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Sample records for emerging cultural differences

  1. The Emergence of Sex Differences in Personality Traits in Early Adolescence: A Cross-Sectional, Cross-Cultural Study

    PubMed Central

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; McCrae, Robert R.; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; Costa, Paul T.; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E.; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Bratko, Denis; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Cain, Thomas R.; Chan, Wayne; Chittcharat, Niyada; Crawford, Jarret T.; Fehr, Ryan; Ficková, Emília; Gelfand, Michele J.; Graf, Sylvie; Gülgöz, Sami; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jussim, Lee; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Knežević, Goran; de Figueroa, Nora Leibovich; Lima, Margarida P.; Martin, Thomas A.; Marušić, Iris; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Nansubuga, Florence; Porrata, Jose; Purić, Danka; Realo, Anu; Reátegui, Norma; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Schmidt, Vanina; Sekowski, Andrzej; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Simonetti, Franco; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Vanno, Vitanya; Wang, Lei; Yik, Michelle; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Although large international studies have found consistent patterns of sex differences in personality traits among adults (i.e., women scoring higher on most facets), less is known about cross-cultural sex differences in adolescent personality and the role of culture and age in shaping them. The present study examines NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3, McCrae, Costa, & Martin, 2005) informant ratings of adolescents from 23 cultures (N = 4,850) and investigates culture and age as sources of variability in sex differences of adolescents’ personality. The effect for Neuroticism (with females scoring higher than males) begins to take on its adult form around age 14. Girls score higher on Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness at all ages between 12 and 17 years. A more complex pattern emerges for Extraversion and Agreeableness, although by age 17, sex differences for these traits are highly similar to those observed in adulthood. Cross-sectional data suggest that (1) with advancing age, sex differences found in adolescents increasingly converge towards adult patterns with respect to both direction and magnitude; (2) girls display sex-typed personality traits at an earlier age than boys; and (3) the emergence of sex differences was similar across culture. Practical implications of the present findings are discussed. PMID:25603371

  2. The emergence of sex differences in personality traits in early adolescence: A cross-sectional, cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; McCrae, Robert R; Löckenhoff, Corinna E; Costa, Paul T; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E; Ahn, Chang-kyu; Ahn, Hyun-nie; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V; Bratko, Denis; Brunner-Sciarra, Marina; Cain, Thomas R; Chan, Wayne; Chittcharat, Niyada; Crawford, Jarret T; Fehr, Ryan; Ficková, Emília; Gelfand, Michele J; Graf, Sylvie; Gülgöz, Sami; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jussim, Lee; Klinkosz, Waldemar; Knežević, Goran; Leibovich de Figueroa, Nora; Lima, Margarida P; Martin, Thomas A; Marušić, Iris; Mastor, Khairul Anwar; Nakazato, Katsuharu; Nansubuga, Florence; Porrata, Jose; Purić, Danka; Realo, Anu; Reátegui, Norma; Rolland, Jean-Pierre; Schmidt, Vanina; Sekowski, Andrzej; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; Shimonaka, Yoshiko; Simonetti, Franco; Siuta, Jerzy; Szmigielska, Barbara; Vanno, Vitanya; Wang, Lei; Yik, Michelle; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Although large international studies have found consistent patterns of sex differences in personality traits among adults (i.e., women scoring higher on most facets), less is known about cross-cultural sex differences in adolescent personality and the role of culture and age in shaping them. The present study examines the NEO Personality Inventory-3 (McCrae, Costa, & Martin, 2005) informant ratings of adolescents from 23 cultures (N = 4,850), and investigates culture and age as sources of variability in sex differences of adolescents' personality. The effect for Neuroticism (with females scoring higher than males) begins to take on its adult form around age 14. Girls score higher on Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness at all ages between 12 and 17 years. A more complex pattern emerges for Extraversion and Agreeableness, although by age 17, sex differences for these traits are highly similar to those observed in adulthood. Cross-sectional data suggest that (a) with advancing age, sex differences found in adolescents increasingly converge toward adult patterns with respect to both direction and magnitude; (b) girls display sex-typed personality traits at an earlier age than boys; and (c) the emergence of sex differences was similar across cultures. Practical implications of the present findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Emerging Childhoods and Immanent Becomings: Considering Difference in One Child's Encounters with Popular Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherbine, Kortney

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing debates over children's encounters with popular culture are grounded in representational images of what childhood is and what childhood should be. As such, the tendency to overcode and regulate children's behaviors, relationships, and desires are often part of a greater effort to prepare the child to fit fixed and essentialized notions of…

  4. Leaf swallowing behavior in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): biased learning and the emergence of group level cultural differences.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Michael A; Spiezio, Caterina; Sgaravatti, Andrea; Leca, Jean-Baptiste

    2010-11-01

    Demonstrating the ability to 'copy' the behavior of others is an important aspect in determining whether social learning occurs and whether group level differences in a given behavior represent cultural differences or not. Understanding the occurrence of this process in its natural context is essential, but can be a daunting task in the wild. In order to test the social learning hypothesis for the acquisition of leaf swallowing (LS), a self-medicative behavior associated with the expulsion of parasites, we conducted semi-naturalistic experiments on two captive groups of parasite-free, naïve chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Individuals in the group were systematically provided appropriate stimuli (rough hispid leaves) identical to those used by chimpanzees in the wild. Individuals initially responded in a variety of ways, ranging from total aversion to normal chewing and swallowing. Over time, however, the two groups adopted different variants for inserting and folding the leaves in the mouth prior to swallowing them (complete and partial LS), following the specific method spontaneously displayed by the first and primary LS models in their respective groups. These variants were similar to LS displayed by chimpanzees in the wild. Using the option-bias method, we found evidence for social learning leading to group-level biased transmission and group-level stabilization of these two variants. This is the first report on two distinct cultural variants innovated in response to the introduction of natural stimuli that emerged and spread spontaneously and concurrently within two adjacent groups of socially housed primates. These observations support the assertion that LS may reflect a generalized propensity for ingesting rough hispid leaves, which can be socially induced and transmitted within a group. Ingesting an adequate number of these leaves induces increased gut motility, which is responsible for the subsequent expulsion of particular parasite species in the wild

  5. From Scribbles to Meanings: Social Interaction in Different Cultures and the Emergence of Young Children's Early Drawing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Giuliana; Accorti Gamannossi, Beatrice; Cameron, Catherine Ann

    2011-01-01

    The cultural components of drawing allow one to consider it a symbolic form of cultural communication. The behavioural and cognitive mechanisms involved in the cultural transmission of symbolic communications are situated in an environment embedded in cultural-historical features that should be taken into account, as they give rise to variations…

  6. Action Learning: Cultural Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Gillian; de Vera, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the experience of forming a set in a higher education institution and offers some observations and insights gained from the perspectives of the role of the set adviser, cultural differences and the challenges of attempting to align theory, practice and experience.

  7. Developing culturally relevant educational materials about emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Colarossi, Lisa; Billowitz, Marissa; Breitbart, Vicki

    2010-07-01

    New York City has growing numbers of Mexican and Caribbean born residents, who have been identified as underserved communities for reproductive health care. We conducted exploratory focus groups to develop and test messages about emergency contraception that would be culturally relevant to these communities. Findings reveal lack of knowledge about what emergency contraception is and how it works, concerns about safety, and health care barriers. Multiple messages were tested in Spanish and English, and participants expressed positive attitudes about using emergency contraception once they knew that is was different from an abortion pill. PMID:20677055

  8. Urban/Rural and Gender Differences among Canadian Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Trinder, Krista M.; Gokavi, Tara N.

    2010-01-01

    Although cultural and subcultural differences during the transition to adulthood have been examined, important factors like rural/urban upbringing and gender differences among Canadian emerging adults have been neglected. The present study explored developmentally significant tasks including criteria for adulthood, beliefs about religiosity, and…

  9. Culture Differences and English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Language is a part of culture, and plays a very important role in the development of the culture. Some sociologists consider it as the keystone of culture. They believe, without language, culture would not be available. At the same time, language is influenced and shaped by culture, it reflects culture. Therefore, culture plays a very important…

  10. The patient safety culture as perceived by staff at two different emergency departments before and after introducing a flow-oriented working model with team triage and lean principles: a repeated cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patient safety is of the utmost importance in health care. The patient safety culture in an institution has great impact on patient safety. To enhance patient safety and to design strategies to reduce medical injuries, there is a current focus on measuring the patient safety culture. The aim of the present study was to describe the patient safety culture in an ED at two different hospitals before and after a Quality improvement (QI) project that was aimed to enhance patient safety. Methods A repeated cross-sectional design, using the Hospital Survey On Patient Safety Culture questionnaire before and after a quality improvement project in two emergency departments at a county hospital and a university hospital. The questionnaire was developed to obtain a better understanding of the patient safety culture of an entire hospital or of specific departments. The Swedish version has 51 questions and 15 dimensions. Results At the county hospital, a difference between baseline and follow-up was observed in three dimensions. For two of these dimensions, Team-work within hospital and Communication openness, a higher score was measured at the follow-up. At the university hospital, a higher score was measured at follow-up for the two dimensions Team-work across hospital units and Team-work within hospital. Conclusion The result showed changes in the self-estimated patient safety culture, mainly regarding team-work and communication openness. Most of the improvements at follow-up were seen by physicians, and mainly at the county hospital. PMID:25005231

  11. Magnetic Flux Emergence on Different Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagenaar, M.; Cheung, M.

    2009-12-01

    Magnetic flux emerges on the Sun on many different scales, from weak intranetwork to network concentrations and (ephemeral) active regions. Methods previously developed to recognize regions of magnetic emergence on MDI Full Disk magnetograms fail when applied to Hinode/SOT Stokes maps: the resolution is so much higher that simple bipoles on MDI are observed as collections of fragments. We present a new method for the automatic detection and characterization of flux emergence on a range of scales.

  12. Magnetic Flux Emergence on Different Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagenaar, H.; Cheung, M.

    2008-09-01

    Magnetic flux emerges on the Sun on many different scales, from weak intranetwork to network concentrations and (ephemeral) active regions. Methods previously developed to recognize regions of magnetic emergence on MDI Full Disk magnetograms fail when applied to Hinode/SOT Stokes maps: the resolution is so much higher that simple bipoles on MDI are observed as collections of fragments. We present a new method for the automatic detection and characterization of flux emergence on a range of scales. Our findings are compared with simulations and discuss the implications for our understanding of emerging flux ropes.

  13. Emerging technologies and corporate culture at Microsoft: a methodological note.

    PubMed

    Klein, David; Schmeling, James; Blanck, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This article explores factors important in the study and examination of corporate culture and change. The particular focus is on the technological methods used to conduct a study of accessible technology and corporate culture at Microsoft Corporation. Reasons for particular approaches are explained. Advantages and challenges of emerging technologies that store and retrieve information in the study of corporate culture are reviewed.

  14. Relationships of hospital-based emergency department culture to work satisfaction and intent to leave of emergency physicians and nurses.

    PubMed

    Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Wan, Thomas T H; Hsu, Chung-Ping Cliff; Hung, Feng-Ru; Juan, Chi-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Chieh

    2012-05-01

    Given the limited studies on emergency care management, this study aimed to explore the relationships of emergency department (ED) culture values to certain dimensions of ED physicians' and nurses' work satisfaction and intent to leave. Four hundred and forty-two emergency medical professionals completed the employee satisfaction questionnaire across 119 hospital-based EDs, which had culture value evaluations filed, were used as unit of analysis in this study. Adjusting the personal and employment backgrounds, and the surrounded EDs' unit characteristics and environmental factors, multiple regression analyses revealed that clan and market cultures were related to emergency physicians' work satisfaction and intent to leave. On the other hand, adhocracy, market and hierarchical cultures were related to emergency nurses' work satisfaction. There do exist different patterns among various culture types on various work satisfaction dimensions and intent to leave of emergency physicians and nurses. The findings could offer hospital and ED leaders insights for changes or for building a better atmosphere to enhance the work life of emergency physicians and nurses. PMID:22673696

  15. Identity and Culture: Theorizing Emergent Environmentalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Justin; Kelsey, Elin; Duque-Aristizabal, Ana Maria

    1999-01-01

    Examines the methodology and findings of the emergent environmentalism research project as reported in Environmental Education Research v4 n4. Challenges the ontological stance implicit in the research as well as explicit epistemology. (Author/CCM)

  16. Anglo and Latin: The Cultural Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucklin, L. Brice

    Commentary on cultural differences between the Anglo-American and Spanish-American cultures focuses on food, role playing, division of labor, and the concept of making "-etic" and "-emic" distinctions in culture study. Reference is made analagously to the work of Kenneth Pike, to Howard Nostrand's remarks on Eskimo culture, and to Americo Castro's…

  17. Diagnostic Dilemmas and Cultural Diversity in Emergency Rooms

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Charlotte; Sklar, David

    1980-01-01

    Language and cultural beliefs play an extremely important role in the interaction between patients from diverse cultural groups and physicians. Especially in emergency rooms, there are many dangers in missed communications. A patient from a foreign culture, especially one who does not speak English, often expresses symptoms in ways that are unfamiliar to many American physicians. Specific areas of cultural vulnerability can be identified for the major ethnic groups in the United States as they interact with the scientific medical system. A short review of folk medical beliefs and recommendations for improving diagnostic accuracy and treatment may assist emergency room staffs in offering care that is culturally acceptable to patients of diverse ethnic backgrounds. PMID:7347053

  18. Cultural Emergence: Theorizing Culture in and from the Margins of Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Nathan Brent; Erichsen, Elizabeth Anne; Anicha, Cali L.

    2013-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Research in Science Teaching seeks to explore conceptualizations of culture that address contemporary challenges in science education. Toward this end, we unite two theoretical perspectives to advance a conceptualization of culture as a complex system, emerging from iterative processes of cultural bricolage,…

  19. Cultural Differences in Justificatory Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soong, Hannah; Lee, Richard; John, George

    2012-01-01

    Justificatory reasoning, the ability to justify one's beliefs and actions, is an important goal of education. We develop a scale to measure the three forms of justificatory reasoning--absolutism, relativism, and evaluativism--before validating the scale across two cultures and domains. The results show that the scale possessed validity and…

  20. Culture and language in the emergence of autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Fivush, Robyn; Nelson, Katherine

    2004-09-01

    Current conceptualizations of childhood amnesia assume that there is a "barrier" to remembering early experiences that must be overcome in order for one to begin to accumulate autobiographical memories. In contrast, we present a social-cultural-developmental perspective on the emergence of autobiographical memory. We first demonstrate the gradual emergence of autobiographical memories across the preschool years and then relate this developmental process to specific developments in language, narrative, and understanding of self and other that vary among individuals, as well as by culture and gender.

  1. After the Disciplines: The Emergence of Cultural Studies. Critical Studies in Education and Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael, Ed.

    This collection of essays contains responses to a request to examine the emergence and formation of "cultural studies" within the university and the implications of cultural studies for an economics of "disciplinarity." The majority of the contributors are from the University of Auckland, New Zealand. Following an introduction by Michael Peters,…

  2. Multilevel animal societies can emerge from cultural transmission

    PubMed Central

    Cantor, Maurício; Shoemaker, Lauren G.; Cabral, Reniel B.; Flores, César O.; Varga, Melinda; Whitehead, Hal

    2015-01-01

    Multilevel societies, containing hierarchically nested social levels, are remarkable social structures whose origins are unclear. The social relationships of sperm whales are organized in a multilevel society with an upper level composed of clans of individuals communicating using similar patterns of clicks (codas). Using agent-based models informed by an 18-year empirical study, we show that clans are unlikely products of stochastic processes (genetic or cultural drift) but likely originate from cultural transmission via biased social learning of codas. Distinct clusters of individuals with similar acoustic repertoires, mirroring the empirical clans, emerge when whales learn preferentially the most common codas (conformism) from behaviourally similar individuals (homophily). Cultural transmission seems key in the partitioning of sperm whales into sympatric clans. These findings suggest that processes similar to those that generate complex human cultures could not only be at play in non-human societies but also create multilevel social structures in the wild. PMID:26348688

  3. Multilevel animal societies can emerge from cultural transmission.

    PubMed

    Cantor, Maurício; Shoemaker, Lauren G; Cabral, Reniel B; Flores, César O; Varga, Melinda; Whitehead, Hal

    2015-01-01

    Multilevel societies, containing hierarchically nested social levels, are remarkable social structures whose origins are unclear. The social relationships of sperm whales are organized in a multilevel society with an upper level composed of clans of individuals communicating using similar patterns of clicks (codas). Using agent-based models informed by an 18-year empirical study, we show that clans are unlikely products of stochastic processes (genetic or cultural drift) but likely originate from cultural transmission via biased social learning of codas. Distinct clusters of individuals with similar acoustic repertoires, mirroring the empirical clans, emerge when whales learn preferentially the most common codas (conformism) from behaviourally similar individuals (homophily). Cultural transmission seems key in the partitioning of sperm whales into sympatric clans. These findings suggest that processes similar to those that generate complex human cultures could not only be at play in non-human societies but also create multilevel social structures in the wild. PMID:26348688

  4. Developing Cultural Differences in Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, David J.; Liu, Shaoying; Rodger, Helen; Miellet, Sebastien; Ge, Liezhong; Caldara, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Perception and eye movements are affected by culture. Adults from Eastern societies (e.g. China) display a disposition to process information "holistically," whereas individuals from Western societies (e.g. Britain) process information "analytically." Recently, this pattern of cultural differences has been extended to face processing. Adults from…

  5. Cultural Differences in Autobiographical Memory of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobson, Laura; O'Kearney, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated cultural differences in autobiographical memory of trauma. Australian and Asian international students provided self-defining memories, narratives of everyday and trauma memories and self-reports assessing adjustment to the trauma. No cultural distinction was found in how Australian or Asian subjects remembered a personal…

  6. Linguistic Difference and Cultural Translatability: A Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyhan, Azade

    2002-01-01

    Suggests current scholarship has paid little attention to issues of linguistic differences and cultural translatability and points out the need for language departments offering courses in cultural, ethnic, and Diaspora studies to require proficiency in another language and to cultivate responsiveness to language politics at both the local and…

  7. The emergence of spontaneous activity in neuronal cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlandi, J. G.; Alvarez-Lacalle, E.; Teller, S.; Soriano, J.; Casademunt, J.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro neuronal networks of dissociated hippocampal or cortical tissues are one of the most attractive model systems for the physics and neuroscience communities. Cultured neurons grow and mature, develop axons and dendrites, and quickly connect to their neighbors to establish a spontaneously active network within a week. The resulting neuronal network is characterized by a combination of excitatory and inhibitory neurons coupled through synaptic connections that interact in a highly nonlinear manner. The nonlinear behavior emerges from the dynamics of both the neurons' spiking activity and synaptic transmission, together with biological noise. These ingredients give rise to a rich repertoire of phenomena that are still poorly understood, including the emergence and maintenance of periodic spontaneous activity, avalanches, propagation of fronts and synchronization. In this work we present an overview on the rich activity of cultured neuronal networks, and detail the minimal theoretical considerations needed to describe experimental observations.

  8. The Influence of Culture in Emerging Adulthood: Perspectives of Chinese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Larry J.; Badger, Sarah; Wu, Bo

    2004-01-01

    Emerging adulthood refers to a time period (18-25 years of age) between adolescence and adulthood. Recent research suggests that it may be a cultural construction. More traditional, non-Western cultures may have a shortened period of emerging adulthood, or no emerging adulthood at all, because these cultures tend to place greater emphasis on…

  9. Emerging methodologies for pathogen identification in positive blood culture testing.

    PubMed

    Dubourg, Grégory; Raoult, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Bloodstream infections (BSIs) represent a major cause of death in developed countries and are associated with long-term loss of functions. Blood culture remains the gold standard for BSI diagnosis, as it is easy to perform and displays a good analytical sensitivity. However, its major drawback remains the long turnaround time, which can result in inappropriate therapy, fall of survival rate, emergence of antibiotic resistance and increase of medical costs. Over the last 10 years, molecular tools have been the alternative to blood cultures, allowing early identification of pathogens involved in sepsis, as well detection of critical antibiotic resistance genes. Besides, the advent of MALDI-TOF revolutionized practice in routine microbiology significantly reduced the time to result. Reviewed here are recent improvements in early BSI diagnosis and these authors' view for the future is presented, including innovative high-throughput technologies.

  10. From "lists of traits" to "open-mindedness": emerging issues in cultural competence education.

    PubMed

    Jenks, Angela C

    2011-06-01

    The incorporation of "culture" into U.S. biomedicine has been increasing at a rapid pace over the last several decades. Advocates for "cultural competence" point to changing patient demographics and growing health disparities as they call for improved educational efforts that train health providers to care for patients from a variety of backgrounds. Medical anthropologists have long been critical of the approach to "culture" that emerges in cultural competence efforts, identifying an essentialized, static notion of culture that is conflated with racial and ethnic categories and seen to exist primarily among exotic "Others." With this approach, culture can become a "list of traits" associated with various racial and ethnic groups that must be mastered by health providers and applied to patients as necessary. This article uses an ethnographic examination of cultural competence training to highlight recent efforts to develop more nuanced approaches to teaching culture. I argue that much of contemporary cultural competence education has rejected the "list of traits" approach and instead aims to produce a new kind of health provider who is "open-minded," willing to learn about difference, and treats each patient as an individual. This shift, however, can ultimately reinforce behavioral understandings of culture and draw attention away from the social conditions and power differentials that underlie health inequalities. PMID:21560030

  11. Cultural and Gender Differences in Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, M. Lee

    1993-01-01

    Examines recent research on cultural and gender differences among early adolescents, focusing on friendship patterns, identity development, social expectations, self-esteem, learning styles, health concerns, achievement aspirations, and sex role attitudes and behaviors. Young adolescents benefit when middle-level educators provide opportunities…

  12. Cross Cultural Differences in Unconscious Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiyokawa, Sachiko; Dienes, Zoltan; Tanaka, Daisuke; Yamada, Ayumi; Crowe, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated cross cultural differences in conscious processes, such that Asians have a global preference and Westerners a more analytical one. We investigated whether these biases also apply to unconscious knowledge. In Experiment 1, Japanese and UK participants memorized strings of large (global) letters made out of small…

  13. How culture gets embrained: Cultural differences in event-related potentials of social norm violations

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Yan; Kitayama, Shinobu; Han, Shihui; Gelfand, Michele J.

    2015-01-01

    Humans are unique among all species in their ability to develop and enforce social norms, but there is wide variation in the strength of social norms across human societies. Despite this fundamental aspect of human nature, there has been surprisingly little research on how social norm violations are detected at the neurobiological level. Building on the emerging field of cultural neuroscience, we combine noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) with a new social norm violation paradigm to examine the neural mechanisms underlying the detection of norm violations and how they vary across cultures. EEG recordings from Chinese and US participants (n = 50) showed consistent negative deflection of event-related potential around 400 ms (N400) over the central and parietal regions that served as a culture-general neural marker of detecting norm violations. The N400 at the frontal and temporal regions, however, was only observed among Chinese but not US participants, illustrating culture-specific neural substrates of the detection of norm violations. Further, the frontal N400 predicted a variety of behavioral and attitudinal measurements related to the strength of social norms that have been found at the national and state levels, including higher culture superiority and self-control but lower creativity. There were no cultural differences in the N400 induced by semantic violation, suggesting a unique cultural influence on social norm violation detection. In all, these findings provided the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the neurobiological foundations of social norm violation detection and its variation across cultures. PMID:26621713

  14. How culture gets embrained: Cultural differences in event-related potentials of social norm violations.

    PubMed

    Mu, Yan; Kitayama, Shinobu; Han, Shihui; Gelfand, Michele J

    2015-12-15

    Humans are unique among all species in their ability to develop and enforce social norms, but there is wide variation in the strength of social norms across human societies. Despite this fundamental aspect of human nature, there has been surprisingly little research on how social norm violations are detected at the neurobiological level. Building on the emerging field of cultural neuroscience, we combine noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) with a new social norm violation paradigm to examine the neural mechanisms underlying the detection of norm violations and how they vary across cultures. EEG recordings from Chinese and US participants (n = 50) showed consistent negative deflection of event-related potential around 400 ms (N400) over the central and parietal regions that served as a culture-general neural marker of detecting norm violations. The N400 at the frontal and temporal regions, however, was only observed among Chinese but not US participants, illustrating culture-specific neural substrates of the detection of norm violations. Further, the frontal N400 predicted a variety of behavioral and attitudinal measurements related to the strength of social norms that have been found at the national and state levels, including higher culture superiority and self-control but lower creativity. There were no cultural differences in the N400 induced by semantic violation, suggesting a unique cultural influence on social norm violation detection. In all, these findings provided the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the neurobiological foundations of social norm violation detection and its variation across cultures.

  15. Interactive and cultural differences in online newspapers.

    PubMed

    Hong, Moonki; McClung, Steven; Park, Youngrak

    2008-08-01

    This research studied the interactivity and cultural differences provided by online versions of daily newspapers. It examined interactivity features on the 116 online versions of South Korean and U.S. newspapers on the basis of users' activities when they read the online newspaper. Within intercultural context, this study found that online versions of Korean newspapers use more "active" interactivity features than do U.S. online versions. However, online versions of U.S. newspapers demonstrated more "inactive" interactivity features than Korean online newspapers. New findings about interactivity and culture in online newspapers are discussed.

  16. Emerging Profiles for Cultured Meat; Ethics through and as Design

    PubMed Central

    van der Weele, Cor; Driessen, Clemens

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary The idea of cultured meat is to grow meat from animal cells with tissue engineering techniques. Cultured meat is an idea under investigation that will not be ready for the market for several years. It is also still open what it could or should be like. We argue that this openness offers the opportunity to explore different directions in which this idea could be developed. Feelings, critical thinking and the imagination all have important roles to play in this exploration. Abstract The development of cultured meat has gained urgency through the increasing problems associated with meat, but what it might become is still open in many respects. In existing debates, two main moral profiles can be distinguished. Vegetarians and vegans who embrace cultured meat emphasize how it could contribute to the diminishment of animal suffering and exploitation, while in a more mainstream profile cultured meat helps to keep meat eating sustainable and affordable. In this paper we argue that these profiles do not exhaust the options and that (gut) feelings as well as imagination are needed to explore possible future options. On the basis of workshops, we present a third moral profile, “the pig in the backyard”. Here cultured meat is imagined as an element of a hybrid community of humans and animals that would allow for both the consumption of animal protein and meaningful relations with domestic (farm) animals. Experience in the workshops and elsewhere also illustrates that thinking about cultured meat inspires new thoughts on “normal” meat. In short, the idea of cultured meat opens up new search space in various ways. We suggest that ethics can take an active part in these searches, by fostering a process that integrates (gut) feelings, imagination and rational thought and that expands the range of our moral identities. PMID:26479525

  17. Parental Involvement in Children's Schooling: Different Meanings in Different Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Three types of parent involvement--communicating, volunteering at school, and learning at home--were explored in two cultures within the United States. Immigrant Chinese parents and European American parents of young children reflect their different traditions in the ways they involve themselves in their child's academic life. European American…

  18. From cultural traditions to cumulative culture: parameterizing the differences between human and nonhuman culture.

    PubMed

    Kempe, Marius; Lycett, Stephen J; Mesoudi, Alex

    2014-10-21

    Diverse species exhibit cultural traditions, i.e. population-specific profiles of socially learned traits, from songbird dialects to primate tool-use behaviours. However, only humans appear to possess cumulative culture, in which cultural traits increase in complexity over successive generations. Theoretically, it is currently unclear what factors give rise to these phenomena, and consequently why cultural traditions are found in several species but cumulative culture in only one. Here, we address this by constructing and analysing cultural evolutionary models of both phenomena that replicate empirically attestable levels of cultural variation and complexity in chimpanzees and humans. In our model of cultural traditions (Model 1), we find that realistic cultural variation between populations can be maintained even when individuals in different populations invent the same traits and migration between populations is frequent, and under a range of levels of social learning accuracy. This lends support to claims that putative cultural traditions are indeed cultural (rather than genetic) in origin, and suggests that cultural traditions should be widespread in species capable of social learning. Our model of cumulative culture (Model 2) indicates that both the accuracy of social learning and the number of cultural demonstrators interact to determine the complexity of a trait that can be maintained in a population. Combining these models (Model 3) creates two qualitatively distinct regimes in which there are either a few, simple traits, or many, complex traits. We suggest that these regimes correspond to nonhuman and human cultures, respectively. The rarity of cumulative culture in nature may result from this interaction between social learning accuracy and number of demonstrators.

  19. Individual differences, cultural differences, and dialectic conflict description and resolution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungil; Markman, Arthur B

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that members of East Asian cultures show a greater preference for dialectical thinking than do Westerners. This paper attempts to account for these differences in cognition using individual difference variables that may explain variation in performance both within and across cultures. Especially, we propose that the abovementioned cultural differences are rooted in a greater fear of isolation (FOI) in East Asians than in Westerners. To support this hypothesis, in Experiment 1, we manipulated FOI in American participants before having them resolve two conflicts: an interpersonal conflict and a conflict between an individual and an institution. We found that the Americans among whom a high level of FOI had been induced were more likely to look for a dialectical resolution than those among whom a low level had been prompted. The relationship between conflict resolution and FOI was further investigated in Experiment 2, in which FOI was not manipulated. The results indicated that Koreans had higher chronic FOI on average than did the Americans. Compared to the Americans, the Koreans were more likely to resolve the interpersonal conflict dialectically, but did not show the same bias in resolving the person-institution conflict. The differences in the preference for dialectical resolution between FOI conditions in Experiment 1 and cultural groups in Experiment 2 were mediated by FOI. These findings bolster previous research on FOI in showing that chronic levels of FOI are positively related to both preference for dialectical sentences and sensitivity to context. They provide clearer insight into how differences in FOI affect attention and thereby higher-level reasoning such as dialectic description and conflict resolution.

  20. Emergence of Syntax: Commonalities and Differences across Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasilyeva, Marina; Waterfall, Heidi; Huttenlocher, Janellen

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a longitudinal examination of syntactic skills, starting at the age of emergence of simple sentences and continuing through the emergence of complex sentences. We ask whether there is systematic variability among children from different socioeconomic backgrounds in the early stages of sentence production. The…

  1. Cultural differences are not always reducible to individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Na, Jinkyung; Grossmann, Igor; Varnum, Michael E. W.; Kitayama, Shinobu; Gonzalez, Richard; Nisbett, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    We show that differences in social orientation and in cognition that exist between cultures and social classes do not necessarily have counterparts in individual differences within those groups. Evidence comes from a large-scale study conducted with 10 measures of independent vs. interdependent social orientation and 10 measures of analytic vs. holistic cognitive style. The social measures successfully distinguish between interdependence (viewing oneself as embedded in relations with others) and independence (viewing oneself as disconnected from others) at the group level. However, the correlations among the measures were negligible. Similar results were obtained for the cognitive measures, for which there are no coherent individual differences despite the validity of the construct at the group level. We conclude that behavioral constructs that distinguish among groups need not be valid as measures of individual differences. PMID:20308553

  2. Cultural differences in Research project management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Scientific Projects today have increased in complexity, requiring multidisciplinarity, and requiring a mix of diverse individuals from different countries who must be integrated into an effective project. Effective team building is one of the prime responsibilities of the project manager. When the project is supported by a funding, the integration and the implication of the different partners are quite easy. Particularly when partners are developing high-performing teams. However, management of research project requires further skills when the budget is not very high and/or when partners are from non-European countries and are not using the same vocabulary. The various cultures, values, beliefs and social usages, particularly with Mediterranean countries cause a special style of communication for an individual or group of individuals. This communication style participates in the success of the project and encompasses a lot of diplomatic skills which will be highlighted.

  3. Information and Culture: Cultural Differences in the Perception and Recall of Information from Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ji-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Information in general is congruent with cultural values because a culture consists of transmitted social knowledge. Cross-cultural research demonstrates that audiences who are fostered by different cultures may have different understandings of information. This research represents a comprehensive cross-cultural study using an experimental method,…

  4. Learner Cultures and Corporate Cultural Differences in E-Learning Behaviors in the IT Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swierczek, Fredric William; Bechter, Clemens; Chankiew, Jeerawan

    2012-01-01

    Corporate cultural values have a major influence on learning. For learning to be effective it must be adapted to the cultural context in which it takes place. E-learning neither eliminates cultural differences nor is it culture free. This study focuses on two major Indian IT companies with different Corporate Cultures sharing the same expected…

  5. Generational influences in academic emergency medicine: structure, function, and culture (Part II).

    PubMed

    Mohr, Nicholas M; Smith-Coggins, Rebecca; Larrabee, Hollynn; Dyne, Pamela L; Promes, Susan B

    2011-02-01

    Strategies for approaching generational issues that affect teaching and learning, mentoring, and technology in emergency medicine (EM) have been reported. Tactics to address generational influences involving the structure and function of the academic emergency department (ED), organizational culture, and EM schedule have not been published. Through a review of the literature and consensus by modified Delphi methodology of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Aging and Generational Issues Task Force, the authors have developed this two-part series to address generational issues present in academic EM. Understanding generational characteristics and mitigating strategies can address some common issues encountered in academic EM. By understanding the differences and strengths of each of the cohorts in academic EM departments and considering simple mitigating strategies, faculty leaders can maximize their cooperative effectiveness and face the challenges of a new millennium.

  6. Cultural Relativism: As Strategy for Teaching the "Culturally-Different."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Cecelia Nails

    "Cultural relativism" exists when individuals can choose the values and responsible life styles that afford the natural and best vehicles of productive and positive expression. This paper suggests a strategy for accomplishing this kind of cultural acceptance in the present educational system. It calls for the transmission of basic, unbiased data…

  7. A change of culture: reducing blood culture contamination rates in an Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Bentley, James; Thakore, Shobhan; Muir, L; Baird, Alastair; Lee, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Blood cultures are an important investigation to help tailor effective management for patients with severe sepsis. Frequent contaminated samples increase laboratory workload and can delay or cause incorrect changes to patient management. This can prolong patient hospitalisation, increase the risk of harm and increase cost to health boards. Current guidelines advocate a contamination rate of 2-3%. From January 2013 to November 2014 inclusive, the contamination rate was 4.74% in our Emergency Department, responsible for initial management and investigation of over 40 cases of sepsis per month. A Quality Improvement team was created to try to reduce contamination rates to the recommended target. An initial baseline survey of local staff showed good understanding of when to obtain a blood culture but there was variability in the methods and equipment used. A project was then conducted which focused on rationalising and standardising equipment and technique for blood culture sampling along with staff education to support this change. A simple department target of 30 days free from a contaminated blood culture was created which, if achieved, would ensure a contamination rate of less than 3%. This was supported by ongoing surveillance of contamination rates and investigation of contaminated sample cases. We were able to then identify high risk patients and factors which increased the chance of blood culture contamination. This allowed us to formulate solutions to help reduce the risks of contamination. Department achievements and learning points to help prevent further contamination were fed back positively to all staff. This project operated for 12-months and successfully reduced local contamination rates to 2.0%.

  8. A change of culture: reducing blood culture contamination rates in an Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, James; Thakore, Shobhan; Muir, L; Baird, Alastair; Lee, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Blood cultures are an important investigation to help tailor effective management for patients with severe sepsis. Frequent contaminated samples increase laboratory workload and can delay or cause incorrect changes to patient management. This can prolong patient hospitalisation, increase the risk of harm and increase cost to health boards. Current guidelines advocate a contamination rate of 2–3%. From January 2013 to November 2014 inclusive, the contamination rate was 4.74% in our Emergency Department, responsible for initial management and investigation of over 40 cases of sepsis per month. A Quality Improvement team was created to try to reduce contamination rates to the recommended target. An initial baseline survey of local staff showed good understanding of when to obtain a blood culture but there was variability in the methods and equipment used. A project was then conducted which focused on rationalising and standardising equipment and technique for blood culture sampling along with staff education to support this change. A simple department target of 30 days free from a contaminated blood culture was created which, if achieved, would ensure a contamination rate of less than 3%. This was supported by ongoing surveillance of contamination rates and investigation of contaminated sample cases. We were able to then identify high risk patients and factors which increased the chance of blood culture contamination. This allowed us to formulate solutions to help reduce the risks of contamination. Department achievements and learning points to help prevent further contamination were fed back positively to all staff. This project operated for 12-months and successfully reduced local contamination rates to 2.0%. PMID:27335646

  9. A change of culture: reducing blood culture contamination rates in an Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Bentley, James; Thakore, Shobhan; Muir, L; Baird, Alastair; Lee, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Blood cultures are an important investigation to help tailor effective management for patients with severe sepsis. Frequent contaminated samples increase laboratory workload and can delay or cause incorrect changes to patient management. This can prolong patient hospitalisation, increase the risk of harm and increase cost to health boards. Current guidelines advocate a contamination rate of 2-3%. From January 2013 to November 2014 inclusive, the contamination rate was 4.74% in our Emergency Department, responsible for initial management and investigation of over 40 cases of sepsis per month. A Quality Improvement team was created to try to reduce contamination rates to the recommended target. An initial baseline survey of local staff showed good understanding of when to obtain a blood culture but there was variability in the methods and equipment used. A project was then conducted which focused on rationalising and standardising equipment and technique for blood culture sampling along with staff education to support this change. A simple department target of 30 days free from a contaminated blood culture was created which, if achieved, would ensure a contamination rate of less than 3%. This was supported by ongoing surveillance of contamination rates and investigation of contaminated sample cases. We were able to then identify high risk patients and factors which increased the chance of blood culture contamination. This allowed us to formulate solutions to help reduce the risks of contamination. Department achievements and learning points to help prevent further contamination were fed back positively to all staff. This project operated for 12-months and successfully reduced local contamination rates to 2.0%. PMID:27335646

  10. Family Cultural Socialization Practices and Ethnic Identity in College-Going Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda; Syed, Moin

    2010-01-01

    We examined how family cultural socialization related to the ethnic identity of Asian American, Latino, White, and Mixed-Ethnic emerging adults (N = 225). Greater family cultural socialization was related to greater ethnic identity exploration and commitment. Ethnic minority students reported higher levels of family cultural socialization and…

  11. 19 CFR 12.104j - Emergency protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Cultural Property § 12.104j Emergency... 2004 (title III of Pub. L. 108-429) and section 304 of the Convention on Cultural Property... ethnological material of Iraq” means cultural property of Iraq and other items of archaeological,...

  12. 19 CFR 12.104j - Emergency protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... material of Iraq is restricted pursuant to the Emergency Protection for Iraqi Cultural Antiquities Act of... ethnological material of Iraq” means cultural property of Iraq and other items of archaeological, historical, cultural, rare scientific, or religious importance illegally removed from the Iraq National Museum,...

  13. 19 CFR 12.104j - Emergency protection for Iraqi cultural antiquities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... material of Iraq is restricted pursuant to the Emergency Protection for Iraqi Cultural Antiquities Act of... ethnological material of Iraq” means cultural property of Iraq and other items of archaeological, historical, cultural, rare scientific, or religious importance illegally removed from the Iraq National Museum,...

  14. The Emergence of Autobiographical Memory: A Social Cultural Developmental Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Katherine; Fivush, Robyn

    2004-01-01

    The authors present a multicomponent dynamic developmental theory of human autobiographical memory that emerges gradually across the preschool years. The components that contribute to the process of emergence include basic memory abilities, language and narrative, adult memory talk, temporal understanding, and understanding of self and others. The…

  15. The Work of Cultural Transition: An Emerging Model.

    PubMed

    Ryba, Tatiana V; Stambulova, Natalia B; Ronkainen, Noora J

    2016-01-01

    In today's uncertain, fluid job market, transnational mobility has intensified. Though the concept of cultural transition is increasingly used in sport and career research, insight into the processes of how individuals produce their own development through work and relationships in shifting cultural patterns of meaning remains limited. The transnational industry of sports, in which athletes' psychological adjustment to cultural transitions has implications for both performance and meaningful life, serves as a backdrop for this article. This study applied the life story method to interviews with 15 professional and semi-professional athletes, focusing particularly on the cultural transition aspect of their transnational athletic careers. The aims of the study were to identify the developmental tasks of cultural transitions and strategies/mechanisms through which cultural transitions were enacted. Three underlying mechanisms of the transition process that assisted athletic career adaptability were social repositioning, negotiation of cultural practices, and meaning reconstruction. Based on the data analyses, a temporal model of cultural transition is proposed. The results of this research provide professionals working in the fields of career counseling and migrant support with a content framework for enhancing migrant workers' adaptabilities and psychological wellbeing.

  16. The Work of Cultural Transition: An Emerging Model

    PubMed Central

    Ryba, Tatiana V.; Stambulova, Natalia B.; Ronkainen, Noora J.

    2016-01-01

    In today’s uncertain, fluid job market, transnational mobility has intensified. Though the concept of cultural transition is increasingly used in sport and career research, insight into the processes of how individuals produce their own development through work and relationships in shifting cultural patterns of meaning remains limited. The transnational industry of sports, in which athletes’ psychological adjustment to cultural transitions has implications for both performance and meaningful life, serves as a backdrop for this article. This study applied the life story method to interviews with 15 professional and semi-professional athletes, focusing particularly on the cultural transition aspect of their transnational athletic careers. The aims of the study were to identify the developmental tasks of cultural transitions and strategies/mechanisms through which cultural transitions were enacted. Three underlying mechanisms of the transition process that assisted athletic career adaptability were social repositioning, negotiation of cultural practices, and meaning reconstruction. Based on the data analyses, a temporal model of cultural transition is proposed. The results of this research provide professionals working in the fields of career counseling and migrant support with a content framework for enhancing migrant workers’ adaptabilities and psychological wellbeing. PMID:27047436

  17. The Work of Cultural Transition: An Emerging Model.

    PubMed

    Ryba, Tatiana V; Stambulova, Natalia B; Ronkainen, Noora J

    2016-01-01

    In today's uncertain, fluid job market, transnational mobility has intensified. Though the concept of cultural transition is increasingly used in sport and career research, insight into the processes of how individuals produce their own development through work and relationships in shifting cultural patterns of meaning remains limited. The transnational industry of sports, in which athletes' psychological adjustment to cultural transitions has implications for both performance and meaningful life, serves as a backdrop for this article. This study applied the life story method to interviews with 15 professional and semi-professional athletes, focusing particularly on the cultural transition aspect of their transnational athletic careers. The aims of the study were to identify the developmental tasks of cultural transitions and strategies/mechanisms through which cultural transitions were enacted. Three underlying mechanisms of the transition process that assisted athletic career adaptability were social repositioning, negotiation of cultural practices, and meaning reconstruction. Based on the data analyses, a temporal model of cultural transition is proposed. The results of this research provide professionals working in the fields of career counseling and migrant support with a content framework for enhancing migrant workers' adaptabilities and psychological wellbeing. PMID:27047436

  18. Effect of Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests on Future Emerging Infections Program Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Langley, Gayle; Besser, John; Iwamoto, Martha; Lessa, Fernanda C; Cronquist, Alicia; Skoff, Tami H; Chaves, Sandra; Boxrud, Dave; Pinner, Robert W; Harrison, Lee H

    2015-09-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emerging Infections Program (EIP) network conducts population-based surveillance for pathogens of public health importance. Central to obtaining estimates of disease burden and tracking microbiological characteristics of these infections is accurate laboratory detection of pathogens. The use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) in clinical settings presents both opportunities and challenges to EIP surveillance. Because CIDTs offer better sensitivity than culture and are relatively easy to perform, their use could potentially improve estimates of disease burden. However, changes in clinical testing practices, use of tests with different sensitivities and specificities, and changes to case definitions make it challenging to monitor trends. Isolates are still needed for performing strain typing, antimicrobial resistance testing, and identifying other molecular characteristics of organisms. In this article, we outline current and future EIP activities to address issues associated with adoption of CIDTs, which may apply to other public health surveillance. PMID:26291736

  19. Sex differences in the emergence of leadership during competitions within and between groups.

    PubMed

    Van Vugt, Mark; Spisak, Brian R

    2008-09-01

    This experiment investigated potential gender biases in the emergence of leadership in groups. Teams played a public-goods game under conditions of intra- or intergroup competition. We predicted and found a strong preference for female leaders during intragroup competition and male leaders during intergroup competition. Furthermore, during intragroup competition, a female leader was more instrumental than a male leader in raising group investments, but this pattern was reversed during intergroup competition. These findings suggest that particular group threats elicit specific gender-biased leader prototypes. We speculate about the evolutionary and cultural origins of these sex differences in the emergence of leadership.

  20. A Pacific Culture among Wild Baboons: Its Emergence and Transmission

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Reports exist of transmission of culture in nonhuman primates. We examine this in a troop of savanna baboons studied since 1978. During the mid-1980s, half of the males died from tuberculosis; because of circumstances of the outbreak, it was more aggressive males who died, leaving a cohort of atypically unaggressive survivors. A decade later, these behavioral patterns persisted. Males leave their natal troops at adolescence; by the mid-1990s, no males remained who had resided in the troop a decade before. Thus, critically, the troop's unique culture was being adopted by new males joining the troop. We describe (a) features of this culture in the behavior of males, including high rates of grooming and affiliation with females and a “relaxed” dominance hierarchy; (b) physiological measures suggesting less stress among low-ranking males; (c) models explaining transmission of this culture; and (d) data testing these models, centered around treatment of transfer males by resident females. PMID:15094808

  1. Emerging Profiles for Cultured Meat; Ethics through and as Design.

    PubMed

    van der Weele, Cor; Driessen, Clemens

    2013-07-26

    The development of cultured meat has gained urgency through the increasing problems associated with meat, but what it might become is still open in many respects. In existing debates, two main moral profiles can be distinguished. Vegetarians and vegans who embrace cultured meat emphasize how it could contribute to the diminishment of animal suffering and exploitation, while in a more mainstream profile cultured meat helps to keep meat eating sustainable and affordable. In this paper we argue that these profiles do not exhaust the options and that (gut) feelings as well as imagination are needed to explore possible future options. On the basis of workshops, we present a third moral profile, "the pig in the backyard". Here cultured meat is imagined as an element of a hybrid community of humans and animals that would allow for both the consumption of animal protein and meaningful relations with domestic (farm) animals. Experience in the workshops and elsewhere also illustrates that thinking about cultured meat inspires new thoughts on "normal" meat. In short, the idea of cultured meat opens up new search space in various ways. We suggest that ethics can take an active part in these searches, by fostering a process that integrates (gut) feelings, imagination and rational thought and that expands the range of our moral identities.

  2. Media and the Culturally Different Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conte, Joseph M.; Grimes, George H.

    Not all poor people live in cities, but as the problems of those who do are intensified by the urban press, the needs of the urban poor of all racial and cultural backgrounds deserve emphasis. The children of these poor are oriented to the physical and visual rather than to the aural. They are content-centered, problem-centered, externally…

  3. Cultural Differences, Learning Styles and Transnational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffernan, Troy; Morrison, Mark; Basu, Parikshit; Sweeney, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Australian universities have been active participants in the transnational education market over the past twenty years. Many Australian universities have structured various forms of franchising arrangements with universities and other education providers, particularly with educational institutions in China. However, the cultural differences…

  4. Communities of Difference Culture, Language, Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trifonas, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This book looks at the implications of educational practices in communities that are differentiated by issues of language, culture, and technology. Trifonas argues that a "community" is at once a gathering of like-minded individuals in solidarity of purpose and conviction, and also a gathering that excludes others. The chapters in this collection…

  5. Migrants' and professionals' views on culturally sensitive pre-hospital emergency care.

    PubMed

    Kietzmann, Diana; Hannig, Christian; Schmidt, Silke

    2015-08-01

    This study was designed to explore the views of migrants and professionals on culturally sensitive pre-hospital emergency care in order to adapt such care to migrants' needs. Interviews were conducted with 41 migrants who had received direct (as a patient) or indirect (as a significant other) pre-hospital emergency care. Furthermore, 20 professionals in the field of pre-hospital emergency care were interviewed. The content analysis showed five distinguishable categories based on the statements by the migrants and six categories based on the statements by the professionals. While migrants gave priority to basic proficiencies of first responders such as 'social/emotional competencies' and 'communication skills', the professionals considered '(basic) cultural knowledge', 'awareness' and 'attitude' the most important. Furthermore, migrants provided practical indications, e.g. regarding areas of cultural knowledge, whereas professionals seemed to view the issue of culturally pre-hospital emergency care from a more theoretical perspective. The issues of the culturally sensitive pre-hospital emergency care itself, as well as the varying points of view of the two groups interviewed, resulted in eight recommendations for culturally sensitive pre-hospital emergency care. PMID:26123882

  6. Migrants' and professionals' views on culturally sensitive pre-hospital emergency care.

    PubMed

    Kietzmann, Diana; Hannig, Christian; Schmidt, Silke

    2015-08-01

    This study was designed to explore the views of migrants and professionals on culturally sensitive pre-hospital emergency care in order to adapt such care to migrants' needs. Interviews were conducted with 41 migrants who had received direct (as a patient) or indirect (as a significant other) pre-hospital emergency care. Furthermore, 20 professionals in the field of pre-hospital emergency care were interviewed. The content analysis showed five distinguishable categories based on the statements by the migrants and six categories based on the statements by the professionals. While migrants gave priority to basic proficiencies of first responders such as 'social/emotional competencies' and 'communication skills', the professionals considered '(basic) cultural knowledge', 'awareness' and 'attitude' the most important. Furthermore, migrants provided practical indications, e.g. regarding areas of cultural knowledge, whereas professionals seemed to view the issue of culturally pre-hospital emergency care from a more theoretical perspective. The issues of the culturally sensitive pre-hospital emergency care itself, as well as the varying points of view of the two groups interviewed, resulted in eight recommendations for culturally sensitive pre-hospital emergency care.

  7. A General Multidimensional Model for the Measurement of Cultural Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmedo, Esteban L.; Martinez, Sergio R.

    A multidimensional model for measuring cultural differences (MCD) based on factor analytic theory and techniques is proposed. The model assumes that a cultural space may be defined by means of a relatively small number of orthogonal dimensions which are linear combinations of a much larger number of cultural variables. Once a suitable,…

  8. Soft Power and Cultural Diplomacy: Emerging Education Hubs in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jack T.

    2015-01-01

    Several education hubs have emerged in Asia and the Middle East in recent years with a specific focus on cross-border higher education. Through considerable efforts in policy planning and generous funding, these hubs aim to transform a country or city into an eminent destination for education, research, and training. The inherent design of these…

  9. Sun and Sun Worship in Different Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    The Sun symbol is found in many cultures throughout history, it has played an important role in shaping our life on Earth since the dawn of time. Since the beginning of human existence, civilisations have established religious beliefs that involved the Sun's significance to some extent. As new civilisations and religions developed, many spiritual beliefs were based on those from the past so that there has been an evolution of the Sun's significance throughout cultural development. For comparing and finding the origin of the Sun we made a table of 66 languages and compared the roots of the words. For finding out from where these roots came from, we also made a table of 21 Sun Gods and Goddesses and proved the direct crossing of language and mythology.

  10. Latinas' Practices of Emergence: Between Cultural Narratives and Globalization on the U.S.-Mexico Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Anna Ochoa; Gonzalez, Norma E.; Valdez-Gardea, Gloria Ciria

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we attempt to map out the "in-between" space between global and cultural narratives that mediates women's educational trajectories. Case studies of women living on the U.S.-Mexico border make visible these spaces, sites of "practices of emergence": the practices that emerge from incommensurable economic demands and social…

  11. Changing the Cultural Paradigm to Meet Emerging Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, William W.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews changes that are required in Space Transportation. This new transportation paradigm from the reliance on the Space Shuttle to a mixture of space transportation vehicles, i.e., the Russian Progress, vehicle, the Japanese HTV, the European ATV and other commercial orbital transportation systems, requires a new cultural paradigm. This new paradigm is outlined, and reviewed.

  12. Cultural evolution and emergent group-level traits through social heterosis.

    PubMed

    Nonacs, Peter; Kapheim, Karen M

    2014-06-01

    Smaldino proposes emergent properties of human groups, arising when individuals display both differentiation and organization, constitute a novel unit of cultural selection not addressed by current evolutionary theory. We propose existing theoretical frameworks for maintenance of genetic diversity - social heterosis and social genomes - can similarly explain the appearance and maintenance of human cultural diversity (i.e., group-level traits) and collaborative interdependence.

  13. Preparing for a National Emergency: The Committee on Conservation of Cultural Resources, 1939-1944

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikin, Jane

    2007-01-01

    In March 1940 the U.S. National Resources Planning Board established the Committee on Conservation of Cultural Resources to plan for the protection of federal cultural institutions during national emergencies. The committee provided a mechanism to bring officials together to consider protective measures for and evacuation of valuable books,…

  14. Emergence of variants with altered survival properties in stationary phase cultures of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rodriguez, A; Kelly, A F; Park, S F; Mackey, B M

    2004-02-01

    During the stationary phase of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11351 viable numbers fluctuate in a characteristic fashion. After reaching the maximum cell count (ca. 2 x 10(9) CFU/ml) in early stationary phase (denoted phase 1), viable numbers subsequently decrease to about 10(6) CFU/ml after 48 h and then increase again to about 10(8) CFU/ml (denoted phase 2) before decreasing once more to a value intermediate between the previous maximum and minimum values. To investigate whether the increase in viable numbers following the initial decline was due to the emergence of a new strain with a growth advantage in stationary phase analogous to the 'GASP' phenotype described in Escherichia coli [Science 259 (1993) 1757], we conducted mixed culture experiments with cells from the original culture and antibiotic-resistant marked organisms isolated from the re-growth phase. In many experiments of this type, strains isolated from phase 2 failed to out-compete the original strain and we have thus been unable to demonstrate a convincing GASP phenotype. However, strains isolated from phase 2 showed a much lower rate of viability loss in early stationary phase and a small increase in resistance to aeration, peroxide challenge and heat, indicating that the emergent strain was different from the parent. These results support the view that dynamic population changes occur during the stationary phase of C. jejuni that may play a role in the survival of this organism. PMID:14751687

  15. Transmission of cultural values among Mexican-origin parents and their adolescent and emerging adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Perez-Brena, Norma J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2015-06-01

    The integration of the U.S. and Mexican culture is an important process associated with Mexican-origin youths' adjustment and family dynamics. The current study examined the reciprocal associations in parents' and two offspring's cultural values (i.e., familism and respect) in 246 Mexican-origin families. Overall, mothers' values were associated with increases in youths' values 5 years later. In contrast, youths' familism values were associated with increases in fathers' familism values 5 years later. In addition, developmental differences emerged where parent-to-offspring effects were more consistent for youth transitioning from early to late adolescence than for youth transitioning from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Finally, moderation by immigrant status revealed a youth-to-parent effect for mother-youth immigrant dyads, but not for dyads where youth were U.S.-raised. Our findings highlight the reciprocal nature of parent-youth value socialization and provide a nuanced understanding of these processes through the consideration of familism and respect values. As Mexican-origin youth represent a large and rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, research that advances our understanding of how these youth develop values that foster family cohesion and support is crucial. PMID:25470657

  16. Transmission of cultural values among Mexican-origin parents and their adolescent and emerging adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Perez-Brena, Norma J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2015-06-01

    The integration of the U.S. and Mexican culture is an important process associated with Mexican-origin youths' adjustment and family dynamics. The current study examined the reciprocal associations in parents' and two offspring's cultural values (i.e., familism and respect) in 246 Mexican-origin families. Overall, mothers' values were associated with increases in youths' values 5 years later. In contrast, youths' familism values were associated with increases in fathers' familism values 5 years later. In addition, developmental differences emerged where parent-to-offspring effects were more consistent for youth transitioning from early to late adolescence than for youth transitioning from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Finally, moderation by immigrant status revealed a youth-to-parent effect for mother-youth immigrant dyads, but not for dyads where youth were U.S.-raised. Our findings highlight the reciprocal nature of parent-youth value socialization and provide a nuanced understanding of these processes through the consideration of familism and respect values. As Mexican-origin youth represent a large and rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, research that advances our understanding of how these youth develop values that foster family cohesion and support is crucial.

  17. Transmission of Cultural Values among Mexican American Parents and their Adolescent and Emerging Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of the U.S. and Mexican culture is an important process associated with Mexican-origin youths’ adjustment and family dynamics. The current study examined the reciprocal associations in parents’ and two offspring’s cultural values (i.e., familism and respect) in 246 Mexican-origin families. Overall, mothers’ values were associated with increases in youths’ values five years later. In contrast, youths’ familism values were associated with increases in fathers’ familism values five years later. In addition, developmental differences emerged where parent-to-offspring effects were more consistent for youth transitioning from early to late adolescence than for youth transitioning from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Finally, moderation by immigrant-status revealed a youth-to-parent effect for mother-youth immigrant dyads, but not for dyads where youth were U.S.-raised. Our findings highlight the reciprocal nature of parent-youth value socialization and provide a nuanced understanding of these processes through the consideration of familism and respect values. As Mexican-origin youth represent a large and rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, research that advances our understanding of how these youth develop values that foster family cohesion and support are crucial. PMID:25470657

  18. Cultural Differences in Perceptions of Allocators of Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, John J.; Murphy-Berman, Virginia A.

    1996-01-01

    Compared cultural differences in perceptions of allocators of resources through a study of 190 United States and 138 German college students. Findings show that subjects did evaluate allocators differently depending on what distribution norm they followed, and that the pattern of differences varied by culture and, for some of the evaluative…

  19. Functional Systems and Culturally-Determined Cognitive Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Richard L.

    Noting that one means of better understanding the nature of cultural differences is to elucidate the cognitive differences between members of differing cultures, this paper examines Alexander Luria's sociohistorical theory of functional cognitive systems. The paper first describes Luria's notion of functional systems, the crux of which postulates…

  20. Parent socialization effects in different cultures: significance of directive parenting.

    PubMed

    Sorkhabi, Nadia

    2012-06-01

    In this article, the controversy of divergent findings in research on parental socialization effects in different cultures is addressed. Three explanations intended to address divergent findings of socialization effects in different cultures, as advanced by researchers who emphasize cultural differences, are discussed. These include cultural differences in socialization values and goals of parents, parental emotional and cognitive characteristics associated with parenting styles, and adolescents' interpretations or evaluations of their parents' parenting styles. The empirical evidence for and against each of these arguments is examined and an alternative paradigm for understanding and empirical study of developmental outcomes associated with parenting styles in different cultures is suggested. Baumrind's directive parenting style is presented as an alternative to the authoritarian parenting style in understanding the positive developmental effects associated with "strict" parenting in cultures said to have a collectivist orientation. Directions for research on the three explanations are mentioned.

  1. Parent socialization effects in different cultures: significance of directive parenting.

    PubMed

    Sorkhabi, Nadia

    2012-06-01

    In this article, the controversy of divergent findings in research on parental socialization effects in different cultures is addressed. Three explanations intended to address divergent findings of socialization effects in different cultures, as advanced by researchers who emphasize cultural differences, are discussed. These include cultural differences in socialization values and goals of parents, parental emotional and cognitive characteristics associated with parenting styles, and adolescents' interpretations or evaluations of their parents' parenting styles. The empirical evidence for and against each of these arguments is examined and an alternative paradigm for understanding and empirical study of developmental outcomes associated with parenting styles in different cultures is suggested. Baumrind's directive parenting style is presented as an alternative to the authoritarian parenting style in understanding the positive developmental effects associated with "strict" parenting in cultures said to have a collectivist orientation. Directions for research on the three explanations are mentioned. PMID:22897089

  2. Emergence of the bipolar cultural complex in Walt Whitman.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Steven B

    2007-09-01

    My main hypothesis in this paper(1) is that America's seminal poet, Walt Whitman, was trapped--like so many of his contemporaries--in 'cultural complexes' (Singer & Kimbles 2004) that he internalized, but that he found a way to transcend the splits inherent in these 'bipolar' (Perry 1970) organizations through his art. One way he accomplished this was through his aesthetic method of 'holding the opposites' between two poles of a slavery is wrong/white supremacy is justified cultural complex. In my paper, I provide evidence for some of the contradictions inherent in Whitman's character by examining the political splits of his times and explore how various Self symbols he produced through his poetry, particularly the figures he called 'Black Lucifer' and the Deus Quadriune--a quaternity symbol--facilitated his personal and cultural transformation. Finally, I demonstrate the relevance of my hypothesis to contemporary racism during the pre-Civil Rights period in the South through a clinical example, and I show how the Jungian method of 'holding the opposites' can be effectively practised in the transference/countertransference field of psychotherapy in general.

  3. Cultural Differences and Cultivation of Cross-Cultural Communicative Competence in Chinese FLT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Xiaobo

    2009-01-01

    In order to improve their abilities in cross-cultural communication, language learners should develop not only their language competence, but also communicative competence. This paper presents an understanding on the general cultural differences between the west and China by applying the cultural dimensions of Hofstede and Bond, and points out…

  4. Mental Abilities of Children from Different Cultural Backgrounds in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burg, Blanka; Belmont, Ira

    1990-01-01

    Examines pattern of mental abilities exhibited by first-grade, Israeli-born children whose parents emigrated from Europe, Iraq, North Africa, and Yemen. Results indicate that the groups of culturally different children tended to exhibit different patterns of cognitive abilities. Concludes that historical-cultural background of a population has a…

  5. Disability as Cultural Difference: Implications for Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.

    2012-01-01

    This article critiques the treatment of disability as cultural difference by the theorists of the "social model" and "minority group model" of disability. Both models include all of the various disabling conditions under one term--disability--and fail to distinguish disabilities from cultural differences (e.g., race, ethnicity, or gender…

  6. Cultural differences in interpersonal responses to depressives' nonverbal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Vanger, P; Summerfield, A B; Rosen, B K; Watson, J P

    1991-01-01

    The Social Impression and Interpersonal Attraction of British depressed patients was rated by British and German subjects on the basis of the patients' video-recorded nonverbal behaviour. Depressives were rated negatively by all subjects. Males in both cultural groups agreed in their ratings of depressives but German females expressed a more negative attitude than British females. This is attributed to cultural differences in sex-appropriate interactive behaviour. The importance of studying the expression of depression and its meaning within a particular cultural context is indicated and the role of cultural differences in interactive behaviour is discussed with respect to intercultural assessment and treatment of depression. PMID:1743899

  7. The Cultural Antecedents of Sociolinguistic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Abraham

    1975-01-01

    This paper sought the answer to the question: What is the origin of the sociolinguistic differences described by Basil Bernstein and others in relation to social class, patterns of family organization and socialization, and modes of speech? (Author/RK)

  8. Alcohol Use Severity among Hispanic Emerging Adults in Higher Education: Understanding the Effect of Cultural Congruity

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Vaughan, Ellen L.; de Dios, Marcel A.; Castro, Yessenia; Roncancio, Angelica M.; Ojeda, Lizette

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying and understanding determinants of alcohol use behavior among Hispanic college students is an increasingly important public health issue, particularly during emerging adulthood. Studies examining ethnocultural determinants of alcohol use behavior among Hispanic college students have focused on direct associations with cultural orientation (e.g., acculturation and enculturation); yet there is a need for research that accounts for the complex interplay of other culturally relevant sociocultural factors. Objectives This study examined associations of behavioral acculturation, behavioral enculturation, and cultural congruity (perception of cultural fit between the values of the academic environment and the student's personal values) with alcohol use severity (AUS); and tested if gender moderated those associations. Methods A hierarchical linear regression and moderation analysis were conducted on a sample of 167 Hispanic emerging adults (ages 18 to 25) enrolled in college. Results All predictor variables entered in the regression model accounted for 20.9% of the variance in AUS. After controlling for demographic variables and depressive symptoms, behavioral acculturation and enculturation did not have a statistically significant association with AUS. Further, gender did not moderate either of these associations. Conversely, greater cultural congruity was associated with lower reports of AUS. A moderation analysis suggested that cultural congruity predicted lower reports of AUS among men, but not among women. Conclusions This was the first known study to examine the association of cultural congruity with alcohol use. Findings highlight the value of examining contextual factors of culture and moving beyond reductive measures of cultural orientation. PMID:26574656

  9. Compassion and contamination. Cultural differences in vegetarianism.

    PubMed

    Ruby, Matthew B; Heine, Steven J; Kamble, Shanmukh; Cheng, Tessa K; Waddar, Mahadevi

    2013-12-01

    A growing body of research has shown that Western vegetarians report more concern for animal welfare and environmental sustainability, and endorse more liberal values than do Western omnivores. However, despite the prevalence of Indian vegetarianism, its psychological associations and underpinnings remain largely unexamined. In Study 1, we find that Euro-American vegetarians are more concerned than omnivores with the impact of their daily food choices on the environment and animal welfare, show more concern for general animal welfare, and endorse universalistic values more, yet among Indian participants, these differences are not significant. In Study 2, we show that Indian vegetarians more strongly endorse the belief that eating meat is polluting, and show a heightened concern for the conservative ethics of Purity, Authority, and Ingroup relative to their omnivorous peers, whereas these differences are largely absent among Euro-Canadians and Euro-Americans.

  10. Compassion and contamination. Cultural differences in vegetarianism.

    PubMed

    Ruby, Matthew B; Heine, Steven J; Kamble, Shanmukh; Cheng, Tessa K; Waddar, Mahadevi

    2013-12-01

    A growing body of research has shown that Western vegetarians report more concern for animal welfare and environmental sustainability, and endorse more liberal values than do Western omnivores. However, despite the prevalence of Indian vegetarianism, its psychological associations and underpinnings remain largely unexamined. In Study 1, we find that Euro-American vegetarians are more concerned than omnivores with the impact of their daily food choices on the environment and animal welfare, show more concern for general animal welfare, and endorse universalistic values more, yet among Indian participants, these differences are not significant. In Study 2, we show that Indian vegetarians more strongly endorse the belief that eating meat is polluting, and show a heightened concern for the conservative ethics of Purity, Authority, and Ingroup relative to their omnivorous peers, whereas these differences are largely absent among Euro-Canadians and Euro-Americans. PMID:24045211

  11. Identification of differences between rural and urban safety cultures.

    PubMed

    Rakauskas, Michael E; Ward, Nicholas J; Gerberich, Susan G

    2009-09-01

    The prevailing risk of traffic fatalities is much larger in rural areas compared to urban areas. A number of explanations have been offered to explain this including road design, emergency medical service proximity, and human factors. This research explored the potential contribution of rural driver attitudes that may underlie the increased fatal crash risk in rural environments. This analysis examined differences between rural and urban drivers in terms of self-reported risk taking for driving behaviors associated with fatal crashes and attitudes toward safety interventions using a large-scale survey. The results suggested that rural drivers engage in riskier behavior, such as not wearing seatbelts, because they have lower perceptions of the risks associated with such behaviors. Results also suggested that vehicle type (e.g., pickup trucks versus passenger vehicles) may be related to seatbelt compliance and frequency of driving under the influence of alcohol. Rural drivers perceived the utility of government-sponsored traffic safety interventions to be lower than their urban counterparts. This study provides insights into the role of the human factor in rural fatal crashes and provides policy suggestions for developing safety interventions that are designed with respect to the psychosocial factors that define the rural culture.

  12. Remuneration differences in the emerging economies of China and India.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Erhua Iris; Lu, Zhao; Li, Xiaoyan; Li, Tian; Papola, T S; Pais, Jesim; Sahu, Partha Pratim

    2010-10-01

    Emerging economies by definition tend to be less dependent on expatriate skills and labour than lower-income countries, yet remuneration (pay plus benefits) differences between expatriate and local workers persist in them to some degree. According to relative deprivation theory, economic development paradoxically elevates the salience of relatively small gaps in remuneration. We therefore expected workers to report injustice and demotivation regarding relative remuneration, despite the closing of remuneration gaps between expatriate and local workers due to the economic development of recent years. To explore that possibility, 482 skilled professionals from a variety of sectors and organizations in two emerging economies, India (n = 233, response rate = 54%) and China (n = 249, response rate = 58%), participated in the research. International salaries were greater than local salaries by a factor of 2.73:1 in India and 1.90:1 in China; these mean ratios bordered on intolerable in the India sample and were largely tolerable among the sample from China. In both countries, differently remunerated workers differed in their justice cognitions and their demotivation, with lowered motivation and fewer justice cognitions in the locally salaried, local workers. These differences were however more statistically significant between people working in India than in China. Insofar as the motivational and justice gaps persisted, the findings support relative deprivation theory. Insofar as the same gaps appear to be sharper in the country with the higher-not lower-mean remuneration differential, they do not. An in-country workshop with local experts who interpreted the findings (in India), and content analysis of the participants' recommendations (in China) jointly recommended linking remuneration to (i) workplace performance instead of (ii) economy-of-origin, to help promote (iii) fairness.

  13. Is There a Difference in Learning Style among Cultures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierro, Darlene

    Each child has a personal learning style that results from innate tendencies and environmental experiences. Because cultural groups often share common values, the experiences of children growing up with those values are reflected in their classroom learning behaviors. This paper discusses cultural differences in children's learning styles. The…

  14. Productive Engagements with Student Difference: Supporting Equity through Cultural Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keddie, Amanda; Niesche, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the focus is on how a group of Australian educators support student equity through cultural recognition. Young's theorising of justice is drawn on to illuminate the problematic impacts arising from the group's efforts to value students' cultural difference associated, for example, with quantifying justice along distributive lines…

  15. Cultural Differences in Online Learning: International Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiaojing; Liu, Shijuan; Lee, Seung-hee; Magjuka, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a case study that investigated the perceptions of international students regarding the impact of cultural differences on their learning experiences in an online MBA program. The study also revealed that online instructors need to design courses in such a way as to remove potential cultural barriers, including…

  16. Age differences in personal values: Universal or cultural specific?

    PubMed

    Fung, Helene H; Ho, Yuan Wan; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Noels, Kimberly A; Tam, Kim-Pong

    2016-05-01

    Prior studies on value development across adulthood have generally shown that as people age, they espouse communal values more strongly and agentic values less strongly. Two studies investigated whether these age differences in personal values might differ according to cultural values. Study 1 examined whether these age differences in personal values, and their associations with subjective well-being, showed the same pattern across countries that differed in individualism-collectivism. Study 2 compared age differences in personal values in the Canadian culture that emphasized agentic values more and the Chinese culture that emphasized communal values more. Personal and cultural values of each individual were directly measured, and their congruence were calculated and compared across age and cultures. Findings revealed that across cultures, older people had lower endorsement of agentic personal values and higher endorsement of communal personal values than did younger people. These age differences, and their associations with subjective well-being, were generally not influenced by cultural values. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26950224

  17. Age differences in personal values: Universal or cultural specific?

    PubMed

    Fung, Helene H; Ho, Yuan Wan; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Noels, Kimberly A; Tam, Kim-Pong

    2016-05-01

    Prior studies on value development across adulthood have generally shown that as people age, they espouse communal values more strongly and agentic values less strongly. Two studies investigated whether these age differences in personal values might differ according to cultural values. Study 1 examined whether these age differences in personal values, and their associations with subjective well-being, showed the same pattern across countries that differed in individualism-collectivism. Study 2 compared age differences in personal values in the Canadian culture that emphasized agentic values more and the Chinese culture that emphasized communal values more. Personal and cultural values of each individual were directly measured, and their congruence were calculated and compared across age and cultures. Findings revealed that across cultures, older people had lower endorsement of agentic personal values and higher endorsement of communal personal values than did younger people. These age differences, and their associations with subjective well-being, were generally not influenced by cultural values. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Cultural differences in neuropsychological abilities required to perform intelligence tasks.

    PubMed

    Fasfous, Ahmed F; Hidalgo-Ruzzante, Natalia; Vilar-López, Raquel; Catena-Martínez, Andrés; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2013-12-01

    Different studies have demonstrated that culture has a basic role in intelligence tests performance. Nevertheless, the specific neuropsychological abilities used by different cultures to perform an intelligence test have never been explored. In this study, we examine the differences between Spaniards and Moroccans in the neuropsychological abilities utilized to perform the Beta III as a non-verbal intelligence test. The results showed that the Spaniard group obtained a higher IQ than the Moroccan group in the Beta III. Moreover, the neuropsychological abilities that predicted scores for the Beta III were dependent on the country of origin and were different for each subtest. Besides showing the cultural effect on non-verbal intelligence test performance, our results suggest that a single test may measure different functions, depending on the subject's cultural background. PMID:24055883

  19. The Emerging Culture of Educational Administration: A UK Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldrich, Richard

    Organization of the United Kingdom's education system mirrors its political divisions; education is different and somewhat autonomous in each area: England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. The Department of Education and Science, based in London, oversees the English education system. Education in the United Kingdom has a longstanding…

  20. Cross-cultural differences in categorical memory errors.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Aliza J; Boduroglu, Aysecan; Gutchess, Angela H

    2014-06-01

    Cultural differences occur in the use of categories to aid accurate recall of information. This study investigated whether culture also contributed to false (erroneous) memories, and extended cross-cultural memory research to Turkish culture, which is shaped by Eastern and Western influences. Americans and Turks viewed word pairs, half of which were categorically related and half unrelated. Participants then attempted to recall the second word from the pair in response to the first word cue. Responses were coded as correct, as blanks, or as different types of errors. Americans committed more categorical errors than did Turks, and Turks mistakenly recalled more non-categorically related list words than did Americans. These results support the idea that Americans use categories either to organize information in memory or to support retrieval strategies to a greater extent than Turks and suggest that culture shapes not only accurate recall but also erroneous distortions of memory.

  1. 75 FR 51825 - Quality and Compliance in Merging and Emerging Cultures; Public Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... environment of merging and emerging cultures. Date and Time: The public conference will be held on Monday... state and local taxes. Reservations can be made on a space and rate availability basis. Registration... soon as possible. Conference space will be filled in order of receipt of registration. Those...

  2. The Emergent Practice of Infant Compliance: An Exploration in Two Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Vasudevi; Liebal, Katja; Hicks, Kerry; Jonnalagadda, Srujana; Chintalapuri, Beena

    2013-01-01

    Complying with directives is an important indicator of developing cooperativeness and of the awareness of others' intentions for one's own actions. Nonetheless, little is known about the early emergence of compliance. In the present longitudinal study, we explore this phenomenon in naturalistic settings in two cultural groups. Nine…

  3. Finding the Authentic Self in a Communal Culture: Developmental Goals in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra

    2010-01-01

    Finding and cultivating a sense of authentic self is an important life goal for emerging adults. In collectivist cultures, youngsters might need to distance themselves to find and discover their authentic selves separate of the expectations of society and significant others. Creating an autonomous time bubble that focuses on the present allows…

  4. Cultural Diversity as Resistance to Neoliberal Globalization: The Emergence of a Global Movement and Convention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan-Tibergien, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    While there have been numerous discussions of the impact on educational services made by trade liberalization through the World Trade Organization (WTO), this study looks at the emergence of global resistance to the commodification of culture through the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) within the WTO. In line with the Council of…

  5. Solutions or problems: Emergency planning means the difference

    SciTech Connect

    Lastinger, J.K.

    1994-12-31

    Emergency planning is the process of developing practices and procedures for handling accidents, required by 29 CFR 1910.38 and 29 CFR 1910.120. Planning is the necessary actions to limit or prevent damage created by fire and/or chemical release to persons, property, and the environment, the coordination with outside parties (emergency services, i.e., police, fire and EMS) and the development of personnel roles and lines of authority. The planning process can identify areas to be addressed prior to an incident to prevent or limit damage, such as in-place protection, emergency supplies and equipment, and responsibilities and actions of emergency response personnel. To be effective, an emergency action plan must be in writing and facility personnel must be properly trained to implement the plan at the time of an emergency.

  6. Emergence of Shared Intentionality Is Coupled to the Advance of Cumulative Culture.

    PubMed

    Angus, Simon D; Newton, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    There is evidence that the sharing of intentions was an important factor in the evolution of humans' unique cognitive abilities. Here, for the first time, we formally model the coevolution of jointly intentional behavior and cumulative culture, showing that rapid techno-cultural advance goes hand in hand with the emergence of the ability to participate in jointly intentional behavior. Conversely, in the absence of opportunities for significant techno-cultural improvement, the ability to undertake jointly intentional behavior is selected against. Thus, we provide a unified mechanism for the suppression or emergence of shared intentions and collaborative behavior in humans, as well as a potential cause of inter-species diversity in the prevalence of such behavior.

  7. Emergence of Shared Intentionality Is Coupled to the Advance of Cumulative Culture

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that the sharing of intentions was an important factor in the evolution of humans’ unique cognitive abilities. Here, for the first time, we formally model the coevolution of jointly intentional behavior and cumulative culture, showing that rapid techno-cultural advance goes hand in hand with the emergence of the ability to participate in jointly intentional behavior. Conversely, in the absence of opportunities for significant techno-cultural improvement, the ability to undertake jointly intentional behavior is selected against. Thus, we provide a unified mechanism for the suppression or emergence of shared intentions and collaborative behavior in humans, as well as a potential cause of inter-species diversity in the prevalence of such behavior. PMID:26516775

  8. Characterization of cellulolytic bacterial cultures grown in different substrates.

    PubMed

    Alshelmani, Mohamed Idris; Loh, Teck Chwen; Foo, Hooi Ling; Lau, Wei Hong; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2013-01-01

    Nine aerobic cellulolytic bacterial cultures were obtained from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ) and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). The objectives of this study were to characterize the cellulolytic bacteria and to determine the optimum moisture ratio required for solid state fermentation (SSF) of palm kernel cake (PKC). The bacteria cultures were grown on reconstituted nutrient broth, incubated at 30°C and agitated at 200 rpm. Carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase, and mannanase activities were determined using different substrates and after SSF of PKC. The SSF was conducted for 4 and 7 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w) on different PKC concentration-to-moisture ratios: 1 : 0.2, 1 : 0.3, 1 : 0.4, and 1 : 0.5. Results showed that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 1067 DSMZ, Bacillus megaterium 9885 ATCC, Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus 10248 DSMZ, and Paenibacillus polymyxa 842 ATCC produced higher enzyme activities as compared to other bacterial cultures grown on different substrates. The cultures mentioned above also produced higher enzyme activities when they were incubated under SSF using PKC as a substrate in different PKC-to-moisture ratios after 4 days of incubation, indicating that these cellulolytic bacteria can be used to degrade and improve the nutrient quality of PKC.

  9. Characterization of cellulolytic bacterial cultures grown in different substrates.

    PubMed

    Alshelmani, Mohamed Idris; Loh, Teck Chwen; Foo, Hooi Ling; Lau, Wei Hong; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2013-01-01

    Nine aerobic cellulolytic bacterial cultures were obtained from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ) and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). The objectives of this study were to characterize the cellulolytic bacteria and to determine the optimum moisture ratio required for solid state fermentation (SSF) of palm kernel cake (PKC). The bacteria cultures were grown on reconstituted nutrient broth, incubated at 30°C and agitated at 200 rpm. Carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase, and mannanase activities were determined using different substrates and after SSF of PKC. The SSF was conducted for 4 and 7 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w) on different PKC concentration-to-moisture ratios: 1 : 0.2, 1 : 0.3, 1 : 0.4, and 1 : 0.5. Results showed that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 1067 DSMZ, Bacillus megaterium 9885 ATCC, Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus 10248 DSMZ, and Paenibacillus polymyxa 842 ATCC produced higher enzyme activities as compared to other bacterial cultures grown on different substrates. The cultures mentioned above also produced higher enzyme activities when they were incubated under SSF using PKC as a substrate in different PKC-to-moisture ratios after 4 days of incubation, indicating that these cellulolytic bacteria can be used to degrade and improve the nutrient quality of PKC. PMID:24319380

  10. Severe sepsis and septic shock in pre-hospital emergency medicine: survey results of medical directors of emergency medical services concerning antibiotics, blood cultures and algorithms.

    PubMed

    Casu, Sebastian; Häske, David

    2016-06-01

    Delayed antibiotic treatment for patients in severe sepsis and septic shock decreases the probability of survival. In this survey, medical directors of different emergency medical services (EMS) in Germany were asked if they are prepared for pre-hospital sepsis therapy with antibiotics or special algorithms to evaluate the individual preparations of the different rescue areas for the treatment of patients with this infectious disease. The objective of the survey was to obtain a general picture of the current status of the EMS with respect to rapid antibiotic treatment for sepsis. A total of 166 medical directors were invited to complete a short survey on behalf of the different rescue service districts in Germany via an electronic cover letter. Of the rescue districts, 25.6 % (n = 20) stated that they keep antibiotics on EMS vehicles. In addition, 2.6 % carry blood cultures on the vehicles. The most common antibiotic is ceftriaxone (third generation cephalosporin). In total, 8 (10.3 %) rescue districts use an algorithm for patients with sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock. Although the German EMS is an emergency physician-based rescue system, special opportunities in the form of antibiotics on emergency physician vehicles are missing. Simultaneously, only 10.3 % of the rescue districts use a special algorithm for sepsis therapy. Sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock do not appear to be prioritized as highly as these deadly diseases should be in the pre-hospital setting. PMID:26719078

  11. Cultural diversity as resistance to neoliberal globalization: The emergence of a global movement and convention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan-Tibergien, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    While there have been numerous discussions of the impact on educational services made by trade liberalization through the World Trade Organization (WTO), this study looks at the emergence of global resistance to the commodification of culture through the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) within the WTO. In line with the Council of Europe Declaration on Cultural Diversity in 2000 and the UNESCO Declaration on Cultural Diversity in 2001, a global movement has been fighting for a legally binding global convention on cultural diversity under the auspices of UNESCO. The author examines how `cultural diversity' is defined by various groups and nations. She also discusses the potential implications of such a global convention on cultural diversity for `cognitive justice', that is, for affirming the validity of diverse knowledge systems over against the dominance of neoliberal ideology. Finally, she argues that the leading definition of cultural diversity, contrary to its stated intention, actually serves to re-assert the cultural hegemony of the North rather than benefit subjugated knowledges of the South.

  12. Magnetoencephalography evidence for different brain subregions serving two musical cultures.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Rie; Yokosawa, Koichi; Abe, Jun-ichi

    2012-12-01

    Individuals who have been exposed to two different musical cultures (bimusicals) can be differentiated from those exposed to only one musical culture (monomusicals). Just as bilingual speakers handle the distinct language-syntactic rules of each of two languages, bimusical listeners handle two distinct musical-syntactic rules (e.g., tonal schemas) in each musical culture. This study sought to determine specific brain activities that contribute to differentiating two culture-specific tonal structures. We recorded magnetoencephalogram (MEG) responses of bimusical Japanese nonmusicians and amateur musicians as they monitored unfamiliar Western melodies and unfamiliar, but traditional, Japanese melodies, both of which contained tonal deviants (out-of-key tones). Previous studies with Western monomusicals have shown that tonal deviants elicit an early right anterior negativity (mERAN) originating in the inferior frontal cortex. In the present study, tonal deviants in both Western and Japanese melodies elicited mERANs with characteristics fitted by dipoles around the inferior frontal gyrus in the right hemisphere and the premotor cortex in the left hemisphere. Comparisons of the nature of mERAN activity to Western and Japanese melodies showed differences in the dipoles' locations but not in their peak latency or dipole strength. These results suggest that the differentiation between a tonal structure of one culture and that of another culture correlates with localization differences in brain subregions around the inferior frontal cortex and the premotor cortex. PMID:23063935

  13. Difference or disorder? Cultural issues in understanding neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Sparks, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder and specific language impairment, are biologically based disorders that currently rely on behaviorally defined criteria for diagnosis and treatment. Specific behaviors that are included in diagnostic frameworks and the point at which individual differences in behavior constitute abnormality are largely arbitrary decisions. Such decisions are therefore likely to be strongly influenced by cultural values and expectations. This is evident in the dramatically different prevalence rates of autism spectrum disorder across countries and across different ethnic groups within the same country. In this article, we critically evaluate the understanding of developmental disorders from a cultural perspective. We specifically consider the challenges of applying diagnostic methods across cultural contexts, the influence of cultural values and expectations on the identification and treatment of children with suspected disorders, and how cross-cultural studies can help to refine cognitive theories of disorder that have been derived exclusively from Western North American and European investigations. Our review synthesizes clinical, cultural, and theoretical work in this area, highlighting potential universals of disorder and concluding with recommendations for future research and practice.

  14. Differences in Weekday versus Weekend Drinking among Nonstudent Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Braitman, Abby L.; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N.; Stamates, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    The current investigation sought to examine “day of the week” drinking of an at-risk sample of nonstudent emerging adults and whether specific factors are associated with differential drinking patterns. Our study aims were to: (1) identify differences in weekday versus weekend drinking, (2) examine specific expectancies (i.e., sociability, tension reduction) and demographic factors (e.g., age, sex) as relating to weekend versus weekday drinking after controlling for harmful drinking and holiday drinking. Participants were 238 (63.4% men, 35.7% women; M age = 21.92 years) heavy drinking noncollege-attenders recruited from the community. They reported daily drinking for the previous 30 days and completed measures of harmful drinking, alcohol expectancies, and demographic information. Results showed that more drinks were consumed on the weekends (i.e., Thursday to Saturday) than weekdays, with 63% of drinks consumed on weekends. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekday drinking was associated with tension reduction expectancies, social expectancies, sex, and age. Weekend drinking increases were related to social expectancies but not tension reduction expectancies. Our final model indicated that, after controlling for the effect of holiday drinking, the within-person weekday/weekend distinction explained 18% of the total variance. In general, our findings highlight the importance of alcohol expectancies and drinking contexts in understanding the drinking behaviors of nonstudents. The differential role of tension reduction and social facilitation expectancies on drinking throughout the week imply different cognitive pathways are involved in weekday versus weekend drinking and both types of expected alcohol effects should be targets of risk-reduction efforts with nonstudent drinkers. PMID:26901592

  15. Differences in weekday versus weekend drinking among nonstudent emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Braitman, Abby L; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Stamates, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    In the current investigation, we sought to examine "day-of-the-week" drinking of an at-risk sample of nonstudent emerging adults and whether specific factors are associated with differential drinking patterns. Our study aims were to (a) identify differences in weekday versus weekend drinking, and (b) examine specific expectancies (i.e., sociability, tension reduction) and demographic factors (e.g., age, sex) relating to weekend versus weekday drinking after controlling for harmful drinking and holiday drinking. Participants were heavy-drinking noncollege attenders recruited from the community (N = 238; 63.4% men, 35.7% women; M age = 21.92 years). They reported daily drinking for the previous 30 days and completed measures of harmful drinking, alcohol expectancies, and demographic information. Results showed that more drinks were consumed on the weekends (i.e., Thursday to Saturday) than weekdays, with 63% of drinks consumed on weekends. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that weekday drinking was associated with tension-reduction expectancies, social expectancies, sex, and age. Weekend-drinking increases were related to social expectancies, but not tension-reduction expectancies. Our final model indicated that, after controlling for the effect of holiday drinking, the within-person weekday-weekend distinction explained 18% of the total variance. In general, our findings highlight the importance of alcohol expectancies and drinking contexts in understanding the drinking behaviors of nonstudents. The differential role of tension-reduction and social-facilitation expectancies on drinking throughout the week imply that different cognitive pathways are involved in weekday versus weekend drinking, and both types of expected alcohol effects should be targets of risk-reduction efforts with nonstudent drinkers. PMID:26901592

  16. Excavating Culture: Disentangling Ethnic Differences from Contextual Influences in Parenting.

    PubMed

    le, Huynh-Nhu; Ceballo, Rosario; Chao, Ruth; Hill, Nancy E; Murry, Velma McBride; Pinderhughes, Ellen E

    2008-01-01

    Historically, much of the research on parenting has not disentangled the influences of race/ethnicity, SES, and culture on family functioning and the development of children and adolescents. This special issue addresses this gap by disentangling ethnic differences in parenting behaviors from their contextual influences, thereby deepening understanding of parenting processes in diverse families. Six members of the Parenting section of the Study Group on Race, Culture and Ethnicity (SGRCE) introduce and implement a novel approach toward understanding this question. The goal of this project is to study culturally related processes and the degree to which they predict parenting. An iterative process was employed to delineate the main parenting constructs (warmth, psychological and behavioral control, monitoring, communication, and self-efficacy), cultural processes, and contextual influences, and to coordinate a data analytic plan utilizing individual datasets with diverse samples to answer the research questions.

  17. Excavating Culture: Disentangling Ethnic Differences from Contextual Influences in Parenting

    PubMed Central

    le, Huynh-Nhu; Ceballo, Rosario; Chao, Ruth; Hill, Nancy E.; Murry, Velma McBride; Pinderhughes, Ellen E.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, much of the research on parenting has not disentangled the influences of race/ethnicity, SES, and culture on family functioning and the development of children and adolescents. This special issue addresses this gap by disentangling ethnic differences in parenting behaviors from their contextual influences, thereby deepening understanding of parenting processes in diverse families. Six members of the Parenting section of the Study Group on Race, Culture and Ethnicity (SGRCE) introduce and implement a novel approach toward understanding this question. The goal of this project is to study culturally related processes and the degree to which they predict parenting. An iterative process was employed to delineate the main parenting constructs (warmth, psychological and behavioral control, monitoring, communication, and self-efficacy), cultural processes, and contextual influences, and to coordinate a data analytic plan utilizing individual datasets with diverse samples to answer the research questions. PMID:24043923

  18. The Complete Genome Sequence of the Emerging Pathogen Mycobacterium haemophilum Explains Its Unique Culture Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Kerantzas, Christopher A.; Vilchèze, Catherine; Calder, R. Brent; Nordberg, Eric K.; Fischer, Jack A.; Hartman, Travis E.; Yang, Eva; Driscoll, Timothy; Cole, Laura E.; Sebra, Robert; Maqbool, Shahina B.; Wattam, Alice R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycobacterium haemophilum is an emerging pathogen associated with a variety of clinical syndromes, most commonly skin infections in immunocompromised individuals. M. haemophilum exhibits a unique requirement for iron supplementation to support its growth in culture, but the basis for this property and how it may shape pathogenesis is unclear. Using a combination of Illumina, PacBio, and Sanger sequencing, the complete genome sequence of M. haemophilum was determined. Guided by this sequence, experiments were performed to define the basis for the unique growth requirements of M. haemophilum. We found that M. haemophilum, unlike many other mycobacteria, is unable to synthesize iron-binding siderophores known as mycobactins or to utilize ferri-mycobactins to support growth. These differences correlate with the absence of genes associated with mycobactin synthesis, secretion, and uptake. In agreement with the ability of heme to promote growth, we identified genes encoding heme uptake machinery. Consistent with its propensity to infect the skin, we show at the whole-genome level the genetic closeness of M. haemophilum with Mycobacterium leprae, an organism which cannot be cultivated in vitro, and we identify genes uniquely shared by these organisms. Finally, we identify means to express foreign genes in M. haemophilum. These data explain the unique culture requirements for this important pathogen, provide a foundation upon which the genome sequence can be exploited to improve diagnostics and therapeutics, and suggest use of M. haemophilum as a tool to elucidate functions of genes shared with M. leprae. PMID:26578674

  19. Evolution, revolution or saltation scenario for the emergence of modern cultures?

    PubMed

    d'Errico, Francesco; Stringer, Chris B

    2011-04-12

    Crucial questions in the debate on the origin of quintessential human behaviours are whether modern cognition and associated innovations are unique to our species and whether they emerged abruptly, gradually or as the result of a discontinuous process. Three scenarios have been proposed to account for the origin of cultural modernity. The first argues that modern cognition is unique to our species and the consequence of a genetic mutation that took place approximately 50 ka in Africa among already evolved anatomically modern humans. The second posits that cultural modernity emerged gradually in Africa starting at least 200 ka in concert with the origin of our species on that continent. The third states that innovations indicative of modern cognition are not restricted to our species and appear and disappear in Africa and Eurasia between 200 and 40 ka before becoming fully consolidated. We evaluate these scenarios in the light of new evidence from Africa, Asia and Europe and explore the mechanisms that may have led to modern cultures. Such reflections will demonstrate the need for further inquiry into the relationship between climate and demographic/cultural change in order to better understand the mechanisms of cultural transmission at work in Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens populations. PMID:21357228

  20. Evolution, revolution or saltation scenario for the emergence of modern cultures?

    PubMed Central

    d'Errico, Francesco; Stringer, Chris B.

    2011-01-01

    Crucial questions in the debate on the origin of quintessential human behaviours are whether modern cognition and associated innovations are unique to our species and whether they emerged abruptly, gradually or as the result of a discontinuous process. Three scenarios have been proposed to account for the origin of cultural modernity. The first argues that modern cognition is unique to our species and the consequence of a genetic mutation that took place approximately 50 ka in Africa among already evolved anatomically modern humans. The second posits that cultural modernity emerged gradually in Africa starting at least 200 ka in concert with the origin of our species on that continent. The third states that innovations indicative of modern cognition are not restricted to our species and appear and disappear in Africa and Eurasia between 200 and 40 ka before becoming fully consolidated. We evaluate these scenarios in the light of new evidence from Africa, Asia and Europe and explore the mechanisms that may have led to modern cultures. Such reflections will demonstrate the need for further inquiry into the relationship between climate and demographic/cultural change in order to better understand the mechanisms of cultural transmission at work in Neanderthals and early Homo sapiens populations. PMID:21357228

  1. Cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation after a negative event.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Yuri; Ma, Xiaoming; Petermann, Amelia G

    2014-08-01

    Beliefs about emotions can influence how people regulate their emotions. The present research examined whether Eastern dialectical beliefs about negative emotions lead to cultural differences in how people regulate their emotions after experiencing a negative event. We hypothesized that, because of dialectical beliefs about negative emotions prevalent in Eastern culture, Easterners are less motivated than Westerners to engage in hedonic emotion regulation-up-regulation of positive emotions and down-regulation of negative emotions. By assessing online reactions to a recent negative event, Study 1 found that European Americans are more motivated to engage in hedonic emotion regulation. Furthermore, consistent with the reported motivation to regulate emotion hedonically, European Americans show a steeper decline in negative emotions 1 day later than do Asians. By examining retrospective memory of reactions to a past negative event, Study 2 further showed that cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation are mediated by cultural differences in dialectical beliefs about motivational and cognitive utility of negative emotions, but not by personal deservingness or self-efficacy beliefs. These findings demonstrate the role of cultural beliefs in shaping emotion regulation and emotional experiences. PMID:24708499

  2. Cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation after a negative event.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Yuri; Ma, Xiaoming; Petermann, Amelia G

    2014-08-01

    Beliefs about emotions can influence how people regulate their emotions. The present research examined whether Eastern dialectical beliefs about negative emotions lead to cultural differences in how people regulate their emotions after experiencing a negative event. We hypothesized that, because of dialectical beliefs about negative emotions prevalent in Eastern culture, Easterners are less motivated than Westerners to engage in hedonic emotion regulation-up-regulation of positive emotions and down-regulation of negative emotions. By assessing online reactions to a recent negative event, Study 1 found that European Americans are more motivated to engage in hedonic emotion regulation. Furthermore, consistent with the reported motivation to regulate emotion hedonically, European Americans show a steeper decline in negative emotions 1 day later than do Asians. By examining retrospective memory of reactions to a past negative event, Study 2 further showed that cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation are mediated by cultural differences in dialectical beliefs about motivational and cognitive utility of negative emotions, but not by personal deservingness or self-efficacy beliefs. These findings demonstrate the role of cultural beliefs in shaping emotion regulation and emotional experiences.

  3. Middle East meets West: Negotiating cultural difference in international educational encounters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodall, Helen

    2014-10-01

    This paper sets out to evaluate a proposed twelve-month programme of development aimed at academic staff at a new university in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. The author uses a model of cultural difference proposed by Dutch social psychologist Geert Hofstede as her starting point. Reference is also made to the work of other researchers and to the views of a number of people with first-hand experience of education in Iraqi Kurdistan. Cultural differences between the Kurdish participants on the proposed programme and its British facilitator are a likely challenge in this kind of project, in particular those associated with collectivist vs. individualist traditions. Focusing on this divide, some marked differences emerge in terms of how learning is viewed and approached in the two different countries. Whilst acknowledging that cultural difference is not confined to national boundaries, the author argues that the degree of collectivism or individualism within a society can be regarded as one of the many significant components of the complex concept of "culture". She does not attempt to offer any empirical evidence to support a "best way" to approach international educational encounters. Rather, the author's aim is to draw some conclusions to inform and facilitate the design and delivery of the proposed programme. At the same time, this paper may also offer some useful insights to those who find themselves in similar situations requiring them to deliver programmes in environments which are culturally removed from their own.

  4. Improving utilisation of dental services by understanding cultural difference.

    PubMed

    Johnston, J A

    1993-10-01

    There is considerable health and medical research and anecdotal evidence showing that members of different cultural groups and people from lower socio-economic status and/or disadvantaged ethnic minority groups are prone to increased morbidity and early mortality. It is also clear that similar patterns are found in terms of dental health status and dental health morbidity. New Zealand data from the Second International Collaborative Study (ICSII) clearly illustrate that poorer health status overall and poorer dental health status are experienced by certain sections and groups within the population. Data from these studies suggest that members of lower socio-economic status groups, different ethnic groups and those with different cultural affiliations experience different health status and use the health services at differential rates. Some of the factors that appear to influence this are clearly related to cultural beliefs and attitudes. Future efforts by the New Zealand health services and in particular by the New Zealand dental health services to redress the situation need to be based on a clear understanding of the many factors that limit the availability and uptake of preventive and dental health care services by high risk groups. Understanding cultural difference is a key requirement.

  5. Toward a dialect theory: cultural differences in the expression and recognition of posed facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Elfenbein, Hillary Anger; Beaupré, Martin; Lévesque, Manon; Hess, Ursula

    2007-02-01

    Two studies provided direct support for a recently proposed dialect theory of communicating emotion, positing that expressive displays show cultural variations similar to linguistic dialects, thereby decreasing accurate recognition by out-group members. In Study 1, 60 participants from Quebec and Gabon posed facial expressions. Dialects, in the form of activating different muscles for the same expressions, emerged most clearly for serenity, shame, and contempt and also for anger, sadness, surprise, and happiness, but not for fear, disgust, or embarrassment. In Study 2, Quebecois and Gabonese participants judged these stimuli and stimuli standardized to erase cultural dialects. As predicted, an in-group advantage emerged for nonstandardized expressions only and most strongly for expressions with greater regional dialects, according to Study 1.

  6. Blood culture collection through peripheral intravenous catheters increases the risk of specimen contamination among adult emergency department patients.

    PubMed

    Self, Wesley H; Speroff, Theodore; McNaughton, Candace D; Wright, Patty W; Miller, Geraldine; Johnson, James G; Daniels, Titus L; Talbot, Thomas R

    2012-05-01

    Five hundred five blood cultures collected through a peripheral intravenous catheter (PIV) in an emergency department were matched to cultures obtained by dedicated venipuncture from the same patient within 10 minutes. The relative risk of contamination for cultures collected through PIVs compared with dedicated venipuncture was 1.83 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-3.11).

  7. Reducing Blood Culture Contamination in the Emergency Department: An Interrupted Time Series Quality Improvement Study

    PubMed Central

    Self, Wesley H.; Speroff, Theodore; Grijalva, Carlos G.; McNaughton, Candace D.; Ashburn, Jacki; Liu, Dandan; Arbogast, Patrick G.; Russ, Stephan; Storrow, Alan B.; Talbot, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Blood culture contamination is a common problem in the emergency department (ED) that leads to unnecessary patient morbidity and health care costs. The study objective was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a quality improvement (QI) intervention for reducing blood culture contamination in an ED. Methods The authors developed a QI intervention to reduce blood culture contamination in the ED and then evaluated its effectiveness in a prospective interrupted times series study. The QI intervention involved changing the technique of blood culture specimen collection from the traditional clean procedure, to a new sterile procedure, with standardized use of sterile gloves and a new materials kit containing a 2% chlorhexidine skin antisepsis device, a sterile fenestrated drape, a sterile needle, and a procedural checklist. The intervention was implemented in a university-affiliated ED and its effect on blood culture contamination evaluated by comparing the biweekly percentages of blood cultures contaminated during a 48-week baseline period (clean technique), and 48-week intervention period (sterile technique), using segmented regression analysis with adjustment for secular trends and first-order autocorrelation. The goal was to achieve and maintain a contamination rate below 3%. Results During the baseline period, 321 out of 7,389 (4.3%) cultures were contaminated, compared to 111 of 6,590 (1.7%) during the intervention period (p < 0.001). In the segmented regression model, the intervention was associated with an immediate 2.9% (95% CI = 2.2% to 3.2%) absolute reduction in contamination. The contamination rate was maintained below 3% during each biweekly interval throughout the intervention period. Conclusions A QI assessment of ED blood culture contamination led to development of a targeted intervention to convert the process of blood culture collection from a clean to a fully sterile procedure. Implementation of this intervention led to an immediate

  8. Cultural Differences in Emotional Responses to Success and Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; Takai-Kawakami, Kiyoko; Kawakami, Kiyobumi; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan

    2010-01-01

    The emotional responses to achievement contexts of 149 preschool children from three cultural groups were observed. The children were Japanese (N = 32), African American (N = 63) and White American of mixed European ancestry (N = 54). The results showed that Japanese children differed from American children in expressing less shame, pride, and…

  9. Cultural Differences in the Development of Processing Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kail, Robert V.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Ferrer, Emilio; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Shu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine cultural differences in the development of speed of information processing. Four samples of US children ("N" = 509) and four samples of East Asian children ("N" = 661) completed psychometric measures of processing speed on two occasions. Analyses of the longitudinal data indicated…

  10. "Mind the Gap": Bridging Cultural, Age, and Value Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigrigg, Carin

    Students in a University of New Mexico English extension class at Kirtland Air Force Base differ in age, culture, values, and skills, all of which must be taken into account by the instructor. Most of these students are returning students with past experiences and education which most traditional students do not have, and at least half the class…

  11. Age, Sex, and Cultural Differences in the Meaning of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salili, Farideh

    This study explored variations in the meaning and psychological dimensions of achievement among people of different ages, sexes, and cultures. Subjects were 504 male and female British and Chinese students aged 13-55 in Hong Kong. Repertory grid technique was used to elicit success situations and related constructs. A group grid was then…

  12. A Comparison of Learning Cultures in Different Sizes and Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Paula D.; Finch, Kim S.; MacGregor, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    This study compared relevant data and information about leadership and learning cultures in different sizes and types of high schools. Research was conducted using a quantitative design with a qualitative element. Quantitative data were gathered using a researcher-created survey. Independent sample t-tests were conducted to analyze the means of…

  13. Educational Research with the Culturally Different: Problems, Alternatives and Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Lily

    This paper focuses on theoretical and methodological problems in social psychological research on the culturally different. Major problems in using experimental approaches are discussed: (1) the reactive nature of the experiment; (2) selection bias; (3) experimenter bias; and (4) value and ethical problems. The field experiment and combined field…

  14. The development of the specialism of emergency medicine: media and cultural influences.

    PubMed

    Timmons, Stephen; Nairn, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    In this article we analyse, via a critical review of the literature, the development of a relatively new medical specialism in the United Kingdom, that of emergency medicine. Despite the high media profile of emergency care, it is a low-status specialism within UK medicine. The creation of a specialist College in 2008 means that, symbolically, recognition as a full specialism has now been achieved. In this article, we will show, using a sociology of professions approach, how emergency medicine defined itself as a specialism, and sought to carve out a distinctive jurisdiction. While, in the context of the UK National Health Service, the state was clearly an important factor in the development of this profession, we wish to develop the analysis further than is usual in the sociology of professions. We will analyse the wider cultural context for the development of this specialism, which has benefited from its high profile in the media, through both fictional and documentary sources.

  15. The development of the specialism of emergency medicine: media and cultural influences.

    PubMed

    Timmons, Stephen; Nairn, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    In this article we analyse, via a critical review of the literature, the development of a relatively new medical specialism in the United Kingdom, that of emergency medicine. Despite the high media profile of emergency care, it is a low-status specialism within UK medicine. The creation of a specialist College in 2008 means that, symbolically, recognition as a full specialism has now been achieved. In this article, we will show, using a sociology of professions approach, how emergency medicine defined itself as a specialism, and sought to carve out a distinctive jurisdiction. While, in the context of the UK National Health Service, the state was clearly an important factor in the development of this profession, we wish to develop the analysis further than is usual in the sociology of professions. We will analyse the wider cultural context for the development of this specialism, which has benefited from its high profile in the media, through both fictional and documentary sources. PMID:24821928

  16. Describing Polygonum aviculare emergence in different tillage systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of four tillage systems (direct drill, subsoiler, chisel plough and mouldboard plough) on the dynamics of Polygonum aviculare populations were studied over three growing seasons. Densities before and after herbicide application and cumulative emergence on a weekly basis were determined in ea...

  17. Cross-cultural differences in memory: the role of culture-based stereotypes about aging.

    PubMed

    Yoon, C; Hasher, L; Feinberg, F; Rahhal, T A; Winocur, G

    2000-12-01

    The extent to which cultural stereotypes about aging contribute to age differences in memory performance is investigated by comparing younger and older Anglophone Canadians to demographically matched Chinese Canadians, who tend to hold more positive views of aging. Four memory tests were administered. In contrast to B. Levy and E. Langer's (1994) findings, younger adults in both cultural groups outperformed their older comparison group on all memory tests. For 2 tests, which made use of visual stimuli resembling ideographic characters in written Chinese, the older Chinese Canadians approached, but did not reach, the performance achieved by their younger counterparts, as well as outperformed the older Anglophone Canadians. However, on the other two tests, which assess memory for complex figures and abstract designs, no differences were observed between the older Chinese and Anglophone Canadians. Path analysis results suggest that this pattern of findings is not easily attributed to a wholly culturally based account of age differences in memory performance.

  18. Differences between tight and loose cultures: a 33-nation study.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Michele J; Raver, Jana L; Nishii, Lisa; Leslie, Lisa M; Lun, Janetta; Lim, Beng Chong; Duan, Lili; Almaliach, Assaf; Ang, Soon; Arnadottir, Jakobina; Aycan, Zeynep; Boehnke, Klaus; Boski, Pawel; Cabecinhas, Rosa; Chan, Darius; Chhokar, Jagdeep; D'Amato, Alessia; Ferrer, Montse; Fischlmayr, Iris C; Fischer, Ronald; Fülöp, Marta; Georgas, James; Kashima, Emiko S; Kashima, Yoshishima; Kim, Kibum; Lempereur, Alain; Marquez, Patricia; Othman, Rozhan; Overlaet, Bert; Panagiotopoulou, Penny; Peltzer, Karl; Perez-Florizno, Lorena R; Ponomarenko, Larisa; Realo, Anu; Schei, Vidar; Schmitt, Manfred; Smith, Peter B; Soomro, Nazar; Szabo, Erna; Taveesin, Nalinee; Toyama, Midori; Van de Vliert, Evert; Vohra, Naharika; Ward, Colleen; Yamaguchi, Susumu

    2011-05-27

    With data from 33 nations, we illustrate the differences between cultures that are tight (have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behavior) versus loose (have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behavior). Tightness-looseness is part of a complex, loosely integrated multilevel system that comprises distal ecological and historical threats (e.g., high population density, resource scarcity, a history of territorial conflict, and disease and environmental threats), broad versus narrow socialization in societal institutions (e.g., autocracy, media regulations), the strength of everyday recurring situations, and micro-level psychological affordances (e.g., prevention self-guides, high regulatory strength, need for structure). This research advances knowledge that can foster cross-cultural understanding in a world of increasing global interdependence and has implications for modeling cultural change. PMID:21617077

  19. Identifying Differences in Cultural Behavior in Online Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, Michelle L.; Engel, David W.; Bell, Eric B.; Mcgrath, Liam R.

    2012-07-23

    We have developed methods to identify online communities, or groups, using a combination of structural information variables and content information variables from weblog posts and their comments to build a characteristic footprint for groups. We have worked with both explicitly connected groups and 'abstract' groups, in which the connection between individuals is in interest (as determined by content based features) and behavior (metadata based features) as opposed to explicit links. We find that these variables do a good job at identifying groups, placing members within a group, and helping determine the appropriate granularity for group boundaries. The group footprint can then be used to identify differences between the online groups. In the work described here we are interested in determining how an individual's online behavior is influenced by their membership in more than one group. For example, individuals belong to a certain culture; they may belong as well to a demographic group, and other 'chosen' groups such as churches or clubs. There is a plethora of evidence surrounding the culturally sensitive adoption, use, and behavior on the Internet. In this work we begin to investigate how culturally defined internet behaviors may influence behaviors of subgroups. We do this through a series of experiments in which we analyze the interaction between culturally defined behaviors and the behaviors of the subgroups. Our goal is to (a) identify if our features can capture cultural distinctions in internet use, and (b) determine what kinds of interaction there are between levels and types of groups.

  20. Understanding cultural difference in caring for dying patients.

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, B A; Gates-Williams, J

    1995-01-01

    Experiences of illness and death, as well as beliefs about the appropriate role of healers, are profoundly influenced by patients' cultural background. As the United States becomes increasingly diverse, cultural difference is a central feature of many clinical interactions. Knowledge about how patients experience and express pain, maintain hope in the face of a poor prognosis, and respond to grief and loss will aid health care professionals. Many patients' or families' beliefs about appropriate end-of-life care are easily accommodated in routine clinical practice. Desires about the care of the body after death, for example, generally do not threaten deeply held values of medical science. Because expected deaths are increasingly the result of explicit negotiation about limiting or discontinuing therapies, however, the likelihood of serious moral disputes and overt conflict increases. We suggest a way to assess cultural variation in end-of-life care, arguing that culture is only meaningful when interpreted in the context of a patient's unique history, family constellation, and socioeconomic status. Efforts to use racial or ethnic background as simplistic, straightforward predictors of beliefs or behavior will lead to harmful stereotyping of patients and culturally insensitive care for the dying. PMID:7571587

  1. Suddenly included: cultural differences in experiencing re-inclusion.

    PubMed

    Pfundmair, Michaela; Graupmann, Verena; Du, Hongfei; Frey, Dieter; Aydin, Nilüfer

    2015-03-01

    In the current research, we examined whether re-inclusion (i.e. the change from a previous state of exclusion to a new state of inclusion) was perceived differently by people with individualistic and collectivistic cultural backgrounds. Individualists (German and Austrian participants) but not collectivists (Chinese participants) experienced re-inclusion differently than continued inclusion: While collectivistic participants did not differentiate between both kinds of inclusion, individualistic participants showed reduced fulfilment of their psychological needs under re-inclusion compared to continued inclusion. The results moreover revealed that only participants from individualistic cultures expressed more feelings of exclusion when re-included than when continually included. These exclusionary feelings partially mediated the relationship between the different states of inclusion and basic need fulfilment.

  2. Cultural differences in the development and characteristics of depression.

    PubMed

    Juhasz, Gabriella; Eszlari, Nora; Pap, Dorottya; Gonda, Xenia

    2012-12-01

    Depression is a highly prevalent mental illness with increasing burden for the patients, their families and society as well. In spite of its increasing importance, we still do not have complete understanding either of the phenomenology or the etiopathological background of depression, and cross-country, cross-ethnic and cross-cultural differences in the prevalence and symptomatic manifestation of depression further obscure this picture. Culturally-related features of depressive illness are gaining more importance in clinical practice with the increasing migration trends worldwide. In spite of the differences replicated in multiple studies, no exhaustive explanations are offered so far. In the present paper we describe the most consistently replicated findings concerning the most important cross-national differences in the rates and characteristics of depression with a short comment on possible background factors.

  3. Correlates of college students' physical activity: cross-cultural differences.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R; Jiang, Nan; Fernandez-Rojas, Xinia; Park, Bock-Hee

    2009-10-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences in personal and behavioral determinants of vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) among college students living in distinctly different cultures, that is, the United States, Costa Rica, India, and South Korea. Participants of this study were recruited from randomly chosen public universities in the 4 countries during the 2006-2007 academic year. A total of 4685 students participated in the study (response rate 90%). Vigorous-intensity PA was measured by asking on how many of the past 7 days the participants participated in PA for at least 20 minutes that made them sweat or breathe hard. For moderate-intensity PA, participants were asked on how many of the past 7 days they participated in PA for at least 30 minutes that did not make them sweat or breathe hard. Findings indicate that whereas perceived overweight and fruit and vegetable consumption are relatively culture-free predictors of PA, gender and TV/video watching are culture-specific predictors. Binge drinking was not predictive of meeting the vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity PA guidelines in any of the 4 countries. PMID:19661101

  4. Framing a socio-indexical basis for the emergence and cultural transmission of phonological systems

    PubMed Central

    Plummer, Andrew R.; Beckman, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Moulin-Frier et al. (2016) proffer a conceptual framework and computational modeling architecture for the investigation of the emergence of phonological universals for spoken languages. They validate the framework and architecture by testing to see whether universals such as the prevalence of triangular vowel systems that show adequate dispersion in the F1-F2-F3 space can fall out of simulations of referential communication between social agents, without building principles such as dispersion directly into the model. In this paper, we examine the assumptions underlying the framework, beginning with the assumption that it is such substantive universals that are in need of explanation rather than the rich diversity of phonological systems observed across human cultures and the compositional (“prosodic”) structure that characterizes signed as well as spoken languages. Also, when emergence is construed at the time-scales of the biological evolution of the species and of the cultural evolution of distinct speech communities, it is the affiliative or affective rather than the referential function that has the greater significance for our understanding of how phonological systems can emerge de novo in ontogeny. PMID:26834297

  5. Academic Culture, Business Culture, and Measuring Achievement Differences: Internal Auditing Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Benjamin S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether university internal audit directors' views of culture and measuring achievement differences between their institutions and a business were related to how they viewed internal auditing priorities and uses. The Carnegie Classification system's 283 Doctorate-granting Universities were the target population.…

  6. Culture and Difference. Critical Perspectives on the Bicultural Experience in the United States. Critical Studies in Education and Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darder, Antonia, Ed.

    The teaching and politics of cultural difference and identity are explored in these essays, which examine the possibilities of living with cultural differences through new ethical and pedagogical frameworks. The following chapters are included: (1) "Introduction. The Politics of Biculturalism: Culture and Difference in the Formation of 'Warriors…

  7. Cultural Differences in Perceiving Sounds Generated by Others: Self Matters

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Liyu; Gross, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Sensory consequences resulting from own movements receive different neural processing compared to externally generated sensory consequences (e.g., by a computer), leading to sensory attenuation, i.e., a reduction in perceived intensity or brain evoked responses. However, discrepant findings exist from different cultural regions about whether sensory attenuation is also present for sensory consequences generated by others. In this study, we performed a cross culture (between Chinese and British) comparison on the processing of sensory consequences (perceived loudness) from self and others compared to an external source in the auditory domain. We found a cultural difference in processing sensory consequences generated by others, with only Chinese and not British showing the sensory attenuation effect. Sensory attenuation in this case was correlated with independent self-construal scores. The sensory attenuation effect for self-generated sensory consequences was not replicated. However, a correlation with delusional ideation was observed for British. These findings are discussed with respects to mechanisms of sensory attenuation. PMID:26696931

  8. Neural differences in the processing of semantic relationships across cultures

    PubMed Central

    Hedden, Trey; Ketay, Sarah; Aron, Arthur; Gabrieli, John D.E.

    2010-01-01

    The current study employed functional MRI to investigate the contribution of domain-general (e.g. executive functions) and domain-specific (e.g. semantic knowledge) processes to differences in semantic judgments across cultures. Previous behavioral experiments have identified cross-cultural differences in categorization, with East Asians preferring strategies involving thematic or functional relationships (e.g. cow-grass) and Americans preferring categorical relationships (e.g. cow-chicken). East Asians and American participants underwent functional imaging while alternating between categorical or thematic strategies to sort triads of words, as well as matching words on control trials. Many similarities were observed. However, across both category and relationship trials compared to match (control) trials, East Asians activated a frontal-parietal network implicated in controlled executive processes, whereas Americans engaged regions of the temporal lobes and the cingulate, possibly in response to conflict in the semantic content of information. The results suggest that cultures differ in the strategies employed to resolve conflict between competing semantic judgments. PMID:20139116

  9. EMERGENT PATTERNS OF SEX DIFFERENCE IN A STUDY OF CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MINUCHIN, PATRICIA

    RESULTS OF INVESTIGATIONS INTO ACQUIRED VS. INHERENT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BOYS AND GIRLS WERE PRESENTED. FINDING REVEALED THAT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BOYS AND GIRLS WERE AFFECTED BY THE ATTITUDES OF THEIR SCHOOLS TOWARD THEM AND TOWARD EDUCATION IN GENERAL. SEX DIFFERENCES IN BASIC INTELLECTUAL CAPACITY, ACHIEVEMENT, AND PROBLEM-SOLVING ABILITY…

  10. Structure emerges faster during cultural transmission in children than in adults.

    PubMed

    Kempe, Vera; Gauvrit, Nicolas; Forsyth, Douglas

    2015-03-01

    How does children's limited processing capacity affect cultural transmission of complex information? We show that over the course of iterated reproduction of two-dimensional random dot patterns transmission accuracy increased to a similar extent in 5- to 8-year-old children and adults whereas algorithmic complexity decreased faster in children. Thus, children require more structure to render complex inputs learnable. In line with the Less-Is-More hypothesis, we interpret this as evidence that children's processing limitations affecting working memory capacity and executive control constrain the ability to represent and generate complexity, which, in turn, facilitates emergence of structure. This underscores the importance of investigating the role of children in the transmission of complex cultural traits.

  11. Importance of life domains in different cultural groups.

    PubMed

    Elizur, Dov; Kantor, Jeffrey; Yaniv, Eyal; Sagie, Abraham

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the role of individualism and collectivism in the shaping of personal values of Canadians, Israelis, and Palestinians. Based on Sagie and Elizur's (1996) multifaceted approach, we distinguished personal values that are individual centered (i.e., associated with one's home, family, or work) from collective-centered values (i.e., associated with the religion, sports, or politics). The magnitude of the difference between both value types differs according to cultural orientation. As compared with Palestinians, we predicted that Canadians and Israelis would rank individual-centered values higher and collective-centered values lower. Data obtained from samples of Palestinians, Israelis, and Canadians supported this hypothesis.

  12. Focusing on the Negative: Cultural Differences in Expressions of Sympathy

    PubMed Central

    Koopmann-Holm, Birgit; Tsai, Jeanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Feeling concern about the suffering of others is considered a basic human response, and yet, we know surprisingly little about the cultural factors that shape how people respond to the suffering of another person. To this end, we conducted four studies that tested the hypothesis that American expressions of sympathy focus on the negative less and positive more than German expressions of sympathy, in part because Americans want to avoid negative states more than Germans do. In Study 1, we demonstrate that American sympathy cards contained less negative and more positive content than German sympathy cards. In Study 2, we show that European Americans want to avoid negative states more than Germans do. In Study 3, we demonstrate that these cultural differences in “avoided negative affect” mediate cultural differences in how comfortable Americans and Germans felt focusing on the negative (vs. positive) when expressing sympathy for the hypothetical death of an acquaintance's father. To examine whether greater avoided negative affect results in lesser focus on the negative and greater focus on the positive when responding to another person's suffering, in Study 4, American and German participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (1) to “push negative images away” (i.e., increasing desire to avoid negative affect), or (2) to “pull negative images closer” to themselves (i.e., decreasing desire to avoid negative affect). Participants were then asked to pick a card to send to an acquaintance whose father had hypothetically just died. Across cultures, participants in the “push negative away” condition were less likely to choose sympathy cards with negative (vs. positive) content than were those in the “pull negative closer” condition. Together, these studies suggest that cultures differ in their desire to avoid negative affect, and that these differences influence the degree to which expressions of sympathy focus on the negative (vs

  13. Interaction patterns in crisis negotiations: persuasive arguments and cultural differences.

    PubMed

    Giebels, Ellen; Taylor, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    This research examines cultural differences in negotiators' responses to persuasive arguments in crisis (hostage) negotiations over time. Using a new method of examining cue-response patterns, the authors examined 25 crisis negotiations in which police negotiators interacted with perpetrators from low-context (LC) or high-context (HC) cultures. Compared with HC perpetrators, LC perpetrators were found to use more persuasive arguments, to reciprocate persuasive arguments in the second half of negotiations, and to respond to persuasive arguments in a compromising way. Further analyses found that LC perpetrators were more likely to communicate threats, especially in the first half of the negotiations, but that HC perpetrators were more likely to reciprocate them. The implications of these findings for our understanding of intercultural interaction are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Complex Networks in Different Languages: A Study of an Emergent Multilingual Encyclopedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pembe, F. Canan; Bingol, Haluk

    There is an increasing interest to the study of complex networks in an interdisciplinary way. Language, as a complex network, has been a part of this study due to its importance in human life. Moreover, the Internet has also been at the center of this study by making access to large amounts of information possible. With these ideas in mind, this work aims to evaluate conceptual networks in different languages with the data from a large and open source of information in the Internet, namely Wikipedia. As an evolving multilingual encyclopedia that can be edited by any Internet user, Wikipedia is a good example of an emergent complex system. In this paper, different from previous work on conceptual networks which usually concentrated on single languages, we concentrate on possible ways to compare the usages of different languages and possibly the underlying cultures. This also involves the analysis of local network properties around certain coneepts in different languages. For an initial evaluation, the concept "family" is used to compare the English and German Wikipedias. Although, the work is currently at the beginning, the results are promising.

  15. Interplay of differential cell mechanical properties, motility, and proliferation in emergent collective behavior of cell co-cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, Leo; Kolbman, Dan; Wu, Mingming; Ma, Minglin; Das, Moumita

    The biophysics of cell co-cultures, i.e. binary systems of cell populations, is of great interest in many biological processes including formation of embryos, and tumor progression. During these processes, different types of cells with different physical properties are mixed with each other, with important consequences for cell-cell interaction, aggregation, and migration. The role of the differences in their physical properties in their collective behavior remains poorly understood. Furthermore, until recently most theoretical studies of collective cell migration have focused on two dimensional systems. Under physiological conditions, however, cells often have to navigate three dimensional and confined micro-environments. We study a confined, three-dimensional binary system of interacting, active, and deformable particles with different physical properties such as deformability, motility, adhesion, and division rates using Langevin Dynamics simulations. Our findings may provide insights into how the differences in and interplay between cell mechanical properties, division, and motility influence emergent collective behavior such as cell aggregation and segregation experimentally observed in co-cultures of breast cancer cells and healthy breast epithelial cells. This work was partially supported by a Cottrell College Science Award.

  16. Going against the Grain in an Urban Arizona High School: Secondary Preservice Teachers Emerging as Culturally Responsive Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Pablo; Jimenez-Silva, Margarita; Boozer, April; Clark, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This one year study examines the journey of two preservice urban high-school teachers in Arizona as they enact Culturally Responsive Teaching in a year-long student teaching residency. Factors that influenced their Culturally Responsive Teaching practices are discussed along themes that emerged from interviews and classroom observations.…

  17. Measurement Invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Student's Life Satisfaction Scale among Adolescents and Emerging Adults across 23 Cultural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abubakar, Amina; van de Vijver, Fons; Alonso-Arbiol, Itziar; He, Jia; Adams, Byron; Aldhafri, Said; Aydinli-Karakulak, Arzu; Arasa, Josephine; Boer, Diana; Celenk, Ozgur; Dimitrova, Radosveta; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Fischer, Ronald; Mbebeb, Fomba Emmanuel; Frías, María Teresa; Fresno, Andrés; Gillath, Omri; Harb, Charles; Handani, Penny; Hapunda, Given; Kamble, Shanmukh; Kosic, Marianna; Looh, Joseph Lah; Mazrui, Lubna; Mendia, Rafael Emilio; Murugami, Margaret; Mason-Li, Mei; Pandia, Weny Savitry; Perdomo, Cristina; Schachner, Maja; Sim, Samantha; Spencer, Rosario; Suryani, Angela; Tair, Ergyul

    2016-01-01

    There is hardly any cross-cultural research on the measurement invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scales (BMSLSS). The current article evaluates the measurement invariance of the BMSLSS across cultural contexts. This cross-sectional study sampled 7,739 adolescents and emerging adults in 23 countries. A multi-group…

  18. Leaders' smiles reflect cultural differences in ideal affect.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jeanne L; Ang, Jen Ying Zhen; Blevins, Elizabeth; Goernandt, Julia; Fung, Helene H; Jiang, Da; Elliott, Julian; Kölzer, Anna; Uchida, Yukiko; Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiulan; Govindama, Yolande; Haddouk, Lise

    2016-03-01

    Cultures differ in the emotions they teach their members to value ("ideal affect"). We conducted 3 studies to examine whether leaders' smiles reflect these cultural differences in ideal affect. In Study 1, we compared the smiles of top-ranked American and Chinese government leaders, chief executive officers, and university presidents in their official photos. Consistent with findings that Americans value excitement and other high-arousal positive states more than Chinese, American top-ranked leaders (N = 98) showed more excited smiles than Chinese top-ranked leaders (N = 91) across occupations. In Study 2, we compared the smiles of winning versus losing political candidates and higher versus lower ranking chief executive officers and university presidents in the United States and Taiwan/China. American leaders (N = 223) showed more excited smiles than Taiwanese/Chinese leaders (N = 266), regardless of election outcome or ranking. In Study 3, we administered self-report measures of ideal affect in college student samples from 10 different nations (N = 1,267) and then 8 years later, coded the smiles that legislators from those nations showed in their official photos (N = 3,372). The more nations valued excitement and other high arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed excited smiles; similarly, the more nations valued calm and other low-arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed calm smiles. These results held after controlling for national differences in democratization, human development, and gross domestic product per capita. Together, these findings suggest that leaders' smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures.

  19. Leaders’ Smiles Reflect Cultural Differences in Ideal Affect

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ang, Jen Ying Zhen; Blevins, Elizabeth; Goernandt, Julia; Fung, Helene H.; Jiang, Da; Elliott, Julian; Kölzer, Anna; Uchida, Yukiko; Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiulan; Govindama, Yolande; Haddouk, Lise

    2015-01-01

    Cultures differ in the emotions they teach their members to value (“ideal affect”). We conducted three studies to examine whether leaders’ smiles reflect these cultural differences in ideal affect. In Study 1, we compared the smiles of top ranked American and Chinese government leaders, chief-executive-officers (CEOs), and university presidents in their official photos. Consistent with findings that Americans value excitement and other high arousal positive states more than Chinese, American top ranked leaders (N = 98) showed more excited smiles than Chinese top ranked leaders (N = 91) across occupations. In Study 2, we compared the smiles of winning vs. losing political candidates and higher vs. lower ranking CEOs and university presidents in the US and Taiwan/China. American leaders (N = 223) showed more excited smiles than Taiwanese/Chinese leaders (N =266), regardless of election outcome or ranking. In Study 3, we administered self-report measures of ideal affect in college student samples from 10 different nations (N = 1,267) and then eight years later, coded the smiles that legislators from those nations showed in their official photos (N = 3,372). The more nations valued excitement and other high arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed excited smiles; similarly, the more nations valued calm and other low arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed calm smiles. These results held after controlling for national differences in GDP per capita, democratization, and human development. Together, these findings suggest that leaders’ smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures. PMID:26751631

  20. Leaders' smiles reflect cultural differences in ideal affect.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jeanne L; Ang, Jen Ying Zhen; Blevins, Elizabeth; Goernandt, Julia; Fung, Helene H; Jiang, Da; Elliott, Julian; Kölzer, Anna; Uchida, Yukiko; Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiulan; Govindama, Yolande; Haddouk, Lise

    2016-03-01

    Cultures differ in the emotions they teach their members to value ("ideal affect"). We conducted 3 studies to examine whether leaders' smiles reflect these cultural differences in ideal affect. In Study 1, we compared the smiles of top-ranked American and Chinese government leaders, chief executive officers, and university presidents in their official photos. Consistent with findings that Americans value excitement and other high-arousal positive states more than Chinese, American top-ranked leaders (N = 98) showed more excited smiles than Chinese top-ranked leaders (N = 91) across occupations. In Study 2, we compared the smiles of winning versus losing political candidates and higher versus lower ranking chief executive officers and university presidents in the United States and Taiwan/China. American leaders (N = 223) showed more excited smiles than Taiwanese/Chinese leaders (N = 266), regardless of election outcome or ranking. In Study 3, we administered self-report measures of ideal affect in college student samples from 10 different nations (N = 1,267) and then 8 years later, coded the smiles that legislators from those nations showed in their official photos (N = 3,372). The more nations valued excitement and other high arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed excited smiles; similarly, the more nations valued calm and other low-arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed calm smiles. These results held after controlling for national differences in democratization, human development, and gross domestic product per capita. Together, these findings suggest that leaders' smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures. PMID:26751631

  1. Hearing Voices in Different Cultures: A Social Kindling Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Luhrmann, Tanya M; Padmavati, R; Tharoor, Hema; Osei, Akwasi

    2015-10-01

    This study compares 20 subjects, in each of three different settings, with serious psychotic disorder (they meet inclusion criteria for schizophrenia) who hear voices, and compares their voice-hearing experience. We find that while there is much that is similar, there are notable differences in the kinds of voices that people seem to experience. In a California sample, people were more likely to describe their voices as intrusive unreal thoughts; in the South Indian sample, they were more likely to describe them as providing useful guidance; and in our West African sample, they were more likely to describe them as morally good and causally powerful. What we think we may be observing is that people who fall ill with serious psychotic disorder pay selective attention to a constant stream of many different auditory and quasi-auditory events because of different "cultural invitations"-variations in ways of thinking about minds, persons, spirits and so forth. Such a process is consistent with processes described in the cognitive psychology and psychiatric anthropology literature, but not yet described or understood with respect to cultural variations in auditory hallucinations. We call this process "social kindling." PMID:26349837

  2. Hearing Voices in Different Cultures: A Social Kindling Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Luhrmann, Tanya M; Padmavati, R; Tharoor, Hema; Osei, Akwasi

    2015-10-01

    This study compares 20 subjects, in each of three different settings, with serious psychotic disorder (they meet inclusion criteria for schizophrenia) who hear voices, and compares their voice-hearing experience. We find that while there is much that is similar, there are notable differences in the kinds of voices that people seem to experience. In a California sample, people were more likely to describe their voices as intrusive unreal thoughts; in the South Indian sample, they were more likely to describe them as providing useful guidance; and in our West African sample, they were more likely to describe them as morally good and causally powerful. What we think we may be observing is that people who fall ill with serious psychotic disorder pay selective attention to a constant stream of many different auditory and quasi-auditory events because of different "cultural invitations"-variations in ways of thinking about minds, persons, spirits and so forth. Such a process is consistent with processes described in the cognitive psychology and psychiatric anthropology literature, but not yet described or understood with respect to cultural variations in auditory hallucinations. We call this process "social kindling."

  3. [Blood cultures in the paediatric emergency department. Guidelines and recommendations on their indications, collection, processing and interpretation].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Bou, S; Álvarez Álvarez, C; Campo Fernández, M N; García Herrero, M A; Gené Giralt, A; Giménez Pérez, M; Piñeiro Pérez, R; Gómez Cortés, B; Velasco, R; Menasalvas Ruiz, A I; García García, J J; Rodrigo Gonzalo de Liria, C

    2016-05-01

    Blood culture (BC) is the gold standard when a bacteraemia is suspected, and is one of the most requested microbiological tests in paediatrics. Some changes have occurred in recent years: the introduction of new vaccines, the increasing number of patients with central vascular catheters, as well as the introduction of continuous monitoring BC systems. These changes have led to the review and update of different factors related to this technique in order to optimise its use. A practice guideline is presented with recommendations on BC, established by the Spanish Society of Paediatric Emergency Care and the Spanish Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases. After reviewing the available scientific evidence, several recommendations for each of the following aspects are presented: BC indications in the Emergency Department, how to obtain, transport and process cultures, special situations (indications and interpretation of results in immunosuppressed patients and/or central vascular catheter carriers, indications for anaerobic BC), differentiation between bacteraemia and contamination when a BC shows bacterial growth and actions to take with a positive BC in patients with fever of unknown origin.

  4. [Blood cultures in the paediatric emergency department. Guidelines and recommendations on their indications, collection, processing and interpretation].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Bou, S; Álvarez Álvarez, C; Campo Fernández, M N; García Herrero, M A; Gené Giralt, A; Giménez Pérez, M; Piñeiro Pérez, R; Gómez Cortés, B; Velasco, R; Menasalvas Ruiz, A I; García García, J J; Rodrigo Gonzalo de Liria, C

    2016-05-01

    Blood culture (BC) is the gold standard when a bacteraemia is suspected, and is one of the most requested microbiological tests in paediatrics. Some changes have occurred in recent years: the introduction of new vaccines, the increasing number of patients with central vascular catheters, as well as the introduction of continuous monitoring BC systems. These changes have led to the review and update of different factors related to this technique in order to optimise its use. A practice guideline is presented with recommendations on BC, established by the Spanish Society of Paediatric Emergency Care and the Spanish Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases. After reviewing the available scientific evidence, several recommendations for each of the following aspects are presented: BC indications in the Emergency Department, how to obtain, transport and process cultures, special situations (indications and interpretation of results in immunosuppressed patients and/or central vascular catheter carriers, indications for anaerobic BC), differentiation between bacteraemia and contamination when a BC shows bacterial growth and actions to take with a positive BC in patients with fever of unknown origin. PMID:26227314

  5. Carotenoid Production by Halophilic Archaea Under Different Culture Conditions.

    PubMed

    Calegari-Santos, Rossana; Diogo, Ricardo Alexandre; Fontana, José Domingos; Bonfim, Tania Maria Bordin

    2016-05-01

    Carotenoids are pigments that may be used as colorants and antioxidants in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Since they also benefit human health, great efforts have been undertaken to search for natural sources of carotenoids, including microbial ones. The optimization of culture conditions to increase carotenoid yield is one of the strategies used to minimize the high cost of carotenoid production by microorganisms. Halophilic archaea are capable of producing carotenoids according to culture conditions. Their main carotenoid is bacterioruberin with 50 carbon atoms. In fact, the carotenoid has important biological functions since it acts as cell membrane reinforcement and it protects the microorganism against DNA damaging agents. Moreover, carotenoid extracts from halophilic archaea have shown high antioxidant capacity. Therefore, current review summarizes the effect of different culture conditions such as salt and carbon source concentrations in the medium, light incidence, and oxygen tension on carotenoid production by halophilic archaea and the strategies such as optimization methodology and two-stage cultivation already used to increase the carotenoid yield of these microorganisms. PMID:26750123

  6. Microalgae respond differently to nitrogen availability during culturing.

    PubMed

    Gigova, Liliana G; Ivanova, Natalia J

    2015-06-01

    Variations in the exogenous nitrogen level are known to significantly affect the physiological status and metabolism of microalgae. However, responses of red, green and yellow-green algae to nitrogen (N) availability have not been compared yet. Porphyridium cruentum, Scenedesmus incrassatulus and Trachydiscus minutus were cultured in the absence of N in the medium and subsequent resupply of N to the starved cells. Culture growth and in-gel changes in isoenzyme pattern and activity of glutamate synthase, glutamate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were studied. The results demonstrated that the algae responded to the fully N-depleted and N-replete culture conditions by species-specific metabolic enzyme changes, suggesting differential regulation of both enzyme activity and cellular metabolism. Substantial differences in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes between N-depleted and N-replete cells of each species as well as between the species were also found. In the present work, besides the more general responses, such as adjustment of growth and pigmentation, we report on the involvement of specific metabolic and antioxidant enzymes and their isoforms in the mechanisms operating during N starvation and recovery in P. cruentum, T. minutus and S. incrassatulus.

  7. Carotenoid Production by Halophilic Archaea Under Different Culture Conditions.

    PubMed

    Calegari-Santos, Rossana; Diogo, Ricardo Alexandre; Fontana, José Domingos; Bonfim, Tania Maria Bordin

    2016-05-01

    Carotenoids are pigments that may be used as colorants and antioxidants in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Since they also benefit human health, great efforts have been undertaken to search for natural sources of carotenoids, including microbial ones. The optimization of culture conditions to increase carotenoid yield is one of the strategies used to minimize the high cost of carotenoid production by microorganisms. Halophilic archaea are capable of producing carotenoids according to culture conditions. Their main carotenoid is bacterioruberin with 50 carbon atoms. In fact, the carotenoid has important biological functions since it acts as cell membrane reinforcement and it protects the microorganism against DNA damaging agents. Moreover, carotenoid extracts from halophilic archaea have shown high antioxidant capacity. Therefore, current review summarizes the effect of different culture conditions such as salt and carbon source concentrations in the medium, light incidence, and oxygen tension on carotenoid production by halophilic archaea and the strategies such as optimization methodology and two-stage cultivation already used to increase the carotenoid yield of these microorganisms.

  8. Microalgae respond differently to nitrogen availability during culturing.

    PubMed

    Gigova, Liliana G; Ivanova, Natalia J

    2015-06-01

    Variations in the exogenous nitrogen level are known to significantly affect the physiological status and metabolism of microalgae. However, responses of red, green and yellow-green algae to nitrogen (N) availability have not been compared yet. Porphyridium cruentum, Scenedesmus incrassatulus and Trachydiscus minutus were cultured in the absence of N in the medium and subsequent resupply of N to the starved cells. Culture growth and in-gel changes in isoenzyme pattern and activity of glutamate synthase, glutamate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were studied. The results demonstrated that the algae responded to the fully N-depleted and N-replete culture conditions by species-specific metabolic enzyme changes, suggesting differential regulation of both enzyme activity and cellular metabolism. Substantial differences in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes between N-depleted and N-replete cells of each species as well as between the species were also found. In the present work, besides the more general responses, such as adjustment of growth and pigmentation, we report on the involvement of specific metabolic and antioxidant enzymes and their isoforms in the mechanisms operating during N starvation and recovery in P. cruentum, T. minutus and S. incrassatulus. PMID:25963263

  9. Sex Differences in Wild Chimpanzee Behavior Emerge during Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Markham, A. Catherine; Heintz, Matthew R.; Anderson, Karen E.; Ciuk, David J.; Goodall, Jane; Murray, Carson M.

    2014-01-01

    The role of biological and social influences on sex differences in human child development is a persistent topic of discussion and debate. Given their many similarities to humans, chimpanzees are an important study species for understanding the biological and evolutionary roots of sex differences in human development. In this study, we present the most detailed analyses of wild chimpanzee infant development to date, encompassing data from 40 infants from the long-term study of chimpanzees at Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Our goal was to characterize age-related changes, from birth to five years of age, in the percent of observation time spent performing behaviors that represent important benchmarks in nutritional, motor, and social development, and to determine whether and in which behaviors sex differences occur. Sex differences were found for indicators of social behavior, motor development and spatial independence with males being more physically precocious and peaking in play earlier than females. These results demonstrate early sex differentiation that may reflect adult reproductive strategies. Our findings also resemble those found in humans, which suggests that biologically-based sex differences may have been present in the common ancestor and operated independently from the influences of modern sex-biased parental behavior and gender socialization. PMID:24911160

  10. Sex Differences in the Manifestation of ADHD in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedele, David A.; Lefler, Elizabeth K.; Hartung, Cynthia M.; Canu, Will H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Given the mixed literature in the area, the aim of the current study was to determine whether sex differences exist in inattention, hyperactivity, and impairment in college adults with ADHD. Method: Individuals from three universities were recruited for the study. Participants with (n = 164) and without ADHD (n = 710) completed on-line…

  11. Outlaw motorcycle gangs: aspects of the one-percenter culture for emergency department personnel to consider.

    PubMed

    Bosmia, Anand N; Quinn, James F; Peterson, Todd B; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2014-07-01

    Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs) are an iconic element of the criminal landscape in the United States, the country of their origin. Members of OMGs may present to the emergency department (ED) as a result of motor vehicle accidents or interpersonal violence. When one member of an OMG is injured, other members and associates are likely to arrive in the ED to support the injured member. The extant literature for ED personnel lacks an overview of the culture of OMGs, a culture that promotes the display of unique symbols and that holds certain paraphernalia as integral to an outlaw biker's identity and pride. The objective of this manuscript is to discuss various aspects of the culture of OMGs so that ED personnel may better understand the mentality of the outlaw biker. Knowledge of their symbols, values, and hierarchy can be crucial to maintaining order in the ED when an injured outlaw biker presents to the ED. We used standard search engines to obtain reports from law enforcement agencies and studies in academic journals on OMGs. We present the observations of 1 author who has conducted ethnographic research on outlaw bikers since the 1980s.

  12. Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs: Aspects of the One-Percenter Culture for Emergency Department Personnel to Consider

    PubMed Central

    Bosmia, Anand N.; Quinn, James F.; Peterson, Todd B.; Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Tubbs, R. Shane

    2014-01-01

    Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs) are an iconic element of the criminal landscape in the United States, the country of their origin. Members of OMGs may present to the emergency department (ED) as a result of motor vehicle accidents or interpersonal violence. When one member of an OMG is injured, other members and associates are likely to arrive in the ED to support the injured member. The extant literature for ED personnel lacks an overview of the culture of OMGs, a culture that promotes the display of unique symbols and that holds certain paraphernalia as integral to an outlaw biker’s identity and pride. The objective of this manuscript is to discuss various aspects of the culture of OMGs so that ED personnel may better understand the mentality of the outlaw biker. Knowledge of their symbols, values, and hierarchy can be crucial to maintaining order in the ED when an injured outlaw biker presents to the ED. We used standard search engines to obtain reports from law enforcement agencies and studies in academic journals on OMGs. We present the observations of 1 author who has conducted ethnographic research on outlaw bikers since the 1980s. PMID:25035762

  13. Just How Many Different Forms of Culture Are There?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Adam B.

    2010-01-01

    Responds to comments by H. Takooshian and J. K. Tebes on the current author's original article, "Many forms of culture". The current author argued that psychologists tend to focus on too narrow a set of cultures (ethnic and national cultures) and some dimensions of those cultures (individualism-collectivism, independence-interdependence). He then…

  14. [Ecological characteristics of different Pseudosciaena crocea culture models].

    PubMed

    Lu, Guang-Ming; Xu, Yong-Jian; Lu, Hui-Xian

    2011-05-01

    A comparative study was conducted on the ecological characteristics of different Pseudosciaena crocea culture models including monoculture P. crocea (F) and polyculture P. crocea with seaweed Gracilaria lichevoides (FG), benthos Perinereis aibuhitensis (FP), and G. lichevoides plus P. aibuhitensis (FGP) in land-based enclosures, with the sediment and water environment condition, culture benefit, and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) reclaim efficiency analyzed. G. lichevoides could effectively remove the N and P in the water body. The water N and P concentrations in FG and FGP were significantly lower than those in F and FP, and the P utilization efficiency reached 33.8% - 34.0% of the total P input. P. aibuhitensis improved sediment environment condition. The sediment N and P concentrations in FP and FGP were lower than those in F and FG, and had significant differences between surface sediment (1-2 cm) and subsurface sediment (2-4 cm). Comparing with those in F, the total N, total P, and inorganic P in FP and FGP reduced by 8.9% -9.2% , 6.1% -6.3% and 8.0% -8.1%, respectively. P. aibuhitensis had a higher efficiency in reclaiming sediment P (7.5% -7.8% of the total P input), being able to effectively mitigate the P accumulation in sediment. Among the test models, FGP had the best material utilization efficiency and optimal resource benefit.

  15. Cultural differences in the primacy effect for person perception.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Kenji; Kamada, Akiko; Shrira, Ilan

    2014-06-01

    Previous work has shown there are robust differences in how North Americans and East Asians form impressions of people. The present research examines whether the tendency to weigh initial information more heavily-the primacy effect-may be another component of these cultural differences. Specifically, we tested whether Americans would be more likely to use first impressions to guide person perception, compared to Japanese participants. In this experiment, participants read a vignette that described a target person's behaviour, then rated the target's personality. Before reading the vignette, some trait information was given to create an expectation about the target's personality. The data revealed that Americans used this initial information to guide their judgments of the target, whereas the Japanese sample based their judgments on all the information more evenly. Thus, Americans showed a stronger primacy effect in their impression formation than Japanese participants, who engaged in more data-driven processing.

  16. Cultural differences in the primacy effect for person perception.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Kenji; Kamada, Akiko; Shrira, Ilan

    2014-06-01

    Previous work has shown there are robust differences in how North Americans and East Asians form impressions of people. The present research examines whether the tendency to weigh initial information more heavily-the primacy effect-may be another component of these cultural differences. Specifically, we tested whether Americans would be more likely to use first impressions to guide person perception, compared to Japanese participants. In this experiment, participants read a vignette that described a target person's behaviour, then rated the target's personality. Before reading the vignette, some trait information was given to create an expectation about the target's personality. The data revealed that Americans used this initial information to guide their judgments of the target, whereas the Japanese sample based their judgments on all the information more evenly. Thus, Americans showed a stronger primacy effect in their impression formation than Japanese participants, who engaged in more data-driven processing. PMID:24821510

  17. Linguistic and Cultural Challenges in Communication and Translation in US-Sponsored HIV Prevention Research in Emerging Economies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic and cultural differences can impede comprehension among potential research participants during the informed consent process, but how researchers and IRBs respond to these challenges in practice is unclear. We conducted in-depth interviews with 15 researchers, research ethics committee (REC) chairs and members from 8 different countries with emerging economies, involved in HIV-related research sponsored by HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN), regarding the ethical and regulatory challenges they face in this regard. In the interviews, problems with translating study materials often arose as major concerns. Four sets of challenges were identified concerning linguistic and cultural translations of informed consent documents and other study materials, related to the: (1) context, (2) process, (3) content and (4) translation of these documents. Host country contextual issues included low literacy rates, education (e.g., documents may need to be written below 5th grade reading level), and experiences with research, and different views of written documentation. Certain terms and concepts may not exist in other languages, or have additional connotations that back translations do not always reveal. Challenges arise because of not only the content of word-for-word, literal translation, but the linguistic form of the language, such as tone (e.g., appropriate forms of politeness vs. legalese, seen as harsh), syntax, manner of questions posed, and the concept of the consent); and the contexts of use affect meaning. Problems also emerged in bilateral communications – US IRBs may misunderstand local practices, or communicate insufficiently the reasons for their decisions to foreign RECs. In sum, these data highlight several challenges that have received little, if any, attention in past literature on translation of informed consent and study materials, and have crucial implications for improving practice, education, research and policy, suggesting several strategies

  18. Linguistic and Cultural Challenges in Communication and Translation in US-Sponsored HIV Prevention Research in Emerging Economies.

    PubMed

    Hanrahan, Donna; Sexton, Patrina; Hui, Katrina; Teitcher, Jennifer; Sugarman, Jeremy; London, Alex John; Barnes, Mark; Purpura, James; Klitzman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic and cultural differences can impede comprehension among potential research participants during the informed consent process, but how researchers and IRBs respond to these challenges in practice is unclear. We conducted in-depth interviews with 15 researchers, research ethics committee (REC) chairs and members from 8 different countries with emerging economies, involved in HIV-related research sponsored by HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN), regarding the ethical and regulatory challenges they face in this regard. In the interviews, problems with translating study materials often arose as major concerns. Four sets of challenges were identified concerning linguistic and cultural translations of informed consent documents and other study materials, related to the: (1) context, (2) process, (3) content and (4) translation of these documents. Host country contextual issues included low literacy rates, education (e.g., documents may need to be written below 5th grade reading level), and experiences with research, and different views of written documentation. Certain terms and concepts may not exist in other languages, or have additional connotations that back translations do not always reveal. Challenges arise because of not only the content of word-for-word, literal translation, but the linguistic form of the language, such as tone (e.g., appropriate forms of politeness vs. legalese, seen as harsh), syntax, manner of questions posed, and the concept of the consent); and the contexts of use affect meaning. Problems also emerged in bilateral communications--US IRBs may misunderstand local practices, or communicate insufficiently the reasons for their decisions to foreign RECs. In sum, these data highlight several challenges that have received little, if any, attention in past literature on translation of informed consent and study materials, and have crucial implications for improving practice, education, research and policy, suggesting several strategies

  19. Linguistic and Cultural Challenges in Communication and Translation in US-Sponsored HIV Prevention Research in Emerging Economies.

    PubMed

    Hanrahan, Donna; Sexton, Patrina; Hui, Katrina; Teitcher, Jennifer; Sugarman, Jeremy; London, Alex John; Barnes, Mark; Purpura, James; Klitzman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic and cultural differences can impede comprehension among potential research participants during the informed consent process, but how researchers and IRBs respond to these challenges in practice is unclear. We conducted in-depth interviews with 15 researchers, research ethics committee (REC) chairs and members from 8 different countries with emerging economies, involved in HIV-related research sponsored by HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN), regarding the ethical and regulatory challenges they face in this regard. In the interviews, problems with translating study materials often arose as major concerns. Four sets of challenges were identified concerning linguistic and cultural translations of informed consent documents and other study materials, related to the: (1) context, (2) process, (3) content and (4) translation of these documents. Host country contextual issues included low literacy rates, education (e.g., documents may need to be written below 5th grade reading level), and experiences with research, and different views of written documentation. Certain terms and concepts may not exist in other languages, or have additional connotations that back translations do not always reveal. Challenges arise because of not only the content of word-for-word, literal translation, but the linguistic form of the language, such as tone (e.g., appropriate forms of politeness vs. legalese, seen as harsh), syntax, manner of questions posed, and the concept of the consent); and the contexts of use affect meaning. Problems also emerged in bilateral communications--US IRBs may misunderstand local practices, or communicate insufficiently the reasons for their decisions to foreign RECs. In sum, these data highlight several challenges that have received little, if any, attention in past literature on translation of informed consent and study materials, and have crucial implications for improving practice, education, research and policy, suggesting several strategies

  20. Morbidity and Mortality Conference in Emergency Medicine Residencies and the Culture of Safety

    PubMed Central

    Aaronson, Emily L.; Wittels, Kathleen A.; Nadel, Eric S.; Schuur, Jeremiah D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Morbidity and mortality conferences (M+M) are a traditional part of residency training and mandated by the Accreditation Counsel of Graduate Medical Education. This study’s objective was to determine the goals, structure, and the prevalence of practices that foster strong safety cultures in the M+Ms of U.S. emergency medicine (EM) residency programs. Methods The authors conducted a national survey of U.S. EM residency program directors. The survey instrument evaluated five domains of M+M (Organization and Infrastructure; Case Finding; Case Selection; Presentation; and Follow up) based on the validated Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality Safety Culture survey. Results There was an 80% (151/188) response rate. The primary objectives of M+M were discussing adverse outcomes (53/151, 35%), identifying systems errors (47/151, 31%) and identifying cognitive errors (26/151, 17%). Fifty-six percent (84/151) of institutions have anonymous case submission, with 10% (15/151) maintaining complete anonymity during the presentation and 21% (31/151) maintaining partial anonymity. Forty-seven percent (71/151) of programs report a formal process to follow up on systems issues identified at M+M. Forty-four percent (67/151) of programs report regular debriefing with residents who have had their cases presented. Conclusion The structure and goals of M+Ms in EM residencies vary widely. Many programs lack features of M+M that promote a non-punitive response to error, such as anonymity. Other programs lack features that support strong safety cultures, such as following up on systems issues or reporting back to residents on improvements. Further research is warranted to determine if M+M structure is related to patient safety culture in residency programs. PMID:26594271

  1. Radiosensitivity of different tissues from carrot root at different phases of growth in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Degani, N.; Pickholtz, D.

    1980-09-01

    The present work compares the effect of ..gamma..-radiation dose and time in culture on the growth of cambium and phloem carrot (Daucus carota) root explants. It was found that the phloem is more radiosensitive than the cambium and that both tissues were more radiosensitive when irradiated on excision at the G/sub 1/ phase rather than at the end of the lag phase on the ninth day of growth in culture when cells were predominantly at the G/sub 2/ phase. The nuclear volumes of cells from both tissues were similar but were larger at the end of the more radioresistant lag phase than those of the G/sub 1/ phase on excision. However, nuclear volume could not account for the differences in radiosensitivity between either the tissues or irradiation times in culture.

  2. Sensory exploitation and cultural transmission: the late emergence of iconic representations in human evolution.

    PubMed

    Verpooten, Jan; Nelissen, Mark

    2010-09-01

    Iconic representations (i.e., figurative imagery and realistic art) only started to appear consistently some 45,000 years ago, although humans have been anatomically modern since 200,000-160,000 years ago. What explains this? Some authors have suggested a neurocognitive change took place, leading to a creative explosion, although this has been contested. Here, we examine the hypothesis that demographic changes caused cultural "cumulative adaptive evolution" and as such the emergence of modern symbolic behavior. This approach usefully explains the evolution of utilitarian skills and tools, and the creation of symbols to identify groups. However, it does not equally effectively explain the evolution of behaviors that may not be directly adaptive, such as the production of iconic representations like figurines and rock art. In order to shed light on their emergence, we propose to combine the above-mentioned cultural hypothesis with the concept of sensory exploitation. The concept essentially states that behavioral traits (in this case iconic art production) which exploit pre-existing sensory sensitivities will evolve if not hindered by costs (i.e., natural selection). In this view, iconic art traditions are evolved by piggy-backing on cumulative adaptive evolution. Since it is to date uncertain whether art has served any adaptive function in human evolution, parsimony demands paying more attention to the primary and a functional mechanism of sensory exploitation as opposed to mechanisms of models based exclusively on secondary benefits (such as Miller's, for instance, in which art is proposed to evolve as a sexual display of fitness). PMID:20556543

  3. Sensory exploitation and cultural transmission: the late emergence of iconic representations in human evolution.

    PubMed

    Verpooten, Jan; Nelissen, Mark

    2010-09-01

    Iconic representations (i.e., figurative imagery and realistic art) only started to appear consistently some 45,000 years ago, although humans have been anatomically modern since 200,000-160,000 years ago. What explains this? Some authors have suggested a neurocognitive change took place, leading to a creative explosion, although this has been contested. Here, we examine the hypothesis that demographic changes caused cultural "cumulative adaptive evolution" and as such the emergence of modern symbolic behavior. This approach usefully explains the evolution of utilitarian skills and tools, and the creation of symbols to identify groups. However, it does not equally effectively explain the evolution of behaviors that may not be directly adaptive, such as the production of iconic representations like figurines and rock art. In order to shed light on their emergence, we propose to combine the above-mentioned cultural hypothesis with the concept of sensory exploitation. The concept essentially states that behavioral traits (in this case iconic art production) which exploit pre-existing sensory sensitivities will evolve if not hindered by costs (i.e., natural selection). In this view, iconic art traditions are evolved by piggy-backing on cumulative adaptive evolution. Since it is to date uncertain whether art has served any adaptive function in human evolution, parsimony demands paying more attention to the primary and a functional mechanism of sensory exploitation as opposed to mechanisms of models based exclusively on secondary benefits (such as Miller's, for instance, in which art is proposed to evolve as a sexual display of fitness).

  4. Immigrants, Schooling, and Social Mobility: Does Culture Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermeulen, Hans, Ed.; Perlmann, Joel, Ed.

    This book contains a collection of essays by Dutch and American scholars on the complex relationship between structural and cultural forces shaping the life chances of ethnic minorities. The papers are: (1) "Introduction: The Role of Culture in Explanations of Social Mobility" (Hans Vermeulen); (2) "Introduction: The Persistence of Culture versus…

  5. Cultural and ethnic differences in content validation responses.

    PubMed

    Evans, Bronwynne C

    2004-04-01

    Eight instruments to evaluate grant interventions aimed at increasing recruitment and retention of Hispanic/Latino and American Indian nurses were developed for a Nursing Workforce Diversity Grant. This article compares expert reviewer responses during content validation of these instruments with (a) current literature and (b) seven filmed intervals of Hispanic/Latino and American Indian nurses speaking about their educational experiences. White reviewers responded differently to certain items than did Hispanic/Latino and American Indian reviewers (or reviewers closely affiliated with such persons). Responses of Hispanic/Latino and American Indian experts were aligned with one another but not aligned with the responses of White experts, who also agreed with one another, prompting literature and film comparisons with their responses. Faculty development may be needed to help teachers uncover their assumptions about students of color, acquire knowledge about cultural perspectives, recognize institutional racism, and attain the skills necessary to develop and implement a curriculum of inclusion.

  6. Reflections on the differences between religion and culture.

    PubMed

    Bonney, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Culture may be thought of as a causal agent that affects the evolutionary process by uniquely human means. Religion, on the other hand, is considered a process of revelation and contains the concept of the "faithful" who receive the message of revelation. Culture permits the "self-conscious evaluation of human possibilities" and therefore presents a device for increasing human control over species change. There are dangers, however, in accepting cultural relativism without any constraint, such as respect for human life and dignity. In this article, the author attempts to clarify the boundaries between religion and culture and acknowledges that further research is needed on the religion/culture dichotomy.

  7. Impact of Cultural Differences on Students' Participation, Communication, and Learning in an Online Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Dazhi; Olesova, Larissa; Richardson, Jennifer C.

    2010-01-01

    Being aware of cultural differences and knowing how to deal with related differences is critical for the success of online learning and training that involves learners from multiple countries and cultures. This study examines the perceived differences of participants from two different cultures on (1) students' participation behaviors; (2)…

  8. Cross-cultural differences in drivers' speed choice.

    PubMed

    Wallén Warner, Henriette; Ozkan, Türker; Lajunen, Timo

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine if there are any cross-cultural differences between Swedish and Turkish drivers' rating of the variables in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) with regard to complying with the speed limit. A sample of 219 Swedish and 252 Turkish drivers completed a questionnaire including questions based on the theory of planned behaviour (i.e. regarding attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, intention and behaviour). The results show that country differences in drivers' intention to comply with the speed limit as well as their self-reported compliance could be explained by differences found in their attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. Furthermore, drivers who live in a country with fewer road traffic fatalities (i.e. Sweden), compared with drivers who live in a country with more road traffic fatalities (i.e. Turkey), reported a more positive attitude towards complying with the speed limit, a more positive subjective norm, a higher perceived behavioural control, a higher intention and a larger proportion of the time spent complying.

  9. Burnout, Engagement, and Organizational Culture: Differences between Physicians and Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Mijakoski, Dragan; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Basarovska, Vera; Montgomery, Anthony; Panagopoulou, Efharis; Stoleski, Sasho; Minov, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Burnout results from a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal workplace stressors. The focus of research has been widened to job engagement. AIM: Purpose of the study was to examine associations between burnout, job engagement, work demands, and organisational culture (OC) and to demonstrate differences between physicians and nurses working in general hospital in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Maslach Burnout Inventory and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were used for assessment of burnout and job engagement. Work demands and OC were measured with Hospital Experience Scale and Competing Values Framework, respectively. RESULTS: Higher scores of dedication, hierarchy OC, and organizational work demands were found in physicians. Nurses demonstrated higher scores of clan OC. Burnout negatively correlated with clan and market OC in physicians and nurses. Job engagement positively correlated with clan and market OC in nurses. Different work demands were related to different dimensions of burnout and/or job engagement. Our findings support job demands-resources (JD-R) model (Demerouti and Bakker). CONCLUSIONS: Data obtained can be used in implementation of specific organizational interventions in the hospital setting. Providing adequate JD-R interaction can lead to prevention of burnout in health professionals (HPs) and contribute positively to better job engagement in HPs and higher quality of patient care. PMID:27275279

  10. Comparison of emergence traps of different shape and translucency in the trapping of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Steinke, S; Lühken, R; Kroischke, F; Timmermann, E; Kiel, E

    2016-06-15

    Various types of emergence traps are available for investigations of the breeding habitats of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). In order to assess the potential impact of the trap design on the trapping success, we compared the efficiency of opaque and white (more translucent) emergence traps and two trap shapes (cone-shaped and quadratic), to sample Culicoides emerging from cowpats. Significantly higher numbers of Culicoides chiopterus and Culicoides dewulfi were trapped with opaque traps, while there was no obvious effect of the trap shape. There were no distinct differences in the microclimate among different trap types. PMID:27198792

  11. Interspecies differences in metabolism of arsenic by cultured primary hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Drobna, Zuzana; Walton, Felecia S.; Harmon, Anne W.; Thomas, David J.; Styblo, Miroslav

    2010-05-15

    Biomethylation is the major pathway for the metabolism of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in many mammalian species, including the human. However, significant interspecies differences have been reported in the rate of in vivo metabolism of iAs and in yields of iAs metabolites found in urine. Liver is considered the primary site for the methylation of iAs and arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) is the key enzyme in this pathway. Thus, the As3mt-catalyzed methylation of iAs in the liver determines in part the rate and the pattern of iAs metabolism in various species. We examined kinetics and concentration-response patterns for iAs methylation by cultured primary hepatocytes derived from human, rat, mice, dog, rabbit, and rhesus monkey. Hepatocytes were exposed to [{sup 73}As]arsenite (iAs{sup III}; 0.3, 0.9, 3.0, 9.0 or 30 nmol As/mg protein) for 24 h and radiolabeled metabolites were analyzed in cells and culture media. Hepatocytes from all six species methylated iAs{sup III} to methylarsenic (MAs) and dimethylarsenic (DMAs). Notably, dog, rat and monkey hepatocytes were considerably more efficient methylators of iAs{sup III} than mouse, rabbit or human hepatocytes. The low efficiency of mouse, rabbit and human hepatocytes to methylate iAs{sup III} was associated with inhibition of DMAs production by moderate concentrations of iAs{sup III} and with retention of iAs and MAs in cells. No significant correlations were found between the rate of iAs methylation and the thioredoxin reductase activity or glutathione concentration, two factors that modulate the activity of recombinant As3mt. No associations between the rates of iAs methylation and As3mt protein structures were found for the six species examined. Immunoblot analyses indicate that the superior arsenic methylation capacities of dog, rat and monkey hepatocytes examined in this study may be associated with a higher As3mt expression. However, factors other than As3mt expression may also contribute to

  12. Cultural Adaptations to Environmental Variability: An Evolutionary Account of East-West Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Lei; Mak, Miranda C. K.; Li, Tong; Wu, Bao Pei; Chen, Bin Bin; Lu, Hui Jing

    2011-01-01

    Much research has been conducted to document and sometimes to provide proximate explanations (e.g., Confucianism vs. Western philosophy) for East-West cultural differences. The ultimate evolutionary mechanisms underlying these cross-cultural differences have not been addressed. We propose in this review that East-West cultural differences (e.g.,…

  13. Cultural Differences in Sleeping Practices--Helping Early Childhood Educators Understand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet; Bhavnagri, Navaz Peshotan

    2001-01-01

    Discusses cultural differences in sleeping practices, focusing on how child caregivers can provide developmentally appropriate and culturally sensitive care. Describes co-sleeping as an accepted practice in many cultures with several benefits. Discusses the role of cultural values, beliefs, priorities, and goals and the importance of…

  14. Recognition of depression in people of different cultures: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Lehti, Arja; Hammarström, Anne; Mattsson, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    Background Many minority group patients who attend primary health care are depressed. To identify a depressive state when GPs see patients from other cultures than their own can be difficult because of cultural and gender differences in expressions and problems of communication. The aim of this study was to explore and analyse how GPs think and deliberate when seeing and treating patients from foreign countries who display potential depressive features. Methods The data were collected in focus groups and through individual interviews with GPs in northern Sweden and analysed by qualitative content analysis. Results In the analysis three themes, based on various categories, emerged; "Realizing the background", "Struggling for clarity" and "Optimizing management". Patients' early life events of importance were often unknown which blurred the accuracy. Reactions to trauma, cultural frictions and conflicts between the new and old gender norms made the diagnostic process difficult. The patient-doctor encounter comprised misconceptions, and social roles in the meetings were sometimes confused. GPs based their judgement mainly on clinical intuition and the established classification of depressive disorders was discussed. Tools for management and adequate action were diffuse. Conclusion Dialogue about patients' illness narratives and social context are crucial. There is a need for tools for multicultural, general practice care in the depressive spectrum. It is also essential to be aware of GPs' own conceptions in order to avoid stereotypes and not to under- or overestimate the occurrence of depressive symptoms PMID:19635159

  15. Reporting Differences among Sexually Assaulted College Women: A Cultural Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Malia J.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual assault (SA) is a critical public health problem, and there are many barriers that impede college women from reporting. Although there are many studies that explore these barriers, there is a lack of understanding regarding the cultural implications to reporting. The existing literature often uses race as a proxy for culture when exploring…

  16. Cultural Differences in Children's Emotional Reactions to Difficult Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Pamela M.; Bruschi, Carole J.; Tamang, Babu L.

    2002-01-01

    Two studies examined beliefs about revealing emotion among children from Brahman, Tamang and American cultures. Findings indicated three distinct cultural patterns: Tamang were more likely to appraise difficult situations in terms of shame, while the others endorsed anger. Brahmins were more likely not to communicate negative emotion. Americans…

  17. Modes and Models for Transcending Cultural Differences in International Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hook, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Educators of international students are frequently challenged to cope with a clashing diversity of cultures in a classroom setting. This study examined what sorts of themes and images might resonate across nationalities and cultures, which could then be used as transcultural tools for international educators. The study employed mixed qualitative…

  18. Themes and Images That Transcend Cultural Differences in International Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hook, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    Educators of international students are frequently challenged to cope with a clashing diversity of cultures in a classroom setting. This study examined what sorts of themes and images might resonate across nationalities and cultures, which could then be used as tools to aid an instructional framework for international education. The study employed…

  19. Facial aesthetic surgical goals in patients of different cultures.

    PubMed

    Rowe-Jones, Julian M

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of facial aesthetic surgery is to improve the patient's psychological well-being. To achieve this, the surgeon must understand the patient's body image and their aesthetic and psychological expectations. These factors must be judged in the context of their cultural background. The patient's cultural values must also be understood to optimize the doctor-patient relationship. PMID:25049120

  20. Being Responsive to Cultural Differences: How Teachers Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilworth, Mary E., Ed.

    This book offers suggestions for teacher educators to encourage preservice teachers to construct and expand their own skills and techniques for culturally responsive teaching. The book's 3 parts offer 12 chapters. Part 1 focuses on the perceptions of those grappling with culturally responsive practice. Part 2 suggests ways that attention to…

  1. Doing Culture, Doing Race: Everyday Discourses of "Culture" and "Cultural Difference" in the English as a Second Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ena

    2015-01-01

    While current conceptualisations of the inextricable connection between language and culture in English language education are largely informed by complex sociocultural theories that view culture as constructed in and through social practices among people, classroom practices continue to be influenced by mainstream discourses of culture that…

  2. Managing the multicultural laboratory, Part I: Tools for understanding cultural differences.

    PubMed

    Ketchum, S M

    1992-01-01

    This article will help laboratory managers better manage their culturally diverse employees by explaining what is meant by "culture" and by presenting a research-based model for assessing the different values, attitudes, and behaviors exhibited by those of different cultural backgrounds. The useful cross-cultural data presented come from an exciting research analysis compiled by Dutch social psychologist and management consultant, Dr. Geert Hofstede. This multi-national corporate study compared the cultures of more than 40 nationalities using four different cultural characteristics. As members of an empirically based profession, laboratory professionals should welcome some hard data about a soft subject. This model will enable laboratory managers to understand their own cultural biases and will interpret some of the attitudes and behaviors of those with different national or ethnic backgrounds. By understanding the elementary principles of culture and by replacing outdated stereotypes with educated generalizations, clinical laboratory managers can take a vital step toward becoming effective multi-cultural managers.

  3. The Emergence of Cultural Self-Constructs: Autobiographical Memory and Self-Description in European American and Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the emergence of cultural self-constructs as reflected in children's remembered and conceptual aspects of the self. European American and Chinese children in preschool through 2nd grade participated (N=180). Children each recounted 4 autobiographical events and described themselves in response to open-ended questions. American…

  4. A Cultural Hybridization Perspective: Emerging Academic Subculture among International Students from East Asia in U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the emerging academic subculture of international students from East Asia in U.S. academics from the cultural hybridization perspective. In a knowledge-based economy, international education plays a pivotal role in the global educational environment. Advocacy of international student mobility is essential; international…

  5. Acculturation: When Individuals and Groups of Different Cultural Backgrounds Meet.

    PubMed

    Sam, David L; Berry, John W

    2010-07-01

    In cross-cultural psychology, one of the major sources of the development and display of human behavior is the contact between cultural populations. Such intercultural contact results in both cultural and psychological changes. At the cultural level, collective activities and social institutions become altered, and at the psychological level, there are changes in an individual's daily behavioral repertoire and sometimes in experienced stress. The two most common research findings at the individual level are that there are large variations in how people acculturate and in how well they adapt to this process. Variations in ways of acculturating have become known by the terms integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization. Two variations in adaptation have been identified, involving psychological well-being and sociocultural competence. One important finding is that there are relationships between how individuals acculturate and how well they adapt: Often those who integrate (defined as being engaged in both their heritage culture and in the larger society) are better adapted than those who acculturate by orienting themselves to one or the other culture (by way of assimilation or separation) or to neither culture (marginalization). Implications of these findings for policy and program development and for future research are presented. PMID:26162193

  6. Plant hairy root cultures as plasmodium modulators of the slime mold emergent computing substrate Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed

    Ricigliano, Vincent; Chitaman, Javed; Tong, Jingjing; Adamatzky, Andrew; Howarth, Dianella G

    2015-01-01

    Roots of the medicinal plant Valeriana officinalis are well-studied for their various biological activities. We applied genetically transformed V. officinalis root biomass to exert control of Physarum polycephalum, an amoeba-based emergent computing substrate. The plasmodial stage of the P. polycephalum life cycle constitutes a single, multinucleate cell visible by unaided eye. The plasmodium modifies its network of oscillating protoplasm in response to spatial configurations of attractants and repellents, a behavior that is interpreted as biological computation. To program the computing behavior of P. polycephalum, a diverse and sustainable library of plasmodium modulators is required. Hairy roots produced by genetic transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes are a metabolically stable source of bioactive compounds. Adventitious roots were induced on in vitro V. officinalis plants following infection with A. rhizogenes. A single hairy root clone was selected for massive propagation and the biomass was characterized in P. polycephalum chemotaxis, maze-solving, and electrical activity assays. The Agrobacterium-derived roots of V. officinalis elicited a positive chemotactic response and augmented maze-solving behavior. In a simple plasmodium circuit, introduction of hairy root biomass stimulated the oscillation patterns of slime mold's surface electrical activity. We propose that manipulation of P. polycephalum with the plant root culture platform can be applied to the development of slime mold microfluidic devices as well as future models for engineering the plant rhizosphere.

  7. Plant hairy root cultures as plasmodium modulators of the slime mold emergent computing substrate Physarum polycephalum

    PubMed Central

    Ricigliano, Vincent; Chitaman, Javed; Tong, Jingjing; Adamatzky, Andrew; Howarth, Dianella G.

    2015-01-01

    Roots of the medicinal plant Valeriana officinalis are well-studied for their various biological activities. We applied genetically transformed V. officinalis root biomass to exert control of Physarum polycephalum, an amoeba-based emergent computing substrate. The plasmodial stage of the P. polycephalum life cycle constitutes a single, multinucleate cell visible by unaided eye. The plasmodium modifies its network of oscillating protoplasm in response to spatial configurations of attractants and repellents, a behavior that is interpreted as biological computation. To program the computing behavior of P. polycephalum, a diverse and sustainable library of plasmodium modulators is required. Hairy roots produced by genetic transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes are a metabolically stable source of bioactive compounds. Adventitious roots were induced on in vitro V. officinalis plants following infection with A. rhizogenes. A single hairy root clone was selected for massive propagation and the biomass was characterized in P. polycephalum chemotaxis, maze-solving, and electrical activity assays. The Agrobacterium-derived roots of V. officinalis elicited a positive chemotactic response and augmented maze-solving behavior. In a simple plasmodium circuit, introduction of hairy root biomass stimulated the oscillation patterns of slime mold's surface electrical activity. We propose that manipulation of P. polycephalum with the plant root culture platform can be applied to the development of slime mold microfluidic devices as well as future models for engineering the plant rhizosphere. PMID:26236301

  8. Plant hairy root cultures as plasmodium modulators of the slime mold emergent computing substrate Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed

    Ricigliano, Vincent; Chitaman, Javed; Tong, Jingjing; Adamatzky, Andrew; Howarth, Dianella G

    2015-01-01

    Roots of the medicinal plant Valeriana officinalis are well-studied for their various biological activities. We applied genetically transformed V. officinalis root biomass to exert control of Physarum polycephalum, an amoeba-based emergent computing substrate. The plasmodial stage of the P. polycephalum life cycle constitutes a single, multinucleate cell visible by unaided eye. The plasmodium modifies its network of oscillating protoplasm in response to spatial configurations of attractants and repellents, a behavior that is interpreted as biological computation. To program the computing behavior of P. polycephalum, a diverse and sustainable library of plasmodium modulators is required. Hairy roots produced by genetic transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes are a metabolically stable source of bioactive compounds. Adventitious roots were induced on in vitro V. officinalis plants following infection with A. rhizogenes. A single hairy root clone was selected for massive propagation and the biomass was characterized in P. polycephalum chemotaxis, maze-solving, and electrical activity assays. The Agrobacterium-derived roots of V. officinalis elicited a positive chemotactic response and augmented maze-solving behavior. In a simple plasmodium circuit, introduction of hairy root biomass stimulated the oscillation patterns of slime mold's surface electrical activity. We propose that manipulation of P. polycephalum with the plant root culture platform can be applied to the development of slime mold microfluidic devices as well as future models for engineering the plant rhizosphere. PMID:26236301

  9. Similarities and Differences in Meaning in Six Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Douglas J.; Raybeck, Douglas

    1981-01-01

    Employed multidimensional scaling to investigate semantic domains. Studied two semantic categories that varied in abstractness (animals and emotions) in six cultures (Greece, Haiti, Hong Kong, Spain, United States, and Vietnam). (Author/MK)

  10. Cross-cultural Temperamental Differences in Infants, Children, and Adults in the United States of America and Finland

    PubMed Central

    Gaias, Larissa M.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Fisher, Philip A.; Putnam, Samuel P.; Räikkönen, Katri; Komsi, Niina

    2012-01-01

    Cross-cultural differences in temperament were investigated between infants (n = 131, 84 Finns), children (n = 653, 427 Finns), and adults (n = 759, 538 Finns) from the United States of America and Finland. Participants from both cultures completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire, Childhood Behavior Questionnaire, and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire. Across all ages, Americans received higher ratings on temperamental fearfulness than Finnish individuals, and also demonstrated higher levels of other negative affects at several time points. During infancy and adulthood, Finns tended to score higher on positive affect and elements of temperamental effortful control. Gender differences consistent with prior studies emerged cross-culturally, and were found to be more pronounced in the U.S. during childhood and in Finland during adulthood. PMID:22428997

  11. Developing Alternative Frameworks for Exploring Intercultural Learning: A Critique of Hofstede's Cultural Difference Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Signorini, Paola; Wiesemes, Rolf; Murphy, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Hofstede's model of cultural difference has been used widely for exploring aspects of culture in educational settings. In this paper, we review Hofstede's model and explore some of its limitations, particularly in relation to the field of higher education. These limitations include an oversimplification of cultural differences, inconsistencies…

  12. Use of Cultural Styles or Repertoires of Experience to Guide Instruction: What Difference Does It Make?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maccleave, Anne; Eghan, Felicia

    2010-01-01

    Educators are seeking to meet student needs in increasingly diverse university classrooms. Two contrasting ways of responding to cultural difference are planning instruction on the basis of cultural styles or repertoires of culturally-based experiences (Gutierrez & Rogoff, 2003). Use of learning styles to address individual differences in learning…

  13. The Art of Globalism, the Culture of Difference, the Industry of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalder, Glenda

    This paper speaks in terms of "globalism" rather than "globalization," of a "culture of difference" rather than of cultural difference, of an "industry of knowledge" rather than of knowing. The paper first considers the argument that new communications technologies and systems are bringing cultures together merely by forging global…

  14. Does Brief Intervention Work For Heavy Episodic Drinking? A Comparison of Emergency Department Patients in Two Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yu; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Swiatkiewicz, Grazyna

    2015-01-01

    Little has been reported on the efficacy of brief intervention (BI) among heavy episodic drinkers, although this drinking style is known to be especially harmful in relation to negative consequences including alcohol-related injuries. The comparative efficacy of BI is analyzed in two similar randomized controlled clinical trials of emergency department (ED) patients in two different cultures, both of which exhibit similar drinking styles of heavy episodic drinking: Poland and Mexican-Americans in the U.S. Improvements in drinking and problem outcomes are analyzed at 3-month and 12-month follow-up, using random effects modeling, among 446 Polish patients and 698 Mexican-American patients, randomized to screened only, assessment, and intervention conditions in each study. In Poland significant improvement was observed in all outcome measures for the assessed condition at 3-months compared to baseline, but only in the two problem variables at 12-months, while for the intervention condition, significant improvement was found in all outcome measures at both time periods; however, estimates of the interaction terms were not statistically significant. In the Mexica-American study, while significant improvement in nearly all outcome measures were observed at 3 months and 12 months for both conditions, estimates of the interaction terms suggest that for all drinking variables, but not problem variables, outcomes were significantly improved for the intervention condition over the assessed condition at 12 months, suggesting a 12-month intervention effect. Findings here are non-conclusive regarding a treatment effect of BI for heavy episodic drinking in ED patients. Given the mixed findings for BI in other ED studies, future studies need to explore the efficacy of BI in other populations and cultures exhibiting different drinking patterns to help identify what type of drinker would most benefit from BI in the ED setting. PMID:26688611

  15. Factors Associated with Blood Culture Contamination in the Emergency Department: Critical Illness, End-Stage Renal Disease, and Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Jan; Wu, Chi-Jung; Hsu, Hsiang-Chin; Wu, Chiu-Hui; Shih, Fang-Ying; Wang, Shou-Wen; Wu, Yi-Hui; Chang, Chia-Ming; Tu, Yi-Fang; Chi, Chih-Hsien; Shih, Hsin-I

    2015-01-01

    Background Blood culture contamination in emergency departments (ED) that experience a high volume of patients has negative impacts on optimal patient care. It is therefore important to identify risk factors associated with blood culture contamination in EDs. Methodology/Principal Findings A prospectively observational study in a university-affiliated hospital were conducted between August 2011 and December 2012. Positive monomicrobial and negative blood cultures drawn from adult patients in the ED were analyzed to evaluate the possible risk factors for contamination. A total of 1,148 positive monomicrobial cases, 391 contamination cases, and 13,689 cases of negative blood culture were identified. Compared to patients with negative blood cultures, patients in triage levels 1 and 2 (Incidence Rate Ratio, IRR = 2.24), patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (IRR = 2.05), and older patients (IRR: 1.02 per year) were more likely to be associated with ED blood culture contamination. Conclusions/Significance Critical patients (triage levels 1 and 2), ESRD patients, and older patients were more commonly associated with blood culture contamination in the ED. Further studies to evaluate whether the characteristics of skin commensals contribute to blood culture contamination is warranted, especially in hospitals populated with high-risk patients. PMID:26448628

  16. Differences between family and emergency medicine training before sports medicine fellowship.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Mark; Christensen, Heidi K

    2015-01-01

    Residency training clearly impacts physicians' approach toward fellowship in Primary Care Sports Medicine. Although the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education sets strict standards for all programs, family medicine and emergency medicine training differ a great deal in general and provide physicians from both backgrounds varied perspectives and skill sets. The family physician acquires a substantial amount of experience in continuity of care and integration of health care into a patient's everyday life. On the other hand, the emergency physician receives exceptional training in the management of acutely ill and injured patients and leadership of a large health care team. Furthermore, while the emergency physician may be skilled in procedures such as fracture reduction and diagnostic ultrasound, the family physician is proficient in developing patient rapport and compliance with a treatment plan. Although physicians from different backgrounds may start with many differences, fellowship training is essential in bridging those gaps.

  17. Differences between family and emergency medicine training before sports medicine fellowship.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Mark; Christensen, Heidi K

    2015-01-01

    Residency training clearly impacts physicians' approach toward fellowship in Primary Care Sports Medicine. Although the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education sets strict standards for all programs, family medicine and emergency medicine training differ a great deal in general and provide physicians from both backgrounds varied perspectives and skill sets. The family physician acquires a substantial amount of experience in continuity of care and integration of health care into a patient's everyday life. On the other hand, the emergency physician receives exceptional training in the management of acutely ill and injured patients and leadership of a large health care team. Furthermore, while the emergency physician may be skilled in procedures such as fracture reduction and diagnostic ultrasound, the family physician is proficient in developing patient rapport and compliance with a treatment plan. Although physicians from different backgrounds may start with many differences, fellowship training is essential in bridging those gaps. PMID:25968851

  18. Cultural differences and economic development of 31 countries.

    PubMed

    Nadler, Scott; Zemanek, James E

    2006-08-01

    To update and extend the empirical research of Hofstede, the influence of culture on 31 nations' economic development was examined and support for modernization theory provided. Per capita gross domestic product, literacy rates, the negative of the population growth rate, and life expectancy development data were collected from 31 countries. The pattern of correlations among measures provided partial support for Hofstede's 1980 findings.

  19. Beyond the Boundaries: Critical Thinking and Differing Cultural Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailin, Sharon; Battersby, Mark

    2009-01-01

    After outlining arguments for the general epistemological presumption in favour of taking into consideration alternative perspectives from other cultures, the article details several examples in which such an examination yields epistemic benefits and challenges. First, our example of alternative conceptions of art demonstrates that a western…

  20. Corporal Punishment, Discipline and Cultural Differences and Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Johnny L.

    Schools can no longer be responsible for only the cognitive domain of the child. They must also expand to include the affective domain. When it comes to the corporal punishment or discipline of a disruptive black child, the child's cultural history and history of alienation must be considered. And, because it is the teacher who controls rewards…

  1. Teacher Transculturalism and Cultural Difference: Addressing Racism in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casinader, Niranjan R.; Walsh, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The increasing cultural diversity of students in Australia's schools is one of the salient changes in education over the last 30 years. In 2011, nearly half of all Australians had one or more parents born overseas, with migration from China, the Indian subcontinent and Africa increasing during the early 2000s (Australian Bureau of Statistics,…

  2. Cultural Differences in Equity Theory Predictions of Relational Maintenance Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yum, Young-ok; Canary, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the theoretic role of equity in predicting relational maintenance strategies is modified by participant country and culture. Research on equity theory in relationships has been conducted primarily in the United States and Western Europe. We argue that equity theory predictions regarding relational communication probably…

  3. Critical Reflection on Cultural Difference in the Computer Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegahn, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Adult educators have a strong interest in designing courses that stimulate learning toward critical, more inclusive cultural perspectives. Critical reflection is a key component of both intercultural learning and a growing medium of instruction, the asynchronous computer conference (CC). This study combined qualitative methodology with a framework…

  4. Intoxication and bad behaviour: understanding cultural differences in the link.

    PubMed

    Room, R

    2001-07-01

    Research developments since the appearance of MacAndrew and Edgerton's landmark volume, Drunken Comportment (1969), are summarized. The challenge of moving beyond the book is to understand what lies behind cultural variations in drunken comportment. Four specific factors in variations in drunken comportment are discussed. (1) A common contrast is between "wet" societies, where drinking is banalized everyday, and "dry" societies, where alcohol is set apart as a special commodity. Problems with this contrast are discussed, and the need for cross-cultural studies comparing expectancies from intoxication. (2) There is a need to study variations in the definition of intoxication as a "time out" state. In some societies, intoxication is likened to possession by spirits; a rationalistic version of this can be found in Canadian court decisions viewing extreme intoxication as potentially "akin to automatism". (3) If bad behaviour is a foreseeable consequence of drinking, why do some societies nevertheless not hold the drinker responsible'? In Anglo-American and similar societies, drunkenness has some excuse value, but it is not a very good excuse. Compromises like this seem to be found also in other cultures. (4) Pseudointoxication is fairly widespread, and seems to mark social situations where alcohol has enhanced excuse value. It appears to be a stratagem of the weaker side across cultural boundaries, and of the young where age-grading favours older groups. Concerning the possibility of cultural changes in drunken comportment, it is argued that there are historical examples, but such a shift requires a substantial social change. PMID:11414386

  5. Cultural Diversity and Saccade Similarities: Culture Does Not Explain Saccade Latency Differences between Chinese and Caucasian Participants

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Paul C.; Wolohan, Felicity D. A.

    2014-01-01

    A central claim of cultural neuroscience is that the culture to which an individual belongs plays a key role in shaping basic cognitive processes and behaviours, including eye movement behaviour. We previously reported a robust difference in saccade behaviour between Chinese and Caucasian participants; Chinese participants are much more likely to execute low latency express saccades, in circumstances in which these are normally discouraged. To assess the extent to which this is the product of culture we compared a group of 70 Chinese overseas students (whose primary cultural exposure was that of mainland China), a group of 45 participants whose parents were Chinese but who themselves were brought up in the UK (whose primary cultural exposure was western European) and a group of 70 Caucasian participants. Results from the Schwartz Value Survey confirmed that the UK-Chinese group were culturally similar to the Caucasian group. However, their patterns of saccade latency were identical to the mainland Chinese group, and different to the Caucasian group. We conclude that at least for the relatively simple reflexive saccade behaviour we have investigated, culture cannot explain the observed differences in behaviour. PMID:24709988

  6. Cultural Differences in Early Math Skills among U.S., Taiwanese, Dutch, and Peruvian Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paik, Jae H.; van Gelderen, Loes; Gonzales, Manuel; de Jong, Peter F.; Hayes, Michael

    2011-01-01

    East Asian children have consistently outperformed children from other nations on mathematical tests. However, most previous cross-cultural studies mainly compared East Asian countries and the United States and have largely ignored cultures from other parts of the world. The present study explored cultural differences in young children's early…

  7. Perceptions of Ways in Which French and American Business Practices Reflect Cultural Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Hazel

    The literature concerning the corporate culture of the United States is a starting point for comparing the institutions of different cultures. However, teaching about the cultural context of business is not simply a matter of describing non-American companies in American terms, and American-born language teachers usually have little experience…

  8. Cross-Cultural Differences and the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiu-Bai, Qin

    1983-01-01

    A Chinese student of English is often faced with culturally based differences in denotation and connotation, idioms and proverbs, habits, and formulaic use of language. Since the native speaker of any language has built into his language repertoire his unique cultural assumptions and values, a culture-oriented curriculum in language teaching is…

  9. Developing an innovative cross-cultural strategy to promote HIV/AIDS prevention in different ethnic cultural groups of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Keats, D

    2005-10-01

    The HIV and STIs epidemic in China has had a significant impact among China's ethnic minorities. However, the official traditional approach, which has used an anti-epidemic social campaign, has not paid any attention to the diversity of cultural backgrounds of the many ethnic minority groups. This study carried out in Sichuan Province is the first to explore how to use cultural resources for developing an effective strategy for promoting HIV prevention in different cultural groups in China. One hundred and fifty male volunteers drawn from the Yi (50), Tibetan (50) and majority Han (50) cultural groups were assigned to a direct training programme. After training, these participants spread safe sex messages to other contacts who became an indirect peer diffusion group. A third group of 150 male volunteers from the same three cultural groups but from another relatively comparable community acted as controls. Each participant was interviewed before and after the intervention to assess knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intentions regarding HIV/AIDS prevention. The study examined the cultural appropriateness and effectiveness of peer-led health message diffusion in promoting condom use through a traditional oral communication approach from the direct training groups to the indirect intervention groups and broad peer networks within the Yi, Tibetan and Han cultural communities. Key findings showed that the peer-based oral communication strategy was effective for encouraging condom use with casual sexual partners in both the direct training group and the indirect peer diffusion group in all three cultural groups. There was no significant change in any of the comparison groups. Although change in the majority Han cultural group was generally greater than in the ethnic minority groups, the results clearly suggest that the methods can be successfully adopted to promote safe sexual behaviour in different cultural groups of China.

  10. Screening of Different Media and Substrates for Cultural Variability and Mass Culture of Arthrobotrys dactyloides Drechsler.

    PubMed

    Kumar, D; Singh, K P; Jaiswal, R K

    2005-12-01

    Variability in growth and sporulation of five isolates of Arthrobotrys dactyloides was studied on five agar, 6 bran and 5 grain media. Potato dextrose agar (PDA) supported maximum growth of isolate A, C and E, while growth of isolate B and D was significantly lower on this medium. On Czapek's agar and yeast glucose agar media the differentiation in the isolates in relation to growth was poor than PDA. The other two media showed much poorer differentiation. On Czapek's agar medium, sporulation was recorded in isolate B only, whereas other isolates showed rare sporulation. Among the bran media, pea bran agar medium supported maximum growth of all the isolates except isolate B. Gram and rice bran agar media were next best. However, the growth of isolate B on the gram bran agar medium was more or less equal as other isolates. On pigeon pea bran agar medium, isolate E failed to grow while other isolates recorded poor growth. On lentil bran agar medium, only isolate B and D recorded little growth, whereas other isolates failed to grow. All the isolates recorded good sporulation on bran agar media except pigeon pea and lentil bran agar media. The grain agar media supported moderate to very good growth of all the isolates. In general isolate B remained slow growing on these media except gram grain and sorghum grain agar media on which growth of this isolate was comparable to other isolates. Sporulation in general, was good on all the grain agar media. Among different substrates screened, barley grain and pea bran were found superior to others for mass culture of isolate A of A. dactyloides.

  11. Different Leaders: Emergent Organizational and Intellectual Leadership in Children's Collaborative Learning Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Emma M.; Higgins, Steven E.; da Costa, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents two studies that examine emergent leadership in children's collaborative learning groups. Building on research that finds that leadership moves are distributed among group members during learning activities, we examined whether there were patterns in the distribution of moves, resulting in different types of emergent…

  12. Gender Differences in the Age-Changing Relationship between Instrumentality and Family Contact in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Joel R.; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Gilligan, Carol; Chen, Henian; Crawford, Thomas N.; Kasen, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Data from the Children in the Community Transitions Study were used to examine gender differences in the impact of family contact on the development of finance and romance instrumentality from ages 17 to 27 years. Family contact decreased among both men and women across emerging adulthood, although it decreased more rapidly in men than in women.…

  13. Differences between Girls and Boys in Emerging Language Skills: Evidence from 10 Language Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Marten; Marschik, Peter B.; Tulviste, Tiia; Almgren, Margareta; Perez Pereira, Miguel; Wehberg, Sonja; Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Gayraud, Frederique; Kovacevic, Melita; Gallego, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored gender differences in emerging language skills in 13,783 European children from 10 non-English language communities. It was based on a synthesis of published data assessed with adapted versions of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs) from age 0.08 to 2.06. The results showed that girls are…

  14. The role of groundwater governance in emergencies during different phases of natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrba, Jaroslav

    2016-03-01

    The establishment of water governance in emergency situations supports timely and effective reaction with regard to the risk and impact of natural disasters on drinking-water supplies and populations. Under such governance, emergency activities of governmental authorities, rescue and aid teams, water stakeholders, local communities and individuals are coordinated with the objective to prevent and/or mitigate disaster impact on water supplies, to reduce human suffering due to drinking-water failure during and in the post-disaster period, and to manage drinking-water services in emergency situations in an equitable manner. The availability of low-vulnerability groundwater resources that have been proven safe and protected by geological features, and with long residence time, can make water-related relief and rehabilitation activities during and after an emergency more rapid and effective. Such groundwater resources have to be included in water governance and their exploration must be coordinated with overall management of drinking-water services in emergencies. This paper discusses institutional and technical capacities needed for building effective groundwater governance policy and drinking-water risk and demand management in emergencies. Disaster-risk mitigation plans are described, along with relief measures and post-disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction activities, which support gradual renewal of drinking-water services on the level prior to the disaster. The role of groundwater governance in emergencies differs in individual phases of disaster (preparedness, warning, impact/relief, rehabilitation). Suggested activities and actions associated with these phases are summarized and analysed, and a mode of their implementation is proposed.

  15. Sex differences in spatial navigation and perception in human adolescents and emerging adults

    PubMed Central

    Sneider, Jennifer Tropp; Hamilton, Derek A.; Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E.; Crowley, David J.; Rosso, Isabelle M.; Silveri, Marisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Males typically outperform females on spatial tasks, beginning early in life and continuing into adulthood. This study aimed to characterize age and sex differences in human spatial ability using a virtual Water Maze Task (vWMT), which is based on the classic Morris water maze spatial navigation task used in rodents. Performance on the vWMT and on a task assessing visuospatial perception, Mental Rotations Test (MRT), was examined in 33 adolescents and 39 emerging adults. For the vWMT, significant effects of age and sex were observed for path length in the target region (narrower spatial sampling), and heading error, with emerging adults performing better than adolescents, and an overall male advantage. For the MRT, males scored higher than females, but only in emerging adulthood. Overall, sex differences in visuospatial perception (MRT) emerge differently from those observed on a classic navigation task, with age and sex-specific superior vWMT performance likely related to the use of more efficient strategies. Importantly, these results extend the developmental timeline of spatial ability characterization to include adolescent males and females performing a virtual version of the classic vWMT. PMID:25464337

  16. Sex differences in spatial navigation and perception in human adolescents and emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Sneider, Jennifer T; Hamilton, Derek A; Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E; Crowley, David J; Rosso, Isabelle M; Silveri, Marisa M

    2015-02-01

    Males typically outperform females on spatial tasks, beginning early in life and continuing into adulthood. This study aimed to characterize age and sex differences in human spatial ability using a virtual Water Maze Task (vWMT), which is based on the classic Morris water maze spatial navigation task used in rodents. Performance on the vWMT and on a task assessing visuospatial perception, Mental Rotations Test (MRT), was examined in 33 adolescents and 39 emerging adults. For the vWMT, significant effects of age and sex were observed for path length in the target region (narrower spatial sampling), and heading error, with emerging adults performing better than adolescents, and an overall male advantage. For the MRT, males scored higher than females, but only in emerging adulthood. Overall, sex differences in visuospatial perception (MRT) emerge differently from those observed on a classic navigation task, with age and sex-specific superior vWMT performance likely related to the use of more efficient strategies. Importantly, these results extend the developmental timeline of spatial ability characterization to include adolescent males and females performing a virtual version of the classic vWMT. PMID:25464337

  17. The relationships of personal and cultural identity to adaptive and maladaptive psychosocial functioning in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Seth J; Zamboanga, Byron L; Weisskirch, Robert S; Wang, Sherry C

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which cultural identity would be associated with adaptive and maladaptive psychosocial functioning, both directly and indirectly through a personal identity consolidation. A sample of 773 White, Black, and Hispanic university students completed measures of cultural identity, personal identity consolidation, adaptive psychosocial functioning, internalizing symptoms, and proclivity toward externalizing symptoms. Both heritage and American cultural identity were positively related to adaptive psychosocial functioning; American-culture identity was negatively associated with internalizing symptoms; and heritage-culture identity was negatively related to proclivity toward externalizing symptoms. All of these findings were mediated by personal identity consolidation and were fully consistent across ethnic groups. We discuss implications in terms of broadening the study of identity to include both personal and cultural dimensions of self.

  18. Reconcilable differences? Human diversity, cultural relativity, and sense of community.

    PubMed

    Townley, Greg; Kloos, Bret; Green, Eric P; Franco, Margarita M

    2011-03-01

    Sense of community (SOC) is one of the most widely used and studied constructs in community psychology. As proposed by Sarason in (The Psychological sense of community: prospects for a community psychology, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1974), SOC represents the strength of bonding among community members. It is a valuable component of community life, and it has been linked to positive mental health outcomes, citizen participation, and community connectedness. However, promotion of SOC can become problematic in community psychology praxis when it conflicts with other core values proposed to define the field, namely values of human diversity, cultural relativity, and heterogeneity of experience and perspective. Several commentators have noted that promotion of SOC can conflict with multicultural diversity because it tends to emphasize group member similarity and appears to be higher in homogeneous communities. In this paper, we introduce the idea of a community-diversity dialectic as part of praxis and research in community psychology. We argue that systematic consideration of cultural psychology perspectives can guide efforts to address a community-diversity dialectic and revise SOC formulations that ultimately will invigorate community research and action. We provide a working agenda for addressing this dialectic, proposing that systematic consideration of the creative tension between SOC and diversity can be beneficial to community psychology.

  19. Young Children's Attention to What's Going On: Cultural Differences.

    PubMed

    Silva, Katie G; Shimpi, Priya M; Rogoff, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines children' attention to surrounding events in which they are not directly involved, a way of learning that fits with the cultural approach of Learning by Observing and Pitching In. Research in instructional settings has found that attention to surrounding events is more common among Indigenous Guatemalan Mayan and some US Mexican-heritage children than among middle-class children from several ethnic backgrounds. We examine this phenomenon in a quasi-naturalistic setting to see if the cultural variation in young children's attention to surrounding events in which they were not directly involved extends beyond instructional settings. During a home visit focused on their younger sibling, 19 Guatemalan Mayan and 18 middle-class European American 3- to 5-year olds were nearby but not addressed, as their mother helped their toddler sibling operate novel objects. The Guatemalan Mayan children more frequently attended to this nearby interaction and other third-party activities, whereas the middle-class European American children more often attended to their own activities in which they were directly involved or they fussed or showed off. The results support the idea that in some Indigenous communities of the Americas where young children are included in a broad range of family and community endeavors, children may be especially inclined to attend to ongoing events, even if they are not directly involved or addressed, compared to European American children whose families have extensive experience in Western school ways.

  20. The pragmatics of culture: the rhetoric of difference in psychiatric nursing.

    PubMed

    Foster, S W

    1990-10-01

    Culture becomes an issue in the treatment of psychiatric patients from diverse cultural backgrounds. Inpatient psychiatry at an urban, general hospital in San Francisco, California, has developed specialized treatment programs for Hispanic, black, and Asian-Pacific patients. These patients are recognized as culturally distinct; their cultural situations must be addressed by a program of culturally sensitive nursing care. The implementation of such a program has not generally led to serious cultural analysis on the part of nurses and other caregivers but rather, to a rhetorical and strategic use of the concept of culture and a stereotyping of traits, styles, and beliefs. This article critically examines this rhetoric of cultural difference as an aspect of the rhetoric of normalization practiced in this setting.

  1. Culturally Responsive Gifted Classrooms for Culturally Different Students: A Focus on Invitational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Donna Y.

    2015-01-01

    This article expands the notion of culturally responsive learning environments by including Purkey and Novak's (1996) work on invitational learning. Their typology of four types of schools is described and applied to gifted education classrooms, along with associated characteristics of each. Specific attention is focused on implications for…

  2. Image and Imaging an Emergency Department: Expense and Benefit of Different Quality Assessment Methods

    PubMed Central

    Pfortmueller, Carmen Andrea; Keller, Michael; Mueller, Urs; Zimmermann, Heinz; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. In this era of high-tech medicine, it is becoming increasingly important to assess patient satisfaction. There are several methods to do so, but these differ greatly in terms of cost, time, and labour and external validity. The aim of this study is to describe and compare the structure and implementation of different methods to assess the satisfaction of patients in an emergency department. Methods. The structure and implementation of the different methods to assess patient satisfaction were evaluated on the basis of a 90-minute standardised interview. Results. We identified a total of six different methods in six different hospitals. The average number of patients assessed was 5012, with a range from 230 (M5) to 20 000 patients (M2). In four methods (M1, M3, M5, and M6), the questionnaire was composed by a specialised external institute. In two methods, the questionnaire was created by the hospital itself (M2, M4).The median response rate was 58.4% (range 9–97.8%). With a reminder, the response rate increased by 60% (M3). Conclusion. The ideal method to assess patient satisfaction in the emergency department setting is to use a patient-based, in-emergency department-based assessment of patient satisfaction, planned and guided by expert personnel. PMID:23984073

  3. A cross-cultural analysis of the behavior of women and men: implications for the origins of sex differences.

    PubMed

    Wood, Wendy; Eagly, Alice H

    2002-09-01

    This article evaluates theories of the origins of sex differences in human behavior. It reviews the cross-cultural evidence on the behavior of women and men in nonindustrial societies, especially the activities that contribute to the sex-typed division of labor and patriarchy. To explain the cross-cultural findings, the authors consider social constructionism, evolutionary psychology, and their own biosocial theory. Supporting the biosocial analysis, sex differences derive from the interaction between the physical specialization of the sexes, especially female reproductive capacity, and the economic and social structural aspects of societies. This biosocial approach treats the psychological attributes of women and men as emergent given the evolved characteristics of the sexes, their developmental experiences, and their situated activity in society. PMID:12206191

  4. Associations between Extending Access to Primary Care and Emergency Department Visits: A Difference-In-Differences Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, William; Anselmi, Laura; Lau, Yiu-Shing; Bower, Peter; Checkland, Katherine; Elvey, Rebecca; Stokes, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Background Health services across the world increasingly face pressures on the use of expensive hospital services. Better organisation and delivery of primary care has the potential to manage demand and reduce costs for hospital services, but routine primary care services are not open during evenings and weekends. Extended access (evening and weekend opening) is hypothesized to reduce pressure on hospital services from emergency department visits. However, the existing evidence-base is weak, largely focused on emergency out-of-hours services, and analysed using a before-and after-methodology without effective comparators. Methods and Findings Throughout 2014, 56 primary care practices (346,024 patients) in Greater Manchester, England, offered 7-day extended access, compared with 469 primary care practices (2,596,330 patients) providing routine access. Extended access included evening and weekend opening and served both urgent and routine appointments. To assess the effects of extended primary care access on hospital services, we apply a difference-in-differences analysis using hospital administrative data from 2011 to 2014. Propensity score matching techniques were used to match practices without extended access to practices with extended access. Differences in the change in “minor” patient-initiated emergency department visits per 1,000 population were compared between practices with and without extended access. Populations registered to primary care practices with extended access demonstrated a 26.4% relative reduction (compared to practices without extended access) in patient-initiated emergency department visits for “minor” problems (95% CI -38.6% to -14.2%, absolute difference: -10,933 per year, 95% CI -15,995 to -5,866), and a 26.6% (95% CI -39.2% to -14.1%) relative reduction in costs of patient-initiated visits to emergency departments for minor problems (absolute difference: -£767,976, -£1,130,767 to -£405,184). There was an insignificant

  5. A Socio-Cultural Perspective on School-Based Literacy Research: Some Emerging Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Enk, Anneke; Dagenais, Diane; Toohey, Kelleen

    2005-01-01

    Much research on reading and writing in schools continues to focus on individual cognitive skills. In contrast, investigations of literacy-learning in out-of-school settings have often taken a socio-cultural perspective, situating reading and writing in social relations and cultural institutions. The last 20 years have seen a proliferation of…

  6. Experiences of Cultural Diversity in the Context of an Emergent Transnationalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Fazal

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that despite wide-ranging appeal of the discourses of globalization, our modes of thinking and ways of addressing issues of cultural diversity remain trapped within a national framework. The dominant constructions of cultural diversity often overlook the ways in which experiences of diversity now take place in…

  7. Cultural Differences in Values as Self-Guides.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Wing-Yee; Maio, Gregory R; Rees, Kerry J; Kamble, Shanmukh; Mane, Sangeetha

    2016-06-01

    Three studies tested whether individualism-collectivism moderates the extent to which values are endorsed as ideal self-guides and ought self-guides, and the consequences for regulatory focus and emotion. Across Studies 1 and 2, individualists endorsed values that are relatively central to the self as stronger ideals than oughts, whereas collectivists endorsed them as ideals and oughts to a similar degree. Study 2 found that individualists justified central values using reasons that were more promotion focused than prevention focused, whereas collectivists used similar amount of prevention-focused and promotion-focused reasons. In Study 3, individualists felt more dejected after violating a central (vs. peripheral) value and more agitated after violating a peripheral (vs. central) value. Collectivists felt a similar amount of dejection regardless of values centrality and more agitation after violating central (vs. peripheral) values. Overall, culture has important implications for how we regulate values that are central or peripheral to our self-concept. PMID:27460271

  8. Cultural Differences in Values as Self-Guides.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Wing-Yee; Maio, Gregory R; Rees, Kerry J; Kamble, Shanmukh; Mane, Sangeetha

    2016-06-01

    Three studies tested whether individualism-collectivism moderates the extent to which values are endorsed as ideal self-guides and ought self-guides, and the consequences for regulatory focus and emotion. Across Studies 1 and 2, individualists endorsed values that are relatively central to the self as stronger ideals than oughts, whereas collectivists endorsed them as ideals and oughts to a similar degree. Study 2 found that individualists justified central values using reasons that were more promotion focused than prevention focused, whereas collectivists used similar amount of prevention-focused and promotion-focused reasons. In Study 3, individualists felt more dejected after violating a central (vs. peripheral) value and more agitated after violating a peripheral (vs. central) value. Collectivists felt a similar amount of dejection regardless of values centrality and more agitation after violating central (vs. peripheral) values. Overall, culture has important implications for how we regulate values that are central or peripheral to our self-concept.

  9. Cultural differences with end-of-life care in the critical care unit.

    PubMed

    Doolen, Jessica; York, Nancy L

    2007-01-01

    Critical care nurses are providing healthcare for an increasingly multicultural population. This ever-increasing diversity in cultures and subcultures presents a challenge to nurses who want to provide culturally competent care. It is common for patients and families to face difficult decisions about end-of-life care in critical care units, and minority cultures do not always believe in the Westerner's core values of patient autonomy and self-determination. Knowledge of these cultural differences is fundamental if critical care nurses wish to provide appropriate and culturally competent information regarding end-of-life decisions. PMID:17704674

  10. A Comparative Study of the Effects of Cultural Differences on the Adoption of Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arpaci, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to understand the impact of cultural differences on mobile learning adoption through identifying key adoption characteristics in Canada and Turkey, which have markedly different cultural backgrounds. A multi-group analysis was employed to test the hypothesised relationships based on the data collected by means of…

  11. On the Meaning of Cross-Cultural Differences in Simple Cognitive Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Vijver, Fons J. R.

    2008-01-01

    A set of 5 reaction time tests of increasing cognitive complexity were administered to 35 secondary school pupils in Zimbabwe and The Netherlands at 4 consecutive school days in order to explore the existence and nature of cross-cultural differences on reaction time tests measuring basic cognitive operations. No cross-cultural differences were…

  12. Characteristics of the Culturally Different Client: A Guide for the Rehabilitation Counselor. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, William R.

    The material focuses on the following areas: definition and purpose, some of the more common characteristics of the culturally different, counselor attitudes in serving the culturally different, counselor's knowledge of client's background, communication in the counseling relationship, and client attitudes toward helping services. Some…

  13. The Impact of Cultural Behaviours, Local Beliefs, and Practices on Emerging Parasitic Diseases in Tropical Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuliri, Celestine O. E.; Anosike, Jude C.; Oguoma, Chibuzor; Onwuliri, Viola A.; Nwoke, Betram E. B.; Dozie, Ikechukwu, N. S.; Iwuala, Moses O. E.

    2005-01-01

    The scourge of emerging parasitic diseases (e.g., urinary schistosomiasis, ascariasis, malaria, chagas disease, leishmaniasis, trachoma, trichiuriasis, taeniasis, dracunculiasis, sleeping sickness, filariasis) causes tremendous pain, suffering, and eventually death in tropical African communities. Patterns of transmission of these emerging…

  14. Exercises Abroad: How Differing National Experiences are Reflected in Emergency Response Planning and Exercises

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Marianno

    2007-04-30

    Recently a member of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Consequence Management Response Team took part in outreaches and an exercise in different foreign countries. In Brazil and South Korea, the outreaches revolved around a nuclear power plant exercise. In Canada, participation was limited to a table top Consequence Management exercise. This talk will briefly discuss each event and resulting pertinent observations. In each case, it became evident that governments respond to disasters very differently, and that these differences are not only culturally based, but also influenced by each government’s respective experience in dealing with natural disasters.

  15. Military and civilian emergency aeromedical services: common goals and different approaches.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzo, R A

    1997-01-01

    Military and civilian organizations in the U.S. operate separate but parallel emergency aeromedical services. Despite common origins, military and civilian approaches and methods have diverged. This article compares and contrasts the capabilities, priorities, safety, equipment, training and personnel of the largest military service, the U.S. Army, to civilian rotary wing (helicopter) emergency aeromedical programs. The different successes of military and civilian emergency aeromedical programs can be considered for use to improve the services of each. In general, Army programs operate larger aircraft and utilize two pilots per aircraft. Safety is a high priority and the Army aeromedical safety record is excellent. The Army also places a high degree of emphasis on crashworthiness and protective gear for the crew. Most civilian air Emergency Medical Service (EMS) programs operate small to moderate-sized aircraft flying with a single pilot. The recent safety record has improved dramatically. Civilian programs may add to their safety by considering two pilots and incorporating the crashworthy and protective advancements made by the military. Civilian programs fly with two highly trained medical technicians, nurses or physicians, equipped with state-of-the-art medical equipment. Army helicopters fly with one lesser-trained medical crewmember and less equipment. Improved combat casualty care and battlefield survival may be possible by increasing both the number and training of the medical attendants on Army aircraft. PMID:9006884

  16. Examining Gender Differences for Gambling Engagement and Gambling Problems Among Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Gloria; Zane, Nolan; Saw, Anne; Chan, Alan Ka Ki

    2016-01-01

    Gambling is fast becoming a public health problem in the United States, especially among emerging adults (18–25 year olds). Since 1995, rates have recently doubled with around 7–11 % of the emerging adult population having problems with gambling (Shaffer et al. in Am J Public Health 89(9):1369–1376, 1999; Cyders and Smith in Pers Individ Diff 45(6):503–508, 2008). Some states have lowered their gambling age to 18 years old; in turn, the gambling industry has recently oriented their market to target this younger population. However, little is known about the gender variation and the factors placing emerging adults at risk for getting engaged and developing problems with gambling. The purpose of the study was to determine the risk factors accounting for gender differences at the two levels of gambling involvement: engagement and problems. Mediation analyses revealed that impulsive coping and risk-taking were significant partial mediators for gender differences on engagement in gambling. Men took more risks and had lower levels of impulsive coping than women, and those who took more risks and had lower levels of impulsive coping were more likely to engage in gambling. Risk-taking and social anxiety were the significant mediators for gender differences in problems with gambling. Men took more risks and were more socially anxious than women, and greater risk-taking and more socially anxious individuals tended to have more problems with gambling. Implications for counseling preventions and intervention strategies are discussed. PMID:22585283

  17. Kinetic modeling of plasmid bioproduction in Escherichia coli DH5α cultures over different carbon-source compositions.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Marta B; Martins, Gabriel; Calado, Cecília R C

    2014-09-30

    The need for the development of economic high plasmid production in Escherichia coli cultures is emerging, as a result of the latest advances in DNA vaccination and gene therapy. In order to contribute to achieve that, a model describing the kinetics involved in the bioproduction of plasmid by recombinant E. coli DH5α is presented, as an attempt to understand the complex and non-linear metabolic relationships and the plasmid production occurring in dynamic batch culture environments, run under different media compositions of glucose and glycerol, that result in distinct maximum biomass growths (between 8.2 and 12.8 g DCW/L) and specific plasmid productions (between 1.1 and 7.4 mg/g DCW). The model based on mass balance equations for biomass, glucose, glycerol, acetate and plasmid accurately described different culture behaviors, using either glucose or glycerol as carbon source, or mixtures of both. From the 17 parameters obtained after model simplification, the following 10 parameters were found to be independent of the carbon source composition: the substrate affinity constants, the inhibitory constants of biomass growth on glycerol by glucose, of biomass growth on acetate by glycerol and the global biomass growth by acetate, and the yields of biomass on acetate, acetate on glucose and glycerol, and plasmid on glucose. The parameters that depend on the culture composition, and that might explain the differences found between cultures, were: maximum specific growth rates on glucose, glycerol and acetate; biomass yield on glucose and glycerol; and plasmid yield on glycerol and acetate. Moreover, a crucial role of acetate in the plasmid production was revealed by the model, with most of plasmid production being associated to the acetate consumption. The model provides meaningful insight on the E. coli dynamic cell behavior concerning the plasmid bioproduction, which might lead to important guidelines for culture optimization and process scale-up and control.

  18. Lipid production in Porphyridium cruentum grown under different culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sung Ho; Han, Jae Gun; Kim, Young; Ha, Ji Hye; Kim, Seung Seop; Jeong, Myoung Hoon; Jeong, Hyang Suk; Kim, Na Young; Cho, Jeong Sub; Yoon, Won Byong; Lee, Shin Young; Kang, Do Hyung; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2009-11-01

    Autotrophic growth of Porphyridium cruentum under 18:12 h and 12:12 h light:dark cycles showed the maximum cell concentration of 2.1 g-dry wt./L, whereas the specific growth rate, 0.042 (1/h), at 18:6 h is faster than that of 12:12 h, 0.031 (1/h), respectively. The highest lipid accumulation level, 19.3 (%, w/w), was achieved at 12:12 h cycle. Under dark cultivation condition with 10 g/L of glucose, the lipid accumulation in the cell was 10.9 (%, w/w), whereas the heterotrophic growth with glycerol as the carbon resource showed low level of cell concentration and lipid production, compared to that of glucose. The glucose was decided to be a suitable carbon resource for the heterotrophic growth of P. cruentum. The lipids from P. cruentum seemed be feasible for biodiesel production, because over 30% of the lipid was C16-C(18:1). The cultivation time and temperature were important factors to increase the maximum cell concentration. Extending the cultivation time helps maintain the maximum cell concentration, and higher lipid accumulation was achieved at 25 degrees C, compared to 35 degrees C. The fed-batch cultures showed that, under the light condition, the specific production rate was slightly decreased to 0.4% lipid/g-dry wt./day at the later stage, whereas, under the dark condition, the specific production rate was maintained to be a maximum value of 1.1% lipid/g-dry wt./day, even in the later stage of cultivation. The results indicate that the heterotrophic or 12:12 h cyclic mixotrophic growth of P. cruentum could be used for the production of biodiesel in long-term fed-batch cultivation of P. cruentum.

  19. Correcting Cultural Myopia: The Discovery and Nurturance of the Culturally Different Gifted and Talented in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Neil

    This paper addresses the problem of identifying and developing talent in children from culturally different backgrounds in New Zealand. The paper offers examples of how even applying the recommended "best practice" of multi-dimensional identification approaches can be inadequate for identifying gifted children from Maori, Polynesian, or other…

  20. Spontaneous aneuploidy and clone formation in adipose tissue stem cells during different periods of culturing.

    PubMed

    Buyanovskaya, O A; Kuleshov, N P; Nikitina, V A; Voronina, E S; Katosova, L D; Bochkov, N P

    2009-07-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of 13 mesenchymal stem cell cultures isolated from normal human adipose tissue was carried out at different stages of culturing. The incidence of chromosomes 6, 8, 11, and X aneuploidy and polyploidy was studied by fluorescent in situ hybridization. During the early passages, monosomal cells were more often detected than trisomal ones. A clone with chromosome 6 monosomy was detected in three cultures during late passages.

  1. Difference or Disorder? Cultural Issues in Understanding Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Sparks, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder and specific language impairment, are biologically based disorders that currently rely on behaviorally defined criteria for diagnosis and treatment. Specific behaviors that are included in diagnostic frameworks and the point at which individual differences in behavior constitute abnormality…

  2. Testing the Cultural Differences of School Characteristics with Measurement Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Ergül

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to model the school characteristics in multivariate structure, and according to this model, aimed to test the invariance of this model across five randomly selected countries and economies from PISA 2012 sample. It is thought that significant differences across group in the context of school characteristics have the…

  3. Respecting Difference: Race, Faith and Culture for Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirza, Heidi Safia; Meetoo, Veena

    2012-01-01

    "Respecting Difference" demonstrates how teacher educators in the UK and worldwide can attract, recruit and support black and minority ethnic students to become much needed and valued future teachers and educational leaders. This accessible guide presents insights into the institutional and individual dilemmas and experiences of both tutors and…

  4. GENDER-ASSOCIATED DIFFERENCES IN ACUTE HEART FAILURE PATIENTS PRESENTING TO EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT.

    PubMed

    Potočnjak, Ines; Bodrožić-Džakić, Tomislava; Šmit, Ivana; Trbušić, Matias; Milošević, Milan; Degoricija, Vesna

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about gender-associated differences in characteristics and survival of acute heart failure patients. The increasing incidence calls for investigating the possibilities of improved management. The purpose of the study was to determine gender-associated differences among emergency department acute heart failure patients in order to improve treatment quality and survival. A prospective observational study on 22,713 patients was conducted at the University Hospital Center Emergency department during 2010 and included 726 consecutive acute heart failure patients. The most common cause of acute heart failure was worsening of chronic heart failure. Females suffered more frequently from hypertensive acute heart failure and males from acute heart failure associated with acute coronary syndrome. Females were older, with higher body mass index, atrial fibrillation, urinary tract infections, hypertension history, hypertension at admission, and SAPS II score at admission. Males had a higher frequency of ST-elevation myocardial infarction and dilated cardiomyopathy, confirmed by ultrasound as lower ejection fraction and left ventricle dilatation with reduced ejection fraction. Males were more frequently smokers with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The importance of treating hypertension and atrial fibrillation in women and acute coronary syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in men should be emphasized. Aggressive identification and management of all possible heart failure etiologies should be recommended in the emergency department.

  5. Copepod (Crustacea) emergence from soils from everglades marshes with different hydroperiods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loftus, W.F.; Reid, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    During a severe drought period in the winter and spring of 1989, we made three collections of dried marsh soils from freshwater sloughs in Everglades National Park, Florida, at sites characterized by either long or intermediate annual periods of flooding (hydroperiod). After rehydrating the soils in aquaria, we documented the temporal patterns of copepod emergence over two-week periods. The species richness of copepods in the rehydrated soils was lower than in pre-drought samples from the same slough sites. Only six of the 16 species recorded from the Everglades emerged in the aquarium tests. The long hydroperiod site had a slightly different assemblage and higher numbers of most species than the intermediate-hydroperiod sites. More individuals and species emerged from the early dry-season samples compared with samples taken later in the dry season. The harpacticoid, Cletocamptus deitersi, and the cyclopoid, Microcyclops rubellus, were abundant at most sites. The cyclopoids - Ectocyclops phaleratus, Homocyclops ater, and Paracyclops chiltoni - are new records for the Everglades. We infer that 1) only a subset of Everglades copepod species can survive drought by resting in soils; and that 2) survival ability over time differs by species.

  6. Cultural Differences in Affect Intensity Perception in the Context of Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Pogosyan, Marianna; Engelmann, Jan B.

    2011-01-01

    Cultural differences in the perception of positive affect intensity within an advertising context were investigated among American, Japanese, and Russian participants. Participants were asked to rate the intensity of facial expressions of positive emotions, which displayed either subtle, low intensity, or salient, high intensity expressions of positive affect. In agreement with previous findings from cross-cultural psychological research, current results demonstrate both cross-cultural agreement and differences in the perception of positive affect intensity across the three cultures. Specifically, American participants perceived high arousal (HA) images as significantly less calm than participants from the other two cultures, while the Japanese participants perceived low arousal (LA) images as significantly more excited than participants from the other cultures. The underlying mechanisms of these cultural differences were further investigated through difference scores that probed for cultural differences in perception and categorization of positive emotions. Findings indicate that rating differences are due to (1) perceptual differences in the extent to which HA images were discriminated from LA images, and (2) categorization differences in the extent to which facial expressions were grouped into affect intensity categories. Specifically, American participants revealed significantly higher perceptual differentiation between arousal levels of facial expressions in high and intermediate intensity categories. Japanese participants, on the other hand, did not discriminate between high and low arousal affect categories to the same extent as did the American and Russian participants. These findings indicate the presence of cultural differences in underlying decoding mechanisms of facial expressions of positive affect intensity. Implications of these results for global advertising are discussed. PMID:22084635

  7. [Preserving the cultural heritage of health in Brazil: an emerging question].

    PubMed

    Serres, Juliane Conceição Primon

    2015-12-01

    In a discussion that applies the category "heritage" to goods within the realm of health, the article problematizes the recent recognition and incipient protection of the cultural heritage of health in Brazil. It presents a roster of assets that receive federal protection through Brazil's Instituto do Patrimônio Histórico e Artístico Nacional (IPHAN), including hospitals and health-related buildings as well as inventories conducted in a number of state capitals by the Brazilian Network for Cultural Heritage in Health. This approach suggests that preserving this valuable heritage is a matter of importance for the history of health in Brazil.

  8. Delivering MBA Programs in Emerging Markets: The Challenge of National Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, Western-style MBA programs are being delivered in emerging markets, as the developed countries become more and more saturated with MBAs and related offerings. This article, based on the global experience of the author in teaching and assessing MBA modules including thesis and dissertation research and writing, suggests approaches to…

  9. Networked Participatory Scholarship: Emergent Techno-Cultural Pressures toward Open and Digital Scholarship in Online Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veletsianos, George; Kimmons, Royce

    2012-01-01

    We examine the relationship between scholarly practice and participatory technologies and explore how such technologies invite and reflect the emergence of a new form of scholarship that we call "Networked Participatory Scholarship": scholars' participation in online social networks to share, reflect upon, critique, improve, validate, and…

  10. Cultural, Linguistic and Cognitive Issues in Teaching the Language of Literature for Emergent Bilingual Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macleroy, Vicky

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the premise that literary texts use language in aesthetic, imaginative and engaging ways that have considerable potential to extend the learning of bilingual pupils. It draws on research findings from a qualitative study that examined the value of developing pedagogic practices for emergent bilingual learners at the…

  11. The Influence of a Small Christian University's Culture on Selected Characteristics of Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuster, Melvin; Mongetta, Jillian

    2009-01-01

    In the past 50 years researchers have identified a number of demographic shifts occurring within industrialized societies that have resulted in changes in the nature of the developmental processes occurring in young adults. Arnett (2000) labels this new, socially constructed time period, between the ages of 18 and 25 years, as emerging adulthood.…

  12. Reading Difference: Picture Book Retellings as Contexts for Exploring Personal Meanings of Race and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysaker, Judith; Sedberry, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    In racially and culturally homogeneous school settings, opportunities for children to interact with those who are unlike themselves are not always available. Picture book retellings provide contexts within which students are exposed to racial and cultural differences by allowing them to engage in vicarious events with people they might not…

  13. Thinking Differently about Cultural Diversity: Using Postcolonial Theory to (Re)Read Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Lyn

    2004-01-01

    This paper makes use of postcolonial theory to think differently about aspects of cultural diversity within science education. It briefly reviews some of the increasing scholarship on cultural diversity, and then describes the genealogy and selected key themes of postcolonial theory. Postcolonial theory as oppositional or deconstructive reading…

  14. Choice of Appropriate Multimedia Technology and Teaching Methods for Different Culture Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taratoukhina, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the prerequisites for development in the area of cross-cultural multimedia didactics. This approach is based on research studies of differences between mentalities, ways of working with educational information, culturally-specific teaching methods and teaching techniques that determine differentiated approaches to the choice…

  15. Global Organizations and E-Learning: Leveraging Adult Learning in Different Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Edward P.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines a number of issues regarding the leveraged use of global training within multinational organizations. Given a common purpose and using technology that may minimize cultural differences, is it possible for these organizations to overcome some of the cultural barriers to adult learning? In examining this concept, this article…

  16. Are We Tolerant Enough to Read Each Other's Culture? Evidence from Three Different Social Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia, Salim

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the effect of cultural background of second-language-readers in different social contexts. Argues that cultural familiarity helps understanding more than the language of the text. Comprehension results are discussed in light of the role of multiculturalism and "melting-pot" policies in shaping minority students' social orientations.…

  17. Differences between Taiwanese and U.S. Cultural Beliefs about Ideal Adult Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chia-Chih DC; Mallinckrodt, Brent S.

    2006-01-01

    Some researchers believe that important tenets of attachment theory are culturally universal, whereas others claim that key constructs are rooted in Western values and should not be generalized further. To explore possible cultural differences in adults, undergraduates from Taiwan (n = 280) and the United States (n = 268) were asked in the present…

  18. Teaching "Understanding Cultural Differences for Business" in an Internet-Based Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Anthony C.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to offer a successful pedagogy in the teaching of "Understanding Culture Differences for Business" using Internet sources. The use of the pedagogy has helped the author and several faculty (in the author's University located in the U.S.) to popularize the learning of the origins of national culture and how culture…

  19. Differences in activity profile of bacterial cultures studied by dynamic speckle patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Miquet, E. E.; Otero, I.; Rodríguez, D.; Darias, J. G.; Combarro, A. M.; Contreras, O. R.

    2013-02-01

    We outline the main differences in the activity profile of bacterial cultures studied by dynamic laser speckle (or biospeckle) patterns. The activity is detected in two sorts of culture mediums. The optical setup and the experimental procedure are presented. The experimentally obtained images are processed by the temporal difference method and a qualitative assessment is made with the time history of speckle patterns of the sample. The main differences are studied after changing the culture medium composition. We conclude that the EC medium is suitable to detect the E. coli bacterial presence in early hours and that Mueller Hinton agar delays some additional hours to make possible the assessment of bacteria in time.

  20. Is the attribution of cultural differences to minorities an expression of racial prejudice?

    PubMed

    Vala, Jorge; Pereira, Cícero; Costa-Lopes, Rui

    2009-02-01

    The social psychological literature considers two main perspectives on the study of perceived cultural differences between majorities and minorities: one proposes that perception of cultural differences is an antecedent of prejudice and another states that the attribution of cultural differences to minorities is already a hidden expression of racial prejudice. This paper offers further support to this latter perspective. One hundred and ninety-four participants answered a questionnaire measuring (1) general racist belief; (2) cultural differences attributed to Black people (hetero-ethnicization); (3) the asymmetric attribution of secondary and primary emotions to the in-group and to Black people (infra-humanization); (4) the asymmetric attribution of natural and cultural traits to in-group members and to Black people (ontologization); and (5) negative evaluation of this social category. The general racist belief scale was not anchored in a specific group and measured the belief in the inferiority of certain social groups or peoples based on biological or cultural factors. Relationships between the scales were analysed through a set of Structural Equation Models. According to the predictions, results showed that the attribution of cultural differences is a dimension of prejudice. Results also showed that attribution of cultural differences, negative evaluation of Black people, ontologization, and infra-humanization were different dimensions of a common latent factor that can be identified as racial prejudice; and that prejudice was predicted by general racist belief. Results are discussed in the light of the study of the impact of perceived cultural differences on intergroup relations and in the light of the "new racism" approaches.

  1. Understanding Preschool Emergent Science in a Cultural Historical Context through Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundberg, Bodil; Areljung, Sofie; Due, Karin; Ekström, Kenneth; Ottander, Christina; Tellgren, Britt

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore how cultural factors interact with preschool teachers' shaping of activities with science content, and also how Activity Theory (AT) as a theoretical framework can be useful for examining interrelations within preschool systems. Qualitative data was collected from three preschools in the form of guided group…

  2. A Red Sun Emerges: A Study of Nature in Japanese Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trafton, Joyce

    A collection of materials to help teachers and students learn how the relationship of the Japanese people to their natural surroundings is integral to an understanding of Japanese culture. The materials are organized into the following sections: (1) Introduction: Ura ni wa Ura ga iru (The reverse has its reverse side); Kami-sama no Kuni (Land of…

  3. Celebrating the "Intellectual Heart": Emergent Meanings from a Post-Earthquake Organizational Communication Culture Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Catherine V.; And Others

    The Organizational Communication Culture (OCC) method, designed by Charles A. Bantz (1993) was utilized as the primary method for analyzing messages coming from the administration of California State University, Northridge, after the earthquake. Bantz feels that communication interactions in an organization bring meanings and expectations to that…

  4. Emerging Culture of English-Medium Instruction in Korea: Experiences of Korean and International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jeongyeon; Tatar, Bradley; Choi, Jinsook

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to contrastively examine Korean and international students' experiences of taking subject courses at a Korean university. Focusing on the viewpoints of the students, rather than central authorities, we attempt to reveal how language use and cultural factors are interpenetrated in the praxis of English-medium instruction (EMI).…

  5. Accompaniment and Quality in Childcare Services: The Emergence of a Culture of Professionalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirard, Florence; Barbier, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses various educational cultures observed today in a variety of training and professional development contexts in the field of early childhood education. The paper also analyses methods of developing and implementing training or professional "accompaniment". This notion of "accompaniment" has been developed in the context of…

  6. Women and Chest Pain: Recognizing the Different Faces of Angina in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Safdar, Basmah; D’Onofrio, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Emergency departments (ED) in the United States see over eight million cases of chest pain annually. While a cardinal symptom of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), multiple emergent and non-emergent causes can attribute to chest pain. This case-based perspective describes the different sex-specific causes of angina seen in ED patients. Once coronary artery disease (CAD) is ruled out with standard protocols, microvascular dysfunction is perhaps the most prevalent but under-diagnosed cause of non-CAD related angina in ED patients. Additional causes include coronary artery spasm, coronary artery dissection, coronary artery endothelial dysfunction and myocardial bridging. Non-CAD related angina is associated with persistent chest pain causing poor function, quality of life, and recidivism. Clinicians should consider additional diagnostics to routinely screen for non-CAD related causes of angina in patients with recurrent chest pain. Future work is needed to better define the epidemiological, clinical, biological, and genetic correlates of microvascular dysfunction in these patients. PMID:27354848

  7. Women and Chest Pain: Recognizing the Different Faces of Angina in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Basmah; D'Onofrio, Gail

    2016-06-01

    Emergency departments (ED) in the United States see over eight million cases of chest pain annually. While a cardinal symptom of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), multiple emergent and non-emergent causes can attribute to chest pain. This case-based perspective describes the different sex-specific causes of angina seen in ED patients. Once coronary artery disease (CAD) is ruled out with standard protocols, microvascular dysfunction is perhaps the most prevalent but under-diagnosed cause of non-CAD related angina in ED patients. Additional causes include coronary artery spasm, coronary artery dissection, coronary artery endothelial dysfunction and myocardial bridging. Non-CAD related angina is associated with persistent chest pain causing poor function, quality of life, and recidivism. Clinicians should consider additional diagnostics to routinely screen for non-CAD related causes of angina in patients with recurrent chest pain. Future work is needed to better define the epidemiological, clinical, biological, and genetic correlates of microvascular dysfunction in these patients. PMID:27354848

  8. Cultural differences in use of an electronic discussion group.

    PubMed

    McTavish, Fiona M; Pingree, Suzanne; Hawkins, Robert; Gustafson, David

    2003-01-01

    This article describes how 121 women newly diagnosed with breast cancer used a computer mediated discussion group to cope with their diagnosis. These data are part of a larger data set from a randomized clinical trial assessing the impact of a computer-based system called CHESS (the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System) on health outcomes. The larger study found significant improvement in health outcomes for those in the experimental group (those receiving CHESS), especially for women of color. Since discussion group is by far the most heavily used service of CHESS, one might conclude that these benefits (both overall and greater for women of color) should be attributed to amount of discussion group use. This study looks at how women of color and Caucasian women used the CHESS discussion group over the period of the study. Content analysis of messages in the discussion group showed that women of color used the discussion group differently from Caucasian women-they used it less frequently but their messages were more focused on breast cancer, suggesting they used discussion group more instrumentally. PMID:22113904

  9. Carotenoids production in different culture conditions by Sporidiobolus pararoseus.

    PubMed

    Han, Mei; He, Qian; Zhang, Wei-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids produced by Sporidiobolus pararoseus were studied. It was found that biomass was connected with carbon source, temperature, and pH, but carotenoids proportion was seriously influenced by dissolved oxygen and nitrogen source. Different carotenoids could be obtained by using selected optimum conditions. In the end we established the strategies to produce β-carotene or torulene. Fed-batch fermentation in fermentor was used to prove the authenticity of our conclusions. The cell biomass, β-carotene content, and β-carotene proportion could reach 56.32 g/L, 18.92 mg/L and 60.43%, respectively, by using corn steep liquor at 0-5% of dissolved oxygen saturation. β-Carotene content was 271% higher than before this addition. The cell biomass, torulene content, and torulene proportion could reach 62.47 g/L, 31.74 mg/L, and 70.41%, respectively, by using yeast extract at 30-35% of dissolved oxygen saturation. Torulene content was 152% higher than before this addition. The strategy for enhancing specific carotenoid production by selected fermentation conditions may provide an alternative approach to enhance carotenoid production with other strains. PMID:22708808

  10. Cultural Differences in Professional Help Seeking: A Comparison of Japan and the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Mojaverian, Taraneh; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Kim, Heejung S.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has found cultural differences in the frequency of support seeking. Asians and Asian Americans report seeking support from their close others to deal with their stress less often compared to European Americans. Similarly, other research on professional help seeking has shown that Asians and Asian Americans are less likely than European Americans to seek professional psychological help. Previous studies link this difference to multitude of factors, such as cultural stigma and reliance on informal social networks. The present research examined another explanation for cultural differences in professional help seeking. We predicted that the observed cultural difference in professional help seeking is an extension of culture-specific interpersonal relationship patterns. In the present research, undergraduate students in Japan and the United States completed the Inventory of Attitudes toward Seeking Mental Health Services, which measures professional help seeking propensity, psychological openness to acknowledging psychological problems, and indifference to the stigma of seeking professional help. The results showed that Japanese reported greater reluctance to seek professional help compared to Americans. Moreover, the relationship between culture and professional help seeking attitudes was partially mediated by use of social support seeking among close others. The implications of cultural differences in professional help seeking and the relationship between support seeking and professional help seeking are discussed. PMID:23426857

  11. Models and mosaics: investigating cross-cultural differences in risk perception and risk preference.

    PubMed

    Weber, E U; Hsee, C K

    1999-12-01

    In this article, we describe a multistudy project designed to explain observed cross-national differences in risk taking between respondents from the People's Republic of China and the United States. Using this example, we develop the following recommendations for cross-cultural investigations. First, like all psychological research, cross-cultural studies should be model based. Investigators should commit themselves to a model of the behavior under study that explicitly specifies possible causal constructs or variables hypothesized to influence the behavior, as well as the relationship between those variables, and allows for individual, group, or cultural differences in the value of these variables or in the relationship between them. This moves the focus from a simple demonstration of cross-national differences toward a prediction of the behavior, including its cross-national variation. Ideally, the causal construct hypothesized and shown to differ between cultures should be demonstrated to serve as a moderator or a mediator between culture and observed behavioral differences. Second, investigators should look for converging evidence for hypothesized cultural effects on behavior by looking at multiple dependent variables and using multiple methodological approaches. Thus, the data collection that will allow for the establishment of conclusive causal connections between a cultural variable and some target behavior can be compared with the creation of a mosaic.

  12. Evolution of cultural traits occurs at similar relative rates in different world regions

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Thomas E.; Mace, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental issue in understanding human diversity is whether or not there are regular patterns and processes involved in cultural change. Theoretical and mathematical models of cultural evolution have been developed and are increasingly being used and assessed in empirical analyses. Here, we test the hypothesis that the rates of change of features of human socio-cultural organization are governed by general rules. One prediction of this hypothesis is that different cultural traits will tend to evolve at similar relative rates in different world regions, despite the unique historical backgrounds of groups inhabiting these regions. We used phylogenetic comparative methods and systematic cross-cultural data to assess how different socio-cultural traits changed in (i) island southeast Asia and the Pacific, and (ii) sub-Saharan Africa. The relative rates of change in these two regions are significantly correlated. Furthermore, cultural traits that are more directly related to external environmental conditions evolve more slowly than traits related to social structures. This is consistent with the idea that a form of purifying selection is acting with greater strength on these more environmentally linked traits. These results suggest that despite contingent historical events and the role of humans as active agents in the historical process, culture does indeed evolve in ways that can be predicted from general principles PMID:25297866

  13. Individualism and the extended-self: cross-cultural differences in the valuation of authentic objects.

    PubMed

    Gjersoe, Nathalia L; Newman, George E; Chituc, Vladimir; Hood, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The current studies examine how valuation of authentic items varies as a function of culture. We find that U.S. respondents value authentic items associated with individual persons (a sweater or an artwork) more than Indian respondents, but that both cultures value authentic objects not associated with persons (a dinosaur bone or a moon rock) equally. These differences cannot be attributed to more general cultural differences in the value assigned to authenticity. Rather, the results support the hypothesis that individualistic cultures place a greater value on objects associated with unique persons and in so doing, offer the first evidence for how valuation of certain authentic items may vary cross-culturally. PMID:24658437

  14. Individualism and the Extended-Self: Cross-Cultural Differences in the Valuation of Authentic Objects

    PubMed Central

    Gjersoe, Nathalia L.; Newman, George E.; Chituc, Vladimir; Hood, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The current studies examine how valuation of authentic items varies as a function of culture. We find that U.S. respondents value authentic items associated with individual persons (a sweater or an artwork) more than Indian respondents, but that both cultures value authentic objects not associated with persons (a dinosaur bone or a moon rock) equally. These differences cannot be attributed to more general cultural differences in the value assigned to authenticity. Rather, the results support the hypothesis that individualistic cultures place a greater value on objects associated with unique persons and in so doing, offer the first evidence for how valuation of certain authentic items may vary cross-culturally. PMID:24658437

  15. Children in Asian cultures say yes to yes-no questions: Common and cultural differences between Vietnamese and Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Okanda, Mako; Itakura, Shoji

    2008-03-01

    We investigated whether children's response tendency toward yes-no questions concerning objects is a common phenomenon regardless of languages and cultures. Vietnamese and Japanese 2- to 5-year-old (N = 108) were investigated. We also examined whether familiarity with the questioning issue has any effect on Asian children's yes bias. As the result, Asian children showed a yes bias to yes-no questions. The children's response tendency changes dramatically with their age: Vietnamese and Japanese 2- and 3-year-olds showed a yes bias, but 5-year-olds did not. However, Asian 4-year-olds also showed a yes bias only in the familiar condition. Also, Asian children showed a stronger yes bias in the familiar condition than the unfamiliar condition. These two findings in Asian children were different from the previous finding investigated North American children (Fritzley & Lee, 2003). Moreover, there was a within-Asian cross-cultural difference. Japanese children showed different response tendencies, which were rarely observed in Vietnamese children. Japanese 2-year-olds and some 3-year-olds showed a "no answer" response: they tended not to respond to an interviewer's questions. Japanese 4- and 5-year-olds also showed an "I don't know" response when they were asked about unfamiliar objects. Japanese children tended to avoid a binary decision. We discussed the cross-cultural differences.

  16. Influence of Environmental Factors, Cultural Practices, and Herbicide Application on Seed Germination and Emergence Ecology of Ischaemum rugosum Salisb.

    PubMed

    Lim, Charlemagne Alexander A; Awan, Tahir Hussain; Sta Cruz, Pompe C; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2015-01-01

    Ischaemum rugosum Salisb. (Saramolla grass) is a noxious weed of rice that is difficult to control by chemical or mechanical means once established. A study was conducted to determine the effect of light, temperature, salt, drought, flooding, rice residue mulch, burial depth, and pre-emergence herbicides on seed germination and emergence of I. rugosum. Germination was stimulated by light and inhibited under complete darkness. Optimum temperature for germination was 30/20°C (97.5% germination). Germination reduced from 31 to 3.5% when the osmotic potential of the growing medium decreased from -0.1 to -0.6 MPa and no germination occurred at -0.8 MPa. Germination was 18 and 0.5% at 50 and 100 mM NaCl concentrations, respectively, but was completely inhibited at 150 mM or higher. Residue application at 1-6 t ha-1 reduced weed emergence by 35-88% and shoot biomass by 55-95%. The efficacy of pre-emergence herbicides increased with increasing application rates and decreased with increasing rice residue mulching. The efficacy of herbicides was in the order of oxadiazon> pendimethalin> pretilachlor. At 6 t ha-1, all herbicides, regardless of rates, did not differ from the control treatment. I. rugosum seeds buried at 2 cm or deeper did not emerge; however, they emerged by 4.5 and 0.5% at 0.5 and 1 cm depths, respectively, compared to the 39% germination for soil surface seeding. Flooding at 4 DAS or earlier reduced seedling emergence and shoot biomass while flooding at 8 DAS reduced only seedling emergence. The depth and timing of flooding independently reduced root biomass. Flooding at 4 and 6 cm depths reduced the root biomass. Relative to flooding on the day of sowing, flooding at 8 DAS increased root biomass by 89%. Similarly, flooding on the day of sowing and at 2 DAS reduced the root-shoot biomass ratio. Under the no-flood treatment, increasing rates of pretilachlor from 0.075 to 0.3 kg ai ha-1 reduced weed emergence by 61-79%. At the flooding depth of 2-4 cm

  17. Influence of Environmental Factors, Cultural Practices, and Herbicide Application on Seed Germination and Emergence Ecology of Ischaemum rugosum Salisb.

    PubMed

    Lim, Charlemagne Alexander A; Awan, Tahir Hussain; Sta Cruz, Pompe C; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2015-01-01

    Ischaemum rugosum Salisb. (Saramolla grass) is a noxious weed of rice that is difficult to control by chemical or mechanical means once established. A study was conducted to determine the effect of light, temperature, salt, drought, flooding, rice residue mulch, burial depth, and pre-emergence herbicides on seed germination and emergence of I. rugosum. Germination was stimulated by light and inhibited under complete darkness. Optimum temperature for germination was 30/20°C (97.5% germination). Germination reduced from 31 to 3.5% when the osmotic potential of the growing medium decreased from -0.1 to -0.6 MPa and no germination occurred at -0.8 MPa. Germination was 18 and 0.5% at 50 and 100 mM NaCl concentrations, respectively, but was completely inhibited at 150 mM or higher. Residue application at 1-6 t ha-1 reduced weed emergence by 35-88% and shoot biomass by 55-95%. The efficacy of pre-emergence herbicides increased with increasing application rates and decreased with increasing rice residue mulching. The efficacy of herbicides was in the order of oxadiazon> pendimethalin> pretilachlor. At 6 t ha-1, all herbicides, regardless of rates, did not differ from the control treatment. I. rugosum seeds buried at 2 cm or deeper did not emerge; however, they emerged by 4.5 and 0.5% at 0.5 and 1 cm depths, respectively, compared to the 39% germination for soil surface seeding. Flooding at 4 DAS or earlier reduced seedling emergence and shoot biomass while flooding at 8 DAS reduced only seedling emergence. The depth and timing of flooding independently reduced root biomass. Flooding at 4 and 6 cm depths reduced the root biomass. Relative to flooding on the day of sowing, flooding at 8 DAS increased root biomass by 89%. Similarly, flooding on the day of sowing and at 2 DAS reduced the root-shoot biomass ratio. Under the no-flood treatment, increasing rates of pretilachlor from 0.075 to 0.3 kg ai ha-1 reduced weed emergence by 61-79%. At the flooding depth of 2-4 cm

  18. Influence of Environmental Factors, Cultural Practices, and Herbicide Application on Seed Germination and Emergence Ecology of Ischaemum rugosum Salisb

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Charlemagne Alexander A.; Awan, Tahir Hussain; Sta. Cruz, Pompe C.; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2015-01-01

    Ischaemum rugosum Salisb. (Saramolla grass) is a noxious weed of rice that is difficult to control by chemical or mechanical means once established. A study was conducted to determine the effect of light, temperature, salt, drought, flooding, rice residue mulch, burial depth, and pre-emergence herbicides on seed germination and emergence of I. rugosum. Germination was stimulated by light and inhibited under complete darkness. Optimum temperature for germination was 30/20°C (97.5% germination). Germination reduced from 31 to 3.5% when the osmotic potential of the growing medium decreased from -0.1 to -0.6 MPa and no germination occurred at -0.8 MPa. Germination was 18 and 0.5% at 50 and 100 mM NaCl concentrations, respectively, but was completely inhibited at 150 mM or higher. Residue application at 1–6 t ha-1 reduced weed emergence by 35–88% and shoot biomass by 55–95%. The efficacy of pre-emergence herbicides increased with increasing application rates and decreased with increasing rice residue mulching. The efficacy of herbicides was in the order of oxadiazon> pendimethalin> pretilachlor. At 6 t ha-1, all herbicides, regardless of rates, did not differ from the control treatment. I. rugosum seeds buried at 2 cm or deeper did not emerge; however, they emerged by 4.5 and 0.5% at 0.5 and 1 cm depths, respectively, compared to the 39% germination for soil surface seeding. Flooding at 4 DAS or earlier reduced seedling emergence and shoot biomass while flooding at 8 DAS reduced only seedling emergence. The depth and timing of flooding independently reduced root biomass. Flooding at 4 and 6 cm depths reduced the root biomass. Relative to flooding on the day of sowing, flooding at 8 DAS increased root biomass by 89%. Similarly, flooding on the day of sowing and at 2 DAS reduced the root–shoot biomass ratio. Under the no-flood treatment, increasing rates of pretilachlor from 0.075 to 0.3 kg ai ha-1 reduced weed emergence by 61–79%. At the flooding depth of 2

  19. A moveable feast: Contemporary relational food cultures emerging from local food networks.

    PubMed

    O'Kane, Gabrielle

    2016-10-01

    Although the globalised food system delivers unparalleled food variety and quantity to most in the developed world it also disconnects consumers from where, how and by whom food is grown. This change in the food system has resulted in an acceptance of an anonymous and homogeneous food supply, which has contributed to over-consumption and the rise in diet-related diseases. 'Nutritionism' responds to this issue by maintaining that a 'healthy diet' can be achieved by consuming the correct balance of energy and nutrients, but with limited success. Yet, some food cultures can moderate the effects of the environmental drivers of increasing global obesity rates. This paper draws on this premise and presents an alternative eco-dietetic response, exploring people's meaning-making of food and food culture through local food networks. This research used narrative inquiry methodology and purposive sampling to gather stories through focus group conversations. Twenty people attended focus groups comprised of food procurers from one of three local food networks in the Canberra region: community gardens, a modified Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) and farmers' markets. The findings showed that those using local food networks enjoyed a 'contemporary relational food culture' that highlighted the importance of people, place and time, in their visceral experiences of food. The community gardeners made meaning of food through their connections to the earth and to others. The farmers' market and CSA food procurers valued the seasonal, local and ethical food produced by their beloved farmer(s). This paper provides qualitative evidence that local food networks enable people to enjoy multi-dimensional relationships to food. Further research is required to examine whether experiencing a contemporary relational food culture can lead to improved health outcomes for people and the planet.

  20. A moveable feast: Contemporary relational food cultures emerging from local food networks.

    PubMed

    O'Kane, Gabrielle

    2016-10-01

    Although the globalised food system delivers unparalleled food variety and quantity to most in the developed world it also disconnects consumers from where, how and by whom food is grown. This change in the food system has resulted in an acceptance of an anonymous and homogeneous food supply, which has contributed to over-consumption and the rise in diet-related diseases. 'Nutritionism' responds to this issue by maintaining that a 'healthy diet' can be achieved by consuming the correct balance of energy and nutrients, but with limited success. Yet, some food cultures can moderate the effects of the environmental drivers of increasing global obesity rates. This paper draws on this premise and presents an alternative eco-dietetic response, exploring people's meaning-making of food and food culture through local food networks. This research used narrative inquiry methodology and purposive sampling to gather stories through focus group conversations. Twenty people attended focus groups comprised of food procurers from one of three local food networks in the Canberra region: community gardens, a modified Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) and farmers' markets. The findings showed that those using local food networks enjoyed a 'contemporary relational food culture' that highlighted the importance of people, place and time, in their visceral experiences of food. The community gardeners made meaning of food through their connections to the earth and to others. The farmers' market and CSA food procurers valued the seasonal, local and ethical food produced by their beloved farmer(s). This paper provides qualitative evidence that local food networks enable people to enjoy multi-dimensional relationships to food. Further research is required to examine whether experiencing a contemporary relational food culture can lead to improved health outcomes for people and the planet. PMID:27181200

  1. Reflections on the challenges of understanding racial, cultural and sexual differences in couple relationship research

    PubMed Central

    Gabb, Jacqui; Singh, Reenee

    2015-01-01

    In the field of systemic psychotherapy there has been much recent interest in the areas of culture and reflexivity, and in working with couples. In this article we reflect on the process of conducting research in these areas. Drawing on findings from a large, national, empirical mixed-methods study on long-term relationships, we use two examples from the data to illustrate the complexity of researching across racial, cultural and sexual differences, in terms of research design and sampling, fieldwork and research practice, and making sense of multidimensional data. We point to findings that suggest that notions of coupledom are culturally constructed and thus challenge straightforward ideas of the procreative, sexually active couple dyad, separate from intergenerational extended families. The clinical significance of the findings for both lesbian, gay, bisexual or queer and culturally diverse couples and families are discussed. Practitioner points Cultural or racial matching is not a sufficient condition for engagement and empathy with couples and families. Critical reflexivity about similarity and difference is essential in cross-cultural systemic practice. ‘The couple’ and its distance from the extended family may be defined differently in different cultures. One research tool used in this project, the emotion map, appears to have utility in clinical practice with couples and families. PMID:25820766

  2. Gun Cultures or Honor Cultures? Explaining Regional and Race Differences in Weapon Carrying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felson, Richard B.; Pare, Paul-Philippe

    2010-01-01

    We use the National Violence against Women (and Men) Survey to examine the effects of region and race on the tendency to carry weapons for protection. We find that Southern and Western whites are much more likely than Northern whites to carry guns for self-protection, controlling for their risk of victimization. The difference between Southern and…

  3. Gender differences in acute and chronic pain in the emergency department: results of the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference pain section.

    PubMed

    Musey, Paul I; Linnstaedt, Sarah D; Platts-Mills, Timothy F; Miner, James R; Bortsov, Andrey V; Safdar, Basmah; Bijur, Polly; Rosenau, Alex; Tsze, Daniel S; Chang, Andrew K; Dorai, Suprina; Engel, Kirsten G; Feldman, James A; Fusaro, Angela M; Lee, David C; Rosenberg, Mark; Keefe, Francis J; Peak, David A; Nam, Catherine S; Patel, Roma G; Fillingim, Roger B; McLean, Samuel A

    2014-12-01

    Pain is a leading public health problem in the United States, with an annual economic burden of more than $630 billion, and is one of the most common reasons that individuals seek emergency department (ED) care. There is a paucity of data regarding sex differences in the assessment and treatment of acute and chronic pain conditions in the ED. The Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference convened in Dallas, Texas, in May 2014 to develop a research agenda to address this issue among others related to sex differences in the ED. Prior to the conference, experts and stakeholders from emergency medicine and the pain research field reviewed the current literature and identified eight candidate priority areas. At the conference, these eight areas were reviewed and all eight were ratified using a nominal group technique to build consensus. These priority areas were: 1) gender differences in the pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions for pain, including differences in opioid tolerance, side effects, or misuse; 2) gender differences in pain severity perceptions, clinically meaningful differences in acute pain, and pain treatment preferences; 3) gender differences in pain outcomes of ED patients across the life span; 4) gender differences in the relationship between acute pain and acute psychological responses; 5) the influence of physician-patient gender differences and characteristics on the assessment and treatment of pain; 6) gender differences in the influence of acute stress and chronic stress on acute pain responses; 7) gender differences in biological mechanisms and molecular pathways mediating acute pain in ED populations; and 8) gender differences in biological mechanisms and molecular pathways mediating chronic pain development after trauma, stress, or acute illness exposure. These areas represent priority areas for future scientific inquiry, and gaining understanding in these will be essential to improving our understanding of sex and gender

  4. Gender Differences in Acute and Chronic Pain in the Emergency Department: Results of the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference Pain Section

    PubMed Central

    Musey, Paul I.; Linnstaedt, Sarah D.; Platts-Mills, Timothy F.; Miner, James R.; Bortsov, Andrey V.; Safdar, Basmah; Bijur, Polly; Rosenau, Alex; Tsze, Daniel S.; Chang, Andrew K.; Dorai, Suprina; Engel, Kirsten; Feldman, James A.; Fusaro, Angela M.; Lee, David C.; Rosenberg, Mark; Keefe, Francis J.; Peak, David A.; Nam, Catherine S.; Patel, Roma G.; Fillingim, Roger B.; McLean, Samuel A.

    2015-01-01

    Pain is a leading public health problem in the United States, with an annual economic burden of more than $630 billion, and is one of the most common reasons that individuals seek emergency department (ED) care. There is a paucity of data regarding sex differences in the assessment and treatment of acute and chronic pain conditions in the ED. The Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference convened in Dallas, Texas in May of 2014 to develop a research agenda to address this issue among others related to sex differences in the ED. Prior to the conference, experts and stakeholders from emergency medicine and the pain research field reviewed the current literature and identified eight candidate priority areas. At the conference, these eight areas were reviewed and all eight were ratified using a nominal group technique to build consensus. These priority areas were: 1) gender differences in the pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions for pain, including differences in opioid tolerance, side effects, or misuse; 2) gender differences in pain severity perceptions, clinically meaningful differences in acute pain, and pain treatment preferences; 3) gender differences in pain outcomes of ED patients across the lifespan; 4) gender differences in the relationship between acute pain and acute psychological responses; 5) the influence of physician-patient gender differences and characteristics on the assessment and treatment of pain; 6) gender differences in the influence of acute stress and chronic stress on acute pain responses; 7) gender differences in biologic mechanisms and molecular pathways mediating acute pain in ED populations; and 8) gender differences in biologic mechanisms and molecular pathways mediating chronic pain development after trauma, stress, or acute illness exposure. These areas represent priority areas for future scientific inquiry, and gaining understanding in these will be essential to improving our understanding of sex and gender

  5. Managing the multi-cultural laboratory, Part II: Tools for managing the differences.

    PubMed

    Ketchum, S M

    1992-01-01

    This second article provides practical advice from managers in a variety of industries who have first-hand experience as multi-cultural managers. It will help laboratory professionals make practical application of two conceptual models in managing their culturally diverse employees. The advice covers such areas as performance standards, interpersonal skills, language issues, and other management practices. The first article explained what is meant by "culture" and featured the research-based model set forth by Dutch social psychologist and management consultant, Dr. Geert Hofstede. His four dimensions of culture (Power Distance, Masculinity/Femininity, Individualism/Collectivism, and Uncertainty Avoidance) provide a useful framework for assessing the different values, attitudes, and behaviors exhibited by those of different cultural backgrounds. In this article, abbreviated reference tables are presented that make these cross-cultural data more useful for management decision making. Laboratory supervisors can use both the models and the advice to challenge their own built-in cultural biases and to meaningfully interpret some of the attitudes and behaviors of culturally diverse coworkers and employees. PMID:10128839

  6. Managing the multi-cultural laboratory, Part II: Tools for managing the differences.

    PubMed

    Ketchum, S M

    1992-01-01

    This second article provides practical advice from managers in a variety of industries who have first-hand experience as multi-cultural managers. It will help laboratory professionals make practical application of two conceptual models in managing their culturally diverse employees. The advice covers such areas as performance standards, interpersonal skills, language issues, and other management practices. The first article explained what is meant by "culture" and featured the research-based model set forth by Dutch social psychologist and management consultant, Dr. Geert Hofstede. His four dimensions of culture (Power Distance, Masculinity/Femininity, Individualism/Collectivism, and Uncertainty Avoidance) provide a useful framework for assessing the different values, attitudes, and behaviors exhibited by those of different cultural backgrounds. In this article, abbreviated reference tables are presented that make these cross-cultural data more useful for management decision making. Laboratory supervisors can use both the models and the advice to challenge their own built-in cultural biases and to meaningfully interpret some of the attitudes and behaviors of culturally diverse coworkers and employees.

  7. Comparison of two different sevoflurane expelling methods on emergence agitation in infants following sevoflurane anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunliang; Song, Tieying; Wang, Hong; Gu, Kunfeng; Ma, Pengyu; Ma, Xiaojing; Zhao, Jianhui; Li, Yuxia; Zhao, JianHui; Yang, Guangyao; Yan, Ruyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of two different inhalation anesthetic expelling methods on emergence agitation in infants following sevoflurane anesthesia. Methods: 100 infants (1~3 years old) with cleft lip and palate and ASA classification I~II were randomized into two groups, a sevoflurane concentration decreasing expelling group (group n = 50 cases) and a low fresh gas flow expelling group (group D = 50 cases). The operation for cleft lip and palate repair was under general anesthesia, in which 30 minutes after initiation of narcosis ending extubation was indicated and after the tubes were removed the patients were sent to the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) to record anesthesia times, emergence agitation scores, Ramsay scores and adverse reactions including drowsiness, respiratory depression, nausea and vomiting, chills, hiccough or laryngospasms. Results: There were no differences in anesthesia times, awaking time and time until extubation between the two groups. 10 min after start of expelling sevoflurane, blood pressure and heart rates were higher in group N than in group D (P < 0.05). The postoperative agitation incidence and the degree of agitation were lower in group D than in group N (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Postoperative agitation is prone to occur in patients with sevoflurane concentration decreasing expelling. Avoiding sevoflurane application maintenance in the stage of sevoflurane expelling reduces the occurrence of postoperative agitation and diminishes physiological and psychological harm. PMID:26131225

  8. The organizational culture of emergency departments and the effect on care of older adults: a modified scoping study.

    PubMed

    Skar, Pål; Bruce, Anne; Sheets, Debra

    2015-04-01

    How does the organizational micro culture in emergency departments (EDs) impact the care of older adults presenting with a complaint or condition perceived as non-acute? This scoping study reviews the literature and maps three levels of ED culture (artifacts, values and beliefs, and assumptions). Findings on the artifact level indicate that EDs are poorly designed for the needs of older adults. Findings on the ED value and belief level indicate that EDs are for urgent cases (not geriatric care), that older adults do not receive the care and respect they should be given, that older adults require too much time, and that the basic nursing needs of older adults are not a priority for ED nurses. Finally, finding on the assumptions level underpinning ED behaviors suggest that older adults do not belong in the ED, most older adults in the ED are not critically ill and therefore can wait, and staff need to be available for acute cases at all times. A systematic review on the effect of ED micro culture on the quality of geriatric care is warranted.

  9. Synchronous Environmental and Cultural Change in the Emergence of Agricultural Economies 10,000 Years Ago in the Levant.

    PubMed

    Borrell, Ferran; Junno, Aripekka; Barceló, Joan Antón

    2015-01-01

    The commonly held belief that the emergence and establishment of farming communities in the Levant was a smooth socio-economic continuum during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic (ca. 12,000-9,000 cal BP) with only rare minor disruptions is challenged by recently obtained evidence from this region. Using a database of archaeological radiocarbon dates and diagnostic material culture records from a series of key sites in the northern Levant we show that the hitherto apparent long-term continuity interpreted as the origins and consolidation of agricultural systems was not linear and uninterrupted. A major cultural discontinuity is observed in the archaeological record around 10,000 cal BP in synchrony with a Holocene Rapid Climate Change (RCC), a short period of climatic instability recorded in the Northern Hemisphere. This study demonstrates the interconnectedness of the first agricultural economies and the ecosystems they inhabited, and emphasizes the complex nature of human responses to environmental change during the Neolithic period in the Levant. Moreover, it provides a new environmental-cultural scenario that needs to be incorporated in the models reconstructing both the establishment of agricultural economy in southwestern Asia and the impact of environmental changes on human populations.

  10. An eight-year review of blood culture and susceptibility among sepsis cases in an emergency department in Northeastern Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hashairi, F; Hasan, H; Azlan, K; Deris, Z Z

    2011-12-01

    An understanding of common pathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns is critical for proper management of sepsis in Emergency Department (ED). The goal of the study was to identify common organisms isolated from blood cultures of patients attended to ED and their antimicrobial susceptibility. Beginning from 2002, all cases of positive blood culture collected by the ED, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) were recorded and analysed. Over the period of eight years, we documented 995 cases of positive blood cultures. Of these samples, 549 (55.2%) were Gram-negative bacteria; 419 (42.1%) were Gram-positive bacteria; 10 (1.0%) were anaerobic organisms; 10 (1.0%) were fungus; and 7 (0.7%) cases were mixed organisms. Gram-negative bacteria were observed to develop more resistance to antimicrobial agents, especially those commonly used in an outpatient setting with less than 80% sensitivity to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole and ciprofloxacin. By contrast, there has been no marked change in the sensitivity trends of Gram-positive bacteria over the same period. In conclusion, ED physicians are more equipped to initiate empirical antimicrobial therapy especially when dealing with possibility of Gram-negative sepsis. PMID:22433889

  11. Oikopleura dioica culturing made easy: a low-cost facility for an emerging animal model in EvoDevo.

    PubMed

    Martí-Solans, Josep; Ferrández-Roldán, Alfonso; Godoy-Marín, Hector; Badia-Ramentol, Jordi; Torres-Aguila, Nuria P; Rodríguez-Marí, Adriana; Bouquet, Jean Marie; Chourrout, Daniel; Thompson, Eric M; Albalat, Ricard; Cañestro, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    The genome sequencing and the development of RNAi knockdown technologies in the urochordate Oikopleura dioica are making this organism an attractive emergent model in the field of EvoDevo. To succeed as a new animal model, however, an organism needs to be easily and affordably cultured in the laboratory. Nowadays, there are only two facilities in the world capable to indefinitely maintain Oikopleura dioica, one in the SARS institute (Bergen, Norway) and the other in the Osaka University (Japan). Here, we describe the setup of a new facility in the University of Barcelona (Spain) in which we have modified previously published husbandry protocols to optimize the weekly production of thousands of embryos and hundreds of mature animals using the minimum amount of space, human resources, and technical equipment. This optimization includes novel protocols of cryopreservation and solid cultures for long-term maintenance of microalgal stocks-Chaetoceros calcitrans, Isochrysis sp., Rhinomonas reticulate, and Synechococcus sp.-needed for Oikopleura dioica feeding. Our culture system maintains partially inbred lines healthy with similar characteristics to wild animals, and it is easily expandable to satisfy on demand the needs of any laboratory that may wish to use Oikopleura dioica as a model organism.

  12. Synchronous Environmental and Cultural Change in the Emergence of Agricultural Economies 10,000 Years Ago in the Levant

    PubMed Central

    Borrell, Ferran; Junno, Aripekka; Barceló, Joan Antón

    2015-01-01

    The commonly held belief that the emergence and establishment of farming communities in the Levant was a smooth socio-economic continuum during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic (ca. 12,000-9,000 cal BP) with only rare minor disruptions is challenged by recently obtained evidence from this region. Using a database of archaeological radiocarbon dates and diagnostic material culture records from a series of key sites in the northern Levant we show that the hitherto apparent long-term continuity interpreted as the origins and consolidation of agricultural systems was not linear and uninterrupted. A major cultural discontinuity is observed in the archaeological record around 10,000 cal BP in synchrony with a Holocene Rapid Climate Change (RCC), a short period of climatic instability recorded in the Northern Hemisphere. This study demonstrates the interconnectedness of the first agricultural economies and the ecosystems they inhabited, and emphasizes the complex nature of human responses to environmental change during the Neolithic period in the Levant. Moreover, it provides a new environmental-cultural scenario that needs to be incorporated in the models reconstructing both the establishment of agricultural economy in southwestern Asia and the impact of environmental changes on human populations. PMID:26241310

  13. Extended culture of macrophages from different sources and maturation results in a common M2 phenotype.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Lisa M; Holt-Casper, Dolly; Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Grainger, David W

    2015-09-01

    Inflammatory responses to biomaterials heavily influence the environment surrounding implanted devices, often producing foreign-body reactions. The macrophage is a key immunomodulatory cell type consistently associated with implanted biomaterials and routinely used in short-term in vitro cell studies of biomaterials aiming to reproduce host responses. Inconsistencies within these studies, including differently sourced cells, different durations of culture, and assessment of different activation markers, lead to many conflicting results in vitro that confound consistency and conclusions. We hypothesize that different experimentally popular monocyte-macrophage cell types have intrinsic in vitro culture-specific differences that yield conflicting results. Recent studies demonstrate changes in cultured macrophage cytokine expression over time, leading to the hypothesis that changes in macrophage phenotype also occur in response to extended culture. Here, macrophage cells of different transformed and primary-derived origins were cultured for 21 days on model polymer biomaterials. Cell type-based differences in morphology and cytokine/chemokine expression as well as changes in cell surface biomarkers associated with differentiation stage, activation state, and adhesion were compared. Results reflect consistent macrophage development toward an M2 phenotype via up-regulation of the macrophage mannose receptor for all cell types following 21-day extended culture. Significantly, implanted biomaterials experiencing the foreign-body response and encapsulation in vivo often elicit a shift toward an analogous M2 macrophage phenotype. In vitro "default" of macrophage cultures, regardless of lineage, to this M2 state in the presence of biomaterials at long culture periods is not recognized, but has important implications to in vitro modeling of in vivo host response.

  14. EXTENDED CULTURE OF MACROPHAGES FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES AND MATURATION RESULTS IN A COMMON M2 PHENOTYPE

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Lisa M.; Holt-Casper, Dolly; Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Grainger, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory responses to biomaterials heavily influence the environment surrounding implanted devices, often producing foreign body reactions. The macrophage is a key immunomodulatory cell type consistently associated with implanted biomaterials and routinely employed in short term in vitro cell studies of biomaterials aiming to reproduce host responses. Inconsistencies within these studies, including differently sourced cells, different durations of culture, and assessment of different activation markers, lead to many conflicting results in vitro that confound consistency and conclusions. We hypothesize that different experimentally popular monocyte-macrophage cell types have intrinsic in vitro culture-specific differences that yield conflicting results. Recent studies demonstrate changes in cultured macrophage cytokine expression over time, leading to the hypothesis that changes in macrophage phenotype also occur in response to extended culture. Here, macrophage cells of different transformed and primary-derived origins were cultured for 21 days on model polymer biomaterials. Cell type-based differences in morphology and cytokine/chemokine expression as well as changes in cell surface biomarkers associated with differentiation stage, activation state, and adhesion were compared. Results reflect consistent macrophage development towards an M2 phenotype via up-regulation of the macrophage mannose receptor for all cell types following 21-day extended culture. Significantly, implanted biomaterials experiencing the foreign body response and encapsulation in vivo often elicit a shift towards an analogous M2 macrophage phenotype. In vitro “default” of macrophage cultures, regardless of lineage, to this M2 state in the presence of biomaterials at long culture periods is not recognized but has important implications to in vitro modeling of in vivo host response. PMID:25684281

  15. Differences in developmental competence and gene expression profiles between buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) preimplantation embryos cultured in three different embryo culture media.

    PubMed

    Sadeesh, E M; Selokar, N L; Balhara, A K; Yadav, P S

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare effects of in vitro culture systems on embryonic development and expression patterns of developmentally important genes in preimplantation buffalo embryos. After IVM/IVF presumptive zygotes were cultured in one of three systems: undefined TCM-199, mCR2aa medium supplemented with 10 % FBS and defined PVA-myo-inositol-phosphate-EGF medium. No (P > 0.05) differences at 2-cell, 4-cell and 8-cell to 16- cell stages were observed among the three cultured media used, however, increased (P < 0.05) blastocyst yield, cell number and hatching rate were found in defined medium compared to undefined media. The expression patterns of genes implicated in embryo metabolism (GLUT-1), anti-apoptosis (BCL-2), imprinting (IGF-2R), DNA methylation (DNMT-3A) and maternal recognition of pregnancy (IFNT) were increased (P < 0.05) in hatched blastocysts derived from defined medium compared to undefined media. In conclusion, serum-free, defined medium improved developmental competence of in vitro cultured buffalo embryos. Whether these differences in morphological development and gene expression have long-term effects on buffalo calves born after embryo transfer remains unknown. However, it is possible that early adaptations of the preimplantation embryo to its environment persist during fetal and post-natal development. PMID:27481470

  16. Condom use preferences among Latinos in Miami-Dade: emerging themes concerning men’s and women’s culturally-ascribed attitudes and behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Sastre, Francisco; De La Rosa, Mario; Ibanez, Gladys E.; Whitt, Elaine; Martin, Steven S.; O’Connell, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Among Latinos, cultural values such as machismo and marianismo may promote inconsistent condom use representing a significant risk factor for HIV infection. Yet, there continues to be a need for additional research to explore the influence these cultural values have on Latino men and women’s condom use attitudes and behaviours given increasing HIV rates of HIV infection among Latinos. The purpose of this study was to explore further Latino traditional culturally-ascribed attitudes and behaviour for emerging themes toward condom use among a diverse group of adult Latino men and women living in Miami-Dade County, Florida (USA). The study used a qualitative study-design and collected data from sixteen focus groups with a total of 67 Latino men and women. Finding from the focus groups described attitudes and behaviours that counter traditional gender roles towards sex and expected sexual behaviours informed by machismo and marianismo. Common attitudes noted in the study include men’s classification of women as clean/dirty to determine condom use and women’s assertiveness during sexual encounters negotiating condom use-in favour and against it. As the findings of this study suggest, the process differ greatly between Latino men and women, having an impact on the risk behaviours in which each engage. PMID:25530309

  17. Condom use preferences among Latinos in Miami-Dade: emerging themes concerning men's and women's culturally-ascribed attitudes and behaviours.

    PubMed

    Sastre, Francisco; De La Rosa, Mario; Ibanez, Gladys E; Whitt, Elaine; Martin, Steven S; O'Connell, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Among Latinos, cultural values such as machismo and marianismo may promote inconsistent condom use representing a significant risk factor for HIV infection. Yet there continues to be a need for additional research to explore the influence these cultural values have on Latino men and women's condom use attitudes and behaviours given increasing HIV rates of HIV infection among Latinos. The purpose of this study was to explore further Latino traditional culturally-ascribed attitudes and behaviour for emerging themes toward condom use among a diverse group of adult Latino men and women living in Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA. The study used a qualitative study-design and collected data from 16 focus groups with a total of 67 Latino men and women. Findings from the focus groups described attitudes and behaviours that counter traditional gender roles towards sex and expected sexual behaviours informed by machismo and marianismo. Common attitudes noted in the study include men's classification of women as dirty-clean to determine condom use and women's assertiveness during sexual encounters negotiating condom use--in favour and against it. As the findings of this study suggest, the process differ greatly between Latino men and women, having an impact on the risk behaviours in which each engage.

  18. Parental attitudes about sexual education: cross-cultural differences and covariate controls.

    PubMed

    Abramson, P R; Moriuchi, K D; Waite, M S; Perry, L B

    1983-10-01

    Cross-cultural differences in parental attitudes and experiences of childhood sexual education were examined. Parental attitudes and experiences were isolated for study because of their significance as a vehicle for transmitting culturally prescribed norms. The present study also tested for artifactual differences between cultures, in terms of explaining the differences with concomitant variability. Couples with children ranging in age from 1 to 10 were utilized and were drawn from four subcultures (Mexican-American, N = 22, Black American, N = 20, Caucasian American, N = 27, and Japanese-American, N = 18). The most salient and consistent finding was the pronounced significance of the covariate controls (especially father's education and mother's religiosity). That is, although a few cross-cultural effects remained significant despite the influence of a covariate, most of the findings were biased by a concomitant (i.e., demographic) variable. PMID:6651506

  19. RNA-seq transcriptome analysis of a Pseudomonas strain with diversified catalytic properties growth under different culture medium.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jia-Wei; Zheng, Dai-Jun; Cui, Bao-Dong; Yang, Min; Chen, Yong-Zheng

    2016-08-01

    Biocatalysis is an emerging strategy for the production of enantio-pure organic molecules. However, lacking of commercially available enzymes restricts the widespread application of biocatalysis. In this study, we report a Pseudomonas strain which exhibited versatile oxidation activity to synthesize chiral sulfoxides when growing under M9-toluene medium and reduction activity to synthesize chiral alcohols when on Luria-Bertani (LB) medium, respectively. Further comparative transcriptome analysis on samples from these two cultural conditions has identified 1038 differentially expressed genes (DEG). Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment and KEGG pathways analysis demonstrate significant changes in protein synthesis, energy metabolism, and biosynthesis of metabolites when cells cultured under different conditions. We have identified eight candidate enzymes from this bacterial which may have the potential to be used for synthesis of chiral alcohol and sulfoxide chemicals. This work provides insights into the mechanism of diversity in catalytic properties of this Pseudomonas strain growth with different cultural conditions, as well as candidate enzymes for further biocatalysis of enantiomerically pure molecules and pharmaceuticals. PMID:27061463

  20. Co-variation of tonality in the music and speech of different cultures.

    PubMed

    Han, Shui' er; Sundararajan, Janani; Bowling, Daniel Liu; Lake, Jessica; Purves, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Whereas the use of discrete pitch intervals is characteristic of most musical traditions, the size of the intervals and the way in which they are used is culturally specific. Here we examine the hypothesis that these differences arise because of a link between the tonal characteristics of a culture's music and its speech. We tested this idea by comparing pitch intervals in the traditional music of three tone language cultures (Chinese, Thai and Vietnamese) and three non-tone language cultures (American, French and German) with pitch intervals between voiced speech segments. Changes in pitch direction occur more frequently and pitch intervals are larger in the music of tone compared to non-tone language cultures. More frequent changes in pitch direction and larger pitch intervals are also apparent in the speech of tone compared to non-tone language cultures. These observations suggest that the different tonal preferences apparent in music across cultures are closely related to the differences in the tonal characteristics of voiced speech.

  1. East-West Cultural Bias and Creativity: We Are Alike and We Are Different

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, James C.; Lan, Lan

    2012-01-01

    Persson (2012a) correctly raises the question of how cultural biases may impact giftedness research. He alludes to East-West differences in perceptions of creativity and ways that the collectivist-individualistic approaches may lead to differences in creativity perception. In this commentary, the authors discuss different approaches, and attempt…

  2. Proud Americans and lucky Japanese: cultural differences in appraisal and corresponding emotion.

    PubMed

    Imada, Toshie; Ellsworth, Phoebe C

    2011-04-01

    Appraisal theories of emotion propose that the emotions people experience correspond to their appraisals of their situation. In other words, individual differences in emotional experiences reflect differing interpretations of the situation. We hypothesized that in similar situations, people in individualist and collectivist cultures experience different emotions because of culturally divergent causal attributions for success and failure (i.e., agency appraisals). In a test of this hypothesis, American and Japanese participants recalled a personal experience (Study 1) or imagined themselves to be in a situation (Study 2) in which they succeeded or failed, and then reported their agency appraisals and emotions. Supporting our hypothesis, cultural differences in emotions corresponded to differences in attributions. For example, in success situations, Americans reported stronger self-agency emotions (e.g., proud) than did Japanese, whereas Japanese reported a stronger situation-agency emotion (lucky). Also, cultural differences in attribution and emotion were largely explained by differences in self-enhancing motivation. When Japanese and Americans were induced to make the same attribution (Study 2), cultural differences in emotions became either nonsignificant or were markedly reduced.

  3. Age and gender differences in self-esteem-A cross-cultural window.

    PubMed

    Bleidorn, Wiebke; Arslan, Ruben C; Denissen, Jaap J A; Rentfrow, Peter J; Gebauer, Jochen E; Potter, Jeff; Gosling, Samuel D

    2016-09-01

    Research and theorizing on gender and age differences in self-esteem have played a prominent role in psychology over the past 20 years. However, virtually all empirical research has been undertaken in the United States or other Western industrialized countries, providing a narrow empirical base from which to draw conclusions and develop theory. To broaden the empirical base, the present research uses a large Internet sample (N = 985,937) to provide the first large-scale systematic cross-cultural examination of gender and age differences in self-esteem. Across 48 nations, and consistent with previous research, we found age-related increases in self-esteem from late adolescence to middle adulthood and significant gender gaps, with males consistently reporting higher self-esteem than females. Despite these broad cross-cultural similarities, the cultures differed significantly in the magnitude of gender, age, and Gender × Age effects on self-esteem. These differences were associated with cultural differences in socioeconomic, sociodemographic, gender-equality, and cultural value indicators. Discussion focuses on the theoretical implications of cross-cultural research on self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Valuing difference in students' culture and experience in school science lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banner, Indira

    2016-08-01

    Susan Harper writes about how a cross-cultural learning community can be formed where people from different cultures are not simply assimilated into a school science community but are seen and heard. This makes learning reciprocal and meaningful for both recent refugees and the dominant population. Although maybe not refugees, students from poorer backgrounds in many countries are less likely to choose science at a post-compulsory level. This article discusses some of the potential barriers that are faced by many of these students, that prevent them from participating in school science. It suggests how people involved in school science might address these issues to allow a smoother cultural border crossing between the students' cultures and school science culture by reducing the significance of the crossing.

  5. Ammonia concentration at emergence and its effects on the recovery of different species of entomopathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    San-Blas, Ernesto; Pirela, Deynireth; García, Dana; Portillo, Edgar

    2014-09-01

    The life cycle of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) occurs inside an insect cadaver and an accumulation of ammonia initiates as a consequence of the nematodes defecation. This accumulation reduces the food resources quality and creates a detrimental environment for nematodes. When a given ammonia concentration is reached, the nematodes start their emergence process, searching for a new host. In the present work, this parameter, ammonia triggering point (ATP) was measured in 7 Steinernema species/strains. The effect of different ammonia concentrations on the recovery process and their consequences in the nematodes survival were also investigated. The results indicate that ATP varies among nematode species; Steinernema glaseri showed the highest ATP of the evaluated species (1.98±2.6 mg of NH4-N*g of Galleria mellonella(-1)); whereas Steinernema riobrave presented the lowest ATP (1.16±0.1 mg of NH4-N*g of G. mellonella(-1)). On the other hand, the nematode emergence could be a repulsive response when ATP is reached. As the ammonia concentration increased the recovery percentage of Steinernema feltiae (Chile strain) dropped gradually from 79.4±11.9% in the control treatment to 0% when 1mg of NH4-N*ml of bacterial broth(-1) was added. It is possible, that emergence process could be a repulsive response of the nematodes due to ammonia concentration when is reaching the ATP. The role of ammonia inside the insect cadavers, might suggests connections with some stages of the EPN life cycle.

  6. Emerging Approaches in Synchrotron Studies of Materials from Cultural and Natural History Collections.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Loïc; Bernard, Sylvain; Marone, Federica; Thoury, Mathieu; Reiche, Ina; Gourrier, Aurélien; Sciau, Philippe; Bergmann, Uwe

    2016-02-01

    Synchrotrons have provided significant methods and instruments to study ancient materials from cultural and natural heritages. New ways to visualise (surfacic or volumic) morphologies are developed on the basis of elemental, density and refraction contrasts. They now apply to a wide range of materials, from historic artefacts to paleontological specimens. The tunability of synchrotron beams owing to the high flux and high spectral resolution of photon sources is at the origin of the main chemical speciation capabilities of synchrotron-based techniques. Although, until recently, photon-based speciation was mainly applicable to inorganic materials, novel developments based, for instance, on STXM and deep UV photoluminescence bring new opportunities to study speciation in organic and hybrid materials, such as soaps and organometallics, at a submicrometric spatial resolution over large fields of view. Structural methods are also continuously improved and increasingly applied to hierarchically structured materials for which organisation results either from biological or manufacturing processes. High-definition (spectral) imaging appears as the main driving force of the current trend for new synchrotron techniques for research on cultural and natural heritage materials.

  7. Emerging Approaches in Synchrotron Studies of Materials from Cultural and Natural History Collections.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Loïc; Bernard, Sylvain; Marone, Federica; Thoury, Mathieu; Reiche, Ina; Gourrier, Aurélien; Sciau, Philippe; Bergmann, Uwe

    2016-02-01

    Synchrotrons have provided significant methods and instruments to study ancient materials from cultural and natural heritages. New ways to visualise (surfacic or volumic) morphologies are developed on the basis of elemental, density and refraction contrasts. They now apply to a wide range of materials, from historic artefacts to paleontological specimens. The tunability of synchrotron beams owing to the high flux and high spectral resolution of photon sources is at the origin of the main chemical speciation capabilities of synchrotron-based techniques. Although, until recently, photon-based speciation was mainly applicable to inorganic materials, novel developments based, for instance, on STXM and deep UV photoluminescence bring new opportunities to study speciation in organic and hybrid materials, such as soaps and organometallics, at a submicrometric spatial resolution over large fields of view. Structural methods are also continuously improved and increasingly applied to hierarchically structured materials for which organisation results either from biological or manufacturing processes. High-definition (spectral) imaging appears as the main driving force of the current trend for new synchrotron techniques for research on cultural and natural heritage materials. PMID:27572990

  8. Investigating the establishment of primary cell culture from different abalone (Haliotis midae) tissues.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Mathilde; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Niesler, Carola; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay

    2010-07-01

    The abalone, Haliotis midae, is the most valuable commodity in South African aquaculture. The increasing demand for marine shellfish has stimulated research on the biology and physiology of target species in order to improve knowledge on growth, nutritional requirements and pathogen identification. The slow growth rate and long generation time of abalone restrict efficient design of in vivo experiments. Therefore, in vitro systems present an attractive alternative for short term experimentation. The use of marine invertebrate cell cultures as a standardised and controlled system to study growth, endocrinology and disease contributes to the understanding of the biology of economically important molluscs. This paper investigates the suitability of two different H. midae tissues, larval and haemocyte, for establishing primary cell cultures. Cell cultures are assessed in terms of culture initiation, cell yield, longevity and susceptibility to contamination. Haliotis midae haemocytes are shown to be a more feasible tissue for primary cell culture as it could be maintained without contamination more readily than larval cell cultures. The usefulness of short term primary haemocyte cultures is demonstrated here with a growth factor trial. Haemocyte cultures can furthermore be used to relate phenotypic changes at the cellular level to changes in gene expression at the molecular level.

  9. Investigating the establishment of primary cell culture from different abalone (Haliotis midae) tissues

    PubMed Central

    Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie; Niesler, Carola; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay

    2010-01-01

    The abalone, Haliotis midae, is the most valuable commodity in South African aquaculture. The increasing demand for marine shellfish has stimulated research on the biology and physiology of target species in order to improve knowledge on growth, nutritional requirements and pathogen identification. The slow growth rate and long generation time of abalone restrict efficient design of in vivo experiments. Therefore, in vitro systems present an attractive alternative for short term experimentation. The use of marine invertebrate cell cultures as a standardised and controlled system to study growth, endocrinology and disease contributes to the understanding of the biology of economically important molluscs. This paper investigates the suitability of two different H. midae tissues, larval and haemocyte, for establishing primary cell cultures. Cell cultures are assessed in terms of culture initiation, cell yield, longevity and susceptibility to contamination. Haliotis midae haemocytes are shown to be a more feasible tissue for primary cell culture as it could be maintained without contamination more readily than larval cell cultures. The usefulness of short term primary haemocyte cultures is demonstrated here with a growth factor trial. Haemocyte cultures can furthermore be used to relate phenotypic changes at the cellular level to changes in gene expression at the molecular level. PMID:20680682

  10. Individual differences in frontolimbic circuitry and anxiety emerge with adolescent changes in endocannabinoid signaling across species

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Dylan G.; Fetcho, Robert N.; Jing, Deqiang; Li, Anfei; Glatt, Charles E.; Drysdale, Andrew T.; Cohen, Alexandra O.; Dellarco, Danielle V.; Yang, Rui R.; Dale, Anders M.; Jernigan, Terry L.; Lee, Francis S.; Casey, B.J.

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders peak in incidence during adolescence, a developmental window that is marked by dynamic changes in gene expression, endocannabinoid signaling, and frontolimbic circuitry. We tested whether genetic alterations in endocannabinoid signaling related to a common polymorphism in fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which alters endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) levels, would impact the development of frontolimbic circuitry implicated in anxiety disorders. In a pediatric imaging sample of over 1,000 3- to 21-y-olds, we show effects of the FAAH genotype specific to frontolimbic connectivity that emerge by ∼12 y of age and are paralleled by changes in anxiety-related behavior. Using a knock-in mouse model of the FAAH polymorphism that controls for genetic and environmental backgrounds, we confirm phenotypic differences in frontoamygdala circuitry and anxiety-related behavior by postnatal day 45 (P45), when AEA levels begin to decrease, and also, at P75 but not before. These results, which converge across species and level of analysis, highlight the importance of underlying developmental neurobiology in the emergence of genetic effects on brain circuitry and function. Moreover, the results have important implications for the identification of risk for disease and precise targeting of treatments to the biological state of the developing brain as a function of developmental changes in gene expression and neural circuit maturation. PMID:27001846

  11. Health smart cards: differing perceptions of emergency department patients and staff.

    PubMed

    Mohd Rosli, Reizal; Taylor, David McD; Knott, Jonathan C; Das, Atandrila; Dent, Andrew W

    2009-02-01

    An analytical, cross-sectional survey of 270 emergency department patients and 92 staff undertaken in three tertiary referral hospital emergency departments was completed to compare the perceptions of patients and staff regarding the use of health smart cards containing patient medical records. The study recorded data on a range of health smart card issues including awareness, privacy, confidentiality, security, advantages and disadvantages, and willingness to use. A significantly higher proportion of staff had heard of the card. The perceived disadvantages reported by patients and staff were, overall, significantly different, with the staff reporting more disadvantages. A significantly higher proportion of patients believed that they should choose what information is on the card and who should have access to the information. Patients were more conservative regarding what information should be included, but staff were more conservative regarding who should have access to the information. Significantly fewer staff believed that patients could reliably handle the cards. Overall, however, the cards were considered acceptable and useful, and their introduction would be supported.

  12. The spontaneous emergence of conventions: An experimental study of cultural evolution

    PubMed Central

    Centola, Damon; Baronchelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    How do shared conventions emerge in complex decentralized social systems? This question engages fields as diverse as linguistics, sociology, and cognitive science. Previous empirical attempts to solve this puzzle all presuppose that formal or informal institutions, such as incentives for global agreement, coordinated leadership, or aggregated information about the population, are needed to facilitate a solution. Evolutionary theories of social conventions, by contrast, hypothesize that such institutions are not necessary in order for social conventions to form. However, empirical tests of this hypothesis have been hindered by the difficulties of evaluating the real-time creation of new collective behaviors in large decentralized populations. Here, we present experimental results—replicated at several scales—that demonstrate the spontaneous creation of universally adopted social conventions and show how simple changes in a population’s network structure can direct the dynamics of norm formation, driving human populations with no ambition for large scale coordination to rapidly evolve shared social conventions. PMID:25646462

  13. Cross-cultural differences in relationship- and group-based trust.

    PubMed

    Yuki, Masaki; Maddux, William W; Brewer, Marilynn B; Takemura, Kosuke

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments explored differences in depersonalized trust (trust toward a relatively unknown target person) across cultures. Based on a recent theoretical framework that postulates predominantly different bases for group behaviors in Western cultures versus Eastern cultures, it was predicted that Americans would tend to trust people primarily based on whether they shared category memberships; however, trust for Japanese was expected to be based on the likelihood of sharing direct or indirect interpersonal links. Results supported these predictions. In both Study 1 (questionnaire study) and Study 2 (online money allocation game), Americans trusted ingroup members more than outgroup members; however, the existence of a potential indirect relationship link increased trust for outgroup members more for Japanese than for Americans. Implications for understanding group processes across cultures are discussed.

  14. Strategies Used by Foreign-Born Family Therapists to Connect Across Cultural Differences: A Thematic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Niño, Alba; Kissil, Karni; Davey, Maureen P

    2016-01-01

    With the growing diversity in the United States among both clinicians and clients, many therapeutic encounters are cross-cultural, requiring providers to connect across cultural differences. Foreign-born therapists have many areas of differences to work through. Thus, exploring how foreign-born family therapists in the United States connect to their clients can uncover helpful strategies that all therapists can use to establish stronger cross-cultural therapeutic connections. A thematic analysis was conducted to understand strategies 13 foreign-born therapists used during therapeutic encounters. Four themes were identified: making therapy a human-to-human connection, dealing with stereotypes, what really matters, and flexibility. Findings suggest that developing a deep therapeutic connection using emotional attunement and human-to-human engagement is crucial for successful cross-cultural therapy. Clinical and training implications are provided.

  15. Perception of Thromboembolism Risk: Differences between the Departments of Internal Medicine and Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Vincentelli, Giovanni Maria; Monti, Manuel; Pirro, Maria Rosaria; Bertazzoni, Giuliano; Pugliese, Francesco Rocco; Ciammaichella, Maurizio; Ruggieri, Maria Pia; Landolfi, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    The latest developments in emergency medicine (EM) have introduced new typologies of patients that have not been taken into account in previous studies of venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk. The aim of the current study was to evaluate by comparing the main international risk scores whether different perceptions of VTE risk exist in internal medicine (IM) departments and in EM departments. This cross-sectional observational study involved 23 IM and 10 EM departments of 21 different hospitals. The patient data were collected by physicians who were blinded to the purpose of the study. The data were analyzed using the main international risk scores. We analyzed 742 patients, 222 (30%) hospitalized in EM departments and the remaining 520 (70%) in IM departments. We found that fewer patients at risk for VTE were treated with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in EM departments than in IM departments. Moreover, there was significant statistical difference in the use of LMWH between IM and EM departments when the Padua score and immobilization criteria were used to assess the risk. The infrequent use of LMWH in EM patients may have several causes. For example, in EM departments, treatment of acute illness often takes higher priority than VTE risk evaluation. Moreover, immobilization criteria cannot be evaluated for all EM patients because of the intrinsic time requirements. For the aforementioned reasons, we believe that a different VTE risk score is required that takes into account the peculiarities of EM, and establishing such a score should be the object of future study.

  16. Population density and racial differences in the performance of emergency medical services.

    PubMed

    David, Guy; Harrington, Scott E

    2010-07-01

    This paper analyzes the existence and scope of possible racial differences/disparities in the provision of emergency medical services (EMS) response capability (time from dispatch to arrival at the scene and level of training of the responding team) using data on approximately 120,000 cardiac incidents in the state of Mississippi during 1995-2004. The conceptual framework and empirical analysis focus on the likely effects of population density on the efficient production of EMS as a local public good subject to congestion, and on the need to control adequately for population density to avoid bias in testing for racial differences. Models that control for aggregate population density at the county-level indicate "reverse" disparities: faster estimated response times for African-Americans than for whites. When a refined county-level measure of population density is used that incorporates differences in African-American and white population density by Census tract, the reverse disparity in response times disappears. There also is little or no evidence of race-related differences in the certification level of EMS responders. However, there is evidence that, controlling for response time, African-Americans on average were significantly more likely to be deceased than whites upon EMS arrival at the scene. The overall results are germane to the debate over the scope of conditioning variables that should be included when testing for racial disparities in health care.

  17. Perception of Thromboembolism Risk: Differences between the Departments of Internal Medicine and Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Vincentelli, Giovanni Maria; Monti, Manuel; Pirro, Maria Rosaria; Bertazzoni, Giuliano; Pugliese, Francesco Rocco; Ciammaichella, Maurizio; Ruggieri, Maria Pia; Landolfi, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    The latest developments in emergency medicine (EM) have introduced new typologies of patients that have not been taken into account in previous studies of venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk. The aim of the current study was to evaluate by comparing the main international risk scores whether different perceptions of VTE risk exist in internal medicine (IM) departments and in EM departments. This cross-sectional observational study involved 23 IM and 10 EM departments of 21 different hospitals. The patient data were collected by physicians who were blinded to the purpose of the study. The data were analyzed using the main international risk scores. We analyzed 742 patients, 222 (30%) hospitalized in EM departments and the remaining 520 (70%) in IM departments. We found that fewer patients at risk for VTE were treated with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in EM departments than in IM departments. Moreover, there was significant statistical difference in the use of LMWH between IM and EM departments when the Padua score and immobilization criteria were used to assess the risk. The infrequent use of LMWH in EM patients may have several causes. For example, in EM departments, treatment of acute illness often takes higher priority than VTE risk evaluation. Moreover, immobilization criteria cannot be evaluated for all EM patients because of the intrinsic time requirements. For the aforementioned reasons, we believe that a different VTE risk score is required that takes into account the peculiarities of EM, and establishing such a score should be the object of future study. PMID:27349662

  18. Gibberellic acid production by free and immobilized cells in different culture systems.

    PubMed

    Durán-Páramo, Enrique; Molina-Jiménez, Héctor; Brito-Arias, Marco A; Robles-Martínez, Fabián

    2004-01-01

    Gibberellic acid production was studied in different fermentation systems. Free and immobilized cells of Gibberella fujikuroi cultures in shake-flask, stirred and fixed-bed reactors were evaluated for the production of gibberellic acid (GA3). Gibberellic acid production with free cells cultured in a stirred reactor reached 0.206 g/L and a yield of 0.078 g of GA3/g biomass.

  19. When “Bouba” equals “Kiki”: Cultural commonalities and cultural differences in sound-shape correspondences

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Chuan; Huang, Pi-Chun; Woods, Andy; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that the Bouba/Kiki effect, in which meaningless speech sounds are systematically mapped onto rounded or angular shapes, reflects a universal crossmodal correspondence between audition and vision. Here, radial frequency (RF) patterns were adapted in order to compare the Bouba/Kiki effect in Eastern and Western participants demonstrating different perceptual styles. Three attributes of the RF patterns were manipulated: The frequency, amplitude, and spikiness of the sinusoidal modulations along the circumference of a circle. By testing participants in the US and Taiwan, both cultural commonalities and differences in sound-shape correspondence were revealed. RF patterns were more likely to be matched with “Kiki” than with “Bouba” when the frequency, amplitude, and spikiness increased. The responses from both groups of participants had a similar weighting on frequency; nevertheless, the North Americans had a higher weighting on amplitude, but a lower weighting on spikiness, than their Taiwanese counterparts. These novel results regarding cultural differences suggest that the Bouba/Kiki effect is partly tuned by differing perceptual experience. In addition, using the RF patterns in the Bouba/Kiki effect provides a “mid-level” linkage between visual and auditory processing, and a future understanding of sound-shape correspondences based on the mechanism of visual pattern processing. PMID:27230754

  20. North/South Differences Among Italian Emerging Adults Regarding Criteria Deemed Important for Adulthood and Life Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Piumatti, Giovanni; Garro, Maria; Pipitone, Laura; Di Vita, Angela Maria; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2016-05-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare Northern and Southern Italian emerging adult university students, regarding the importance attributed to criteria for adulthood and the levels of life and education satisfaction. Self-report questionnaires were filled by 475 Northern and Southern Italian University students (Age M = 22.91, 76% females, n = 359). Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that Southern emerging adults were more likely to place importance on family capacities, norm compliance, interdependence and role transitions as criteria for achieving adulthood than Northern emerging adults. Regarding gender differences, females were more likely to believe in the importance of norm compliance than males, while males were more likely to espouse the importance of legal transitions. Finally, emerging adults from the North reported higher levels of life satisfaction than their Southern counterparts. We interpreted these findings in light of socio-economical and gender socialization differences among Northern and Southern Italian emerging adults. PMID:27298636

  1. North/South Differences Among Italian Emerging Adults Regarding Criteria Deemed Important for Adulthood and Life Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Piumatti, Giovanni; Garro, Maria; Pipitone, Laura; Di Vita, Angela Maria; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare Northern and Southern Italian emerging adult university students, regarding the importance attributed to criteria for adulthood and the levels of life and education satisfaction. Self-report questionnaires were filled by 475 Northern and Southern Italian University students (Age M = 22.91, 76% females, n = 359). Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that Southern emerging adults were more likely to place importance on family capacities, norm compliance, interdependence and role transitions as criteria for achieving adulthood than Northern emerging adults. Regarding gender differences, females were more likely to believe in the importance of norm compliance than males, while males were more likely to espouse the importance of legal transitions. Finally, emerging adults from the North reported higher levels of life satisfaction than their Southern counterparts. We interpreted these findings in light of socio-economical and gender socialization differences among Northern and Southern Italian emerging adults. PMID:27298636

  2. Cultural Similarities and Differences in Perceived Affordances of Situations for Big Five Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Church, A. Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S.; del Prado, Alicia M.

    2009-01-01

    The perceived affordance or conduciveness of various situations for Big Five behaviors was investigated in the United States (N = 188) and the Philippines (N = 215). The basic proposition that different situations afford different trait-relevant behaviors was supported, at least in the perceptions of cultural informants. Cultural similarities exceeded differences, and in both cultures individuals perceived Big Five behaviors as expressed in if-then patterns of variation across situations. Americans and Filipinos showed some similarity in the general dimensions along which situations are construed, but meaningful differences in the construal of certain interpersonal situations were also observed. The findings contribute to efforts to integrate person and situation approaches in personality and social psychology. PMID:20401176

  3. Cultural, contextual, and gender differences in peer talk: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Tulviste, Tiia; Mizera, Luule; De Geer, Boel; Tryggvason, Marja-Terttu

    2010-08-01

    The study focused on cultural, contextual, and gender differences in children's peer talk. Same-sex dyads of Estonian (n = 38), Finnish (n = 38), and Swedish (n = 34) preschool age children were videotaped during unstructured and structured play settings. We found only one gender difference in children's talkativeness and in the use of regulatory speech: during free play, Swedish boys used more imperatives per directives than Swedish girls. At the same time there were significant cultural and contextual differences. Estonian children were most directive and Swedish children were least directive. Finnish children were less directive than Estonian children but more directive than Swedish children. It was concluded that cultural and contextual factors strongly influence the likelihood, extent, and nature of gender differences in peer talk. PMID:20338014

  4. Teaching Practice and Cultural Difference of an English as Foreign Language Classroom in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Hsien-Chung; Yang, Cheng-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Uninterrupted interactions of merchants and travelers from different countries stress the significance of English. The purpose of the study was to investigate what cultures and teaching practices are different between native English-speaking teachers and Taiwanese senior high school students. Three native English-speaking teachers and six…

  5. A Measurement Invariance Analysis of the General Self-Efficacy Scale on Two Different Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy; Kam, Chester

    2014-01-01

    The 10-item General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) was developed to assess an individual's beliefs to cope with a variety of situations in life. Despite the GSES being used in numerous research from researchers in different countries and presented in different languages, little is known about the use of its validity in an Asian culture. The aim…

  6. Teachers' Cultural Differences: Case Studies Of Geography Teachers In Brisbane, Changchun and Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Chi Chung; Lidstone, John

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this exploratory study is to identify variations in the ways in which individual teachers in different educational contexts interpret their curriculum and plan their lessons and in particular to explore the possibility that cultural differences as identified by Hofstede (1991) may be a contributing factor to understanding…

  7. How Two Differing Portraits of Newton Can Teach Us about the Cultural Context of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucci, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Like several scientists, Isaac Newton has been represented many times over many different periods, and portraits of Newton were often commissioned by the scientist himself. These portraits tell us a lot about the scientist, the artist and the cultural context. This article examines two very different portraits of Newton that were realized more…

  8. Maternal Sensitivity and Child Secure Base Use in Early Childhood: Studies in Different Cultural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posada, German; Trumbell, Jill; Noblega, Magaly; Plata, Sandra; Peña, Paola; Carbonell, Olga A.; Lu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether maternal sensitivity and child security are related during early childhood and whether such an association is found in different cultural and social contexts. Mother-child dyads (N = 237) from four different countries (Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and the United States) were observed in naturalistic settings when children were…

  9. The Impact of Cultural Differences in Temporal Perception on Global Software Development Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Richard William

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation investigated the impact of cultural differences in temporal perception on globally dispersed software development teams. Literature and anecdotal evidence suggest that these temporal differences affect individual communication quality, which in turn will affect individual satisfaction and trust within global teams. Additionally,…

  10. Cross-Cultural Differences in Polite Epistemic Modal Use in American English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youmans, Madeleine

    2001-01-01

    Compared the use of selected epistemic modals in the English speech of Chicano barrio residents and Anglo visitors to the community. Transcribed conversations served as the database. Discusses the epistemic modal functions used the most disparately between groups. Differences are shown to relate to cross-culturally different uses of epistemic…

  11. Cultural Differences on Chinese and English Idioms of Diet and the Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chunli

    2010-01-01

    Idioms is a special culture which is shaped in the daily lives of the local people, particularly the idioms of diet has a close relation with various elements, such as the eating custom, history, fairy tales, geographic situations. Also, different ways of translation on different diet idioms in English and Chinese will be analyzed in this article.…

  12. THE EFFECT OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCE IN THE EDUCATION OF SPANISH AMERICANS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ULIBARRI, HORACIO

    MANY SPANISH AMERICANS IN NEW MEXICO HAVE DIFFICULTIES WHICH RESULT FROM DIFFERING VALUES IN THE SPANISH AMERICAN AND AMERICAN CULTURES. THESE DIFFERENCES IN VALUES ARE EVIDENT IN RELIGIOUS PRACTICES, EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT, ECONOMIC POLICIES, HEALTH PRACTICES, POLITICAL ATTITUDES, RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES, AND FAMILY LIFE. A SECTION IS INCLUDED…

  13. Cultural Differences in Psychological Distress between Asian and Caucasian American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, David; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined possible cultural differences in psychological distress between 50 Asian-American and 48 Caucasian-American college students using the Brief Symptom Inventory. Found significant differences between the two groups on six of the nine symptom scales. Asians scored significantly higher than Caucasians on obsessive compulsiveness,…

  14. A Cross-Cultural Study of Differences in Romantic Attitudes between American and Albanian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoxha, Eneda; Hatala, Mark N.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-cultural differences in romantic attitudes are often taken for granted and accepted. However, very little research has been conducted to clearly state how much and how different Albanian and American college students are in the way they love. Results indicate that Americans are more romantic than Albanians. In addition, Americans are more…

  15. Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Development: Attention to Relations and Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuwabara, Megumi; Smith, Linda B.

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates a suite of generalized differences in the attentional and cognitive processing of adults from Eastern and Western cultures. Cognition in Eastern adults is often more relational and in Western adults is more object focused. Three experiments examined whether these differences characterize the cognition of preschool…

  16. Emergence of cercariae of Echinostoma caproni and Schistosoma mansoni from Biomphalaria glabrata under different laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Fried, B; LaTerra, R; Kim, Y

    2002-12-01

    Release of Echinostoma caproni cercariae and Schistosoma mansoni from experimentally infected Biomphalaria glabrata snails maintained under different laboratory conditions was studied. Infected snails were isolated individually for 1 h in Stender dishes containing 5 ml of artificial spring water and the number of cercariae released during this time was recorded. Of numerous conditions tested, the addition of lettuce, the use of water conditioned by B. glabrata snails and a temperature of 35 degrees C significantly increased the release of E. caproni cercariae. A significant increase in cercarial release of S. mansoni was seen only in cultures fed lettuce. A temperature of 12 degrees C caused a significant decrease in cercarial release of both E. caproni and S. mansoni. Increased snail activity associated with feeding behaviour was probably responsible for the enhanced cercarial sheds observed in this study. PMID:12498644

  17. The rise of cancer in urban India: Cultural understandings, structural inequalities and the emergence of the clinic.

    PubMed

    Broom, Alex; Doron, Assa

    2012-05-01

    Cancer services in India have evolved and expanded significantly in recent years, with a surge in the availability of biomedical oncological treatment facilities for certain cohorts of the Indian population in urban areas. Despite significant and sustained economic development in many areas of India, major issues persist in the delivery of cancer care, even in the context of relatively prosperous urban populations. This article explores the dilemmas evident in Indian cancer care as perceived by a group of Indian oncology clinicians. Specifically, the interviews focused on their perspectives on the key challenges facing cancer patients, particularly in relation to help-seeking and access to care. The main concerns that emerged in the interviews were: (a) practical constraint (i.e. access and treatment); (b) cultural values (i.e. communication, stigma and the clinic); and (c) structural conditions (i.e. inequalities related to place, gender and class). We unpack these as important elements of cancer care in contemporary India, and present Farmer's notion of structural violence, among other concepts, as potentially useful for understanding some facets of this social problem. We conclude that without a greater understanding of social and cultural issues shaping cancer care in India, little progress will be made in coping with a disease that is set to become a major burden within an increasingly prosperous and ageing population.

  18. Promoting cultural humility during labor and birth: putting theory into action during PRONTO obstetric and neonatal emergency training.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Jenifer O; Cohen, Susanna R; Holme, Francesca; Buttrick, Elizabeth S; Dettinger, Julia C; Kestler, Edgar; Walker, Dilys M

    2013-01-01

    Maternal and neonatal mortality in Northern Guatemala, a region with a high percentage of indigenous people, is disproportionately high. Initiatives to improve quality of care at local health facilities equipped for births, and increasing the number of births attended at these facilities will help address this problem. PRONTO (Programa de Rescate Obstétrico y Neonatal: Tratamiento Óptimo y Oportuno) is a low-tech, high-fidelity, simulation-based, provider-to-provider training in the management of obstetric and neonatal emergencies. This program has been successfully tested and implemented in Mexico. PRONTO will now be implemented in Guatemala as part of an initiative to decrease maternal and perinatal mortality. Guatemalan health authorities have requested that the training include training on cultural humility and humanized birth. This article describes the process of curricular adaptation to satisfy this request. The PRONTO team adapted the existing program through 4 steps: (a) analysis of the problem and context through a review of qualitative data and stakeholder interviews, (b) literature review and adoption of a theoretical framework regarding cultural humility and adult learning, (c) adaptation of the curriculum and design of new activities and simulations, and (d) implementation of adapted and expanded curriculum and further refinement in response to participant response. PMID:23360940

  19. Promoting cultural humility during labor and birth: putting theory into action during PRONTO obstetric and neonatal emergency training.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Jenifer O; Cohen, Susanna R; Holme, Francesca; Buttrick, Elizabeth S; Dettinger, Julia C; Kestler, Edgar; Walker, Dilys M

    2013-01-01

    Maternal and neonatal mortality in Northern Guatemala, a region with a high percentage of indigenous people, is disproportionately high. Initiatives to improve quality of care at local health facilities equipped for births, and increasing the number of births attended at these facilities will help address this problem. PRONTO (Programa de Rescate Obstétrico y Neonatal: Tratamiento Óptimo y Oportuno) is a low-tech, high-fidelity, simulation-based, provider-to-provider training in the management of obstetric and neonatal emergencies. This program has been successfully tested and implemented in Mexico. PRONTO will now be implemented in Guatemala as part of an initiative to decrease maternal and perinatal mortality. Guatemalan health authorities have requested that the training include training on cultural humility and humanized birth. This article describes the process of curricular adaptation to satisfy this request. The PRONTO team adapted the existing program through 4 steps: (a) analysis of the problem and context through a review of qualitative data and stakeholder interviews, (b) literature review and adoption of a theoretical framework regarding cultural humility and adult learning, (c) adaptation of the curriculum and design of new activities and simulations, and (d) implementation of adapted and expanded curriculum and further refinement in response to participant response.

  20. In vitro culture of immature embryos of Cinnamomum tamala Nees.--the role of different factors.

    PubMed

    Deb, Madhabi S; Jamir, N S; Deb, Chitta Ranjan

    2014-10-01

    Seed characteristics and in vitro culture of C. tamala embryos were studied. Embryos desiccated below 50% (fresh weight) exhibited poor morphogenetic response in vitro and confirmed the recalcitrant nature of seeds. The immature embryos of various developmental ages (4-16 week after flowering, WAF) were cultured on different strengths of MS medium. Morphogenesis responses were recorded after 10 days of culture. The best culture responses were achieved from the immature embryos of 12 WAF on MS medium with sucrose (3%, w/v), polyvinyl pyrollidone (100 mg L(-1)) and benzyl adenine (12 microM). Under optimum condition -60% explants responded; and -7.3 shoots buds developed per explants after 35 days of culture initiation. The shoot buds could be converted into micro-shoots on MS medium with sucrose (3%) and kinetin (3 microM). About 5.3 micro-shoots/shoot buds sprouted per sub-culture. The micro-shoots were rooted by maintaining them on MS medium with alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (3 microM) where within 6-8 wk of culture -8-10 roots developed. The rooted plantlets were acclimatized in vitro before they were transferred to community potting mix and maintained in the poly-shade ca 75% shading. The transplants registered -70% survival after two months of transfer. PMID:25345250

  1. Modeling Polymorphemic Word Recognition: Exploring Differences among Children with Early-Emerging and Late- Emerging Word Reading Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Devin M.; Steacy, Laura M.; Compton, Donald L.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Goodwin, Amanda P.; Cho, Eunsoo; Lindstrom, Esther R.; Collins, Alyson A.

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive models of derived polymorphemic word recognition skill in developing readers, with an emphasis on children with reading difficulty (RD), have not been developed. The purpose of the present study was to model individual differences in polymorphemic word recognition ability at the item level among 5th-grade children (N = 173)…

  2. Microcystin-Bound Protein Patterns in Different Cultures of Microcystis aeruginosa and Field Samples

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Nian; Hu, Lili; Song, Lirong; Gan, Nanqin

    2016-01-01

    Micocystin (MC) exists in Microcystis cells in two different forms, free and protein-bound. We examined the dynamic change in extracellular free MCs, intracellular free MCs and protein-bound MCs in both batch cultures and semi-continuous cultures, using high performance liquid chromatography and Western blot. The results showed that the free MC per cell remained constant, while the quantity of protein-bound MCs increased with the growth of Microcystis cells in both kinds of culture. Significant changes in the dominant MC-bound proteins occurred in the late exponential growth phase of batch cultures, while the dominant MC-bound proteins in semi-continuous cultures remained the same. In field samples collected at different months in Lake Taihu, the dominant MC-bound proteins were shown to be similar, but the amount of protein-bound MC varied and correlated with the intracellular MC content. We identified MC-bound proteins by two-dimensional electrophoresis immunoblots and mass spectrometry. The 60 kDa chaperonin GroEL was a prominent MC-bound protein. Three essential glycolytic enzymes and ATP synthase alpha subunit were also major targets of MC-binding, which might contribute to sustained growth in semi-continuous culture. Our results indicate that protein-bound MC may be important for sustaining growth and adaptation of Microcystis sp. PMID:27754336

  3. Assessment of RF exposures from emerging wireless communication technologies in different environments.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Gönter; Martens, Luc

    2012-02-01

    In situ electromagnetic (EM) radio frequency (RF) exposure to base stations of emerging wireless technologies is assessed at 311 locations, 68 indoor and 243 outdoor, spread over 35 areas in three European countries (Belgium, The Netherlands, and Sweden) by performing narrowband spectrum analyzer measurements. The locations are selected to characterize six different environmental categories (rural, residential, urban, suburban, office, and industrial). The maximal total field value was measured in a residential environment and equal to 3.9 V m(-1), mainly due to GSM900 signals. Exposure ratios for maximal electric field values, with respect to ICNIRP reference levels, range from 0.5% (WiMAX) to 9.3% (GSM900) for the 311 measurement locations. Exposure ratios for total field values vary from 3.1% for rural environments to 9.4% for residential environments. Exposures are lognormally distributed and are the lowest in rural environments and the highest in urban environments. Highest median exposures were obtained in urban environments (0.74 V m(-1)), followed by office (0.51 V m(-1)), industrial (0.49 V m(-1)), suburban (0.46 V m(-1)), residential (0.40 V m(-1)), and rural (0.09 V m(-1)) environments. The average contribution to the total electric field is more than 60% for GSM. Except for the rural environment, average contributions of UMTS-HSPA are more than 3%. Contributions of the emerging technologies LTE and WiMAX are on average less than 1%. The dominating outdoor source is GSM900 (95 percentile of 1.9 V m(-1)), indoor DECT dominates (95 percentile of 1.5 V m(-1)). PMID:22217589

  4. Differences in Access to Services in Rural Emergency Departments of Quebec and Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Archambault, Patrick; Audette, Louis David; Plant, Jeff; Bégin, François; Poitras, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Rural emergency departments (EDs) are important safety nets for the 20% of Canadians who live there. A serious problem in access to health care services in these regions has emerged. However, there are considerable geographic disparities in access to trauma center in Canada. The main objective of this project was to compare access to local 24/7 support services in rural EDs in Quebec and Ontario as well as distances to Levels 1 and 2 trauma centers. Materials and Methods Rural EDs were identified through the Canadian Healthcare Association's Guide to Canadian Healthcare Facilities. We selected hospitals with 24/7 ED physician coverage and hospitalization beds that were located in rural communities. There were 26 rural EDs in Quebec and 62 in Ontario meeting these criteria. Data were collected from ministries of health, local health authorities, and ED statistics. Fisher’s exact test, the t-test or Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test, were performed to compare rural EDs of Quebec and Ontario. Results All selected EDs of Quebec and Ontario agreed to participate in the study. The number of EDs visits was higher in Quebec than in Ontario (19 322 ± 6 275 vs 13 446 ± 8 056, p = 0.0013). There were no significant differences between Quebec and Ontario’s local population and small town population density. Quebec’s EDs have better access to advance imaging services such as CT scanner (77% vs 15%, p < .0001) and most the consultant support and ICU (92% vs 31%, p < .0001). Finally, more than 40% of rural EDs in Quebec and Ontario are more than 300 km away from Levels 1 and 2 trauma centers. Conclusions Considering that Canada has a Universal health care system, the discrepancies between Quebec and Ontario in access to support services are intriguing. A nationwide study is justified to address this issue. PMID:25874948

  5. Assessment of RF exposures from emerging wireless communication technologies in different environments.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Gönter; Martens, Luc

    2012-02-01

    In situ electromagnetic (EM) radio frequency (RF) exposure to base stations of emerging wireless technologies is assessed at 311 locations, 68 indoor and 243 outdoor, spread over 35 areas in three European countries (Belgium, The Netherlands, and Sweden) by performing narrowband spectrum analyzer measurements. The locations are selected to characterize six different environmental categories (rural, residential, urban, suburban, office, and industrial). The maximal total field value was measured in a residential environment and equal to 3.9 V m(-1), mainly due to GSM900 signals. Exposure ratios for maximal electric field values, with respect to ICNIRP reference levels, range from 0.5% (WiMAX) to 9.3% (GSM900) for the 311 measurement locations. Exposure ratios for total field values vary from 3.1% for rural environments to 9.4% for residential environments. Exposures are lognormally distributed and are the lowest in rural environments and the highest in urban environments. Highest median exposures were obtained in urban environments (0.74 V m(-1)), followed by office (0.51 V m(-1)), industrial (0.49 V m(-1)), suburban (0.46 V m(-1)), residential (0.40 V m(-1)), and rural (0.09 V m(-1)) environments. The average contribution to the total electric field is more than 60% for GSM. Except for the rural environment, average contributions of UMTS-HSPA are more than 3%. Contributions of the emerging technologies LTE and WiMAX are on average less than 1%. The dominating outdoor source is GSM900 (95 percentile of 1.9 V m(-1)), indoor DECT dominates (95 percentile of 1.5 V m(-1)).

  6. Interdisciplinary benefits of a theory of cultural evolution centered at the group-level: the emergence of macro-neuroeconomics and social evolutionary game theory.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Tobias A

    2014-06-01

    The theoretical concepts developed in the target article, in which the author proposes a new paradigm of cultural evolution based not on the individuals' characteristics, but rather on more global collective properties described as "group-traits" (which emerge when a group of individuals exhibit both differentiation and organization), may have a broader scientific impact that transcend the boundaries of social and evolutionary psychology, paving the way for the emergence of macro-neuroeconomics and social evolutionary game theory. PMID:24970410

  7. Characterization of cell cultures in contact with different orthopedic implants biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouenzerfi, G.; Hannoun, A.; Hassler, M.; Brizuela, L.; Youjil, S.; Bougault, C.; Trunfio-Sfarghiu, A.-M.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the role of biological and mechanical constraints (at the cellular level) surrounding living tissues (cartilage and bone) in the presence of different joint implant biomaterials. In this fact, cells cultures in the presence of different types of biomaterials (pyrolytic carbon, cobalt-Chromium, titanium) has been performed. These cell cultures were subjected to biological characterization tests and mechanical characterization. The obtained results correlate with the in vivo observations (a promotion of the creation of a neocartilagical tissue in contact with the Pyrolytic Carbon implants).

  8. Glutamate and choline levels predict individual differences in reading ability in emergent readers.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Kenneth R; Frost, Stephen J; Rothman, Douglas L; Hoeft, Fumiko; Del Tufo, Stephanie N; Mason, Graeme F; Molfese, Peter J; Mencl, W Einar; Grigorenko, Elena L; Landi, Nicole; Preston, Jonathan L; Jacobsen, Leslie; Seidenberg, Mark S; Fulbright, Robert K

    2014-03-12

    Reading disability is a brain-based difficulty in acquiring fluent reading skills that affects significant numbers of children. Although neuroanatomical and neurofunctional networks involved in typical and atypical reading are increasingly well characterized, the underlying neurochemical bases of individual differences in reading development are virtually unknown. The current study is the first to examine neurochemistry in children during the critical period in which the neurocircuits that support skilled reading are still developing. In a longitudinal pediatric sample of emergent readers whose reading indicators range on a continuum from impaired to superior, we examined the relationship between individual differences in reading and reading-related skills and concentrations of neurometabolites measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Both continuous and group analyses revealed that choline and glutamate concentrations were negatively correlated with reading and related linguistic measures in phonology and vocabulary (such that higher concentrations were associated with poorer performance). Correlations with behavioral scores obtained 24 months later reveal stability for the relationship between glutamate and reading performance. Implications for neurodevelopmental models of reading and reading disability are discussed, including possible links of choline and glutamate to white matter anomalies and hyperexcitability. These findings point to new directions for research on gene-brain-behavior pathways in human studies of reading disability.

  9. Documentation of some Cultural Heritage Emergencies in Syria In August 2010 by Spherical Photrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fangi, G.

    2015-09-01

    Syria is a country of many civilizations, Marie, Aramaic, Phoenician, Roman, Byzantine, Islamic, Ottoman civilizations. Unfortunally the recent war is the reason for many cultural heritage items to be destroyed, beyond the thausand civilian people killed. In 2010, just before the war, the A. made a touristic trip together with Crua (Recreational Club of the Ancona University). It was the occasion to make some fast documentation of some Syrian CH monuments. Mostly of the images were taken by the A. not to make a survey, but as a photographic report, as fast and complete as possible. For a regular survey project, the tripod, the spherical head should be used for the takings and the 3x3 Cipa rules should be followed, that occurred only in the three main projects, say the survey of the citadel walls in Aleppo, the survey of the Umayyads Mosque in Damascus, and the survey of the minaret of the Umayyads Mosque in Aleppo. All the other documentation surveys have been carried out with hand-held camera taking the dimension of the model from Google earth high resolution, when available. But, apart the regular surveys, due to the explosion of the unexpected war, the photographs taken in such a touristic way, have been used to try to get some usable plottings an restitutions and it worked successfully mostly of the times. These surveys could be useful in case of reconstruction and in case of lack of suitable alternative metric documentation. Because of the continuing threats, all six Syrian World Heritage properties were inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger, at the 37th session of the World Heritage Committee, held in Cambodia last June: Ancient City of Aleppo, Ancient City of Bosra, Ancient City of Damascus, Ancient Villages of Northern Syria, Krak des Chevaliers and Qal'at Salah El-Din ans finally the Site of Palmyra. See the following links: https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=kr.a3e0DL5sA and https

  10. Temperament trait of sensory processing sensitivity moderates cultural differences in neural response

    PubMed Central

    Ketay, Sarah; Hedden, Trey; Aron, Elaine N.; Rose Markus, Hazel; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on a possible temperament-by-culture interaction. Specifically, it explored whether a basic temperament/personality trait (sensory processing sensitivity; SPS), perhaps having a genetic component, might moderate a previously established cultural difference in neural responses when making context-dependent vs context-independent judgments of simple visual stimuli. SPS has been hypothesized to underlie what has been called inhibitedness or reactivity in infants, introversion in adults, and reactivity or responsivness in diverse animal species. Some biologists view the trait as one of two innate strategies—observing carefully before acting vs being first to act. Thus the central characteristic of SPS is hypothesized to be a deep processing of information. Here, 10 European-Americans and 10 East Asians underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing simple visuospatial tasks emphasizing judgments that were either context independent (typically easier for Americans) or context dependent (typically easier for Asians). As reported elsewhere, each group exhibited greater activation for the culturally non-preferred task in frontal and parietal regions associated with greater effort in attention and working memory. However, further analyses, reported here for the first time, provided preliminary support for moderation by SPS. Consistent with the careful-processing theory, high-SPS individuals showed little cultural difference; low-SPS, strong culture differences. PMID:20388694

  11. Cross-cultural differences in cognitive development: Attention to relations and objects

    PubMed Central

    Kuwabara, Megumi; Smith, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates a suite of generalized differences in the attentional and cognitive processing of adults from Eastern and Western cultures. Cognition in Eastern adults is often more relational and in Western adults is more object focused. Three experiments examined whether these differences characterize the cognition of preschool children in the two cultures. In Experiment 1, 4-year-olds from the two cultures (N = 64) participated in a relational match-to-standard task in two conditions, with simple or richly detailed objects, in which a focus on individual objects may hurt performance. Rich objects, consistent with past research, strongly limited the performance of U.S. children but not Japanese children. In Experiment 2, U.S. and Japanese 4-year-olds (N = 72) participated in a visual search task that required them to find a specific object in a cluttered, but organized as a scene, visual field in which object-centric attention might be expected to aid performance and relational attentional pattern may hinder the performance because of relational structure that was poised by the scene. U.S. children outperformed Japanese children. In Experiment 3, 4-year-olds from both cultures (N = 36) participated in a visual search task that was similar to Experiment 2 but with randomly placed objects, where there should not be a difference between the performance of two cultures because the relational structure that may be posed by the scene is eliminated. This double-dissociation is discussed in terms of implications for different developmental trajectories, with different developmental subtasks in the two cultures. PMID:22677459

  12. The Impact of National Cultural Differences on Nurses' Acceptance of Hospital Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsien-Cheng

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to explore the influence of national cultural differences on nurses' perceptions of their acceptance of hospital information systems. This study uses the perspective of Technology Acceptance Model; national cultural differences in terms of masculinity/femininity, individualism/collectivism, power distance, and uncertainty avoidance are incorporated into the Technology Acceptance Model as moderators, whereas time orientation is a control variable on hospital information system acceptance. A quantitative research design was used in this study; 261 participants, US and Taiwan RNs, all had hospital information system experience. Data were collected from November 2013 to February 2014 and analyzed using a t test to compare the coefficients for each moderator. The results show that individualism/collectivism, power distance, and uncertainty avoidance all exhibit significant difference on hospital information system acceptance; however, both masculinity/femininity and time orientation factors did not show significance. This study verifies that national cultural differences have significant influence on nurses' behavioral intention to use hospital information systems. Therefore, hospital information system providers should emphasize the way in which to integrate different technological functions to meet the needs of nurses from various cultural backgrounds. PMID:25899441

  13. The Impact of National Cultural Differences on Nurses' Acceptance of Hospital Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsien-Cheng

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to explore the influence of national cultural differences on nurses' perceptions of their acceptance of hospital information systems. This study uses the perspective of Technology Acceptance Model; national cultural differences in terms of masculinity/femininity, individualism/collectivism, power distance, and uncertainty avoidance are incorporated into the Technology Acceptance Model as moderators, whereas time orientation is a control variable on hospital information system acceptance. A quantitative research design was used in this study; 261 participants, US and Taiwan RNs, all had hospital information system experience. Data were collected from November 2013 to February 2014 and analyzed using a t test to compare the coefficients for each moderator. The results show that individualism/collectivism, power distance, and uncertainty avoidance all exhibit significant difference on hospital information system acceptance; however, both masculinity/femininity and time orientation factors did not show significance. This study verifies that national cultural differences have significant influence on nurses' behavioral intention to use hospital information systems. Therefore, hospital information system providers should emphasize the way in which to integrate different technological functions to meet the needs of nurses from various cultural backgrounds.

  14. Cultural differences define diagnosis and genomic medicine practice: implications for undiagnosed diseases program in China

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xiaohong; Markello, Thomas; Adams, David; Toro, Camilo; Tifft, Cynthia; Gahl, William A.; Boerkoel, Cornelius F.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the current acceleration and increasing leadership of Chinese genetics research, genetics and its clinical application have largely been imported to China from the Occident. Neither genetics nor the scientific reductionism underpinning its clinical application is integral to the traditional Chinese worldview. Given that disease concepts and their incumbent diagnoses are historically derived and culturally meaningful, we hypothesize that the cultural expectations of genetic diagnoses and medical genetics practice differs between the Occident and China. Specifically, we suggest that an undiagnosed diseases program in China will differ from the recently established Undiagnosed Diseases Program at the United States National Institutes of Health; a culturally sensitive concept will integrate traditional Chinese understanding of disease with the scientific reductionism of Occidental medicine. PMID:23856975

  15. Cross-cultural differences in tolerance for crowding: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Evans, G W; Lepore, S J; Allen, K M

    2000-08-01

    It is widely believed that cultures vary in their tolerance for crowding. There is, however, little evidence to substantiate this belief, coupled with serious shortcomings in the extant literature. Tolerance for crowding has been confused with cultural differences in personal space preferences along with perceived crowding. Furthermore, the few studies that have examined cultural variability in reactions to crowding have compared subgroup correlations, which is not equivalent to a statistical interaction. Although the authors found a statistical interaction indicating that Asian Americans and Latin Americans differ in the way they perceive crowding in comparison to their fellow Anglo-American and African American citizens, all four ethnic groups suffer similar, negative psychological distress sequelae of high-density housing. These results hold independently of household income.

  16. Culture or anonymity? Differences in proposer behaviour in Korea and Germany.

    PubMed

    Horak, Sven

    2015-10-01

    This study explores the proposer behaviour in an ultimatum game (UG) frame under anonymous and non-anonymous conditions among a Korean and German subject pool (n = 590) in comparison. Whereas the anonymous condition is represented by the standard UG, the non-anonymous condition integrates an aggregate of the Korean cultural context variables university affiliation, regional origin and seniority. The latter, a classic Confucian context variable, is measured by age differentials. The former two are impactful components of so-called Yongo networks, a unique Korean informal institution identical to Chinese Guanxi ties. Yongo networks, yet underrepresented in research, are said to be a central context variable to explain Korean social ties and decision-making behaviour. We observe significant differences between the offer behaviours of Korean and German subjects when exposing selected cultural variables. We argue that the behavioural differences observed are in fact due to culture not anonymity.

  17. Cultural differences define diagnosis and genomic medicine practice: implications for undiagnosed diseases program in China.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaohong; Markello, Thomas; Adams, David; Toro, Camilo; Tifft, Cynthia; Gahl, William A; Boerkoel, Cornelius F

    2013-09-01

    Despite the current acceleration and increasing leadership of Chinese genetics research, genetics and its clinical application have largely been imported to China from the Occident. Neither genetics nor the scientific reductionism underpinning its clinical application is integral to the traditional Chinese worldview. Given that disease concepts and their incumbent diagnoses are historically derived and culturally meaningful, we hypothesize that the cultural expectations of genetic diagnoses and medical genetics practice differ between the Occident and China. Specifically, we suggest that an undiagnosed diseases program in China will differ from the recently established Undiagnosed Diseases Program at the United States National Institutes of Health; a culturally sensitive concept will integrate traditional Chinese understanding of disease with the scientific reductionism of Occidental medicine. PMID:23856975

  18. My face, my heart: cultural differences in integrated bodily self-awareness.

    PubMed

    Maister, Lara; Tsakiris, Manos

    2014-01-01

    Body-awareness is produced by an integration of both interoceptive and exteroceptive bodily signals. However, previous investigations into cultural differences in bodily self-awareness have only studied these two aspects in isolation. We investigated the interaction between interoceptive and exteroceptive self-processing in East Asian and Western participants. During an interoceptive awareness task, self-face observation improved performance of those with initially low awareness in the Western group, but did not benefit the East Asian participants. These results suggest that the integrated, coherent experience of the body differs between East Asian and Western cultures. For Western participants, viewing one's own face may activate a bodily self-awareness which enhances processing of other bodily information, such as interoceptive signals. Instead, for East Asian individuals, the external appearance of the self may activate higher-level, social aspects of self-identity, reflecting the importance of the sociocultural construct of "face" in East Asian cultures. PMID:24168204

  19. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Franck O. P.; Bell, Terrence H.; Marchand, Charlotte; de la Providencia, Ivan E.; El Yassimi, Abdel; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA) with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media) techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods. PMID:26053848

  20. Relationship Duration Moderation of Identity Status Differences in Emerging Adults' Same-Sex Friendship Intimacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, H. Durell

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has not yielded consistent identity and intimacy associations for female and male emerging adults. Intimacy varies with time spent in a relationship, and relationship duration may explain variations in the identity process association with intimacy. Data from 278 female and 156 male emerging adults revealed relationship duration…

  1. Exploring Cultural Differences in the Recognition of the Self-Conscious Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Joanne M.; Robins, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the self-conscious emotions of embarrassment, shame, and pride have distinct, nonverbal expressions that can be recognized in the United States at above-chance levels. However, few studies have examined the recognition of these emotions in other cultures, and little research has been conducted in Asia. Consequently the cross-cultural generalizability of self-conscious emotions has not been firmly established. Additionally, there is no research that examines cultural variability in the recognition of the self-conscious emotions. Cultural values and exposure to Western culture have been identified as contributors to variability in recognition rates for the basic emotions; we sought to examine this for the self-conscious emotions using the University of California, Davis Set of Emotion Expressions (UCDSEE). The present research examined recognition of the self-conscious emotion expressions in South Korean college students and found that recognition rates were very high for pride, low but above chance for shame, and near zero for embarrassment. To examine what might be underlying the recognition rates we found in South Korea, recognition of self-conscious emotions and several cultural values were examined in a U.S. college student sample of European Americans, Asian Americans, and Asian-born individuals. Emotion recognition rates were generally similar between the European Americans and Asian Americans, and higher than emotion recognition rates for Asian-born individuals. These differences were not explained by cultural values in an interpretable manner, suggesting that exposure to Western culture is a more important mediator than values. PMID:26309215

  2. Exploring Cultural Differences in the Recognition of the Self-Conscious Emotions.

    PubMed

    Chung, Joanne M; Robins, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the self-conscious emotions of embarrassment, shame, and pride have distinct, nonverbal expressions that can be recognized in the United States at above-chance levels. However, few studies have examined the recognition of these emotions in other cultures, and little research has been conducted in Asia. Consequently the cross-cultural generalizability of self-conscious emotions has not been firmly established. Additionally, there is no research that examines cultural variability in the recognition of the self-conscious emotions. Cultural values and exposure to Western culture have been identified as contributors to variability in recognition rates for the basic emotions; we sought to examine this for the self-conscious emotions using the University of California, Davis Set of Emotion Expressions (UCDSEE). The present research examined recognition of the self-conscious emotion expressions in South Korean college students and found that recognition rates were very high for pride, low but above chance for shame, and near zero for embarrassment. To examine what might be underlying the recognition rates we found in South Korea, recognition of self-conscious emotions and several cultural values were examined in a U.S. college student sample of European Americans, Asian Americans, and Asian-born individuals. Emotion recognition rates were generally similar between the European Americans and Asian Americans, and higher than emotion recognition rates for Asian-born individuals. These differences were not explained by cultural values in an interpretable manner, suggesting that exposure to Western culture is a more important mediator than values. PMID:26309215

  3. Assess suitability of hydroaeroponic culture to establish tripartite symbiosis between different AMF species, beans, and rhizobia

    PubMed Central

    Tajini, Fatma; Suriyakup, Porntip; Vailhe, Hélène; Jansa, Jan; Drevon, Jean-Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Background Like other species of the Phaseoleae tribe, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) has the potential to establish symbiosis with rhizobia and to fix the atmospheric dinitrogen (N2) for its N nutrition. Common bean has also the potential to establish symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) that improves the uptake of low mobile nutrients such as phosphorus, from the soil. Both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses can act synergistically in benefits on plant. Results The tripartite symbiosis of common bean with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was assessed in hydroaeroponic culture with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), by comparing the effects of three fungi spp. on growth, nodulation and mycorrhization of the roots under sufficient versus deficient P supplies, after transfer from initial sand culture. Although Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith colonized intensely the roots of common bean in both sand and hydroaeroponic cultures, Gigaspora rosea Nicolson & Schenck only established well under sand culture conditions, and no root-colonization was found with Acaulospora mellea Spain & Schenck under either culture conditions. Interestingly, mycorrhization by Glomus was also obtained by contact with mycorrhized Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl.) sw in sand culture under deficient P before transfer into hydroaeroponic culture. The effect of bean genotype on both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses with Glomus was subsequently assessed with the common bean recombinant inbreed line 7, 28, 83, 115 and 147, and the cultivar Flamingo. Significant differences among colonization and nodulation of the roots and growth among genotypes were found. Conclusion The hydroaeroponic culture is a valuable tool for further scrutinizing the physiological interactions and nutrient partitioning within the tripartite symbiosis. PMID:19534785

  4. Exploring Cultural Differences in the Recognition of the Self-Conscious Emotions.

    PubMed

    Chung, Joanne M; Robins, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the self-conscious emotions of embarrassment, shame, and pride have distinct, nonverbal expressions that can be recognized in the United States at above-chance levels. However, few studies have examined the recognition of these emotions in other cultures, and little research has been conducted in Asia. Consequently the cross-cultural generalizability of self-conscious emotions has not been firmly established. Additionally, there is no research that examines cultural variability in the recognition of the self-conscious emotions. Cultural values and exposure to Western culture have been identified as contributors to variability in recognition rates for the basic emotions; we sought to examine this for the self-conscious emotions using the University of California, Davis Set of Emotion Expressions (UCDSEE). The present research examined recognition of the self-conscious emotion expressions in South Korean college students and found that recognition rates were very high for pride, low but above chance for shame, and near zero for embarrassment. To examine what might be underlying the recognition rates we found in South Korea, recognition of self-conscious emotions and several cultural values were examined in a U.S. college student sample of European Americans, Asian Americans, and Asian-born individuals. Emotion recognition rates were generally similar between the European Americans and Asian Americans, and higher than emotion recognition rates for Asian-born individuals. These differences were not explained by cultural values in an interpretable manner, suggesting that exposure to Western culture is a more important mediator than values.

  5. Cross-Cultural Register Differences in Infant-Directed Speech: An Initial Study.

    PubMed

    Farran, Lama K; Lee, Chia-Cheng; Yoo, Hyunjoo; Oller, D Kimbrough

    2016-01-01

    Infant-directed speech (IDS) provides an environment that appears to play a significant role in the origins of language in the human infant. Differences have been reported in the use of IDS across cultures, suggesting different styles of infant language-learning. Importantly, both cross-cultural and intra-cultural research suggest there may be a positive relationship between the use of IDS and rates of language development, underscoring the need to investigate cultural differences more deeply. The majority of studies, however, have conceptualized IDS monolithically, granting little attention to a potentially key distinction in how IDS manifests across cultures during the first two years. This study examines and quantifies for the first time differences within IDS in the use of baby register (IDS/BR), an acoustically identifiable type of IDS that includes features such as high pitch, long duration, and smooth intonation (the register that is usually assumed to occur in IDS), and adult register (IDS/AR), the type of IDS that does not include such features and thus sounds as if it could have been addressed to an adult. We studied IDS across 19 American and 19 Lebanese mother-infant dyads, with particular focus on the differential use of registers within IDS as mothers interacted with their infants ages 0-24 months. Our results showed considerable usage of IDS/AR (>30% of utterances) and a tendency for Lebanese mothers to use more IDS than American mothers. Implications for future research on IDS and its role in elucidating how language evolves across cultures are explored. PMID:26981626

  6. Cross-Cultural Register Differences in Infant-Directed Speech: An Initial Study

    PubMed Central

    Farran, Lama K.; Lee, Chia-Cheng; Yoo, Hyunjoo; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2016-01-01

    Infant-directed speech (IDS) provides an environment that appears to play a significant role in the origins of language in the human infant. Differences have been reported in the use of IDS across cultures, suggesting different styles of infant language-learning. Importantly, both cross-cultural and intra-cultural research suggest there may be a positive relationship between the use of IDS and rates of language development, underscoring the need to investigate cultural differences more deeply. The majority of studies, however, have conceptualized IDS monolithically, granting little attention to a potentially key distinction in how IDS manifests across cultures during the first two years. This study examines and quantifies for the first time differences within IDS in the use of baby register (IDS/BR), an acoustically identifiable type of IDS that includes features such as high pitch, long duration, and smooth intonation (the register that is usually assumed to occur in IDS), and adult register (IDS/AR), the type of IDS that does not include such features and thus sounds as if it could have been addressed to an adult. We studied IDS across 19 American and 19 Lebanese mother-infant dyads, with particular focus on the differential use of registers within IDS as mothers interacted with their infants ages 0–24 months. Our results showed considerable usage of IDS/AR (>30% of utterances) and a tendency for Lebanese mothers to use more IDS than American mothers. Implications for future research on IDS and its role in elucidating how language evolves across cultures are explored. PMID:26981626

  7. Region-Urbanicity Differences in Locus of Control: Social Disadvantage, Structure, or Cultural Exceptionalism?

    PubMed

    Shifrer, Dara; Sutton, April

    2014-11-01

    People with internal rather than external locus of control experience better outcomes in multiple domains. Previous studies on spatial differences in control within America only focused on the South, relied on aggregate level data or historical evidence, or did not account for other confounding regional distinctions (such as variation in urbanicity). Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, we find differences in adolescents' loci of control depending on their region and urbanicity are largely attributable to differences in their social background, and only minimally to structural differences (i.e., differences in the qualities of adolescents' schools). Differences that persist net of differences across adolescents and their schools suggest the less internal control of rural Southern adolescents, and the more internal control of rural and urban Northeastern adolescents, may be due to cultural distinctions in those areas. Results indicate region is more closely associated than urbanicity with differences in locus of control, with Western and Northeastern cultures seemingly fostering more internal control than Midwestern and Southern cultures. These findings contribute to research on spatial variation in a variety of psychological traits.

  8. Region-Urbanicity Differences in Locus of Control: Social Disadvantage, Structure, or Cultural Exceptionalism?

    PubMed Central

    Shifrer, Dara; Sutton, April

    2014-01-01

    People with internal rather than external locus of control experience better outcomes in multiple domains. Previous studies on spatial differences in control within America only focused on the South, relied on aggregate level data or historical evidence, or did not account for other confounding regional distinctions (such as variation in urbanicity). Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, we find differences in adolescents' loci of control depending on their region and urbanicity are largely attributable to differences in their social background, and only minimally to structural differences (i.e., differences in the qualities of adolescents' schools). Differences that persist net of differences across adolescents and their schools suggest the less internal control of rural Southern adolescents, and the more internal control of rural and urban Northeastern adolescents, may be due to cultural distinctions in those areas. Results indicate region is more closely associated than urbanicity with differences in locus of control, with Western and Northeastern cultures seemingly fostering more internal control than Midwestern and Southern cultures. These findings contribute to research on spatial variation in a variety of psychological traits. PMID:25382875

  9. Stereotype content model across cultures: towards universal similarities and some differences.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, Amy J C; Fiske, Susan T; Kwan, Virginia S Y; Glick, Peter; Demoulin, Stéphanie; Leyens, Jacques-Philippe; Bond, Michael Harris; Croizet, Jean-Claude; Ellemers, Naomi; Sleebos, Ed; Htun, Tin Tin; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Maio, Greg; Perry, Judi; Petkova, Kristina; Todorov, Valery; Rodríguez-Bailón, Rosa; Morales, Elena; Moya, Miguel; Palacios, Marisol; Smith, Vanessa; Perez, Rolando; Vala, Jorge; Ziegler, Rene

    2009-03-01

    The stereotype content model (SCM) proposes potentially universal principles of societal stereotypes and their relation to social structure. Here, the SCM reveals theoretically grounded, cross-cultural, cross-groups similarities and one difference across 10 non-US nations. Seven European (individualist) and three East Asian (collectivist) nations (N=1,028) support three hypothesized cross-cultural similarities: (a) perceived warmth and competence reliably differentiate societal group stereotypes; (b) many out-groups receive ambivalent stereotypes (high on one dimension; low on the other); and (c) high status groups stereotypically are competent, whereas competitive groups stereotypically lack warmth. Data uncover one consequential cross-cultural difference: (d) the more collectivist cultures do not locate reference groups (in-groups and societal prototype groups) in the most positive cluster (high-competence/high-warmth), unlike individualist cultures. This demonstrates out-group derogation without obvious reference-group favouritism. The SCM can serve as a pancultural tool for predicting group stereotypes from structural relations with other groups in society, and comparing across societies.

  10. Different strategies of energy storage in cultured and freshly isolated Symbiodinium sp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Hsueh; Chen, Hung-Kai; Jhu, Chu-Sian; Cheng, Jing-O; Fang, Lee-Shing; Chen, Chii-Shiarng

    2015-12-01

    The endosymbiotic relationship between cnidarians and Symbiodinium is critical for the survival of coral reefs. In this study, we developed a protocol to rapidly and freshly separate Symbiodinium from corals and sea anemones. Furthermore, we compared these freshly-isolated Symbiodinium with cultured Symbiodinium to investigate host and Symbiodinium interaction. Clade B Symbiodinium had higher starch content and lower lipid content than those of clades C and D in both freshly isolated and cultured forms. Clade C had the highest lipid content, particularly when associated with corals. Moreover, the coral-associated Symbiodinium had higher protein content than did cultured and sea anemone-associated Symbiodinium. Regarding fatty acid composition, cultured Symbiodinium and clades B, C, and D shared similar patterns, whereas sea anemone-associated Symbiodinium had a distinct pattern compared coral-associated Symbiodinium. Specifically, the levels of monounsaturated fatty acids were lower than those of the saturated fatty acids, and the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were the highest in all examined Symbiodinium. Furthermore, PUFAs levels were higher in coral-associated Symbiodinium than in cultured Symbiodinium. These results altogether indicated that different Symbiodinium clades used different energy storage strategies, which might be modified by hosts. PMID:26987007

  11. Stereotype content model across cultures: Towards universal similarities and some differences

    PubMed Central

    Cuddy, Amy J. C.; Fiske, Susan T.; Kwan, Virginia S. Y.; Glick, Peter; Demoulin, Stéphanie; Leyens, Jacques-Philippe; Bond, Michael Harris; Croizet, Jean-Claude; Ellemers, Naomi; Sleebos, Ed; Htun, Tin Tin; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Maio, Greg; Perry, Judi; Petkova, Kristina; Todorov, Valery; Rodríguez-Bailón, Rosa; Morales, Elena; Moya, Miguel; Palacios, Marisol; Smith, Vanessa; Perez, Rolando; Vala, Jorge; Ziegler, Rene

    2014-01-01

    The stereotype content model (SCM) proposes potentially universal principles of societal stereotypes and their relation to social structure. Here, the SCM reveals theoretically grounded, cross-cultural, cross-groups similarities and one difference across 10 non-US nations. Seven European (individualist) and three East Asian (collectivist) nations (N = 1, 028) support three hypothesized cross-cultural similarities: (a) perceived warmth and competence reliably differentiate societal group stereotypes; (b) many out-groups receive ambivalent stereotypes (high on one dimension; low on the other); and (c) high status groups stereotypically are competent, whereas competitive groups stereotypically lack warmth. Data uncover one consequential cross-cultural difference: (d) the more collectivist cultures do not locate reference groups (in-groups and societal prototype groups) in the most positive cluster (high-competence/high-warmth), unlike individualist cultures. This demonstrates out-group derogation without obvious reference-group favouritism. The SCM can serve as a pancultural tool for predicting group stereotypes from structural relations with other groups in society, and comparing across societies. PMID:19178758

  12. Cultural and School-Grade Differences in Korean and White American Children's Narrative Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Meesook

    2003-03-01

    A great deal of ethnographic research describes different communicative styles in Asian and Western countries. Asian cultures emphasise the listener's role in assuring successful communication, whereas Western cultures place the responsibility primarily on the speaker. This pattern suggests that Asian children may develop higher-level receptive skills and Western children may develop higher-level expressive skills. However, the language of children in formal education may develop in certain ways regardless of cultural influences. The present study quantifies the cultural and school-grade differences in language abilities reflected in middle-class Korean and white American children's story-telling and story-listening activities. Thirty-two Korean first- and fourth-grade children and their American counterparts were individually asked to perform two tasks: one producing a story from a series of pictures, and one involving listening to and then retelling a story. The individual interview was transcribed in their native languages and analysed in terms of ambiguity of reference, the number of causal connectors, the amount of information, and the number of central and peripheral idea units that were included in the story retelling. The data provided some empirical evidence for the effects of culture and school education in children's language acquisition.

  13. Cultural scripts for a good death in Japan and the United States: similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Long, Susan Orpett

    2004-03-01

    Japan and the United States are both post-industrial societies, characterised by distinct trajectories of dying. Both contain multiple "cultural scripts" of the good death. Seale (Constructing Death: the Sociology of Dying and Bereavement, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1998) has identified at least four "cultural scripts", or ways to die well, that are found in contemporary anglophone countries: modern medicine, revivalism, an anti-revivalist script and a religious script. Although these scripts can also be found in Japan, different historical experiences and religious traditions provide a context in which their content and interpretation sometimes differ from those of the anglophone countries. To understand ordinary people's ideas about dying well and dying poorly, we must recognise not only that post-industrial society offers multiple scripts and varying interpretive frameworks, but also that people actively select from among them in making decisions and explaining their views. Moreover, ideas and metaphors may be based on multiple scripts simultaneously or may offer different interpretations for different social contexts. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in both countries, this paper explores the metaphors that ordinary patients and caregivers draw upon as they use, modify, combine or ignore these cultural scripts of dying. Ideas about choice, time, place and personhood, elements of a good death that were derived inductively from interviews, are described. These Japanese and American data suggest somewhat different concerns and assumptions about human life and the relation of the person to the wider social world, but indicate similar concerns about the process of medicalised dying and the creation of meaning for those involved. While cultural differences do exist, they cannot be explained by reference to 'an American' and 'a Japanese' way to die. Rather, the process of creating and maintaining cultural scripts requires the active participation of

  14. Analyses of flooding tolerance of soybean varieties at emergence and varietal differences in their proteomes.

    PubMed

    Nanjo, Yohei; Jang, Hee-Young; Kim, Hong-Sig; Hiraga, Susumu; Woo, Sun-Hee; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-10-01

    Flooding of fields due to heavy and/or continuous rainfall influences soybean production. To identify soybean varieties with flooding tolerance at the seedling emergence stage, 128 soybean varieties were evaluated using a flooding tolerance index, which is based on plant survival rates, the lack of apparent damage and lateral root development, and post-flooding radicle elongation rate. The soybean varieties were ranked according to their flooding tolerance index, and it was found that the tolerance levels of soybean varieties exhibit a continuum of differences between varieties. Subsequently, tolerant, moderately tolerant and sensitive varieties were selected and subjected to comparative proteomic analysis to clarify the tolerance mechanism. Proteomic analysis of the radicles, combined with correlation analysis, showed that the ratios of RNA binding/processing related proteins and flooding stress indicator proteins were significantly correlated with flooding tolerance index. The RNA binding/processing related proteins were positively correlated in untreated soybeans, whereas flooding stress indicator proteins were negatively correlated in flooded soybeans. These results suggest that flooding tolerance is regulated by mechanisms through multiple factors and is associated with abundance levels of the identified proteins.

  15. Developmental and Cross-Cultural Differences in the Cooperative and Competitive Behavior of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Millard C.

    An experimental task with accompanying apparatus was developed for use in the study of developmental and cultural differences in the cooperative-competitive behavior of children in a small Mexican town and in California. Two groups of 20 Mexican children (aged 7-8 and 10-11), from an elementary school in a town in Baja, California, Mexico, were…

  16. Dimensions of Cultural Differences: Pancultural, ETIC/EMIC, and Ecological Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Lazar; Lee, Jihyun

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the factorial structure of four major domains in social psychology (personality traits, social attitudes, values, and social norms) with an emphasis on cross-cultural differences. Three distinctive approaches--pancultural, multigroup, and multilevel--were applied to the data based on 22 measures that were collected from 2029…

  17. Cross-Cultural Differences in Children's Choices, Categorizations, and Evaluations of Truths and Lies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Genyue; Xu, Fen; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Leyman, Gail; Lee, Kang

    2007-01-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in children's moral understanding of individual- or collective-oriented lies and truths. Seven-, 9-, and 11-year-old Canadian and Chinese children were read stories about story characters facing moral dilemmas about whether to lie or tell the truth to help a group but harm an…

  18. Developmental and Cross-Cultural Differences in the Cooperative and Competitive Behavior of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Millard C.

    1971-01-01

    In a two-person experimental task used in the study of age and cultural differences in the cooperative-competitive behavior of children in a small Mexican town and in California, a higher level of cooperation was seen among Mexican than among Anglo children, as was also an increase in nonadaptive competition with age among the latter. (RJ)

  19. Measuring the Impact of Cross-Cultural Differences on Learners' Comprehension of Imageable Idioms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boers, Frank; Demecheleer, Murielle

    2001-01-01

    Measures the impact of cross-cultural differences on language learners' interpretation of imageable idioms--idioms that have associated conventional images. French-speaking students were asked to guess the meaning of unfamiliar English idioms without contextual clues. Results invite teachers and learners to approach the semantics of imageable…

  20. Selected Readings in Transition: Cultural Differences, Chronic Illness, and Job Matching. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dais, Teresa; And Others

    This collection of four papers examines various aspects of the transition from school to adulthood and employment for individuals with disabilities. The first paper, "An Analysis of Transition Assessment Practices: Do They Recognize Cultural Differences?" (Teresa A. Dais), discusses the need for assessment practices to meet the needs of culturally…

  1. Cultural Differences in the Health Information Environments and Practices between Finnish and Japanese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askola, Kreetta; Atsushi, Toshimori; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to identify cultural differences in the information environment and information practices, namely active seeking and encountering, of web-based health information between Finnish and Japanese university students. Method: The data were gathered with a Web-based survey among first-year university students at…

  2. Native American Students' Experiences of Cultural Differences in College: Influence and Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Leslie E.

    2012-01-01

    The culture of most colleges and universities is very different for Native American students with close ties to their traditional communities. "Traditional," in a Native American sense, means multiple interconnections of emotional, physical, intellectual, and spiritual identity that combine to define expectations for the Native American…

  3. Cross-Cultural Differences in Children's Emotional Reactions to a Disappointing Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett-Peters, Patricia T.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2007-01-01

    Cross-cultural differences in emotional expressions following disappointment were examined in 59 Chinese American (CA) and 58 European American (EA) children. Children aged four or seven participated in a disappointing gift situation. Dimensions of expressive behaviors following disappointment were coded and included positive, negative, social…

  4. The Concept of Environment in Folktales from Different Cultures: Analysis of Content and Visuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahi, Berat; Yaya, Dilara; Ozsoy, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine how the children's stories, which are such powerful, handled the nature and environment through the texts, and were portrayed the concept of nature in different cultures. This study examined the texts in 15 children's picture stories which subjected to the perception of nature and environment, published between…

  5. The Evaluation of the Culturally Different: Pre-School, Primary and Elementary Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Stanley S.

    This report asserts that the evaluation of young children can be viewed as a classic case of evaluation of the culturally different. Emphasized is the fact that not only are the majority of tests developed with an adult's perspective concerning adequacy of directions, items, and formats, but also the evaluation of the products is carried out…

  6. Beyond Socioeconomics: Explaining Ethnic Group Differences in Parenting through Cultural and Immigration Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Ruth; Kanatsu, Akira

    2008-01-01

    This study examined both socioeconomic and cultural factors in explaining ethnic differences in monitoring, behavioral control, and warmth--part of a series of coordinated studies presented in this special issue. Socioeconomic variables included mother's and father's educational levels, employment status, home ownership, number of siblings in the…

  7. A Study in Difference: Structures and Cultures in Registered Training Organisations. Support Document 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Berwyn; Fisher, Thea; Harris, Roger; Bateman, Andrea; Brown, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This document supports the report "A Study in Difference: Structures and Cultures in Registered Training Organisations." The first section outlines the methodology used to undertake the research and covers the design of the research, sample details, the data collection process and the strategy for data analysis and reporting. The limitations of…

  8. An Exploration of Gender and Cultural Differences in MBA Students' Cheating Behavior: Implications for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor-Bianco, Amy; Deeter-Schmelz, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    The effects of gender and culture on MBA students' self-reported cheating behavior were examined. Data collected from MBA students from the U.S. and India suggest U.S. males are more likely to cheat than U.S. females, with Indian males and females reporting similar cheating behaviors. The results also reveal key differences in cheating behavior…

  9. Comparison of Web 2.0 Technology Acceptance Level Based on Cultural Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Sun Joo; Huang, Wen-hao David

    2011-01-01

    In order to inform educators in higher education on the integration of Web 2.0 applications for engaging and effective learning experiences, this survey study compared the use and acceptance of Web 2.0 applications between American and Korean college students through the lens of cultural differences. Undergraduate students were recruited to…

  10. Middle East Meets West: Negotiating Cultural Difference in International Educational Encounters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodall, Helen

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets out to evaluate a proposed twelve-month programme of development aimed at academic staff at a new university in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. The author uses a model of cultural difference proposed by Dutch social psychologist Geert Hofstede as her starting point. Reference is also made to the work of other researchers and to the…

  11. Cultural and Acculturation Differences in Trajectories of Home Environment Inventory Scores for Latino Children and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Mark F.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the influence of social context on the home environment for children aged 0 to 14years, testing for differences between Cubans (n = 47), Mexicans (n = 240), Mexican Americans (n = 415), and Puerto Ricans (n = 162). Hierarchical linear models showed significant cultural and acculturation effects on the trajectories of cognitive…

  12. Emergence of Sex Differences in the Development of Substance Use and Abuse during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Dr. Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Substance use and abuse begins during adolescence. Male and female adolescent humans initiate use at comparable rates, but males increase use faster. In adulthood, more men than women use and abuse addictive drugs. However, some women progress more rapidly from initiation of use to entry into treatment. In animal models, adolescent males and females consume addictive drugs similarly. However, reproductively mature females acquire self-administration faster, and in some models, escalate use more. Sex/gender differences exist in neurobiologic factors mediating both reinforcement (dopamine, opioids) and aversiveness (CRF, dynorphin), as well as intrinsic factors (personality, psychiatric co-morbidities) and extrinsic factors (history of abuse, environment especially peers and family) which influence the progression from initial use to abuse., Many of these important differences emerge during adolescence, and are moderated by sexual differentiation of the brain. Estradiol effects which enhance both dopaminergic and CRF-mediated processes contribute to the female vulnerability to substance use and abuse. Testosterone enhances impulsivity and sensation seeking in both males and females. Several protective factors in females also influence initiation and progression of substance use including hormonal changes of pregnancy as well as greater capacity for self-regulation and lower peak levels of impulsivity/sensation seeking. Same sex peers represent a risk factor more for males than females during adolescence, while romantic partners increase risk for women during this developmental epoch. In summary, biologic factors, psychiatric co-morbidities as well as personality and environment present sex/gender-specific risks as adolescents begin to initiate substance use. PMID:26049025

  13. Emergence of sex differences in the development of substance use and abuse during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Cynthia

    2015-09-01

    Substance use and abuse begin during adolescence. Male and female adolescent humans initiate use at comparable rates, but males increase use faster. In adulthood, more men than women use and abuse addictive drugs. However, some women progress more rapidly from initiation of use to entry into treatment. In animal models, adolescent males and females consume addictive drugs similarly. However, reproductively mature females acquire self-administration faster, and in some models, escalate use more. Sex/gender differences exist in neurobiologic factors mediating both reinforcement (dopamine, opioids) and aversiveness (CRF, dynorphin), as well as intrinsic factors (personality, psychiatric co-morbidities) and extrinsic factors (history of abuse, environment especially peers and family) which influence the progression from initial use to abuse. Many of these important differences emerge during adolescence, and are moderated by sexual differentiation of the brain. Estradiol effects which enhance both dopaminergic and CRF-mediated processes contribute to the female vulnerability to substance use and abuse. Testosterone enhances impulsivity and sensation seeking in both males and females. Several protective factors in females also influence initiation and progression of substance use including hormonal changes of pregnancy as well as greater capacity for self-regulation and lower peak levels of impulsivity/sensation seeking. Same sex peers represent a risk factor more for males than females during adolescence, while romantic partners increase risk for women during this developmental epoch. In summary, biologic factors, psychiatric co-morbidities as well as personality and environment present sex/gender-specific risks as adolescents begin to initiate substance use.

  14. Cross-cultural differences in somatic awareness and interoceptive accuracy: a review of the literature and directions for future research

    PubMed Central

    Ma-Kellams, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This review examines cross-cultural differences in interoception and the role of culturally bound epistemologies, historical traditions, and contemplative practices to assess four aspects of culture and interoception: (1) the extent to which members from Western and non-Western cultural groups exhibit differential levels of interoceptive accuracy and somatic awareness; (2) the mechanistic origins that can explain these cultural differences, (3) culturally bound behavioral practices that have been empirically shown to affect interoception, and (4) consequences for culturally bound psychopathologies. The following outlines the scope of the scientific review. Part 1 reviews studies on cultural variation in spontaneous somatic word use, linguistic expressions, traditional medical practices, and empirical laboratory studies to assess the evidence for cultural differences in somatic processes. Integration of these findings suggests a startling paradox: on the one hand, non-Western cultures consistently exhibit heightened somatic focus and awareness across a variety of contexts; on the other hand, non-Western cultures also exhibit less interoceptive accuracy in laboratory studies. Part 2 discusses the various mechanistic explanations that have been proposed to explain these cultural differences in somatic awareness and interoceptive accuracy, focusing on cultural schemas and epistemologies. Part 3 addresses the behavioral and contemplative practices that have been proposed as possible “interventions,” or methods of cultivating bodily awareness and perceptual accuracy. Finally, Part 4 reviews the consequences of interoception for psychopathology, including somatization, body dysmorphia, eating disorders, and anxiety disorders. PMID:25520688

  15. Cross-cultural differences in somatic awareness and interoceptive accuracy: a review of the literature and directions for future research.

    PubMed

    Ma-Kellams, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This review examines cross-cultural differences in interoception and the role of culturally bound epistemologies, historical traditions, and contemplative practices to assess four aspects of culture and interoception: (1) the extent to which members from Western and non-Western cultural groups exhibit differential levels of interoceptive accuracy and somatic awareness; (2) the mechanistic origins that can explain these cultural differences, (3) culturally bound behavioral practices that have been empirically shown to affect interoception, and (4) consequences for culturally bound psychopathologies. The following outlines the scope of the scientific review. Part 1 reviews studies on cultural variation in spontaneous somatic word use, linguistic expressions, traditional medical practices, and empirical laboratory studies to assess the evidence for cultural differences in somatic processes. Integration of these findings suggests a startling paradox: on the one hand, non-Western cultures consistently exhibit heightened somatic focus and awareness across a variety of contexts; on the other hand, non-Western cultures also exhibit less interoceptive accuracy in laboratory studies. Part 2 discusses the various mechanistic explanations that have been proposed to explain these cultural differences in somatic awareness and interoceptive accuracy, focusing on cultural schemas and epistemologies. Part 3 addresses the behavioral and contemplative practices that have been proposed as possible "interventions," or methods of cultivating bodily awareness and perceptual accuracy. Finally, Part 4 reviews the consequences of interoception for psychopathology, including somatization, body dysmorphia, eating disorders, and anxiety disorders. PMID:25520688

  16. Measuring individual differences in generic beliefs in conspiracy theories across cultures: conspiracy mentality questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Bruder, Martin; Haffke, Peter; Neave, Nick; Nouripanah, Nina; Imhoff, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Conspiracy theories are ubiquitous when it comes to explaining political events and societal phenomena. Individuals differ not only in the degree to which they believe in specific conspiracy theories, but also in their general susceptibility to explanations based on such theories, that is, their conspiracy mentality. We present the Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ), an instrument designed to efficiently assess differences in the generic tendency to engage in conspiracist ideation within and across cultures. The CMQ is available in English, German, and Turkish. In four studies, we examined the CMQ's factorial structure, reliability, measurement equivalence across cultures, and its convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. Analyses based on a cross-cultural sample (Study 1a; N = 7,766) supported the conceptualization of conspiracy mentality as a one-dimensional construct across the three language versions of the CMQ that is stable across time (Study 1b; N = 141). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the CMQ items. The instrument could therefore be used to examine differences in conspiracy mentality between European, North American, and Middle Eastern cultures. In Studies 2-4 (total N = 476), we report (re-)analyses of three datasets demonstrating the validity of the CMQ in student and working population samples in the UK and Germany. First, attesting to its convergent validity, the CMQ was highly correlated with another measure of generic conspiracy belief. Second, the CMQ showed patterns of meaningful associations with personality measures (e.g., Big Five dimensions, schizotypy), other generalized political attitudes (e.g., social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism), and further individual differences (e.g., paranormal belief, lack of socio-political control). Finally, the CMQ predicted beliefs in specific conspiracy theories over and above other individual

  17. Measuring individual differences in generic beliefs in conspiracy theories across cultures: conspiracy mentality questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Bruder, Martin; Haffke, Peter; Neave, Nick; Nouripanah, Nina; Imhoff, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Conspiracy theories are ubiquitous when it comes to explaining political events and societal phenomena. Individuals differ not only in the degree to which they believe in specific conspiracy theories, but also in their general susceptibility to explanations based on such theories, that is, their conspiracy mentality. We present the Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ), an instrument designed to efficiently assess differences in the generic tendency to engage in conspiracist ideation within and across cultures. The CMQ is available in English, German, and Turkish. In four studies, we examined the CMQ's factorial structure, reliability, measurement equivalence across cultures, and its convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. Analyses based on a cross-cultural sample (Study 1a; N = 7,766) supported the conceptualization of conspiracy mentality as a one-dimensional construct across the three language versions of the CMQ that is stable across time (Study 1b; N = 141). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the CMQ items. The instrument could therefore be used to examine differences in conspiracy mentality between European, North American, and Middle Eastern cultures. In Studies 2-4 (total N = 476), we report (re-)analyses of three datasets demonstrating the validity of the CMQ in student and working population samples in the UK and Germany. First, attesting to its convergent validity, the CMQ was highly correlated with another measure of generic conspiracy belief. Second, the CMQ showed patterns of meaningful associations with personality measures (e.g., Big Five dimensions, schizotypy), other generalized political attitudes (e.g., social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism), and further individual differences (e.g., paranormal belief, lack of socio-political control). Finally, the CMQ predicted beliefs in specific conspiracy theories over and above other individual

  18. Measuring Individual Differences in Generic Beliefs in Conspiracy Theories Across Cultures: Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Bruder, Martin; Haffke, Peter; Neave, Nick; Nouripanah, Nina; Imhoff, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Conspiracy theories are ubiquitous when it comes to explaining political events and societal phenomena. Individuals differ not only in the degree to which they believe in specific conspiracy theories, but also in their general susceptibility to explanations based on such theories, that is, their conspiracy mentality. We present the Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ), an instrument designed to efficiently assess differences in the generic tendency to engage in conspiracist ideation within and across cultures. The CMQ is available in English, German, and Turkish. In four studies, we examined the CMQ’s factorial structure, reliability, measurement equivalence across cultures, and its convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. Analyses based on a cross-cultural sample (Study 1a; N = 7,766) supported the conceptualization of conspiracy mentality as a one-dimensional construct across the three language versions of the CMQ that is stable across time (Study 1b; N = 141). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the CMQ items. The instrument could therefore be used to examine differences in conspiracy mentality between European, North American, and Middle Eastern cultures. In Studies 2–4 (total N = 476), we report (re-)analyses of three datasets demonstrating the validity of the CMQ in student and working population samples in the UK and Germany. First, attesting to its convergent validity, the CMQ was highly correlated with another measure of generic conspiracy belief. Second, the CMQ showed patterns of meaningful associations with personality measures (e.g., Big Five dimensions, schizotypy), other generalized political attitudes (e.g., social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism), and further individual differences (e.g., paranormal belief, lack of socio-political control). Finally, the CMQ predicted beliefs in specific conspiracy theories over and above other individual

  19. Reproduction of Difference through Learning about a "Different Culture": The Paradox of Double Subject Positions and the Pedagogy of the Privileged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr, Neriko Musha

    2015-01-01

    Culture is not a predetermined, static, bounded unit. Both its boundaries and what is considered cultural difference are constructed through social processes. Ray McDermott and Herve Varenne (1995) argue that only certain differences are noticed, usually according to what is regarded as meaningful difference in one's own society. For example,…

  20. Horizontal and Vertical Cultural Differences in the Content of Advertising Appeals

    PubMed Central

    Shavitt, Sharon; Johnson, Timothy P.; Zhang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The distinction between vertical (emphasizing hierarchy) and horizontal (valuing equality) cultures yields novel predictions regarding the prevalence of advertising appeals. A content analysis of 1211 magazine advertisements in five countries (Denmark, Korea, Poland, Russia, U.S.) revealed differences in ad content that underscore the value of this distinction. Patterns in the degree to which ads emphasized status benefits and uniqueness benefits corresponded to the countries' vertical/horizontal cultural classification. These and other patterns of ad benefits are analyzed and the predictions afforded by the vertical/horizontal distinction versus the broader individualism-collectivism distinction are compared and tested. PMID:25554720

  1. The house of difference: gender, culture, and the subject-in-process on the American stage.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, L

    1993-01-01

    A lesbian woman of color is often defined by her multiple differences as "other" and/or "object." Yet these very differences can also allow her to challenge culturally held notions of gender, subjectivity, and representation. This article examines one such example, Cherríe Moraga's teatro Giving Up the Ghost where, for the first time, the issue of Chicana lesbian sexuality is addressed on the stage. PMID:8113621

  2. Are cultural dimensions relevant for explaining cross-national differences in antibiotic use in Europe?

    PubMed Central

    Deschepper, Reginald; Grigoryan, Larissa; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby; Hofstede, Geert; Cohen, Joachim; Kelen, Greta Van Der; Deliens, Luc; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M

    2008-01-01

    Background Antibiotics are widely-used medicines for which a more prudent use has been advocated to minimize development of resistance. There are considerable cross-national differences that can only partially be explained by epidemiological difference and variations in health care structure. The aim of this study was to explore whether cross-national differences in use of antibiotics (prescribed and non-prescribed) are associated with differences between national cultures as described in Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions (Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance and Long-Term Orientation). Methods Country-level data of prescribed antibiotic use and self-medication with antibiotics were correlated to country-specific scores of cultural dimensions obtained from Hofstede. Data on use of antibiotics were provided by three European studies, based on different methods and/or countries: Self-medication with Antibiotics and Resistance in Europe (SAR), based on a survey in 2003 on reported use of antibiotics in 19 countries, the European Surveillance on Antimicrobial Consumption, based on distribution and reimbursement of antibiotics in ambulatory care (1997–2002), and the 2002 interview-based Eurobarometer study, asking whether respondents had taken antibiotics in the previous 12 months. These studies provided data on antibiotics use for 27 European countries in total, for which scores of cultural dimensions were also available. The SAR-study differentiated between prescribed antibiotics and self-medication with antibiotics. Results Significant positive correlations were found for Power Distance Index with use of prescribed antibiotics in the three studies (rho between 0.59 and 0.62) and with self-medication (rho = 0.54) in the SAR study. Positive significant correlations were found for the Uncertainty Avoidance Index with the use of antibiotics as reported in two studies (rho between 0.57 and 0.59; for the SAR study the correlations were

  3. Cross-Cultural Differences in Children’s Choices, Categorizations, and Evaluations of Truths and Lies

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Genyue; Xu, Fen; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Heyman, Gail; Lee, Kang

    2008-01-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in children’s moral understanding of individual- or collective-oriented lies and truths. Seven-, 9-, and 11-year-old Canadian and Chinese children were read stories about story characters facing moral dilemmas about whether to lie or tell the truth to help a group but harm an individual or vice versa. Participants chose to lie or to tell the truth as if they were the character (Experiments 1 and 2) and categorized and evaluated the story characters’ truthful and untruthful statements (Experiments 3 and 4). Most children in both cultures labeled lies as lies and truths as truths. The major cultural differences lay in choices and moral evaluations. Chinese children chose lying to help a collective but harm an individual, and they rated it less negatively than lying with opposite consequences. Chinese children rated truth telling to help an individual but harm a group less positively than the alternative. Canadian children did the opposite. These findings suggest that cross-cultural differences in emphasis on groups versus individuals affect children’s choices and moral judgments about truth and deception. PMID:17352539

  4. Cultural similarities and differences in perceiving and recognizing facial expressions of basic emotions.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaoqian; Andrews, Timothy J; Young, Andrew W

    2016-03-01

    The ability to recognize facial expressions of basic emotions is often considered a universal human ability. However, recent studies have suggested that this commonality has been overestimated and that people from different cultures use different facial signals to represent expressions (Jack, Blais, Scheepers, Schyns, & Caldara, 2009; Jack, Caldara, & Schyns, 2012). We investigated this possibility by examining similarities and differences in the perception and categorization of facial expressions between Chinese and white British participants using whole-face and partial-face images. Our results showed no cultural difference in the patterns of perceptual similarity of expressions from whole-face images. When categorizing the same expressions, however, both British and Chinese participants were slightly more accurate with whole-face images of their own ethnic group. To further investigate potential strategy differences, we repeated the perceptual similarity and categorization tasks with presentation of only the upper or lower half of each face. Again, the perceptual similarity of facial expressions was similar between Chinese and British participants for both the upper and lower face regions. However, participants were slightly better at categorizing facial expressions of their own ethnic group for the lower face regions, indicating that the way in which culture shapes the categorization of facial expressions is largely driven by differences in information decoding from this part of the face.

  5. Metabolic analysis of antibody producing Chinese hamster ovary cell culture under different stresses conditions.

    PubMed

    Badsha, Md Bahadur; Kurata, Hiroyuki; Onitsuka, Masayoshi; Oga, Takushi; Omasa, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are commonly used as the host cell lines concerning their ability to produce therapeutic proteins with complex post-translational modifications. In this study, we have investigated the time course extra- and intracellular metabolome data of the CHO-K1 cell line, under a control and stress conditions. The addition of NaCl and trehalose greatly suppressed cell growth, where the maximum viable cell density of NaCl and trehalose cultures were 2.2-fold and 2.8-fold less than that of a control culture. Contrariwise, the antibody production of both the NaCl and trehalose cultures was sustained for a longer time to surpass that of the control culture. The NaCl and trehalose cultures showed relatively similar dynamics of cell growth, antibody production, and substrate/product concentrations, while they indicated different dynamics from the control culture. The principal component analysis of extra- and intracellular metabolome dynamics indicated that their dynamic behaviors were consistent with biological functions. The qualitative pattern matching classification and hierarchical clustering analyses for the intracellular metabolome identified the metabolite clusters whose dynamic behaviors depend on NaCl and trehalose. The volcano plot revealed several reporter metabolites whose dynamics greatly change between in the NaCl and trehalose cultures. The elastic net identified some critical, intracellular metabolites that are distinct between the NaCl and trehalose. While a relatively small number of intracellular metabolites related to the cell growth, glucose, glutamine, lactate and ammonium ion concentrations, the mechanism of antibody production was suggested to be very complicated or not to be explained by elastic net regression analysis. PMID:26803706

  6. In vitro development of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in different culture media.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; No, Jin-Gu; Choi, Mi-Kyung; Yeom, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Kyo; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Yoo, Jae Gyu; Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Hong-Tea

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of three different culture media on the development of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. Canine cloned embryos were cultured in modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF), porcine zygote medium-3 (PZM-3), or G1/G2 sequential media. Our results showed that the G1/G2 media yielded significantly higher morula and blastocyst development in canine SCNT embryos (26.1% and 7.8%, respectively) compared to PZM-3 (8.5% and 0%or mSOF (2.3% and 0%) media. In conclusion, this study suggests that blastocysts can be produced more efficiently using G1/G2 media to culture canine SCNT embryos.

  7. Similarities and differences in cultural values between Iranian and Malaysian nursing students

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahimohammad, Abdolghani; Jaafar, Rogayah; Rahim, Ahmad F. Abul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cultural values are invisible and relatively constant in societies. The purpose of the present study is to find diversities in cultural values of Iranian and Malaysian nursing students. Materials and Methods: Convenience sampling method was used for this comparative-descriptive study to gather the data from full-time undergraduate degree nursing students in Iran and Malaysia. The data were collected using Values Survey Module 2008 and were analyzed by independent t-test. Results: The means of power distance, individualism, and uncertainty avoidance values were significantly different between the two study populations. Conclusions: The academics should acknowledge diversities in cultural values, especially in power distance index, to minimize misconceptions in teaching-learning environments. PMID:25400685

  8. East-West cultural differences in context-sensitivity are evident in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Imada, Toshie; Carlson, Stephanie M; Itakura, Shoji

    2013-03-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that North Americans tend to focus on central objects whereas East Asians tend to pay more attention to contextual information in a visual scene. Although it is generally believed that such culturally divergent attention tendencies develop through socialization, existing evidence largely depends on adult samples. Moreover, no past research has investigated the relation between context-sensitivity and other domains of cognitive development. The present study examined children in the United States and Japan (N = 175, age 4-9 years) to investigate the developmental pattern in context-sensitivity and its relation to executive function. The study found that context-sensitivity increased with age across cultures. Nevertheless, Japanese children showed significantly greater context-sensitivity than American children. Also, context-sensitivity fully mediated the cultural difference in a set-shifting executive function task, which might help explain past findings that East Asian children outperformed their American counterparts on executive function. PMID:23432830

  9. The emergence of different polarity photospheric flux as the cause of CMEs and interplanetary shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bravo, S.

    1995-01-01

    Here we discuss the effect that the emergence of flux with a polarity opposed to that previously established in a certain photospheric region. can have on the magnetic structure of the solar atmosphere. We show that such a flux emergence may lead to the ejection of coronal material into the interplanetary medium (a CME) and also to a rapid change in the velocity of the solar wind from the region, which may eventually lead to the formation of an interplanetary shock.

  10. Developing an emergency ultrasound app - a collaborative project between clinicians from different universities.

    PubMed

    Foss, Kim Thestrup; Subhi, Yousif; Aagaard, Rasmus; Bessmann, Ebbe Lahn; Bøtker, Morten Thingemann; Graumann, Ole; Laursen, Christian B; Weile, Jesper; Todsen, Tobias

    2015-06-20

    Focused emergency ultrasound is rapidly evolving as a clinical skill for bedside examination by physicians at all levels of education. Ultrasound is highly operator-dependent and relevant training is essential to ensure appropriate use. When supplementing hands-on focused ultrasound courses, e-learning can increase the learning effect. We developed an emergency ultrasound app to enable onsite e-learning for trainees. In this paper, we share our experiences in the development of this app and present the final product.

  11. More Similar than Different? Exploring Cultural Models of Depression among Latino Immigrants in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Martinez Tyson, Dinorah (Dina); Castañeda, Heide; Porter, Milagro; Quiroz, Marisel; Carrion, Iraida

    2011-01-01

    The Surgeon General's report, “Culture, Race, and Ethnicity: A Supplement to Mental Health,” points to the need for subgroup specific mental health research that explores the cultural variation and heterogeneity of the Latino population. Guided by cognitive anthropological theories of culture, we utilized ethnographic interviewing techniques to explore cultural models of depression among foreign-born Mexican (n = 30), Cuban (n = 30), Columbian (n = 30), and island-born Puerto Ricans (n = 30), who represent the largest Latino groups in Florida. Results indicate that Colombian, Cuban, Mexican, and Puerto Rican immigrants showed strong intragroup consensus in their models of depression causality, symptoms, and treatment. We found more agreement than disagreement among all four groups regarding core descriptions of depression, which was largely unexpected but can potentially be explained by their common immigrant experiences. Findings expand our understanding about Latino subgroup similarities and differences in their conceptualization of depression and can be used to inform the adaptation of culturally relevant interventions in order to better serve Latino immigrant communities. PMID:21941643

  12. Neural evidence for cultural differences in the valuation of positive facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Park, BoKyung; Tsai, Jeanne L; Chim, Louise; Blevins, Elizabeth; Knutson, Brian

    2016-02-01

    European Americans value excitement more and calm less than Chinese. Within cultures, European Americans value excited and calm states similarly, whereas Chinese value calm more than excited states. To examine how these cultural differences influence people's immediate responses to excited vs calm facial expressions, we combined a facial rating task with functional magnetic resonance imaging. During scanning, European American (n = 19) and Chinese (n = 19) females viewed and rated faces that varied by expression (excited, calm), ethnicity (White, Asian) and gender (male, female). As predicted, European Americans showed greater activity in circuits associated with affect and reward (bilateral ventral striatum, left caudate) while viewing excited vs calm expressions than did Chinese. Within cultures, European Americans responded to excited vs calm expressions similarly, whereas Chinese showed greater activity in these circuits in response to calm vs excited expressions regardless of targets' ethnicity or gender. Across cultural groups, greater ventral striatal activity while viewing excited vs. calm expressions predicted greater preference for excited vs calm expressions months later. These findings provide neural evidence that people find viewing the specific positive facial expressions valued by their cultures to be rewarding and relevant.

  13. Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Twelve conference papers on cultural aspects of second language instruction include: "Towards True Multiculturalism: Ideas for Teachers" (Brian McVeigh); Comparing Cultures Through Critical Thinking: Development and Interpretations of Meaningful Observations" (Laurel D. Kamada); "Authority and Individualism in Japan and the USA" (Alisa Woodring);…

  14. Use of Emerging Technologies to Assess Differences in Outdoor Physical Activity in St. Louis, Missouri

    PubMed Central

    Adlakha, Deepti; Budd, Elizabeth L.; Gernes, Rebecca; Sequeira, Sonia; Hipp, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Abundant evidence shows that regular physical activity (PA) is an effective strategy for preventing obesity in people of diverse socioeconomic status (SES) and racial groups. The proportion of PA performed in parks and how this differs by proximate neighborhood SES has not been thoroughly investigated. The present project analyzes online public web data feeds to assess differences in outdoor PA by neighborhood SES in St. Louis, MO, USA. Methods: First, running and walking routes submitted by users of the website MapMyRun.com were downloaded. The website enables participants to plan, map, record, and share their exercise routes and outdoor activities like runs, walks, and hikes in an online database. Next, the routes were visually illustrated using geographic information systems. Thereafter, using park data and 2010 Missouri census poverty data, the odds of running and walking routes traversing a low-SES neighborhood, and traversing a park in a low-SES neighborhood were examined in comparison to the odds of routes traversing higher-SES neighborhoods and higher-SES parks. Results: Results show that a majority of running and walking routes occur in or at least traverse through a park. However, this finding does not hold when comparing low-SES neighborhoods to higher-SES neighborhoods in St. Louis. The odds of running in a park in a low-SES neighborhood were 54% lower than running in a park in a higher-SES neighborhood (OR = 0.46, CI = 0.17–1.23). The odds of walking in a park in a low-SES neighborhood were 17% lower than walking in a park in a higher-SES neighborhood (OR = 0.83, CI = 0.26–2.61). Conclusion: The novel methods of this study include the use of inexpensive, unobtrusive, and publicly available web data feeds to examine PA in parks and differences by neighborhood SES. Emerging technologies like MapMyRun.com present significant advantages to enhance tracking of user-defined PA across large geographic and temporal settings

  15. Seedling Emergence and Phenotypic Response of Common Bean Germplasm to Different Temperatures under Controlled Conditions and in Open Field

    PubMed Central

    De Ron, Antonio M.; Rodiño, Ana P.; Santalla, Marta; González, Ana M.; Lema, María J.; Martín, Isaura; Kigel, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and uniform seed germination and seedling emergence under diverse environmental conditions is a desirable characteristic for crops. Common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) differ in their low temperature tolerance regarding growth and yield. Cultivars tolerant to low temperature during the germination and emergence stages and carriers of the grain quality standards demanded by consumers are needed for the success of the bean crop. The objectives of this study were (i) to screen the seedling emergence and the phenotypic response of bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled chamber and field conditions to display stress-tolerant genotypes with good agronomic performances and yield potential, and (ii) to compare the emergence of bean seedlings under controlled environment and in open field conditions to assess the efficiency of genebanks standard germination tests for predicting the performance of the seeds in the field. Three trials were conducted with 28 dry bean genotypes in open field and in growth chamber under low, moderate, and warm temperature. Morpho-agronomic data were used to evaluate the phenotypic performance of the different genotypes. Cool temperatures resulted in a reduction of the rate of emergence in the bean genotypes, however, emergence and early growth of bean could be under different genetic control and these processes need further research to be suitably modeled. Nine groups arose from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) representing variation in emergence time and proportion of emergence in the controlled chamber and in the open field indicating a trend to lower emergence in large and extra-large seeded genotypes. Screening of seedling emergence and phenotypic response of the bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled growth chambers and under field conditions showed several genotypes, as landraces 272, 501, 593, and the cultivar Borlotto, with stress-tolerance at emergence, and high yield

  16. Seedling Emergence and Phenotypic Response of Common Bean Germplasm to Different Temperatures under Controlled Conditions and in Open Field.

    PubMed

    De Ron, Antonio M; Rodiño, Ana P; Santalla, Marta; González, Ana M; Lema, María J; Martín, Isaura; Kigel, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and uniform seed germination and seedling emergence under diverse environmental conditions is a desirable characteristic for crops. Common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) differ in their low temperature tolerance regarding growth and yield. Cultivars tolerant to low temperature during the germination and emergence stages and carriers of the grain quality standards demanded by consumers are needed for the success of the bean crop. The objectives of this study were (i) to screen the seedling emergence and the phenotypic response of bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled chamber and field conditions to display stress-tolerant genotypes with good agronomic performances and yield potential, and (ii) to compare the emergence of bean seedlings under controlled environment and in open field conditions to assess the efficiency of genebanks standard germination tests for predicting the performance of the seeds in the field. Three trials were conducted with 28 dry bean genotypes in open field and in growth chamber under low, moderate, and warm temperature. Morpho-agronomic data were used to evaluate the phenotypic performance of the different genotypes. Cool temperatures resulted in a reduction of the rate of emergence in the bean genotypes, however, emergence and early growth of bean could be under different genetic control and these processes need further research to be suitably modeled. Nine groups arose from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) representing variation in emergence time and proportion of emergence in the controlled chamber and in the open field indicating a trend to lower emergence in large and extra-large seeded genotypes. Screening of seedling emergence and phenotypic response of the bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled growth chambers and under field conditions showed several genotypes, as landraces 272, 501, 593, and the cultivar Borlotto, with stress-tolerance at emergence, and high yield

  17. Gender Differences in Emergency Department Visits and Detox Referrals for Illicit and Nonmedical Use of Opioids

    PubMed Central

    Ryoo, Hyeon-Ju; Choo, Esther K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Visits to the emergency department (ED) for use of illicit drugs and opioids have increased in the past decade. In the ED, little is known about how gender may play a role in drug-related visits and referrals to treatment. This study performs gender-based comparison analyses of drug-related ED visits nationwide. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis with data collected from 2004 to 2011 by the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN). All data were coded to capture major drug categories and opioids. We used logistic regression models to find associations between gender and odds of referral to treatment programs. A second set of models were controlled for patient “seeking detox,” or patient explicitly requesting for detox referral. Results Of the 27.9 million ED visits related to drug use in the DAWN database, visits by men were 2.69 times more likely to involve illicit drugs than visits by women (95% CI [2.56, 2.80]). Men were more likely than women to be referred to detox programs for any illicit drugs (OR 1.12, 95% CI [1.02–1.22]), for each of the major illicit drugs (e.g., cocaine: OR 1.27, 95% CI [1.15–1.40]), and for prescription opioids (OR 1.30, 95% CI [1.17–1.43]). This significant association prevailed after controlling for “seeking detox.” Conclusion Women are less likely to receive referrals to detox programs than men when presenting to the ED regardless of whether they are “seeking detox.” Future research may help determine the cause for this gender-based difference and its significance for healthcare costs and health outcomes. PMID:27330662

  18. Differences in Nutrient Requirements Imply a Non-Linear Emergence of Leaders in Animal Groups

    PubMed Central

    Sueur, Cédric; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Petit, Odile; Couzin, Iain D.

    2010-01-01

    Collective decision making and especially leadership in groups are among the most studied topics in natural, social, and political sciences. Previous studies have shown that some individuals are more likely to be leaders because of their social power or the pertinent information they possess. One challenge for all group members, however, is to satisfy their needs. In many situations, we do not yet know how individuals within groups distribute leadership decisions between themselves in order to satisfy time-varying individual requirements. To gain insight into this problem, we build a dynamic model where group members have to satisfy different needs but are not aware of each other's needs. Data about needs of animals come from real data observed in macaques. Several studies showed that a collective movement may be initiated by a single individual. This individual may be the dominant one, the oldest one, but also the one having the highest physiological needs. In our model, the individual with the lowest reserve initiates movements and decides for all its conspecifics. This simple rule leads to a viable decision-making system where all individuals may lead the group at one moment and thus suit their requirements. However, a single individual becomes the leader in 38% to 95% of cases and the leadership is unequally (according to an exponential law) distributed according to the heterogeneity of needs in the group. The results showed that this non-linearity emerges when one group member reaches physiological requirements, mainly the nutrient ones – protein, energy and water depending on weight - superior to those of its conspecifics. This amplification may explain why some leaders could appear in animal groups without any despotism, complex signalling, or developed cognitive ability. PMID:20824127

  19. Risk Factors Associated with Different Types of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV): An Emergency Department Study

    PubMed Central

    Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Kim, Eunjin; Lin, Johnny; Ahmadi, Alireza; Khamesi, Mojdeh T; Teruya, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    Background Domestic intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious healthcare concern, which may be mitigated by early detection, screening and intervention. Objectives We examine posited predictors in IPV and non-IPV groups, and in four different IPV profiles. Possible factors include a) alcohol use, b) drug use, d) depression, e) impulsivity, f) age, and g) any childhood experience in observing parental violence. We also introduce a new “Five Steps in Screening for IPV” quick reference tool, which may assist ED physicians in detection and treatment. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using survey data from 412 inner-city ED patients. Associations were explored using a chi-squared test of independence, independent-samples t-tests, and a one way analysis of variance. Results Nearly 16% had experienced IPV. As a group, they were younger, and more depressed and impulsive than the non-IPV group. They were more likely to engage in binge drinking, use drugs, and had more childhood exposure to violence. In the IPV group, 31% were perpetrators, 20% victims, and 49% both victims and perpetrators. The latter group was younger, more impulsive and depressed, used drugs, and was more likely to have observed parental violence as a child. Conclusion Correlates in groups affected by IPV indicate the same general risk factors, which appear to more acutely affect those who are both perpetrators and victims. Alcohol and drug use, depressive symptoms and childhood exposure to violence may be factors and signs for which emergency physicians should screen in the context of IPV. PMID:25281170

  20. Comparative analysis of microbial community of novel lactic acid fermentation inoculated with different undefined mixed cultures.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shaobo; Gliniewicz, Karol; Mendes-Soares, Helena; Settles, Matthew L; Forney, Larry J; Coats, Erik R; McDonald, Armando G

    2015-03-01

    Three undefined mixed cultures (activated sludge) from different municipal wastewater treatment plants were used as seeds in a novel lactic acid fermentation process fed with potato peel waste (PPW). Anaerobic sequencing batch fermenters were run under identical conditions to produce predominantly lactic acid. Illumina sequencing was used to examine the 16S rRNA genes of bacteria in the three seeds and fermenters. Results showed that the structure of microbial communities of three seeds were different. All three fermentation products had unique community structures that were dominated (>96%) by species of the genus Lactobacillus, while members of this genus constituted <0.1% in seeds. The species of Lactobacillus sp. differed among the three fermentations. Results of this study suggest the structure of microbial communities in lactic acid fermentation of PPW with undefined mixed cultures were robust and resilient, which provided engineering prospects for the microbial utilization of carbohydrate wastes to produce lactic acid.

  1. Rugby versus Soccer in South Africa: Content Familiarity Contributes to Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malda, Maike; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Temane, Q. Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study, cross-cultural differences in cognitive test scores are hypothesized to depend on a test's cultural complexity (Cultural Complexity Hypothesis: CCH), here conceptualized as its content familiarity, rather than on its cognitive complexity (Spearman's Hypothesis: SH). The content familiarity of tests assessing short-term memory,…

  2. Different Perspectives of Cultural Mediation: Implications for the Research Design on Studies Examining Its Effect on Students' Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Tang Wee

    2013-01-01

    In this forum, I extend Tao, Oliver, and Venville's paper "Chinese and Australian children's understanding of the earth: a cross cultural study of conceptual development" to discuss the different views on culture and cultural mediation. I tease out nuances in the viewpoints to suggest three ways to theoretically frame studies examining cultural…

  3. Framing attention in Japanese and american comics: cross-cultural differences in attentional structure.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Neil; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Grossman, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Research on visual attention has shown that Americans tend to focus more on focal objects of a scene while Asians attend to the surrounding environment. The panels of comic books - the narrative frames in sequential images - highlight aspects of a scene comparably to how attention becomes focused on parts of a spatial array. Thus, we compared panels from American and Japanese comics to explore cross-cultural cognition beyond behavioral experimentation by looking at the expressive mediums produced by individuals from these cultures. This study compared the panels of two genres of American comics (Independent and Mainstream comics) with mainstream Japanese "manga" to examine how different cultures and genres direct attention through the framing of figures and scenes in comic panels. Both genres of American comics focused on whole scenes as much as individual characters, while Japanese manga individuated characters and parts of scenes. We argue that this framing of space from American and Japanese comic books simulate a viewer's integration of a visual scene, and is consistent with the research showing cross-cultural differences in the direction of attention.

  4. Framing Attention in Japanese and American Comics: Cross-Cultural Differences in Attentional Structure

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Neil; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Grossman, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Research on visual attention has shown that Americans tend to focus more on focal objects of a scene while Asians attend to the surrounding environment. The panels of comic books – the narrative frames in sequential images – highlight aspects of a scene comparably to how attention becomes focused on parts of a spatial array. Thus, we compared panels from American and Japanese comics to explore cross-cultural cognition beyond behavioral experimentation by looking at the expressive mediums produced by individuals from these cultures. This study compared the panels of two genres of American comics (Independent and Mainstream comics) with mainstream Japanese “manga” to examine how different cultures and genres direct attention through the framing of figures and scenes in comic panels. Both genres of American comics focused on whole scenes as much as individual characters, while Japanese manga individuated characters and parts of scenes. We argue that this framing of space from American and Japanese comic books simulate a viewer’s integration of a visual scene, and is consistent with the research showing cross-cultural differences in the direction of attention. PMID:23015794

  5. Can Simulation Measure Differences in Task-Switching Ability Between Junior and Senior Emergency Medicine Residents?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dustin; Miller, Daniel G.; Cukor, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Work interruptions during patient care have been correlated with error. Task-switching is identified by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) as a core competency for emergency medicine (EM). Simulation has been suggested as a means of assessing EM core competencies. We assumed that senior EM residents had better task-switching abilities than junior EM residents. We hypothesized that this difference could be measured by observing the execution of patient care tasks in the simulation environment when a patient with a ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) interrupted the ongoing management of a septic shock case. Methods This was a multi-site, prospective, observational, cohort study. The study population consisted of a convenience sample of EM residents in their first three years of training. Each subject performed a standardized simulated encounter by evaluating and treating a patient in septic shock. At a predetermined point in every sepsis case, the subject was given a STEMI electrocardiogram (ECG) for a separate chest pain patient in triage and required to verbalize an interpretation and action. We scored learner performance using a dichotomous checklist of critical actions covering sepsis care, ECG interpretation and triaging of the STEMI patient. Results Ninety-one subjects participated (30 postgraduate year [PGY]1s, 32 PGY2s, and 29 PGY3s). Of those, 87 properly managed the patient with septic shock (90.0% PGY1s, 100% PGY2, 96.6% PGY 3s; p=0.22). Of the 87 who successfully managed the septic shock, 80 correctly identified STEMI on the simulated STEMI patient (86.7% PGY1s, 96.9% PGY2s, 93.1% PGY3s; p=0.35). Of the 80 who successfully managed the septic shock patient and correctly identified the STEMI, 79 provided appropriate interventions for the STEMI patient (73.3% PGY1s, 93.8% PGY2s, 93.8% PGY3s; p=0.07). Conclusion When management of a septic shock patient was interrupted with a STEMI ECG in a simulated

  6. Emergency room assessment and adrenaline treatment of patients with acute asthma of different severity.

    PubMed

    Limthongkul, S

    1989-06-01

    The adequacy of emergency room assessment and treatment of patients with acute severe asthmatic attacks was evaluated by analyzing the course of 451 visits of 348 patients to Chulalongkorn hospital's Emergency Room. Eighty-five per cent of the patients had an initial index score of greater than or equal to 4 and an average peak expiratory flow rate of 92.16 +/- 46.3 L/min. The discharge index score was 85 per cent with a score of less than or equal to 3 and an average peak expiratory flow rate of 192 +/- 40.3 L/min. Our study indicated that the predictive index proposed by Fischl et al correlated with the severity of airway obstruction; however, the initial index did not help with emergency room decision-making in predicting which patients might be hospitalized, have a relapse or be discharged. In fact, in our emergency room department, the index score to determine airway obstruction and the pattern of response to treatment were better predictors of the outcome, which was classified into three categories: non-responsive or minimally responsive, responsive, and partially responsive. By using conventional clinical criteria (i.e. recumbent position with elimination of laboured breathing, disappearance of dyspnea and reduction of wheezing), there was a 93 per cent accurate determination in the episodes of patients who responded sufficiently to the emergency room treatment to allow their discharge. The remaining 7 per cent of those seeking emergency treatment were hospitalized, which is a lower incidence than that of others series.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Emergency illumination panel that displays different pictures depending on room brightness.

    PubMed

    Saito, Mitsunori; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki

    2004-06-20

    We fabricated an emergency illumination panel by stacking two translucent pictures, one of which was painted with ink and the other with phosphors. When the panel was illuminated by backlight or room light, only the ink-printed picture was visible to the human eye and only the phosphorescent picture was visible in darkness. A two-way mirror was inserted between the two pictures both to prevent super-imposition of the two images and to enhance phosphorescence. This phosphorescent emergency sign acted as an illuminator independently of electric power sources and provided sufficient brightness for reading newspaper headlines. PMID:15218599

  8. Emergency illumination panel that displays different pictures depending on room brightness.

    PubMed

    Saito, Mitsunori; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki

    2004-06-20

    We fabricated an emergency illumination panel by stacking two translucent pictures, one of which was painted with ink and the other with phosphors. When the panel was illuminated by backlight or room light, only the ink-printed picture was visible to the human eye and only the phosphorescent picture was visible in darkness. A two-way mirror was inserted between the two pictures both to prevent super-imposition of the two images and to enhance phosphorescence. This phosphorescent emergency sign acted as an illuminator independently of electric power sources and provided sufficient brightness for reading newspaper headlines.

  9. Visual Category-Selectivity for Faces, Places and Objects Emerges along Different Developmental Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherf, K. Suzanne; Behrmann, Marlene; Humphreys, Kate; Luna, Beatriz

    2007-01-01

    The organization of category-selective regions in ventral visual cortex is well characterized in human adults. We investigated a crucial, previously unaddressed, question about how this organization emerges developmentally. We contrasted the developmental trajectories for face-, object-, and place-selective activation in the ventral visual cortex…

  10. Developmental Differences in Parenting Behavior: Comparing Adolescent, Emerging Adult, and Adult Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Amy; Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Ronzio, Cynthia R.

    2013-01-01

    The nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth cohort data set was used to compare parenting behaviors of adolescent mothers (less than 19 years old), emerging adult mothers (19-25 years old), and adult mothers (greater than 25 years old) when their children were 2 years old. Regression models controlling for socioeconomic…

  11. Cross-cultural differences in crossmodal correspondences between basic tastes and visual features.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiaoang; Woods, Andy T; van den Bosch, Jasper J F; McKenzie, Kirsten J; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2014-01-01

    We report a cross-cultural study designed to investigate crossmodal correspondences between a variety of visual features (11 colors, 15 shapes, and 2 textures) and the five basic taste terms (bitter, salty, sour, sweet, and umami). A total of 452 participants from China, India, Malaysia, and the USA viewed color patches, shapes, and textures online and had to choose the taste term that best matched the image and then rate their confidence in their choice. Across the four groups of participants, the results revealed a number of crossmodal correspondences between certain colors/shapes and bitter, sour, and sweet tastes. Crossmodal correspondences were also documented between the color white and smooth/rough textures on the one hand and the salt taste on the other. Cross-cultural differences were observed in the correspondences between certain colors, shapes, and one of the textures and the taste terms. The taste-patterns shown by the participants from the four countries tested in the present study are quite different from one another, and these differences cannot easily be attributed merely to whether a country is Eastern or Western. These findings therefore highlight the impact of cultural background on crossmodal correspondences. As such, they raise a number of interesting questions regarding the neural mechanisms underlying crossmodal correspondences.

  12. Cross-cultural differences in crossmodal correspondences between basic tastes and visual features

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xiaoang; Woods, Andy T.; van den Bosch, Jasper J. F.; McKenzie, Kirsten J.; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2014-01-01

    We report a cross-cultural study designed to investigate crossmodal correspondences between a variety of visual features (11 colors, 15 shapes, and 2 textures) and the five basic taste terms (bitter, salty, sour, sweet, and umami). A total of 452 participants from China, India, Malaysia, and the USA viewed color patches, shapes, and textures online and had to choose the taste term that best matched the image and then rate their confidence in their choice. Across the four groups of participants, the results revealed a number of crossmodal correspondences between certain colors/shapes and bitter, sour, and sweet tastes. Crossmodal correspondences were also documented between the color white and smooth/rough textures on the one hand and the salt taste on the other. Cross-cultural differences were observed in the correspondences between certain colors, shapes, and one of the textures and the taste terms. The taste-patterns shown by the participants from the four countries tested in the present study are quite different from one another, and these differences cannot easily be attributed merely to whether a country is Eastern or Western. These findings therefore highlight the impact of cultural background on crossmodal correspondences. As such, they raise a number of interesting questions regarding the neural mechanisms underlying crossmodal correspondences. PMID:25538643

  13. Diversity or Difference? New Research Supports the Case for a Cultural Perspective on Women in Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frieze, Carol; Quesenberry, Jeria L.; Kemp, Elizabeth; Velázquez, Anthony

    2012-08-01

    Gender difference approaches to the participation of women in computing have not provided adequate explanations for women's declining interest in computer science (CS) and related technical fields. Indeed, the search for gender differences can work against diversity which we define as a cross-gender spectrum of characteristics, interests, abilities, experiences, beliefs and identities. Our ongoing case studies at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) provide evidence to show that a focus on culture offers the most insightful and effective approach for investigating women's participation in CS. In this paper, we illustrate this approach and show the significance of cultural factors by describing a new case study which examines the attitudes of CS majors at CMU. Our analysis found that most men and women felt comfortable in the school, believed they could be successful in the CS environment at CMU, and thought they fit in socially and academically. In brief, we did not see any evidence of a strong gender divide in student attitudes towards fitting in or feeling like they could be successful; indeed we found that the Women-CS fit remained strong from prior years. Hence, our research demonstrates that women, alongside their male peers, can fit successfully into a CS environment and help shape that environment and computing culture, for the benefit of everyone, without accommodating presumed gender differences or any compromises to academic integrity.

  14. Physicochemical characteristics and biological activities of polysaccharide fractions from Phellinus baumii cultured with different methods.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingting; Yang, Yan; Liu, Yanfang; Zhou, Shuai; Yan, Meng Qiu; Wu, Di; Zhang, Jingsong; Tang, Chuanhong

    2015-11-01

    Nine polysaccharide fractions were obtained from the fruiting bodies, submerged mycelia, and solid state fermented products of Phellinus baumii using different concentrations of ethanol precipitation. The chemical characteristics and in vitro immunological activities of the nine polysaccharide fractions were compared and studied. Results indicated that the fractions precipitated with 50% ethanol had higher yields of polysaccharides and submerged mycelia contributed to high extraction yields of polysaccharides and possessed higher polysaccharide contents. HPSEC-MALLS-RI analysis showed that the molecular weight (Mw) of polysaccharide fractions from these three materials decreased with the increasing of precipitated ethanol concentration. The Mw of fruiting body polysaccharide fractions ranged from 1.98×10(4)Da to 1.89×10(6)Da. Large-molecular-weight polysaccharides (from 2.11×10(6)Da to 2.01×10(7)Da) were found in submerged mycelia. Some lower-molecular-weight polysaccharide components were found in solid fermented products. Different culture methods contributed to significant differences in monosaccharide components and molar ratios. The 50% ethanol precipitated fractions exhibited more complexity on monosaccharide compositions comparing with fractions precipitated with 30% and 70% ethanol. Polysaccharide fractions derived from submerged mycelia exhibited higher macrophages stimulation activities. Submerged culture was found to be a suitable method to prepare active polysaccharides because of its short culture span and reasonable cost. PMID:26344493

  15. Cultural differences and similarities of environmental epistemology among Native American nations

    SciTech Connect

    Duplantier, S.

    1997-08-01

    A recent major effort of Xavier University`s Consortium for Environmental Risk Evaluation Project (CERE) has been to act as a facilitator for the convening of tribal forums on various environmental management decision making processes, especially the use of risk assessment. Two recent forums sponsored by the Shoshone-Bannock Nation of Ft. Hall, Idaho and the Nez Perce Nation of Lapwai, Idaho brought together tribal leaders, tribal professionals and tribal elders from around the nation to discuss tribal approaches to risk assessment. A statement in the brochure announcing the Nez Perce Forum said ``Our various cultural understandings of, and relationships to, the environment must play an essential role in determining how future risk assessment methods are determined and practiced.`` This paper will present and discuss the issue of differences in Native American epistemologies (ways of knowing) about the environment. Are these merely distinctions without differences? Do the differences in regional ecologies and cultures affect tribal views and tribal perceptions on risk assessment and risk communication? Must the tribes develop a single cultural risk model or can and must each one be unique? These and other topics will be discussed in this paper. This paper is an effort in understanding what Native Americans are saying about nature, the environment, and environmental risk and remediation.

  16. Thinking differently about cultural diversity: Using postcolonial theory to (re)read science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Lyn

    2004-11-01

    This paper makes use of postcolonial theory to think differently about aspects of cultural diversity within science education. It briefly reviews some of the increasing scholarship on cultural diversity, and then describes the genealogy and selected key themes of postcolonial theory. Postcolonial theory as oppositional or deconstructive reading practice is privileged, and its practical application illustrated by using some of these key ideas to (re)read Gloria Snively and John Corsiglia's (2001) article Discovering indigenous science: implications for science education and their rejoinder, from the special issue of Science Education (Vol. 85, pp. 6-34) on multiculturalism and science education. While many would regard the expressed views on diversity, inclusivity, multiculturalism, and sustainability to be just and equitable, postcolonial analysis of the texts reveals subtle and lingering referents that unwittingly work against the very attitudes Snively and Corsiglia (2001) seek to promote. Such postcolonial analyses open up thinking about the material and cultural conditions in which science education is produced, circulated, interpreted, and enacted. They also privilege a unique methodology already prominent in academic inquiry that is yet to be well explored within science education. Finally, I conclude this paper with some general comments regarding postcolonialism and the science education scholarship on cultural diversity.

  17. Cultural differences in on-line sensitivity to emotional voices: comparing East and West

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pan; Rigoulot, Simon; Pell, Marc D.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence that culture modulates on-line neural responses to the emotional meanings encoded by vocal and facial expressions was demonstrated recently in a study comparing English North Americans and Chinese (Liu et al., 2015). Here, we compared how individuals from these two cultures passively respond to emotional cues from faces and voices using an Oddball task. Participants viewed in-group emotional faces, with or without simultaneous vocal expressions, while performing a face-irrelevant visual task as the EEG was recorded. A significantly larger visual Mismatch Negativity (vMMN) was observed for Chinese vs. English participants when faces were accompanied by voices, suggesting that Chinese were influenced to a larger extent by task-irrelevant vocal cues. These data highlight further differences in how adults from East Asian vs. Western cultures process socio-emotional cues, arguing that distinct cultural practices in communication (e.g., display rules) shape neurocognitive activity associated with the early perception and integration of multi-sensory emotional cues. PMID:26074808

  18. Cultural differences in on-line sensitivity to emotional voices: comparing East and West.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pan; Rigoulot, Simon; Pell, Marc D

    2015-01-01

    Evidence that culture modulates on-line neural responses to the emotional meanings encoded by vocal and facial expressions was demonstrated recently in a study comparing English North Americans and Chinese (Liu et al., 2015). Here, we compared how individuals from these two cultures passively respond to emotional cues from faces and voices using an Oddball task. Participants viewed in-group emotional faces, with or without simultaneous vocal expressions, while performing a face-irrelevant visual task as the EEG was recorded. A significantly larger visual Mismatch Negativity (vMMN) was observed for Chinese vs. English participants when faces were accompanied by voices, suggesting that Chinese were influenced to a larger extent by task-irrelevant vocal cues. These data highlight further differences in how adults from East Asian vs. Western cultures process socio-emotional cues, arguing that distinct cultural practices in communication (e.g., display rules) shape neurocognitive activity associated with the early perception and integration of multi-sensory emotional cues. PMID:26074808

  19. The ABCs of Depression: Integrating Affective, Biological, and Cognitive Models to Explain the Emergence of the Gender Difference in Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Janet Shibley; Mezulis, Amy H.; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2008-01-01

    In adulthood, twice as many women as men are depressed, a pattern that holds in most nations. In childhood, girls are no more depressed than boys, but more girls than boys are depressed by ages 13 to 15. Although many influences on this emergent gender difference in depression have been proposed, a truly integrated, developmental model is lacking.…

  20. Age Differences in Emergency Department Visits and Inpatient Hospitalizations in Preadolescent and Adolescent Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenz, Alyssa M.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Bradley, Catherine; Charles, Jane; Boan, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluated age differences in emergency department care and inpatient hospitalizations in 252 preadolescent and adolescent youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs; ages 9-18). Records from youth with ASDs were linked to acute care utilization records and were compared to a demographically similar comparison group of youth without ASDs…

  1. Different perspectives of cultural mediation: implications for the research design on studies examining its effect on students' cognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Tang Wee

    2013-06-01

    In this forum, I extend Tao, Oliver, and Venville's paper Chinese and Australian children's understanding of the earth: a cross cultural study of conceptual development to discuss the different views on culture and cultural mediation. I tease out nuances in the viewpoints to suggest three ways to theoretically frame studies examining cultural mediation of students' cognition. Specifically, cultural mediation may be attributed to innate psychological attributes, an accretion of cultural elements, or the social interaction process. Each of these ideas represents a theoretical lens and has implications for the research design of studies relating cultural mediation to cognition. In the final section of this forum paper, I show how a study conducted from the symbolic interactionist viewpoint underscoring cultural mediation as a social interaction process might unfold.

  2. Cultural differences affecting euthanasia practice in Belgium: one law but different attitudes and practices in Flanders and Wallonia.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joachim; Van Wesemael, Yanna; Smets, Tinne; Bilsen, Johan; Deliens, Luc

    2012-09-01

    Since 2002, Belgium has had a national law legalising euthanasia. The law prescribes several substantive due care requirements and two procedural due care requirements, i.e. consultation with an independent physician and reporting of euthanasia to a Federal Control Committee. A large discrepancy in reporting rates between the Dutch-speaking (Flanders) and the French-speaking (Wallonia) parts of Belgium has led to speculation about cultural differences affecting the practice of euthanasia in both regions. Using Belgian data from the European Values Study conducted in 2008 among a representative sample of the general public and data from a large-scale mail questionnaire survey on euthanasia of 480 physicians from Flanders and 305 from Wallonia (conducted in 2009), this study presents empirical evidence of differences between both regions in attitudes towards and practice of euthanasia. Acceptance of euthanasia by the general population was found to be slightly higher in Flanders than in Wallonia. Compared with their Flemish counterparts, Walloon physicians held more negative attitudes towards performing euthanasia and towards the reporting obligation, less often labelled hypothetical cases correctly as euthanasia, and less often defined a case of euthanasia having to be reported. A higher proportion of Flemish physicians had received a euthanasia request since the introduction of the law. In cases of a euthanasia request, Walloon physicians consulted less often with an independent physician. Requests were more often granted in Flanders than in Wallonia (51% vs 38%), and performed euthanasia cases were more often reported (73% vs 58%). The study points out some significant differences between Flanders and Wallonia in practice, knowledge and attitudes regarding euthanasia and its legal requirements which are likely to explain the discrepancy between Wallonia and Flanders in the number of euthanasia cases reported. Cultural factors seem to play an important role in the

  3. Sex Differences in Substance Use Among Adult Emergency Department Patients: Prevalence, Severity, and Need for Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Beaudoin, Francesca L.; Baird, Janette; Liu, Tao; Merchant, Roland C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Substance use is prevalent among emergency department (ED) patients, and sex has been implicated as an important factor in the etiology, pathophysiology, sequelae, and treatment of substance use disorders. However, additional information is needed about the epidemiology of substance use as it relates to sex among ED patients. Objectives This study examined sex differences in the prevalence and severity of self-reported tobacco, alcohol, and drug use among adult ED patients. Methods A random sample of English- or Spanish-speaking, non–critically ill or injured, 18- to 64-year-old patients was approached at two urban EDs and asked to self-report their lifetime and past 3-month tobacco, alcohol, and drug use. Participants completed the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) using an audio computer-assisted self-interview. Participants were categorized by their substance severity (ASSIST score) and need for a brief or more intensive intervention per World Health Organization recommendations. Substance misuse prevalence, frequency, severity, and need for interventions were compared between sexes by substance category. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association between sexes and the need for intervention after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Results Of the 6,432 participants in the study, the median age was 37 years (interquartile range = 26 to 48 years), and 56.6% were female. Overall, lifetime, and past 3-month use was higher for men across all substances (tobacco, alcohol, and drugs). Among those reporting past 3-month use, the frequency of use was similar between sexes for tobacco and all drugs, but men reported more frequent alcohol use. Men had higher mean ASSIST scores compared to women, 30.3 (standard error [SE] ± 0.8) vs. 21.1 (SE ± 0.5); mean difference 9.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.4 to 10.9). The need for any intervention (brief or intensive) was similar

  4. How two differing portraits of Newton can teach us about the cultural context of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucci, Pasquale

    2015-07-01

    Like several scientists, Isaac Newton has been represented many times over many different periods, and portraits of Newton were often commissioned by the scientist himself. These portraits tell us a lot about the scientist, the artist and the cultural context. This article examines two very different portraits of Newton that were realized more than a century apart, to show how the observer’s attention can be focused on the history of physics, the history of art, their relationships and the use of the history of science in science education.

  5. Age differences in learning emerge from an insufficient representation of uncertainty in older adults.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Matthew R; Bruckner, Rasmus; Gold, Joshua I; Li, Shu-Chen; Heekeren, Hauke R; Eppinger, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging can lead to impairments in learning that affect many laboratory and real-life tasks. These tasks often involve the acquisition of dynamic contingencies, which requires adjusting the rate of learning to environmental statistics. For example, learning rate should increase when expectations are uncertain (uncertainty), outcomes are surprising (surprise) or contingencies are more likely to change (hazard rate). In this study, we combine computational modelling with an age-comparative behavioural study to test whether age-related learning deficits emerge from a failure to optimize learning according to the three factors mentioned above. Our results suggest that learning deficits observed in healthy older adults are driven by a diminished capacity to represent and use uncertainty to guide learning. These findings provide insight into age-related cognitive changes and demonstrate how learning deficits can emerge from a failure to accurately assess how much should be learned. PMID:27282467

  6. Age differences in learning emerge from an insufficient representation of uncertainty in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Nassar, Matthew R.; Bruckner, Rasmus; Gold, Joshua I.; Li, Shu-Chen; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Eppinger, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging can lead to impairments in learning that affect many laboratory and real-life tasks. These tasks often involve the acquisition of dynamic contingencies, which requires adjusting the rate of learning to environmental statistics. For example, learning rate should increase when expectations are uncertain (uncertainty), outcomes are surprising (surprise) or contingencies are more likely to change (hazard rate). In this study, we combine computational modelling with an age-comparative behavioural study to test whether age-related learning deficits emerge from a failure to optimize learning according to the three factors mentioned above. Our results suggest that learning deficits observed in healthy older adults are driven by a diminished capacity to represent and use uncertainty to guide learning. These findings provide insight into age-related cognitive changes and demonstrate how learning deficits can emerge from a failure to accurately assess how much should be learned. PMID:27282467

  7. Mosaic (MSC) cucumbers regenerated from independent cell cultures possess different mitochondrial rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Bartoszewski, Grzegorz; Malepszy, Stefan; Havey, Michael J

    2004-02-01

    Passage of the highly inbred cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) line B through cell culture produces progenies with paternally transmitted, mosaic (MSC) phenotypes. Because the mitochondrial genome of cucumber shows paternal transmission, we evaluated for structural polymorphisms by hybridizing cosmids spanning the entire mitochondrial genome of Arabidopsis thaliana L. to DNA-gel blots of four independently generated MSC and four wild-type cucumbers. Polymorphisms were identified by cosmids carrying rrn18, nad5-exon2, rpl5, and the previously described JLV5 deletion. Polymorphisms revealed by rrn18 and nad5-exon2 were due to one rearrangement bringing together these two coding regions. The polymorphism revealed by rpl5 was unique to MSC16 and was due to rearrangement(s) placing the rpl5 region next to the forward junction of the JLV5 deletion. The rearrangement near rpl5 existed as a sublimon in wild-type inbred B, but was not detected in the cultivar Calypso. Although RNA-gel blots revealed reduced transcription of rpl5 in MSC16 relative to wild-type cucumber, Western analyses revealed no differences for the RPL5 protein and the genetic basis of the MSC16 phenotype remains enigmatic. We evaluated 17 MSC and wild-type lines regenerated from independent cell-culture experiments for these structural polymorphisms and identified eight different patterns, indicating that the passage of cucumber through cell culture may be a unique mechanism to induce or select for novel rearrangements affecting mitochondrial gene expression.

  8. Perception of differences between trauma care and other surgical emergencies: results from a national survey of surgeons.

    PubMed

    Esposito, T J; Kuby, A M; Unfred, C; Young, H L; Gamelli, R L

    1994-12-01

    A national sample of 2500 surgeons was surveyed. Thirteen variables were analyzed to ascertain perceived differences between trauma care and other surgical emergencies, as well as to identify factors contributing to a preferential reluctance to treat trauma. The response rate was 60%. Trauma was perceived as most likely to occur at inconvenient times by 67% of respondents, more often complex (44%), and more demanding of specialized knowledge (39%). Trauma was viewed as less likely to be reimbursed by 35% and most often litigious by 30%. Fewer respondents perceived differences for risk of exposure to lethal pathogens and violence (26% and 9%) and personal or professional rewards (25%). Surgeons who prefer to treat trauma view it as more often demanding of specialized knowledge and more complex than other surgical emergencies. Surgeons who prefer not to treat trauma or take trauma call perceive it as never personally or professionally rewarding, more often disruptive to personal life, emotionally taxing, litigious, and inconvenient compared with other emergencies. Perception of dissimilar reimbursement and personal health risk are less often associated factors. Perceived differences in the litigious nature of cases are not based on fact. We conclude that the individual degree of reluctance or enthusiasm for trauma care in comparison with other emergencies is influenced by perception, personality, and myth rather than by logic and facts.

  9. Ethnic differences in prevalence and correlates of self-harm behaviors in a treatment-seeking sample of emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Polanco-Roman, Lillian; Tsypes, Aliona; Soffer, Ariella; Miranda, Regina

    2014-12-30

    The present study examined differences between White and ethnic minority emerging adults in the prevalence of self-harm behaviors – i.e., non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts (SA) – and in well-documented risk (i.e., depressive symptoms, generalized anxiety symptoms, social anxiety symptoms, suicidal ideation (SI), substance use, abuse history) and protective factors (i.e., religiosity/spirituality, family support, friend support) associated with NSSI and SAs. Emerging adults (N=1156; 56% ethnic minority), ages 17–29 (M=22.3, S.D.=3.0), who were presented at a counseling center at a public university in the Northeastern U.S., completed a clinical interview and self-report symptom measures. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the association between risk and protective factors in predicting history of NSSI-only, any SA, and no self-harm separately among White and ethnic minority individuals. Ethnic differences emerged in the prevalence and correlates of NSSI and SAs. Social anxiety was associated with SAs among White individuals but with NSSI among ethnic minority individuals. Substance use was a more relevant risk factor for White individuals, and friend support was a more relevant protective factor for ethnic minority individuals. These findings suggest differing vulnerabilities to NSSI and SAs between White and ethnic minority emerging adults.

  10. Metabolic characterization of natural and cultured Ophicordyceps sinensis from different origins by 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianshuang; Zhong, Xin; Li, Shaosong; Zhang, Guren; Liu, Xin

    2015-11-10

    Ophicordyceps sinensis is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine and cultured mycelium is a substitute for wild O. sinensis. Metabolic profiles of wild O. sinensis from three geographical locations and cultivated mycelia derived from three origins were investigated using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis combined with multivariate statistical analysis. A total of 56 primary metabolites were identified and quantified from O. sinensis samples. The principle component analysis (PCA) showed significant differences between natural O. sinensis and fermentation mycelia. Seven metabolites responsible for differentiation were screened out by orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). The concentrations of mannitol, trehalose, arginine, trans-4-hydroxyproline, alanine and glucitol were significantly different between wild and cultured groups. The variation in metabolic profiling among artificial mycelia was greater than that among wild O. sinensis. Furthermore, wild samples from different origins were clearly distinguished by the levels of mannitol, trehalose and some amino acids. This study indicates that (1)H NMR-based metabolomics is useful for fingerprinting and discriminating O. sinensis of different geographical regions and cultivated mycelia of different strains. The present study provided an efficient approach for investigating chemical compositions and evaluating the quality of medicine and health food derived from O. sinensis. PMID:26279370

  11. Metabolic characterization of natural and cultured Ophicordyceps sinensis from different origins by 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianshuang; Zhong, Xin; Li, Shaosong; Zhang, Guren; Liu, Xin

    2015-11-10

    Ophicordyceps sinensis is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine and cultured mycelium is a substitute for wild O. sinensis. Metabolic profiles of wild O. sinensis from three geographical locations and cultivated mycelia derived from three origins were investigated using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis combined with multivariate statistical analysis. A total of 56 primary metabolites were identified and quantified from O. sinensis samples. The principle component analysis (PCA) showed significant differences between natural O. sinensis and fermentation mycelia. Seven metabolites responsible for differentiation were screened out by orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). The concentrations of mannitol, trehalose, arginine, trans-4-hydroxyproline, alanine and glucitol were significantly different between wild and cultured groups. The variation in metabolic profiling among artificial mycelia was greater than that among wild O. sinensis. Furthermore, wild samples from different origins were clearly distinguished by the levels of mannitol, trehalose and some amino acids. This study indicates that (1)H NMR-based metabolomics is useful for fingerprinting and discriminating O. sinensis of different geographical regions and cultivated mycelia of different strains. The present study provided an efficient approach for investigating chemical compositions and evaluating the quality of medicine and health food derived from O. sinensis.

  12. Performance in intercultural interactions at work: cross-cultural differences in response to behavioral mirroring.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Burks, Jeffrey; Bartel, Caroline A; Blount, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how performance in intercultural workplace interactions can be compromised even in the absence of overt prejudice. The authors show that individuals respond differently to nonverbal behavioral mirroring cues exhibited in workplace interactions, depending on their cultural group membership. In a field study with experienced managers, U.S. Anglos and U.S. Latinos interacted with a confederate who, unbeknownst to the participant, engaged (or not) in behavioral mirroring. Results show that the level of the confederate's mirroring differentially affected Latinos' state anxiety, but not Anglos' state anxiety, as well as actual performance in the interaction. Two additional laboratory experiments provide further evidence of the interactive relationship of behavioral mirroring and cultural group membership on evaluations of workplace interactions. Implications for intercultural interactions and research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19186906

  13. The impact on attitudes towards cultural difference of participation in a health focused study abroad program.

    PubMed

    Inglis, A; Rolls, C; Kristy, S

    2000-01-01

    The changes in attitudes towards cultural difference of seventeen participants in a three-week community health study abroad program to Nepal were compared with the changes in attitudes of a similar group who did not participate in the tour. Participants in the tour group were surveyed eight weeks prior to departure and in the last week of the tour using a twenty-six item questionnaire employing a six-point forced-choice response scale. The responses of participants in the tour group showed significant shifts in relation to eight items compared while the responses for the control group showed no significant shifts. Observed student advantages of participation in this study tour included the development of independent behaviour and positive cultural adjustment and adaptation. PMID:11855033

  14. Growth and toxin production of Azadinium poporum strains in batch cultures under different nutrient conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Aifeng; Jiang, Baozhou; Chen, Huidan; Gu, Haifeng

    2016-05-01

    Azaspiracid-2 (AZA2) is the dominant toxin produced by Azadinium poporum strains AZDY06 and AZFC22 isolated from the South China Sea. Biomass and AZA2-production were examined within batch cultures with variation in experimental concentrations of nitrate (0, 88, 882, and 2647µM) or phosphate (0, 3.6, 36, and 109µM), different nitrogen sources (nitrate and urea) and media (f/2-Si, L1-Si, and K-Si) in the present study. Growth of both strains positively responded to nitrate or phosphate nutrients, but the growth status was significantly repressed by the highest additional level of phosphate (109µM). Both AZDY06 and AZFC22 grew well with higher specific growth rates, but with shorter growth periods, within f/2-Si medium spiked with urea than that within media spiked with nitrate. L1-Si medium with relatively high concentrations of trace metals was relatively favorable to both strains of A. poporum tested here. No obvious change within the toxin profile occurred in all cultures of both strains under the various nutrient conditions, although trace amounts of some suspicious derivatives of AZA2 occurred in some cultures. AZA2 cell quotas within both strains significantly (p<0.05) increased at the stationary phase under lower additional phosphate (0 and 3.6µM). Significant differences were not found within AZA2 cell quotas in cultures with additional nitrate ranging from 0 to 2647µM. The highest AZA2 cell quota and maximum AZA2 quantity per culture volume occurred in batch culture at the stationary phase under phosphate concentrations at 3.6µM. Neither A. poporum strain exhibited significant changes in AZA2 cell quotas within f/2-Si media spiked with urea or nitrate as nitrogen sources. The AZA2 cell quota of strain AZDY06 also did not change remarkably within f/2-Si, L1-Si, and K-Si media, however the AZA2 cell quota of strain AZFC22 within L1-Si medium was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that within f/2-Si medium.

  15. A Single Dynamic Metabolic Model Can Describe mAb Producing CHO Cell Batch and Fed-Batch Cultures on Different Culture Media.

    PubMed

    Robitaille, Julien; Chen, Jingkui; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2015-01-01

    CHO cell culture high productivity relies on optimized culture medium management under fed-batch or perfused chemostat strategies enabling high cell densities. In this work, a dynamic metabolic model for CHO cells was further developed, calibrated and challenged using datasets obtained under four different culture conditions, including two batch and two fed-batch cultures comparing two different culture media. The recombinant CHO-DXB11 cell line producing the EG2-hFc monoclonal antibody was studied. Quantification of extracellular substrates and metabolites concentration, viable cell density, monoclonal antibody concentration and intracellular concentration of metabolite intermediates of glycolysis, pentose-phosphate and TCA cycle, as well as of energetic nucleotides, were obtained for model calibration. Results suggest that a single model structure with a single set of kinetic parameter values is efficient at simulating viable cell behavior in all cases under study, estimating the time course of measured and non-measured intracellular and extracellular metabolites. Model simulations also allowed performing dynamic metabolic flux analysis, showing that the culture media and the fed-batch strategies tested had little impact on flux distribution. This work thus paves the way to an in silico platform allowing to assess the performance of different culture media and fed-batch strategies.

  16. Viability of fibroblasts in cell culture after treatment with different chemical retraction agents.

    PubMed

    Kopac, I; Batista, U; Cvetko, E; Marion, L

    2002-01-01

    Prior to fixed prosthodontic impression procedures, temporary horizontal retraction of the free gingival tissue should be accomplished apically to the preparation finishing line. The mechanical-chemical method using cotton retraction cords of various sizes impregnated with various retraction chemicals is the most commonly employed retraction technique. Most retraction agents have pH values from 0.8 to 0.3, and are therefore hazardous to the cut dentine and periodontal tissues. Sympathomimetic vasoconstrictors introduced recently have a pH of 5.6, and are free of systemic side-effects. The present study using the dye exclusion test, colony forming ability test and colorimetric assay was undertaken to evaluate cytotoxic effects of four chemical retraction agents on cultured V-79 fibroblasts, and the dependence of cytotoxicity on the agent concentration and time of exposure. Original concentrations of retraction agents produced stronger cytotoxic effects than dilutions of 1:1 and 1:10. The most aggressive agent, 25% aluminium chloride, took only 1 min to damage all cell cultures. The proportion of cells damaged after 10 min of exposure to tetrahydrozoline was 60%, which was significantly less compared with other chemicals tested. With the colony forming ability test using retraction agents diluted to 1:10 the greatest number of colonies emerged in samples treated with tetrahydrozoline (statistical significance: P < 0.01). The colorimetric assay showed equal cytotoxic effects for 25% aluminium sulphate and tetrahydrozoline. The colorimetric test used in the study has proved an ergonomic, accurate and reliable test for cytotoxicity determination. PMID:11844038

  17. Viability of fibroblasts in cell culture after treatment with different chemical retraction agents.

    PubMed

    Kopac, I; Batista, U; Cvetko, E; Marion, L

    2002-01-01

    Prior to fixed prosthodontic impression procedures, temporary horizontal retraction of the free gingival tissue should be accomplished apically to the preparation finishing line. The mechanical-chemical method using cotton retraction cords of various sizes impregnated with various retraction chemicals is the most commonly employed retraction technique. Most retraction agents have pH values from 0.8 to 0.3, and are therefore hazardous to the cut dentine and periodontal tissues. Sympathomimetic vasoconstrictors introduced recently have a pH of 5.6, and are free of systemic side-effects. The present study using the dye exclusion test, colony forming ability test and colorimetric assay was undertaken to evaluate cytotoxic effects of four chemical retraction agents on cultured V-79 fibroblasts, and the dependence of cytotoxicity on the agent concentration and time of exposure. Original concentrations of retraction agents produced stronger cytotoxic effects than dilutions of 1:1 and 1:10. The most aggressive agent, 25% aluminium chloride, took only 1 min to damage all cell cultures. The proportion of cells damaged after 10 min of exposure to tetrahydrozoline was 60%, which was significantly less compared with other chemicals tested. With the colony forming ability test using retraction agents diluted to 1:10 the greatest number of colonies emerged in samples treated with tetrahydrozoline (statistical significance: P < 0.01). The colorimetric assay showed equal cytotoxic effects for 25% aluminium sulphate and tetrahydrozoline. The colorimetric test used in the study has proved an ergonomic, accurate and reliable test for cytotoxicity determination.

  18. Nurturing Hidden Resilience in At-Risk Youth in Different Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Introduction While there has been growing interest in the concept of resilience, there has been little attention paid to the cultural and contextual factors that influence children’s healthy growth and development under adversity. Using findings from the International Resilience Project, a study of over 1500 youth in 11 countries on five continents, it has been possible to show that there are both generic and culturally specific aspects to resilience. Method Fourteen communities were invited to participate based on the variability in the risks children face in each setting. A minimum of 60 youth in each community were administered the Child and Youth Resilience Measure. Qualitative interviews were also conducted with a subsample of youth. Results Both homogeneity and heterogeneity in the overall sample was demonstrated, with exploratory factor analyses suggesting at least four subgroups of youth distinguished by their status as Western or non-Western, boys or girls, and the degree of social cohesion of their communities. Qualitative data explains these differences as related to seven tensions experienced by youth developmentally. Conclusion This work highlights the need for greater cultural and contextual sensitivity in how resilience is understood. Implications for practice with at-risk youth include the need to understand the contextual specificity of positive development under stress. PMID:18392194

  19. Postnatal Depression and Its Associated Factors in Women From Different Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Lye, Munn-Sann; Md Zain, Azhar; Shariff Ghazali, Sazlina; Zarghami, Mehran

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common health problem which affects women in the postpartum period. This is a brief note on its associated factors in women from different cultures. Methods: A literature review was performed in MEDLINE and Pubmed from 1991 to 2008 and Magiran from 1991 to 2009. Additional articles and book chapters were referenced from these sources. Results: The prevalence of postpartum depression has been reported to be from 0.5% to 60% globally, and from 3.5% to 63.3% in Asian countries, in which Malaysia and Pakistan had respectively the lowest and highest rates. One of the factors contributing to PPD in Asian societies can be that women may not have the empowerment to reject traditional rituals that are imposed on them by their caregivers. Unsatisfactory pre-existing relationships between the mothers and their caregivers resulting in mothers experiencing difficulties during their confinement period may be another factor. Thirdly, some features of these traditional rituals may be the cause of tension, stress and emotional distress. Emotional conflicts caused by insistence on practice of traditional rituals during the postpartum period may lead to mental breakdown. Conclusion: Health care professionals should be aware that the phenomenon in Asian cultures is as prevalent as European cultures. Moreover, further research needs to be conducted on the global prevalence of the experiences of childbearing women with depressive symptoms. PMID:24644441

  20. What's in the Chinese Babyface? Cultural Differences in Understanding the Babyface.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenwen; Yang, Qian; Peng, Kaiping; Yu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the cultural differences in understanding and reacting to the babyface in an effort to identify both cultural and gender biases in the universal hypothesis that the babyfaced individuals are perceived as naïve, cute, innocent, and more trustworthy. Sixty-six Chinese and Sixty-six American participants were required to evaluate Chinese faces selected from the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)-Pose, Expression, Accessories, and Lighting (PEAL) Large-Scale Chinese Face Database. In our study, we applied Active Shape Models, a modern technique of machine learning to measure facial features. We found some cultural similarities and also found that a Chinese babyface has bigger eyes, higher eyebrows, a smaller chin, and greater WHR (Facial width-to-height ratio), and looks more attractive and warmer. New findings demonstrate that Chinese babyfaces have a lower forehead and closer pupil distance (PD). We found that when evaluating the babyfacedness of a face, Chinese are more concerned with the combination of all facial features and American are more sensitive to specific highlighted babyfaced features. The Chinese babyface tended to be perceived as more babyfaced for American participants, but not less competent for Chinese participants. PMID:27303360

  1. Different Culture Media Affect Proliferation, Surface Epitope Expression, and Differentiation of Ovine MSC.

    PubMed

    Adamzyk, Carina; Emonds, Tanja; Falkenstein, Julia; Tolba, René; Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm; Lethaus, Bernd; Neuss, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedic implants including engineered bone tissue are commonly tested in sheep. To avoid rejection of heterologous or xenogeneic cells, autologous cells are preferably used, that is, ovine mesenchymal stem cells (oMSC). Unlike human MSC, ovine MSC are not well studied regarding isolation, expansion, and characterization. Here we investigated the impact of culture media composition on growth characteristics, differentiation, and surface antigen expression of oMSC. The culture media varied in fetal calf serum (FCS) content and in the addition of supplements and/or additional epidermal growth factor (EGF). We found that FCS strongly influenced oMSC proliferation and that specific combinations of supplemental factors (MCDB-201, ITS-plus, dexamethasone, and L-ascorbic acid) determined the expression of surface epitopes. We compared two published protocols for oMSC differentiation towards the osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic fate and found (i) considerable donor to donor variations, (ii) protocol-dependent variations, and (iii) variations resulting from the preculture medium composition. Our results indicate that the isolation and culture of oMSC in different growth media are highly variable regarding oMSC phenotype and behaviour. Furthermore, variations from donor to donor critically influence growth rate, surface marker expression, and differentiation. PMID:24228035

  2. Influence of Different Carbohydrates on Flavonoid Accumulation in Hairy Root Cultures of Scutellaria baicalensis.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Ha; Kim, Young Seon; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Lee, Sook Young; Park, Sang Un

    2016-06-01

    Carbohydrate sources play important roles in energy and growth of plants. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the optimal carbohydrate source in hairy root cultures (HRCs) of Scutellaria baicalensis infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain R1000. The hairy roots were cultured in half-strength B5 liquid medium supplemented with seven different carbohydrates sources (sucrose, fructose, glucose, galactose, sorbitol, mannitol and maltose), each at a concentration of 100 mM, in order to identify the best carbon sources for the production of major flavones, such as wogonin, baicalin and baicalein. Sucrose, galactose and fructose markedly influenced the production of major flavones and were therefore chosen for subsequent experiments. HRC growth and flavone accumulation were examined following culture with 30, 100 and 150 mM sucrose, galactose and fructose, respectively. From these data, 150 mM sucrose was found to be the optimal carbon source for the enhancement of baicalein production and growth of S. baicalensis HRCs. Fructose caused the greatest increase in baicalin accumulation. Additionally, galactose was the optimal carbon source for wogonin production. These results provide important insights into the optimal growth conditions, particularly the appropriate carbohydrate source, for S. baicalensis. PMID:27534120

  3. What's in the Chinese Babyface? Cultural Differences in Understanding the Babyface

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wenwen; Yang, Qian; Peng, Kaiping; Yu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the cultural differences in understanding and reacting to the babyface in an effort to identify both cultural and gender biases in the universal hypothesis that the babyfaced individuals are perceived as naïve, cute, innocent, and more trustworthy. Sixty-six Chinese and Sixty-six American participants were required to evaluate Chinese faces selected from the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)—Pose, Expression, Accessories, and Lighting (PEAL) Large-Scale Chinese Face Database. In our study, we applied Active Shape Models, a modern technique of machine learning to measure facial features. We found some cultural similarities and also found that a Chinese babyface has bigger eyes, higher eyebrows, a smaller chin, and greater WHR (Facial width-to-height ratio), and looks more attractive and warmer. New findings demonstrate that Chinese babyfaces have a lower forehead and closer pupil distance (PD). We found that when evaluating the babyfacedness of a face, Chinese are more concerned with the combination of all facial features and American are more sensitive to specific highlighted babyfaced features. The Chinese babyface tended to be perceived as more babyfaced for American participants, but not less competent for Chinese participants. PMID:27303360

  4. Lignolytic enzymes produced by Trametes villosa ccb176 under different culture conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Renata; Soares, Clarissa F.; Matheus, Dácio R.; Machado, Kátia M.G.

    2008-01-01

    The expression of the enzymatic system produced by basidiomycetous fungi, which is involved in the degradation of xenobiotics, mainly depends on culture conditions, especially of the culture medium composition. Trametes villosa is a strain with a proven biotechnological potential for the degradation of organochlorine compounds and for the decolorization of textile dyes. The influence of glucose concentration, addition of a vegetable oil-surfactant emulsion, nature of the surfactant and the presence of manganese and copper on the growth, pH and production of laccase, total peroxidase and manganese-dependent peroxidase activities were evaluated. In general, acidification of the medium was observed, with the pH reaching a value close to 3.5 within the first days of growth. Laccase was the main activity detected under the different conditions and was produced throughout the culture period of the fungus, irrespective of the growth phase. Supplementation of the medium with vegetable oil emulsified with a surfactant induced manganese-dependent peroxidase activity in T. villosa. Higher specific yields of laccase activity were obtained with the addition of copper. PMID:24031184

  5. Different Culture Media Affect Proliferation, Surface Epitope Expression, and Differentiation of Ovine MSC.

    PubMed

    Adamzyk, Carina; Emonds, Tanja; Falkenstein, Julia; Tolba, René; Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm; Lethaus, Bernd; Neuss, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedic implants including engineered bone tissue are commonly tested in sheep. To avoid rejection of heterologous or xenogeneic cells, autologous cells are preferably used, that is, ovine mesenchymal stem cells (oMSC). Unlike human MSC, ovine MSC are not well studied regarding isolation, expansion, and characterization. Here we investigated the impact of culture media composition on growth characteristics, differentiation, and surface antigen expression of oMSC. The culture media varied in fetal calf serum (FCS) content and in the addition of supplements and/or additional epidermal growth factor (EGF). We found that FCS strongly influenced oMSC proliferation and that specific combinations of supplemental factors (MCDB-201, ITS-plus, dexamethasone, and L-ascorbic acid) determined the expression of surface epitopes. We compared two published protocols for oMSC differentiation towards the osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic fate and found (i) considerable donor to donor variations, (ii) protocol-dependent variations, and (iii) variations resulting from the preculture medium composition. Our results indicate that the isolation and culture of oMSC in different growth media are highly variable regarding oMSC phenotype and behaviour. Furthermore, variations from donor to donor critically influence growth rate, surface marker expression, and differentiation.

  6. Influence of Different Carbohydrates on Flavonoid Accumulation in Hairy Root Cultures of Scutellaria baicalensis.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Ha; Kim, Young Seon; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Lee, Sook Young; Park, Sang Un

    2016-06-01

    Carbohydrate sources play important roles in energy and growth of plants. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the optimal carbohydrate source in hairy root cultures (HRCs) of Scutellaria baicalensis infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain R1000. The hairy roots were cultured in half-strength B5 liquid medium supplemented with seven different carbohydrates sources (sucrose, fructose, glucose, galactose, sorbitol, mannitol and maltose), each at a concentration of 100 mM, in order to identify the best carbon sources for the production of major flavones, such as wogonin, baicalin and baicalein. Sucrose, galactose and fructose markedly influenced the production of major flavones and were therefore chosen for subsequent experiments. HRC growth and flavone accumulation were examined following culture with 30, 100 and 150 mM sucrose, galactose and fructose, respectively. From these data, 150 mM sucrose was found to be the optimal carbon source for the enhancement of baicalein production and growth of S. baicalensis HRCs. Fructose caused the greatest increase in baicalin accumulation. Additionally, galactose was the optimal carbon source for wogonin production. These results provide important insights into the optimal growth conditions, particularly the appropriate carbohydrate source, for S. baicalensis.

  7. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePlus

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ114 CONTRACEPTION Emergency Contraception • What is emergency contraception (EC)? • How does EC work? • What are the different types of EC? • What is the most ...

  8. Do colorectal cancer patients diagnosed as an emergency differ from non-emergency patients in their consultation patterns and symptoms? A longitudinal data-linkage study in England

    PubMed Central

    Renzi, C; Lyratzopoulos, G; Card, T; Chu, T P C; Macleod, U; Rachet, B

    2016-01-01

    Background: More than 20% of colorectal cancers are diagnosed following an emergency presentation. We aimed to examine pre-diagnostic primary-care consultations and related symptoms comparing patients diagnosed as emergencies with those diagnosed through non-emergency routes. Methods: Cohort study of colorectal cancers diagnosed in England 2005 and 2006 using cancer registration data individually linked to primary-care data (CPRD/GPRD), allowing a detailed analysis of clinical information referring to the 5-year pre-diagnostic period. Results: Emergency diagnosis occurred in 35% and 15% of the 1029 colon and 577 rectal cancers. ‘Background' primary-care consultations (2–5 years before diagnosis) were similar for either group. In the year before diagnosis, >95% of emergency and non-emergency presenters had consulted their doctor, but emergency presenters had less frequently relevant symptoms (colon cancer: 48% vs 71% (P<0.001); rectal cancer: 49% vs 61% (P=0.043)). ‘Alarm' symptoms were recorded less frequently in emergency presenters (e.g., rectal bleeding: 9 vs 24% (P=0.002)). However, about 1/5 of emergency presenters (18 and 23% for colon and rectal cancers) had ‘alarm' symptoms the year before diagnosis. Conclusions: Emergency presenters have similar ‘background' consultation history as non-emergency presenters. Their tumours seem associated with less typical symptoms, however opportunities for earlier diagnosis might be present in a fifth of them. PMID:27537389

  9. Isolation of Campylobacter from Brazilian broiler flocks using different culturing procedures.

    PubMed

    Vaz, C S L; Voss-Rech, D; Pozza, J S; Coldebella, A; Silva, V S

    2014-11-01

    Conventional culturing methods enable the detection of Campylobacter in broiler flocks. However, laboratory culture of Campylobacter is laborious because of its fastidious behavior and the presence of competing nontarget bacteria. This study evaluated different protocols to isolate Campylobacter from broiler litter, feces, and cloacal and drag swabs. Samples taken from commercial Brazilian broiler flocks were directly streaked onto Preston agar (PA), Campy-Line agar (CLA), and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) and also enriched in blood-free Bolton broth (bfBB) for 24 and 48 h followed by plating onto the different selective media. Higher numbers of Campylobacter-positive cloacal and drag swab samples were observed using either direct plating or enrichment for 24 h before plating onto PA, compared with enrichment for 48 h (P < 0.05). Furthermore, direct plating was a more sensitive method to detect Campylobacter in broiler litter and feces samples. Analysis of directly plated samples revealed that higher Campylobacter levels were detected in feces streaked onto PA (88.8%), cloacal swabs plated onto mCCDA (72.2%), drag swabs streaked onto CLA or mCCDA (69.4%), and litter samples inoculated onto PA (63.8%). Preston agar was the best agar to isolate Campylobacter from directly plated litter samples (P < 0.05), but there was no difference in the efficacies of PA, mCCDA, and CLA in detecting Campylobacter in other samples. The isolated Campylobacter strains were phenotypically identified as Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. The predominant contaminant observed in the Campylobacter cultures was Proteus mirabilis, which was resistant to the majority of antimicrobial agents in selective media. Together, these data showed that direct plating onto PA and onto either CLA or mCCDA as the second selective agar enabled the reliable isolation of thermophilic Campylobacter species from broiler samples. Finally, Campylobacter was detected in all

  10. Experimental Evolution of UV-C Radiation Tolerance: Emergence of Adaptive and Non-Adaptive Traits in Escherichia coli Under Differing Flux Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffet, A.; Okansinski, A.; Sloan, C.; Grace, J. M.; Paulino-Lima, I. G.; Gentry, D.; Rothschild, L. J.; Camps, M.

    2014-12-01

    High-energy ultraviolet (UV-C) radiation is a significant challenge to life in environments such as high altitude areas, the early Earth, the Martian surface, and space. As UV-C exposure is both a selection pressure and a mutagen, adaptation dynamics in such environments include a high rate of change in both tolerance-related and non-tolerance-related genes, as well changes in linkages between the resulting traits. Determining the relationship between the intensity and duration of the UV-C exposure, mutation rate, and emergence of UV-C resistance will inform our understanding of both the emergence of radiation-related extremophily in natural environments and the optimal strategies for generating artificial extremophiles. In this study, we iteratively exposed an Escherichia colistrain to UV-C radiation of two different fluxes, 3.3 J/m^2/s for 6 seconds and 0.5 J/m^2/s for 40 seconds, with the same overall fluence of 20 J/m^2. After each iteration, cells from each exposure regime were assayed for increased UV-C tolerance as an adaptive trait. The exposed cells carried a plasmid bearing a TEM beta-lactamase gene, which in the absence of antibiotic treatment is a neutral reporter for mutagenesis. Sequencing of this gene allowed us to determine the baseline mutation frequency for each flux. As an additional readout for adaptation, the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase mutations was tested by plating UV-exposed cultures in cefotaxime plates. We observed an increase of approximately one-million-fold in UV-C tolerance over seven iterations; no significant difference between the two fluxes was found. Future work will focus on identifying the genomic changes responsible for the change in UV-C tolerance; determining the mechanisms of the emerged UV-C tolerance; and performing competition experiments between the iteration strains to quantify fitness tradeoffs resulting from UV-C adaptation.

  11. Alpha particle induced DNA damage and repair in normal cultured thyrocytes of different proliferation status.

    PubMed

    Lyckesvärd, Madeleine Nordén; Delle, Ulla; Kahu, Helena; Lindegren, Sture; Jensen, Holger; Bäck, Tom; Swanpalmer, John; Elmroth, Kecke

    2014-07-01

    Childhood exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of developing thyroid cancer later in life and this is suggested to be due to higher proliferation of the young thyroid. The interest of using high-LET alpha particles from Astatine-211 ((211)At), concentrated in the thyroid by the same mechanism as (131)I [1], in cancer treatment has increased during recent years because of its high efficiency in inducing biological damage and beneficial dose distribution when compared to low-LET radiation. Most knowledge of the DNA damage response in thyroid is from studies using low-LET irradiation and much less is known of high-LET irradiation. In this paper we investigated the DNA damage response and biological consequences to photons from Cobolt-60 ((60)Co) and alpha particles from (211)At in normal primary thyrocytes of different cell cycle status. For both radiation qualities the intensity levels of γH2AX decreased during the first 24h in both cycling and stationary cultures and complete repair was seen in all cultures but cycling cells exposed to (211)At. Compared to stationary cells alpha particles were more harmful for cycling cultures, an effect also seen at the pChk2 levels. Increasing ratios of micronuclei per cell nuclei were seen up to 1Gy (211)At. We found that primary thyrocytes were much more sensitive to alpha particle exposure compared with low-LET photons. Calculations of the relative biological effectiveness yielded higher RBE for cycling cells compared with stationary cultures at a modest level of damage, clearly demonstrating that cell cycle status influences the relative effectiveness of alpha particles. PMID:24769180

  12. Alpha particle induced DNA damage and repair in normal cultured thyrocytes of different proliferation status.

    PubMed

    Lyckesvärd, Madeleine Nordén; Delle, Ulla; Kahu, Helena; Lindegren, Sture; Jensen, Holger; Bäck, Tom; Swanpalmer, John; Elmroth, Kecke

    2014-07-01

    Childhood exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of developing thyroid cancer later in life and this is suggested to be due to higher proliferation of the young thyroid. The interest of using high-LET alpha particles from Astatine-211 ((211)At), concentrated in the thyroid by the same mechanism as (131)I [1], in cancer treatment has increased during recent years because of its high efficiency in inducing biological damage and beneficial dose distribution when compared to low-LET radiation. Most knowledge of the DNA damage response in thyroid is from studies using low-LET irradiation and much less is known of high-LET irradiation. In this paper we investigated the DNA damage response and biological consequences to photons from Cobolt-60 ((60)Co) and alpha particles from (211)At in normal primary thyrocytes of different cell cycle status. For both radiation qualities the intensity levels of γH2AX decreased during the first 24h in both cycling and stationary cultures and complete repair was seen in all cultures but cycling cells exposed to (211)At. Compared to stationary cells alpha particles were more harmful for cycling cultures, an effect also seen at the pChk2 levels. Increasing ratios of micronuclei per cell nuclei were seen up to 1Gy (211)At. We found that primary thyrocytes were much more sensitive to alpha particle exposure compared with low-LET photons. Calculations of the relative biological effectiveness yielded higher RBE for cycling cells compared with stationary cultures at a modest level of damage, clearly demonstrating that cell cycle status influences the relative effectiveness of alpha particles.

  13. What pediatricians should know about normal language development: ensuring cultural differences are not diagnosed as disorders.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Amy L; Van Haren, Melissa S

    2003-07-01

    The roles and responsibilities of speech-language pathologists and pediatricians have become greater with the changing population demographics in the United States. In some states, the majority of the population belongs to a national cultural minority, eg, New Mexico. Even a state such as Iowa, with only a 5% nonmajority population, has a school-aged population that is almost 10% nonmajority. This growth of diversity is likely to continue. Rather than viewing sensitivity to the influence of culture on language learning and other developmental areas as an "add-on" to a practice, it may be wiser to recognize that approaching all clients with as few assumptions about their behaviors as possible will guarantee nonbiased service delivery for all. Without nonbiased service delivery, incorrect diagnoses and provision of inappropriate therapy become more likely. Fortunately, many resources are available to assist pediatricians and speech-language pathologists in learning about various cultures. Institutional review boards have become more vigilant about the inclusion of a cross-section of subject populations as participants in research studies in addition to protecting the rights of all participants. Funding agencies also have expressed as a priority the inclusion of research subjects from minority populations to add to the information available about the incidence and prevalence of disorders across the range of our potential patients. In a society in which cultural differences are not just defined by race or ethnicity, but by gender, sexual orientation, age, geographic region, and religion, belief systems about disease, disability, and treatment are dynamic entities for health professionals to take into consideration. It is a challenge that speech-language pathologists and pediatricians must meet if they are to provide the best and most appropriate services for their patients.

  14. Point-of-care testing in the overcrowded emergency department--can it make a difference?

    PubMed

    Rooney, Kevin D; Schilling, Ulf Martin

    2014-01-01

    Emergency departments (EDs) face several challenges in maintaining consistent quality care in the face of steadily increasing public demand. Improvements in the survival rate of critically ill patients in the ED are directly related to the advancement of early recognition and treatment. Frequent episodes of overcrowding and prolonged waiting times force EDs to operate beyond their capacity and threaten to impact upon patient care. The objectives of this review are as follows: (a) to establish overcrowding as a threat to patient outcomes, person-centered care, and public safety in the ED; (b) to describe scenarios in which point-of-care testing (POCT) has been found to ameliorate factors thought to contribute to overcrowding; and (c) to discuss how POCT can be used directly, and indirectly, to expedite patient care and improve outcomes. Various studies have shown that overcrowding in the ED has profound effects on operational efficiency and patient care. Several reports have quantified overcrowding in the ED and have described a relationship between heightened periods of overcrowding and delays in treatment, increased incidence of adverse events, and an even greater probability of mortality. In certain scenarios, POCT has been found to increase the number of patients discharged in a timely manner, expedite triage of urgent but non-emergency patients, and decrease delays to treatment initiation. This review concludes that POCT, when used effectively, may alleviate the negative impacts of overcrowding on the safety, effectiveness, and person-centeredness of care in the ED. PMID:25672600

  15. The dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) moderates cultural difference in independent versus interdependent social orientation.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Shinobu; King, Anthony; Yoon, Carolyn; Tompson, Steve; Huff, Sarah; Liberzon, Israel

    2014-06-01

    Prior research suggests that cultural groups vary on an overarching dimension of independent versus interdependent social orientation, with European Americans being more independent, or less interdependent, than Asians. Drawing on recent evidence suggesting that the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) plays a role in modulating cultural learning, we predicted that carriers of DRD4 polymorphisms linked to increased dopamine signaling (7- or 2-repeat alleles) would show higher levels of culturally dominant social orientations, compared with noncarriers. European Americans and Asian-born Asians (total N = 398) reported their social orientation on multiple scales. They were also genotyped for DRD4. As in earlier work, European Americans were more independent, and Asian-born Asians more interdependent. This cultural difference was significantly more pronounced for carriers of the 7- or 2-repeat alleles than for noncarriers. Indeed, no cultural difference was apparent among the noncarriers. Implications for potential coevolution of genes and culture are discussed.

  16. Qualitative Feedback From a Text Messaging Intervention for Depression: Benefits, Drawbacks, and Cultural Differences

    PubMed Central

    Berridge, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Background Mobile health interventions are often standardized and assumed to work the same for all users; however, we may be missing cultural differences in the experiences of interventions that may impact how and if an intervention is effective. Objective The objective of the study was to assess qualitative feedback from participants to determine if there were differences between Spanish speakers and English speakers. Daily text messages were sent to patients as an adjunct to group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for depression. Methods Messages inquired about mood and about specific themes (thoughts, activities, social interactions) of a manualized group CBT intervention. There were thirty-nine patients who participated in the text messaging pilot study. The average age of the participants was 53 years (SD 10.4; range of 23-72). Results Qualitative feedback from Spanish speakers highlighted feelings of social support, whereas English speakers noted increased introspection and self-awareness of their mood state. Conclusions These cultural differences should be explored further, as they may impact the effect of supportive mobile health interventions. Trial Registration Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01083628; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT01083628 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6StpbdHuq). PMID:25373390

  17. Cross-cultural differences in color preferences: implication for international film distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyung Jae

    2002-06-01

    This paper proposes the necessity of manipulating colors of movie contents to fit diverse audiences around the world. Since films are highly color-dependent messages, it is critical to understand how people in different cultures respond differently to color. In recent years, the international market for filmed entertainment has grown more than the U.S. market. However, a lack of research on audience preferences shows no constant guide for the motion picture industry. The film production stage is often disregarded to deliver the appropriate visual color contents for local audience when U.S. films are distributed to foreign markets. Therefore, it is assumed that it would cause distractions for local audiences and it could result in poor ticket sales. When the U.S. produced films are distributed in Asia, colors of original films are always shown without manipulation. It is common that when a U.S. manufactured car is imported to Japan, a driver seat is installed on the right side and also other parts are modified for local customers. Film development is also significantly dependent on audience behavior, so film content also needs to be localized for the different culture. This paper will only address a hypothesis of the implementation of color marketing methodology present in motion pictures.

  18. The role of cultural interaction in Tianeptine Abuse and Different Tianeptine Application Methods.

    PubMed

    Şen, Ahmet; İlhan, Gökhan; Tomak, Yakup; Erdivanlı, Başar; Ersöz, Tahir; Ergene, Murat Şaban

    2013-12-01

    Tianeptine is a selective serotonin reuptake enhancer, possessing strong antidepressant and anxiolytic properties. Its relative lack of sedative, anticholinergic and cardiovascular side effects makes it a highly tolerable substance of abuse. However, physical dependence quickly develops and withdrawal symptoms are common. Abusers in Georgia and Armenia use tianeptine by intravenous injection. Drug abusing behaviour usually starts during puberty, since it stems from psychological, social and cultural circumstances. Sociodemographic studies show that drug abusing behaviour in Turkey varies according to region and substance. This paper investigates differences between Georgian foreigners and the local population in the eastern Black Sea region in terms of tianeptine abuse and discusses complications resulting from intravenous injection of tiapentine.

  19. Comparison of mixed-acid fermentations inoculated with six different mixed cultures.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Andrea K; Hollister, Emily B; Gentry, Terry J; Wilkinson, Heather H; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2012-08-01

    The MixAlco™ process biologically converts biomass to carboxylate salts that may be converted to a variety of chemicals and fuels. This study examines the fermentation performance of six different mixed cultures, and how the performance was affected by the bacterial composition of each community. All six countercurrent fermentations had very similar performance, but were dissimilar in microbial community composition. The acid concentrations varied by only 12% between fermentation trains and the conversions varied only by 6%. The microbial communities were profiled using 16S rRNA tag-pyrosequencing, which revealed the presence of dynamic communities that were dominated by bacteria resembling Clostridia, but they shared few taxa in common. Yue-Clayton similarity calculations of the communities revealed that they were extremely different. The presence of different but functionally similar microbial communities in this study suggests that it is the operating parameters that determine the fermentation end-products. PMID:22705541

  20. Cross-cultural differences in children’s beliefs about the objectivity of social categories

    PubMed Central

    Diesendruck, Gil; Goldfein, Rebecca; Rhodes, Marjorie; Gelman, Susan; Neumark, Noam

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared 5- and 10-year-old North American and Israeli children's beliefs about the objectivity of different categories. Children saw picture-triads composed of two exemplars of the same category (e.g., two women), and an exemplar of a contrasting category (e.g., a man). Children were asked whether it would be acceptable or wrong for people in a different country to consider contrasting exemplars to be the same kind. We found that children from both countries viewed gender as objectively correct and occupation as flexible. The findings regarding race and ethnicity differed in the two countries, revealing how an essentialist bias interacts with cultural input in directing children's conceptualization of social groups. PMID:23581723