address an emerging concern.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, Kate L M; Sharma, Samata; Thurston, Joe; Sivashanker, Karthik; Chang, Grace H

    2016-01-01

    There is both rapidly growing need, and limited evidence-based guidelines, for the management of opioid use disorders in subacute rehab and other nonaddiction medical settings. Following 2 unintentional opioid overdoses within the Community Living Center (CLC), a VA (Veterans Administration) subacute rehab setting, an interdisciplinary CLC Addictions Task Force was created to address a critical issue: how to best meet the combined neuropsychiatric and medical needs of the opiate use disorder patient through a multifaceted treatment approach. The goals of the task force were to develop and institute educational initiatives for providers; create patient care guidelines; increase safety on the unit; improve provider confidence when caring for this high-risk population; and mitigate the risk of unintentional overdose. The task force divided into 4 working groups to meet these aims. Process and outcomes are discussed. We found that in-services by addiction specialists improved clinician comfort in caring for this high-risk patient group. Specific areas that yielded the greatest clinician satisfaction ratings included didactics on how to identify at-risk patients and techniques on how to manage the patient in a general rehab setting. Utilizing an interdisciplinary approach, and an iterative process, at all stages was critical to the success of the CLC Addictions Task Force, as it improved buy-in and motivation from all disciplines. Improvements have been made to enhance patient safety, improve communication amongst providers, and provide a foundation to improve patient outcomes. Our preliminary work to enhance the identification and management of opioid use disorders at our CLC is an important first step towards a standardized curriculum that could be applied to other VA and non-VA subacute rehab settings.

  11. Potential for task-sharing to Lady Health Workers for identification and emergency management of pre-eclampsia at community level in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Salam, Rehana A; Qureshi, Rahat Najam; Sheikh, Sana; Khowaja, Asif Raza; Sawchuck, Diane; Vidler, Marianne; von Dadelszen, Peter; Zaidi, Shujaat; Bhutta, Zulfiqar

    2016-09-30

    An estimated 276 Pakistani women die for every 100,000 live births; with eclampsia accounting for about 10 % of these deaths. Community health workers contribute to the existing health system in Pakistan under the banner of the Lady Health Worker (LHW) Programme and are responsible to provide a comprehensive package of antenatal services. However, there is a need to increase focus on early identification and prompt diagnosis of pre-eclampsia in community settings, since women with mild pre-eclampsia often present without symptoms. This study aims to explore the potential for task-sharing to LHWs for the community-level management of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in Pakistan. A qualitative exploratory study was undertaken February-July 2012 in two districts, Hyderabad and Matiari, in the southern province of Sindh, Pakistan. Altogether 33 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted and the LHW curriculum and training materials were also reviewed. The data was audio-recorded, then transcribed verbatim for thematic analysis using QSR NVivo-version10. Findings from the review of the LHW curriculum and training program describe that in the existing community delivery system, LHWs are responsible for identification of pregnant women, screening women for danger signs and referrals for antenatal care. They are the first point of contact for women in pregnancy and provide nutritional counselling along with distribution of iron and folic acid supplements. Findings from FGDs suggest that LHWs do not carry a blood pressure device or antihypertensive medications; they refer to the nearest public facility in the event of a pregnancy complication. Currently, they provide tetanus toxoid in pregnancy. The health advice provided by lady health workers is highly valued and accepted by pregnant women and their families. Many Supervisors of LHWs recognized the need for increased training regarding pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, with a focus on identifying women at high risk. The entire

  12. Task breakdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlich, Jane

    1990-01-01

    The topics concerning the Center for Space Construction (CSC) space construction breakdown structure are presented in viewgraph form. It is concluded that four components describe a task -- effecting, information gathering, analysis, and regulation; uncertainties effect the relative amount of information gathering and analysis that occurs; and that task timing requirements drive the 'location in time' of cognition.

  13. Applying dynamic simulation modeling methods in health care delivery research-the SIMULATE checklist: report of the ISPOR simulation modeling emerging good practices task force.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Deborah A; Burgos-Liz, Lina; IJzerman, Maarten J; Osgood, Nathaniel D; Padula, William V; Higashi, Mitchell K; Wong, Peter K; Pasupathy, Kalyan S; Crown, William

    2015-01-01

    Health care delivery systems are inherently complex, consisting of multiple tiers of interdependent subsystems and processes that are adaptive to changes in the environment and behave in a nonlinear fashion. Traditional health technology assessment and modeling methods often neglect the wider health system impacts that can be critical for achieving desired health system goals and are often of limited usefulness when applied to complex health systems. Researchers and health care decision makers can either underestimate or fail to consider the interactions among the people, processes, technology, and facility designs. Health care delivery system interventions need to incorporate the dynamics and complexities of the health care system context in which the intervention is delivered. This report provides an overview of common dynamic simulation modeling methods and examples of health care system interventions in which such methods could be useful. Three dynamic simulation modeling methods are presented to evaluate system interventions for health care delivery: system dynamics, discrete event simulation, and agent-based modeling. In contrast to conventional evaluations, a dynamic systems approach incorporates the complexity of the system and anticipates the upstream and downstream consequences of changes in complex health care delivery systems. This report assists researchers and decision makers in deciding whether these simulation methods are appropriate to address specific health system problems through an eight-point checklist referred to as the SIMULATE (System, Interactions, Multilevel, Understanding, Loops, Agents, Time, Emergence) tool. It is a primer for researchers and decision makers working in health care delivery and implementation sciences who face complex challenges in delivering effective and efficient care that can be addressed with system interventions. On reviewing this report, the readers should be able to identify whether these simulation modeling

  14. Task-oriented rehabilitation robotics.

    PubMed

    Schweighofer, Nicolas; Choi, Younggeun; Winstein, Carolee; Gordon, James

    2012-11-01

    Task-oriented training is emerging as the dominant and most effective approach to motor rehabilitation of upper extremity function after stroke. Here, the authors propose that the task-oriented training framework provides an evidence-based blueprint for the design of task-oriented robots for the rehabilitation of upper extremity function in the form of three design principles: skill acquisition of functional tasks, active participation training, and individualized adaptive training. The previous robotic systems that incorporate elements of task-oriented trainings are then reviewed. Finally, the authors critically analyze their own attempt to design and test the feasibility of a TOR robot, ADAPT (Adaptive and Automatic Presentation of Tasks), which incorporates the three design principles. Because of its task-oriented training-based design, ADAPT departs from most other current rehabilitation robotic systems: it presents realistic functional tasks in which the task goal is constantly adapted, so that the individual actively performs doable but challenging tasks without physical assistance. To maximize efficacy for a large clinical population, the authors propose that future task-oriented robots need to incorporate yet-to-be developed adaptive task presentation algorithms that emphasize acquisition of fine motor coordination skills while minimizing compensatory movements.

  15. Learning Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    Government budget constraints had forced the Emergency Dispatch Center (EDC) at a military installation to work with less than the normal number of staff. A Program Proposal was developed previously that had determined that a learning gap existed in the researcher's work environment at a military installation. To counter this gap, Learning Tasks…

  16. Lung Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at ... should be considered an emergency. Symptoms of sudden lung collapse (pneumothorax) Symptoms of a sudden lung collapse ...

  17. 75 FR 76744 - National Disaster Housing Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency National Disaster Housing Task Force AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: The National Disaster Housing Task Force (NDHTF... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mitchell Wyllins, National Disaster Housing Task Force, 500 C Street, SW., (Room 428...

  18. Mangrove Crab Ucides cordatus Removal Does Not Affect Sediment Parameters and Stipule Production in a One Year Experiment in Northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pülmanns, Nathalie; Mehlig, Ulf; Nordhaus, Inga; Saint-Paul, Ulrich; Diele, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove crabs influence ecosystem processes through bioturbation and/or litter feeding. In Brazilian mangroves, the abundant and commercially important crab Ucides cordatus is the main faunal modifier of microtopography establishing up to 2 m deep burrows. They process more than 70% of the leaf litter and propagule production, thus promoting microbial degradation of detritus and benefiting microbe-feeding fiddler crabs. The accelerated nutrient turn-over and increased sediment oxygenation mediated by U. cordatus may enhance mangrove tree growth. Such positive feed-back loop was tested in North Brazil through a one year crab removal experiment simulating increased harvesting rates in a mature Rhizophora mangle forest. Investigated response parameters were sediment salinity, organic matter content, CO2 efflux rates of the surface sediment, and reduction potential. We also determined stipule fall of the mangrove tree R. mangle as a proxy for tree growth. Three treatments were applied to twelve experimental plots (13 m × 13 m each): crab removal, disturbance control and control. Within one year, the number of U. cordatus burrows inside the four removal plots decreased on average to 52% of the initial number. Despite this distinct reduction in burrow density of this large bioturbator, none of the measured parameters differed between treatments. Instead, most parameters were clearly influenced by seasonal changes in precipitation. Hence, in the studied R. mangle forest, abiotic factors seem to be more important drivers of ecosystem processes than factors mediated by U. cordatus, at least within the studied timespan of one year.

  19. Mangrove Crab Ucides cordatus Removal Does Not Affect Sediment Parameters and Stipule Production in a One Year Experiment in Northern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Mangrove crabs influence ecosystem processes through bioturbation and/or litter feeding. In Brazilian mangroves, the abundant and commercially important crab Ucides cordatus is the main faunal modifier of microtopography establishing up to 2 m deep burrows. They process more than 70% of the leaf litter and propagule production, thus promoting microbial degradation of detritus and benefiting microbe-feeding fiddler crabs. The accelerated nutrient turn-over and increased sediment oxygenation mediated by U. cordatus may enhance mangrove tree growth. Such positive feed-back loop was tested in North Brazil through a one year crab removal experiment simulating increased harvesting rates in a mature Rhizophora mangle forest. Investigated response parameters were sediment salinity, organic matter content, CO2 efflux rates of the surface sediment, and reduction potential. We also determined stipule fall of the mangrove tree R. mangle as a proxy for tree growth. Three treatments were applied to twelve experimental plots (13 m × 13 m each): crab removal, disturbance control and control. Within one year, the number of U. cordatus burrows inside the four removal plots decreased on average to 52% of the initial number. Despite this distinct reduction in burrow density of this large bioturbator, none of the measured parameters differed between treatments. Instead, most parameters were clearly influenced by seasonal changes in precipitation. Hence, in the studied R. mangle forest, abiotic factors seem to be more important drivers of ecosystem processes than factors mediated by U. cordatus, at least within the studied timespan of one year. PMID:27907093

  20. Diameters of microtubules change during rotation of the lipotubuloids of Ornithogalum umbellatum stipule epidermis as a result of varying protofilament monomers sizes and distance between them.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowska, Maria; Stepiński, Dariusz; Popłońska, Katarzyna

    2009-12-01

    Microtubules in lipotubuloids of the Ornithogalum umbellatum stipule epidermis cells change their diameters depending on the motion of the cytoplasmic domains rich in microtubules and lipid bodies. Microtubules fixed during rotary and progressive motion of the lipotubuloids composed of the same number of protofilaments fall into two populations - wide (43-58 nm) and narrow (24-39 nm) in size. Following blockage of the motion with 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), the range of this diversity is smaller, microtubules become a medium-sized population (34-48 nm). When DNP is removed and the motion reactivated, 2 populations of microtubules reappear. Analysis of the structure of the microtubule wall revealed that changes in the microtubule diameters resulted from varying distances between the adjacent protofilaments, and stretching and compression of tubulin subunits in the protofilaments. A supposition has been put forward that the changes in the sizes of O. umbellatum microtubule diameters: 1) are connected with the interactions between microtubules and actin microfilaments lying along these microtubules; 2) can be the driving force of the rotary motion of lipotubuloids.

  1. Diabetic Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sheet Health & Safety Tips Campaigns SUBSCRIBE Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Diabetic Emergencies It ... seek immediate medical assistance. READ IN EMERGENCIES A-Z Mental Health Emergencies - Waits for Care Grow Dramatically ...

  2. TASK-1 and TASK-3 may form heterodimers in human atrial cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Rinné, Susanne; Kiper, Aytug K; Schlichthörl, Günter; Dittmann, Sven; Netter, Michael F; Limberg, Sven H; Silbernagel, Nicole; Zuzarte, Marylou; Moosdorf, Rainer; Wulf, Hinnerk; Schulze-Bahr, Eric; Rolfes, Caroline; Decher, Niels

    2015-04-01

    TASK-1 channels have emerged as promising drug targets against atrial fibrillation, the most common arrhythmia in the elderly. While TASK-3, the closest relative of TASK-1, was previously not described in cardiac tissue, we found a very prominent expression of TASK-3 in right human auricles. Immunocytochemistry experiments of human right auricular cardiomyocytes showed that TASK-3 is primarily localized at the plasma membrane. Single-channel recordings of right human auricles in the cell-attached mode, using divalent-cation-free solutions, revealed a TASK-1-like channel with a single-channel conductance of about 30pS. While homomeric TASK-3 channels were not found, we observed an intermediate single-channel conductance of about 55pS, possibly reflecting the heteromeric channel formed by TASK-1 and TASK-3. Subsequent experiments with TASK-1/TASK-3 tandem channels or with co-expressed TASK-1 and TASK-3 channels in HEK293 cells or Xenopus oocytes, supported that the 55pS channels observed in right auricles have electrophysiological characteristics of TASK-1/TASK-3 heteromers. In addition, co-expression experiments and single-channel recordings suggest that heteromeric TASK-1/TASK-3 channels have a predominant surface expression and a reduced affinity for TASK-1 blockers. In summary, the evidence for heteromeric TASK-1/TASK-3 channel complexes together with an altered pharmacologic response to TASK-1 blockers in vitro is likely to have further impact for studies isolating ITASK-1 from cardiomyocytes and for the development of drugs specifically targeting TASK-1 in atrial fibrillation treatment.

  3. International Task Force on Volunteer Cleft Missions.

    PubMed

    Yeow, Vincent K L; Lee, Seng-Teik T; Lambrecht, Thomas J; Barnett, John; Gorney, Mark; Hardjowasito, Widanto; Lemperle, Gottfried; McComb, Harold; Natsume, Nagato; Stranc, Mirek; Wilson, Libby

    2002-01-01

    The International Task Force on Volunteer Cleft Missions was set up to provide a report to be presented at the Eighth International Congress of Cleft Palate and Associated Craniofacial Anomalies on September 12, 1997, in Singapore. The aim of the report was to provide data from a wide range of different international teams performing volunteer cleft missions and, thereafter, based on the collected data, to identify common goals and aims of such missions. Thirteen different groups actively participating in volunteer cleft missions worldwide were selected from the International Confederation of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery's list of teams actively participating in volunteer cleft missions. Because of the time frame within which the committee had to work, three groups that did not respond by the stipulated deadline were omitted from the committee. The represented members and their respective institutions have undertaken more than 50 volunteer cleft missions to underdeveloped nations worldwide within the last 3 years. They have visited over 20 different countries, treating more than 3,500 patients worldwide. Based on the data collected and by consensus, the committee outlined recommendations for future volunteer cleft missions based on 1) mission objectives, 2) organization, 3) personal health and liability, 4) funding, 5) trainees in volunteer cleft missions, and 6) public relations. The task force believed that all volunteer cleft missions should have well-defined objectives, preferably with long-term plans. The task force also decided that it was impossible to achieve a successful mission without good organization and close coordination. All efforts should be made, and care taken, to ensure that there is minimal morbidity and no mortality. Finally, as ambassadors of goodwill and humanitarian aid, the participants must make every effort to understand and respect local customs and protocol. The main aims are to provide top-quality surgical service, train local

  4. Eye Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of retinal detachment, a ...

  5. Clinical Outcome Assessments: Conceptual Foundation–Report of the ISPOR Clinical Outcomes Assessment – Emerging Good Practices for Outcomes Research Task Force DOES THIS HAVE TO BE LABLED AS PART 1

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Marc K; Powers, John H; Hobart, Jeremy; Patrick, Donald L; Marquis, Patrick; Vamvakas, Sprios; Isaac, Maria; Molsen, Elizabeth; Cano, Stefan J; Burke, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    An outcome assessment, the patient assessment used in an endpoint, is the measuring instrument that provides a rating or score (categorical or continuous) that is intended to represent some aspect of the patient’s health status. Outcome assessments are used to define efficacy endpoints when developing a therapy for a disease or condition. Most efficacy endpoints are based on specified clinical assessments of patients. When clinical assessments are used as clinical trial outcomes, they are called clinical outcome assessments (COAs). COAs include any assessment that may be influenced by human choices, judgment, or motivation, COAs must be well-defined and possess adequate measurement properties in order to demonstrate (directly or indirectly) the benefits of a treatment. In contrast, a biomarker assessment is one that is subject to little, if any, patient motivational or rater judgmental influence. This is the first of two reports by the ISPOR Clinical Outcomes Assessment – Emerging Good Practices for Outcomes Research Task Force. This report provides foundational definitions important for an understanding of COA measurement principles. The foundation provided in this report includes what it means to demonstrate a beneficial effect, how assessments of patients relate to the objective of showing a treatment’s benefit, and how these assessments are used in clinical trial endpoints. In addition, this report describes intrinsic attributes of patient assessments and clinical trial factors that can affect the properties of the measurements. These factors should be considered when developing or refining assessments. These considerations will aid investigators designing trials in their choice of using an existing assessment or developing a new outcome assessment. Although the focus of this report is in the development of a new COA to define endpoints in a clinical trial, these principles may be applied more generally. A critical element in appraising or developing a

  6. Emergent geometry, emergent forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selesnick, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    We give a brief account of some aspects of Finkelstein’s quantum relativity, namely an extension of it that derives elements of macroscopic geometry and the Lagrangians of the standard model including gravity from a presumed quantum version of spacetime. These emerge as collective effects in this quantal substrate. Our treatment, which is largely self-contained, differs mathematically from that originally given by Finkelstein. Dedicated to the memory of David Ritz Finkelstein

  7. Task selection cost asymmetry without task switching.

    PubMed

    Bryck, Richard L; Mayr, Ulrch

    2008-02-01

    The switch cost asymmetry (i.e., larger costs when switching from a nondominant into a dominant task than vice versa) has been explained in terms of the trial-to-trial carryover of activation levels required for the dominant versus the nondominant task. However, there is an open question about whether an actual switch in task is in fact necessary to obtain a "selection" cost asymmetry. In Experiments 1 and 2, we modified an alternating-runs paradigm to include either long or short response-to-stimulus intervals (RSIs) after each pair of trials (i.e., AA-AA-BB-BB), thereby inducing selection costs not only at the point of a task switch (i.e., AA-BB), but also between same-task pairs (i.e., AA-AA). Using spatially compatible versus incompatible response rules (Experiment 1) and Stroop word versus color naming (Experiment 2), we found asymmetric effects not only at task-change transitions, but also at task-repeat transitions when the RSI was long (presumably inducing frequent losses of set). In Experiments 3A and 3B, a cost asymmetry for long RSIs was obtained even when competing tasks were separated into alternating single task blocks, but not when the tasks were compared in a between-subjects design. This general pattern cannot be explained by activation carryover models, but is consistent with the idea that the asymmetry arises as a result of interference from long-term memory traces.

  8. Task Integration Facilitates Multitasking.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Rita F; Raab, Markus; Hegele, Mathias; Schorer, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate multi-task integration in a continuous tracking task. We were particularly interested in how manipulating task structure in a dual-task situation affects learning of a constant segment embedded in a pursuit-tracking task. Importantly, we examined if dual-task effects could be attributed to task integration by varying the structural similarity and difficulty of the primary and secondary tasks. In Experiment 1 participants performed a pursuit tracking task while counting high-pitched tones and ignoring low-pitched tones. The tones were either presented randomly or structurally 250 ms before each tracking turn. Experiment 2 increased the motor load of the secondary tasks by asking participants to tap their feet to the tones. Experiment 3 further increased motor load of the primary task by increasing its speed and having participants tracking with their non-dominant hand. The results show that dual-task interference can be moderated by secondary task conditions that match the structure of the primary task. Therefore our results support proposals of task integration in continuous tracking paradigms. We conclude that multi-tasking is not always detrimental for motor learning but can be facilitated through task-integration.

  9. Task Integration Facilitates Multitasking

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Rita F.; Raab, Markus; Hegele, Mathias; Schorer, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate multi-task integration in a continuous tracking task. We were particularly interested in how manipulating task structure in a dual-task situation affects learning of a constant segment embedded in a pursuit-tracking task. Importantly, we examined if dual-task effects could be attributed to task integration by varying the structural similarity and difficulty of the primary and secondary tasks. In Experiment 1 participants performed a pursuit tracking task while counting high-pitched tones and ignoring low-pitched tones. The tones were either presented randomly or structurally 250 ms before each tracking turn. Experiment 2 increased the motor load of the secondary tasks by asking participants to tap their feet to the tones. Experiment 3 further increased motor load of the primary task by increasing its speed and having participants tracking with their non-dominant hand. The results show that dual-task interference can be moderated by secondary task conditions that match the structure of the primary task. Therefore our results support proposals of task integration in continuous tracking paradigms. We conclude that multi-tasking is not always detrimental for motor learning but can be facilitated through task-integration. PMID:28360878

  10. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePlus

    ... contraception are available: emergency contraceptive pills and the copper-containing intrauterine device (IUD).Emergency contraceptive pills include ... for emergency use, talk to your doctor.The copper-containing IUD (brand name: Paragard) is a small, ...

  11. Chemical Emergency

    MedlinePlus

    ... listen to a local Emergency Alert System (EAS) station for emergency instructions from county or state officials. ... and your family. Listen to your emergency broadcast stations on radio and TV. Use your phone only ...

  12. "Task" as Research Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seedhouse, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The article examines "task" as research construct as predominantly conceived in terms of task-as-workplan in the task-based learning/second language acquisition literature. It is suggested that "task" has weak construct validity and ontology in an overwhelmingly quantitative paradigm because the construct has a "split personality."…

  13. Recalling academic tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Franklin Gno

    This study was focused on what students remembered about five middle school science tasks when they were juniors and seniors in high school. Descriptions of the five tasks were reconstructed from available artifacts and teachers' records, notes and recollections. Three of the five tasks were "authentic" in the sense that students were asked to duplicate the decisions practitioners make in the adult world. The other two tasks were more typical school tasks involving note taking and preparation for a quiz. All five tasks, however, involved use of computers. Students were interviewed to examine what and how well they recalled the tasks and what forms or patterns of recall existed. Analysis of their responses indicated that different kinds of tasks produced different levels of recall. Authentically situated tasks were remembered much better than routine school tasks. Further, authentic tasks centered on design elements were recalled better than those for which design was not as pivotal. Patterns of recall indicated that participants most often recalled the decisions they made, the scenarios of the authentically situated tasks, the consequences of their tasks and the social contexts of the classroom. Task events, in other words, appeared to form a framework upon which students constructed stories of the tasks. The more salient the events, the richer the story, the deeper and more detailed the recall of the task. Thus, authentic tasks appeared to lend themselves to creating stories better than regular school tasks and therefore such tasks were recalled better. Implications of these patterns of recall are discussed with respect to issues of school learning and assessment.

  14. [Maximum acceptable weight of lift for manual lifting tasks].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Yang, Lei

    2006-04-01

    To explore the maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) in different lifting conditions and the suitable lifting equation for the stipulation of occupational health standard of manual lifting tasks in China. The MAWL was investigated among the thirteen male and ten female students using psychophysical methodology and the recommended weight of limit (RWL) was compared. The MAWL of male and female subjects was decreased gradually with the increase of lifting height. Once the height of lifting was over shoulder, the MAWL was decreased dramatically. The RWL was greater than the MAWL at 25 cm horizontal distance in male subjects, but the RWL was smaller than the MAWL at the distance of 45 cm and 63 cm. The average MAWL of male subjects was 30.8% greater than that of female subjects. The MAWL was decreased gradually with increase of the horizontal distance at the same height of lifting. The result of the male subjects was consistent with that of the female subjects. For the asymmetric lifting tasks of the male subjects, the bigger the angle of rotation was, the less the MAWL became. The angle of rotation had negative correlation with the capability of lifting (r = -0.996 6, P < 0.01). When the subjects performed asymmetric lifting tasks, the RWL was smaller than the MAWL and the difference was significant. The revision is sufficient for the horizontal distance and asymmetric lifting in the NIOSH lifting equation, but it is not suitable for height, especially for the task of lifting over shoulder. The RWL for the task of lifting over shoulder should be lowered. The factor of gender should be taken into account in the lifting equation and the constant of gender S can be added. Then S = 1 for male while S = 0.692 for female.

  15. Functional Task Test (FTT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian T.; Rescheke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott; Lawrence, Emily; Koffman, Igor; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Spiering, Barry A.; Feeback, Daniel L.; hide

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Functional Task Test (FTT), an interdisciplinary testing regimen that has been developed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The objectives of the project are: (1) to develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for the Constellation Program, (2) determine the ability to perform these tasks after space flight, (3) Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements and (4) Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures.

  16. Launching Complex Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Kara J.; Shahan, Emily C.; Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Cobb, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics lessons can take a variety of formats. In this article, the authors discuss lessons organized around complex mathematical tasks. These lessons usually unfold in three phases. First, the task is introduced to students. Second, students work on solving the task. Third, the teacher "orchestrates" a concluding whole-class discussion in…

  17. Selecting Proportional Reasoning Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Cruz, Jessica A.

    2013-01-01

    With careful consideration given to task selection, students can construct their own solution strategies to solve complex proportional reasoning tasks while the teacher's instructional goals are still met. Several aspects of the tasks should be considered including their numerical structure, context, difficulty level, and the strategies they are…

  18. Task Time Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, G.

    2013-07-24

    This client-side web app tracks the amount of time spent on arbitrary tasks. It allosw the creation of an unlimited number of arbitrarily named tasks ans via simple interactions, tracks the amount of time spent working on the drfined tasks.

  19. Behavioral Task Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    depicting hierarchical behavioral task relationships as well. An extensive list of such tools is given in Wikipedia articles at http...Hierarchical task analysis . In D. Diaper & N. A. Stanton (Eds .), The handbook of task analysis for human-computer interaction (pp. 67-82). Mahwah, NJ

  20. Past Emergencies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These activities, some of national significance requiring coordination with other agencies, demonstrate the emergency response program and provide valuable experience so that EPA can better prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies in the future.

  1. Emergency contraception

    MedlinePlus

    Morning-after pill; Postcoital contraception; Birth control - emergency; Plan B; Family planning - emergency contraception ... prevents pregnancy in the same way as regular birth control pills: By preventing or delaying the release of ...

  2. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePlus

    ... against STDs even when using another method of birth control. If a condom breaks (or a couple has ... Emergency contraception is not recommended as a regular birth control method . Instead, it is used for emergencies only. ...

  3. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePlus

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ114 CONTRACEPTION Emergency Contraception • What is emergency contraception (EC)? • How does EC work? • What are the different types of EC? • What is the most ...

  4. Developing protocols for obstetric emergencies.

    PubMed

    Roth, Cheryl K; Parfitt, Sheryl E; Hering, Sandra L; Dent, Sarah A

    2014-01-01

    There is potential for important steps to be missed in emergency situations, even in the presence of many health care team members. Developing a clear plan of response for common emergencies can ensure that no tasks are redundant or omitted, and can create a more controlled environment that promotes positive health outcomes. A multidisciplinary team was assembled in a large community hospital to create protocols that would help ensure optimum care and continuity of practice in cases of postpartum hemorrhage, shoulder dystocia, emergency cesarean surgical birth, eclamptic seizure and maternal code. Assignment of team roles and responsibilities led to the evolution of standardized protocols for each emergency situation.

  5. Updating sensory versus task representations during task-switching: insights from cognitive brain potentials in humans.

    PubMed

    Periáñez, Jose A; Barceló, Francisco

    2009-03-01

    Task-cueing studies suggest that the updating of sensory and task representations both contribute to behavioral task-switch costs [Forstmann, B. U., Brass, M., & Koch, I. (2007). Methodological and empirical issues when dissociating cue-related from task-related processes in the explicit task-cuing procedure. Psychological Research, 71(4), 393-400]. Here we used transition cues to orthogonally manipulate Cue- and Task updating (switches vs. repetitions), in order to identify distinct behavioral indicators and event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with the exogenous and endogenous control of task preparation and execution. Both Cue- and Task updating, as well as their interaction, yielded significant behavioral costs, and evoked distinct cue- and target-locked ERPs. Task-switches enhanced cue-locked early P3 amplitudes (180-220 ms) over mid-central scalp regions, whereas cue switches reduced a fronto-central negativity (N2; 255-295 ms). In contrast, both cue- and task-switches enhanced cue-locked late P3 amplitudes (300-340 ms; novelty P3) over centro-parietal regions, supporting the hypothesis of a common neural substrate for processing stimulus and task novelty [Barceló, F., Escera, C., Corral, M. J., & Perianez, J. A. (2006). Task switching and novelty processing activate a common neural network for cognitive control. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18(10), 1734-1748]. In the target period, both cue- and task-switches reduced target P3 activity (310-730 ms) with short cue-target intervals only, suggesting that behavioral switch costs reflect the accrual of various time-dependent control operations during task preparation and execution. We conclude that the cognitive control of task-switching seems to emerge from a dynamic interplay between exogenous and endogenous sources of information.

  6. Loss attention in a dual-task setting.

    PubMed

    Yechiam, Eldad; Hochman, Guy

    2014-02-01

    The positive effect of losses on performance has been explained as stemming from the increased weighting of losses relative to gains. We examine an alternative possibility whereby this effect is mediated by attentional processes. Using the dual-task paradigm, we expected that positive effects of losses on performance would emerge under attentional scarcity and diffuse to a concurrently presented task. In Study 1, decision performance was compared for a task that involved either gains or losses and was performed either alone or as a secondary task. The results showed a significant 40% improvement in performance in the loss condition, but only under conditions of resource scarcity, when the task was a secondary one. In Study 2, the same task was presented as a primary task. Again, losses were associated with improved performance in the secondary task. Given that this secondary task did not include losses, these findings demonstrate an attentional spillover effect.

  7. Emergent Expertise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGivern, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The concept of emergence appears in various places within the literature on expertise and expert practice. Here, I examine some of these applications of emergence in the light of two prominent accounts of emergence from the philosophy of science and philosophy of mind. I evaluate these accounts with respect to several specific contexts in which…

  8. Emergent Expertise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGivern, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The concept of emergence appears in various places within the literature on expertise and expert practice. Here, I examine some of these applications of emergence in the light of two prominent accounts of emergence from the philosophy of science and philosophy of mind. I evaluate these accounts with respect to several specific contexts in which…

  9. AIPRC Jurisdiction Task Force Holds Hearings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal of the Institute for the Development of Indian Law, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The Jurisdiction Task Force of the American Indian Policy Review Commission (AIPRC) held a series of hearings on jurisdictional issues/problems confronting Native American governments today, and the following four topics emerged as primary areas of concern: Child Placement; Public Law 280; Water Rights; and Hunting/Fishing Rights. (JC)

  10. Adaptational Tasks in Childhood in Our Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Lois B.

    1964-01-01

    During the first months after birth, a child's functions begin to emerge. By age three a child is expected to have mastered the basic tasks of (1) good vegetative functioning (management of drives and impulses involved in eating and elimination), (2) perceptual organization and familiarization with the home environment and skills to orient to a…

  11. Task set determines the amount of crowding.

    PubMed

    Huckauf, Anke

    2007-11-01

    The present study deals with the question of how crowding effects, which are interactions among adjacent features or characters, emerges automatically or by so-called higher level controlled processing. Two experiments are presented comparing performances during detecting, localizing, and identifying a flanked target in same strings when the target was defined on the basis of either its form or its category. Detection and localization performances were better for form- relative to category-defined targets whereas the reverse was observed for identification performance. This shows that the interacting information is indeed high level in that it is affected by task settings like the defining target feature and the observers' task set. The results suggest that crowding effects do not emerge due to processes depending on the parameters of stimulus presentation, but due to processes activated by certain task sets.

  12. Data Systems Task Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    PAPER TAPES 63. NOTIFY CUSTOMER ENGINEERS (CE) OR TECHNICAL REPRESENTATIVES OF EQUIPMENT FAILURE 64. NOTIFY PRCGRAMMERS OR ANALYSIS CF PROCESSING...A08873 MARINE CORPS WASHINGTON DC F/B 5/9 DATA SYSTEMS TASK ANALYSIS . (U) "CLASSIFIEO. -%mm . LEVELIs DATA SYSTEMS O0 TASK ANALYSIS DCI) OO JF AUG 28...QUANTICO, VIRGINIA, 22134 "Ji (o t , - ’ i " DSYS)879 UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS TASK ANALYSIS PROGRAM QUESTICNNAIRE BOCKLET INTROCUCT ION YUU HAVE BEEN

  13. Transport Task Force Leadership, Task 4

    SciTech Connect

    Callen, J.D.

    1991-07-01

    The Transport Task Force (TTF) was initiated as a broad-based US magnetic fusion community activity during the fall of 1988 to focus attention on and encourage development of an increased understanding of anomalous transport in tokamaks. The overall TTF goal is to make progress on Characterizing, Understanding and Identifying how to Reduce plasma transport in tokamaks -- to CUIR transport.

  14. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    Despite significant declines over the past 2 decades, the United States continues to have teen birth rates that are significantly higher than other industrialized nations. Use of emergency contraception can reduce the risk of pregnancy if used up to 120 hours after unprotected intercourse or contraceptive failure and is most effective if used in the first 24 hours. Indications for the use of emergency contraception include sexual assault, unprotected intercourse, condom breakage or slippage, and missed or late doses of hormonal contraceptives, including the oral contraceptive pill, contraceptive patch, contraceptive ring (ie, improper placement or loss/expulsion), and injectable contraception. Adolescents younger than 17 years must obtain a prescription from a physician to access emergency contraception in most states. In all states, both males and females 17 years or older can obtain emergency contraception without a prescription. Adolescents are more likely to use emergency contraception if it has been prescribed in advance of need. The aim of this updated policy statement is to (1) educate pediatricians and other physicians on available emergency contraceptive methods; (2) provide current data on safety, efficacy, and use of emergency contraception in teenagers; and (3) encourage routine counseling and advance emergency-contraception prescription as 1 part of a public health strategy to reduce teen pregnancy. This policy focuses on pharmacologic methods of emergency contraception used within 120 hours of unprotected or underprotected coitus for the prevention of unintended pregnancy. Emergency contraceptive medications include products labeled and dedicated for use as emergency contraception by the US Food and Drug Administration (levonorgestrel and ulipristal) and the "off-label" use of combination oral contraceptives.

  15. Contextual Emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmanspacher, Harald

    The concept of contextual emergence has been proposed as a nonreductive, yet well-defined relation between different levels of description of physical and other systems. It yields a formally sound and empirically applicable procedure to translate between descriptive levels in an overall consistent fashion. This will be discussed for the contextual emergence of mental states from a neural level of description.

  16. Dermatologic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Sica, P A

    1986-03-01

    Being able to recognize and treat a dermatologic emergency is extremely important to the primary care physician. This ability is very rewarding for the patient and gratifying to the physician. In this article, some of the more commonly encountered emergencies are discussed.

  17. Emergency Response Guideline Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Storrick

    2007-09-30

    Task 5 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled “Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor” focuses on operator control and protection system interaction, with particular emphasis on developing emergency response guidelines (ERGs). As in the earlier tasks, we will use the IRIS plant as a specific example of an integrated primary system reactor (IPSR) design. The present state of the IRIS plant design – specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design – precludes establishing detailed emergency procedures at this time. However, we can create a structure for their eventual development. This report summarizes our progress to date. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 compares IPSR ERG development to the recent AP1000 effort, and identifies three key plant differences that affect the ERGs and control room designs. The next three sections investigate these differences in more detail. Section 3 reviews the IRIS Safety-by-Design™ philosophy and its impact on the ERGs. Section 4 looks at differences between the IRIS and traditional loop PWR I&C Systems, and considers their implications for both control room design and ERG development. Section 5 examines the implications of having one operating staff control multiple reactor units. Section 6 provides sample IRIS emergency operating procedures (EOPs). Section 7 summarizes our conclusions.

  18. Psychiatric Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Bayrakal, Sadi

    1972-01-01

    Dr. Bayrakal believes that the time has come for the family physician to deal with minor psychiatric disturbances in his office as well as psychiatric emergencies in the emergency department. The newly emerging medico-social philosophy of both the federal and provincial governments, he says, is giving greater responsibility and authority to the family physician in every area of medicine, including psychiatry. The author discusses major psychiatric emergencies (suicide, suicidal attempt, homicide, social scandal, as well as other psychiatric emergencies) on the ward including adolescent psychiatry. (The descriptions and treatment procedures are given on a concrete clinical level without theoretical overload.) In the family physician's work, psychological understanding is of profound importance. Giving him the added scope of psychiatric consideration to see the patient in bio-psycho-social totality will enable him to practice a more humanized form of medicine. PMID:20468779

  19. A Framework for Task-Oriented Language Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2008-01-01

    Task-based teaching is an area which has emerged from the upsurge of interest in cognitive approaches to language learning and teaching of the mid-1980s. Being a current vogue in communicative language teaching, task-based language learning contains dangers if implemented without care. In particular, it is likely to create pressure for immediate…

  20. A Framework for Task-Oriented Language Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali

    2008-01-01

    Task-based teaching is an area which has emerged from the upsurge of interest in cognitive approaches to language learning and teaching of the mid 1980s. Being a current vogue in a communicative language teaching, task-based language learning contains dangers if implemented without care. In particular, it is likely to create pressure for immediate…

  1. The carry-over effect of competition in task-sharing: evidence from the joint Simon task.

    PubMed

    Iani, Cristina; Anelli, Filomena; Nicoletti, Roberto; Rubichi, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    The Simon effect, that is the advantage of the spatial correspondence between stimulus and response locations when stimulus location is a task-irrelevant dimension, occurs even when the task is performed together by two participants, each performing a go/no-go task. Previous studies showed that this joint Simon effect, considered by some authors as a measure of self-other integration, does not emerge when during task performance co-actors are required to compete. The present study investigated whether and for how long competition experienced during joint performance of one task can affect performance in a following joint Simon task. In two experiments, we required pairs of participants to perform together a joint Simon task, before and after jointly performing together an unrelated non-spatial task (the Eriksen flanker task). In Experiment 1, participants always performed the joint Simon task under neutral instructions, before and after performing the joint flanker task in which they were explicitly required either to cooperate with (i.e., cooperative condition) or to compete against a co-actor (i.e., competitive condition). In Experiment 2, they were required to compete during the joint flanker task and to cooperate during the subsequent joint Simon task. Competition experienced in one task affected the way the subsequent joint task was performed, as revealed by the lack of the joint Simon effect, even though, during the Simon task participants were not required to compete (Experiment 1). However, prior competition no longer affected subsequent performance if a new goal that created positive interdependence between the two agents was introduced (Experiment 2). These results suggest that the emergence of the joint Simon effect is significantly influenced by how the goals of the co-acting individuals are related, with the effect of competition extending beyond the specific competitive setting and affecting subsequent interactions.

  2. Task Description Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David

    2005-01-01

    Task Description Language (TDL) is an extension of the C++ programming language that enables programmers to quickly and easily write complex, concurrent computer programs for controlling real-time autonomous systems, including robots and spacecraft. TDL is based on earlier work (circa 1984 through 1989) on the Task Control Architecture (TCA). TDL provides syntactic support for hierarchical task-level control functions, including task decomposition, synchronization, execution monitoring, and exception handling. A Java-language-based compiler transforms TDL programs into pure C++ code that includes calls to a platform-independent task-control-management (TCM) library. TDL has been used to control and coordinate multiple heterogeneous robots in projects sponsored by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It has also been used in Brazil to control an autonomous airship and in Canada to control a robotic manipulator.

  3. Emergency egress requirements for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Paul S.

    1990-01-01

    There is a real concern regarding the requirements for safe emergency egress from the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The possible causes of emergency are depressurization due to breach of the station hull by space debris, meteoroids, seal failure, or vent failure; chemical toxicity; and a large fire. The objectives of the current study are to identify the tasks required to be performed in emergencies, establish the time required to perform these tasks, and to review the human equipment interface in emergencies. It was found that a fixed time value specified for egress has shifted focus from the basic requirements of safe egress, that in some situations the crew members may not be able to complete the emergency egress tasks in three minutes without sacrificing more than half of the station, and that increased focus should be given to human factors aspects of space station design.

  4. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Van Look, P F; von Hertzen, H

    1993-01-01

    The term 'emergency contraception', as employed in this paper, refers to methods that are used as emergency procedures to prevent pregnancy following unprotected intercourse. Alternative, less appropriate, terms are postcoital and 'morning-after' contraception. References to postcoital preparations can be found as far back as 1500 BC in Egyptian papyri, but it was not until fairly recently that contraceptive research has been able to at least partially fulfill that need. The development of hormonal methods of emergency contraception goes back to the 1960s when the first human trials of postcoitally administered high-dose oestrogens were undertaken. Combined oestrogen- progestogen combination therapy (the so-called Yuzpe regimen) was introduced in the early 1970s, while the postcoital insertion of an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) for emergency contraception was first reported in 1976. Other compounds that have been tested more recently include levonorgestrel, the antiprogestogen mifepristone, and danazol. Although there is some debate about the magnitude of the protective effect, few people question the important role that emergency contraception can play in preventing unwanted pregnancy and hence maternal mortality and morbidity resulting from unsafe abortion. Given that the most often used methods of emergency contraception, namely the Yuzpe regimen and postcoital insertion of an IUD, rely on technology that has been available for some 30 years, family planning programmes that claim to be concerned with improving women's reproductive health, cannot really be excused if they do not provide emergency contraception as part of their routine services.

  5. Sharing a Task or Sharing Space? On the Effect of the Confederate in Action Coding in a Detection Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guagnano, Delia; Rusconi, Elena; Umilta, Carlo Arrigo

    2010-01-01

    Several studies showed a Simon effect when two participants sit close to each other and perform one of the two halves of a two-choice RT task. That is, each participant perform a go-no go task. A Simon effect emerges, which instead is absent when the same go-nogo tasks are performed individually. Hence the terms were introduced of "social Simon…

  6. Swimming Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Beerman, Stephen B.

    1988-01-01

    Persons who have undergone swimming emergencies are seen in emergency departments everywhere. They are frequently young healthy citizens. In some instances they will receive better care in large specialized referral hospitals. Other problems can be managed well at local facilities. This article attempts to equip all family physicians with some knowledge and management guidelines for dealing with swimming emergencies, submersion injuries including near-drowning, accidental hypothermia, and triathalon hypothermia. The unique problems of hot tub near-drowning, infant water intoxication, and spinal injuries caused by diving are presented. PMID:21253260

  7. Learning one task by interleaving practice with another task

    PubMed Central

    Szpiro, Sarit; Wright, Beverly A.; Carrasco, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Perceptual learning is a sustainable improvement in performance on a perceptual task following training. A hallmark of perceptual learning is task specificity – after participants have trained on and learned a particular task, learning rarely transfers to another task, even with identical stimuli. Accordingly, it is assumed that performing a task throughout training is a requirement for learning to occur on that specific task. Thus, interleaving training trials of a target task, with those of another task, should not improve performance on the target task. However, recent findings in audition show that interleaving two tasks during training can facilitate perceptual learning, even when the training on neither task yields learning on its own. Here we examined the role of cross-task training in the visual domain by training 4 groups of human observers for 3 consecutive days on an orientation comparison task (target task) and/or spatial-frequency comparison task (interleaving task). Interleaving small amounts of training on each task, which were ineffective alone, not only enabled learning on the target orientation task, as in audition, but also surpassed the learning attained by training on that task alone for the same total number of trials. This study illustrates that cross-task training in visual perceptual learning can be more effective than single-task training. The results reveal a comparable learning principle across modalities and demonstrate how to optimize training regimens to maximize perceptual learning. PMID:24959653

  8. Transfer of training between distinct motor tasks after stroke: Implications for task- specific approaches to upper extremity neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Sydney Y.; Patterson, Chavelle B.; Lang, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although task-specific training is emerging as a viable approach for recovering motor function after stroke, there is little evidence for whether the effects of such training transfer to other functional motor tasks not directly practiced in therapy. Objective The purpose of the current study was to test whether training on one motor task would transfer to untrained tasks that were either spatiotemporally similar or different in individuals with chronic hemiparesis post-stroke. Methods Eleven participants with chronic mild-to-moderate hemiparesis following stroke completed five days of supervised massed practice of a feeding task with their affected side. Performance on the feeding task, along with two other untrained functional upper extremity motor tasks (sorting, dressing) was assessed before and after training. Results Performance of all three tasks improved significantly after training exclusively on one motor task. The amount of improvement in the untrained tasks was comparable, and was not dependent on the degree of similarity to the trained task. Conclusions Because the number and type of tasks that can be practiced are often limited within standard stroke rehabilitation, results from this study will be useful for designing task-specific training plans to maximize therapy benefits. PMID:23549521

  9. Emerging Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Denise

    1988-01-01

    Youth services programs and cholesterol in children's diets, two topics that may emerge as issues in schools and school districts in the near future, are addressed. Resources for further information are listed. (CB)

  10. Emergency Response

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information for first responders, industry, federal, state and local governments on EPA's role and available resources for response to oil spills, chemical, biological, radiological releases, and large-scale national emergencies.

  11. Rheumatologic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-González, Luis Arturo

    2015-12-01

    Rheumatological conditions can sometimes present as emergencies. These can occur due to the disease process or infection; contrary to what many people think, rheumatologic emergencies like a pain, rheumatic crisis, or attack gout do not compromise the patient's life. This article mentioned only true emergencies: catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (cAPS), kidney-lung syndrome, central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis, anti-Ro syndrome (neonatal lupus), and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). The management of above emergencies includes critical care, immunosuppression when indicated, and use of a diagnostic flowchart as well as fast laboratory profile for making decisions. Anticoagulants have to be used in the management of antiphospholipid syndrome. A good understanding of these conditions is of paramount importance for proper management.

  12. ["Emergency measures"].

    PubMed

    Louis, Jean-Jacques

    2012-03-01

    This article deals with the impact of health crisis on governance of public health. It tries to show that, in accordance with the thought of Michel Foucault, emergency measures issued during health crisis are akin to those issued during wartime.

  13. Corneal Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Belknap, Ellen B

    2015-09-01

    Corneal emergencies can be due to a number of different causes and may be vision threatening if left untreated. In an attempt to stabilize the cornea, it is of benefit to place an Elizabethan collar on the patient to prevent further corneal damage. This article discusses the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of corneal emergencies in dogs and cats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Anorectal emergencies.

    PubMed

    Lohsiriwat, Varut

    2016-07-14

    Anorectal emergencies refer to anorectal disorders presenting with some alarming symptoms such as acute anal pain and bleeding which might require an immediate management. This article deals with the diagnosis and management of common anorectal emergencies such as acutely thrombosed external hemorrhoid, thrombosed or strangulated internal hemorrhoid, bleeding hemorrhoid, bleeding anorectal varices, anal fissure, irreducible or strangulated rectal prolapse, anorectal abscess, perineal necrotizing fasciitis (Fournier gangrene), retained anorectal foreign bodies and obstructing rectal cancer. Sexually transmitted diseases as anorectal non-surgical emergencies and some anorectal emergencies in neonates are also discussed. The last part of this review dedicates to the management of early complications following common anorectal procedures that may present as an emergency including acute urinary retention, bleeding, fecal impaction and anorectal sepsis. Although many of anorectal disorders presenting in an emergency setting are not life-threatening and may be successfully treated in an outpatient clinic, an accurate diagnosis and proper management remains a challenging problem for clinicians. A detailed history taking and a careful physical examination, including digital rectal examination and anoscopy, is essential for correct diagnosis and plan of treatment. In some cases, some imaging examinations, such as endoanal ultrasonography and computerized tomography scan of whole abdomen, are required. If in doubt, the attending physicians should not hesitate to consult an expert e.g., colorectal surgeon about the diagnosis, proper management and appropriate follow-up.

  15. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Grimes, David A; Raymond, Elizabeth G

    2002-08-06

    Emergency contraception is used to prevent pregnancy after a coital act not adequately protected by a regular method of contraception. In contrast to early medical abortion, emergency contraception prevents a pregnancy from starting and does not disrupt an established pregnancy. The most commonly used approaches consist of two oral doses of contraceptive steroids. The levonorgestrel-only regimen (levonorgestrel, 0.75 mg, repeated in 12 hours) appears to be more effective and better tolerated than the Yuzpe regimen (ethinyl estradiol, 100 microg, and levonorgestrel, 0.5 mg, repeated in 12 hours). In the largest randomized, controlled trial to date, levonorgestrel prevented about 85% of pregnancies that would have occurred without its use. Hormonal emergency contraception has no known medical contraindications, although it is not indicated for suspected or confirmed pregnancy. However, if hormonal emergency contraception is inadvertently taken in early pregnancy, neither the woman nor the fetus will be harmed. Nausea and vomiting associated with the Yuzpe regimen can be reduced by prophylactic use of meclizine. A strong medical and legal case exists for making hormonal emergency contraception available over the counter, as has happened in countries other than the United States. Easier access to and wider use of emergency contraception could dramatically lower the high rates of unintended pregnancy and induced abortion in the United States.

  16. Anorectal emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Lohsiriwat, Varut

    2016-01-01

    Anorectal emergencies refer to anorectal disorders presenting with some alarming symptoms such as acute anal pain and bleeding which might require an immediate management. This article deals with the diagnosis and management of common anorectal emergencies such as acutely thrombosed external hemorrhoid, thrombosed or strangulated internal hemorrhoid, bleeding hemorrhoid, bleeding anorectal varices, anal fissure, irreducible or strangulated rectal prolapse, anorectal abscess, perineal necrotizing fasciitis (Fournier gangrene), retained anorectal foreign bodies and obstructing rectal cancer. Sexually transmitted diseases as anorectal non-surgical emergencies and some anorectal emergencies in neonates are also discussed. The last part of this review dedicates to the management of early complications following common anorectal procedures that may present as an emergency including acute urinary retention, bleeding, fecal impaction and anorectal sepsis. Although many of anorectal disorders presenting in an emergency setting are not life-threatening and may be successfully treated in an outpatient clinic, an accurate diagnosis and proper management remains a challenging problem for clinicians. A detailed history taking and a careful physical examination, including digital rectal examination and anoscopy, is essential for correct diagnosis and plan of treatment. In some cases, some imaging examinations, such as endoanal ultrasonography and computerized tomography scan of whole abdomen, are required. If in doubt, the attending physicians should not hesitate to consult an expert e.g., colorectal surgeon about the diagnosis, proper management and appropriate follow-up. PMID:27468181

  17. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Two oral postcoital contraceptive agents are currently available. The first is a 2 x 2 pill; the second is a 5 x 5. Both release a higher dose of hormones than conventional contraceptive pills. Success rates range between 96% and 99%. They must be taken within 72 hours of intercourse. Side effects include nausea and vomiting. Contraindications are the same as for the common oral contraceptives. The contraceptive mode of action can be any of the following: 1) by making the lining of the uterus unreceptive; 2) by slowing the movement of the egg in the fallopian tube; or 3) by affecting the release of the egg. Emergency contraceptive pills have no effect once implantation takes place. The IUD can be used as an emergency postcoital contraceptive method if placed within 10 days of coitus. They are usually placed within 5-7 days because of laws regarding when birth control becomes abortion. One failure has been reported in Great Britain (December, 1993). Side effects are the same as with regular use. RU486/PG may be used in the future as an emergency contraceptive agent. Research is in progress on success rates and side effects. This agent could potentially be used at any time. Currently, emergency contraception can only be obtained by prescription. Limited hours and interrogating staff are obstacles in such emergencies. British women's groups are asking that emergency oral contraceptive pills be made available over the counter with advice from the pharmacist.

  18. Data analysis tasks: BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    1993-01-01

    Miscellaneous tasks related to the operation of, and analysis of data from, the Burst and Transient Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) were performed. The results are summarized and relevant references are included.

  19. Job and Task Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Morris, Johnnye M.

    1972-01-01

    Job and task analyses for bus boy, short order cook, and child care aide; also contains a career ladder for a child care center and proposed course of study and job analysis form for child care aide. (SB)

  20. Task complexity, student perceptions of vocabulary learning in EFL, and task performance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoli; Lowyck, Joost; Sercu, Lies; Elen, Jan

    2013-03-01

    The study deepened our understanding of how students' self-efficacy beliefs contribute to the context of teaching English as a foreign language in the framework of cognitive mediational paradigm at a fine-tuned task-specific level. The aim was to examine the relationship among task complexity, self-efficacy beliefs, domain-related prior knowledge, learning strategy use, and task performance as they were applied to English vocabulary learning from reading tasks. Participants were 120 second-year university students (mean age 21) from a Chinese university. This experiment had two conditions (simple/complex). A vocabulary level test was first conducted to measure participants' prior knowledge of English vocabulary. Participants were then randomly assigned to one of the learning tasks. Participants were administered task booklets together with the self-efficacy scales, measures of learning strategy use, and post-tests. Data obtained were submitted to multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and path analysis. Results from the MANOVA model showed a significant effect of vocabulary level on self-efficacy beliefs, learning strategy use, and task performance. Task complexity showed no significant effect; however, an interaction effect between vocabulary level and task complexity emerged. Results from the path analysis showed self-efficacy beliefs had an indirect effect on performance. Our results highlighted the mediating role of self-efficacy beliefs and learning strategy use. Our findings indicate that students' prior knowledge plays a crucial role on both self-efficacy beliefs and task performance, and the predictive power of self-efficacy on task performance may lie in its association with learning strategy use. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Contaminated sediment research task: SHC Task 3.61.3

    EPA Science Inventory

    A poster presentation for the SHC BOSC review will summarize the research efforts under Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program (SHC) in the Contaminated Sediment Task within the Contaminated Sites Project. For the Task, Problem Summary & Decision Context; Task O...

  2. Contaminated sediment research task: SHC Task 3.61.3

    EPA Science Inventory

    A poster presentation for the SHC BOSC review will summarize the research efforts under Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program (SHC) in the Contaminated Sediment Task within the Contaminated Sites Project. For the Task, Problem Summary & Decision Context; Task O...

  3. a Task-Oriented Disaster Information Correlation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linyao, Q.; Zhiqiang, D.; Qing, Z.

    2015-07-01

    With the rapid development of sensor networks and Earth observation technology, a large quantity of disaster-related data is available, such as remotely sensed data, historic data, case data, simulated data, and disaster products. However, the efficiency of current data management and service systems has become increasingly difficult due to the task variety and heterogeneous data. For emergency task-oriented applications, the data searches primarily rely on artificial experience based on simple metadata indices, the high time consumption and low accuracy of which cannot satisfy the speed and veracity requirements for disaster products. In this paper, a task-oriented correlation method is proposed for efficient disaster data management and intelligent service with the objectives of 1) putting forward disaster task ontology and data ontology to unify the different semantics of multi-source information, 2) identifying the semantic mapping from emergency tasks to multiple data sources on the basis of uniform description in 1), and 3) linking task-related data automatically and calculating the correlation between each data set and a certain task. The method goes beyond traditional static management of disaster data and establishes a basis for intelligent retrieval and active dissemination of disaster information. The case study presented in this paper illustrates the use of the method on an example flood emergency relief task.

  4. a Task-Driven Disaster Data Link Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, L. Y.; Zhu, Q.; Gu, J. Y.; Du, Z. Q.

    2015-08-01

    With the rapid development of sensor networks and Earth observation technology, a large quantity of disaster-related data is available, such as remotely sensed data, historic data, cases data, simulation data, disaster products and so on. However, the efficiency of current data management and service systems has become increasingly serious due to the task variety and heterogeneous data. For emergency task-oriented applications, data searching mainly relies on artificial experience based on simple metadata index, whose high time-consuming and low accuracy cannot satisfy the requirements of disaster products on velocity and veracity. In this paper, a task-oriented linking method is proposed for efficient disaster data management and intelligent service, with the objectives of 1) putting forward ontologies of disaster task and data to unify the different semantics of multi-source information, 2) identifying the semantic mapping from emergency tasks to multiple sources on the basis of uniform description in 1), 3) linking task-related data automatically and calculating the degree of correlation between each data and a target task. The method breaks through traditional static management of disaster data and establishes a base for intelligent retrieval and active push of disaster information. The case study presented in this paper illustrates the use of the method with a flood emergency relief task.

  5. Time-motion analysis of emergency radiologists and emergency physicians at an urban academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Perry, Warren M; Lee, Christoph I; Steers, W Neil; Post, Lori A; Forman, Howard P

    2013-10-01

    Our objective was to characterize the tasks of emergency radiologists and emergency physicians and quantify the proportion of time spent on these tasks to assess their roles in patient evaluation. Our study involved emergency radiologists and emergency physicians at an urban academic level I trauma medical center. Participants were observed for continuous 2-h periods during which all of their activities were timed and categorized into the following tasks: patient history, patient physical findings, assessment/plan, procedures, technical/administration, paperwork, and personal time. We performed multivariate analyses to compare the proportion of time spent on task categories between specialties. Twenty physicians (10 emergency medicine and 10 radiology) were observed for a total of 146,802 s (2,446.7 min). Radiologists spent a significantly larger combined proportion of time on determining physical findings and paperwork than emergency physicians (61.9 vs. 28.3 %, p<0.0001). Emergency physicians spent a significantly larger proportion of time than radiologists on determining patient history (17.5 vs. 2.5 %, p=0.0008) and assessment/plan (42.3 vs. 19.3 %, p<0.0001). Both specialties devoted minimal time toward personal tasks. Radiologists play a major role in the diagnostic evaluation of a subset of acute patients, spending significantly more of their time determining physical findings than their emergency physician counterparts.

  6. Design issues in the semantics and scheduling of asynchronous tasks.

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, Stephen L.

    2013-07-01

    The asynchronous task model serves as a useful vehicle for shared memory parallel programming, particularly on multicore and manycore processors. As adoption of model among programmers has increased, support has emerged for the integration of task parallel language constructs into mainstream programming languages, e.g., C and C++. This paper examines some of the design decisions in Cilk and OpenMP concerning semantics and scheduling of asynchronous tasks with the aim of informing the efforts of committees considering language integration, as well as developers of new task parallel languages and libraries.

  7. Identity Development in German Emerging Adults: Not an Easy Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Haid, Marja-Lena

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we review identity development in German youth as well as the impact of German cultural history on difficulties in developing a sense of national identity. Current socioeconomic and political contexts, such as instability of labor markets and prolonged transitions to work and partnership, are likely to affect identity development.…

  8. An Emerging Technology Curriculum. A Model with Task Listings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangasser, Vi; And Others

    This project was designed to provide a model for secondary and postsecondary educators in planning and developing a well-articulated competency-based delivery system focusing on high-technology training. The model was to be implemented in several vocational-technical programs so that secondary students would acquire the necessary competencies to…

  9. Identity development in German emerging adults: not an easy task.

    PubMed

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Haid, Marja-Lena

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we review identity development in German youth as well as the impact of German cultural history on difficulties in developing a sense of national identity. Current socioeconomic and political contexts, such as instability of labor markets and prolonged transitions to work and partnership, are likely to affect identity development. Identity development is particularly challenging for young adults from immigrant backgrounds, from low socioeconomic brackets, or who suffer from chronic health conditions. In this context, we highlight the supportive role of social networks (parents, peers, and romantic partners) for identity development. Cross-cultural studies have suggested distinctive identity concerns in youth from majority and minority groups.

  10. Identity Development in German Emerging Adults: Not an Easy Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Haid, Marja-Lena

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we review identity development in German youth as well as the impact of German cultural history on difficulties in developing a sense of national identity. Current socioeconomic and political contexts, such as instability of labor markets and prolonged transitions to work and partnership, are likely to affect identity development.…

  11. Emergent Power Hierarchies and Group Performance.

    PubMed

    Frauendorfer, Denise; Schmid Mast, Marianne; Sanchez-Cortes, Dairazalia; Gatica-Perez, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    In newly formed groups, informal hierarchies emerge automatically and readily. In this study, we argue that emergent group hierarchies enhance group performance (Hypothesis 1) and we assume that the more the power hierarchy within a group corresponds to the task-competence differences of the individual group members, the better the group performs (Hypothesis 2). Twelve three-person groups and 28 four-person groups were investigated while solving the Winter Survival Task. Results show that emerging power hierarchies positively impact group performance but the alignment between task-competence and power hierarchy did not affect group performance. Thus, emergent power hierarchies are beneficial for group performance and although they were on average created around individual group members' competence, this correspondence was not a prerequisite for better group performance.

  12. Emerging Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyaso, Hilary Hurd; Rolo, Mark Anthony; Roach, Ronald; Delos, Robin Chen; Branch-Brioso, Karen; Miranda, Maria Eugenia; Seymour, Add, Jr.; Grossman, Wendy; Nealy, Michelle J.; Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    This year's group of "emerging scholars" is a force to be reckoned with. This diverse group of young (under-40) crusaders is pushing the boundaries of research, technology and public policy in ways never imagined and reaching new heights of accomplishments. The Class of 2009 includes a physiologist who devised an artificial pancreas to produce the…

  13. Emerging Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyaso, Hilary Hurd; Rolo, Mark Anthony; Roach, Ronald; Delos, Robin Chen; Branch-Brioso, Karen; Miranda, Maria Eugenia; Seymour, Add, Jr.; Grossman, Wendy; Nealy, Michelle J.; Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    This year's group of "emerging scholars" is a force to be reckoned with. This diverse group of young (under-40) crusaders is pushing the boundaries of research, technology and public policy in ways never imagined and reaching new heights of accomplishments. The Class of 2009 includes a physiologist who devised an artificial pancreas to produce the…

  14. Emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Ellertson, C; Trussell, J; Stewart, F; Koenig, J; Raymond, E G; Shochet, T

    2001-12-01

    Emergency contraceptives are methods that prevent pregnancy when used shortly after unprotected sex. Three different emergency contraceptive methods are safe, simple, and widely available in the United States. These are: (1) ordinary combined oral contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel taken in a higher dose for a short period of time and started within a few days after unprotected intercourse; (2) levonorgestrel-only tablets used similarly; and (3) copper-bearing intrauterine devices inserted within approximately 1 week after unprotected intercourse. Emergency contraceptive use is best known for women who have been raped, but the methods are also appropriate for women who have experienced condom breaks, women who did not use any method because they were not planning on having sex, or women who had unprotected intercourse for any other reason. Unfortunately, few women know about emergency contraceptives, and few clinicians think to inform their patients routinely about the option. A nationwide toll-free hotline (1-888-NOT-2-LATE) and a website (http://not-2-late.com) can help women learn about these options. Sharing "family planning's best-kept secret" widely with women could prevent as many as a million unwanted pregnancies annually in the United States.

  15. [Outpatient emergencies].

    PubMed

    Rivallan, Armel; Le Nagard, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The outpatient monitoring of patients sometimes involves emergency situations. In their practice, the nurses who visit the patient's home are confronted with the limits of their intervention. Faced with these delicate situations team coordination is a strength and the reactivity of the caregivers often contributes to a satisfactory outcome for the patient.

  16. Coital emergencies.

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, A.

    1996-01-01

    The act of heterosexual coitus is associated with morbidity due to a variety of conditions as well as with a small risk of sudden death. Awareness of the presentation of coital emergencies is essential to allow appropriate medical management and sexual counselling. PMID:8944205

  17. Neurologic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Piecuch, J F; Lieblich, S E

    1995-07-01

    Neurologic emergencies are rare, and they usually occur in easily identifiable patients, provided that a thorough medical history has been previously obtained. Rare as these may be, however, they occur without warning and are potentially life threatening. Consequently, the dentist should be prepared by virtue of knowledge of the pathophysiology and therapy and by formal training and certification in basic life support.

  18. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePlus

    ... a prescription, regardless of a person's age. The copper intrauterine device (IUD) can sometimes be used as a form of ... days after unprotected sex. It works because the copper prevents sperm from ... than ECPs, an IUD is the most effective type of emergency contraception. ...

  19. Chemical Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... agents such as sarin and VX. Many hazardous chemicals are used in industry - for example, chlorine, ammonia, and benzene. Some can be made from everyday items such as household cleaners. Although there are no guarantees of safety during a chemical emergency, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  20. Goal orientation, perceived task outcome and task demands in mathematics tasks: effects on students' attitude in actual task settings.

    PubMed

    Seegers, Gerard; van Putten, Cornelis M; de Brabander, Cornelis J

    2002-09-01

    In earlier studies, it has been found that students' domain-specific cognitions and personal learning goals (goal orientation) influence task-specific appraisals of actual learning tasks. The relations between domain-specific and task-specific variables have been specified in the model of adaptive learning. In this study, additional influences, i.e., perceived task outcome on a former occasion and variations in task demands, were investigated. The purpose of this study was to identify personality and situational variables that mediate students' attitude when confronted with a mathematics task. Students worked on a mathematics task in two subsequent sessions. Effects of perceived task outcome at the first session on students' attitude at the second session were investigated. In addition, we investigated how differences in task demands influenced students' attitude. Variations in task demands were provoked by different conditions in task-instruction. In one condition, students were told that the result on the test would add to their mark on mathematics. This outcome orienting condition was contrasted with a task-orienting condition where students were told that the results on the test would not be used to give individual grades. Participants were sixth grade students (N = 345; aged 11-12 years) from 14 primary schools. Multivariate and univariate analyses of (co)variance were applied to the data. Independent variables were goal orientation, task demands, and perceived task outcome, with task-specific variables (estimated competence for the task, task attraction, task relevance, and willingness to invest effort) as the dependent variables. The results showed that previous perceived task outcome had a substantial impact on students' attitude. Additional but smaller effects were found for variation in task demands. Furthermore, effects of previous perceived task outcome and task demands were related to goal orientation. The resulting pattern confirmed that, in general

  1. Emerging Propulsion Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    The Emerging Propulsion Technologies (EPT) investment area is the newest area within the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Project and strives to bridge technologies in the lower Technology Readiness Level (TRL) range (2 to 3) to the mid TRL range (4 to 6). A prioritization process, the Integrated In-Space Transportation Planning (IISTP), was developed and applied in FY01 to establish initial program priorities. The EPT investment area emerged for technologies that scored well in the IISTP but had a low technical maturity level. One particular technology, the Momentum-eXchange Electrodynamic-Reboost (MXER) tether, scored extraordinarily high and had broad applicability in the IISTP. However, its technical maturity was too low for ranking alongside technologies like the ion engine or aerocapture. Thus MXER tethers assumed top priority at EPT startup in FY03 with an aggressive schedule and adequate budget. It was originally envisioned that future technologies would enter the ISP portfolio through EPT, and EPT developed an EPT/ISP Entrance Process for future candidate ISP technologies. EPT has funded the following secondary, candidate ISP technologies at a low level: ultra-lightweight solar sails, general space/near-earth tether development, electrodynamic tether development, advanced electric propulsion, and in-space mechanism development. However, the scope of the ISPT program has focused over time to more closely match SMD needs and technology advancement successes. As a result, the funding for MXER and other EPT technologies is not currently available. Consequently, the MXER tether tasks and other EPT tasks were expected to phased out by November 2006. Presentation slides are presented which provide activity overviews for the aerocapture technology and emerging propulsion technology projects.

  2. Task-Based Learning: The Interaction between Tasks and Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Jacky

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between tasks and learners in task-based learning. Findings suggest that manipulation of task characteristics and conditions may not achieve the intended pedagogic outcomes, and that new ways are needed to focus learners' attention of form without sacrificing the meaning-driven principles of task-based learning.…

  3. California Red-legged Frog - Stipulated Injunction

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA will make effects determinations and initiate consultation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, regarding the potential effects of 66 pesticide active ingredient registrations on the California red-legged frog.

  4. 43 CFR 3101.5-4 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Issuance of Leases § 3101.5-4... wildlife populations and habitat and other refuge resources on the areas leased. The specific conduct of...

  5. 7 CFR 900.82 - Stipulation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Rules of Practice for Marketing Orders, Marketing Agreements, and Requirements Issued Pursuant to 7 U.S... give the handler or importer notice of the alleged violation of the applicable marketing order...

  6. 7 CFR 900.82 - Stipulation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Rules of Practice for Marketing Orders, Marketing Agreements, and Requirements Issued Pursuant to 7 U.S... give the handler or importer notice of the alleged violation of the applicable marketing order...

  7. 46 CFR 221.67 - Stipulation procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING MARITIME CARRIERS AND RELATED ACTIVITIES REGULATED TRANSACTIONS INVOLVING DOCUMENTED VESSELS AND OTHER MARITIME INTERESTS Civil Penalties... a violation will be kept on record and may be used by the Maritime Administration in aggravation of...

  8. 7 CFR 1.75 - General stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... property concerned. (b) The producer must show access to a distribution channel recognized by the motion picture or television industry. In lieu of complete distribution plans for a television series, a...

  9. 40 CFR 51.101 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... submit a plan which does not provide for the protection and enhancement of air quality so as to promote... techniques other than those specified in this part for purposes of estimating air quality or demonstrating... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS...

  10. 40 CFR 51.101 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... submit a plan which does not provide for the protection and enhancement of air quality so as to promote... techniques other than those specified in this part for purposes of estimating air quality or demonstrating... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS...

  11. 40 CFR 51.101 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... submit a plan which does not provide for the protection and enhancement of air quality so as to promote... techniques other than those specified in this part for purposes of estimating air quality or demonstrating... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS...

  12. 40 CFR 51.101 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... submit a plan which does not provide for the protection and enhancement of air quality so as to promote... techniques other than those specified in this part for purposes of estimating air quality or demonstrating... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS...

  13. 7 CFR 1.75 - General stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... for the defrayment of costs for the proposed undertaking). (c) The commercial advertising of any show...) Commercial sponsorship shall be only by a person, firm, or corporation acceptable under the terms of the 1954 Television Code of the National Association of Radio and Television Broadcasters, and all...

  14. 7 CFR 1.75 - General stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Commercial sponsorship shall be only by a person, firm, or corporation acceptable under the terms of the 1954... amendments thereto. Political sponsorship shall not be permitted. (e) That no production costs shall be...

  15. 7 CFR 1.75 - General stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Commercial sponsorship shall be only by a person, firm, or corporation acceptable under the terms of the 1954... amendments thereto. Political sponsorship shall not be permitted. (e) That no production costs shall be...

  16. 7 CFR 900.82 - Stipulation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Rules of Practice for Marketing Orders, Marketing Agreements, and Requirements Issued Pursuant to 7 U.S... give the handler or importer notice of the alleged violation of the applicable marketing order or...

  17. Development of relational processing in hot and cool tasks.

    PubMed

    Bunch, Katie M; Andrews, Glenda

    2012-01-01

    The research investigated the role of complexity and the hot-cool distinction in cognitive development. The 120, 3- to 6-year-old children completed four hot tasks, which involved an affective component and three cool tasks, which did not. All tasks included binary- and ternary-relational items. Complexity was a major source of difficulty on all tasks, especially for younger children. Consistent with a hot-cool distinction, ternary-relational processing emerged earlier and more 4- and 5-year-olds mastered ternary-relational items in hot than cool tasks. Overall performance was better in hot than cool tasks at 4 years but this pattern was reversed at 6 years.

  18. Planetary image conversion task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. D.; Stanley, C. L.; Laughlin, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Planetary Image Conversion Task group processed 12,500 magnetic tapes containing raw imaging data from JPL planetary missions and produced an image data base in consistent format on 1200 fully packed 6250-bpi tapes. The output tapes will remain at JPL. A copy of the entire tape set was delivered to US Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Ariz. A secondary task converted computer datalogs, which had been stored in project specific MARK IV File Management System data types and structures, to flat-file, text format that is processable on any modern computer system. The conversion processing took place at JPL's Image Processing Laboratory on an IBM 370-158 with existing software modified slightly to meet the needs of the conversion task. More than 99% of the original digital image data was successfully recovered by the conversion task. However, processing data tapes recorded before 1975 was destructive. This discovery is of critical importance to facilities responsible for maintaining digital archives since normal periodic random sampling techniques would be unlikely to detect this phenomenon, and entire data sets could be wiped out in the act of generating seemingly positive sampling results. Reccomended follow-on activities are also included.

  19. Job Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC.

    This publication consists of job task analyses for jobs in textile manufacturing. Information provided for each job in the greige and finishing plants includes job title, job purpose, and job duties with related educational objectives, curriculum, assessment, and outcome. These job titles are included: yarn manufacturing head overhauler, yarn…

  20. Realistic Sensor Tasking Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frueh, C.; Fiedler, H.; Herzog, J.

    2016-09-01

    Efficient sensor tasking is a crucial step in building up and maintaining a catalog of space objects at the highest possible orbit quality. Sensor resources are limited; sensor location and setup (hardware and processing software) influence the quality of observations for initial orbit determination or orbit improvement that can be obtained. Furthermore, improved sensing capabilities are expected to lead to an increase of objects that are sought to be maintained in a catalog, easily reaching over 100'000 objects. Sensor tasking methods hence need to be computationally efficient in order to be successfully applied to operational systems, and need to take realistic constraints, such as limited visibility of objects, time-varying probability of detection and the specific capabilities in software and hardware for the specific sensors into account. This paper shows a method to formulate sensor tasking as an optimization problem and introduces a new method to provide fast and computationally efficient real time, near optimal sensor tasking solutions. Simulations are preformed using the USSTRATCOM TLE catalog of all geosynchronous objects. The results are compared to state of the art observation strategies.

  1. Embodied Task Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simko, Juraj; Cummins, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Movement science faces the challenge of reconciling parallel sequences of discrete behavioral goals with observed fluid, context-sensitive motion. This challenge arises with a vengeance in the speech domain, in which gestural primitives play the role of discrete goals. The task dynamic framework has proved effective in modeling the manner in which…

  2. Chizu Task Mapping Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2014-07-01

    Chizu is a tool for Mapping MPI processes or tasks to physical processors or nodes for optimizing communication performance. It takes the communication graph of a High Performance Computing (HPC) application and the interconnection topology of a supercomputer as input. It outputs a new MPI rand to processor mapping, which can be used when launching the HPC application.

  3. Creating Positive Task Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mally, Kristi K.

    2006-01-01

    Constraints are characteristics of the individual, the task, or the environment that mold and shape movement choices and performances. Constraints can be positive--encouraging proficient movements or negative--discouraging movement or promoting ineffective movements. Physical educators must analyze, evaluate, and determine the effect various…

  4. Thinking about "Rich" Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Lorna; Watson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an e-mail conversation between two teachers discussing how to have a "rich task" lesson in which they get to the heart of mathematical modeling and in which students are motivated into working on mathematics. One teacher emphasizes that the power of maths is in developing mathematical descriptions of situations by…

  5. BIA Reorganization Task Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Reporting on three hearings held this spring by the Bureau of Indian Affairs Reorganization Task Force, this article presents highlights from the testimony of Forrest Gerard, Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs and discusses the matrix system of organization currently under consideration by the BIA. (JC)

  6. Thinking about "Rich" Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Box, Lorna; Watson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an e-mail conversation between two teachers discussing how to have a "rich task" lesson in which they get to the heart of mathematical modeling and in which students are motivated into working on mathematics. One teacher emphasizes that the power of maths is in developing mathematical descriptions of situations by…

  7. Creating Positive Task Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mally, Kristi K.

    2006-01-01

    Constraints are characteristics of the individual, the task, or the environment that mold and shape movement choices and performances. Constraints can be positive--encouraging proficient movements or negative--discouraging movement or promoting ineffective movements. Physical educators must analyze, evaluate, and determine the effect various…

  8. Mining Task Force Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Inst. of Applied Science and Technology, Saskatoon.

    In fall 1988, the Board of Directors of the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST) created a task force to study the training needs of the mining industry in the province and evaluate SIAST's responsiveness to those needs. After assessing the technological changes taking place in the industry, surveying manpower needs,…

  9. Task 1 quarternary tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.W.

    1994-12-31

    Activities on the task of quarternary tectonics for the Yucca Mountain Site investigations are described. Technical topics include: A preliminary reveiw of Bare Mountain Trench; A preliminary detailed lineament map of the Southwestern part of the proposed repository; A discussion on the 1994 Double Spring Flat, Nevada earthquake; and evidence for temporal clustering.

  10. Biomedical applications engineering tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laenger, C. J., Sr.

    1976-01-01

    The engineering tasks performed in response to needs articulated by clinicians are described. Initial contacts were made with these clinician-technology requestors by the Southwest Research Institute NASA Biomedical Applications Team. The basic purpose of the program was to effectively transfer aerospace technology into functional hardware to solve real biomedical problems.

  11. Embodied Task Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simko, Juraj; Cummins, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Movement science faces the challenge of reconciling parallel sequences of discrete behavioral goals with observed fluid, context-sensitive motion. This challenge arises with a vengeance in the speech domain, in which gestural primitives play the role of discrete goals. The task dynamic framework has proved effective in modeling the manner in which…

  12. Emergency cricothyrotomy.

    PubMed

    Hart, Kristopher L; Thompson, Stevan H

    2010-03-01

    Establishment of an unobstructed airway and adequate oxygenation is a basic tenet of life support. Mechanical or anatomic airway obstructions can arise secondary to trauma, pathology, foreign bodies, and infection. The oral and maxillofacial surgeon is uniquely trained to provide surgical and anesthetic care, and must be prepared to provide emergency airway management. This article reviews the indications, contraindications, and techniques of surgical and needle cricothyrotomy. Fortunately, with advances in airway techniques and equipment, emergency cricothyrotomy is not a common procedure. However, in the event that a surgeon has no other means of securing an airway, this procedure may avert a catastrophe. If such a situation does occur, quick and decisive action can best be carried out if there is a thorough understanding of the anatomy and techniques involved.

  13. Dental Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Symington, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Patients with dental emergencies sometimes present to their physician. This article outlines the role of the physician in the management of dental patients who have suffered traumatic injuries, postoperative hemorrhage, pain, and infection. It deals with those difficulties for which the physician may easily prescribe treatment and outlines the treatment that would be undertaken by a dentist who receives such a patient on referral. PMID:21253249

  14. Cardiac emergencies.

    PubMed

    Barata, Isabel Araujo

    2013-08-01

    The diagnosis and management of pediatric cardiac emergencies can be challenging and complicated. Early presentations are usually the result of ductal-dependent lesions and appear with cyanosis and shock. Later presentations are the result of volume overload or pump failure and present with signs of congestive heart failure. Acquired diseases also present as congestive heart failure or arrhythmias. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Emerging jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel; Weiler, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  16. Can tasks be inherently boring?

    PubMed

    Charney, Evan

    2013-12-01

    Kurzban et al. argue that the experiences of "effort," "boredom," and "fatigue" are indications that the costs of a task outweigh its benefits. Reducing the costs of tasks to "opportunity costs" has the effect of rendering tasks costless and of denying that they can be inherently boring or tedious, something that "vigilance tasks" were intentionally designed to be.

  17. Event Related Potentials (ERPs) in Elementary Cognitive Tasks Reflect Task Difficulty and Task Threshold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caryl, P. G.; Harper, Alison

    1996-01-01

    Effects on the event-related potential (ERP) waveform of differences in stimuli (task difficulty) and threshold were studied with 35 undergraduates performing a visual inspection time task and 30 performing a pitch discrimination task. In both tasks, ERP differences related to threshold were temporally localized differences in waveform shape. (SLD)

  18. Task switching in a hierarchical task structure: evidence for the fragility of the task repetition benefit.

    PubMed

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric

    2004-05-01

    This study examined how task switching is affected by hierarchical task organization. Traditional task-switching studies, which use a constant temporal and spatial distance between each task element (defined as a stimulus requiring a response), promote a flat task structure. Using this approach, Experiment 1 revealed a large switch cost of 238 ms. In Experiments 2-5, adjacent task elements were grouped temporally and/or spatially (forming an ensemble) to create a hierarchical task organization. Results indicate that the effect of switching at the ensemble level dominated the effect of switching at the element level. Experiments 6 and 7, using an ensemble of 3 task elements, revealed that the element-level switch cost was virtually absent between ensembles but was large within an ensemble. The authors conclude that the element-level task repetition benefit is fragile and can be eliminated in a hierarchical task organization.

  19. Task switching in a hierarchical task structure: evidence for the fragility of the task repetition benefit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This study examined how task switching is affected by hierarchical task organization. Traditional task-switching studies, which use a constant temporal and spatial distance between each task element (defined as a stimulus requiring a response), promote a flat task structure. Using this approach, Experiment 1 revealed a large switch cost of 238 ms. In Experiments 2-5, adjacent task elements were grouped temporally and/or spatially (forming an ensemble) to create a hierarchical task organization. Results indicate that the effect of switching at the ensemble level dominated the effect of switching at the element level. Experiments 6 and 7, using an ensemble of 3 task elements, revealed that the element-level switch cost was virtually absent between ensembles but was large within an ensemble. The authors conclude that the element-level task repetition benefit is fragile and can be eliminated in a hierarchical task organization.

  20. Effects of noise and task loading on a communication task loading on a communication task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orrell, Dean H., II

    Previous research had shown the effect of noise on a single communication task. This research has been criticized as not being representative of a real world situation since subjects allocated all of their attention to only one task. In the present study, the effect of adding a loading task to a standard noise-communication paradigm was investigated. Subjects performed both a communication task (Modified Rhyme Test; House et al. 1965) and a short term memory task (Sternberg, 1969) in simulated levels of aircraft noise (95, 105 and 115 dB overall sound pressure level (OASPL)). Task loading was varied with Sternberg's task by requiring subjects to memorize one, four, or six alphanumeric characters. Simulated aircraft noise was varied between levels of 95, 105 and 115 dB OASPL using a pink noise source. Results show that the addition of Sternberg's task and little effect on the intelligibility of the communication task while response time for the communication task increased.

  1. Nursery Task Force update

    Treesearch

    Russ Pohl

    2007-01-01

    The Nursery Task Force was set up at the behest of the Southern Group of State Foresters in the late winter/spring of 2005. Its mission was to assess the condition of state nurseries across the South and to make recommendations to improve their viability. At the time, tree planting cost-share money was diminished; pulpwood prices were low; much of the Southeast had...

  2. Management Agenda Task Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    Report FY04-4 • Recommendations related to business management priorities for the Secretary of Defense February...Business Board (DBB) formed this Task Group to assess and make recommendations to the Department of Defense on management priorities for the next four...This list should be drawn from the four primary areas of DBB focus over the past three years: human resources, financial management, acquisition

  3. New paradigm for task switching strategies while performing multiple tasks: entropy and symbolic dynamics analysis of voluntary patterns.

    PubMed

    Guastello, Stephen J; Gorin, Hillary; Huschen, Samuel; Peters, Natalie E; Fabisch, Megan; Poston, Kirsten

    2012-10-01

    It has become well established in laboratory experiments that switching tasks, perhaps due to interruptions at work, incur costs in response time to complete the next task. Conditions are also known that exaggerate or lessen the switching costs. Although switching costs can contribute to fatigue, task switching can also be an adaptive response to fatigue. The present study introduces a new research paradigm for studying the emergence of voluntary task switching regimes, self-organizing processes therein, and the possibly conflicting roles of switching costs and minimum entropy. Fifty-four undergraduates performed 7 different computer-based cognitive tasks producing sets of 49 responses under instructional conditions requiring task quotas or no quotas. The sequences of task choices were analyzed using orbital decomposition to extract pattern types and lengths, which were then classified and compared with regard to Shannon entropy, topological entropy, number of task switches involved, and overall performance. Results indicated that similar but different patterns were generated under the two instructional conditions, and better performance was associated with lower topological entropy. Both entropy metrics were associated with the amount of voluntary task switching. Future research should explore conditions affecting the trade-off between switching costs and entropy, levels of automaticity between task elements, and the role of voluntary switching regimes on fatigue.

  4. Mobile Thread Task Manager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley J.; Estlin, Tara A.; Bornstein, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    The Mobile Thread Task Manager (MTTM) is being applied to parallelizing existing flight software to understand the benefits and to develop new techniques and architectural concepts for adapting software to multicore architectures. It allocates and load-balances tasks for a group of threads that migrate across processors to improve cache performance. In order to balance-load across threads, the MTTM augments a basic map-reduce strategy to draw jobs from a global queue. In a multicore processor, memory may be "homed" to the cache of a specific processor and must be accessed from that processor. The MTTB architecture wraps access to data with thread management to move threads to the home processor for that data so that the computation follows the data in an attempt to avoid L2 cache misses. Cache homing is also handled by a memory manager that translates identifiers to processor IDs where the data will be homed (according to rules defined by the user). The user can also specify the number of threads and processors separately, which is important for tuning performance for different patterns of computation and memory access. MTTM efficiently processes tasks in parallel on a multiprocessor computer. It also provides an interface to make it easier to adapt existing software to a multiprocessor environment.

  5. The task force process

    SciTech Connect

    Applegate, J.S.

    1995-01-31

    This paper focuses on the unique aspects of the Fernald Citizens Task Force process that have contributed to a largely successful public participation effort at Fernald. The Fernald Citizens Task Force passed quickly by many procedural issues. Instead, the Task Force concentrated on (a) educating itself about the site, its problems, and possible solutions, and (b) choosing a directed way to approach its mandate: To make recommendations on several {open_quotes}big picture{close_quotes} issues, including future use of the site, cleanup levels, waste disposition, and cleanup priorities. This paper presents the approach used at Fernald for establishing and running a focused site-specific advisory board, the key issues that have been faced, and how these issues were resolved. The success of Fernald in establishing a strong and functioning site-specific advisory board serves as a useful model for other DOE facilities, although the Fernald model is just one of many approaches that can be taken. However, the approach presented here has worked extremely well for Fernald.

  6. Generic cognitive adaptations to task interference in task switching.

    PubMed

    Poljac, Edita; Bekkering, Harold

    2009-11-01

    The present study investigated how the activation of previous tasks interferes with the execution of future tasks as a result of temporal manipulations. Color and shape matching tasks were organized in runs of two trials each. The tasks were specified by a cue presented before a task run, cueing only the first trials of each run. Response times (RTs) and error rates were measured for task switching and task repetition conditions. Task interference was varied as a function of response-cue interval (RCI of 300 and 900ms), that is, the interval between the task runs. Keeping the response-stimulus interval within the task runs constant at 300ms allowed the disentangling of the direct effects of RCI manipulation on performance (first trials) from the general effects on performance (both trials in the run). The data showed similar performance improvement due to RCI increase on both trials in the task run. Furthermore, increasing RCI improved both switch and repetition performance to a similar extent. Together, our findings provide further evidence for accounts stressing generic effects of proactive task interference in task switching.

  7. Emergency Lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A lighting system originally developed for NASA's Apollo and Skylab manned spacecraft resulted in a industrial spinoff and creation of a whole new company to produce and market the product line. The company is UDEC Corp., Waltham, Mass. UDEC's "Multi-Mode" electronic lighting systems are designed for plant emergency and supplemental use, such as night lighting, "always-on" stairwell lights and illuminated exit signs. Their advantages stem from the qualities demanded for spacecraft installation: extremely high fight output with very low energy drain, compactness, light weight, and high reliability. The Multi-Mode system includes long-life fluorescent lamps operated by electronic circuitry, a sealed battery that needs no maintenance for 10 years, and a solid-state battery charger. A typical emergency installation consists of a master module with battery and an eight watt lamp, together with four remote "Satellight" modules powered by the master's battery. As a night lighting system for maintenance or I security, UDEC fixtures can bypass the battery and 1 operate on normal current at a fraction of the energy 1 demand of conventional night lighting. Industrial customers have realized savings of better than ninety percent with UDEC night lights. UDEC started as a basement industry in 1972 but the company has already sold more than 1,000 lighting systems to building operators.

  8. Evaluating input device usability as a function of task difficulty in a tracking task.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Michael A; Oppold, Paul; McConnell, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    Game controllers are emerging as a preferred choice for the manual control of unmanned vehicles, but an understanding of their usability characteristics has yet to emerge. We compared the usability of an Xbox 360 game controller in a dual task situation using MATB II to the traditional joystick and keyboard interface in two experiments. In the first experiment, performance with the game controller was associated with fewer tracking errors. In a second experiment, we trained users on the devices, and found that even after training the game controller was still associated with fewer tracking errors as well as higher usability and lower workload ratings. These results are consistent with the idea that game controllers are highly usable input devices and do not require high mental workload to operate, thus making them suitable for complex control tasks.

  9. Physiological Indices of Pilots' Abilities Under Varying Task Demands.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Zheng, Lingxiao; Lu, Yanyu; Fu, Shan

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated pilots' ability by examining the effects of flight experience and task demand on physiological reactions, and analyzing the diagnostic meanings underlying correlated parameters. A total of 12 experienced pilots and 12 less experienced pilots performed 4 simulated flight tasks, including normal and emergency situations. Fixation duration (FD), saccade rate (SR), blink rate (BR), heart rate (HR), respiration rate (RR), and respiration amplitude (RA) were measured during the tasks. More experienced pilots adapted their SR flexibly to changing task demands and had significantly lower SR than less experienced pilots during emergency tasks (29.6 ± 20.0 vs. 70.1 ± 67.1 saccades/min). BR, HR, and RR were affected by pilot experience but not by task demand. More experienced pilots had lower BR, HR, and RR than less experienced pilots during both normal tasks (BR: 14.3 ± 13.0 vs. 32.9 ± 25.8 blinks/min; HR: 72.7 ± 7.9 vs. 83.2 ± 7.2 bpm; RR: 15.4 ± 2.1 vs. 19.5 ± 5.2 breaths/min) and emergency tasks (BR: 10.2 ± 5.0 vs. 32.3 ± 20.8 blinks/min; HR: 73.3 ± 7.3 vs. 82.2 ± 11.6 bpm; RR: 15.6 ± 1.9 vs. 18.0 ± 3.2 breaths/min). FD and RA were not sensitive to either flight experience or task demand. Physiological reactions have the potential to reflect pilots' ability from different aspects. SR and BR could indicate pilots' differences in information access strategy. HR and RR could reflect a pilot's physical fitness. These findings are useful for understanding a pilot's ability.

  10. Pre-Task Syntactic Priming and Focused Task Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Jeremy S.

    2010-01-01

    Focused tasks engage learners in using language for communication and in addition have a specific predetermined linguistic focus in mind. The difficulty in designing focused tasks is that many meanings can be articulated using more than one language form, making it difficult to design tasks which induce learner use of a specific target form. This…

  11. Learner Mining of Pre-Task and Task Input

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Jeremy Scott

    2008-01-01

    The findings reported in this article suggest that learners inevitably "mine" wordings contained in pre-task and task materials when performing tasks, even when the teacher did not explicitly draw learner attention to these features. However, this was found to be true only with written materials, and learners did not appear to mine specific…

  12. Emergency preparedness.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Christine F; Long, Carol O

    2006-01-01

    The Boy Scout motto is "be prepared," but can your home health agency abide by this standard? The post-9/11 days of 2001 and the natural disasters that have threatened people and plagued our home and countries abroad illustrate the heightened level of awareness and preparedness home healthcare agencies must achieve to satisfactorily meet emergency preparedness standards. Community-based nurses often are on the front line of response to a man-made, biological, or naturally occurring event. You may have been assigned to work on a plan for your agency's response or have had questions asked about preparedness by your clients and family members. Here are six Web sites to get you started on the answers to those questions and concerns.

  13. Emerging holography

    SciTech Connect

    Erlich, Joshua; Kribs, Graham D.; Low, Ian

    2006-05-01

    We rederive AdS/CFT predictions for infrared two-point functions by an entirely four-dimensional approach, without reference to holography. This approach, originally due to Migdal in the context of QCD, utilizes an extrapolation from the ultraviolet to the infrared using a Pade approximation of the two-point function. We show that the Pade approximation and AdS/CFT give the same leading order predictions, and we discuss including power corrections such as those due to condensates of gluons and quarks in QCD. At finite order the Pade approximation provides a gauge invariant regularization of a higher dimensional gauge theory in the spirit of deconstructed extra dimensions. The radial direction of anti-de Sitter space emerges naturally in this approach.

  14. SURGICAL EMERGENCIES

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Felix R.

    1950-01-01

    Action according to preconceived plans may be life-saving at the scene of accidents involving serious injury to several persons. Severe hemorrhage and respiratory obstruction must be dealt with immediately. As the latter may not be apparent at a glance, it should be looked for specifically. Artificial respiration may be necessary. Spinal puncture is a procedure in first aid which should be carried out at the site of an accident if there are symptoms of cerebral edema or of increased cerebral pressure. Routine plans should be laid to meet the emergency of cardiac arrest on the operating table. The surgeon must be prepared to begin cardiac massage within three minutes in such instances. PMID:18731685

  15. Emerging anxiolytics.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Nirvana S; Stein, Dan J

    2007-11-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common of the psychiatric disorders and are also associated with significant economic costs and impaired work productivity. The first-line pharmacotherapy of pharmatherapy for a number of anxiety disorders comprises selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin and noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Benzodiazepines are still widely used for the treatment of several anxiety disorders. Although these agents are effective, many patients are treatment-refractory and more effective, better tolerated medications are required. This paper discusses the understandings of mechanisms involved in the anxiety disorders and reviews emerging medications. Mechanisms underlying the use of d-cycloserine, second generation antipsychotics and beta-blockers are particularly exciting.

  16. Emergencies and Emergency Permits for Ocean Dumping

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Emergency permits under the MPRSA are issued if disposed material poses a threat to human health. Information is provided on emergency permit examples and disposal sites. Emergencies to safeguard life at sea does not require an ocean dumping permit.

  17. Maximally Expressive Task Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Japp, John; Davis, Elizabeth; Maxwell, Theresa G. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Planning and scheduling systems organize "tasks" into a timeline or schedule. The tasks are defined within the scheduling system in logical containers called models. The dictionary might define a model of this type as "a system of things and relations satisfying a set of rules that, when applied to the things and relations, produce certainty about the tasks that are being modeled." One challenging domain for a planning and scheduling system is the operation of on-board experiment activities for the Space Station. The equipment used in these experiments is some of the most complex hardware ever developed by mankind, the information sought by these experiments is at the cutting edge of scientific endeavor, and the procedures for executing the experiments are intricate and exacting. Scheduling is made more difficult by a scarcity of space station resources. The models to be fed into the scheduler must describe both the complexity of the experiments and procedures (to ensure a valid schedule) and the flexibilities of the procedures and the equipment (to effectively utilize available resources). Clearly, scheduling space station experiment operations calls for a "maximally expressive" modeling schema. Modeling even the simplest of activities cannot be automated; no sensor can be attached to a piece of equipment that can discern how to use that piece of equipment; no camera can quantify how to operate a piece of equipment. Modeling is a human enterprise-both an art and a science. The modeling schema should allow the models to flow from the keyboard of the user as easily as works of literature flowed from the pen of Shakespeare. The Ground Systems Department at the Marshall Space Flight Center has embarked on an effort to develop a new scheduling engine that is highlighted by a maximally expressive modeling schema. This schema, presented in this paper, is a synergy of technological advances and domain-specific innovations.

  18. Maximally Expressive Task Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Japp, John; Davis, Elizabeth; Maxwell, Theresa G. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Planning and scheduling systems organize "tasks" into a timeline or schedule. The tasks are defined within the scheduling system in logical containers called models. The dictionary might define a model of this type as "a system of things and relations satisfying a set of rules that, when applied to the things and relations, produce certainty about the tasks that are being modeled." One challenging domain for a planning and scheduling system is the operation of on-board experiment activities for the Space Station. The equipment used in these experiments is some of the most complex hardware ever developed by mankind, the information sought by these experiments is at the cutting edge of scientific endeavor, and the procedures for executing the experiments are intricate and exacting. Scheduling is made more difficult by a scarcity of space station resources. The models to be fed into the scheduler must describe both the complexity of the experiments and procedures (to ensure a valid schedule) and the flexibilities of the procedures and the equipment (to effectively utilize available resources). Clearly, scheduling space station experiment operations calls for a "maximally expressive" modeling schema. Modeling even the simplest of activities cannot be automated; no sensor can be attached to a piece of equipment that can discern how to use that piece of equipment; no camera can quantify how to operate a piece of equipment. Modeling is a human enterprise-both an art and a science. The modeling schema should allow the models to flow from the keyboard of the user as easily as works of literature flowed from the pen of Shakespeare. The Ground Systems Department at the Marshall Space Flight Center has embarked on an effort to develop a new scheduling engine that is highlighted by a maximally expressive modeling schema. This schema, presented in this paper, is a synergy of technological advances and domain-specific innovations.

  19. Human factors in anaesthetic practice: insights from a task analysis.

    PubMed

    Phipps, D; Meakin, G H; Beatty, P C W; Nsoedo, C; Parker, D

    2008-03-01

    Despite a growing recognition of the role of human error in anaesthesia, it remains unclear what should be done to mitigate its effects. We addressed this issue by using task analysis to create a systematic description of the behaviours that are involved during anaesthesia, which can be used as a framework for promoting good practice and highlight areas of concern. The task steps involved in preparing and delivering anaesthesia were identified using hierarchical task analysis (HTA). The systematic human error reduction and prediction approach (SHERPA) was then used to identify potential human errors at each task step and suggest ways of preventing these errors. The number and type of behaviours involved vary according to the 'phase' of anaesthesia, with tasks in the induction room, including induction of anaesthesia itself, being the most demanding. Errors during preoperative planning and perioperative maintenance could be avoided by measures to support information handling and decision-making. Errors during machine checking, induction, and emergence could be reduced by streamlining or automating task steps, or by making changes to the physical design of the work environment. We have demonstrated the value of task analysis in improving anaesthetic practice. Task analysis facilitates the identification of relevant human factors issues and suggests ways in which these issues can be addressed. The output of the task analysis will be of use in focusing future interventions and research in this area.

  20. Quarternary tectonics, Task 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.W.

    1993-09-30

    Activities conducted for the evaluation of the geology and seismotectonics stability of Yucca Mountain as a potential site for the underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes continued. Tasks concerned with quaternary tectonics include: scheduling of photography of Little Skull Mountain area; the collection and dating of rock varnish samples from the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area for carbon 14 AMS and cation-ratio analysis; collection of samples for thermoluminescence dating from the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area; mapping of the northern area of Crater Flat; and surveying of the May 17, 1993 Eureka the Valley earthquake area.

  1. Silicon material task review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenz, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project Silicon Material Task are to evaluate technologies, new and old; to develop the most promising technologies; to establish practicality of the processes to meet production, energy use, and economic criteria; and to develop an information base on impurities in polysilicon and to determine their effects on solar cell performance. The approach involves determining process feasibility, setting milestones for the forced selection of the processes, and establishing the technical readiness of the integrated process.

  2. Task-Level Robot Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    Number) We are investigating how to program robots so that they learn from experience. Our goal is to develop principled methods of learning that can...juggling. We have developed one method of learning, task-level learning, that successfully improves a robot’s performance of both a ball-throwing and a...dramatically improves. Task-level learning is a general method of improving a robot’s performance of complex dynamic tasks. Task-level learning serves

  3. Principles of Communicative Task Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    The use of the learning task as a basic planning and instructional tool for communicative second language instruction is discussed, and considerations and procedures for designing such tasks are outlined. A task is defined as a piece of classroom work that involves learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing, or interacting in the target…

  4. Reverse-Engineering Communication Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamber, Craig

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces an approach to planning sequences of communication tasks that require learners to become personally involved in their learning. By drawing on their own ideas and experiences, as a product of earlier tasks in a given sequence, learners generate the content and resource material on which subsequent tasks operate. The article…

  5. Inhibition in Dot Comparison Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Sarah; Gilmore, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Dot comparison tasks are commonly used to index an individual's Approximate Number System (ANS) acuity, but the cognitive processes involved in completing these tasks are poorly understood. Here, we investigated how factors including numerosity ratio, set size and visual cues influence task performance. Forty-four children aged 7-9 years completed…

  6. Inhibition in Dot Comparison Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Sarah; Gilmore, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Dot comparison tasks are commonly used to index an individual's Approximate Number System (ANS) acuity, but the cognitive processes involved in completing these tasks are poorly understood. Here, we investigated how factors including numerosity ratio, set size and visual cues influence task performance. Forty-four children aged 7-9 years completed…

  7. TASK: Let's Have a Party!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, James

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a creative way to demystify contemporary art for students. TASK is artist Oliver Herring's creation, where participants actively interpret instructions found on little pieces of paper--what he calls "tasks." An art classroom has all the key ingredients for a TASK event: (1) people; (2) materials; (3) space;…

  8. Task-Based Information Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vakkari, Pertti

    2003-01-01

    Reviews studies on the relationship between task performance and information searching by end-users, focusing on information searching in electronic environments and information retrieval systems. Topics include task analysis; task characteristics; search goals; modeling information searching; modeling search goals; information seeking behavior;…

  9. Atomic Oxygen Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.

    1997-01-01

    This report details work performed by the Center for Applied Optics (CAO) at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) on the contract entitled 'Atomic Oxygen Task' for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (contract NAS8-38609, Delivery Order 109, modification number 1). Atomic oxygen effects on exposed materials remain a critical concern in designing spacecraft to withstand exposure in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. The basic objective of atomic oxygen research in NASA's Materials & Processes (M&P) Laboratory is to provide the solutions to material problems facing present and future space missions. The objective of this work was to provide the necessary research for the design of specialized experimental test configurations and development of techniques for evaluating in-situ space environmental effects, including the effects of atomic oxygen and electromagnetic radiation on candidate materials. Specific tasks were performed to address materials issues concerning accelerated environmental testing as well as specifically addressing materials issues of particular concern for LDEF analysis and Space Station materials selection.

  10. Emergency Response Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Traci M.

    2004-01-01

    Safety and security is very important at NASA. The Security Management and Safeguards Office goal is ensure safety and security for all NASA Lewis and Plum Brook Station visitors and workers. The office protects against theft, sabotage, malicious damage, espionage, and other threats or acts of violence. There are three types of security at NASA: physical, IT, and personnel. IT is concerned with sensitive and classified information and computers. Physical security includes the officers who check visitors and workers in and patrol the facility. Personnel security is concerned with background checks during hiring. During my internship, I met people from and gained knowledge about all three types of security. I primarily worked with Dr. Richard Soppet in physical security. During my experience with physical security, I observed and worked with many aspects of it. I attended various security meetings at both NASA Lewis and Plum Brook. The meetings were about homeland security and other improvements that will be made to both facilities. I also spent time with a locksmith. The locksmith makes copies of keys and unlocks doors for people who need them. I rode around in a security vehicle with an officer as he patrolled. I also observed the officer make a search of a visitor s vehicle. All visitors vehicles are searched upon entering NASA. I spent time and observed in the dispatch office. The officer answers calls and sends out officers when needed. The officer also monitors the security cameras. My primary task was completing an emergency response manual. This manual would assist local law enforcement and fire agencies in case of an emergency. The manual has pictures and descriptions of the buildings. It also contains the information about hazards inside of the buildings. This information will be very helpul to law enforcement so that when called upon during an emergency, they will not create an even bigger problem with collateral damage.

  11. Psychiatric emergencies.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, S V

    1986-09-01

    Psychiatric disorders are common in medical inpatient and outpatient populations. As a result, internists commonly are the first to see psychiatric emergencies. As with all medical problems, a good history, including a collateral history from relatives and friends, physical and mental status examination, and appropriate laboratory tests help establish a preliminary diagnosis and treatment plan. Patients with suicidal ideation usually have multiple stressors in the environment and/or a psychiatric disorder (i.e., a major affective disorder, dysthymic disorder, anxiety or panic disorder, psychotic disorder, alcohol or drug abuse, a personality disorder, and/or an adjustment disorder). Of all patients who commit suicide, 70% have a major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, psychotic organic mental disorder, alcoholism, drug abuse, and borderline personality disorder. Patients who are at great risk have minimal supports, a history of previous suicide attempts, a plan with high lethality, hopelessness, psychosis, paranoia, and/or command self-destructive hallucinations. Treatment is directed toward placing the patient in a protected environment and providing psychotropic medication and/or psychotherapy for the underlying psychiatric problem. Other psychiatric emergencies include psychotic and violent patients. Psychotic disorders fall into two categories etiologically: those that have an identifiable organic factor causing the psychosis and those that have an underlying psychiatric disorder. Initially, it is essential to rule out organic pathology that is life-threatening or could cause irreversible brain damage. After such organic causes are ruled out, neuroleptic medication is indicated. If the patient is not agitated or combative, he or she may be placed on oral divided doses of neuroleptics in the antipsychotic range. Patients who are agitated or psychotic need rapid tranquilization with an intramuscular neuroleptic every half hour to 1 hour until the agitation and

  12. [Diabetic emergencies].

    PubMed

    Berger, W

    1997-02-18

    Based on case reports pathogenesis and treatment of the following diabetic emergencies were discussed: 1. The hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma without or with only modest ketosis occurring mainly in type II diabetics and the severe ketoacidosis with or without disturbed consciousness occurring mainly in type I diabetics are the two forms of severe metabolic decompensation of diabetes mellitus. 2. Severe hypoglycaemia may be caused by treatment with sulfonylureas and insulin. 3. The most dangerous life threatening adverse effect of biguanides is lactic acidosis. The incidence of ketoacidosis is about 1-5% in type I diabetics with a mortality of 3-9%. Mortality rates of hyperosmolar non-ketotic comas are much higher, approaching 20-40%, and are explained by severe concomitant complications and older age. The most important triggering factors of diabetic coma are infections, insulin dispensing errors and non-compliance. Carefully instructing patients about the risks of loosing appetite and vomiting as early signs of ketoacidosis is essential. Adequate replacement of fluid, electrolyte and water are the most important therapeutical aspects of ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of infection by antibiotics are important. Complication of therapy (hypokalemia, hypovolemia and rapid full of oncotic pressure) should be avoided by clinical and laboratory monitoring. Treatment of acidosis with bicarbonate has been found more dangerous than useful. Severe hypoglycaemia is the most important and most dangerous side effect of sulfonylurea and insulin. The incidence of severe hypoglycaemia under glibenclamide ist 3-5 fold higher than under treatment with tolbutamide or glibornurid. Glibenclamide should not be recommended anymore. Longterm experience of the therapeutic security of new sulfonylurea derivates like glimepirid is lacking. Blood-glucose-measurements in the afternoon are important for recognizing disposition to

  13. Emerging technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shin-yee

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Emerging Technologies thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is to help individuals establish technology areas that have national and commercial impact, and are outside the scope of the existing thrust areas. We continue to encourage innovative ideas that bring quality results to existing programs. We also take as our mission the encouragement of investment in new technology areas that are important to the economic competitiveness of this nation. In fiscal year 1992, we have focused on nine projects, summarized in this report: (1) Tire, Accident, Handling, and Roadway Safety; (2) EXTRANSYT: An Expert System for Advanced Traffic Management; (3) Odin: A High-Power, Underwater, Acoustic Transmitter for Surveillance Applications; (4) Passive Seismic Reservoir Monitoring: Signal Processing Innovations; (5) Paste Extrudable Explosive Aft Charge for Multi-Stage Munitions; (6) A Continuum Model for Reinforced Concrete at High Pressures and Strain Rates: Interim Report; (7) Benchmarking of the Criticality Evaluation Code COG; (8) Fast Algorithm for Large-Scale Consensus DNA Sequence Assembly; and (9) Using Electrical Heating to Enhance the Extraction of Volatile Organic Compounds from Soil.

  14. Emerging memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, Livio; Bez, Roberto; Sandhu, Gurtej

    2014-12-01

    Memory is a key component of any data processing system. Following the classical Turing machine approach, memories hold both the data to be processed and the rules for processing them. In the history of microelectronics, the distinction has been rather between working memory, which is exemplified by DRAM, and storage memory, exemplified by NAND. These two types of memory devices now represent 90% of all memory market and 25% of the total semiconductor market, and have been the technology drivers in the last decades. Even if radically different in characteristics, they are however based on the same storage mechanism: charge storage, and this mechanism seems to be near to reaching its physical limits. The search for new alternative memory approaches, based on more scalable mechanisms, has therefore gained new momentum. The status of incumbent memory technologies and their scaling limitations will be discussed. Emerging memory technologies will be analyzed, starting from the ones that are already present for niche applications, and which are getting new attention, thanks to recent technology breakthroughs. Maturity level, physical limitations and potential for scaling will be compared to existing memories. At the end the possible future composition of memory systems will be discussed.

  15. Emerging technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hodson, C.O.; Williams, D.

    1996-07-01

    Among the emerging technologies for air, hazardous waste and water come new ways of looking at pollution, in both the figurative and quite literal sense. The use of microbes for remediation and pollution control is a component in many of the technologies in this report and is the focus of environmental research at many university and industry labs. Bacteria are the engines driving one featured emissions control technology: the air biofilter. Biofilters are probably more acceptable to most engineers as a soil remediation technology--such as the innovative method described in the hazardous waste section--rather than as means of cleaning off-gases, but in many cases bugs can perform the function inexpensively. The authors give the basics on this available technology. A more experimental application of microbes is being investigated as a potential quantum leap in heavy metals removal technology: bio-engineered, metal consuming plants. The effort to genetically engineer a green remediation tool is detailed in the hazardous waste section.

  16. A Nonword Repetition Task for Speakers with Misarticulations: The Syllable Repetition Task (SRT)

    PubMed Central

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; Campbell, Thomas F.; Dollaghan, Christine A.; Green, Jordan R.; Moore, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Conceptual and methodological confounds occur when non(sense) repetition tasks are administered to speakers who do not have the target speech sounds in their phonetic inventories or who habitually misarticulate targeted speech sounds. We describe a nonword repetition task, the Syllable Repetiton Task (SRT) that eliminates this confound and report findings from three validity studies. Method Ninety-five preschool children with Speech Delay and 63 with Typical Speech, completed an assessment battery that included the Nonword Repetition Task (NRT: Dollaghan & Campbell, 1998) and the SRT. SRT stimuli include only four of the earliest occurring consonants and one early occurring vowel. Results Study 1 findings indicated that the SRT eliminated the speech confound in nonword testing with speakers who misarticulate. Study 2 findings indicated that the accuracy of the SRT to identify expressive language impairment was comparable to findings for the NRT. Study 3 findings illustrated the SRT’s potential to interrogate speech processing constraints underlying poor nonword repetition accuracy. Results supported both memorial and auditory-perceptual encoding constraints underlying nonword repetition errors in children with speech-language impairment. Conclusion The SRT appears to be a psychometrically stable and substantively informative nonword repetition task for emerging genetic and other research with speakers who misarticulate. PMID:19635944

  17. The Effect of Hierarchical Task Representations on Task Selection in Voluntary Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Starla M.; Arrington, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored the potential for hierarchical representations to influence action selection during voluntary task switching. Participants switched between 4 individual task elements. In Experiment 1, participants were encouraged to represent the task elements as grouped within a hierarchy based on experimental manipulations of varying…

  18. The Effect of Hierarchical Task Representations on Task Selection in Voluntary Task Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Starla M.; Arrington, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored the potential for hierarchical representations to influence action selection during voluntary task switching. Participants switched between 4 individual task elements. In Experiment 1, participants were encouraged to represent the task elements as grouped within a hierarchy based on experimental manipulations of varying…

  19. Task directed sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firby, R. James

    1990-01-01

    High-level robot control research must confront the limitations imposed by real sensors if robots are to be controlled effectively in the real world. In particular, sensor limitations make it impossible to maintain a complete, detailed world model of the situation surrounding the robot. To address the problems involved in planning with the resulting incomplete and uncertain world models, traditional robot control architectures must be altered significantly. Task-directed sensing and control is suggested as a way of coping with world model limitations by focusing sensing and analysis resources on only those parts of the world relevant to the robot's active goals. The RAP adaptive execution system is used as an example of a control architecture designed to deploy sensing resources in this way to accomplish both action and knowledge goals.

  20. Task directed sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firby, R. James

    1990-01-01

    High-level robot control research must confront the limitations imposed by real sensors if robots are to be controlled effectively in the real world. In particular, sensor limitations make it impossible to maintain a complete, detailed world model of the situation surrounding the robot. To address the problems involved in planning with the resulting incomplete and uncertain world models, traditional robot control architectures must be altered significantly. Task-directed sensing and control is suggested as a way of coping with world model limitations by focusing sensing and analysis resources on only those parts of the world relevant to the robot's active goals. The RAP adaptive execution system is used as an example of a control architecture designed to deploy sensing resources in this way to accomplish both action and knowledge goals.

  1. Emergency Contraception.

    PubMed

    Batur, Pelin; Kransdorf, Lisa N; Casey, Petra M

    2016-06-01

    Emergency contraception (EC) may help prevent pregnancy in various circumstances, such as contraceptive method failure, unprotected sexual intercourse, or sexual assault, yet it remains underused. There are 4 approved EC options in the United States. Although ulipristal acetate requires a provider's prescription, oral levonorgestrel (LNG) is available over the counter for women of all ages. The most effective method of EC is the copper intrauterine device, which can be left in place for up to 10 years for efficacious, cost-effective, hormone-free, and convenient long-term primary contraception. Ulipristal acetate tends to be more efficacious in pregnancy prevention than is LNG, especially when taken later than 72 hours postcoitus. The mechanism of action of oral EC is delay of ovulation, and current evidence reveals that it is ineffective postovulation. Women who weigh more than 75 kg or have a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m(2) may have a higher risk of unintended pregnancy when using oral LNG EC; therefore, ulipristal acetate or copper intrauterine devices are preferable in this setting. Providers are often unaware of the range of EC options or are unsure of how to counsel patients regarding the access and use of EC. This article critically reviews current EC literature, summarizes recommendations, and provides guidance for counseling women about EC. Useful tips for health care providers are provided, with a focus on special populations, including breast-feeding women and those transitioning to long-term contraception after EC use. When treating women of reproductive age, clinicians should be prepared to counsel them about EC options, provide EC appropriately, and, if needed, refer for EC in a timely manner. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Thyroid emergencies.

    PubMed

    Burger, A G; Philippe, J

    1992-01-01

    Thyroid storm is a rapid decompensation of severe hyperthyroidism which can best be described by the three criteria of hyperthermia, tachycardia and altered mental state with severe agitation. There has to be a precipitating factor such as infection, iodine contamination, surgery or even I-131 treatment. Severe hyperthyroidism not fulfilling the criteria of thyroid storm can also be an indication for emergency treatment, particularly in the elderly with heart disease. Suppressed serum TSH and elevated free T4 levels are essential to confirm the diagnosis. When rapidly available, radioiodine uptake of the thyroid can be useful. Therapy aims at rapidly reducing the active circulating hormone pool, hypermetabolic state, tachycardia, and finally hormone synthesis. Thyroid secretion can be blocked by ioipanoic acid or ipodate while hypermetabolic state can be reduced with beta-blockers or calcium channel-blockers. Treatment of hyperthyroidism in patients with iodine contamination is a real therapeutic challenge. Myxoedema coma, a complication of severe hypothyroidism, is defined by hypothermia (rectal temperature less than 36 degrees C), bradycardia, slow mentation, precipitating factor such as infection or drug overdose, and increased serum creatine phosphokinase levels. Diagnosis of severe hypothyroidism should be confirmed by serum measurements of TSH and free T4. Treatment consists of general supporting measures including rewarming, correction of serum electrolyte disturbances, and adequate alimentation. Thyroid hormone treatment should initially be aggressive using either 300-400 micrograms of T4 or 20-40 micrograms of T3 intravenously. Cortisone therapy may be added. Patients should be under close monitoring as arrhythmias and myocardial infarction are frequent complications of myxoedema coma and/or its treatment with thyroid hormones.

  3. AMU NEXRAD Exploitation Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred C.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Applied Meteorology Unit's NEXRAD Exploitation Task. The objectives of this task are to determine what radar signatures are present prior to and at the time of convection initiation, and to determine radar signatures which will help distinguish whether the ensuing convection will become severe. Radar data from the WSR-88D radar located at NWS Melbourne (WSR-88D/KMLB) were collected between June and September 1995, and 16 convective case studies were analyzed for which the radar was operating during the entire period of interest. All WSR-88D/KMLB products were scrutinized for their utility in detecting convection initiation and severe storm signatures. Through process of elimination, it was found that the 0.5 deg reflectivity product with the lowest reflectivity values displayed is the best product to monitor for convection initiation signatures. Seven meteorological features associated with the initiation of deep convection were identified: the Merritt Island and Indian River convergence zones, interlake convergence, horizontal convective rolls, the sea breeze, storm outflow boundaries, and fires. Their reflectivity values ranged from -5 to 20 dBZ. Of the three severe weather phenomena (winds greater than or equal to 50 kts, tornado, 3/4 inch hail), high wind events due to microbursts were most common in the data set. It was found that the values and trends of composite reflectivity, vertically integrated liquid, and core aspect ratio were key indicators of the potential of a cell to produce a microburst. The data were not analyzed for the other two severe weather phenomena because they rarely occurred during the data collection period. This report also includes suggestions for new WSR-88D products, summaries of ongoing research aimed at creating new products, and explicit recommended procedures for detecting convection initiation and severe storm signatures in the radar data using the currently available technology.

  4. [Organization of the nuclear emergency plan].

    PubMed

    Van Bladel, L; Vandecasteele, C

    2005-01-01

    dissuasion perimeter or exclusion zone, the evacuation, sheltering, protection of the food chain, the use of stable iodine and the decontamination from radioactive substances. At least some of the countermeasures ask for -often extensive- preparation in advance, which is generally done in adefined geographical area in the vicinity of a nuclear facility, referred to as "emergency planning zone" for that particular countermeasure and facility. However, the existence of these zones does in no way exclude the application of this countermeasure outside of them. The radiological evaluation is being prepared by introducing "emergency reference levels", for which the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control is responsible. This consists in pre-defining radiation doses which "generally" to "almost invariably" call for the adoption of a given countermeasure. Finally, the nuclear and radiological emergency plan includes stipulations on the required information to the population, on the education and training of (potentially) intervening parties as well as on the minimum requirements for running nuclear emergency exercises.

  5. Designing Professional Learning Tasks for Mathematics Learning Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, P. Holt; Sztajn, Paola; Edgington, Cyndi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present an emerging set of learning conjectures and design principles to be used in the development of professional learning tasks that support elementary teachers' learning of mathematics learning trajectories. We outline our theoretical perspective on teacher knowledge of learning trajectories, review the literature concerning…

  6. Increasing On-Task Performance for Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Inattention and/or impulsivity and hyperactivity are the core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In the day-to-day grind of teaching, when problems emerge, the teachers' best intentions and sensitivities are tested. Fidgety, loud, disorganized, disruptive, hurried, careless, and off-task behavior coupled with messy,…

  7. Learners' Approaches to Solving Mathematical Tasks: Does Specialisation Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machaba, France; Mwakapenda, Willy

    2016-01-01

    This article emerged from an analysis of learners' responses to a task presented to learners studying Mathematics and Mathematical Literacy (ML) in Gauteng, South Africa. Officially, Mathematics and ML are two separate learning areas. Learners from Grade 10 onwards are supposed to take either one or the other, but not both. This means that by…

  8. Increasing On-Task Performance for Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Inattention and/or impulsivity and hyperactivity are the core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In the day-to-day grind of teaching, when problems emerge, the teachers' best intentions and sensitivities are tested. Fidgety, loud, disorganized, disruptive, hurried, careless, and off-task behavior coupled with messy,…

  9. Learners' Approaches to Solving Mathematical Tasks: Does Specialisation Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machaba, France; Mwakapenda, Willy

    2016-01-01

    This article emerged from an analysis of learners' responses to a task presented to learners studying Mathematics and Mathematical Literacy (ML) in Gauteng, South Africa. Officially, Mathematics and ML are two separate learning areas. Learners from Grade 10 onwards are supposed to take either one or the other, but not both. This means that by…

  10. Dynamics of Cooperation in a Task Completion Social Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Passino, Kevin M.

    2017-01-01

    We study the situation where the members of a community have the choice to participate in the completion of a common task. The process of completing the task involves only costs and no benefits to the individuals that participate in this process. However, completing the task results in changes that significantly benefit the community and that exceed the participation efforts. A task completion social dilemma arises when the short-term participation costs dissipate any interest in the community members to contribute to the task completion process and therefore to obtain the benefits that result from completing the task. In this work, we model the task completion problem using a dynamical system that characterizes the participation dynamics in the community and the task completion process. We show how this model naturally allows for the incorporation of several mechanisms that facilitate the emergence of cooperation and that have been studied in previous research on social dilemmas, including communication across a network, and indirect reciprocity through relative reputation. We provide mathematical analyses and computer simulations to study the qualitative properties of the participation dynamics in the community for different scenarios. PMID:28125721

  11. Muon Collider Task Force Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Alexahin, Y.; Balbekov, V.; Barzi, E.; Bhat, C.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Bross, A.; Burov, A.; Drozhdin, A.; Finley, D.; Geer, S.; /Fermilab /Argonne /Brookhaven /Jefferson Lab /LBL, Berkeley /MUONS Inc., Batavia /UCLA /UC, Riverside /Mississippi U.

    2007-12-01

    Muon Colliders offer a possible long term path to lepton-lepton collisions at center-of-mass energies {radical}s {ge} 1 TeV. In October 2006 the Muon Collider Task Force (MCTF) proposed a program of advanced accelerator R&D aimed at developing the Muon Collider concept. The proposed R&D program was motivated by progress on Muon Collider design in general, and in particular, by new ideas that have emerged on muon cooling channel design. The scope of the proposed MCTF R&D program includes muon collider design studies, helical cooling channel design and simulation, high temperature superconducting solenoid studies, an experimental program using beams to test cooling channel RF cavities and a 6D cooling demonstration channel. The first year of MCTF activities are summarized in this report together with a brief description of the anticipated FY08 R&D activities. In its first year the MCTF has made progress on (1) Muon Collider ring studies, (2) 6D cooling channel design and simulation studies with an emphasis on the HCC scheme, (3) beam preparations for the first HPRF cavity beam test, (4) preparations for an HCC four-coil test, (5) further development of the MANX experiment ideas and studies of the muon beam possibilities at Fermilab, (6) studies of how to integrate RF into an HCC in preparation for a component development program, and (7) HTS conductor and magnet studies to prepare for an evaluation of the prospects for of an HTS high-field solenoid build for a muon cooling channel.

  12. Emergent flexibility in motor learning.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Rajiv; Newell, Karl M

    2010-05-01

    We examined the effect of exploring redundant solutions during practice in enhancing the ability to flexibly use them to achieve a task goal. Three groups used different degrees of path redundancy to perform a virtual interception task in which they attempted to hit a stationary target by moving around a stationary obstacle. The low-variability group always practiced with the same position of the obstacle on all trials. The medium-variability and high-variability groups practiced with the obstacle in different positions within a range of 1 and 2 cm respectively. After eight blocks of practice, all participants were transferred to two tests: (a) a fixed obstacle test where the condition was the same as that practiced by the low-variability group, and (b) a variable obstacle test where the condition was the same as that practiced by the high-variability group. Results showed that the low-variability group had the most accurate performance both in the fixed obstacle and the variable obstacle test. The low-variability group showed the least path variability during the fixed obstacle test but was also able to adapt to the different positions of the obstacle during the variable obstacle test. It appears that flexibility in interceptive tasks is emergent from learning a particular task-relevant parameter related to the target location.

  13. Task Prioritization in Dual-Tasking: Instructions versus Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Reinier J.; van Egmond, René; de Ridder, Huib

    2016-01-01

    The role of task prioritization in performance tradeoffs during multi-tasking has received widespread attention. However, little is known on whether people have preferences regarding tasks, and if so, whether these preferences conflict with priority instructions. Three experiments were conducted with a high-speed driving game and an auditory memory task. In Experiment 1, participants did not receive priority instructions. Participants performed different sequences of single-task and dual-task conditions. Task performance was evaluated according to participants’ retrospective accounts on preferences. These preferences were reformulated as priority instructions in Experiments 2 and 3. The results showed that people differ in their preferences regarding task prioritization in an experimental setting, which can be overruled by priority instructions, but only after increased dual-task exposure. Additional measures of mental effort showed that performance tradeoffs had an impact on mental effort. The interpretation of these findings was used to explore an extension of Threaded Cognition Theory with Hockey’s Compensatory Control Model. PMID:27391779

  14. An investigation of the relationship between response latency across several cognitive tasks in the beagle dog.

    PubMed

    Nippak, Pria M D; Milgram, Norton W

    2005-03-01

    Response latencies (RLs) extracted from simple motor tasks are a commonly used index of human intelligence. To date few human or animal studies have investigated the relationship between an individuals RL scores across a number of diverse cognitive tasks: Does RL remain consistent between individuals across several cognitive domains? Thus, the current study examined how RL measures gathered from beagle dogs (n=13) tested on three different cognitive tasks were related. RL scores were collected following both discrimination and reversal learning and a test of visuospatial memory, the 3 component delayed non-matching to position (3-DNMP) task. RL scores were recorded from the time the choice stimulus was presented until the animal selected a response. Results indicated that strong correlations emerged between 3-DNMP RLs and both the discrimination and reversal RLs, indicating that animals that responded fast on the 3-DNMP task also responded fast on the discrimination and reversal tasks. Interestingly, 3-DNMP RLs were more strongly correlated with reversal learning RLs. Finally, when mean RL performance across the three tasks was examined, strong RL differences emerged indicating that animals displayed significantly slower RLs on the 3-DNMP task than on the discrimination task, while reversal RLs remained indistinguishable from both. In conclusion, RLs show high between task correlations, indicating individual differences, and also vary between tasks, probably because of differences in task difficulty. These results further validate the use of RLs as an index of cognition, and also highlight the importance of further studies using animal models.

  15. Young Dual Language Learners' Emergent Writing Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillanders, Cristina; Franco, Ximena; Seidel, Kent; Castro, Dina C.; Méndez, Lucía I.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how early writing develops in Spanish-English-speaking children of Mexican and Central American descent who are dual language learners (DLLs) in the United States. The emergent writing skills in Spanish and English of 140 preschoolers in a multisite study were assessed using name- and word-writing tasks during the children's…

  16. Effective Knowledge Integration in Emergency Response Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudi, Arvind

    2009-01-01

    Natural and man-made disasters have gained attention at all levels of policy-making in recent years. Emergency management tasks are inherently complex and unpredictable, and often require coordination among multiple organizations across different levels and locations. Effectively managing various knowledge areas and the organizations involved has…

  17. Perceiving and acting upon spaces in a VR rugby task: expertise effects in affordance detection and task achievement.

    PubMed

    Correia, Vanda; Araújo, Duarte; Cummins, Alan; Craig, Cathy M

    2012-06-01

    This study used a virtual, simulated 3 vs. 3 rugby task to investigate whether gaps opening in particular running channels promote different actions by the ball carrier player and whether an effect of rugby expertise is verified. We manipulated emergent gaps in three different locations: Gap 1 in the participant's own running channel, Gap 2 in the first receiver's running channel, and Gap 3 in the second receiver's running channel. Recreational, intermediate, professional, and nonrugby players performed the task. They could (i) run with the ball, (ii) make a short pass, or (iii) make a long pass. All actions were digitally recorded. Results revealed that the emergence of gaps in the defensive line with respect to the participant's own position significantly influenced action selection. Namely, "run" was most often the action performed in Gap 1, "short pass" in Gap 2, and "long pass" in Gap 3 trials. Furthermore, a strong positive relationship between expertise and task achievement was found.

  18. Effects of dual tasks and dual-task training on postural stability: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ghai, Shashank; Ghai, Ishan; Effenberg, Alfred O

    2017-01-01

    The use of dual-task training paradigm to enhance postural stability in patients with balance impairments is an emerging area of interest. The differential effects of dual tasks and dual-task training on postural stability still remain unclear. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to analyze the effects of dual task and training application on static and dynamic postural stability among various population groups. Systematic identification of published literature was performed adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, from inception until June 2016, on the online databases Scopus, PEDro, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SportDiscus. Experimental studies analyzing the effects of dual task and dual-task training on postural stability were extracted, critically appraised using PEDro scale, and then summarized according to modified PEDro level of evidence. Of 1,284 records, 42 studies involving 1,480 participants met the review’s inclusion criteria. Of the studies evaluating the effects of dual-task training on postural stability, 87.5% of the studies reported significant enhancements, whereas 30% of the studies evaluating acute effects of dual tasks on posture reported significant enhancements, 50% reported significant decrements, and 20% reported no effects. Meta-analysis of the pooled studies revealed moderate but significant enhancements of dual-task training in elderly participants (95% CI: 1.16–2.10) and in patients suffering from chronic stroke (−0.22 to 0.86). The adverse effects of complexity of dual tasks on postural stability were also revealed among patients with multiple sclerosis (−0.74 to 0.05). The review also discusses the significance of verbalization in a dual-task setting for increasing cognitive–motor interference. Clinical implications are discussed with respect to practical applications in rehabilitation settings. PMID:28356727

  19. Hypercube matrix computation task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calalo, R.; Imbriale, W.; Liewer, P.; Lyons, J.; Manshadi, F.; Patterson, J.

    1987-01-01

    The Hypercube Matrix Computation (Year 1986-1987) task investigated the applicability of a parallel computing architecture to the solution of large scale electromagnetic scattering problems. Two existing electromagnetic scattering codes were selected for conversion to the Mark III Hypercube concurrent computing environment. They were selected so that the underlying numerical algorithms utilized would be different thereby providing a more thorough evaluation of the appropriateness of the parallel environment for these types of problems. The first code was a frequency domain method of moments solution, NEC-2, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The second code was a time domain finite difference solution of Maxwell's equations to solve for the scattered fields. Once the codes were implemented on the hypercube and verified to obtain correct solutions by comparing the results with those from sequential runs, several measures were used to evaluate the performance of the two codes. First, a comparison was provided of the problem size possible on the hypercube with 128 megabytes of memory for a 32-node configuration with that available in a typical sequential user environment of 4 to 8 megabytes. Then, the performance of the codes was anlyzed for the computational speedup attained by the parallel architecture.

  20. Hypercube matrix computation task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calalo, Ruel H.; Imbriale, William A.; Jacobi, Nathan; Liewer, Paulett C.; Lockhart, Thomas G.; Lyzenga, Gregory A.; Lyons, James R.; Manshadi, Farzin; Patterson, Jean E.

    1988-01-01

    A major objective of the Hypercube Matrix Computation effort at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is to investigate the applicability of a parallel computing architecture to the solution of large-scale electromagnetic scattering problems. Three scattering analysis codes are being implemented and assessed on a JPL/California Institute of Technology (Caltech) Mark 3 Hypercube. The codes, which utilize different underlying algorithms, give a means of evaluating the general applicability of this parallel architecture. The three analysis codes being implemented are a frequency domain method of moments code, a time domain finite difference code, and a frequency domain finite elements code. These analysis capabilities are being integrated into an electromagnetics interactive analysis workstation which can serve as a design tool for the construction of antennas and other radiating or scattering structures. The first two years of work on the Hypercube Matrix Computation effort is summarized. It includes both new developments and results as well as work previously reported in the Hypercube Matrix Computation Task: Final Report for 1986 to 1987 (JPL Publication 87-18).

  1. Scheduling Tasks In Parallel Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Camille C.; Salama, Moktar A.

    1989-01-01

    Algorithms sought to minimize time and cost of computation. Report describes research on scheduling of computations tasks in system of multiple identical data processors operating in parallel. Computational intractability requires use of suboptimal heuristic algorithms. First algorithm called "list heuristic", variation of classical list scheduling. Second algorithm called "cluster heuristic" applied to tightly coupled tasks and consists of four phases. Third algorithm called "exchange heuristic", iterative-improvement algorithm beginning with initial feasible assignment of tasks to processors and periods of time. Fourth algorithm is iterative one for optimal assignment of tasks and based on concept called "simulated annealing" because of mathematical resemblance to aspects of physical annealing processes.

  2. Task-dependent color discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poirson, Allen B.; Wandell, Brian A.

    1990-01-01

    When color video displays are used in time-critical applications (e.g., head-up displays, video control panels), the observer must discriminate among briefly presented targets seen within a complex spatial scene. Color-discrimination threshold are compared by using two tasks. In one task the observer makes color matches between two halves of a continuously displayed bipartite field. In a second task the observer detects a color target in a set of briefly presented objects. The data from both tasks are well summarized by ellipsoidal isosensitivity contours. The fitted ellipsoids differ both in their size, which indicates an absolute sensitivity difference, and orientation, which indicates a relative sensitivity difference.

  3. Task-dependent color discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poirson, Allen B.; Wandell, Brian A.

    1990-01-01

    When color video displays are used in time-critical applications (e.g., head-up displays, video control panels), the observer must discriminate among briefly presented targets seen within a complex spatial scene. Color-discrimination threshold are compared by using two tasks. In one task the observer makes color matches between two halves of a continuously displayed bipartite field. In a second task the observer detects a color target in a set of briefly presented objects. The data from both tasks are well summarized by ellipsoidal isosensitivity contours. The fitted ellipsoids differ both in their size, which indicates an absolute sensitivity difference, and orientation, which indicates a relative sensitivity difference.

  4. Partially Overlapping Mechanisms of Language and Task Control in Young and Older Bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Weissberger, Gali H.; Wierenga, Christina E.; Bondi, Mark W.; Gollan, Tamar H.

    2012-01-01

    The current study tested the hypothesis that bilinguals rely on domain-general mechanisms of executive control to achieve language control by asking if linguistic and nonlinguistic switching tasks exhibit similar patterns of aging-related decline. Thirty young and 30 aging bilinguals completed a cued language-switching task and a cued color-shape switching task. Both tasks demonstrated significant aging effects, but aging-related slowing and the aging-related increase in errors were significantly larger on the color-shape than on the language task. In the language task, aging increased language-switching costs in both response times and errors, and language-mixing costs only in response times. In contrast, the color-shape task exhibited an aging-related increase in costs only in mixing errors. Additionally, a subset of the older bilinguals could not do the color-shape task, but were able to do the language task, and exhibited significantly larger language-switching costs than matched controls. These differences, and some subtle similarities, in aging effects observed across tasks imply that mechanisms of nonlinguistic task and language control are only partly shared and demonstrate relatively preserved language control in aging. More broadly, these data suggest that age deficits in switching and mixing costs may depend on task expertise, with mixing deficits emerging for less-practiced tasks and switching deficits for highly practiced, possibly “expert” tasks (i.e., language). PMID:22582883

  5. Emergency medical services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger; Chandler, Michael

    1994-01-01

    When NASA was established in 1958, it was known that space flight would require efforts beyond those of NASA to ensure the health and safety of our astronauts. On 10 Aug. 1958, a Secretary of Defense memorandum was signed that assigned the first Department of Defense (DOD) Manager to provide support to NASA for Project Mercury. This established a chain of command through the Joint Chiefs of Staff to the Secretary of Defense. The current charter is dated 19 Mar. 1986 and assigns the DOD Manager responsibilities to the Commander and Chief, US Space Command. The DOD Managers charter has many support areas and among them are recovery of astronauts and medical support. Today these efforts support the Space Shuttle and Space Station Programs. Briefly, the program works with each organization tasking the other through a requirements document. Level of care, communications, and recovery requirements are established; NASA and the DOD provide the capability to meet them. NASA is also responsible for the specialized training and equipment needed to meet these requirements. A Shuttle launch a KSC requires an Emergency Medical Services (EMS) coordinator on console to facilitate communications, ensure proper coverage, and coordinate with area hospitals. A contingent of NASA medical personnel are assembled to provide triage and medical support capabilities. The DOD provides medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) helicopters with surgeons and pararescue specialists (PJ's) or emergency medical technicians (EMT's). Each helicopter is equipped with at least one doctor and one PJ/EMT per astronaut crew member. Transoceanic abort landing (TAL) sites and end of mission (EOM) sites have similar structures, with TAL sites utilizing fixed wingg aircraft for MEDEVAC. The DOD also supports contingency planning for the support and return of crew members from the Space Station Freedom. Much of this support has been directed at the recovery of crew members following the landing of an Assured Crew Return

  6. Memory systems, processes, and tasks: taxonomic clarification via factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Bruss, Peter J; Mitchell, David B

    2009-01-01

    The nature of various memory systems was examined using factor analysis. We reanalyzed data from 11 memory tasks previously reported in Mitchell and Bruss (2003). Four well-defined factors emerged, closely resembling episodic and semantic memory and conceptual and perceptual implicit memory, in line with both memory systems and transfer-appropriate processing accounts. To explore taxonomic issues, we ran separate analyses on the implicit tasks. Using a cross-format manipulation (pictures vs. words), we identified 3 prototypical tasks. Word fragment completion and picture fragment identification tasks were "factor pure," tapping perceptual processes uniquely. Category exemplar generation revealed its conceptual nature, yielding both cross-format priming and a picture superiority effect. In contrast, word stem completion and picture naming were more complex, revealing attributes of both processes.

  7. Escape Behavior in Task Situations: Task versus Social Antecedents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jill C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Four students (ages 4-6) with developmental disabilities who exhibited challenging behaviors in teaching situations were exposed to high intensity and low intensity social interaction in a play situation and a task situation. Interaction intensity made no difference in students' behavior. Two students exhibited task avoidance and two exhibited…

  8. Independent vs. Integrated Writing Tasks: A Comparison of Task Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakans, Lia

    2010-01-01

    As the field of second language writing embraces the authenticity and meaningfulness of connecting writing with other skills, language teachers and testers require greater understanding of how writers respond to as well as compose for integrated tasks. Research on integrated tasks is critical in highlighting how integration impacts students and…

  9. Escape behavior in task situations: task versus social antecedents.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J C; Ekdahl, M M; Romanczyk, R G; Miller, M L

    1994-06-01

    We designed an investigation to differentiate two types of challenging behaviors occurring in teaching situations: those evoked by task stimuli (i.e., task avoidance), and those evoked by social stimuli present in teaching situations (i.e., social avoidance). Four students with developmental disabilities who exhibited challenging behaviors in teaching situations were exposed to social interaction in a play situation and task demands in a teaching situation. Results indicated that the students exhibited two distinct behavior patterns. Two of the students exhibited a behavior pattern consistent with task avoidance and the other two students exhibited a behavior pattern consistent with social avoidance. Implications concerning task versus social avoidance and the need for more fine-grained analyses of the stimuli associated with escape behavior are discussed.

  10. Contrasting Sequence Groups by Emerging Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Kang; Zaïane, Osmar R.

    Group comparison per se is a fundamental task in many scientific endeavours but is also the basis of any classifier. Contrast sets and emerging patterns contrast between groups of categorical data. Comparing groups of sequence data is a relevant task in many applications. We define Emerging Sequences (ESs) as subsequences that are frequent in sequences of one group and less frequent in the sequences of another, and thus distinguishing or contrasting sequences of different classes. There are two challenges to distinguish sequence classes: the extraction of ESs is not trivially efficient and only exact matches of sequences are considered. In our work we address those problems by a suffix tree-based framework and a similar matching mechanism. We propose a classifier based on Emerging Sequences. Evaluating against two learning algorithms based on frequent subsequences and exact matching subsequences, the experiments on two datasets show that our model outperforms the baseline approaches by up to 20% in prediction accuracy.

  11. Task Models in the Digital Ocean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCerbo, Kristen E.

    2014-01-01

    The Task Model is a description of each task in a workflow. It defines attributes associated with that task. The creation of task models becomes increasingly important as the assessment tasks become more complex. Explicitly delineating the impact of task variables on the ability to collect evidence and make inferences demands thoughtfulness from…

  12. Task Models in the Digital Ocean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCerbo, Kristen E.

    2014-01-01

    The Task Model is a description of each task in a workflow. It defines attributes associated with that task. The creation of task models becomes increasingly important as the assessment tasks become more complex. Explicitly delineating the impact of task variables on the ability to collect evidence and make inferences demands thoughtfulness from…

  13. 76 FR 61371 - All-Hazard Position Task Books for Type 3 Incident Management Teams

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency All-Hazard Position Task Books for Type 3 Incident Management... comments. SUMMARY: The All-Hazard Position Task Books for Type 3 Incident Management Teams were developed to assist personnel achieve qualifications in the All-Hazard Incident Command System (ICS) positions...

  14. A Didactic Analysis of Content Development during the Peer Teaching Tasks of a Sport Education Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallhead, Tristan; O'Sullivan, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Background: Research on Sport Education (SE) has shown the curriculum model to be effective in motivating students to undertake specific role responsibilities and engage in the student-led tasks of the curriculum. Despite this level of engagement, emerging evidence suggests that student leadership within the peer teaching tasks of the curriculum…

  15. A Didactic Analysis of Content Development during the Peer Teaching Tasks of a Sport Education Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallhead, Tristan; O'Sullivan, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Background: Research on Sport Education (SE) has shown the curriculum model to be effective in motivating students to undertake specific role responsibilities and engage in the student-led tasks of the curriculum. Despite this level of engagement, emerging evidence suggests that student leadership within the peer teaching tasks of the curriculum…

  16. Early Orthographic Influences on Phonemic Awareness Tasks: Evidence from a Preschool Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castles, Anne; Wilson, Katherine; Coltheart, Max

    2011-01-01

    Experienced readers show influences of orthographic knowledge on tasks ostensibly tapping phonemic awareness. Here we draw on data from an experimental training study to demonstrate that even preschoolers show influences of their emerging orthographic abilities in such tasks. A total of 40 children were taught some letter-sound correspondences but…

  17. Report of the MLA Task Force on Evaluating Scholarship for Tenure and Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Language Association, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In 2004 the Executive Council of the Modern Language Association of America (MLA) created a task force to examine current standards and emerging trends in publication requirements for tenure and promotion in English and foreign language departments in the United States. To fulfill its charge, the task force reviewed numerous studies, reports, and…

  18. Putting Mathematical Tasks into Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Courtney R.; Styers, Jodie L.

    2015-01-01

    Although many factors affect students' mathematical activity during a lesson, the teacher's selection and implementation of tasks is arguably the most influential in determining the level of student engagement. Mathematical tasks are intended to focus students' attention on a particular mathematical concept and it is the careful developing and…

  19. Students' Engagement in Literacy Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Seth A.; Malloy, Jacquelynn A.; Parsons, Allison Ward; Burrowbridge, Sarah Cohen

    2015-01-01

    This article offers insight into what makes literacy tasks engaging or disengaging based on observations of and interviews with students. In a yearlong study of a sixth-grade classroom in a Title I school, students engaged in integrated literacy-social studies instruction. Researchers studied the degree of task openness and the degree to which…

  20. TASK: Anarchy in the Artroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Cynthia; Van Patten, Kelda

    2012-01-01

    Most teenagers do not really like to be told what to do. For that matter, most adults don't either. This article discusses contemporary artist Oliver Herring's TASK, which is an opportunity for participants to bend or define the rules on their own terms. It is about choice, and, for many, it is a dream come true. TASK is controlled chaos that can…

  1. Creativity, Overinclusion, and Everyday Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottemiller, Dylan D.; Elliott, Colette Seter; Giovannetti, Tania

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relations between creative thinking and performance on routine, everyday tasks. Results were considered in light of past research on the putative relation between creativity and schizophrenia/psychotic thinking. Thirty healthy undergraduates completed the Alternative Uses Task, a measure of divergent thinking, and the 2 × 3…

  2. Procedural Error and Task Interruption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-30

    performance, and pilot data suggest that the task can distinguish between cognitive processes that are impaired by sleep deprivation and those that are...TERMS procedural error, task interruption, individual differences, fluid intelligence, sleep deprivation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...0247 Background Accomplishments Validation studies Modeling Other publications Table of Contents Pilot study: Effects of sleep deprivation

  3. Typist: Task List Competency Record.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Instructional Materials Center, White Bear Lake.

    One of 12 in the secretarial/clerical area, this booklet for the vocational instructor contains a job description for the typist, a task list of areas of competency, an occupational tasks competency record (suggested as replacement for the traditional report card), a list of industry representatives and educators involved in developing the…

  4. Drafting Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in drafting. The tasks required to perform the duties of seven types of drafters (i.e., general, architectural, electronic, civil, structural, mechanical, and process pipe drafters) and technical illustrators are outlined. The following are among the duties…

  5. Creativity, Overinclusion, and Everyday Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottemiller, Dylan D.; Elliott, Colette Seter; Giovannetti, Tania

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relations between creative thinking and performance on routine, everyday tasks. Results were considered in light of past research on the putative relation between creativity and schizophrenia/psychotic thinking. Thirty healthy undergraduates completed the Alternative Uses Task, a measure of divergent thinking, and the 2 × 3…

  6. Teachers' Aides: Tasks and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balderson, James H.; Nixon, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Addresses three questions: (1) What tasks do aides perform? (2) Does training make a difference in the type of tasks aides perform? (3) What are the concerns of aides? (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G5; $0.50, single copy.) (Author/IRT)

  7. Welding Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for six occupations in the welding series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space for…

  8. Cosmetology Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for three occupations in the cosmetology series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  9. Analysing and Training Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, J.; Gregov, A.; Halliday, P.

    2000-01-01

    Describes two exploratory studies of undergraduate and postgraduate students concerning the difficulties of learning to perform HTA (hierarchical task analysis) and how those difficulties might be overcome through proper training. Errors occurred with respect to all HTA criteria, suggesting that carrying out HTR itself is a complex cognitive task.…

  10. Microcomputer Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for eight occupations in the microcomputer series. Each occupation is divided into 5 to 11 duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space…

  11. Science 102: This Month's Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Bill

    2015-01-01

    This task asks readers to figure out why when you stir a cup of hot liquid and tap on the side of the cup with a spoon, the pitch of sound starts low and ends up high. The solution to last month's tasks relating to the circumference of the Earth and how many stars are in the (visible) sky is also presented.

  12. Teachers' Aides: Tasks and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balderson, James H.; Nixon, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Addresses three questions: (1) What tasks do aides perform? (2) Does training make a difference in the type of tasks aides perform? (3) What are the concerns of aides? (Available from the Department of Educational Administration, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G5; $0.50, single copy.) (Author/IRT)

  13. Microcomputer Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for eight occupations in the microcomputer series. Each occupation is divided into 5 to 11 duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space…

  14. Printing Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for 10 occupations in the printing series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space for…

  15. Task Group for Orthodontics Report.

    PubMed

    Lumsden, K W; Brown, D V; Edler, R J; Kirschen, R H; Macadam, T S; Stephens, C D

    1998-08-01

    The UK Specialist Review Group of the General Dental Council's Education Committee has been charged with taking forward the recommendations in the Chief Dental Officer's report 'UK Specialist Dental Training'. The Specialist Review Group has, in turn, established a number of specialty task groups. This report is from the Task Group for Orthodontics. It was submitted in May 1996.

  16. Electricity Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in electricity. The guide outlines the tasks entailed in 10 different duties typically required of employees in the following occupations: residential electrician apprentice, material handler/supply clerk, maintenance electrician apprentice,…

  17. Receptionist: Task List Competency Record.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Instructional Materials Center, White Bear Lake.

    One of a series of 12 in the secretarial/clerical area, this booklet for the vocational instructor contains a job description for the receptionist, a task list of areas of competency, an occupational tasks competency record (suggested as replacement for the traditional report card), a list of industry representatives and educators involved in…

  18. Science 102: This Month's Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Bill

    2015-01-01

    This task asks readers to figure out why when you stir a cup of hot liquid and tap on the side of the cup with a spoon, the pitch of sound starts low and ends up high. The solution to last month's tasks relating to the circumference of the Earth and how many stars are in the (visible) sky is also presented.

  19. Cosmetology Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for three occupations in the cosmetology series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide…

  20. Welding Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains the occupational duty/task lists for six occupations in the welding series. Each occupation is divided into a number of duties. A separate page for each duty in the occupation lists the tasks in that duty along with its code number and columns to indicate whether that particular duty has been taught and to provide space for…

  1. Electricity Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in electricity. The guide outlines the tasks entailed in 10 different duties typically required of employees in the following occupations: residential electrician apprentice, material handler/supply clerk, maintenance electrician apprentice,…

  2. Service Excellence Task Force Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Buffalo. Univ. Libraries.

    A task force was appointed to measure user satisfaction with library services, establish a university libraries' service excellence philosophy and policy, bring the service excellence concept to the attention of every library employee, and recommend approaches for recognizing outstanding staff service. The members of the task force--two library…

  3. Decision paths in complex tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galanter, Eugene

    1991-01-01

    Complex real world action and its prediction and control has escaped analysis by the classical methods of psychological research. The reason is that psychologists have no procedures to parse complex tasks into their constituents. Where such a division can be made, based say on expert judgment, there is no natural scale to measure the positive or negative values of the components. Even if we could assign numbers to task parts, we lack rules i.e., a theory, to combine them into a total task representation. We compare here two plausible theories for the amalgamation of the value of task components. Both of these theories require a numerical representation of motivation, for motivation is the primary variable that guides choice and action in well-learned tasks. We address this problem of motivational quantification and performance prediction by developing psychophysical scales of the desireability or aversiveness of task components based on utility scaling methods (Galanter 1990). We modify methods used originally to scale sensory magnitudes (Stevens and Galanter 1957), and that have been applied recently to the measure of task 'workload' by Gopher and Braune (1984). Our modification uses utility comparison scaling techniques which avoid the unnecessary assumptions made by Gopher and Braune. Formula for the utility of complex tasks based on the theoretical models are used to predict decision and choice of alternate paths to the same goal.

  4. Taiwanese Preschoolers' Emergent Reading Behaviours with an Unfamiliar Storybook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chu-Chu; Honig, Alice Sterling

    2013-01-01

    Eighty-two Taiwanese preschoolers aged three and four years (boys?=?40; girls?=?42) were recruited from Tainan, Taiwan, for a parent-child storybook-reading research project. The Taiwanese preschoolers' emergent reading behaviours were videotaped in a solo storybook-reading task. The children's most frequent emergent reading behaviours were:…

  5. Taiwanese Preschoolers' Emergent Reading Behaviours with an Unfamiliar Storybook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chu-Chu; Honig, Alice Sterling

    2013-01-01

    Eighty-two Taiwanese preschoolers aged three and four years (boys?=?40; girls?=?42) were recruited from Tainan, Taiwan, for a parent-child storybook-reading research project. The Taiwanese preschoolers' emergent reading behaviours were videotaped in a solo storybook-reading task. The children's most frequent emergent reading behaviours were:…

  6. Emerging infectious diseases: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    A meeting of international experts exchanged information on recent activities dealing with new, emerging and re-emerging diseases, discussed ways of responding to this problem and to other communicable disease threats, and reviewed WHO's activities and role in this area. This Memorandum summarizes the various presentations and concludes with the recommendations and specific tasks for action at every level. PMID:7867129

  7. Emerging infectious diseases: Memorandum from a WHO meeting*

    PubMed Central

    1998-01-01

    A meeting of international experts exchanged information on recent activities dealing with new, emerging and re-emerging diseases, discussed ways of responding to this problem and to other communicable disease threats, and reviewed WHO's activities and role in this area. This Memorandum summarizes the various presentations and concludes with the recommendations and specific tasks for action at every level.

  8. Current Trends in Gamma Ray Detection for Radiological Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, S., Guss, P., Maurer, R.

    2011-08-18

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies.

  9. [Pediatric emergencies in the emergency medical service].

    PubMed

    Silbereisen, C; Hoffmann, F

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-hospital pediatric emergencies occur rarely but are feared among medical personnel. The particular characteristics of pediatric cases, especially the unaccustomed anatomy of the child as well as the necessity to adapt the drug doses to the little patient's body weight, produce high cognitive and emotional pressure. In an emergency standardized algorithms can facilitate a structured diagnostic and therapeutic approach. The aim of this article is to provide standardized procedures for the most common pediatric emergencies. In Germany, respiratory problems, seizures and analgesia due to trauma represent the most common emergency responses. This article provides a practical approach concerning the diagnostics and therapy of emergencies involving children.

  10. Task Attention Facilitates Learning of Task-Irrelevant Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tsung-Ren; Watanabe, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    Attention plays a fundamental role in visual learning and memory. One highly established principle of visual attention is that the harder a central task is, the more attentional resources are used to perform the task and the smaller amount of attention is allocated to peripheral processing because of limited attention capacity. Here we show that this principle holds true in a dual-task setting but not in a paradigm of task-irrelevant perceptual learning. In Experiment 1, eight participants were asked to identify either bright or dim number targets at the screen center and to remember concurrently presented scene backgrounds. Their recognition performances for scenes paired with dim/hard targets were worse than those for scenes paired with bright/easy targets. In Experiment 2, eight participants were asked to identify either bright or dim letter targets at the screen center while a task-irrelevant coherent motion was concurrently presented in the background. After five days of training on letter identification, participants improved their motion sensitivity to the direction paired with hard/dim targets improved but not to the direction paired with easy/bright targets. Taken together, these results suggest that task-irrelevant stimuli are not subject to the attentional control mechanisms that task-relevant stimuli abide. PMID:22563424

  11. Natural Gas Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    Natural Gas Emergencies Extinguish cigarettes and do not light matches. You can help prevent natural gas emergencies by calling the utility locator service ... Health through the Cities Readiness Initiative (CRI) English – Natural Gas Emergencies - Last reviewed 2014

  12. Emergency Medical Services

    MedlinePlus

    ... need help right away, you should use emergency medical services. These services use specially trained people and ... emergencies, you need help where you are. Emergency medical technicians, or EMTs, do specific rescue jobs. They ...

  13. Emergency Nurses Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nurses Week Celebration Led by the Emergency Nurses Association, #ENWeek, Oct. 8-14, recognizes the work of ... care for emergency department patients, the Emergency Nurses Association is opposed to the passage of the recently- ...

  14. Emergency care toolkits.

    PubMed

    Black, Steven

    2004-06-01

    Emergency care services are the focus of a series of toolkits developed by the NHS National electronic Library for Health to provide resources for emergency care leads and others involved in modernising emergency care, writes Steven Black.

  15. Emergency Contraception Website

    MedlinePlus

    Text Only Full media Version Get Emergency Contraception NOW INFO about Emergency Contraception Q&A about Emergency Contraception Español | Arabic Find a Morning After Pill Provider Near You This website is ...

  16. Wireless Emergency Alerts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Main Content Frequently Asked Questions: Wireless Emergency Alerts This section contains answers to a list of frequently asked questions about Wireless Emergency Alerts (WEAs). Why are Wireless Emergency Alerts (WEA) important ...

  17. Characterization and Monitoring Data for Evaluating Constructed Emergent Sandbar Habitat in the Missouri River Mainstem

    SciTech Connect

    Duberstein, Corey A.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2008-11-06

    Emergent sandbar habitat (ESH) in the Missouri River Mainstem System is a critical habitat element for several federally listed bird species: the endangered interior least tern (Sterna antillarum) and the threatened Northern Great Plains piping plover (Charadrius melodus). The Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) provides the primary operational management of the Missouri River and is responsible under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) to take actions within its authorities to conserve listed species. To comply with the 2000 USFWS BiOp and the 2003 amended USFWS BiOp, the Corps has created habitats below Gavins Point Dam using mechanical means. Initial monitoring indicates that constructed sandbars provide suitable habitat features for nesting and foraging least terns and piping plovers. Terns and plovers are using constructed sandbars and successfully reproducing at or above levels stipulated in the BiOp. However, whether such positive impacts will persist cannot yet be adequately assessed at this time.

  18. Sharing a task or sharing space? On the effect of the confederate in action coding in a detection task.

    PubMed

    Guagnano, Delia; Rusconi, Elena; Umiltà, Carlo Arrigo

    2010-03-01

    Several studies showed a Simon effect when two participants sit close to each other and perform one of the two halves of a two-choice RT task. That is, each participant perform a go-nogo task. A Simon effect emerges, which instead is absent when the same go-nogo tasks are performed individually. Hence the terms were introduced of "social Simon task" and 'social Simon effect". As of now, the social Simon effect was observed with social Simon tasks that overtly gave the participants the impression of being performing in collaboration with another person. In the present study we show that the social Simon effect was present also when, in the social Simon task, the two participants did not actually collaborate. It is, however, absent when participants perform the social task outside of each other's peripersonal space (i.e., outside arm-reach). We argue that the social Simon effect does not necessarily imply a representation of the other's action, as previously suggested. The presence of an active confederate in peripersonal space might simply provide a reference for coding one's own action in space.

  19. Pediatric office emergencies.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Susan

    2013-10-01

    Pediatricians regularly see emergencies in the office, or children that require transfer to an emergency department, or hospitalization. An office self-assessment is the first step in determining how to prepare for an emergency. The use of mock codes and skill drills make office personnel feel less anxious about medical emergencies. Emergency information forms provide valuable, quick information about complex patients for emergency medical services and other physicians caring for patients. Furthermore, disaster planning should be part of an office preparedness plan.

  20. Information systems: key to effective management of civil emergencies

    SciTech Connect

    Giuffrida, L.O.

    1985-01-01

    In fulfilling its goal of ensuring an emergency management capability which can optimize the saving of lives and minimize property damage, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has created an infrastructure and programs which focus on this two-fold task. As an underpinning for this challenging role, an Integrated Emergency Management System (IEMS) has been established on a ''foundation of preparedness and response elements.'' A salient element of the IEMS concept is the National Emergency Management System (NEMS), the key mechanism for information collection, processing, and exchange in support of the nation's emergency management community. 5 references.

  1. Materials processing in space programs tasks. [NASA research tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pentecost, E.

    1981-01-01

    Active research tasks as of the end of fiscal year 1981 of the materials processing in space program, NASA Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications are summarized to provide an overview of the program scope for managers and scientists in industry, university, and government communities. The program, its history, strategy, and overall goal are described the organizational structures and people involved are identified and a list of recent publications is given for each research task. Four categories: Crystal Growth; Solidification of Metals, Alloys, and Composites; Fluids, Transports, and Chemical Processes, and Ultrahigh Vacuum and Containerless Processing Technologies are used to group the tasks. Some tasks are placed in more than one category to insure complete coverage of each category.

  2. Task Dependent Differences and Individual Differences in Dual Task Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    conversation with the flight instructor, with the skilled pilot who can easily excercise flight control, and converse in par- allel. A difference...The subjects tested were 35 twelve-year olds , who performed tasks singly first then two dual task pairs and then each singly again. McQueen’s results...conducted by Sverko (1977) on adults in an effort to find evidence for a general factor of time-sharing skill. This study was conducted in order to

  3. Pediatric functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging: tactics for encouraging task compliance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging technology has afforded advances in our understanding of normal and pathological brain function and development in children and adolescents. However, noncompliance involving the inability to remain in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner to complete tasks is one common and significant problem. Task noncompliance is an especially significant problem in pediatric functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research because increases in noncompliance produces a greater risk that a study sample will not be representative of the study population. Method In this preliminary investigation, we describe the development and application of an approach for increasing the number of fMRI tasks children complete during neuroimaging. Twenty-eight healthy children ages 9-13 years participated. Generalization of the approach was examined in additional fMRI and event-related potential investigations with children at risk for depression, children with anxiety and children with depression (N = 120). Essential features of the approach include a preference assessment for identifying multiple individualized rewards, increasing reinforcement rates during imaging by pairing tasks with chosen rewards and presenting a visual 'road map' listing tasks, rewards and current progress. Results Our results showing a higher percentage of fMRI task completion by healthy children provides proof of concept data for the recommended tactics. Additional support was provided by results showing our approach generalized to several additional fMRI and event-related potential investigations and clinical populations. Discussion We proposed that some forms of task noncompliance may emerge from less than optimal reward protocols. While our findings may not directly support the effectiveness of the multiple reward compliance protocol, increased attention to how rewards are selected and delivered may aid cooperation with completing fMRI tasks Conclusion The proposed approach

  4. Evolution of Self-Organized Task Specialization in Robot Swarms.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Eliseo; Turgut, Ali Emre; Duéñez-Guzmán, Edgar; Dorigo, Marco; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-08-01

    Division of labor is ubiquitous in biological systems, as evidenced by various forms of complex task specialization observed in both animal societies and multicellular organisms. Although clearly adaptive, the way in which division of labor first evolved remains enigmatic, as it requires the simultaneous co-occurrence of several complex traits to achieve the required degree of coordination. Recently, evolutionary swarm robotics has emerged as an excellent test bed to study the evolution of coordinated group-level behavior. Here we use this framework for the first time to study the evolutionary origin of behavioral task specialization among groups of identical robots. The scenario we study involves an advanced form of division of labor, common in insect societies and known as "task partitioning", whereby two sets of tasks have to be carried out in sequence by different individuals. Our results show that task partitioning is favored whenever the environment has features that, when exploited, reduce switching costs and increase the net efficiency of the group, and that an optimal mix of task specialists is achieved most readily when the behavioral repertoires aimed at carrying out the different subtasks are available as pre-adapted building blocks. Nevertheless, we also show for the first time that self-organized task specialization could be evolved entirely from scratch, starting only from basic, low-level behavioral primitives, using a nature-inspired evolutionary method known as Grammatical Evolution. Remarkably, division of labor was achieved merely by selecting on overall group performance, and without providing any prior information on how the global object retrieval task was best divided into smaller subtasks. We discuss the potential of our method for engineering adaptively behaving robot swarms and interpret our results in relation to the likely path that nature took to evolve complex sociality and task specialization.

  5. Evolution of Self-Organized Task Specialization in Robot Swarms

    PubMed Central

    Ferrante, Eliseo; Turgut, Ali Emre; Duéñez-Guzmán, Edgar; Dorigo, Marco; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Division of labor is ubiquitous in biological systems, as evidenced by various forms of complex task specialization observed in both animal societies and multicellular organisms. Although clearly adaptive, the way in which division of labor first evolved remains enigmatic, as it requires the simultaneous co-occurrence of several complex traits to achieve the required degree of coordination. Recently, evolutionary swarm robotics has emerged as an excellent test bed to study the evolution of coordinated group-level behavior. Here we use this framework for the first time to study the evolutionary origin of behavioral task specialization among groups of identical robots. The scenario we study involves an advanced form of division of labor, common in insect societies and known as “task partitioning”, whereby two sets of tasks have to be carried out in sequence by different individuals. Our results show that task partitioning is favored whenever the environment has features that, when exploited, reduce switching costs and increase the net efficiency of the group, and that an optimal mix of task specialists is achieved most readily when the behavioral repertoires aimed at carrying out the different subtasks are available as pre-adapted building blocks. Nevertheless, we also show for the first time that self-organized task specialization could be evolved entirely from scratch, starting only from basic, low-level behavioral primitives, using a nature-inspired evolutionary method known as Grammatical Evolution. Remarkably, division of labor was achieved merely by selecting on overall group performance, and without providing any prior information on how the global object retrieval task was best divided into smaller subtasks. We discuss the potential of our method for engineering adaptively behaving robot swarms and interpret our results in relation to the likely path that nature took to evolve complex sociality and task specialization. PMID:26247819

  6. Graph Theory of Tower Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Hinz, Andreas M.

    2012-01-01

    The appropriate mathematical model for the problem space of tower transformation tasks is the state graph representing positions of discs or balls and their moves. Graph theoretical quantities like distance, eccentricities or degrees of vertices and symmetries of graphs support the choice of problems, the selection of tasks and the analysis of performance of subjects whose solution paths can be projected onto the graph. The mathematical model is also at the base of a computerized test tool to administer various types of tower tasks. PMID:22207419

  7. Multiple paths in complex tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galanter, Eugene; Wiegand, Thomas; Mark, Gloria

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between utility judgments of subtask paths and the utility of the task as a whole was examined. The convergent validation procedure is based on the assumption that measurements of the same quantity done with different methods should covary. The utility measures of the subtasks were obtained during the performance of an aircraft flight controller navigation task. Analyses helped decide among various models of subtask utility combination, whether the utility ratings of subtask paths predict the whole tasks utility rating, and indirectly, whether judgmental models need to include the equivalent of cognitive noise.

  8. Expectancy and Repetition in Task Preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruthruff, E.; Remington, R. W.; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    We studied the mechanisms of task preparation using a design that pitted task expectancy against task repetition. In one experiment, two simple cognitive tasks were presented in a predictable sequence containing both repetitions and non-repetitions. The typical task sequence was AABBAABB. Occasional violations of this sequence allowed us to measure the effects of valid versus invalid expectancy. With this design, we were able to study the effects of task expectancy, task repetition, and interaction.

  9. Resolving Task Rule Incongruence during Task Switching by Competitor Rule Suppression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiran, Nachshon; Hsieh, Shulan; Dimov, Eduard

    2010-01-01

    Task switching requires maintaining readiness to execute any task of a given set of tasks. However, when tasks switch, the readiness to execute the now-irrelevant task generates interference, as seen in the task rule incongruence effect. Overcoming such interference requires fine-tuned inhibition that impairs task readiness only minimally. In an…

  10. Emergency care of raptors.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jennifer E; Heatley, J Jill

    2007-05-01

    Raptors may present with a variety of conditions, such as trauma, debilitation, and disease, that necessitate emergency care. Emergency treatment should prioritize stabilization of the patient. Diagnostic testing should be delayed until feasible based on patient status. This article reviews emergency medicine in raptors, including appropriate handling and restraint, hospitalization, triage and patient assessment, sample collection, supportive care, and common emergency presentations.

  11. When Task Conflict Becomes Personal

    PubMed Central

    Guenter, Hannes; van Emmerik, Hetty; Schreurs, Bert; Kuypers, Tom; van Iterson, Ad; Notelaers, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Although potentially beneficial, task conflict may threaten teams because it often leads to relationship conflict. Prior research has identified a set of interpersonal factors (e.g., team communication, team trust) that help attenuate this association. The purpose of this article is to provide an alternative perspective that focuses on the moderating role of performance-related factors (i.e., perceived team performance). Using social identity theory, we build a model that predicts how task conflict associates with growth in relationship conflict and how perceived team performance influences this association. We test a three-wave longitudinal model by means of random coefficient growth modeling, using data from 60 ongoing teams working in a health care organization. Results provide partial support for our hypotheses. Only when perceived team performance is low, do task conflicts relate with growth in relationship conflict. We conclude that perceived team performance seems to enable teams to uncouple task from relationship conflict. PMID:28190944

  12. Quantum tasks in Minkowski space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Adrian

    2012-11-01

    The fundamental properties of quantum information and its applications to computing and cryptography have been greatly illuminated by considering information-theoretic tasks that are provably possible or impossible within non-relativistic quantum mechanics. I describe here a general framework for defining tasks within (special) relativistic quantum theory and illustrate it with examples from relativistic quantum cryptography and relativistic distributed quantum computation. The framework gives a unified description of all tasks previously considered and also defines a large class of new questions about the properties of quantum information in relation to Minkowski causality. It offers a way of exploring interesting new fundamental tasks and applications, and also highlights the scope for a more systematic understanding of the fundamental information-theoretic properties of relativistic quantum theory.

  13. Annual Progress report - General Task

    SciTech Connect

    Wesnousky, S.G.

    1993-09-30

    This report provides a summary of progress for the project {open_quotes}Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI).{close_quotes} A similar report was previously provided for the period of 1 October 1991 to 30 September 1992. The report initially covers the activities of the General Task and is followed by sections that describe the progress of the other ongoing tasks.

  14. Effect of workload history on task performance.

    PubMed

    Cox-Fuenzalida, Luz-Eugenia

    2007-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of workload history (specifically, sudden shifts in workload) on performance. In 1993 the National Research Council identified workload transition as an important concern for human factors researchers. The study of workload history suggests that what an individual has been doing prior to a point in time has an effect on subsequent performance. One trend emerging from workload history studies is that a general decrement in performance is most likely to occur following a decrease in task demand. The 198 participants were randomly assigned to a high-to-low or low-to-high condition. Participants performed a version of the Bakan Vigilance Task while correct responses, response times, and total errors were recorded. Results supported previous research suggesting a workload decrease results in a performance decrement. More importantly, this study reports that either a sudden increase or decrease could lead to a loss in accuracy and a slowing of response time in a longer time course. An explanation of the decrement is offered in terms of adaptation models. In addition, a follow-up study suggested that the decrement is a result of something inherent in the workload shift rather than an effect of fatigue. Workload history (more specifically, a workload shift) has significant implications for many work environments. These implications are particularly salient in occupations where individuals are confronted with varying levels of workload demand, especially safety-sensitive occupations.

  15. Approaching neuropsychological tasks through adaptive neurorobots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigliotta, Onofrio; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Miglino, Orazio

    2015-04-01

    Neuropsychological phenomena have been modelized mainly, by the mainstream approach, by attempting to reproduce their neural substrate whereas sensory-motor contingencies have attracted less attention. In this work, we introduce a simulator based on the evolutionary robotics platform Evorobot* in order to setting up in silico neuropsychological tasks. Moreover, in this study we trained artificial embodied neurorobotic agents equipped with a pan/tilt camera, provided with different neural and motor capabilities, to solve a well-known neuropsychological test: the cancellation task in which an individual is asked to cancel target stimuli surrounded by distractors. Results showed that embodied agents provided with additional motor capabilities (a zooming/attentional actuator) outperformed simple pan/tilt agents, even those equipped with more complex neural controllers and that the zooming ability is exploited to correctly categorising presented stimuli. We conclude that since the sole neural computational power cannot explain the (artificial) cognition which emerged throughout the adaptive process, such kind of modelling approach can be fruitful in neuropsychological modelling where the importance of having a body is often neglected.

  16. Medical Emergencies in Goa

    PubMed Central

    Saddichha, Sahoo; Saxena, Mukul Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Background: Most emergencies in Goa arise due to road traffic accidents and drowning, which have been compounded by the rise in number of recorded accidents in 2007 to be above 4000. It is believed that 11 people meet with an accident on Goa's roads every day and this is expected to rise by 10% by next year. Similar is the case with drownings and other medical emergencies. We therefore aimed to conduct a cross-sectional survey of medical emergencies and identify various types of emergencies presenting to emergency departments. Materials and Methods: Using a stratified random sampling design, all emergencies presenting to the three government hospitals in Goa, which handle 90% of all emergencies currently, were studied on specially designed data sheets in order to collect data. Emergency medical technicians (ETs) were placed in the Casualty Ward of the medical colleges and they recorded all emergencies on the data sheet. The collected data were then analyzed for stratification and mapping of emergencies. Results: GMC Hospital attended to majority of emergencies (62%), which were mainly of the nature of accidents or assaults (17%) and fever related (17%). Most emergencies were noncritical and about 1% expired. Maximum emergencies also presented from Salcette and Bardez, and occurred among young males in the age group of 19-45 years. Males were also more prone to accidents while females had pregnancies as emergencies. Conclusion: Potential emergency services need to target young males with higher concentrations required in Salcette in South Goa and Bardez in North Goa. PMID:20606921

  17. Emerging and re-emerging infections.

    PubMed

    Lim, V K

    1999-06-01

    An emerging infection is defined as an infection which has newly appeared in a population while a re-emerging infection is one which has existed in the past but its incidence is rapidly increasing. The reasons for the emergence and re-emergence of infections are not well understood but appear to be associated with factors that involve the pathogen, the host and the environment. These factors are often inter-related and act together in a complex manner to bring about changes in patterns of infection. Pathogens are extremely resourceful and possess mechanisms to adapt to new hosts and environments as well as to acquire new virulence traits. Host factors include herd immunity, social behaviour and demographics. Environmental factors like the climate, deforestation and new technologies have an impact on the emergence of infections. The challenge is to contain an infection when it emerges but more importantly to prevent its emergence in the first place. As the emergence of an infection is complex and multifactorial, a multidisciplinary approach is required. Health based strategies alone are insufficient. Social, economic and environmental measures and the political will to implement appropriate policies are equally important.

  18. What Do We Really Know about Cognitive Inhibition? Task Demands and Inhibitory Effects across a Range of Memory and Behavioural Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Noreen, Saima; MacLeod, Malcolm D.

    2015-01-01

    Our study explores inhibitory control across a range of widely recognised memory and behavioural tasks. Eighty-seven never-depressed participants completed a series of tasks designed to measure inhibitory control in memory and behaviour. Specifically, a variant of the selective retrieval-practice and the Think/No-Think tasks were employed as measures of memory inhibition. The Stroop-Colour Naming and the Go/No-Go tasks were used as measures of behavioural inhibition. Participants completed all 4 tasks. Task presentation order was counterbalanced across 3 separate testing sessions for each participant. Standard inhibitory forgetting effects emerged on both memory tasks but the extent of forgetting across these tasks was not correlated. Furthermore, there was no relationship between memory inhibition tasks and either of the main behavioural inhibition measures. At a time when cognitive inhibition continues to gain acceptance as an explanatory mechanism, our study raises fundamental questions about what we actually know about inhibition and how it is affected by the processing demands of particular inhibitory tasks. PMID:26270470

  19. What Do We Really Know about Cognitive Inhibition? Task Demands and Inhibitory Effects across a Range of Memory and Behavioural Tasks.

    PubMed

    Noreen, Saima; MacLeod, Malcolm D

    2015-01-01

    Our study explores inhibitory control across a range of widely recognised memory and behavioural tasks. Eighty-seven never-depressed participants completed a series of tasks designed to measure inhibitory control in memory and behaviour. Specifically, a variant of the selective retrieval-practice and the Think/No-Think tasks were employed as measures of memory inhibition. The Stroop-Colour Naming and the Go/No-Go tasks were used as measures of behavioural inhibition. Participants completed all 4 tasks. Task presentation order was counterbalanced across 3 separate testing sessions for each participant. Standard inhibitory forgetting effects emerged on both memory tasks but the extent of forgetting across these tasks was not correlated. Furthermore, there was no relationship between memory inhibition tasks and either of the main behavioural inhibition measures. At a time when cognitive inhibition continues to gain acceptance as an explanatory mechanism, our study raises fundamental questions about what we actually know about inhibition and how it is affected by the processing demands of particular inhibitory tasks.

  20. A mobile platform for emergency care.

    PubMed

    Losiouk, Eleonora; Quaglini, Silvana; Pesenti Campagnoni, Massimo; Lanzola, Giordano

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the adaptation of a mobile platform initially developed for designing and administering questionnaires to a new context supporting checklists in emergency care. We took part in the checklists formalization process together with the domain experts and recognized that some tasks would highly benefit from the inherent features offered by the mobile technology. Thus we exploited the robustness of the model already designed for navigating among questionnaires and implemented additional functionalities that improved the usability of the mobile application, making it suitable for the paramedic staff and the volunteers that manage emergency cases.

  1. Effects of a no-go Task 2 on Task 1 performance in dual - tasking: From benefits to costs.

    PubMed

    Janczyk, Markus; Huestegge, Lynn

    2017-04-01

    When two tasks are combined in a dual-task experiment, characteristics of Task 2 can influence Task 1 performance, a phenomenon termed the backward crosstalk effect (BCE). Besides instances depending on the (spatial) compatibility of both responses, a particularly interesting example was introduced by Miller (2006): If Task 2 was a no-go task (i.e., one not requiring any action at all), responses were slowed in Task 1. Subsequent work, however, also reported the opposite result-that is, faster Task 1 responses in cases of no-go Task 2 trials. We report three experiments aiming to more precisely identify the conditions under which a no-go Task 2 facilitates or impedes Task 1 performance. The results suggest that an adverse no-go BCE is only observed when the Task 2 response(s) are sufficiently prepared in advance, yielding strong inhibitory control demands for Task 2 that eventually hamper Task 1 processing as well (i.e., inhibitory costs). If this is not the case, encountering a no-go Task 2 trial facilitates Task 1 performance, suggesting that the underlying task representation is reduced to a single - task. These results are discussed in the context of other recent work on BCEs and of recently suggested accounts of the no-go BCE.

  2. Goal Setting and Task Performance: 1969-1980

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    setting Incentives Individual differences Task difficulty Rewards Nced for achievement Knowledge of Results Participation Self esteem >j Feedback...in goal setting studies, probably-due t6 ýei-•ct-.that’goals were typically assigned rather than self -set). need for achievement and self esteem may...emerged in goal setting studies, probably because goals are typically assigned rather than self -set; need for achievement and self - esteem may be the most

  3. Scioto: A Framework for Global-ViewTask Parallelism

    SciTech Connect

    Dinan, James S.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Larkins, D. B.; Nieplocha, Jaroslaw; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy

    2008-09-09

    We introduce Scioto, Shared Collections of Task Objects, a framework for supporting task-parallelism in one-sided and global-view parallel programming models. Scioto provides lightweight, locality aware dynamic load balancing and interoperates with existing parallel models including MPI, SHMEM, CAF, and Global Arrays. Through task parallelism, the Scioto framework provides a solution for overcoming load imbalance and heterogeneity as well as dynamic mapping of computation onto emerging multicore architectures. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of the Scioto framework and demonstrate its effectiveness on the Unbalanced Tree Search (UTS) benchmark and two quantum chemistry codes: the closed shell Self-Consistent Field (SCF) method and a sparse tensor contraction kernel extracted from a coupled cluster computation. We explore the efficiency and scalability of Scioto through these sample applications and demonstrate that is offers low overhead, achieves good performance on heterogeneous and multicore clusters, and scales to hundreds of processors.

  4. Emerging Communication Technologies (ECT) Phase 4 Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Harris, William G.; Marin, Jose A.; Nelson, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    The Emerging Communication Technology (ECT) project investigated three First Mile communication technologies in support of NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Advanced Range Technology Working Group (ARTWG), and the Advanced Spaceport Technology Working Group (ASTWG). These First Mile technologies have the purpose of interconnecting mobile users with existing Range Communication infrastructures on a 24/7 basis. ECT is a continuation of the Range Information System Management (RISM) task started in 2002. This is the fourth year of the project.

  5. 29 CFR 541.707 - Occasional tasks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DELIMITING THE EXEMPTIONS FOR EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, PROFESSIONAL, COMPUTER AND OUTSIDE SALES EMPLOYEES Definitions and Miscellaneous Provisions § 541.707 Occasional tasks. Occasional, infrequently recurring tasks...

  6. Contributions of Emergent Literacy Skills to Name Writing, Letter Writing, and Spelling in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Kim, Young-Suk

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine which emergent literacy skills contribute to preschool children's emergent writing (name-writing, letter-writing, and spelling) skills. Emergent reading and writing tasks were administered to 296 preschool children aged 4-5 years. Print knowledge and letter-writing skills made positive contributions to name…

  7. Nailing Digital Jelly to a Virtual Tree: Tracking Emerging Technologies for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serim, Ferdi; Schrock, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    Reliable information on emerging technologies for learning is as vital as it is difficult to come by. To meet this need, the International Society for Technology in Education organized the Emerging Technologies Task Force. Its goal is to create a database of contributions from educators highlighting their use of emerging technologies to support…

  8. Graphical programming of telerobotic tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Small, D.E.; McDonald, M.J.

    1997-02-01

    With a goal of producing faster, safer, and cheaper technologies for nuclear waste cleanup, Sandia is actively developing and extending intelligent systems technologies. Graphical Programming is a key technology for robotic waste cleanup that Sandia is developing for this goal. This paper describes Sancho, Sandia most advanced Graphical Programming supervisory software. Sancho, now operational on several robot systems, incorporates all of Sandia`s recent advances in supervisory control. Sancho, developed to rapidly apply Graphical Programming on a diverse set of robot systems, uses a general set of tools to implement task and operational behavior. Sancho can be rapidly reconfigured for new tasks and operations without modifying the supervisory code. Other innovations include task-based interfaces, event-based sequencing, and sophisticated GUI design. These innovations have resulted in robot control programs and approaches that are easier and safer to use than teleoperation, off-line programming, or full automation.

  9. Dog Bite Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Dog bite emergencies What do I do if I’ ... vaccination records. What do I do if my dog bites someone? Dog bites are scary for everyone ...

  10. Emergency Nurses Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... an authority, advocate, lobbyist, and voice for emergency nursing. ENA has 40,000+ members and continues to ... advocate for patient safety and excellence in emergency nursing practice. Find out about our many membership opportunities. ...

  11. Emergency preparedness and planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouvier, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    Monsanto's emergency response plan in dealing with hazardous materials at their facilities is presented. Topics discussed include the following: CPR training; emergency medial training; incident reports; contractor injuries; hazardous materials transport; evacuation; and other industrial safety concerns.

  12. Federal Emergency Management Agency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Updates Emergency Management Agencies Emergency Management Institute El Niño Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Program Exercise Fact ... Local, State, Tribal and Non-Profit Recovery Resources Region I Region II Region III Region IV Region ...

  13. State Emergency Response Commissions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Governor of each state has designated a State Emergency Response Commission (SERC) that is responsible for implementing the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) provisions within its state.

  14. Pesticide Emergency Exemptions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A state or federal agency can request an emergency exemptions when a serious pest problem jeopardizes production of agricultural goods or public health but no pesticides are currently registered for that situation. Learn how to request emergency exemption.

  15. IEA Wind Task 36 Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giebel, Gregor; Cline, Joel; Frank, Helmut; Shaw, Will; Pinson, Pierre; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Kariniotakis, Georges; Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Draxl, Caroline

    2017-04-01

    Wind power forecasts have been used operatively for over 20 years. Despite this fact, there are still several possibilities to improve the forecasts, both from the weather prediction side and from the usage of the forecasts. The new International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on Wind Power Forecasting tries to organise international collaboration, among national weather centres with an interest and/or large projects on wind forecast improvements (NOAA, DWD, UK MetOffice, …) and operational forecaster and forecast users. The Task is divided in three work packages: Firstly, a collaboration on the improvement of the scientific basis for the wind predictions themselves. This includes numerical weather prediction model physics, but also widely distributed information on accessible datasets for verification. Secondly, we will be aiming at an international pre-standard (an IEA Recommended Practice) on benchmarking and comparing wind power forecasts, including probabilistic forecasts aiming at industry and forecasters alike. This WP will also organise benchmarks, in cooperation with the IEA Task WakeBench. Thirdly, we will be engaging end users aiming at dissemination of the best practice in the usage of wind power predictions, especially probabilistic ones. The Operating Agent is Gregor Giebel of DTU, Co-Operating Agent is Joel Cline of the US Department of Energy. Collaboration in the task is solicited from everyone interested in the forecasting business. We will collaborate with IEA Task 31 Wakebench, which developed the Windbench benchmarking platform, which this task will use for forecasting benchmarks. The task runs for three years, 2016-2018. Main deliverables are an up-to-date list of current projects and main project results, including datasets which can be used by researchers around the world to improve their own models, an IEA Recommended Practice on performance evaluation of probabilistic forecasts, a position paper regarding the use of probabilistic forecasts

  16. Subjective Estimation of Task Time and Task Difficulty of Simple Movement Tasks.

    PubMed

    Chan, Alan H S; Hoffmann, Errol R

    2017-01-01

    It has been demonstrated in previous work that the same neural structures are used for both imagined and real movements. To provide a strong test of the similarity of imagined and actual movement times, 4 simple movement tasks were used to determine the relationship between estimated task time and actual movement time. The tasks were single-component visually controlled movements, 2-component visually controlled, low index of difficulty (ID) moves and pin-to-hole transfer movements. For each task there was good correspondence between the mean estimated times and actual movement times. In all cases, the same factors determined the actual and estimated movement times: the amplitudes of movement and the IDs of the component movements, however the contribution of each of these variables differed for the imagined and real tasks. Generally, the standard deviations of the estimated times were linearly related to the estimated time values. Overall, the data provide strong evidence for the same neural structures being used for both imagined and actual movements.

  17. The Dissipating Task-Repetition Benefit in Cued Task Switching: Task-Set Decay or Temporal Distinctiveness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horoufchin, Himeh; Philipp, Andrea M.; Koch, Iring

    2011-01-01

    Decay of task-set activation, as commonly assumed in models of task switching, has been thought to be indexed by manipulating the response-to-cue interval (RCI) in a task-cuing paradigm. We propose an alternative account for RCI effects suggesting that episodic task retrieval is modulated by temporal distinctiveness, which we define as the ratio…

  18. Wireless Emergency Alerts

    MedlinePlus

    ... through your mobile carrier. 3. What types of alerts will I receive?  Extreme weather, and other threatening emergencies in your area  AMBER ... you receive emergency alerts. Other sources include NOAA Weather Radio, ... the Emergency Alert System on radio and TV programs, outdoor sirens, and ...

  19. Emergency lighting gets 'smarter'.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Alan

    2012-10-01

    Alan Daniels, business development director of emergency lighting specialist, P4, describes the latest trends in, and requirements for, emergency lighting, a vital part of the building services footprint in hospitals and other healthcare premises. He also explains how those responsible for the safe operation of emergency lighting system can ensure they comply with their obligations under the law.

  20. Planning for School Emergencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della-Giustina, Daniel E.

    This document is designed to provide civil leaders and school administrators with a resource that will enable them to develop comprehensive contingency plans for specific emergency situations. A discussion of disaster and emergency management planning includes an outline of the objectives of emergency planning that were established for this guide.…

  1. Legal and regulatory aspects of prescribing and marketing emergency contraception in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adekunle, A O; Babarinsa, I A; Akinyemi, Z; Okediran, A Y

    2001-01-01

    Emergency contraception remains so little used or understood and the lack of its awareness can be traced to a myriad of factors including legal and regulatory obstacles. The aim of this study was to determine the legal and regulatory aspects of dispensing or marketing a contraceptive method for reasons (especially emergency purposes) other than stated by the manufacturers. The existing drugs' and devices' regulatory systems in Nigeria, especially those governing family planning methods, were reviewed. A questionnaire was administered to 363 health workers, comprising of physicians, pharmacists, nurses and midwives, to determine the implications of dispensing some currently available oral contraceptives (OCs) for emergency purposes despite the fact that there is no explicit description of emergency use in the labelling of such drugs. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with regulatory bodies. It was observed that, with the exception of Postinor, the drug manufacturers' leaflets did not indicate that they could be used for emergency contraceptive purposes. Although 64.5% of the healthcare providers were aware that OCs and intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs) can be used for emergency purposes, 42.1% actually prescribed or recommended them. Many health workers (62.3%) were unaware of any legal implication with regards to prescribing unregistered drugs in Nigeria. The existing guidelines stipulate that a manufacturer or marketer should 're-register' a product if a new indication or use not contained in the initial application was found later. To satisfy legal requirements, it does appear that the currently available OCs and IUCDs in Nigeria must be labelled and registered for emergency contraceptive purposes.

  2. Ready to rumble: how team personality composition and task conflict interact to improve performance.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Bret H; Klotz, Anthony C; Postlethwaite, Bennett E; Brown, Kenneth G

    2013-03-01

    Although prior work has proposed a number of conditions under which task conflict in teams may improve performance, composition variables have been left unexplored. Given the effects of personality traits on team processes and outcomes demonstrated in prior work, investigating whether specific personality compositions influence the effect of task conflict on team performance is critical to researchers' understanding of conflict in teams. Our results indicate that team-level averages of both openness to experience and emotional stability function as moderators of the relationship between task conflict and team performance. Specifically, task conflict had a positive impact on performance in teams with high levels of openness or emotional stability; in contrast, task conflict had a negative impact on performance in teams with low levels of openness or emotional stability. Thus, when task conflict emerges, teams composed of members who are open minded or emotionally stable are best able to leverage conflict to improve performance. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  3. The use of simulation in emergency medicine: a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Bond, William F; Lammers, Richard L; Spillane, Linda L; Smith-Coggins, Rebecca; Fernandez, Rosemarie; Reznek, Martin A; Vozenilek, John A; Gordon, James A

    2007-04-01

    Medical simulation is a rapidly expanding area within medical education. In 2005, the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Simulation Task Force was created to ensure that the Society and its members had adequate access to information and resources regarding this new and important topic. One of the objectives of the task force was to create a research agenda for the use of simulation in emergency medical education. The authors present here the consensus document from the task force regarding suggested areas for research. These include opportunities to study reflective experiential learning, behavioral and team training, procedural simulation, computer screen-based simulation, the use of simulation for evaluation and testing, and special topics in emergency medicine. The challenges of research in the field of simulation are discussed, including the impact of simulation on patient safety. Outcomes-based research and multicenter efforts will serve to advance simulation techniques and encourage their adoption.

  4. Task Analysis Inventories. Series II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, Carl E.

    This second in a series of task analysis inventories contains checklists of work performed in twenty-two occupations. Each inventory is a comprehensive list of work activities, responsibilities, educational courses, machines, tools, equipment, and work aids used and the products produced or services rendered in a designated occupational area. The…

  5. Task Group 9 Update (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco, N.

    2014-04-01

    This presentation is a brief update of IEC TC82 QA Task Force, Group 9. Presented is an outline of the recently submitted New Work Item Proposal (NWIP) for a Comparative Thermal Cycling Test for CPV Modules to Differentiate Thermal Fatigue Durability.

  6. Fighting Terrorism: An Enduring Task,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    interview with ADN- Kronos , an Italian news service, was first published in 17. Messaggero. Subsequently it appeared in several European newspapers...ENDURING TASK Brian Michael Jenkins The Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, California February 1981 The following interview with ADN- Kronos , an Italian news

  7. Precautions regarding Nonword Repetition Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Using nonword repetition tasks as an experimental approach with both adults and children has become quite common in the past 10 to 15 years for studying lexical learning and phonological processing (e.g., Bailey & Hahn, 2001; Gathercole, Frankish, Pickering & Peaker, 1998; Munson, Edwards, & Beckman, 2005; Storkel, 2001; Vitevich & Luce, 2005). In…

  8. Task-Based Writing Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bantis, Alexandros

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of task-based writing instruction, a communicative language-teaching method, on second language acquisition and differentiation of instruction for English language learners during the independent work time instructional component of the Open Court Reading program. Through student-teacher…

  9. Scientists and the Selection Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Richard A.; Ransdell, Sarah E.

    1986-01-01

    Presents findings of a study of scientists on the Wason four-card selection task, finding little understanding of the effect of disconfirmatory data in assessing conditionals. Found performance influenced by problem content. Explains performance as memory-cueing plus reasoning-by-analogy. (JM)

  10. American Indian Task Force Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, John E., Ed.

    Assuming that the client is central to any service program, the American Indian Task Force examined a national sample of "grass roots" social service organizations and/or individuals and schools of social work to determine the capability of providing relevant social work education to American Indians. Accordingly, the highest priorities…

  11. Incidental Learning and Task Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedberg, Michael; Wagschal, Tana T.; Hazeltine, Eliot

    2014-01-01

    For skill learning processes to be effective, they must encode associations that are inherent to the current task and avoid those that are spurious or particular to training conditions so that learning can transfer to novel situations. Some everyday contexts even require grouped responding to simultaneously presented stimuli. Here we test whether…

  12. Incidental Learning and Task Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedberg, Michael; Wagschal, Tana T.; Hazeltine, Eliot

    2014-01-01

    For skill learning processes to be effective, they must encode associations that are inherent to the current task and avoid those that are spurious or particular to training conditions so that learning can transfer to novel situations. Some everyday contexts even require grouped responding to simultaneously presented stimuli. Here we test whether…

  13. Physiological assessment of task underload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, J. Raymond, Jr.; Harris, Randall L., Sr.; Pope, Alan T.

    1988-01-01

    The ultimate goal of research efforts directed at underload, boredom, or complacency in high-technology work environments is to detect conditions or states of the operator that can be demonstrated to lead to performance degradation, and then to intervene in the environment to restore acceptable system performance. Physiological measures may provide indices of changes in condition or state of the operator that may be of value in high-technology work environments. The focus of the present study was on the use of physiological measures in the assessment of operator condition or state in a task underload scenario. A fault acknowledgement task characterized by simple repetitive responses with minimal novelty, complexity, and uncertainty was employed to place subjects in a task underload situation. Physiological measures (electrocardiogram (ECG), electroencephalogram (EEG), and pupil diameter) were monitored during task performance over a one-hour test session for 12 subjects. Each of the physiological measures exhibited changes over the test session indicative of decrements in subject arousal level. While high correlations between physiological measures were found across subjects, individual differences between subjects support the use of profiling techniques to establish baselines unique to each subject.

  14. Inhibition in Prolonged Work Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ven, A. H. G. S.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A new model is presented that explains reaction time fluctuations in prolonged work tasks. The model extends the so-called Poisson-Erlang model and accounts for long-term trend effects in the reaction time curve. The model is consistent with Spearman's hypothesis that inhibition increases during work and decreases during rest. (TJH)

  15. Task-driven dictionary learning.

    PubMed

    Mairal, Julien; Bach, Francis; Ponce, Jean

    2012-04-01

    Modeling data with linear combinations of a few elements from a learned dictionary has been the focus of much recent research in machine learning, neuroscience, and signal processing. For signals such as natural images that admit such sparse representations, it is now well established that these models are well suited to restoration tasks. In this context, learning the dictionary amounts to solving a large-scale matrix factorization problem, which can be done efficiently with classical optimization tools. The same approach has also been used for learning features from data for other purposes, e.g., image classification, but tuning the dictionary in a supervised way for these tasks has proven to be more difficult. In this paper, we present a general formulation for supervised dictionary learning adapted to a wide variety of tasks, and present an efficient algorithm for solving the corresponding optimization problem. Experiments on handwritten digit classification, digital art identification, nonlinear inverse image problems, and compressed sensing demonstrate that our approach is effective in large-scale settings, and is well suited to supervised and semi-supervised classification, as well as regression tasks for data that admit sparse representations.

  16. A Population of Assessment Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Phil; Burkhardt, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    We propose the development of a "population" of high-quality assessment tasks that cover the performance goals set out in the "Common Core State Standards for Mathematics." The population will be published. Tests are drawn from this population as a structured random sample guided by a "balancing algorithm."

  17. A Population of Assessment Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Phil; Burkhardt, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    We propose the development of a "population" of high-quality assessment tasks that cover the performance goals set out in the "Common Core State Standards for Mathematics." The population will be published. Tests are drawn from this population as a structured random sample guided by a "balancing algorithm."

  18. Conducting the Job Task Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Jennifer

    This guide, which is intended for project directors, coordinators, and other professional staff involved in developing and delivering workplace education programs, explains the process of conducting a job task analysis to create customized curricula to meet the workplace education students' needs. After a brief discussion of the rationale for…

  19. Emergency Management Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This Emergency Management Guide provides guidance for the implementation of the requirements of the Department of Energy (DOE) Emergency Management System (EMS). The DOE EMS is established by DOE 5500.1B, EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT SYSTEM. The provisions of this guide specify neither policy nor responsibilities. It provides an acceptable approach to emergency planning activities at DOE facilities and sites. Other approaches may be used provided that they are approved by the cognizant Program Secretarial Officer (PSO), with the concurrence of the Director of Emergency Operations (DEO).

  20. Who Multi-Tasks and Why? Multi-Tasking Ability, Perceived Multi-Tasking Ability, Impulsivity, and Sensation Seeking

    PubMed Central

    Sanbonmatsu, David M.; Strayer, David L.; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are not the persons who are most likely to engage in multiple tasks simultaneously. To the contrary, multi-tasking activity as measured by the Media Multitasking Inventory and self-reported cell phone usage while driving were negatively correlated with actual multi-tasking ability. Multi-tasking was positively correlated with participants’ perceived ability to multi-task ability which was found to be significantly inflated. Participants with a strong approach orientation and a weak avoidance orientation – high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking – reported greater multi-tasking behavior. Finally, the findings suggest that people often engage in multi-tasking because they are less able to block out distractions and focus on a singular task. Participants with less executive control - low scorers on the Operation Span task and persons high in impulsivity - tended to report higher levels of multi-tasking activity. PMID:23372720

  1. The Importance of Context in Task Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiland, Travis

    2017-01-01

    Context is at the core of any statistical investigation, yet many statistics tasks barely require students to go beyond superficial consideration of the contexts the tasks are situated in. In this article, I discuss a framework for evaluating the level of interaction with context a task requires of students and how to modify tasks to increase the…

  2. The Importance of Context in Task Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiland, Travis

    2017-01-01

    Context is at the core of any statistical investigation, yet many statistics tasks barely require students to go beyond superficial consideration of the contexts the tasks are situated in. In this article, I discuss a framework for evaluating the level of interaction with context a task requires of students and how to modify tasks to increase the…

  3. Cosmetology: Task Analyses. Competency-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.

    These task analyses are designed to be used in combination with the "Trade and Industrial Education Service Area Resource" in order to implement competency-based education in the cosmetology program in Virginia. The task analysis document contains the task inventory, suggested task sequence lists, and content outlines for the secondary…

  4. Are Letter Detection and Proofreading Tasks Equivalent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Aubin, Jean; Losier, Marie-Claire; Roy, Macha; Lawrence, Mike

    2015-01-01

    When readers search for misspellings in a proofreading task or for a letter in a letter detection task, they are more likely to omit function words than content words. However, with misspelled words, previous findings for the letter detection task were mixed. In two experiments, the authors tested the functional equivalence of both tasks. Results…

  5. Are Letter Detection and Proofreading Tasks Equivalent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Aubin, Jean; Losier, Marie-Claire; Roy, Macha; Lawrence, Mike

    2015-01-01

    When readers search for misspellings in a proofreading task or for a letter in a letter detection task, they are more likely to omit function words than content words. However, with misspelled words, previous findings for the letter detection task were mixed. In two experiments, the authors tested the functional equivalence of both tasks. Results…

  6. Cosmetology: Task Analyses. Competency-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.

    These task analyses are designed to be used in combination with the "Trade and Industrial Education Service Area Resource" in order to implement competency-based education in the cosmetology program in Virginia. The task analysis document contains the task inventory, suggested task sequence lists, and content outlines for the secondary…

  7. Tasks for Easily Modifiable Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swier, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of learner interaction in virtual worlds have tended to select basic tasks involving open-ended communication. There is evidence that such tasks are supportive of language acquisition, however it may also be beneficial to consider more complex tasks. Research in task-based learning has identified features such as non-linguistic…

  8. An architecture for intelligent task interruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, D. D.; Narayan, Srini

    1990-01-01

    In the design of real time systems the capability for task interruption is often considered essential. The problem of task interruption in knowledge-based domains is examined. It is proposed that task interruption can be often avoided by using appropriate functional architectures and knowledge engineering principles. Situations for which task interruption is indispensable, a preliminary architecture based on priority hierarchies is described.

  9. Emergencies in motoneuron disease.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Stöllberger, Claudia

    2017-03-09

    Genetic and acquired motor-neuron-disorders (MNDs) may undergo acute deterioration resulting in various emergency situations. This literature review aims at summarising and discussing current knowledge about emergencies in MNDs. Emergencies that have been reported in MND patients include: respiratory, bulbar, cardiac, septic, epileptic, psychiatric, pain-related, and traumatic emergencies. Emergencies due to respiratory insufficiency have the strongest impact on morbidity and mortality in MNDs. To optimise the management of emergencies in MNDs, it is recommended to discuss these topics with the patient prior to their occurrence. After informed consent, patients may indicate their decision by signing an advance directive as to how such emergencies should be managed in case they arise. Generally, treatment of emergencies in MNDs is not at variance from treatment of similar emergencies due to other causes, but some peculiarities need to be pointed out. It is concluded that patients with MNDs may experience various emergencies during the disease course. Management of these conditions should be discussed with the patient prior to their appearance. Management of these emergencies follows general guidelines, which widely vary between countries, and depend on the availability of a patient's advance directive.

  10. Color on emergency mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lili; Qi, Qingwen; Zhang, An

    2007-06-01

    There are so many emergency issues in our daily life. Such as typhoons, tsunamis, earthquake, fires, floods, epidemics, etc. These emergencies made people lose their lives and their belongings. Every day, every hour, even every minute people probably face the emergency, so how to handle it and how to decrease its hurt are the matters people care most. If we can map it exactly before or after the emergencies; it will be helpful to the emergency researchers and people who live in the emergency place. So , through the emergency map, before emergency is occurring we can predict the situation, such as when and where the emergency will be happen; where people can refuge, etc. After disaster, we can also easily assess the lost, discuss the cause and make the lost less. The primary effect of mapping is offering information to the people who care about the emergency and the researcher who want to study it. Mapping allows the viewers to get a spatial sense of hazard. It can also provide the clues to study the relationship of the phenomenon in emergency. Color, as the basic element of the map, it can simplify and clarify the phenomenon. Color can also affects the general perceptibility of the map, and elicits subjective reactions to the map. It is to say, structure, readability, and the reader's psychological reactions can be affected by the use of color.

  11. Offshore industry: medical emergency response in the offshore oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Ponsonby, Will; Mika, Frano; Irons, Greg

    2009-08-01

    The hunt for oil and gas has taken workers into new more distant locations including those offshore. The remoteness of the offshore platforms and vessels coupled with the potential risk of being cut off by bad weather presents particular challenges for medical emergency response (MER). Firstly to define the challenges for MER in terms of locations, population and epidemiology of injuries and illnesses in the offshore environment. Secondly to give examples of legal requirements and industry standards to manage MER. Thirdly to look at existing and emerging practice to manage these challenges. A review of published literature was supplemented with a summary of current practice in the industry. Medical professionals (medics) working offshore on installations and vessels are primarily responsible for the medical care of the workers. The medics have clinics with suitable medical equipment for managing emergencies as well as providing limited primary care. Some countries have legislation that stipulate minimum requirements. Where there is no national legislation, industry and company guidance is used to define the MER standards. Supervision of the offshore medics is often provided by doctors on shore via radio and phone links. These methods of communication are now being augmented with more sophisticated telemedicine solutions such as the Internet and live video links. These newer solutions allow for prompt high-quality care and provide the scope for a variety of new treatment options to be available for the offshore workforce.

  12. Task Analysis and the Ability Requirements of Tasks: Collected Papers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    abilities required for jobs. Identification of ability require- ments is a first step in the process of assembling performance tests that are related...rtiteal contact cues outside the cockpit or flight instru- ci t ntnts pertaining to a particular work station; ment cues within the cockpit. A task...defined as individually distinct move- tors assigned to primary training. On the basis ments or mediating responses elicited by environ- of their

  13. Female representation on emergency medicine editorial teams.

    PubMed

    Miró, Oscar; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; Plunkett, Patrick K; Brown, Anthony F T

    2010-04-01

    To analyse the presence of women on the editorial teams of emergency medicine journals and the potential relationship between the pre-eminence of the journal and their presence. In this cross-sectional study, we examined 10 journals cited under the heading of 'Emergency Medicine' by Thomson Scientific in the Journal Citation Reports and 14 additional emergency journals not cited but which publish investigations in emergency medicine. We evaluated the editorial board posted on their websites, determining the number of men and women occupying executive tasks, as well as the sex of the editor-in-chief of each journal. We identified 372 people working on the editorial teams (mean: 15.5, SD: 13.5), 49 being women (13.2%). Of these 372 people, 28 were editors-in-chief but only one was female (3.6%). We found no statistical differences between indexed and nonindexed emergency journals regarding female representation on the editorial team or in the position of editor-in-chief. Neither did we find any relationship between female presence and the pre-eminence of the indexed journals using impact factor as a surrogate marker. Very few women are found either on editorial teams or in editor-in-chief positions in the emergency medicine journals, irrespective of the pre-eminence of the journal. It should be investigated whether a negative journal bias underlies these findings.

  14. Task allocation in a distributed computing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seward, Walter D.

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual framework is examined for task allocation in distributed systems. Application and computing system parameters critical to task allocation decision processes are discussed. Task allocation techniques are addressed which focus on achieving a balance in the load distribution among the system's processors. Equalization of computing load among the processing elements is the goal. Examples of system performance are presented for specific applications. Both static and dynamic allocation of tasks are considered and system performance is evaluated using different task allocation methodologies.

  15. Cost analysis of emergency department.

    PubMed

    Cremonesi, P; Di Bella, E; Montefiori, M

    2010-12-01

    This paper is intended to examine both clinical and economic data concerning the activity of an emergency department of an Italian primary Hospital. Real data referring to arrivals, waiting times, service times, severity (according to triage classification) of patients' condition collected along the whole 2009 are matched up with the relevant accounting and economic information concerning the costs faced. A new methodological approach is implemented in order to identify a "standard production cost" and its variability. We believe that this kind of analysis well fits the federalizing process that Italy is experiencing. In fact the federal reform is driving our Country toward a decentralized provision and funding of local public services. The health care services are "fundamental" under the provisions of the law that in turn implies that a standard cost has to be defined for its funding. The standard cost (as it is defined by the law) relies on the concepts of appropriateness and efficiency in the production of the health care service, assuming a standard quality level as target. The identification and measurement of health care costs is therefore a crucial task propaedeutic to health services economic evaluation. Various guidelines with different amount of details have been set up for costing methods which, however, are defined in simplified frameworks and using fictious data. This study is a first attempt to proceed in the direction of a precise definition of the costs inherent to the emergency department activity.

  16. The Context of Temporal Processing Is Represented in the Multidimensional Relationships between Timing Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Hugo; Zarco, Wilbert; Bartolo, Ramon; Prado, Luis

    2008-01-01

    In the present study we determined the performance interrelations of ten different tasks that involved the processing of temporal intervals in the subsecond range, using multidimensional analyses. Twenty human subjects executed the following explicit timing tasks: interval categorization and discrimination (perceptual tasks), and single and multiple interval tapping (production tasks). In addition, the subjects performed a continuous circle-drawing task that has been considered an implicit timing paradigm, since time is an emergent property of the produced spatial trajectory. All tasks could be also classified as single or multiple interval paradigms. Auditory or visual markers were used to define the intervals. Performance variability, a measure that reflects the temporal and non-temporal processes for each task, was used to construct a dissimilarity matrix that quantifies the distances between pairs of tasks. Hierarchical clustering and multidimensional scaling were carried out on the dissimilarity matrix, and the results showed a prominent segregation of explicit and implicit timing tasks, and a clear grouping between single and multiple interval paradigms. In contrast, other variables such as the marker modality were not as crucial to explain the performance between tasks. Thus, using this methodology we revealed a probable functional arrangement of neural systems engaged during different timing behaviors. PMID:18779860

  17. Pediatric office emergencies.

    PubMed

    Klig, Jean E; O'Malley, Patricia J

    2007-10-01

    An emergency in the office setting can be problematic without adequate staff, support, tools, and protocols. Though many emergencies are not immediately life-threatening, one risks the 'worst case scenario' occurring if not adequately prepared. Pediatric patients are prone to respiratory distress and compromise in many emergencies, and can rapidly decompensate without adequate support. A review of the history of emergency medical services for children and the framework for office emergency preparedness offers insight into current challenges for primary care providers. Research has demonstrated that many primary care offices and clinics are ill prepared to handle common pediatric emergencies. Reliance on the Emergency Medical Services system is insufficient to assure optimal outcomes, especially given variations in the equipment, training, and experience of Emergency Medical Services providers in the care of children, and in remote areas where access may be delayed. Preparation and practice for office emergencies through 'mock code' exercises can increase practitioner confidence and reduce anxiety to perform life-saving care. Better outcomes for office emergencies can result from staff training, availability of appropriate equipment and medications, maintenance of skills via formal and informal practice, and pathways for expeditious transfer to a definitive care facility.

  18. Hypertensive Emergencies in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Adebayo, Omoyemi; Rogers, Robert L

    2015-08-01

    Hypertension affects approximately one-third of Americans. An additional 30% are unaware that they harbor the disease. Significantly increased blood pressure constitutes a hypertensive emergency that could lead to end-organ damage. When organs such as the brain, heart, or kidney are affected, an intervention that will lower the blood pressure in several hours is indicated. Several pharmacologic options are available for treatment, with intravenous antihypertensive therapy being the cornerstone, but there is no standard of care. Careful consideration of each patient's specific complaint, history, and physical examination guides the emergency physician through the treatment algorithm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Task-oriented situation recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Alexander; Fischer, Yvonne

    2010-04-01

    From the advances in computer vision methods for the detection, tracking and recognition of objects in video streams, new opportunities for video surveillance arise: In the future, automated video surveillance systems will be able to detect critical situations early enough to enable an operator to take preventive actions, instead of using video material merely for forensic investigations. However, problems such as limited computational resources, privacy regulations and a constant change in potential threads have to be addressed by a practical automated video surveillance system. In this paper, we show how these problems can be addressed using a task-oriented approach. The system architecture of the task-oriented video surveillance system NEST and an algorithm for the detection of abnormal behavior as part of the system are presented and illustrated for the surveillance of guests inside a video-monitored building.

  20. Novel Peritonsillar Abscess Task Simulator.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steven R; Chang, C W David

    2014-07-01

    The management of peritonsillar abscesses is a skill developed early in residency training. Although drainage is not technically complicated, the procedure is intimidating to the neophyte. Task simulators have become increasingly common to provide training opportunities in a controlled environment. The authors designed a peritonsillar abscess simulator using a latex moulage of the oral cavity and other common materials. Twelve medical professionals of various levels of experience were instructed to expose, anesthetize, aspirate, and drain the simulated abscess. After completion, a questionnaire was completed by each volunteer. Initial impressions were positive that the model adequately replicated the tasks requisite for abscess drainage and was suitable as an instructional device. The initial construct cost was approximately 10 dollars, with disposables costing roughly 25 cents. Further research is under way to formally assess the simulator for face, content, and construct validity. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.