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Sample records for emerging parasitic diseases

  1. Emerging parasitic diseases of sheep.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M A

    2012-09-30

    There have been changes in the emergence and inability to control of a number of sheep parasitic infections over the last decade. This review focuses on the more globally important sheep parasites, whose reported changes in epidemiology, occurrence or failure to control are becoming increasingly evident. One of the main perceived driving forces is climate change, which can have profound effects on parasite epidemiology, especially for those parasitic diseases where weather has a direct effect on the development of free-living stages. The emergence of anthelmintic-resistant strains of parasitic nematodes and the increasing reliance placed on anthelmintics for their control, can exert profound changes on the epidemiology of those nematodes causing parasitic gastroenteritis. As a consequence, the effectiveness of existing control strategies presents a major threat to sheep production in many areas around the world. The incidence of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is inextricably linked to high rainfall and is particularly prevalent in high rainfall years. Over the last few decades, there have also been increasing reports of other fluke associated diseases, such as dicroceliosis and paramphistomosis, in a number of western European countries, possibly introduced through animal movements, and able to establish with changing climates. External parasite infections, such as myiasis, can cause significant economic loss and presents as a major welfare problem. The range of elevated temperatures predicted by current climate change scenarios, result in an elongated blowfly season with earlier spring emergence and a higher cumulative incidence of fly strike. Additionally, legislative decisions leading to enforced changes in pesticide usage and choices have resulted in increased reports and spread of ectoparasitic infections, particularly mite, lice and tick infestations in sheep. Factors, such as dip disposal and associated environmental concerns, and, perhaps more

  2. Parasites, emerging disease and wildlife conservation.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R C A; Lymbery, A J; Smith, A

    2010-08-15

    In this review some emerging issues of parasite infections in wildlife, particularly in Australia, are considered. We discuss the importance of understanding parasite biodiversity in wildlife in terms of conservation, the role of wildlife as reservoirs of parasite infection, and the role of parasites within the broader context of the ecosystem. Using a number of parasite species, the value of undertaking longitudinal surveillance in natural systems using non-invasive sampling and molecular tools to characterise infectious agents is illustrated in terms of wildlife health, parasite biodiversity and ecology.

  3. [Design and implementation of command system for emergency events of parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Li, Shi-zhu; Fu, Qing; Shi, Wei-jie; Song, Wei; Ji, Lin; Peng, Zhi-xiong; Lin, Qing-shuai; Hu, Jiang-long; Zhang, Li; Qian, Ying-jun; Ruan, Yao; Lu, Yan-xin; Xiao, Ning; Xu, Xue-nian; Zhou, Xiao-nong

    2014-10-01

    Based on the requirement analysis and functional design of the command system for parasitic disease outbreaks, the system was constructed by workflow technique, function modules and technical architecture. The command system was a multi-platform system, could achieve multiple functions, such as monitoring and early warning of parasitic diseases, emergency video communication, emergency dispatcher, and emergency management. The system can meet the needs in emergency events of parasitic diseases, and increase preparedness level.

  4. Nuclear receptors: emerging drug targets for parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhu; Schaffer, Nathaniel E; Kliewer, Steven A; Mangelsdorf, David J

    2017-02-06

    Parasitic worms infect billions of people worldwide. Current treatments rely on a small group of drugs that have been used for decades. A shortcoming of these drugs is their inability to target the intractable infectious stage of the parasite. As well-known therapeutic targets in mammals, nuclear receptors have begun to be studied in parasitic worms, where they are widely distributed and play key roles in governing metabolic and developmental transcriptional networks. One such nuclear receptor is DAF-12, which is required for normal nematode development, including the all-important infectious stage. Here we review the emerging literature that implicates DAF-12 and potentially other nuclear receptors as novel anthelmintic targets.

  5. The Impact of Cultural Behaviours, Local Beliefs, and Practices on Emerging Parasitic Diseases in Tropical Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuliri, Celestine O. E.; Anosike, Jude C.; Oguoma, Chibuzor; Onwuliri, Viola A.; Nwoke, Betram E. B.; Dozie, Ikechukwu, N. S.; Iwuala, Moses O. E.

    2005-01-01

    The scourge of emerging parasitic diseases (e.g., urinary schistosomiasis, ascariasis, malaria, chagas disease, leishmaniasis, trachoma, trichiuriasis, taeniasis, dracunculiasis, sleeping sickness, filariasis) causes tremendous pain, suffering, and eventually death in tropical African communities. Patterns of transmission of these emerging…

  6. The butterfly effect: parasite diversity, environment, and emerging disease in aquatic wildlife.

    PubMed

    Adlard, Robert D; Miller, Terrence L; Smit, Nico J

    2015-04-01

    Aquatic wildlife is increasingly subjected to emerging diseases often due to perturbations of the existing dynamic balance between hosts and their parasites. Accelerating changes in environmental factors, together with anthropogenic translocation of hosts and parasites, act synergistically to produce hard-to-predict disease outcomes in freshwater and marine systems. These outcomes are further complicated by the intimate links between diseases in wildlife and diseases in humans and domestic animals. Here, we explore the interactions of parasites in aquatic wildlife in terms of their biodiversity, their response to environmental change, their emerging diseases, and the contribution of humans and domestic animals to parasitic disease outcomes. This work highlights the clear need for interdisciplinary approaches to ameliorate disease impacts in aquatic wildlife systems.

  7. Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... You can get them from contaminated food or water, a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites range in size from tiny, ... Contaminated water supplies can lead to Giardia infections. Cats can ...

  8. Navigating parasite webs and parasite flow: emerging and re-emerging parasitic zoonoses of wildlife origin.

    PubMed

    Polley, Lydden

    2005-10-01

    Wildlife are now recognised as an important source of emerging human pathogens, including parasites. This paper discusses the linkages between wildlife, people, zoonotic parasites and the ecosystems in which they co-exist, revisits definitions for 'emerging' and 're-emerging', and lists zoonotic parasites that can be acquired from wildlife including, for some, estimates of the associated global human health burdens. The paper also introduces the concepts of 'parasite webs' and 'parasite flow', provides a context for parasites, relative to other infectious agents, as causes of emerging human disease, and discusses drivers of disease emergence and re-emergence, especially changes in biodiversity and climate. Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the Caribbean and the southern United States, Baylisascaris procyonis in California and Georgia, Plasmodium knowlesi in Sarawak, Malaysia, Human African Trypanosomiasis, Sarcoptes scabiei in carnivores, and Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Toxoplasma in marine ecosystems are presented as examples of wildlife-derived zoonotic parasites of particular recent interest. An ecological approach to disease is promoted, as is a need for an increased profile for this approach in undergraduate and graduate education in the health sciences. Synergy among scientists and disciplines is identified as critical for the study of parasites and parasitic disease in wildlife populations. Recent advances in techniques for the investigation of parasite fauna of wildlife are presented and monitoring and surveillance systems for wildlife disease are discussed. Some of the limitations inherent in predictions for the emergence and re-emergence of infection and disease associated with zoonotic parasites of wildlife are identified. The importance of public awareness and public education in the prevention and control of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic infection and disease are emphasised. Finally, some thoughts for the future are presented.

  9. Emerging Animal Parasitic Diseases: A Global Overview and Appropriate Strategies for their Monitoring and Surveillance in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Atehmengo, Ngongeh L; Nnagbo, Chiejina S

    2014-01-01

    Emerging animal parasitic diseases are reviewed and appropriate strategies for efficient monitoring and surveillance in Nigeria are outlined. Animal and human parasitic infections are distinguished. Emerging diseases have been described as those diseases that are being recognised for the first time or diseases that are already recorded but their frequency and/or geographic range is being increased tremendously. Emergence of new diseases may be due to a number of factors such as the spread of a new infectious agent, recognition of an infection that has been in existence but undiagnosed, or when it is realised that an established disease has an infectious origin. The terms could also be used to describe the resurgence of a known infection after its incidence had been known to have declined. Emerging infections are compounding the control of infectious diseases and huge resources are being channeled to alleviate the rising challenge. The diseases are numerous and include helminth, protozoal / rickettsial and entomological. A list of parasitic emerging diseases in Nigeria is included. Globally occurring emerging parasitic diseases are also outlined. Emerging and re-emerging infections can be brought about by many factors including climate change and global warming, changes in biodiversity, population mobility, movement of animals, globalisation of commerce/trade and food supply, social and cultural factors such as food eating habits, religious beliefs, farming practices, trade of infected healthy animals, reduction in the available land for animals, immune-suppressed host and host density and misuse or over use of some drugs leading to drug resistance.

  10. Acceptance of the 2016 Eminent Parasitologist Award: Chemotherapy in the Context of Emerging Parasitic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Campbell, William C

    2016-12-01

    It seems inevitable that chemotherapy will continue, at least in the near-term, to be a significant factor in the control of infectious diseases. The effectiveness of new drugs has invariably been reduced by the emergence of drug resistance. Efforts to thwart resistance should continue, but there are also other areas that might profitably be re-examined. They include (1) methods of new-drug discovery; (2) selection of parasite life-cycle targets; (3) epidemiological determinants of effectiveness in large-scale control programs; and (4) the economic, managerial, psychological, and political ramifications of drug discovery and drug utilization.

  11. Emerging Animal Parasitic Diseases: A Global Overview and Appropriate Strategies for their Monitoring and Surveillance in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Atehmengo, Ngongeh L; Nnagbo, Chiejina S

    2014-01-01

    Emerging animal parasitic diseases are reviewed and appropriate strategies for efficient monitoring and surveillance in Nigeria are outlined. Animal and human parasitic infections are distinguished. Emerging diseases have been described as those diseases that are being recognised for the first time or diseases that are already recorded but their frequency and/or geographic range is being increased tremendously. Emergence of new diseases may be due to a number of factors such as the spread of a new infectious agent, recognition of an infection that has been in existence but undiagnosed, or when it is realised that an established disease has an infectious origin. The terms could also be used to describe the resurgence of a known infection after its incidence had been known to have declined. Emerging infections are compounding the control of infectious diseases and huge resources are being channeled to alleviate the rising challenge. The diseases are numerous and include helminth, protozoal / rickettsial and entomological. A list of parasitic emerging diseases in Nigeria is included. Globally occurring emerging parasitic diseases are also outlined. Emerging and re-emerging infections can be brought about by many factors including climate change and global warming, changes in biodiversity, population mobility, movement of animals, globalisation of commerce/trade and food supply, social and cultural factors such as food eating habits, religious beliefs, farming practices, trade of infected healthy animals, reduction in the available land for animals, immune-suppressed host and host density and misuse or over use of some drugs leading to drug resistance. PMID:25328553

  12. Centrality in primate–parasite networks reveals the potential for the transmission of emerging infectious diseases to humans

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, José María; Nunn, Charles L.; Verdú, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in humans have arisen from animals. Identifying high-risk hosts is therefore vital for the control and surveillance of these diseases. Viewing hosts as connected through the parasites they share, we use network tools to investigate predictors of parasitism and sources of future EIDs. We generated host–parasite networks that link hosts when they share a parasite, using nonhuman primates as a model system because—owing to their phylogenetic proximity and ecological overlap with humans—they are an important source of EIDs to humans. We then tested whether centrality in the network of host species—a measurement of the importance of a given node (i.e., host species) in the network—is associated with that host serving as a potential EID source. We found that centrality covaries with key predictors of parasitism, such as population density and geographic range size. Importantly, we also found that primate species having higher values of centrality in the primate–parasite network harbored more parasites identified as EIDs in humans and had parasite communities more similar to those found in humans. These relationships were robust to the use of different centrality metrics and to multiple ways of controlling for variation in how well each species has been studied (i.e., sampling effort). Centrality may therefore estimate the role of a host as a source of EIDs to humans in other multispecific host–parasite networks. PMID:23610389

  13. Evidence for emerging parasites and pathogens influencing outbreaks of stress-related diseases like chalkbrood.

    PubMed

    Hedtke, Kati; Jensen, Per Moestrup; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Genersch, Elke

    2011-11-01

    In agriculture, honey bees play a critical role as commercial pollinators of crop monocultures which depend on insect pollination. Hence, the demise of honey bee colonies in Europe, USA, and Asia caused much concern and initiated many studies and research programmes aiming at elucidating the factors negatively affecting honey bee health and survival. Most of these studies look at individual factors related to colony losses. In contrast, we here present our data on the interaction of pathogens and parasites in honey bee colonies. We performed a longitudinal cohort study over 6 years by closely monitoring 220 honey bee colonies kept in 22 apiaries (ten randomly selected colonies per apiary). Observed winter colony losses varied between 4.8% and 22.4%; lost colonies were replaced to ensure a constant number of monitored colonies over the study period. Data on mite infestation levels, infection with viruses, Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, and recorded outbreaks of chalkbrood were continuously collected. We now provide statistical evidence (i) that Varroa destructor infestation in summer is related to DWV infections in autumn, (ii) that V. destructor infestation in autumn is related to N. apis infection in the following spring, and most importantly (iii) that chalkbrood outbreaks in summer are related to N. ceranae infection in the preceding spring and to V. destructor infestation in the same season. These highly significant links between emerging parasites/pathogens and established pathogens need further experimental proof but they already illustrate the complexity of the host-pathogen-interactions in honey bee colonies.

  14. Molecular diagnostics and parasitic disease.

    PubMed

    Vasoo, Shawn; Pritt, Bobbi S

    2013-09-01

    Molecular parasitology represents an emerging field in microbiology diagnostics. Although most assays use nonstandardized, laboratory-developed methods, a few commercial systems have recently become available and are slowly being introduced into larger laboratories. In addition, a few methodologies show promise for use in field settings in which parasitic infections are endemic. This article reviews the available techniques and their applications to major parasitic diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis, and trichomoniasis.

  15. Case report: Cutaneous amebiasis: the importance of molecular diagnosis of an emerging parasitic disease.

    PubMed

    Morán, Patricia; Rojas, Liliana; Cerritos, René; Zermeño, Valeria; Valadez, Alicia; de Oca, Griselda Montes; Reyes, Miguel Ángel; González, Enrique; Partida, Oswaldo; Hernández, Eric; Nieves, Miriam; Portillo, Tobías; Gudiño, Marco; Ramiro, Manuel; Ximénez, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous amebiasis is the least common clinical form of human amebiasis in Mexico, sexual amebiasis was only occasionally observed before the late 1980s. However, in the last few decades, most of the documented cases of cutaneous amebiasis from around the world are sexually transmitted. We present two cases of sexually transmitted genital amebiasis. The molecular characterization of the Entamoeba species in the affected tissues underlines the importance of an etiological diagnosis using specific and sensitive techniques that avoid the rapid destruction of tissues and the irreversible sequelae to the anatomy and function of the affected organs. In addition, for those interested in the study of the human-amoebic disease relationship and its epidemiology, the detection of a new, mixed infection in an invasive case of amebiasis reveals new perspectives in the study of the extraordinarily complex host-parasite relationship in amebiasis.

  16. Parasitic Diseases: Glossary

    MedlinePlus

    ... make it easier to diagnose certain infections/diseases. Protozoa: Single-celled, microscopic organisms that can perform all necessary functions of metabolism and reproduction. Some protozoa are free-living, while others parasitize other organisms ...

  17. Parasitic Diseases With Cutaneous Manifestations.

    PubMed

    Ash, Mark M; Phillips, Charles M

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic diseases result in a significant global health burden. While often thought to be isolated to returning travelers, parasitic diseases can also be acquired locally in the United States. Therefore, clinicians must be aware of the cutaneous manifestations of parasitic diseases to allow for prompt recognition, effective management, and subsequent mitigation of complications. This commentary also reviews pharmacologic treatment options for several common diseases.

  18. Update on pathology of ocular parasitic disease

    PubMed Central

    Das, Dipankar; Ramachandra, Varsha; Islam, Saidul; Bhattacharjee, Harsha; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Koul, Akanksha; Deka, Panna; Deka, Apurba

    2016-01-01

    Parasites are a group of eukaryotic organisms that may be free-living or form a symbiotic or parasitic relationship with the hosts. Consisting of over 800,000 recognized species, parasites may be unicellular (Protozoa) or multicellular (helminths and arthropods). The association of parasites with human population started long before the emergence of civilization. Parasitic zoonotic diseases are prevalent worldwide including India. Appropriate epidemiological data are lacking on existing zoonotic parasitic diseases, and newer diseases are emerging in our scenario. Systemic diseases such as cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, hydatidosis, and toxoplasmosis are fairly common. Acquired Toxoplasma infections are rising in immune-deficient individuals. Amongst the ocular parasitic diseases, various protozoas such as Cystoidea, trematodes, tissue flagellates, sporozoas etc. affect humans in general and eyes in particular, in different parts of the world. These zoonoses seem to be a real health related problem globally. Recent intensification of research throughout the world has led to specialization in biological fields, creating a conducive situation for researchers interested in this subject. The basics of parasitology lie in morphology, pathology, and with recent updates in molecular parasitology, the scope has extended further. The current review is to address the recent update in ophthalmic parasites with special reference to pathology and give a glimpse of further research in this field. PMID:27958200

  19. Major trends in human parasitic diseases in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; He, Shenyi; Zhao, Hong; Zhao, Guanghui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2010-05-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in the control and prevention of human parasitic diseases in mainland China in the past 30 years because of China's Reform and Opening to the Outside Policies initiated in 1978. However, parasitic diseases remain a major human health problem, with significant morbidity and mortality as well as adverse socioeconomic consequences. Although soil-transmitted parasitic diseases are in the process of being gradually controlled, food-borne parasitic diseases and emerging parasitic diseases are becoming the focus of new campaigns for control and prevention. This article reviews major trends in human parasitic diseases in mainland China, with perspectives for control.

  20. Parasitism and calfhood diseases.

    PubMed

    Herlich, H; Douvres, F W

    1977-02-01

    That animals can and do acquire an effective immunity against helminth parasites has been demonstrated extensively experimentally, and the fact that domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, and horses become adults while maintaining good health in spite of constant exposure to reinfection long has suggested that immunity must be important to such survival. Although our attempts to date to vaccinate calves against helminth parasites have either failed or been unsatisfactory because of the pathosis induced by the experimental vaccines, the results are not surprising or discouraging. In contrast to the long history of immunization research on bacterial and viral diseases, only within a relatively short time have serious efforts been directed at exploiting hostal immunity for prevention and control of helminthic diseases. Unlike the comparatively simple structures of viruses and bacteria, helminths are complex multicellular animals with vast arrays of antigens and complicated physiological and immunological interactions with their hosts. Much more fundamental information on helminth-bovine interactions, on helminth antigens, and on cattle antibody systems must be developed before progress on control of cattle helminths by vaccination can be meaningful.

  1. Unexpected hosts: imaging parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Carnero, Pablo; Hernández Mateo, Paula; Martín-Garre, Susana; García Pérez, Ángela; Del Campo, Lourdes

    2017-02-01

    Radiologists seldom encounter parasitic diseases in their daily practice in most of Europe, although the incidence of these diseases is increasing due to migration and tourism from/to endemic areas. Moreover, some parasitic diseases are still endemic in certain European regions, and immunocompromised individuals also pose a higher risk of developing these conditions. This article reviews and summarises the imaging findings of some of the most important and frequent human parasitic diseases, including information about the parasite's life cycle, pathophysiology, clinical findings, diagnosis, and treatment. We include malaria, amoebiasis, toxoplasmosis, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, echinococcosis, cysticercosis, clonorchiasis, schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, ascariasis, anisakiasis, dracunculiasis, and strongyloidiasis. The aim of this review is to help radiologists when dealing with these diseases or in cases where they are suspected. Teaching Points • Incidence of parasitic diseases is increasing due to migratory movements and travelling. • Some parasitic diseases are still endemic in certain regions in Europe. • Parasitic diseases can have complex life cycles often involving different hosts. • Prompt diagnosis and treatment is essential for patient management in parasitic diseases. • Radiologists should be able to recognise and suspect the most relevant parasitic diseases.

  2. Immune Responses in Parasitic Diseases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    RESPONSES IN PARASITIC DISEASES Final Scientific Report Daniel J. Stechschulte, M.D. Herbert B. Lindsley, M.D. September 1982 (July 1974 - December 1979...REPORT & PERIOD COVERED IMMUNE RESPONSES IN PARASITIC DISEASES Final Report July 1977 - Dec. 1979 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER S 4 7. AUTNIOR(a) 6...DAMD 17-74-C-4136 AD_______________ IMMUNE RESPONSES IN PARASITIC DISEASES Final Scientific Report Daniel J. Stechschulte, M.D. Herbert B. Lindsley

  3. A Modelling Framework for Assessing the Risk of Emerging Diseases Associated with the Use of Cleaner Fish to Control Parasitic Sea Lice on Salmon Farms.

    PubMed

    Murray, A G

    2016-04-01

    Sea lice are the most damaging parasite of marine salmonids, both economically and in terms of potential impacts on wild fish. An increasingly widely applied control is the use of cleaner fish (CF) such as wrasse that eat lice. However, such CF can carry pathogens that may cause disease in salmon, including the potential emergence of new diseases. This is not just a theoretical risk, as demonstrated by a recent outbreak of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in wrasse held on salmon farms in Shetland. A modelling framework is developed to identify conditions in which emergence might occur, and, from this, means of reducing risk. Diseases that might emerge easily in farmed salmon would be likely to have already done so by other routes of exposure, and if risks are very low, they would need to be greatly enhanced to become significant relative to costs of lice control. CF may most enhance risks from disease with moderate probability of emerging. Risks of emergence can be reduced by replacing wild-caught with hatchery-reared CF, minimizing mixing of CF from different sources, surveillance for clinical disease in the CF and ensuring strategic biosecurity (area management with synchronized fallowing). Reuse of CF for a second salmon production cycle may reduce costs and even probability of infection (especially from wild-caught CF), but should only be considered as part of a rigorous area management programme because the practice presents opportunities for pathogens to adapt to salmon by weakening fallowing.

  4. Together in the fight against neglected public health problems: worldwide network cooperation on waterborne diseases and emerging parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoying; Song, Langui; Liang, Jinyi; Luo, Shiqi; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Wu, Zhongdao

    2015-05-01

    A symposium held in Guangzhou, China, aimed to become starting point of an international cooperation in the fight against waterborne diseases, which obtain more and more importance in times of global warming and globalization.

  5. The study of parasite sharing for surveillance of zoonotic diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Maxwell J.; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Davies, T. Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    Determining the factors that influence the transmission of parasites among hosts is important for directing surveillance of animal parasites before they successfully emerge in humans, and increasing the efficacy of programs for the control and management of zoonotic diseases. Here we present a review of recent advances in the study of parasite sharing, wildlife ecology, and epidemiology that could be extended and incorporated into proactive surveillance frameworks for multi-host infectious diseases. These methods reflect emerging interdisciplinary techniques with significant promise for the identification of future zoonotic parasites and unknown reservoirs of current zoonoses, strategies for the reduction of parasite prevalence and transmission among hosts, and decreasing the burden of infectious diseases.

  6. Women and Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Travelers Women Health Professionals Public Health Departments Laboratory Science ... Infection with Toxoplasma gondii , a parasite found in undercooked meat, cat feces, soil, and untreated water can lead to severe brain ...

  7. Tropical parasitic diseases and women.

    PubMed

    Okwa, O O

    2007-12-01

    Tropical parasitic diseases constitute the greatest threat to the health and socio-economic status of women as a gender and social group. There are some gender specific ways in which parasitic diseases affect women in contrast to men due to differences in exposure, occupational risk, sociocultural behavior, gender roles and practices. These parasitic diseases confer some social stigma, which affects the health seeking behavior of women. Women are therefore important in the control of these parasitic diseases and they are key agents of change, if they are included in community control programs. Women need more attention in endemic areas as a group that had been neglected. This deprived and excluded group have got vital role to play, as discussed in this review.

  8. [Water and intestinal parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Romanenko, N A; Belova, E G; Baburina, L V; Novosil'tsev, G I; Chernyshenko, A I

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents data on the rates of Lamblia cyst dissemination of surface water sources in foreign countries, the Russian Federation, Moscow, and the Moscow Region. It shows a role of drinking water in the spread of intestinal parasitic diseases. In accordance with parasitological parameters, specific data on improvement of methodological control of water quality are presented. The dosages of ultraviolet radiation are given in relation to water decontamination of parasitic disease germs.

  9. Extracellular vesicles in parasitic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Marcilla, Antonio; Martin-Jaular, Lorena; Trelis, Maria; de Menezes-Neto, Armando; Osuna, Antonio; Bernal, Dolores; Fernandez-Becerra, Carmen; Almeida, Igor C.; del Portillo, Hernando A.

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic diseases affect billions of people and are considered a major public health issue. Close to 400 species are estimated to parasitize humans, of which around 90 are responsible for great clinical burden and mortality rates. Unfortunately, they are largely neglected as they are mainly endemic to poor regions. Of relevance to this review, there is accumulating evidence of the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in parasitic diseases, acting both in parasite–parasite inter-communication as well as in parasite–host interactions. EVs participate in the dissemination of the pathogen and play a role in the regulation of the host immune systems. Production of EVs from parasites or parasitized cells has been described for a number of parasitic infections. In this review, we provide the most relevant findings of the involvement of EVs in intercellular communication, modulation of immune responses, involvement in pathology, and their potential as new diagnostic tools and therapeutic agents in some of the major human parasitic pathogens. PMID:25536932

  10. Parasites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Where to Find Further Information on Parasitic Diseases Public Health Image Library Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Explore Parasites A-Z Index Parasites Glossary Education and Training Healthy Water Travelers Health Laboratory ... Science Parasites About Parasites Animals ...

  11. [Views for research development of control of parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qin-Ping; Dong, Hui-Fen; Jiang, Ming-Sen

    2013-12-01

    With the social and technological development, new understandings have been emerged for the research development of the control of parasitic diseases. The present review argues that: the traditional point of view for the control of parasitic diseases, eliminating parasites/media, should be updated. For the long-term interests of science and human perspective, biological diversity, including the parasite biodiversity, and ecological environment should be paid much more attention during the control of parasitic diseases. The leading role of society, economy and culture should be fully developed in the control of parasitic diseases with the progress of scientific and technology, to find a final way of sustainable development in the control of parasitic diseases.

  12. Pregnancy, nutrition and parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Steketee, Richard W

    2003-05-01

    In the developing world, young women, pregnant women, and their infants and children frequently experience a cycle where undernutrition (macronutrient and micronutrient) and repeated infection, including parasitic infections, lead to adverse consequences that can continue from one generation to the next. Among parasitic infections, malaria and intestinal helminths coexist widely with micronutrient deficiencies and contribute importantly to anemia and this cycle of retarded growth and development. In somewhat more limited or focal geographic settings, other parasitic diseases (e.g., schistosomiasis, filariasis) contribute similarly to this cycle. It is undoubtedly much better to enter a pregnancy free of infection and nutritionally replete than the various alternatives. Existing intervention strategies for micronutrient support and for the control of common parasitic infections before or during pregnancy, particularly malaria and intestinal helminths, should be followed. However, further research to identify barriers and priority approaches to achieving this goal remain very important in resource-poor settings where targeted public health efforts are required.

  13. Parasitic diseases of the pleura.

    PubMed

    Lal, Chitra; Huggins, John Terrill; Sahn, Steven A

    2013-05-01

    Parasitic infections are prevalent in certain parts of the world and may cause pleural involvement, which often goes unrecognized. Common parasites involving the pleura include Entamoeba histolytica, Echinococcus granulosus and Paragonimus westermani. Amebiasis can cause empyema with "anchovy sauce" pus, reactive pleural effusions and bronchopleural fistula with hydropneumothorax. Echinococcosis may result in pleural thickening, pneumothorax, secondary pleural hydatidosis and pleural effusions. Paragonimiasis may cause chylous and cholesterol pleural effusions, pleural thickening and pneumothorax. Less commonly, pulmonary eosinophilia, or Loeffler's syndrome, caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus and tropical pulmonary eosinophilia caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi may involve the pleura. This article provides a comprehensive review of parasitic infections involving the pleura. A high index of suspicion in the appropriate clinical setting is required to facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment of these diseases.

  14. Parasitic Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Parasitic Diseases URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Parasitic Diseases - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  15. Cardiac manifestations of parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Maria Carmo P; Guimarães Júnior, Milton Henriques; Diamantino, Adriana Costa; Gelape, Claudio Leo; Ferrari, Teresa Cristina Abreu

    2017-03-11

    The heart may be affected directly or indirectly by a variety of protozoa and helminths. This involvement may manifest in different ways, but the syndromes resulting from impairment of the myocardium and pericardium are the most frequent. The myocardium may be invaded by parasites that trigger local inflammatory response with subsequent myocarditis or cardiomyopathy, as occurs in Chagas disease, African trypanosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis and infection with free-living amoebae. In amoebiasis and echinococcosis, the pericardium is the structure most frequently involved with consequent pericardial effusion, acute pericarditis, cardiac tamponade or constrictive pericarditis. Chronic hypereosinophilia due to helminth infections, especially filarial infections, has been associated with the development of tropical endomyocardial fibrosis, a severe form of restrictive cardiomyopathy. Schistosomiasis-associated lung vasculature involvement may cause pulmonary hypertension (PH) and cor pulmonale Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, which is characterised by progressive interstitial fibrosis and restrictive lung disease, may lead to PH and its consequences may occur in the course of filarial infections. Intracardiac rupture of an Echinococcus cyst can cause membrane or secondary cysts embolisation to the lungs or organs supplied by the systemic circulation. Although unusual causes of cardiac disease outside the endemic areas, heart involvement by parasites should be considered in the differential diagnosis especially of myocardial and/or pericardial diseases of unknown aetiology in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. In this review, we updated and summarised the current knowledge on the major heart diseases caused by protozoan and metazoan parasites, which either involve the heart directly or otherwise influence the heart adversely.

  16. [Parasitic diseases in the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Nawa, Yukifumi

    2005-11-01

    Along with the drastic decrease of soil-transmitted intestinal helminthiases, parasitic diseases in general are ignored, or considered as the disease of the past, in Japan. However, due to the Japanese food culture of eating raw materials, food-borne parasitic diseases are still present in Japan. The majority of food-borne parasitic diseases are zoonotic, and caused by ectopic migration of parasite larvae. They accidentally migrate into CNS to cause deleterious conditions. Clinicians should always remind about the possibility of parasitic diseases when they make differential diagnosis for CNS diseases.

  17. Trypanosomatid parasites causing neglected diseases.

    PubMed

    Nussbaum, K; Honek, J; Cadmus, C M C v C; Efferth, T

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic diseases such as Kala azar (visceral leishmaniasis), Chagas disease human (American trypanosomiasis) and African sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis) are affecting more than 27 million people worldwide. They are categorized amongst the most important neglected diseases causing approximately 150,000 deaths annually. As no vaccination is available, treatment is solely dependent on chemotherapeutic drugs. This review provides a comprehensive insight into the treatment of Kala azar, Chagas disease and African sleeping sickness. In addition to established drugs, novel small molecule- based therapeutic approaches are discussed. Drugs currently used for the treatment of Kala azar include pentavalent antimonials, Amphotericin B, Miltefosine, and Paromomycin. Liposomal formulations such as AmBisome provide promising alternatives. Furthermore, antiproliferative compounds might open new avenues in Kala azar treatment. Regarding Chagas disease, chemotherapy is based on two drugs, Nifurtimox and Benznidazole. However, sequencing of T. cruzi genome in the year 2005 raises a hope for new drug targets. Proteases, sterols and sialic acids are potential promising drug targets. Suramin, Pentamidine, Melarsporol and Eflornithine are well-established drugs to treat African sleeping sickness. New treatment options include combination therapy of Eflornithine and Nifurtimox, a Chagas disease therapeutic.. However, all approved chemotherapeutic compounds for trypanosomatid diseases suffer from high toxicity. Further, increasing resistance limits their efficacy and compliance.

  18. Infectious diseases and parasites of ratites.

    PubMed

    Shane, S M

    1998-11-01

    This article discusses infectious and parasitic disease conditions in the three ratite species. Diseases and parasitic conditions are reviewed in relation to etiology, transmission, pathology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. To ensure optimum reproduction and growth of birds on large production units, a veterinarian must understand management in relation to biosecurity and disease problems.

  19. Parasitic diseases in the abdomen: imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jae Hoon

    2008-01-01

    Parasitic diseases of the liver and biliary tract include echinococcosis, schistosomiasis, toxocariasis, clonorchiasis, and opisthorchiasis, affecting millions people in some endemic areas. Amebiasis and ascariasis are believed to be the most common bowel lumen indwelling parasitic diseases, affecting billions people worldwide, but sometimes these parasites migrate inadvertently to the liver and biliary tract, resulting in liver abscess or obstructive jaundice. Imaging findings of these parasitic diseases are fairly characteristic and easy to recognize if radiologists are aware of the findings, especially in endemic areas. Because of increased immigration and frequent travelling, some patients with "exotic" parasitic diseases may be encountered in non-endemic areas, and the diagnosis may be delayed or difficult, and it is often made only after operation. This feature section was designed to provide the detailed imaging features of common parasitic diseases affecting the abdominal organs and peritoneal cavity, based on pathology-image correlation.

  20. Emerging infectious diseases and amphibian population declines.

    PubMed Central

    Daszak, P.; Berger, L.; Cunningham, A. A.; Hyatt, A. D.; Green, D. E.; Speare, R.

    1999-01-01

    We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a global threat to wildlife populations. PMID:10603206

  1. [Anisakidosis a marine parasitic zoonosis: unknown or emerging in Peru?].

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Rufino; Del Pilar, María; Altamirano, Trillo

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to show the experimental studies carried out on the biological cycle, culture, pathogenicity of the anisakidae nematode larvae and to disseminate the information regarding current epidemy and the probable emergence of anisakidosis in Peru, and in addition, to propose measures of prevention and control, as well as the perspective and need for investigation. The studies of experimental pathogenicity in cats, dos, and hamsters are incomplete. Eight cases of acute human anisakidosis have been reported (5 confirmed and 3 unconfirmed). It is probable that it emerges during the "El Niño" Weather Phenomenon; however, during normal conditions it is probably due to the increase of raw fish consumption and other factors. In the coast of Peru, five and four fishes of direct human consumption are parasited by the Anisakis simplex and Anisakis physeteris larva, respectively, and two fishes are parasited by the Pseudoterranova decipiens. The main host for the Anisakis simplex is the dolphin (Delphinus delphia), but the Contracaecum osculatum is hosted by the sea lion: Otaria byronia and Arctocephalus australis, P. decipiens parasita a O. byronia. Eviscerating the fish would be most adequate prevention method to lessen the risk of human infection. There is evidence that anisakidosis is an underestimated zoonosis in Peru, and that it is probably and emerging disease. Therefore, its presence is to be suspected in patients with the prototype clinical syndrome.

  2. Water-Related Parasitic Diseases in China

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Shan; Tian, Li-Guang; Liu, Qin; Qian, Men-Bao; Fu, Qing; Steinmann, Peter; Chen, Jia-Xu; Yang, Guo-Jing; Yang, Kun; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2013-01-01

    Water-related parasitic diseases are directly dependent on water bodies for their spread or as a habitat for indispensable intermediate or final hosts. Along with socioeconomic development and improvement of sanitation, overall prevalence is declining in the China. However, the heterogeneity in economic development and the inequity of access to public services result in considerable burden due to parasitic diseases in certain areas and populations across the country. In this review, we demonstrated three aspects of ten major water-related parasitic diseases, i.e., the biology and pathogenicity, epidemiology and recent advances in research in China. General measures for diseases control and special control strategies are summarized. PMID:23685826

  3. Discovering potential sources of emerging pathogens: South America is a reservoir of generalist avian blood parasites.

    PubMed

    Moens, Michaël A J; Pérez-Tris, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Generalist pathogens are capable of infecting a wide range of host species, and may pose serious disease emergence threats if accidentally moved outside their native areas. To date little effort has been devoted to identifying geographic areas that may act as reservoirs of generalist pathogens. According to current theory, where host diversity is high, parasite specialisation in one host species may be penalised by reduced host availability, while generalist parasites may benefit from the exploitation of various host species. Therefore natural selection could favor generalist parasites where host diversity is high. Here we explored if, in a highly diverse bird community in Ecuador, a generalist strategy is promoted among local Haemoproteus and Plasmodium blood-borne parasites compared with similar parasite communities throughout the world. We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships of every parasite lineage in order to understand the evolution of host specificity in this megadiverse area. We found high levels of host generalisation for both parasite genera, and the mean host range of the Haemoproteus community in Ecuador was significantly higher than other parasite communities in other areas outside the Neotropics. Generalist Haemoproteus parasites in this bird community had diverse phylogenetic ancestry, were closely related to specialist parasites and were apparently endemic to the Amazon, showing that different parasites have independently evolved into host generalists in this region. Finally we show that Haemoproteus communities in Ecuador and South America are more generalist than in temperate areas, making this continent a hotspot of generalist Haemoproteus parasites for wild birds.

  4. [Treatment of parasitic liver diseases].

    PubMed

    Lecuna, V

    1989-01-01

    Most of primary and secondary parasitic liver diseases, at present can be property treated with drugs. Venezuelan pharmaceutic market has some peculiarities that have determined the disappearance from the market of many drugs such as emetine, thiabendazole, quinacrine and niclosamide. Diloxanide never appeared. Venezuela has no commercial international treatises that protect international patents in the pharmaceutical area. In addition, government regulation of cost of drugs is very strict. This is particularly true with old drugs (such as emetine or quinacrine) which had such a low price that is non-commercial for the maker of the drug, usually a large transnational, and is withdrawn from the market. Flexibility of prices is quite easy for new antibiotics which are very expensive. Frequently small national companies import the drug from Italy and Japan which sell the drug independently from international treats. Such companies frequently produce the drug for the government social system, but are unreliable and also frequently they withdraw the drug a variable period of time. The government, through the Ministry of Public Health administer free treatment with drugs for malaria, tuberculosis and leprosy. The severe economic crisis of the country has severely impaired the preventive programs and there is an increase of malaria due to gold mining in the south of the country and falciparum chloroquine resistance and an increase of schistosomiasis in a previous free area. Also administration of drugs for malaria has been severely impaired, mainly for economic reasons. The establishment of a National Government Laboratory is an old (as far as 1946) political goal, but has remained in the political intention.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Drug repurposing and human parasitic protozoan diseases

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Katherine T.; Fisher, Gillian; Skinner-Adams, Tina S.

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic diseases have an enormous health, social and economic impact and are a particular problem in tropical regions of the world. Diseases caused by protozoa and helminths, such as malaria and schistosomiasis, are the cause of most parasite related morbidity and mortality, with an estimated 1.1 million combined deaths annually. The global burden of these diseases is exacerbated by the lack of licensed vaccines, making safe and effective drugs vital to their prevention and treatment. Unfortunately, where drugs are available, their usefulness is being increasingly threatened by parasite drug resistance. The need for new drugs drives antiparasitic drug discovery research globally and requires a range of innovative strategies to ensure a sustainable pipeline of lead compounds. In this review we discuss one of these approaches, drug repurposing or repositioning, with a focus on major human parasitic protozoan diseases such as malaria, trypanosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis and leishmaniasis. PMID:25057459

  6. Travel/Travelers and Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can Be Acquired During Travel* Contaminated Food and Water More Common giardiasis cryptosporidiosis cyclosporiasis Less Common amebiasis ... Page last updated: July 28, 2016 Content source: Global Health - Division of Parasitic Diseases Email Recommend Tweet ...

  7. Parasitic diseases in humans transmitted by vectors.

    PubMed

    Cholewiński, Marcin; Derda, Monika; Hadaś, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Despite the considerable progress of medicine, parasitic diseases still pose a great threat to human health and life. Among parasitic diseases, those transmitted by vectors, mainly arthropods, play a particular role. These diseases occur most frequently in the poorest countries and affect a vast part of the human population. They include malaria, babesiosis, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis and filariasis. This study presents those vector-transmitted diseases that are responsible for the greatest incidence and mortality of people on a global scale. Attention is focused primarily on diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, flies, Hemiptera and ticks.

  8. [Laboratory tests for parasitic diseases in Israel].

    PubMed

    Marva, Esther; Grossman, Tamar

    2010-09-01

    Microscopic examination is still considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of parasitic diseases. In many clinical laboratories in hospitals and in health maintenance organizations ("Kupot Holim"), an excellent microscopic identification of parasites is performed. Microscopic examinations using wet mount preparations are performed for the detection of protozoan trophozoites and helmintic ova or larvae. Specific concentration techniques, including flotation and sedimentation procedures are further performed for the diagnosis of parasitic diseases. However, microscopic examinations are time-consuming, non-sensitive and not always reliable. Furthermore, the diagnosis of certain infections is not always possible by searching for the parasites in host tissues or excreta since risky invasive techniques might be necessary to locate the parasites. Detection of antibodies can be very useful as an indication for infection with a specific parasite, especially in individuals with no exposure to the parasite prior to recent travel in a disease-endemic area. In addition to serology, there are other tests of high sensitivity which can be integrated with microscopy, such as antigen detection in stool and blood samples as well as the use of other molecular diagnosis methods. There are two main laboratories in Israel where parasitic diagnosis is available by integration of microscopy, serology, antigen detection and molecular methods: The Reference Laboratory for Parasitology in Jerusalem at the Central Laboratories of the Ministry of Health (MOH) and the Laboratory of Parasitology at Soroka University Medical Center, Beer Sheva (SOR). There are also two special diagnostic units, one responsible for the identification of toxopLasma: Reference Laboratory for Toxoplasmosis, Public Health Laboratory, Ministry of Health, Tel Aviv (Tox), and the other for the identification of Leishmaniasis: Kuvin Center, Faculty of Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Kuv). This article

  9. Emergencies in motoneuron disease.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Stöllberger, Claudia

    2017-03-09

    Genetic and acquired motor-neuron-disorders (MNDs) may undergo acute deterioration resulting in various emergency situations. This literature review aims at summarising and discussing current knowledge about emergencies in MNDs. Emergencies that have been reported in MND patients include: respiratory, bulbar, cardiac, septic, epileptic, psychiatric, pain-related, and traumatic emergencies. Emergencies due to respiratory insufficiency have the strongest impact on morbidity and mortality in MNDs. To optimise the management of emergencies in MNDs, it is recommended to discuss these topics with the patient prior to their occurrence. After informed consent, patients may indicate their decision by signing an advance directive as to how such emergencies should be managed in case they arise. Generally, treatment of emergencies in MNDs is not at variance from treatment of similar emergencies due to other causes, but some peculiarities need to be pointed out. It is concluded that patients with MNDs may experience various emergencies during the disease course. Management of these conditions should be discussed with the patient prior to their appearance. Management of these emergencies follows general guidelines, which widely vary between countries, and depend on the availability of a patient's advance directive.

  10. Alphabetical Index of Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Entamoeba histolytica Infection) American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease) Ancylostomiasis (Hookworm) Angiostrongyliasis ( Angiostrongylus Infection) Anisakiasis ( Anisakis Infection, Pseudoterranova Infection) ...

  11. Control of human parasitic diseases: Context and overview.

    PubMed

    Molyneux, David H

    2006-01-01

    leishmaniases can be solved in the not too distant future. However, it will be difficult to implement and sustain such interventions in fragile health services often in settings where resources are limited but also in unstable, conflict-affected or post-conflict countries. Emphasis is placed on the importance of co-endemicity and polyparasitism and the opportunity to control parasites susceptible to cost-effective and proven chemotherapeutic interventions for a package of diseases which can be implemented at low cost and which would benefit the poorest and most marginalized groups. The ecology of parasitic diseases is discussed in the context of changing ecology, environment, sociopolitical developments and climate change. These drivers of global change will affect the epidemiology of parasites over the coming decades, while in many of the most endemic and impoverished countries parasitic infections will be accorded lower priority as resourced stressed health systems cope with the burden of the higher-profile killing diseases viz., HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria. There is a need for more holistic thinking about the interactions between parasites and other infections. It is clear that as the prevalence and awareness of HIV has increased, there is a growing recognition of a host of complex interactions that determine disease outcome in individual patients. The competition for resources in the health as well as other social sectors will be a continuing challenge; effective parasite control will be dependent on how such resources are accessed and deployed to effectively address well-defined problems some of which are readily amenable to successful interventions with proven methods. In the health sector, the problems of the HIV/AIDS and TB pandemics and the problem of the emerging burden of chronic non-communicable diseases will be significant competitors for these limited resources as parasitic infections aside from malaria tend to be chronic disabling problems of the poorest who have

  12. [Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Schmutzhard, E

    2010-02-01

    Central nervous system infections and infestations by protozoa and helminths constitute a problem of increasing importance throughout all of central European and northern/western countries. This is partially due to the globalisation of our society, tourists and business people being more frequently exposed to parasitic infection/infestation in tropical countries than in moderate climate countries. On top of that, migrants may import chronic infestations and infections with parasitic pathogens, eventually also--sometimes exclusively--involving the nervous system. Knowledge of epidemiology, initial clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures as well as specific chemotherapeutic therapies and adjunctive therapeutic strategies is of utmost important in all of these infections and infestations of the nervous systems, be it by protozoa or helminths. This review lists, mainly in the form of tables, all possible infections and infestations of the nervous systems by protozoa and by helminths. Besides differentiating parasitic diseases of the nervous system seen in migrants, tourists etc., it is very important to have in mind that disease-related (e.g. HIV) or iatrogenic immunosuppression has led to the increased occurrence of a wide variety of parasitic infections and infestations of the nervous system (e. g. babesiosis, Chagas disease, Strongyloides stercoralis infestation, toxoplasmosis, etc.).

  13. Parasitic diarrheal disease: drug development and targets

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Amir; Peerzada, Mudasir N.; Ahmad, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea is the manifestation of gastrointestinal infection and is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity specifically among the children of less than 5 years age worldwide. Moreover, in recent years there has been a rise in the number of reports of intestinal infections continuously in the industrialized world. These are largely related to waterborne and food borne outbreaks. These occur by the pathogenesis of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms like bacteria and parasites. The parasitic intestinal infection has remained mostly unexplored and under assessed in terms of therapeutic development. The lack of new drugs and the risk of resistance have led us to carry out this review on drug development for parasitic diarrheal diseases. The major focus has been depicted on commercially available drugs, currently synthesized active heterocyclic compounds and unique drug targets, that are vital for the existence and growth of the parasites and can be further exploited for the search of therapeutically active anti-parasitic agents. PMID:26617574

  14. Bacterial and parasitic diseases of selected invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Klaphake, Eric

    2009-09-01

    Invertebrate medicine is a rapidly advancing aspect of veterinary medicine, although frustrating in its lack of answers and its limitations compared with vertebrate medicine. Because invertebrates make up 98% of animal life, it should be impossible to contain information on their known bacterial and parasitic diseases within a single article. When the focus is placed on those species commonly kept and treated by non-marine veterinarians, the amount of information becomes manageable. Many exotic species had their known diseases and treatments start this way and then advanced to a higher level of understanding. This article stands as an introduction to the parasitic and bacterial diseases of these fascinating creatures for the veterinary practitioner.

  15. [Discussion on the usage of terminology of some parasites and parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhong-quan; Cui, Jing

    2006-04-30

    According to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and the Standardized Nomenclature of Animal Parasitic Diseases (SNOAPAD), and considering the new advances in parasitology, the usage of the terminology of some parasites and parasitic diseases (such as Trichinella and trichinellosis, filariae and filariasis, Echinococcus and echinococcosis, etc.) was discussed.

  16. [Emerging and reemerging diseases].

    PubMed

    Kuri-Morales, Pablo Antonio; Guzmán-Morales, Eduardo; De La Paz-Nicolau, Estefanía; Salas-Fernández, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Emerging and reemerging diseases are the result of the interaction of multiple factors, such as social determinants of health, climate change, and conditions that prevail and are identifiable in some populations. As a consequence, there may be situations that by their nature are defined as a health emergency, impacting directly on the health of a population, either because they are not known or due to their rapid spread, resulting in a health security problem. Examples of these diseases are described in this article, starting with their origin, their impact on the population, and the response necessary in order to contain or prevent damage of a greater magnitude. The presence of these agents and their consequent damage to the population should lead efforts towards comprehensive prevention and appropriate containment strategies to ensure the protection of public health. Endeavors should be directed not only to a specific agent, but rather to factors that determine their reemergence, such as Ebola, or their permanence, such as the binomial infection of tuberculosis-AIDS. In order to correctly implement strategies, training and availability of supplies play a crucial role in facing the challenges that lie ahead.

  17. Global parasite and Rattus rodent invasions: The consequences for rodent-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Morand, Serge; Bordes, Frédéric; Chen, Hsuan-Wien; Claude, Julien; Cosson, Jean-François; Galan, Maxime; Czirják, Gábor Á; Greenwood, Alex D; Latinne, Alice; Michaux, Johan; Ribas, Alexis

    2015-09-01

    We summarize the current knowledge on parasitism-related invasion processes of the globally invasive Rattus lineages, originating from Asia, and how these invasions have impacted the local epidemiology of rodent-borne diseases. Parasites play an important role in the invasion processes and successes of their hosts through multiple biological mechanisms such as "parasite release," "immunocompetence advantage," "biotic resistance" and "novel weapon." Parasites may also greatly increase the impact of invasions by spillover of parasites and other pathogens, introduced with invasive hosts, into new hosts, potentially leading to novel emerging diseases. Another potential impact is the ability of the invader to amplify local parasites by spillback. In both cases, local fauna and humans may be exposed to new health risks, which may decrease biodiversity and potentially cause increases in human morbidity and mortality. Here we review the current knowledge on these processes and propose some research priorities.

  18. [Intestinal and hepatic parasitic diseases: diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Gétaz, L; Chappuis, F; Loutan, L

    2007-05-16

    Intestinal parasites represent an important burden of disease mainly in developing countries. Physicians practicing in Europe can be exposed to these diseases, mainly seen in immigrants or travellers returning from tropical countries. Several parasitic diseases remain ubiquitous and can be contracted in developed countries. Most often, parasitic infections cause no or only few symptoms, but some can lead to serious disease in immuno-compromised patients. Diagnostic procedures and treatments available are discussed.

  19. Some diseases and parasites of captive woodcocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Stickel, W.H.; Geis, S.A.

    1965-01-01

    Observations were made concerning the diseases and parasites of a group of woodcocks (Philohela minor) caught in Massachusetts in the summer of 1960 and kept in captivity in Maryland, and of another group caught and kept in Louisiana in the winter of 1960-61. Bumblefoot, a granulomatous swelling of the foot caused by Micrococcus sp., is reported for woodcocks for the first time. Six of 31 woodcocks were infected with a renal coccidium of an undetermined species. Tetrameres sp. was found in 4 of 31 birds examined. Sarcocystis was found in one bird. Aerosaculitis was found in several.

  20. Trends in parasitic diseases in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-Hee; Guk, Sang-Mee; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2008-03-01

    In the Republic of Korea, cases of zoonotic, opportunistic and imported parasitoses are being detected increasingly. Vivax malaria disappeared in the late 1970s but re-emerged in 1993 and, currently, 1000-2000 cases occur annually. Brugian filariasis was endemic on offshore islands until 1990 but has now been eradicated. Soil-transmitted helminthiases (ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infections) were highly prevalent until the 1970s but are now well controlled. However, food-borne trematode infections, such as clonorchiasis and intestinal trematodiases (including heterophyidiasis, echinostomiasis and gymnophalloidiasis), each show steady prevalence. This review focuses on trends in parasitic diseases in the Republic of Korea.

  1. Impact of vectorborne parasitic neglected tropical diseases on child health.

    PubMed

    Barry, Meagan A; Murray, Kristy O; Hotez, Peter J; Jones, Kathryn M

    2016-07-01

    Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis are all vectorborne neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that are responsible for significant disease burden in impoverished children and adults worldwide. As vectorborne parasitic diseases, they can all be targeted for elimination through vector control strategies. Examples of successful vector control programmes for these diseases over the past two decades have included the Southern Cone Initiative against Chagas disease, the Kala-azar Control Scheme against leishmaniasis, the Onchocerciasis Control Programme and the lymphatic filariasis control programme in The Gambia. A common vector control component in all of these programmes is the use of adulticides including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and newer synthetic pyrethroid insecticides against the insect vectors of disease. Household spraying has been used against Chagas disease and leishmaniasis, and insecticide-treated bed nets have helped prevent leishmaniasis and lymphatic filariasis. Recent trends in vector control focus on collaborations between programmes and sectors to achieve integrated vector management that addresses the holistic vector control needs of a community rather than approaching it on a disease-by-disease basis, with the goals of increased efficacy, sustainability and cost-effectiveness. As evidence of vector resistance to currently used insecticide regimens emerges, research to develop new and improved insecticides and novel control strategies will be critical in reducing disease burden. In the quest to eliminate these vectorborne NTDs, efforts need to be made to continue existing control programmes, further implement integrated vector control strategies and stimulate research into new insecticides and control methods.

  2. Exploiting structural biology in the fight against parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Modis, Yorgo

    2012-04-01

    Despite spectacular advances in structural biology over the past half-century, only approximately 2% of the structures in the Protein Data Bank are from eukaryotic parasites and less than 0.5% are from multicellular parasites. Even when only major human pathogens are considered, 3D structures of parasites are vastly underrepresented. Yet approximately one-third of the global burden of human disease comes from parasites. It is time to divert greater effort and resources in structural biology to benefit the fight against parasitic diseases. Using as leverage recent technological and methodological advances, a concerted effort to determine macromolecular structures from parasite pathogens would provide invaluable mechanistic insights on vital processes of the parasites and would suggest novel strategies for inhibiting infection.

  3. Conflict and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Legros, Dominique; Formenty, Pierre; Connolly, Maire A.

    2007-01-01

    Detection and control of emerging infectious diseases in conflict situations are major challenges due to multiple risk factors known to enhance emergence and transmission of infectious diseases. These include inadequate surveillance and response systems, destroyed infrastructure, collapsed health systems and disruption of disease control programs, and infection control practices even more inadequate than those in resource-poor settings, as well as ongoing insecurity and poor coordination among humanitarian agencies. This article outlines factors that potentiate emergence and transmission of infectious diseases in conflict situations and highlights several priority actions for their containment and control. PMID:18217543

  4. Multiple host shifts by the emerging honeybee parasite, Varroa jacobsoni.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J M K; Anderson, D L; Tay, W T

    2015-05-01

    Host shifts are a key mechanism of parasite evolution and responsible for the emergence of many economically important pathogens. Varroa destructor has been a major factor in global honeybee (Apis mellifera) declines since shifting hosts from the Asian honeybee (Apis cerana) > 50 years ago. Until recently, only two haplotypes of V. destructor (Korea and Japan) had successfully host shifted to A. mellifera. In 2008, the sister species V. jacobsoni was found for the first time parasitizing A. mellifera in Papua New Guinea (PNG). This recent host shift presents a serious threat to world apiculture but also provides the opportunity to examine host shifting in this system. We used 12 microsatellites to compare genetic variation of V. jacobsoni on A. mellifera in PNG with mites on A. cerana in both PNG and surrounding regions. We identified two distinct lineages of V. jacobsoni reproducing on A. mellifera in PNG. Our analysis indicated independent host shift events have occurred through small numbers of mites shifting from local A. cerana populations. Additional lineages were found in the neighbouring Papua and Solomon Islands that had partially host shifted to A. mellifera, that is producing immature offspring on drone brood only. These mites were likely in transition to full colonization of A. mellifera. Significant population structure between mites on the different hosts suggested host shifted V. jacobsoni populations may not still reproduce on A. cerana, although limited gene flow may exist. Our studies provide further insight into parasite host shift evolution and help characterize this new Varroa mite threat to A. mellifera worldwide.

  5. [Parasitic diseases in the Kyrgyz Republic: epidemiological aspects].

    PubMed

    Usubalieva, Zh M; Toĭgombaeva, V C; Nogoĭbaeva, K A; Mergenov, A E

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyzes the epidemiological situation associated with intestinal helminthic and protozoan diseases in the Kyrgyz Republic in the past 17 years (1991-2007). The analysis suggests that parasitic diseases are of wide spread in the republic. In the structure of infectious diseases, parasitic diseases account for 45%. Children less than 14 years of age are a risk group, whose proportion is 80%. Enteric nosological entities are prevalent in the structure of parasitic diseases. There has been a long-term trend for a rise in the incidence of echinococcosis and ascariasis and for a decrease in that of enterobiasis and hymenolepiasis.

  6. Emerging functions of transcription factors in malaria parasite.

    PubMed

    Tuteja, Renu; Ansari, Abulaish; Chauhan, Virander Singh

    2011-01-01

    Transcription is a process by which the genetic information stored in DNA is converted into mRNA by enzymes known as RNA polymerase. Bacteria use only one RNA polymerase to transcribe all of its genes while eukaryotes contain three RNA polymerases to transcribe the variety of eukaryotic genes. RNA polymerase also requires other factors/proteins to produce the transcript. These factors generally termed as transcription factors (TFs) are either associated directly with RNA polymerase or add in building the actual transcription apparatus. TFs are the most common tools that our cells use to control gene expression. Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for causing the most lethal form of malaria in humans. It shows most of its characteristics common to eukaryotic transcription but it is assumed that mechanisms of transcriptional control in P. falciparum somehow differ from those of other eukaryotes. In this article we describe the studies on the main TFs such as myb protein, high mobility group protein and ApiA2 family proteins from malaria parasite. These studies show that these TFs are slowly emerging to have defined roles in the regulation of gene expression in the parasite.

  7. [Clinical microbiology laboratory and imported parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Martín-Rabadán, Pablo; Martínez-Ruiz, Rocío; Cuadros, Juan; Cañavate, Carmen

    2010-12-01

    Imported parasitosis represents an increasingly frequent diagnostic challenge for microbiology laboratories. A surge in immigration and international travel has led to a rise in the number of imported cases of parasitosis, and this trend is expected to continue in the future. The present article addresses this challenge by reviewing recommended diagnostic approaches and tests. Currently, microscopy is always recommended when analysing blood samples for parasites. If malaria is suspected, rapid antigen testing (including at least HRP2 antigen) should also be performed. The work-up for suspected leishmaniasis should include serology, culture, and in selected cases detection of antigen in urine. In suspected Chagas disease, two different serological tests should be performed. PCR for blood protozoa is highly sensitive, although it cannot be used to rule out Chagas disease, since this condition may be present without parasitemia. Accurate diagnosis of intestinal amebiasis usually requires PCR or antigen detection tests. In helminthiasis, traditional microscopy may need to be complemented with other tests, such as agar plate culture for strongyloidiasis, Og4C3 antigen detection for bancroftian filariasis, and antibody detection test for filariasis and schistosomiasis.

  8. Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a re-emerging but neglected parasitic zoonosis.

    PubMed

    Traub, Rebecca J

    2013-11-01

    Although Ancylostoma ceylanicum is known to be an endemic and widely distributed hookworm of dogs and cats in Asia, its contribution to human morbidity as a potentially zoonotic hookworm remains largely unexplored. Since its discovery by Lane (1913) as a 'new parasite' of humans a century ago, the hookworm has been regarded as a 'rare' and 'abnormal' parasite and largely overlooked in surveys of human parasites. Recent molecular-based surveys in Asia, however, have demonstrated that A. ceylanicum is the second most common hookworm species infecting humans, comprising between 6% and 23% of total patent hookworm infections. In experimentally induced infections, A. ceylanicum mimics the clinical picture produced by the anthroponotic hookworms of 'ground itch' and moderate to severe abdominal pain in the acute phase. Natural infections with A. ceylanicum in humans have been reported in almost all geographical areas in which the hookworm is known to be endemic in dogs and cats, however for the majority of reports, no clinical data are available. Much like the anthroponotic hookworm species, patent A. ceylanicum adults can isolate within the jejunum to produce chronic infections that on occasion, may occur in high enough burdens to produce anaemia. In addition, the hookworm can act much like Ancylostoma caninum and be found lower in the gastrointestinal tract leading to abdominal distension and pain, diarrhoea and occult blood in the faeces accompanied by peripheral eosinophilia. Whether A. ceylanicum is capable of producing both classical hookworm disease and evoking morbidity through an uncontrolled allergic response in some individuals remains unascertained. Future investigations combining the use of molecular diagnostic tools with clinical and pathological data will shed further light on its role as a human pathogen. The control of this zoonosis necessitates an integrated and inter-sectorial "One Health" approach be adopted in communities where large numbers of dogs

  9. Parkinson's disease: emerging pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Strecker, Karl; Schwarz, Johannes

    2008-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. The prevalence is increasing with age and averages approximately 0.3% in the entire population. The clinical picture is dominated by the cardinal motor symptoms such as tremor at rest, bradykinesia, muscular rigidity, stooped posture and postural instability. Psychiatric comorbidity is common, comprising dementia, depression, anxiety and psychosis. Although many drugs have been developed and introduced into the market to provide symptomatic treatment, there is still no cure for PD and not even solid evidence for disease-modifying strategies. In addition, motor complications in advanced stages of the disease, side effects of the dopaminergic therapy, and non-motor symptoms remain huge challenges during long-term therapy. Thus, new therapeutic agents are desperately needed. Here, we describe current therapies and possible future developments that we hope will contribute to sustaining quality of life in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease for many years.

  10. Tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Cestoda)—Neglected or Emerging Human Parasite?

    PubMed Central

    Kuchta, Roman; Brabec, Jan; Kubáčková, Petra; Scholz, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Background A total number of 14 valid species of Diphyllobothrium tapeworms have been described in literature to be capable of causing diphyllobothriosis, with D. latum being the major causative agent of all human infections. However, recent data indicate that some of these infections, especially when diagnosed solely on the basis of morphology, have been identified with this causative agent incorrectly, confusing other Diphyllobothrium species with D. latum. Another widely distributed species, D. dendriticum, has never been considered as a frequent parasite of man, even though it is found commonly throughout arctic and subarctic regions parasitizing piscivorous birds and mammals. Recent cases of Europeans infected with this cestode called into question the actual geographic distribution of this tapeworm, largely ignored by medical parasitologists. Methodology and Results On the basis of revision of more than 900 available references and a description and revision of recent European human cases using morphological and molecular (cox1) data supplemented by newly characterized D. dendriticum sequences, we updated the current knowledge of the life-cycle, geographic distribution, epidemiological status, and molecular diagnostics of this emerging causal agent of zoonotic disease of man. Conclusions The tapeworm D. dendriticum represents an example of a previously neglected, probably underdiagnosed parasite of man with a potential to spread globally. Recent cases of diphyllobothriosis caused by D. dendriticum in Europe (Netherlands, Switzerland and Czech Republic), where the parasite has not been reported previously, point out that causative agents of diphyllobothriosis and other zoonoses can be imported throughout the world. Molecular tools should be used for specific and reliable parasite diagnostics, and also rare or non-native species should be considered. This will considerably help improve our knowledge of the distribution and epidemiology of these human parasites

  11. Role of parasitic vaccines in integrated control of parasitic diseases in livestock

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neelu; Singh, Veer; Shyma, K. P.

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic infections adversely affect animal’s health and threaten profitable animal production, thus affecting the economy of our country. These infections also play a major role in the spread of zoonotic diseases. Parasitic infections cause severe morbidity and mortality in animals especially those affecting the gastrointestinal system and thus affect the economy of livestock owner by decreasing the ability of the farmer to produce economically useful animal products. Due to all these reasons proper control of parasitic infection is critically important for sustained animal production. The most common and regularly used method to control parasitic infection is chemotherapy, which is very effective but has several disadvantages like drug resistance and drug residues. Integrated approaches to control parasitic infections should be formulated including grazing management, biological control, genetic resistance of hosts, and parasitic vaccines. India ranks first in cattle and buffalo population, but the majority of livestock owners have fewer herds, so other measures like grazing management, biological control, genetic resistance of hosts are not much practical to use. The most sustainable and economical approach to control parasitic infection in our country is to vaccinate animals, although vaccines increase the initial cost, but the immunity offered by the vaccine are long lived. Thus, vaccination of animals for various clinical, chronic, subclinical parasitic infections will be a cheaper and effective alternative to control parasitic infection for long time and improve animal production. PMID:27047140

  12. [Endemic, Trend, Research and Direction of Food-borne Parasitic Diseases].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Yu, Xin-bing

    2015-12-01

    Food-borne parasitic diseases are exhibiting new epidemiological characteristics in such society that is filled with economic development, ecological environmental changes, more frequent population flow, as well as diversities of dietary source and style. The food-borne parasitic diseases have become a major risk factor for food safety and health care, and a global public health problem. In this review, we will give an overview on the epidemiological information of some major food-borne parasitic diseases both in China and in the world, and summarize their emerging characteristics and epidemiological trends. Research on the prevention techniques and pathogenesis of the diseases is reviewed as well. Finally, perspectives are given on the diagnosis/detection, basic mechanisms of the diseases, and the strategies for prevention and transmission interruption.

  13. Parasitic diseases in travelers: a focus on therapy.

    PubMed

    Showler, Adrienne J; Wilson, Mary E; Kain, Kevin C; Boggild, Andrea K

    2014-04-01

    Parasitic infections are an important cause of illness among returned travelers, and can lead to considerable morbidity and, in some cases, mortality. The complexity of parasitic life cycles and geographic specificities can present diagnostic challenges, particularly in non-endemic settings to which most travelers return for care. Clinical manifestations reflect the diverse taxonomy and pathogenesis of parasites, and appropriate diagnosis and management therefore necessitate a high index of suspicion of parasitic illnesses. Much of our knowledge surrounding management of parasitic infections in travelers is extrapolated from evidence derived in endemic populations, or is based on expert opinion and case series. We herein provide an overview of parasitic diseases of short-term travelers, and summarize current therapeutic strategies for each illness.

  14. Plastic behaviors in hosts promote the emergence of retaliatory parasites

    PubMed Central

    Chakra, Maria Abou; Hilbe, Christian; Traulsen, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Mafia like behavior, where individuals cooperate under the threat of punishment, occurs not only in humans, but is also observed in several animal species. Observations suggest that avian hosts tend to accept a certain degree of parasitism in order to avoid retaliating punishment from the brood parasite. To understand under which conditions it will be beneficial for a host to cooperate, we model the interaction between hosts and parasites as an evolutionary game. In our model, the host's behavior is plastic, and thus, its response depends on the previous interactions with the parasite. We find that such learned behavior in turn is crucial for the evolution of retaliating parasites. The abundance of this kind of mafia behavior oscillates in time and does not settle to an equilibrium. Our results suggest that retaliation is a mechanism for the parasite to evade specialization and to induce acceptance by the host. PMID:24589512

  15. [Hygienic issues related with prevention of parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Romanenko, N A

    2003-01-01

    Data on a wide spread of parasitic diseases among Russia's population are presented in the article. The contamination of soil, water-reserves' surfaces, drinking water, foodstuffs and of household goods with helminth ovum and with cysts of intestinal pathogenic protozoa was shown to play the key role in the discussed process. Therefore, hygienic measures targeted at preservation, environmental sanitation and protection of the environment from causative agents of parasites that would reduce or expel the risk of new contaminations should be regarded as the key trend in preventing the parasitic diseases.

  16. The impact of genomics on population genetics of parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Hupalo, Daniel N; Bradic, Martina; Carlton, Jane M

    2015-02-01

    Parasites, defined as eukaryotic microbes and parasitic worms that cause global diseases of human and veterinary importance, span many lineages in the eukaryotic Tree of Life. Historically challenging to study due to their complicated life-cycles and association with impoverished settings, their inherent complexities are now being elucidated by genome sequencing. Over the course of the last decade, projects in large sequencing centers, and increasingly frequently in individual research labs, have sequenced dozens of parasite reference genomes and field isolates from patient populations. This 'tsunami' of genomic data is answering questions about parasite genetic diversity, signatures of evolution orchestrated through anti-parasitic drug and host immune pressure, and the characteristics of populations. This brief review focuses on the state of the art of parasitic protist genomics, how the peculiar genomes of parasites are driving creative methods for their sequencing, and the impact that next-generation sequencing is having on our understanding of parasite population genomics and control of the diseases they cause.

  17. The global burden of foodborne parasitic diseases: an update.

    PubMed

    Torgerson, Paul R; de Silva, Nilanthi R; Fèvre, Eric M; Kasuga, Fumiko; Rokni, Mohammad B; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Sripa, Banchob; Gargouri, Neyla; Willingham, Arve Lee; Stein, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Foodborne diseases (FBDs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population. Accurate information on the burden of FBDs is needed to inform policy makers and allocate appropriate resources for food safety control and intervention. Consequently, in 2006 the WHO launched an initiative to estimate the global burden of FBDs in terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). This review gives an update of the progress on evaluating the burden of foodborne parasitic diseases that has been generated by this study. Results to date indicate that parasitic diseases that can be transmitted through food make a substantial contribution to the global burden of disease.

  18. Chagas disease: role of parasite genetic variation in pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Andra M; Oliveira, Riva P; Pena, Srgio D J

    2002-03-05

    Chagas disease, caused by the parasite protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is characterised by a variable clinical course, from symptomless cases to severe chronic disease with cardiac and/or gastrointestinal involvement. This variability has been attributed both to differences in the host response and to genomic heterogeneity of the parasite. This article reviews the evidence in favour of an important role of the genetic constitution of T. cruzi in determining the clinical characteristics of Chagas disease and discusses the basis of the 'Clonal-Histotropic Model' for the pathogenesis of this disease.

  19. DNA vaccines: a rational design against parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana A; Rodgers, Jean; Atouguia, Jorge; Prazeres, Duarte M F; Monteiro, Gabriel A

    2010-02-01

    Parasitic diseases are one of the most devastating causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although immunization against these infections would be an ideal solution, the development of effective vaccines has been hampered by specific challenges posed by parasitic pathogens. Plasmid-based DNA vaccines may prove to be promising immunization tools in this area because vectors can be designed to integrate several antigens from different stages of the parasite life cycle or different subspecies; vaccines, formulations and immunization protocols can be tuned to match the immune response that offers protective immunity; and DNA vaccination is an affordable platform for developing countries. Partial and full protective immunity have been reported following DNA vaccination against the most significant parasitic diseases in the world.

  20. [Screening of parasitic diseases in the asymptomatic immigrant population].

    PubMed

    Goterris, Lidia; Bocanegra, Cristina; Serre-Delcor, Núria; Moure, Zaira; Treviño, Begoña; Zarzuela, Francesc; Espasa, Mateu; Sulleiro, Elena

    2016-07-01

    Parasitic diseases suppose an important health problem in people from high endemic areas, so these must be discarded properly. Usually, these infections develop asymptomatically but, in propitious situations, are likely to reactivate themselves and can cause clinical symptoms and/or complications in the receiving country. Moreover, in some cases it is possible local transmission. Early diagnosis of these parasitic diseases made by appropriate parasitological techniques and its specific treatment will benefit both, the individual and the community. These techniques must be selected according to geoepidemiological criteria, patient's origin, migration route or time spent outside the endemic area; but other factors must also be considered as its sensitivity and specificity, implementation experience and availability. Given the high prevalence of intestinal parasites on asymptomatic immigrants, it is recommended to conduct a study by coproparasitological techniques. Because of its potential severity, the screening of asymptomatic malaria with sensitive techniques such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) is also advisable. Serological screening for Chagas disease should be performed on all Latin American immigrants, except for people from the Caribbean islands. Other important parasites, which should be excluded, are filariasis and urinary schistosomiasis, by using microscopic examination. The aim of this paper is to review the different techniques for the screening of parasitic diseases and its advices within the care protocols for asymptomatic immigrants.

  1. Cutaneous manifestations of systemic tropical parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Neil F; Kovarik, Carrie L

    2009-01-01

    Tropical diseases continue to cause significant health problems in developing nations. An overview of illnesses with notable cutaneous findings caused by protozoans and helminthes is provided. The role of the health care provider in disease management is described.

  2. Parasitic kidney disease: milestones in the evolution of our knowledge.

    PubMed

    Barsoum, Rashad S

    2013-03-01

    Of the 342 parasites that infect humans, 20 are associated with kidney disease, yet of these, only schistosomes, plasmodia, filariae, and leishmanias are held responsible for significant clinical or epidemiologic impact. Reviewing the evolution of human knowledge for these parasites discloses a lot of similarities regarding their discovery, patterns of kidney injury, and pathogenic mechanisms. From a historical perspective, our relevant information may be classified into 4 phases: (1) disease documentation in ancient and medieval scripts as far back as 2000-3000 bce; (2) discovery of the parasites, their life cycles, and clinical correlates by European clinicians working in African and Asian colonies during the second half of the 19th century; (3) discovery and characterization of the renal manifestations of monoparasitic infections during the second half of the 20th century; and (4) recognition of the confounding effects of coinfection with bacteria, viruses, or other parasites. The spectrum of respective kidney diseases extends all the way from acute kidney injury to glomerulonephritis, amyloidosis, urologic disorders, and malignancy. Discovery of the common immunopathogenetic host response to parasitic infections has provided a knowledge core that explains the similarities, diversities, and interactions with regard to kidney injury.

  3. One world health: socioeconomic burden and parasitic disease control priorities.

    PubMed

    Torgerson, Paul R

    2013-08-01

    Parasitic diseases present a considerable socio-economic impact to society. Zoonotic parasites can result in a considerable burden of disease in people and substantive economic losses to livestock populations. Ameliorating the effects of these diseases may consist of attempts at eradicating specific diseases at a global level, eliminating them at a national or local level or controlling them to minimise incidence. Alternatively with some parasitic zoonoses it may only be possible to treat human and animal cases as they arise. The choice of approach will be determined by the potential effectiveness of a disease control programme, its cost and the cost effectiveness or cost benefit of undertaking the intervention. Furthermore human disease burden is being increasingly measured by egalitarian non-financial measures which are difficult to apply to livestock. This adds additional challenges to the assessment of socio-economic burdens of zoonotic diseases. Using examples from the group of neglected zoonotic diseases, information regarding the socio-economic effects is reviewed together with how this information is used in decision making with regard to disease control and treatment.

  4. Canine and feline cardiopulmonary parasitic nematodes in Europe: emerging and underestimated

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary nematodes of dogs and cats cause parasitic diseases of central relevance in current veterinary practice. In the recent past the distribution of canine and feline heartworms and lungworms has increased in various geographical areas, including Europe. This is true especially for the metastrongyloids Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis, the filarioid Dirofilaria immitis and the trichuroid Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila). The reasons of this emergence are little known but many drivers such as global warming, changes in vector epidemiology and movements in animal populations, may be taken into account. The purpose of this article is to review the knowledge of the most important heartworm and lungworm infections of dogs and cats in Europe. In particular recent advances in epidemiology, clinical and control are described and discussed. PMID:20653938

  5. [Intestinal parasitic diseases as a global health problem].

    PubMed

    Chacín-Bonilla, Leonor

    2013-03-01

    In today's world, parasitic disease agents are not restricted by geography or economy, and have become a significant global threat. The increasing globalization of the fresh produce market and greater international trade and travels, have contributed to the spread of these organisms in the industrialized world. Parasitic protozoa cause waterborne and foodborne outbreaks of diarrhea. The unprecedented flow of people introduces cultural and behavior patterns around the world; the increasing tendency to eat raw or undercooked meat and seafood, favors the dissemination of several parasitic pathogens. Climate changes are predicted to cause a global increase in soil-transmitted helminthiases. The multidisciplinary study of these agents, and the interaction among scientists, global health organizations and governments are imperative to reduce the burden of these diseases and improve the life of a large segment of the world population.

  6. Emerging diseases: the global express.

    PubMed

    Brown, C

    2010-01-01

    The expansion of global trade has ensured that the global economy continues to improve and that political liberalization promotes changes toward democracy and enhanced world peace. However, the inherent risks due to pathogens moving from one country to another within this global trade have expanded accordingly as well. International guidelines for safe trade, promulgated by the World Trade Organization, and interpreted by the World Health Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the World Organization for Animal Health, have undergone fast-paced changes in an effort to stay current with rapidly evolving emerging disease concerns. But serious gaps remain, and the threat of pathogens moving to new areas or emerging in new ways is considerable.

  7. Monitoring emerging diseases of fish and shellfish using electronic sources.

    PubMed

    Thrush, M A; Dunn, P L; Peeler, E J

    2012-10-01

    New and emerging fish and shellfish diseases represent an important constraint to the growth and sustainability of many aquaculture sectors and have also caused substantial economic and environmental impacts in wild stocks. This paper details the results of 8 years of a monitoring programme for emerging aquatic animal diseases reported around the world. The objectives were to track global occurrences and, more specifically, to identify and provide advanced warning of disease threats that may affect wild and farmed fish stocks in the UK. A range of electronic information sources, including Internet newsletters, alerting services and news agency releases, was systematically searched for reports of new diseases, new presentations of known pathogens and known diseases occurring in new geographic locations or new host species. A database was established to log the details of key findings, and 250 emerging disease events in 52 countries were recorded during the period of study. These included 14 new diseases and a further 16 known diseases in new species. Viruses and parasites accounted for the majority of reports (55% and 24%, respectively), and known diseases occurring in new locations were the most important emerging disease category (in which viruses were dominant). Emerging diseases were reported disproportionally in salmonid species (33%), in farmed populations (62%) and in Europe and North America (80%). The lack of reports from some regions with significant aquaculture or fishery production may indicate that emerging diseases are not being recognized in these areas owing to insufficient surveillance or testing or that these events are being under-reported. The results are discussed in relation to processes underpinning disease emergence in the aquatic environment.

  8. Epidemiology and history of human parasitic diseases in Romania.

    PubMed

    Neghina, Raul; Neghina, Adriana M; Marincu, Iosif; Iacobiciu, Ioan

    2011-06-01

    Intestinal parasitic diseases such as enterobiasis, giardiasis, and ascariasis are detected most frequently in Romania, but their importance is definitely surpassed by trichinellosis, cystic echinococcosis, and toxoplasmosis. Malaria was common until its eradication in 1963, and only imported cases are reported nowadays. The aim of this review was to bring together essential data on the epidemiology and history of human parasitoses in Romania. Information on 43 parasitic diseases was collected from numerous sources, most of them unavailable abroad or inaccessible to the international scientific community. Over time, Romanian people of all ages have paid a significant tribute to the pathogenic influences exerted by the parasites. Sanitary and socio-economical consequences of the parasites diseases have great negative impact on the quality of life of affected individuals and the overall well-being of the population. Implementation of efficient public health measures and informative campaigns for the masses as well as changing the inadequate habits that are deeply rooted in the population are mandatory for cutting successfully this Gordian knot.

  9. [Intestinal parasitic diseases in HIV-infected patients in Uzbekistan].

    PubMed

    Nurtaev, Kh S; Badalova, N S; Zalialieva, M V; Osipova, S O

    2005-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic diseases were diagnosed in 100 HIV-infected patients at different stages of disease (its asymptomatic form, persistent generalized lymphoadenopathy, pre-AIDS, and AIDS) (Group 1), 100 Tashkent residents (Group 2), and 349 patients with gastrointestinal diseases, allergic dermatoses, and skin depigmentation foci (Group 3). The HIV-infected patients were found to have virtually all parasites, such as Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, Chilomastix mesnili, Entamoeba coli, Iodamoeba butschlii, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Endolimax nana, Blastocystis hominis, Enlerobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana, detectable in the population of Tashkent. The highest infestation with intestinal protozoa, including nonpathogenic amoebas and helmninths, was found in Groups 1 and 3. However, in all the forms of HIV infection, the infestation with E. histolytical/dispar was 10 times greater than that in Groups 2 and 3 (1% and 0.8%, respectively). G. lamblia was detected in 16, 21, and 45.2% in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In all the HIV-infected patients, the content of CD8 lymphocytes was increased, but that of CD20 lymphocytes was normal. Parasites were detectable with different levels of CD4 lymphocytes, but C. parvum was found only if its count was > 200/ml. In the HIV-infected patients, the hyperproduction of IgE was caused mainly by helminths rather than protozoa. In these patients, the increased level of IgE was also noted in the absence of parasites.

  10. Eosinophilia and thrombosis in parasitic diseases: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ames, Paul R J; Aloj, Giuseppina; Gentile, Fabrizio

    2011-02-01

    It is known that peripheral blood eosinophilia (PBE) is a normal hematopoietic response to several parasitic diseases, but it is less known that PBE promotes a hypercoagulable state that may favor thrombosis. Scope of this article is to explore which parasitic infestations are most likely to be complicated by thrombosis and to highlight the pathogenetic contribution of PBE to vascular occlusions in this setting. A review of the world literature revealed 18 cases in which PBE was associated with vascular occlusion though no specific surveys were dedicated to this topic. The eosinophil exerts its thrombogenic potential by inhibition of the natural anticoagulant pathways and release of tissue factor with enhanced coagulation activation leading to vascular occlusion. It is hoped that this review contributes to the awareness of the link between PBE and thrombosis in parasitic disorders to foster research in this area.

  11. Natural Products as a Source for Treating Neglected Parasitic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ndjonka, Dieudonné; Rapado, Ludmila Nakamura; Silber, Ariel M.; Liebau, Eva; Wrenger, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases caused by parasites are a major threat for the entire mankind, especially in the tropics. More than 1 billion people world-wide are directly exposed to tropical parasites such as the causative agents of trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis, which represent a major health problem, particularly in impecunious areas. Unlike most antibiotics, there is no “general” antiparasitic drug available. Here, the selection of antiparasitic drugs varies between different organisms. Some of the currently available drugs are chemically de novo synthesized, however, the majority of drugs are derived from natural sources such as plants which have subsequently been chemically modified to warrant higher potency against these human pathogens. In this review article we will provide an overview of the current status of plant derived pharmaceuticals and their chemical modifications to target parasite-specific peculiarities in order to interfere with their proliferation in the human host. PMID:23389040

  12. The landscape genetics of infectious disease emergence and spread

    PubMed Central

    Biek, Roman; Real, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    The spread of parasites is inherently a spatial process often embedded in physically complex landscapes. It is therefore not surprising that infectious disease researchers are increasingly taking a landscape genetics perspective to elucidate mechanisms underlying basic ecological processes driving infectious disease dynamics and to understand the linkage between spatially-dependent population processes and the geographic distribution of genetic variation within both hosts and parasites. The increasing availability of genetic information on hosts and parasites when coupled to their ecological interactions can lead to insights for predicting patterns of disease emergence, spread, and control. Here, we review research progress in this area based on four different motivations for the application of landscape genetics approaches: (1) assessing the spatial organization of genetic variation in parasites as a function of environmental variability, (2) using host population genetic structure as a means to parameterize ecological dynamics that indirectly influence parasite populations, e.g. gene flow and movement pathways across heterogeneous landscapes and the concurrent transport of infectious agents, (3) elucidating the temporal and spatial scales of disease processes, and (4) reconstructing and understanding infectious disease invasion. Throughout this review, we emphasise that landscape genetic principles are relevant to infection dynamics across a range of scales from within host dynamics to global geographic patterns and that they can also be applied to unconventional “landscapes” such as heterogeneous contact networks underlying the spread of human and livestock diseases. We conclude by discussing some general considerations and problems for inferring epidemiological processes from genetic data and try to identify possible future directions and applications for this rapidly expanding field. PMID:20618897

  13. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New Lands become infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or have... responsible permittee in accordance with applicable laws....

  14. Criticality of Parasitic Disease Transmission in a Diffusive Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Min-Hua; Zhang, Duan-Ming; Pan, Gui-Jun; Yin, Yan-Ping; Chen, Zhi-Yuan

    2008-12-01

    Through using the methods of finite-size effect and short time dynamic scaling, we study the critical behavior of parasitic disease spreading process in a diffusive population mediated by a static vector environment. Through comprehensive analysis of parasitic disease spreading we find that this model presents a dynamical phase transition from disease-free state to endemic state with a finite population density. We determine the critical population density, above which the system reaches an epidemic spreading stationary state. We also perform a scaling analysis to determine the order parameter and critical relaxation exponents. The results show that the model does not belong to the usual directed percolation universality class and is compatible with the class of directed percolation with diffusive and conserved fields.

  15. Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife: role in amphibian population declines and global implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daszak, P.; Berger, Lee; Cunningham, A.A.; Hyatt, A.D.; Green, D.E.; Speare, R.

    1999-01-01

    We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a global threat to wildlife populations.

  16. Parasitic diseases of remote Indigenous communities in Australia.

    PubMed

    Holt, Deborah C; McCarthy, James S; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2010-08-15

    Indigenous Australians suffer significant disadvantage in health outcomes and have a life expectancy well below that of non-Indigenous Australians. Mortality rates of Indigenous Australians are higher than that of Indigenous populations in developed countries elsewhere in the world. A number of parasitic diseases which are uncommon in the rest of the Australian population contribute to the high burden of disease in many remote Indigenous communities. High rates of infection with enteric parasites such as Strongyloides stercoralis, hookworm and Trichuris have been recorded and infection of the skin with the ecto-parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei is also a substantial problem. Secondary infection of scabies lesions, including with Staphylococcus aureus and group A Streptococcus, can produce serious sequelae such as rheumatic fever and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Transmission of many parasites in many remote communities is facilitated by overcrowded living conditions and infrastructure problems which result in poor sanitation and hygiene. Improvements in environmental health conditions must accompany medical initiatives to achieve sustainable improvement in the health of Indigenous Australians.

  17. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New Lands become infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or...

  18. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New Lands become infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or...

  19. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New Lands become infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or...

  20. 25 CFR 700.723 - Control of livestock disease and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Control of livestock disease and parasites. 700.723... RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.723 Control of livestock disease and parasites. Whenever livestock within the New Lands become infected with contagious or infectious disease or parasites or...

  1. Diagnosis of Parasitic Diseases: Old and New Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Ndao, Momar

    2009-01-01

    Methods for the diagnosis of infectious diseases have stagnated in the last 20–30 years. Few major advances in clinical diagnostic testing have been made since the introduction of PCR, although new technologies are being investigated. Many tests that form the backbone of the “modern” microbiology laboratory are based on very old and labour-intensive technologies such as microscopy for malaria. Pressing needs include more rapid tests without sacrificing sensitivity, value-added tests, and point-of-care tests for both high- and low-resource settings. In recent years, research has been focused on alternative methods to improve the diagnosis of parasitic diseases. These include immunoassays, molecular-based approaches, and proteomics using mass spectrometry platforms technology. This review summarizes the progress in new approaches in parasite diagnosis and discusses some of the merits and disadvantages of these tests. PMID:20069111

  2. Gastrointestinal parasites: potential therapy for refractory inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Moreels, Tom G; Pelckmans, Paul A

    2005-02-01

    Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic relapsing inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Different pharmacological agents are currently used in several combinations to control the inflammatory process. Recently, antibodies against the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha appeared to be very effective in treating patients with Crohn's disease. However, due to the fact that the pathogen causing IBD is still unknown, no causative treatment is currently available that is able to make the disease disappear. Recently, the hygiene hypothesis of the development of immunological diseases was proposed, stating that raising children in extremely hygienic environments with less exposure to parasite infections may negatively affect the development of the immune system, predisposing them to immunologic diseases such as IBD. This hypothesis is supported by experimental data showing that helminthic parasites protect against T helper (TH) type 1 cell-mediated gastrointestinal inflammations like Crohn's disease. Both TH-2 cells and regulatory T cells may be involved in this immunomodulatory mechanism. Here, we review the experimental and clinical studies in favor of the hygiene hypothesis, opening perspectives on new therapies for IBD.

  3. Diagnostics are central for a truly holistic approach against intestinal parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Harhay, Michael O; Horton, John; Olliaro, Piero L; Utzinger, Jürg

    2011-02-01

    This is a perspectives piece on the central role of diagnostics for a truly holistic approach against gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic diseases. This article was motivated by a recent review in the International Journal of Infectious Diseases, where Absar Alum and colleagues (September 2010) reviewed the global burden, key transmission pathways, current tools and strategies, and provided their vision of a holistic approach to control GI protozoan and helminthic infections in humans. We argue that, as the success of multiple rounds of national deworming campaigns are actualized in various parts of the world, diagnostics become vital to achieve successful elimination and to aid pharmacovigilance against emerging pathogen resistance to the limited deworming pharmacopoeia.

  4. Parasite control practices and public perception of parasitic diseases: A survey of dog and cat owners.

    PubMed

    Matos, Mariana; Alho, Ana Margarida; Owen, Sinclair Patrick; Nunes, Telmo; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís

    2015-11-01

    Drugs used in the control of internal and external parasites in companion animals play a crucial role in Animal and Public Health. To ensure continuing protection, these drugs should be administered regularly and in intervals, as suggested by the manufacturers. To assess parasite control practices and other related factors, including the degree of public awareness on the topic, 312 dog and cat owners were surveyed while attending the Small Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lisbon University. Results showed that 89.7% of the dogs were currently being treated with endoparasitic drugs. Of these, 74.3% were dewormed every four months or longer and merely 11.8% with the recommended treatment regimen (minimum quarterly). In cats, 63.6% were being treated with endoparasitic drugs and 85.7% of these were irregularly dewormed every four months or longer and merely 5.5% with the recommended treatment regimen (minimum quarterly). Combinations of praziquantel, pyrantel embonate and febantel were the most commonly used drugs in dogs, whereas macrocyclic lactones were more frequently used in cats. Regarding external parasitic control, 92.2% of the dogs were being treated, 50.5% of these at monthly intervals (all-year round or seasonally). The most common ectoparasitic drug formulation used on dogs was the spot-on imidacloprid+permethrin (89%). Only 28.4% of the dogs were uninterruptedly protected throughout the year from the main canine vector borne diseases transmitted by fleas, ticks, sandflies and mosquitoes. Merely 63.6% of the cats were being controlled with ectoparasitic drugs, most at infrequent drug intervals and imidacloprid was the most frequently used drug on cats (44.4%). Additionally, 85% of the respondents had never heard of the word "zoonosis" and 37% of them did not collect their dog's faeces in all public places. Scabies, toxoplasmosis and leishmaniasis were the most frequent parasitic diseases identified by the public in this survey. Although the

  5. DARWIN'S NECESSARY MISFIT AND THE SLOSHING BUCKET: THE EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY OF EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evolutionary studies suggest that the potential for rapid emergence of novel host-parasite associations appears to be a “built-in feature” of the complex phenomenon that is Darwinian evolution. The current Emerging Infectious Disease (EID) crisis is thus a new manifestation of an old and repeating p...

  6. Pathogenesis of Chagas' Disease: Parasite Persistence and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Antonio R. L.; Hecht, Mariana M.; Guimaro, Maria C.; Sousa, Alessandro O.; Nitz, Nadjar

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Acute Trypanosoma cruzi infections can be asymptomatic, but chronically infected individuals can die of Chagas' disease. The transfer of the parasite mitochondrial kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircle to the genome of chagasic patients can explain the pathogenesis of the disease; in cases of Chagas' disease with evident cardiomyopathy, the kDNA minicircles integrate mainly into retrotransposons at several chromosomes, but the minicircles are also detected in coding regions of genes that regulate cell growth, differentiation, and immune responses. An accurate evaluation of the role played by the genotype alterations in the autoimmune rejection of self-tissues in Chagas' disease is achieved with the cross-kingdom chicken model system, which is refractory to T. cruzi infections. The inoculation of T. cruzi into embryonated eggs prior to incubation generates parasite-free chicks, which retain the kDNA minicircle sequence mainly in the macrochromosome coding genes. Crossbreeding transfers the kDNA mutations to the chicken progeny. The kDNA-mutated chickens develop severe cardiomyopathy in adult life and die of heart failure. The phenotyping of the lesions revealed that cytotoxic CD45, CD8+ γδ, and CD8α+ T lymphocytes carry out the rejection of the chicken heart. These results suggest that the inflammatory cardiomyopathy of Chagas' disease is a genetically driven autoimmune disease. PMID:21734249

  7. Hepatitis E: an emerging disease.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gracia, María Teresa; Suay, Beatriz; Mateos-Lindemann, María Luisa

    2014-03-01

    an update of all the molecular, epidemiological, clinic and preventive knowledge on this emergent disease up to date.

  8. Genomic insights into the origin of parasitism in the emerging plant pathogen Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Taisei; Cotton, James A; Dalzell, Jonathan J; Hasegawa, Koichi; Kanzaki, Natsumi; McVeigh, Paul; Takanashi, Takuma; Tsai, Isheng J; Assefa, Samuel A; Cock, Peter J A; Otto, Thomas Dan; Hunt, Martin; Reid, Adam J; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Tsuchihara, Kazuko; Yokoi, Toshiro; Larsson, Mattias C; Miwa, Johji; Maule, Aaron G; Sahashi, Norio; Jones, John T; Berriman, Matthew

    2011-09-01

    Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is the nematode responsible for a devastating epidemic of pine wilt disease in Asia and Europe, and represents a recent, independent origin of plant parasitism in nematodes, ecologically and taxonomically distinct from other nematodes for which genomic data is available. As well as being an important pathogen, the B. xylophilus genome thus provides a unique opportunity to study the evolution and mechanism of plant parasitism. Here, we present a high-quality draft genome sequence from an inbred line of B. xylophilus, and use this to investigate the biological basis of its complex ecology which combines fungal feeding, plant parasitic and insect-associated stages. We focus particularly on putative parasitism genes as well as those linked to other key biological processes and demonstrate that B. xylophilus is well endowed with RNA interference effectors, peptidergic neurotransmitters (including the first description of ins genes in a parasite) stress response and developmental genes and has a contracted set of chemosensory receptors. B. xylophilus has the largest number of digestive proteases known for any nematode and displays expanded families of lysosome pathway genes, ABC transporters and cytochrome P450 pathway genes. This expansion in digestive and detoxification proteins may reflect the unusual diversity in foods it exploits and environments it encounters during its life cycle. In addition, B. xylophilus possesses a unique complement of plant cell wall modifying proteins acquired by horizontal gene transfer, underscoring the impact of this process on the evolution of plant parasitism by nematodes. Together with the lack of proteins homologous to effectors from other plant parasitic nematodes, this confirms the distinctive molecular basis of plant parasitism in the Bursaphelenchus lineage. The genome sequence of B. xylophilus adds to the diversity of genomic data for nematodes, and will be an important resource in understanding the

  9. Genomic Insights into the Origin of Parasitism in the Emerging Plant Pathogen Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Taisei; Cotton, James A.; Dalzell, Jonathan J.; Hasegawa, Koichi; Kanzaki, Natsumi; McVeigh, Paul; Takanashi, Takuma; Tsai, Isheng J.; Assefa, Samuel A.; Cock, Peter J. A.; Otto, Thomas Dan; Hunt, Martin; Reid, Adam J.; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Tsuchihara, Kazuko; Yokoi, Toshiro; Larsson, Mattias C.; Miwa, Johji; Maule, Aaron G.; Sahashi, Norio; Jones, John T.; Berriman, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is the nematode responsible for a devastating epidemic of pine wilt disease in Asia and Europe, and represents a recent, independent origin of plant parasitism in nematodes, ecologically and taxonomically distinct from other nematodes for which genomic data is available. As well as being an important pathogen, the B. xylophilus genome thus provides a unique opportunity to study the evolution and mechanism of plant parasitism. Here, we present a high-quality draft genome sequence from an inbred line of B. xylophilus, and use this to investigate the biological basis of its complex ecology which combines fungal feeding, plant parasitic and insect-associated stages. We focus particularly on putative parasitism genes as well as those linked to other key biological processes and demonstrate that B. xylophilus is well endowed with RNA interference effectors, peptidergic neurotransmitters (including the first description of ins genes in a parasite) stress response and developmental genes and has a contracted set of chemosensory receptors. B. xylophilus has the largest number of digestive proteases known for any nematode and displays expanded families of lysosome pathway genes, ABC transporters and cytochrome P450 pathway genes. This expansion in digestive and detoxification proteins may reflect the unusual diversity in foods it exploits and environments it encounters during its life cycle. In addition, B. xylophilus possesses a unique complement of plant cell wall modifying proteins acquired by horizontal gene transfer, underscoring the impact of this process on the evolution of plant parasitism by nematodes. Together with the lack of proteins homologous to effectors from other plant parasitic nematodes, this confirms the distinctive molecular basis of plant parasitism in the Bursaphelenchus lineage. The genome sequence of B. xylophilus adds to the diversity of genomic data for nematodes, and will be an important resource in understanding the

  10. [Health education for major parasitic diseases in rural community of China: current status and future development].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Lin, Dan-dan

    2013-08-01

    Owing to human parasitic diseases being related to behavior, the health education as an important measure to prevent parasite infections through human behavior intervention, has played an important role in the process of parasitic disease prevention and control in rural area of China. This paper comments on the development history of the health education for parasitic disease prevention and control, current intervention modes and the effect of the health education for parasitic diseases in rural area. This paper also summarizes the role and impact of different modes of the health education for parasitic disease prevention and control and gives some suggestions to future development of the health education in rural area under current prevalent situation of parasitic diseases.

  11. [Anthropocene and Emerging viral diseases].

    PubMed

    Chastel, C

    2016-08-01

    We propose to bring together the new geologic concept of Anthropocene and its consequences on our environment with the observed increasing emergence of new viruses - a pathogen for both humans and animals, mainly since the mid of the twentieth century.

  12. Contrasting emergence of Lyme disease across ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mysterud, Atle; Easterday, William Ryan; Stigum, Vetle Malmer; Aas, Anders Bjørnsgaard; Meisingset, Erling L; Viljugrein, Hildegunn

    2016-06-16

    Global environmental changes are causing Lyme disease to emerge in Europe. The life cycle of Ixodes ricinus, the tick vector of Lyme disease, involves an ontogenetic niche shift, from the larval and nymphal stages utilizing a wide range of hosts, picking up the pathogens causing Lyme disease from small vertebrates, to the adult stage depending on larger (non-transmission) hosts, typically deer. Because of this complexity the role of different host species for emergence of Lyme disease remains controversial. Here, by analysing long-term data on incidence in humans over a broad geographical scale in Norway, we show that both high spatial and temporal deer population density increase Lyme disease incidence. However, the trajectories of deer population sizes play an overall limited role for the recent emergence of the disease. Our study suggests that managing deer populations will have some effect on disease incidence, but that Lyme disease may nevertheless increase as multiple drivers are involved.

  13. Contrasting emergence of Lyme disease across ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Mysterud, Atle; Easterday, William Ryan; Stigum, Vetle Malmer; Aas, Anders Bjørnsgaard; Meisingset, Erling L.; Viljugrein, Hildegunn

    2016-01-01

    Global environmental changes are causing Lyme disease to emerge in Europe. The life cycle of Ixodes ricinus, the tick vector of Lyme disease, involves an ontogenetic niche shift, from the larval and nymphal stages utilizing a wide range of hosts, picking up the pathogens causing Lyme disease from small vertebrates, to the adult stage depending on larger (non-transmission) hosts, typically deer. Because of this complexity the role of different host species for emergence of Lyme disease remains controversial. Here, by analysing long-term data on incidence in humans over a broad geographical scale in Norway, we show that both high spatial and temporal deer population density increase Lyme disease incidence. However, the trajectories of deer population sizes play an overall limited role for the recent emergence of the disease. Our study suggests that managing deer populations will have some effect on disease incidence, but that Lyme disease may nevertheless increase as multiple drivers are involved. PMID:27306947

  14. Social inequalities and emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, P.

    1996-01-01

    Although many who study emerging infections subscribe to social-production-of-disease theories, few have examined the contribution of social inequalities to disease emergence. Yet such inequalities have powerfully sculpted not only the distribution of infectious diseases, but also the course of disease in those affected. Outbreaks of Ebola, AIDS, and tuberculosis suggest that models of disease emergence need to be dynamic, systemic, and critical. Such models--which strive to incorporate change and complexity, and are global yet alive to local variation--are critical of facile claims of causality, particularly those that scant the pathogenic roles of social inequalities. Critical perspectives on emerging infections ask how large-scale social forces influence unequally positioned individuals in increasingly interconnected populations; a critical epistemology of emerging infectious diseases asks what features of disease emergence are obscured by dominant analytic frameworks. Research questions stemming from such a reexamination of disease emergence would demand close collaboration between basic scientists, clinicians, and the social scientists and epidemiologists who adopt such perspectives. PMID:8969243

  15. Parasitic, fungal and prion zoonoses: an expanding universe of candidates for human disease.

    PubMed

    Akritidis, N

    2011-03-01

    Zoonotic infections have emerged as a burden for millions of people in recent years, owing to re-emerging or novel pathogens often causing outbreaks in the developing world in the presence of inadequate public health infrastructure. Among zoonotic infections, those caused by parasitic pathogens are the ones that affect millions of humans worldwide, who are also at risk of developing chronic disease. The present review discusses the global effect of protozoan pathogens such as Leishmania sp., Trypanosoma sp., and Toxoplasma sp., as well as helminthic pathogens such as Echinococcus sp., Fasciola sp., and Trichinella sp. The zoonotic aspects of agents that are not essentially zoonotic are also discussed. The review further focuses on the zoonotic dynamics of fungal pathogens and prion diseases as observed in recent years, in an evolving environment in which novel patient target groups have developed for agents that were previously considered to be obscure or of minimal significance.

  16. Host behaviour–parasite feedback: an essential link between animal behaviour and disease ecology

    PubMed Central

    Archie, Elizabeth A.; Craft, Meggan E.; Hawley, Dana M.; Martin, Lynn B.; Moore, Janice; White, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Animal behaviour and the ecology and evolution of parasites are inextricably linked. For this reason, animal behaviourists and disease ecologists have been interested in the intersection of their respective fields for decades. Despite this interest, most research at the behaviour–disease interface focuses either on how host behaviour affects parasites or how parasites affect behaviour, with little overlap between the two. Yet, the majority of interactions between hosts and parasites are probably reciprocal, such that host behaviour feeds back on parasites and vice versa. Explicitly considering these feedbacks is essential for understanding the complex connections between animal behaviour and parasite ecology and evolution. To illustrate this point, we discuss how host behaviour–parasite feedbacks might operate and explore the consequences of feedback for studies of animal behaviour and parasites. For example, ignoring the feedback of host social structure on parasite dynamics can limit the accuracy of predictions about parasite spread. Likewise, considering feedback in studies of parasites and animal personalities may provide unique insight about the maintenance of variation in personality types. Finally, applying the feedback concept to links between host behaviour and beneficial, rather than pathogenic, microbes may shed new light on transitions between mutualism and parasitism. More generally, accounting for host behaviour–parasite feedbacks can help identify critical gaps in our understanding of how key host behaviours and parasite traits evolve and are maintained. PMID:27053751

  17. Host behaviour-parasite feedback: an essential link between animal behaviour and disease ecology.

    PubMed

    Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Archie, Elizabeth A; Craft, Meggan E; Hawley, Dana M; Martin, Lynn B; Moore, Janice; White, Lauren

    2016-04-13

    Animal behaviour and the ecology and evolution of parasites are inextricably linked. For this reason, animal behaviourists and disease ecologists have been interested in the intersection of their respective fields for decades. Despite this interest, most research at the behaviour-disease interface focuses either on how host behaviour affects parasites or how parasites affect behaviour, with little overlap between the two. Yet, the majority of interactions between hosts and parasites are probably reciprocal, such that host behaviour feeds back on parasites and vice versa. Explicitly considering these feedbacks is essential for understanding the complex connections between animal behaviour and parasite ecology and evolution. To illustrate this point, we discuss how host behaviour-parasite feedbacks might operate and explore the consequences of feedback for studies of animal behaviour and parasites. For example, ignoring the feedback of host social structure on parasite dynamics can limit the accuracy of predictions about parasite spread. Likewise, considering feedback in studies of parasites and animal personalities may provide unique insight about the maintenance of variation in personality types. Finally, applying the feedback concept to links between host behaviour and beneficial, rather than pathogenic, microbes may shed new light on transitions between mutualism and parasitism. More generally, accounting for host behaviour-parasite feedbacks can help identify critical gaps in our understanding of how key host behaviours and parasite traits evolve and are maintained.

  18. Helminthic eosinophilic meningitis: emerging zoonotic diseases in the South.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2008-01-01

    Today most emerging infectious diseases, such as West Nile virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), arise in the natural environment as zoonoses and are often imported into the United States (US). The most common helminthic infections that can cause eosinophilic meningitis (EoM) in the US, neuroangiostrongyliasis and baylisascariasis, share many of the characteristics of emerging infectious diseases. Neuroangiostrongyliasis, a rodent zoonosis caused by the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is now endemic in the US following the importation of infected rats on container ships and African land snails, the parasite's intermediate hosts, as biological controls and exotic pets. Baylisascariasis, a raccoon zoonosis, caused by the raccoon roundworm, Baylisascaris procyonis, has extended its US distribution range from suburban neighborhoods in the northern US to the Southeast and West Coast since the 1980s. Both A. cantonensis and B. procyonis are now enzootic in Louisiana and have caused EoM in humans. This review analyzes scientific articles selected by MEDLINE search, 1966-2008, in order to assess the evolving epidemiology of EoM in the US, and specifically in Louisiana; and to alert Louisiana clinicians to populations at increased risk of helminthic EoM as a result of age, ethnicity, lifestyle, food choices, location of permanent residence, or recent travel in the Americas or Caribbean. Most parasitic diseases causing EoM are no longer confined to tropical countries; they are now endemic in the US and in Louisiana and more cases may be anticipated.

  19. [Control situation and primary task of key parasitic diseases in China].

    PubMed

    Lei, Zheng-long; Wang, Li-ying

    2012-02-29

    In the "11th Five-year Plan" period, China unveiled a mid-term planning on the control of the key parasitic diseases, including schistosomiasis, malaria, echinococcosis (hydatid disease), as well as some other parasitic diseases. It clarifies the goals on the control of the major parasitic diseases in the national control program during the "12th Five-year' Plan" period (2011-2015) , formulates current main tasks based on analyzing the progress of the national control program on key parasitic diseases, in order to meet the challenges appearing in the future implementation.

  20. Major parasitic diseases of poverty in mainland China: perspectives for better control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Lei; Li, Ting-Ting; Huang, Si-Yang; Cong, Wei; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-08-01

    Significant progress has been made in the prevention, control, and elimination of human parasitic diseases in China in the past 60 years. However, parasitic diseases of poverty remain major causes of morbidity and mortality, and inflict enormous economic costs on societies.In this article, we review the prevalence rates, geographical distributions, epidemic characteristics, risk factors, and clinical manifestations of parasitic diseases of poverty listed in the first issue of the journal Infectious Diseases of Poverty on 25 October 2012. We also address the challenges facing control of parasitic diseases of poverty and provide suggestions for better control.

  1. Emerging diseases in Chiroptera: why bats?

    PubMed

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Moore, Marianne S; Schountz, Tony; Voigt, Christian C

    2010-08-23

    A conference entitled '2nd International Berlin Bat Meeting: Bat Biology and Infectious Diseases' was held between the 19 and 21 of February 2010 in Berlin, Germany. Researchers from two major disciplines, bat biologists and disease specialists, met for the first time in an interdisciplinary event to share their knowledge about bat-associated diseases. The focus of the meeting was to understand why in particular bats are the hosts of so many of the most virulent diseases globally. During several sessions, key note speakers and participants discussed infectious diseases associated with bats, including viral diseases caused by Henipa-, Filo-, Corona- and Lyssaviruses, the spread of white-nose syndrome in North American bats, bat immunology/immunogenetics, bat parasites, and finally, conservation and human health issues.

  2. [Status and future focus of the national control program on parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Xiao-Nong, Zhou

    2011-10-01

    The achievements and challenges in the national control program on parasitic diseases in PR China were presented after trend analysis of the national and international control activities and programs. The future focus on research and control of parasitic diseases in PR China was put forward in order to achieve the long-term goal of eliminating the parasitic diseases as public health problem in the country.

  3. [Spreading experience of demonstration plots and strengthening control of parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Yu, Wang

    2011-10-01

    This paper summarizes the achievements and experiences of demonstration plots carrying out comprehensive control measures of parasite diseases in China, and elaborates the hard task of the control of parasitic diseases as one of main public health problems. The article also elaborates the significance of spreading the experiences of demonstration plots carrying out comprehensive control measures of parasite diseases for improving the health of people and promoting the construction of new countryside.

  4. Viral, parasitic and prion diseases of farmed deer and bison.

    PubMed

    Haigh, J C; Mackintosh, C; Griffin, F

    2002-08-01

    The most important viral disease of farmed deer and bison is malignant catarrhal fever. The other herpesviruses which have been isolated from these species are briefly described. Other viral agents that are recognised in these animals, including adenovirus, parapox, foot and mouth disease, bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, bovine virus diarrhoea, rotavirus and coronavirus, are also discussed. Ectoparasites of importance in this group in various parts of the world include a variety of ticks, as well as lice, keds, Oestridae, mange mites and fire ants. Helminth parasites include liver flukes (Fascioloides and Fasciola), gastrointestinal nematodes of the family Trichostrongylidae, pulmonary lungworms of the genus Dictyocaulus and extra-pulmonary lungworms of the family Protostrongylidae. Chronic wasting disease is principally important in North America, where the disease occurs in wild cervids in a limited area and has been reported in farmed deer in a small number of states in the United States of America and one province in Canada. These diseases are summarised in terms of their classification, epidemiology, clinical signs, pathology, diagnosis, treatment and control.

  5. Proliferative kidney disease in rainbow trout: time- and temperature-related renal pathology and parasite distribution.

    PubMed

    Bettge, Kathrin; Wahli, Thomas; Segner, Helmut; Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike

    2009-01-28

    Proliferative kidney disease is a parasitic infection of salmonid fishes caused by Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. The main target organ of the parasite in the fish is the kidney. To investigate the influence of water temperature on the disease in fish, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss infected with T bryosalmonae were kept at 12 degrees C and 18 degrees C. The number of parasites, the type and degree of lesions in the kidney and the mortality rate was evaluated from infection until full development of disease. While mortality stayed low at 12 degrees C, it reached 77% at 18 degrees C. At 12 degrees C, pathological lesions were dominated by a multifocal proliferative and granulomatous interstitial nephritis. This was accompanied by low numbers of T. bryosalmonae, mainly located in the interstitial lesions. With progression of the disease, small numbers of parasites appeared in the excretory tubuli, and parasite DNA was detected in the urine. Parasite degeneration in the interstitium was observed at late stages of the disease. At 18 degrees C, pathological lesions in kidneys were more severe and more widely distributed, and accompanied by significantly higher parasite numbers. Distribution of parasites in the renal compartments, onset of parasite degeneration and time course of appearance of parasite DNA in urine were not clearly different from the 12 degrees C group. These findings indicate that higher mortality at 18 degrees C compared to 12 degrees C is associated with an enhanced severity of renal pathology and increased parasite numbers.

  6. Emerging diseases in Chiroptera: why bats?

    PubMed Central

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Moore, Marianne S.; Schountz, Tony; Voigt, Christian C.

    2010-01-01

    A conference entitled ‘2nd International Berlin Bat Meeting: Bat Biology and Infectious Diseases’ was held between the 19 and 21 of February 2010 in Berlin, Germany. Researchers from two major disciplines, bat biologists and disease specialists, met for the first time in an interdisciplinary event to share their knowledge about bat-associated diseases. The focus of the meeting was to understand why in particular bats are the hosts of so many of the most virulent diseases globally. During several sessions, key note speakers and participants discussed infectious diseases associated with bats, including viral diseases caused by Henipa-, Filo-, Corona- and Lyssaviruses, the spread of white-nose syndrome in North American bats, bat immunology/immunogenetics, bat parasites, and finally, conservation and human health issues. PMID:20427329

  7. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands become infected with contagious or infectious diseases...

  8. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands become infected with contagious or infectious diseases...

  9. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands become infected with contagious or infectious diseases...

  10. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands become infected with contagious or infectious diseases...

  11. 25 CFR 168.15 - Control of livestock diseases and parasites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Control of livestock diseases and parasites. 168.15... REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.15 Control of livestock diseases and parasites. Whenever livestock within the Hopi Partitioned Lands become infected with contagious or infectious diseases...

  12. Commentary: Emerging and other communicable diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Heymann, D.; Dzenowagis, J.

    1998-01-01

    There is an increasing need for integrated, sustainable; and cost-effective approaches to the management of infectious diseases. For example, an emerging disease in one country may already be endemic in another country but nearing elimination in a third. A coordinated approach by WHO towards infectious diseases is therefore needed that will facilitate more effective support of on-going efforts for the prevention and control of endemic diseases, intensify efforts against those diseases targeted for eradication and elimination, and result in better preparedness and response to new and re-emerging diseases. In order to meet these challenges, WHO has created a new Programme on Communicable Diseases (CDS), which will replace the former Division of Emerging and other Communicable Diseases (EMC). The new Programme will better integrate surveillance, prevention, control, and research over the whole spectrum of communicable diseases. CDS will function as focal point for global data and information exchange on infectious diseases, and inter alia, will reinforce laboratory-based surveillance of bacterial, viral, and zoonotic diseases to ensure early detection of threats to international public health. Changes in susceptibility to infectious disease, increased opportunities for infection, and the ability of microbes to adapt rapidly will continue to challenge WHO to improve prevention and control of infectious diseases in the future by establishing strong partnerships with both the private and public sectors. PMID:10191549

  13. Entomophthoromycosis: a challenging emerging disease.

    PubMed

    El-Shabrawi, Mortada H F; Arnaout, Heba; Madkour, Lamiaa; Kamal, Naglaa Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    Entomophthoromycosis is a rare fungal infection that may affect immunocompetent hosts; predominantly in tropical and subtropical regions. Recently, the importance of this emerging mycosis has increased and the scope of its manifestations has been expanded. These manifestations; however, may masquerade as other clinical entities. Prompt diagnosis of this infection requires a high index of suspicion. Although histopathological examination and cultures are the gold standard diagnostic tools; molecular diagnosis is now available and started to play an important role. The cornerstone treatment is prolonged anti-fungal therapy along with surgical debridement. More awareness of this mycosis is warranted for definitive diagnosis and implementation of early proper therapeutic strategies.

  14. Patterns and processes of larval emergence in an estuarine parasite system.

    PubMed

    Fingerut, Jonathan T; Zimmer, Cheryl Ann; Zimmer, Richard K

    2003-10-01

    Trematode parasites in intertidal estuaries experience constantly varying conditions, with the presence or absence of water potentially limiting larval transport between hosts. Given the short life spans (< or =24 h) of cercariae, emergence timing should be optimized to enhance the probability of successful transmission. In the present study, field measurements and laboratory experiments identified processes that regulate the emergence of cercariae from their first intermediate snail hosts in an intertidal marsh. Larvae emerged over species-specific temperature ranges, exclusively during daylight hours, and only when snails were submerged. The three factors operate over different temporal scales: temperature monthly, light diurnally (24-h period), and water depth tidally (12-h period). Each stimulus creates a necessary condition for the next, forming a hierarchy of environmental cues. Emergence as the tide floods would favor transport within the estuary, and light may trigger direct (downward or upward) swimming toward host habitats. Abbreviated dispersal would retain asexually reproduced cercariae within the marsh, and local mixing would diversify the gene pool of larvae encysting on subsequent hosts. In contrast to the timing of cercarial release, emergence duration was under endogenous control. Duration of emergence decreased from sunrise to sunset, perhaps in response to the diminishing lighted interval as the day progresses. Circadian rhythms that control cercarial emergence of freshwater species (including schistosomes) are often set by the activity patterns of subsequent hosts. In this estuary, however, the synchronizing agent is the tides. Together, exogenous and endogenous factors control emergence of trematode cercariae, mitigating the vagaries of an intertidal environment.

  15. Emerging Infectious Diseases in Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Altantsetseg, Togoo; Oyungerel, Ravdan

    2003-01-01

    Since 1990, Mongolia’s health system has been in transition. Impressive gains have been accomplished through a national immunization program, which was instituted in 1991. Nevertheless, the country continues to confront four major chronic infections: hepatitis B and C, brucellosis, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). As of 2001, only two cases of HIV infections had been detected in Mongolia, but concern grows that the rate will increase along with the rising rates of STDs and increase in tourism. Other infectious diseases of importance in Mongolia include echinococcus, plague, tularemia, anthrax, foot-and-mouth, and rabies. PMID:14720388

  16. An emerging disease in blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new disorder was observed on southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids) in several southeastern states. Symptoms included irregularly shaped circular spots or blotches with green centers on the top and bottom of leaves. The disease was reported initially in the state ...

  17. Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Pieter T. J.; Preston, Daniel L.; Hoverman, Jason T.; LaFonte, Bryan E.

    2013-01-01

    Host–parasite interactions are embedded within complex communities composed of multiple host species and a cryptic assemblage of other parasites. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have explored the joint effects of host and parasite richness on disease risk, despite growing interest in the diversity–disease relationship. Here, we combined field surveys and mechanistic experiments to test how transmission of the virulent trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae was affected by the diversity of both amphibian hosts and coinfecting parasites. Within natural wetlands, host and parasite species richness correlated positively, consistent with theoretical predictions. Among sites that supported Ribeiroia, however, host and parasite richness interacted to negatively affect Ribeiroia transmission between its snail and amphibian hosts, particularly in species-poor assemblages. In laboratory and outdoor experiments designed to decouple the relative contributions of host and parasite diversity, increases in host richness decreased Ribeiroia infection by 11–65%. Host richness also tended to decrease total infections by other parasite species (four of six instances), such that more diverse host assemblages exhibited ∼40% fewer infections overall. Importantly, parasite richness further reduced both per capita and total Ribeiroia infection by 15–20%, possibly owing to intrahost competition among coinfecting species. These findings provide evidence that parasitic and free-living diversity jointly regulate disease risk, help to resolve apparent contradictions in the diversity–disease relationship, and emphasize the challenges of integrating research on coinfection and host heterogeneity to develop a community ecology-based approach to infectious diseases. PMID:24082092

  18. Infectious disease emergencies in primary care.

    PubMed

    Kwitkowski, V E; Demko, S G

    1999-01-01

    Infectious disease emergencies can be described as infectious processes that, if not recognized and treated immediately, can lead to significant morbidity or mortality. These emergencies can present as common or benign infections, fooling the primary care provider into using more conservative treatment strategies than are required. This review discusses the pathophysiology, history and physical findings, diagnostic criteria, and treatment strategies for the following infectious disease emergencies: acute bacterial meningitis, ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, meningococcemia, necrotizing soft tissue infections, toxic shock syndrome, food-borne illnesses, and infective endocarditis. Because most of the discussed infectious disease emergencies require hospital care, the primary care clinician must be able to judge when a referral to a specialist or a higher-level care facility is indicated.

  19. [Intestinal parasitic diseases in the Batken Region, Kyrgyz Republic].

    PubMed

    Toĭgombaeva, V S

    2009-01-01

    The paper compares the data of parasitological studies made according to the plan and epidemiological indications with the results of screening surveys of 1256 children from the Batken Region. The proportion of positive findings at the laboratories of therapeutic-and-prophylactic institutions was found to total 4.5%. According to the results of the screening surveys, the invasiveness was more than 100% with mixed invasions being kept in mind. Analysis of replies to questionnaires suggests that there was a high risk of infection in children. Thus, 84% of the respondents had bad habits; 62% did not wash fruits before eating. The Batken Region's population including 345984 persons was dehelmintized. The screening surveys carried out after dehelmintization revealed no ascarid eggs in 637 children. Health education on the prevention of parasitic diseases was simultaneously conducted.

  20. Emerging therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Karen; Koo, Edward H

    2014-01-01

    Despite decades of intense research, therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease (AD) are still limited to symptomatic treatments that possess only short-term efficacy. Recently, several large-scale Phase III trials targeting amyloid-β production or clearance have failed to show efficacy, leading to a reexamination of the amyloid hypothesis as well as highlighting the need to explore alternatives in both clinical testing strategies and drug discovery targets. In this review, we discuss therapeutics currently being tested in clinical trials and up-and-coming interventions that have shown promise in animal models, devoting attention to the mechanisms that may underlie their ability to influence disease progression and placing particular emphasis on tau therapeutics.

  1. Emerging concepts in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Vinters, Harry V

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease/senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (AD/SDAT) is the most common neuropathologic substrate of dementia. It is characterized by synapse loss (predominantly within neocortex) as well as deposition of certain distinctive lesions (the result of protein misfolding) throughout the brain. The latter include senile plaques, composed mainly of an amyloid (Aβ) core and a neuritic component; neurofibrillary tangles, composed predominantly of hyperphosphorylated tau; and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, a microangiopathy affecting both cerebral cortical capillaries and arterioles and resulting from Aβ deposition within their walls or (in the case of capillaries) immediately adjacent brain parenchyma. In this article, I discuss the hypothesized role these lesions play in causing cerebral dysfunction, as well as CSF and neuroimaging biomarkers (for dementia) that are especially relevant as immunotherapeutic approaches are being developed to remove Aβ from the brain parenchyma. In addition, I address the role of neuropathology in characterizing the sequelae of new AD/SDAT therapies and helping to validate CSF and neuroimaging biomarkers of disease. Comorbidity of AD/SDAT and various types of cerebrovascular disease is a major theme in dementia research, especially as cognitive impairment develops in the oldest old, who are especially vulnerable to ischemic and hemorrhagic brain lesions.

  2. Fascioliasis: a worldwide parasitic disease of importance in travel medicine.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Keyhan; Bargues, M Dolores; O'Neill, Sandra; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Fascioliasis is a foodborne zoonotic disease caused by the two parasite species Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. This trematodiasis has never been claimed special relevance for travellers and migrants. However, the situation has drastically changed in the last two decades, in a way that fascioliasis should today be included in the list of diseases to be enhanced in Travel Medicine. Different kind of travellers have been involved in human infection reports: business travellers, tourists, migrants, expatriated workers, military personnel, religious missionaries, and refugees. Europe is the continent where more imported cases have been reported in many countries. More cases would have been probably reported in Europe if fascioliasis would be a reportable disease. In the Americas, most of the reports concern cases diagnosed in USA. Relative few patients have been diagnosed in studies on travellers performed in Asia. In Africa, most cases were reported in Maghreb countries. Blood eosinophilia and the ingestion of watercress or any other suggestive freshwater plant in anamnesis are extremely useful in guiding towards a fascioliasis diagnosis in a developed country, although may not be so in human endemic areas of developing countries. Several suggestive clinical presentation aspects may be useful, although the clinical polymorphism may be misleading in many cases. Non-invasive techniques are helpful for the diagnosis, although images may lead to confusion. Laparoscopic visualization should assist and facilitate procurement of an accurately guided biopsy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the first choice in patients in the chronic phase. ERCP and sphincterotomy are used to extract parasites from the biliary tree. Fluke egg finding continues to be the gold standard and enables for burden quantification and establishing of the drug dose. Many serological and stool antigen detection tests have been developed. Immunological techniques present

  3. Global change, parasite transmission and disease control: lessons from ecology

    PubMed Central

    Boag, Brian; Ellison, Amy R.; Morgan, Eric R.; Murray, Kris; Pascoe, Emily L.; Sait, Steven M.; Booth, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Parasitic infections are ubiquitous in wildlife, livestock and human populations, and healthy ecosystems are often parasite rich. Yet, their negative impacts can be extreme. Understanding how both anticipated and cryptic changes in a system might affect parasite transmission at an individual, local and global level is critical for sustainable control in humans and livestock. Here we highlight and synthesize evidence regarding potential effects of ‘system changes’ (both climatic and anthropogenic) on parasite transmission from wild host–parasite systems. Such information could inform more efficient and sustainable parasite control programmes in domestic animals or humans. Many examples from diverse terrestrial and aquatic natural systems show how abiotic and biotic factors affected by system changes can interact additively, multiplicatively or antagonistically to influence parasite transmission, including through altered habitat structure, biodiversity, host demographics and evolution. Despite this, few studies of managed systems explicitly consider these higher-order interactions, or the subsequent effects of parasite evolution, which can conceal or exaggerate measured impacts of control actions. We call for a more integrated approach to investigating transmission dynamics, which recognizes these complexities and makes use of new technologies for data capture and monitoring, and to support robust predictions of altered parasite dynamics in a rapidly changing world. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission’. PMID:28289256

  4. Travel and the emergence of infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    Travel is a potent force in the emergence of disease. Migration of humans has been the pathway for disseminating infectious diseases throughout recorded history and will continue to shape the emergence, frequency, and spread of infections in geographic areas and populations. The current volume, speed, and reach of travel are unprecedented. The consequences of travel extend beyond the traveler to the population visited and the ecosystem. When they travel, humans carry their genetic makeup, immunologic sequelae of past infections, cultural preferences, customs, and behavioral patterns. Microbes, animals, and other biologic life also accompany them. Today's massive movement of humans and materials sets the stage for mixing diverse genetic pools at rates and in combinations previously unknown. Concomitant changes in the environment, climate, technology, land use, human behavior, and demographics converge to favor the emergence of infectious diseases caused by a broad range of organisms in humans, as well as in plants and animals. PMID:8903157

  5. Emerging and reemerging diseases of avian wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pello, Susan J.; Olsen, Glenn H.

    2013-01-01

    Of the many important avian wildlife diseases, aspergillosis, West Nile virus, avipoxvirus, Wellfleet Bay virus, avian influenza, and inclusion body disease of cranes are covered in this article. Wellfleet Bay virus, first identified in 2010, is considered an emerging disease. Avian influenza and West Nile virus have recently been in the public eye because of their zoonotic potential and links to wildlife. Several diseases labeled as reemerging are included because of recent outbreaks or, more importantly, recent research in areas such as genomics, which shed light on the mechanisms whereby these adaptable, persistent pathogens continue to spread and thrive.

  6. Emerging infectious diseases and travel medicine.

    PubMed

    Ostroff, S M; Kozarsky, P

    1998-03-01

    International movement of individuals, populations, and products is one of the major factors associated with the emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases as the pace of global travel and commerce increases rapidly. Travel can be associated with disease emergence because (1) the disease arises in an area of heavy tourism, (2) tourists may be at heightened risk because of their activities, or (3) because they can act as vectors to transport the agent to new areas. Examples of recently recognized diseases with relationship to travel include HIV, Legionnaire's disease, cyclosporiasis, Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal, hantavirus, and variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease. Reemerging diseases include dengue fever, malaria, cholera, schistosomiasis, leptospirosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers. In addition, tuberculosis, drug-resistant shigellosis, and cholera have been major concerns in refugee and migrant populations. Because of the unique role of travel in emerging infections, efforts are underway to address this factor by agencies such as the CDC, WHO, the International Society of Travel Medicine, and the travel industry.

  7. Patterns of parasite transmission in polar seas: Daily rhythms of cercarial emergence from intertidal snails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokofiev, Vladimir V.; Galaktionov, Kirill V.; Levakin, Ivan A.

    2016-07-01

    Trematodes are common parasites in intertidal ecosystems. Cercariae, their dispersive larvae, ensure transmission of infection from the first intermediate molluscan host to the second intermediate (invertebrates and fishes) or the final (fishes, marine birds and mammals) host. Trematode transmission in polar seas, while interesting in many respects, is poorly studied. This study aimed to elucidate the patterns of cercarial emergence from intertidal snails at the White Sea and Barents Sea. The study, involving cercariae of 12 species, has provided the most extensive material obtained so far in high latitude seas (66-69° N). The experiments were conducted in situ. Multichannel singular spectral analysis (MSSA) used for processing primary data made it possible to estimate the relative contribution of different oscillations into the analysed time series and to separate the daily component from the other oscillatory components and the noise. Cercarial emergence had pronounced daily rhythms, which did not depend on the daily tidal schedule but were regulated by thermo- and photoperiod. Daily emergence maximums coincided with periods favourable for infecting the second intermediate hosts. Cercarial daily emergence rhythms differed in species using the same molluscan hosts which can be explained by cercarial host searching behaviour. Daily cercarial output (DCO) correlated negatively with larval volume and positively with that of the molluscan host except in cercariae using ambuscade behaviour. In the Barents Sea cercariae emerged from their molluscan hosts at lower temperatures than in the warmer White Sea but the daily emergence period was prolonged. Thus, DCO of related species were similar in these two seas and comparable with DCO values reported for boreal seas. Local temperature adaptations in cercarial emergence suggests that in case of Arctic climate warming trematode transmission in coastal ecosystems is likely to be intensified not because of the increased

  8. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Morse, S. S.

    1995-01-01

    "Emerging" infectious diseases can be defined as infections that have newly appeared in a population or have existed but are rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range. Among recent examples are HIV/AIDS, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Lyme disease, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (a foodborne infection caused by certain strains of Escherichia coli). Specific factors precipitating disease emergence can be identified in virtually all cases. These include ecological, environmental, or demographic factors that place people at increased contact with a previously unfamiliar microbe or its natural host or promote dissemination. These factors are increasing in prevalence; this increase, together with the ongoing evolution of viral and microbial variants and selection for drug resistance, suggests that infections will continue to emerge and probably increase and emphasizes the urgent need for effective surveillance and control. Dr. David Satcher's article and this overview inaugurate Perspectives, a regular section in this journal intended to present and develop unifying concepts and strategies for considering emerging infections and their underlying factors. The editors welcome, as contributions to the Perspectives section, overviews, syntheses, and case studies that shed light on how and why infections emerge, and how they may be anticipated and prevented. PMID:8903148

  9. Waiting time to infectious disease emergence

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Emerging diseases must make a transition from stuttering chains of transmission to sustained chains of transmission, but this critical transition need not coincide with the system becoming supercritical. That is, the introduction of infection to a supercritical system results in a significant fraction of the population becoming infected only with a certain probability. Understanding the waiting time to the first major outbreak of an emerging disease is then more complicated than determining when the system becomes supercritical. We treat emergence as a dynamic bifurcation, and use the concept of bifurcation delay to understand the time to emergence after a system becomes supercritical. Specifically, we consider an SIR model with a time-varying transmission term and random infections originating from outside the population. We derive an analytic density function for the delay times and find it to be, in general, in agreement with stochastic simulations. We find the key parameters to be the rate of introduction of infection and the rate of change of the basic reproductive ratio. These findings aid our understanding of real emergence events, and can be incorporated into early-warning systems aimed at forecasting disease risk. PMID:27798277

  10. Impacts of parasite infection on columnaris disease of tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is no information available on whether parasite infection will increase the susceptibility of tilapia to Flavobacterium columnare and whether parasite treatment could improve fish survival after F. columnare exposure. Two trials were conducted to evaluate 1) the susceptibility of hybrid tilapi...

  11. Effect of Biodiversity Changes in Disease Risk: Exploring Disease Emergence in a Plant-Virus System

    PubMed Central

    Pagán, Israel; González-Jara, Pablo; Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra; Rodelo-Urrego, Manuel; Fraile, Aurora; Piñero, Daniel; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The effect of biodiversity on the ability of parasites to infect their host and cause disease (i.e. disease risk) is a major question in pathology, which is central to understand the emergence of infectious diseases, and to develop strategies for their management. Two hypotheses, which can be considered as extremes of a continuum, relate biodiversity to disease risk: One states that biodiversity is positively correlated with disease risk (Amplification Effect), and the second predicts a negative correlation between biodiversity and disease risk (Dilution Effect). Which of them applies better to different host-parasite systems is still a source of debate, due to limited experimental or empirical data. This is especially the case for viral diseases of plants. To address this subject, we have monitored for three years the prevalence of several viruses, and virus-associated symptoms, in populations of wild pepper (chiltepin) under different levels of human management. For each population, we also measured the habitat species diversity, host plant genetic diversity and host plant density. Results indicate that disease and infection risk increased with the level of human management, which was associated with decreased species diversity and host genetic diversity, and with increased host plant density. Importantly, species diversity of the habitat was the primary predictor of disease risk for wild chiltepin populations. This changed in managed populations where host genetic diversity was the primary predictor. Host density was generally a poorer predictor of disease and infection risk. These results support the dilution effect hypothesis, and underline the relevance of different ecological factors in determining disease/infection risk in host plant populations under different levels of anthropic influence. These results are relevant for managing plant diseases and for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species. PMID:22792068

  12. Effect of biodiversity changes in disease risk: exploring disease emergence in a plant-virus system.

    PubMed

    Pagán, Israel; González-Jara, Pablo; Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra; Rodelo-Urrego, Manuel; Fraile, Aurora; Piñero, Daniel; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The effect of biodiversity on the ability of parasites to infect their host and cause disease (i.e. disease risk) is a major question in pathology, which is central to understand the emergence of infectious diseases, and to develop strategies for their management. Two hypotheses, which can be considered as extremes of a continuum, relate biodiversity to disease risk: One states that biodiversity is positively correlated with disease risk (Amplification Effect), and the second predicts a negative correlation between biodiversity and disease risk (Dilution Effect). Which of them applies better to different host-parasite systems is still a source of debate, due to limited experimental or empirical data. This is especially the case for viral diseases of plants. To address this subject, we have monitored for three years the prevalence of several viruses, and virus-associated symptoms, in populations of wild pepper (chiltepin) under different levels of human management. For each population, we also measured the habitat species diversity, host plant genetic diversity and host plant density. Results indicate that disease and infection risk increased with the level of human management, which was associated with decreased species diversity and host genetic diversity, and with increased host plant density. Importantly, species diversity of the habitat was the primary predictor of disease risk for wild chiltepin populations. This changed in managed populations where host genetic diversity was the primary predictor. Host density was generally a poorer predictor of disease and infection risk. These results support the dilution effect hypothesis, and underline the relevance of different ecological factors in determining disease/infection risk in host plant populations under different levels of anthropic influence. These results are relevant for managing plant diseases and for establishing conservation policies for endangered plant species.

  13. Emerging Therapeutic Approaches to Mitochondrial Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenz, Tina; Williams, Sion L.; Bacman, Sandra R.; Moraes, Carlos T.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are very heterogeneous and can affect different tissues and organs. Moreover, they can be caused by genetic defects in either nuclear or mitochondrial DNA as well as by environmental factors. All of these factors have made the development of therapies difficult. In this review article, we will discuss emerging approaches to…

  14. Emergence of resistance to atovaquone-proguanil in malaria parasites: insights from computational modeling and clinical case reports.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Gilles; Musset, Lise; Hubert, Véronique; Le Bras, Jacques; Clain, Jérôme

    2014-08-01

    The usefulness of atovaquone-proguanil (AP) as an antimalarial treatment is compromised by the emergence of atovaquone resistance during therapy. However, the origin of the parasite mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation conferring atovaquone resistance remains elusive. Here, we report a patient-based stochastic model that tracks the intrahost emergence of mutations in the multicopy mtDNA during the first erythrocytic parasite cycles leading to the malaria febrile episode. The effect of mtDNA copy number, mutation rate, mutation cost, and total parasite load on the mutant parasite load per patient was evaluated. Computer simulations showed that almost any infected patient carried, after four to seven erythrocytic cycles, de novo mutant parasites at low frequency, with varied frequencies of parasites carrying varied numbers of mutant mtDNA copies. A large interpatient variability in the size of this mutant reservoir was found; this variability was due to the different parameters tested but also to the relaxed replication and partitioning of mtDNA copies during mitosis. We also report seven clinical cases in which AP-resistant infections were treated by AP. These provided evidence that parasiticidal drug concentrations against AP-resistant parasites were transiently obtained within days after treatment initiation. Altogether, these results suggest that each patient carries new mtDNA mutant parasites that emerge before treatment but are killed by high starting drug concentrations. However, because the size of this mutant reservoir is highly variable from patient to patient, we propose that some patients fail to eliminate all of the mutant parasites, repeatedly producing de novo AP treatment failures.

  15. Emergence of Resistance to Atovaquone-Proguanil in Malaria Parasites: Insights from Computational Modeling and Clinical Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Musset, Lise; Hubert, Véronique; Le Bras, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    The usefulness of atovaquone-proguanil (AP) as an antimalarial treatment is compromised by the emergence of atovaquone resistance during therapy. However, the origin of the parasite mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation conferring atovaquone resistance remains elusive. Here, we report a patient-based stochastic model that tracks the intrahost emergence of mutations in the multicopy mtDNA during the first erythrocytic parasite cycles leading to the malaria febrile episode. The effect of mtDNA copy number, mutation rate, mutation cost, and total parasite load on the mutant parasite load per patient was evaluated. Computer simulations showed that almost any infected patient carried, after four to seven erythrocytic cycles, de novo mutant parasites at low frequency, with varied frequencies of parasites carrying varied numbers of mutant mtDNA copies. A large interpatient variability in the size of this mutant reservoir was found; this variability was due to the different parameters tested but also to the relaxed replication and partitioning of mtDNA copies during mitosis. We also report seven clinical cases in which AP-resistant infections were treated by AP. These provided evidence that parasiticidal drug concentrations against AP-resistant parasites were transiently obtained within days after treatment initiation. Altogether, these results suggest that each patient carries new mtDNA mutant parasites that emerge before treatment but are killed by high starting drug concentrations. However, because the size of this mutant reservoir is highly variable from patient to patient, we propose that some patients fail to eliminate all of the mutant parasites, repeatedly producing de novo AP treatment failures. PMID:24867967

  16. Ocular parasitic diseases: a review on toxocariasis and diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Rafael T; Ramirez, Gema; Collet, Lucienne; Giuliari, Gian Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Parasitic infections may damage various ocular tissues, thereby causing visual dysfunction. In 1950, Wilder described the first case in which larval forms of nematodal intestinal roundworms (Ascaridoidea: Ascaris, Toxocara, Ancylostoma, Necator, and Strongyloides) were implicated as a cause of intraocular disease. This review focuses on two disorders associated with parasitic infections: ocular toxocariasis and diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis.

  17. Interest of antioxidant agents in parasitic diseases. The case study of coumarins.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Guiñez, Roberto; Matos, Maria João; Vazquez-Rodriguez, Saleta; Santana, Lourdes; Uriarte, Eugenio; Borges, Fernanda; Olea-Azar, Claudio; Maya, Juan Diego

    2015-01-01

    Tropical parasitic diseases, especially those produced by protozoan parasites, are a major public health problem in many countries, and their impact in the health burden is significant. Oxidative processes proved to be related to these diseases, being the antioxidant agents promising therapeutic solutions for them. Therefore, this review provides an overview of published manuscripts regarding both activities. In particular, the interest of the coumarin derivatives as antioxidant agents with application in parasitic diseases is discussed in this manuscript. The recent findings in this field are highlighted.

  18. Gene-deleted live-attenuated Trypanosoma cruzi parasites as vaccines to protect against Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Valdéz, Fernando J; Pérez Brandán, Cecilia; Ferreira, Arturo; Basombrío, Miguel Ángel

    2015-05-01

    Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. This illness is now becoming global, mainly due to congenital transmission, and so far, there are no prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines available to either prevent or treat Chagas disease. Therefore, different approaches aimed at identifying new protective immunogens are urgently needed. Live vaccines are likely to be more efficient in inducing protection, but safety issues linked with their use have been raised. The development of improved protozoan genetic manipulation tools and genomic and biological information has helped to increase the safety of live vaccines. These advances have generated a renewed interest in the use of genetically attenuated parasites as vaccines against Chagas disease. This review discusses the protective capacity of genetically attenuated parasite vaccines and the challenges and perspectives for the development of an effective whole-parasite Chagas disease vaccine.

  19. Accelerated vaccine development against emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Pierre R; Yuan, Jianping; Brauns, Tim; Gelfand, Jeffrey A; Poznansky, Mark C

    2012-07-01

    Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases represent a major challenge to vaccine development since it involves two seemingly contradictory requirements. Rapid and flexible vaccine generation while using technologies and processes that can facilitate accelerated regulatory review. Development in the "-omics" in combination with advances in vaccinology offer novel opportunities to meet these requirements. Here we describe how a consortium of five different organizations from academia and industry is addressing these challenges. This novel approach has the potential to become the new standard in vaccine development allowing timely deployment to avert potential pandemics.

  20. Disease emergence and resurgence: Chapter 2 in Disease emergence and resurgence: The wildlife-human connection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton

    2006-01-01

    A profusion of emerging diseases has affected humans since the early 1980s, and pathogens of animal origin or products of animal origin cause many of these.2 Some of these diseases had not been established previously, such as AIDS, and others are a resurgence of diseases thought to have been controlled, such as tuberculosis in developed nations. This change in the status of diseases affecting humans has resulted in emerging infections becoming a focus for national and global attention (Box 2–1).Emerging and reemerging diseases have generally been defined as infectious diseases of humans whose occurrence during the past two decades has substantially increased or threatens to increase in the near future relative to populations affected, geographic distribution, or magnitude of impacts.3–5 This concept has been expanded to also include other species and noninfectious diseases.6–8 Disease emergence and reemergence are affecting a wide variety of species on a global scale. An overview of the scope of this problem is provided to increase awareness of the role of wildlife in the ecology of emerging/reemerging diseases and to explore some of the primary factors involved.

  1. [Use of geographical information systems in parasitic diseases and the importance of animal health economics].

    PubMed

    Ciçek, Hasan; Ciçek, Hatice; Senkul, Cetin; Tandoğan, Murat

    2008-01-01

    In the world, economical losses due to the parasitic diseases reach enormous ratios in animal production. Both developed and developing countries set aside a considerable budget to control these parasitic diseases. This situation aids in the improvement of control methods of parasitic diseases. Also, it causes new ways of investigation that includes observation, evaluation and prevention of parasitic diseases. The Geographical Information System (GIS) has recently become one of the most common methods utilized to provide disease information technology with computer supported technology in many countries. The most important qualities of GIS are the formation of a powerful database, continual updating and rapid provision of coordination related to units. Many factors are evaluated at the same time by the system and also, results from analysis of data related to disease and their causes could reduce or prevent economical losses due to parasitic disease. In this study, possible uses of Geographical Information Systems against parasitic diseases and an approach in terms of animal health economics were presented.

  2. Hymenolepis nana Impact Among Children in the Highlands of Cusco, Peru: An Emerging Neglected Parasite Infection.

    PubMed

    Cabada, Miguel M; Morales, Maria Luisa; Lopez, Martha; Reynolds, Spencer T; Vilchez, Elizabeth C; Lescano, Andres G; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Garcia, Hector Hugo; White, Clinton A

    2016-11-02

    Hymenolepis nana is the most common cestode infection in the world. However, limited information is available regarding its impact on affected populations. We studied the epidemiology and symptoms associated with hymenolepiasis among children 3-16 years old in 16 rural communities of the highlands of the Cusco region in Peru. Information on demographics, socioeconomic status, symptoms as reported by parents, and parasitological testing was obtained from the database of an ongoing Fasciola hepatica epidemiologic study. A total of 1,230 children were included in the study. Forty-five percent were infected with at least one pathogenic intestinal parasite. Giardia spp. (22.9%) was the most common, followed by Hymenolepis (17.4%), Fasciola (14.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6.1%), and Strongyloides stercoralis (2%). The prevalence of Hymenolepis infection varied by community, by other parasitic infections, and by socioeconomic status. However, only years of education of the mother, use of well water, and age less than 10 years were associated with Hymenolepis infection in the multivariate analysis. Hymenolepis nana infection was associated with diarrhea, jaundice, headaches, fever, and fatigue. Children with > 500 eggs/g of stool were more likely to have symptoms of weight loss, jaundice, diarrhea, and fever. Hymenolepis nana infection and age were the only factors retained in the multivariate analysis modeling diarrhea. Hymenolepiasis is a common gastrointestinal helminth in the Cusco region and is associated with significant morbidity in children in rural communities. The impact caused by the emergence of Hymenolepis as a prevalent intestinal parasite deserves closer scrutiny.

  3. Other vector-borne parasitic diseases: animal helminthiases, bovine besnoitiosis and malaria.

    PubMed

    Duvallet, G; Boireau, P

    2015-08-01

    The parasitic diseases discussed elsewhere in this issue of the Scientific and Technical Review are not the only ones to make use of biological vectors (such as mosquitoes or ticks) or mechanical vectors (such as horse flies or Stomoxys flies). The authors discuss two major groups of vector-borne parasitic diseases: firstly, helminthiasis, along with animal filariasis and onchocerciasis, which are parasitic diseases that often take a heavytoll on artiodactylsthroughoutthe world; secondly, parasitic diseases caused by vector-borne protists, foremost of which is bovine besnoitiosis (or anasarca of cattle), which has recently spread through Europe by a dual mode of transmission (direct and by vector). Other protists, such as Plasmodium and Hepatozoon, are also described briefly.

  4. Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system: lessons for clinicians and policy makers.

    PubMed

    Carpio, Arturo; Romo, Matthew L; Parkhouse, R M E; Short, Brooke; Dua, Tarun

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system are associated with high mortality and morbidity, especially in resource-limited settings. The burden of these diseases is amplified as survivors are often left with neurologic sequelae affecting mobility, sensory organs, and cognitive functions, as well as seizures/epilepsy. These diseases inflict suffering by causing lifelong disabilities, reducing economic productivity, and causing social stigma. The complexity of parasitic life cycles and geographic specificities, as well as overlapping clinical manifestations in the host reflecting the diverse pathogenesis of parasites, can present diagnostic challenges. We herein provide an overview of these parasitic diseases and summarize clinical aspects, diagnosis, therapeutic strategies and recent milestones, and aspects related to prevention and control.

  5. Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system: lessons for clinicians and policy makers

    PubMed Central

    Carpio, Arturo; Romo, Matthew L.; Parkhouse, R. M. E.; Short, Brooke; Dua, Tarun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system are associated with high mortality and morbidity, especially in resource-limited settings. The burden of these diseases is amplified as survivors are often left with neurologic sequelae affecting mobility, sensory organs, and cognitive functions, as well as seizures/epilepsy. These diseases inflict suffering by causing lifelong disabilities, reducing economic productivity, and causing social stigma. The complexity of parasitic life cycles and geographic specificities, as well as overlapping clinical manifestations in the host reflecting the diverse pathogenesis of parasites, can present diagnostic challenges. We herein provide an overview of these parasitic diseases and summarize clinical aspects, diagnosis, therapeutic strategies and recent milestones, and aspects related to prevention and control. PMID:26894629

  6. Emerging infectious diseases – 1970s

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Forty years ago is not ancient history in the medical field. However, being an eye witness to the emergence of three new infectious diseases in the northeastern United States in the 1970s left a deep impression on this author. I will relate a small portion of the amazing events that caught the attention of the medical establishment and the general public in a roughly 5-year period of medical discovery. PMID:27802859

  7. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter J; Winton, James R

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.

  8. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winton, James R.; Walker, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.

  9. A preface on advances in diagnostics for infectious and parasitic diseases: detecting parasites of medical and veterinary importance.

    PubMed

    Stothard, J Russell; Adams, Emily

    2014-12-01

    There are many reasons why detection of parasites of medical and veterinary importance is vital and where novel diagnostic and surveillance tools are required. From a medical perspective alone, these originate from a desire for better clinical management and rational use of medications. Diagnosis can be at the individual-level, at close to patient settings in testing a clinical suspicion or at the community-level, perhaps in front of a computer screen, in classification of endemic areas and devising appropriate control interventions. Thus diagnostics for parasitic diseases has a broad remit as parasites are not only tied with their definitive hosts but also in some cases with their vectors/intermediate hosts. Application of current diagnostic tools and decision algorithms in sustaining control programmes, or in elimination settings, can be problematic and even ill-fitting. For example in resource-limited settings, are current diagnostic tools sufficiently robust for operational use at scale or are they confounded by on-the-ground realities; are the diagnostic algorithms underlying public health interventions always understood and well-received within communities which are targeted for control? Within this Special Issue (SI) covering a variety of diseases and diagnostic settings some answers are forthcoming. An important theme, however, throughout the SI is to acknowledge that cross-talk and continuous feedback between development and application of diagnostic tests is crucial if they are to be used effectively and appropriately.

  10. Genetic Variability of the Neogregarine Apicystis bombi, an Etiological Agent of an Emergent Bumblebee Disease

    PubMed Central

    Maebe, Kevin; Arbetman, Marina; Morales, Carolina; Graystock, Peter; Hughes, William O. H.; Plischuk, Santiago; Lange, Carlos E.; de Graaf, Dirk C.; Zapata, Nelson; de la Rosa, Jose Javier Perez; Murray, Tomás E.; Brown, Mark J. F.; Smagghe, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide spread of diseases is considered a major threat to biodiversity and a possible driver of the decline of pollinator populations, particularly when novel species or strains of parasites emerge. Previous studies have suggested that populations of introduced European honeybee (Apis mellifera) and bumblebee species (Bombus terrestris and Bombus ruderatus) in Argentina share the neogregarine parasite Apicystis bombi with the native bumblebee (Bombus dahlbomii). In this study we investigated whether A. bombi is acting as an emergent parasite in the non-native populations. Specifically, we asked whether A. bombi, recently identified in Argentina, was introduced by European, non-native bees. Using ITS1 and ITS2 to assess the parasite’s intraspecific genetic variation in bees from Argentina and Europe, we found a largely unstructured parasite population, with only 15% of the genetic variation being explained by geographic location. The most abundant haplotype in Argentina (found in all 9 specimens of non-native species) was identical to the most abundant haplotype in Europe (found in 6 out of 8 specimens). Similarly, there was no evidence of structuring by host species, with this factor explaining only 17% of the genetic variation. Interestingly, parasites in native Bombus ephippiatus from Mexico were genetically distant from the Argentine and European samples, suggesting that sufficient variability does exist in the ITS region to identify continent-level genetic structure in the parasite. Thus, the data suggest that A. bombi from Argentina and Europe share a common, relatively recent origin. Although our data did not provide information on the direction of transfer, the absence of genetic structure across space and host species suggests that A. bombi may be acting as an emergent infectious disease across bee taxa and continents. PMID:24324696

  11. Interacting parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitism is the most popular life-style on Earth, and many vertebrates host more than one kind of parasite at a time. A common assumption is that parasite species rarely interact, because they often exploit different tissues in a host, and this use of discrete resources limits competition (1). On page 243 of this issue, however, Telfer et al. (2) provide a convincing case of a highly interactive parasite community in voles, and show how infection with one parasite can affect susceptibility to others. If some human parasites are equally interactive, our current, disease-by-disease approach to modeling and treating infectious diseases is inadequate (3).

  12. Pathogen evolution and disease emergence in carnivores.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Alex J; Shaw, Marie-Anne; Goodman, Simon J

    2007-12-22

    Emerging infectious diseases constitute some of the most pressing problems for both human and domestic animal health, and biodiversity conservation. Currently it is not clear whether the removal of past constraints on geographical distribution and transmission possibilities for pathogens alone are sufficient to give rise to novel host-pathogen combinations, or whether pathogen evolution is also generally required for establishment in novel hosts. Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a morbillivirus that is prevalent in the world dog population and poses an important conservation threat to a diverse range of carnivores. We performed an extensive phylogenetic and molecular evolution analysis on complete sequences of all CDV genes to assess the role of selection and recombination in shaping viral genetic diversity and driving the emergence of CDV in non-dog hosts. We tested the specific hypothesis that molecular adaptation at known receptor-binding sites of the haemagglutinin gene is associated with independent instances of the spread of CDV to novel non-dog hosts in the wild. This hypothesis was upheld, providing compelling evidence that repeated evolution at known functional sites (in this case residues 530 and 549 of the haemagglutinin molecule) is associated with multiple independent occurrences of disease emergence in a range of novel host species.

  13. [Advances in research of dihydroartemisinin against parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Jun; Wang, Wei; Liang, You-Sheng

    2011-08-01

    Dihydroartemisinin, the main metabolite of artemisinin and two artemisinin derivatives, artemether and artesunate, is a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic drug. The present paper systematically reviews the advances in research of dihydroartemisinin against Plasmodium, Schistosoma, Pneumocystis, Toxoplasma, Trichomonas vaginalis, Leishmania, Giardia lamblia.

  14. Natural Products as Source of Therapeutics against Parasitic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hertweck, Christian

    2015-12-01

    An end to suffering: Parasitic infections with protozoa and worms cause unimaginable misery, in particular in the tropics. Fortunately, natural products, such as the antimalarial artemisinin (1) and the anthelmintic avermectin (2) were discovered and developed into therapeutics. These major achievements now culminated in the 2015 Nobel Prize for Medicine.

  15. Amplicon-Based Pyrosequencing Reveals High Diversity of Protistan Parasites in Ships' Ballast Water: Implications for Biogeography and Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Pagenkopp Lohan, K M; Fleischer, R C; Carney, K J; Holzer, K K; Ruiz, G M

    2016-04-01

    Ships' ballast water (BW) commonly moves macroorganisms and microorganisms across the world's oceans and along coasts; however, the majority of these microbial transfers have gone undetected. We applied high-throughput sequencing methods to identify microbial eukaryotes, specifically emphasizing the protistan parasites, in ships' BW collected from vessels calling to the Chesapeake Bay (Virginia and Maryland, USA) from European and Eastern Canadian ports. We utilized tagged-amplicon 454 pyrosequencing with two general primer sets, amplifying either the V4 or V9 domain of the small subunit (SSU) of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene complex, from total DNA extracted from water samples collected from the ballast tanks of bulk cargo vessels. We detected a diverse group of protistan taxa, with some known to contain important parasites in marine systems, including Apicomplexa (unidentified apicomplexans, unidentified gregarines, Cryptosporidium spp.), Dinophyta (Blastodinium spp., Euduboscquella sp., unidentified syndinids, Karlodinium spp., Syndinium spp.), Perkinsea (Parvilucifera sp.), Opisthokonta (Ichthyosporea sp., Pseudoperkinsidae, unidentified ichthyosporeans), and Stramenopiles (Labyrinthulomycetes). Further characterization of groups with parasitic taxa, consisting of phylogenetic analyses for four taxa (Cryptosporidium spp., Parvilucifera spp., Labyrinthulomycetes, and Ichthyosporea), revealed that sequences were obtained from both known and novel lineages. This study demonstrates that high-throughput sequencing is a viable and sensitive method for detecting parasitic protists when present and transported in the ballast water of ships. These data also underscore the potential importance of human-aided dispersal in the biogeography of these microbes and emerging diseases in the world's oceans.

  16. Emerging preclinical pharmacological targets for Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    More, Sandeep Vasant; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurological condition caused by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia. It is the most prevalent form of Parkinsonism, categorized by cardinal features such as bradykinesia, rigidity, tremors, and postural instability. Due to the multicentric pathology of PD involving inflammation, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, apoptosis, and protein aggregation, it has become difficult to pin-point a single therapeutic target and evaluate its potential application. Currently available drugs for treating PD provide only symptomatic relief and do not decrease or avert disease progression resulting in poor patient satisfaction and compliance. Significant amount of understanding concerning the pathophysiology of PD has offered a range of potential targets for PD. Several emerging targets including AAV-hAADC gene therapy, phosphodiesterase-4, potassium channels, myeloperoxidase, acetylcholinesterase, MAO-B, dopamine, A2A, mGlu5, and 5-HT-1A/1B receptors are in different stages of clinical development. Additionally, alternative interventions such as deep brain stimulation, thalamotomy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and gamma knife surgery, are also being developed for patients with advanced PD. As much as these therapeutic targets hold potential to delay the onset and reverse the disease, more targets and alternative interventions need to be examined in different stages of PD. In this review, we discuss various emerging preclinical pharmacological targets that may serve as a new promising neuroprotective strategy that could actually help alleviate PD and its symptoms. PMID:26988916

  17. Focus issue articles on emerging and re-emerging plant diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review sums up the key findings of seventeen articles on emerging and re-emerging plant diseases that are designated for the July focus issue in Phytopathology. The emerging and re-emerging diseases discussed include those caused by three viral, six fungal, five oomycete, and four bacterial pa...

  18. Cockle emergence at the sediment surface: 'favourization' mechanism by digenean parasites?

    PubMed

    Desclaux, C; de Montaudouin, X; Bachelet, G

    2002-11-22

    The aim of the present work was to assess the effect of digenean trematodes on indirect mortality of the cockle Cerastoderma edule, an infaunal bivalve. The tested hypothesis was that parasites altered the burrowing capacity of cockles and thus exposed them at the sediment surface, where they are more vulnerable to predators. If the predator is the final host, this mechanism, which drives the cockle out of the sediment, is considered as a 'favourization'. Cockle populations from 2 stations in Arcachon Bay (France)-Banc d'Arguin (oceanic situation) and La Canelette (lagoonal situation)--were sampled for 1 yr. At La Canelette, monitoring every 2 d showed that 50% of adult cockles regularly migrated to the sediment surface at a rate of 5 cockles m(-2) yr(-1) and disappeared in a few days. In the laboratory, 67% of these 'surface cockles' did not burrow again, suggesting that they would die in the field. Moreover, mortality measured after 7 d in the laboratory was 2 to 5 times higher than mortality of 'buried cockles', at both stations and particularly during summer. Species richness and abundance of digeneans from both stations were compared in 'buried' and 'surface' individuals to determine whether parasites played a role in cockle migration and mortality. Ten and 9 digeneans were found at Banc d'Arguin and La Canelette, respectively, with Himasthla quissetensis and Labratrema minimus being the most prevalent and abundant species at both stations. The abundance of H. quissetensis was slightly higher in surface cockles at Banc d'Arguin, but the difference fluctuated with station and cockle age (or size). L. minimus prevalence was only higher in surface cockles at La Canelette. In the latter station, we estimated that L. minimus and H. quissetensis were responsible for the emergence of 9 and 2%, respectively, of the buried cockles. Although this favourization mechanism may induce some mortality in cockles, it does not alone explain the magnitude of the observed

  19. Hospitalisation due to infectious and parasitic diseases in District Civil Hospital, Belgaum, Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Naik, A C; Bhat, S; Kholkute, S D

    2008-01-01

    To assess the burden of infectious and parasitic diseases on hospital services at District Civil Hospital (DCH) Belgaum, a retrospective study was carried out using discharge records concerning 8506 inpatients due to infectious and parasitic diseases among 95,655 patients admitted for all causes during the reference period 2000-2003. Out of the 21 causes of infectious and parasitic diseases, only 5 contributed maximally towards hospital admission. The most frequent cause was intestinal infections (44.0%) followed by tuberculosis (35.4%). 57.5% of these admissions were from the productive age group of 20-54 years. Tuberculosis is the most important disease in terms of hospital bed days (59.7%). Tuberculosis and intestinal infectious diseases represent more than three-fourth of the overall burden in terms of hospital bed days.

  20. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Peter J.; Winton, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change. PMID:20409453

  1. First Report of Aprostocetus asthenogmus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in South America and Parasitizing Eggs of Triatominae Vectors of Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Leite, Gustavo Rocha; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Rocha, Leonardo de Souza; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2014-01-01

    We report for the first time the parasitism of eggs of two triatomine Chagas disease vectors, Triatoma infestans and T. vitticeps, by the microhymenopterous parasitoid Aprostocetus asthenogmus. We also describe the first identification of this parasitoid in South America. A. asthenogmus were captured near unparasitized triatomine colonies in the municipality of Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, and placed into pots with recently laid triatomine eggs. After 24 days, we observed wasps emerging from T. infestans and T. vitticeps eggs. Several characteristics of this parasitoid species suggest that it could be a potential biological control agent of triatomine species. PMID:24575298

  2. Parasites: Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Water Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Parasites can live in natural water sources. When outdoors, treat your water before drinking ...

  3. Vaccine development for emerging virulent infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Joel N

    2017-02-16

    The recent outbreak of Zaire Ebola virus in West Africa altered the classical paradigm of vaccine development and that for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in general. In this paper, the precepts of vaccine discovery and advancement through pre-clinical and clinical assessment are discussed in the context of the recent Ebola virus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Zika virus outbreaks. Clinical trial design for diseases with high mortality rates and/or high morbidity in the face of a global perception of immediate need and the factors that drive design in the face of a changing epidemiology are presented. Vaccines for EIDs thus present a unique paradigm to standard development precepts.

  4. Prominent emerging diseases within the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cipriano, R.C.; Bowser, A.; Dove, A.; Goodwin, A.; Puzach, C.; Cipriano, R.C.; Bruckner, A.W.; Shchelkunov, I.S.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript reviews disease syndromes that have become significant aquatic animal health issues within the United States since 2003. The emergence of Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (VHS) disease among wild fish in the Great Lakes is probably the most problematic and political issue. The emergence of this pathogen resulted in the issuance of a 2006 VHSV Federal order that placed restrictions on the movement of certain species of fish in the eight states that border the Great Lakes (New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin and Minnesota) as well as the movement of live fish into the United States from the Ontario and Quebec Provinces, Canada. Spring Viremia of Carp (SVC) was identified for the first times in the United States during 2002. It was diagnosed as the source of mortality among koi at a private facility in North Carolina as well as from feral carp in Cedar Lake (WI). In 2004, Koi Herpesvirus (KHV) killed 8,000 adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the Chadakoin River (NY); it reoccurred the next year within Chautauqua Lake (NY), killing an estimated 25,000 carp (20–30 lbs. apiece). During the summers of 2007 and 2008, KHV epizootics also occurred among carp in Ontario (Canada). Finally, outbreaks of epizootic shell disease in American lobster (Homarus americanus) have generated concern along the southern New England coast and eastern Long Island Sound. The prevalence and severity of shell disease have increased within inshore areas of southern New England and resulted in significant decreases in lobster catches and marketability.

  5. [How can serology contribute to the diagnosis of parasitic diseases?].

    PubMed

    Kramme, S; Marti, H; Genton, B; Hatz, C

    2011-05-11

    From a technical standpoint the most widely used tests for serology include the ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), the IFA (indirect fluorescence assay), and the immunoblot. ELISA tests are widely used as screening assays since they harbor a high sensitivity. The main pitfall of serologies is the frequency of cross-reactions, especially between the different helminths. This is why positive results should be confirmed by a second test method with a higher specificity. Results need also to be put in the perspective of the patient history, clinical signs and laboratory findings. Serological tests are most appropriate when the parasite cannot be documented by direct examination (by eye or under the microscope) and during the pre-patent period. Serologies for parasites are also useful when an unexplained eosinophilia is present.

  6. Towards effective emerging infectious disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Ear, Sophal

    2014-01-01

    In this plenary talk given at the annual meeting of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences at Texas Tech University last October, Professor Sophal Ear, then of the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, discussed his research on the political economy of emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance programs. His talk reviews lessons learned for U.S. military medical research laboratories collaborating with developing countries and is comprised of three case studies: Cambodia (U.S. Naval Area Medical Research Unit 2 or NAMRU-2), Indonesia (also NAMRU-2 in the context of H5N1 or Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza), (1) and Mexico (that country's handling of A/H1N1 or Swine Flu in 2009). (2) Professor Ear's research provides policymakers with tools for improving the effectiveness of new or existing EID surveillance programs. His work also offers host countries the opportunity to incorporate ideas, provide opinions, and debate the management of political and economic constraints facing their programs. In this analysis, constraints are found for each case study and general recommendations are given for improving global emerging infectious disease surveillance across political, economic, and cultural dimensions.

  7. The emergence of Parkinson disease among patients with Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Elstein, Deborah; Alcalay, Roy; Zimran, Ari

    2015-03-01

    In the last decade, several lines of evidence have been presented that document the clinical manifestations, genetic associations, and sub-cellular mechanisms of the inter-relatedness of β-glucocerebrosidase mutations and the emergence of Parkinson disease among carriers and patients with Gaucher disease. This review is an attempt to apprise the reader of the recent literature with the caveat that this is an area of intensive exploration that is constantly being updated because of the immediate clinical ramifications but also because of the impact on our understanding of Parkinson disease, and finally because of the unexpected inter-reactions between these entities on the molecular level. It has been an unexpected happenstance that it has been discovered that a rare monogenetic disease has an interface at many points with a neurological disorder of the elderly that has both familial and sporadic forms: to date there is no cure for either of these disorders.

  8. [SWOT Analysis of the National Survey on Current Status of Major Human Parasitic Diseases in China].

    PubMed

    ZHU, Hui-hui; ZHOU, Chang-hai; CHEN, Ying-dan; ZANG, Wei; XIAO, Ning; ZHOU, Xiao-nong

    2015-10-01

    The National Survey on Current Status of Major Human Parasitic Diseases in China has been carried out since 2014 under the organization of the National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China. The National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (NIPD, China CDC) provided technical support and was responsible for quality control in this survey. This study used SWOT method to analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that were encountered by he NIPD, China CDC during the completion of the survey. Accordingly, working strategies were proposed to facilitate the future field work.

  9. MicroRNAs in parasitic diseases: potential for diagnosis and targeting.

    PubMed

    Manzano-Román, Raúl; Siles-Lucas, Mar

    2012-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a recently discovered class of small non-coding RNAs that can down-regulate protein expression by specific mRNA recognition. Evidence is accumulating that the miRNAs are implicated in the course and outcome of infectious and non-infectious diseases. Both parasites specific miRNA sequences and the phenomenon of the alteration of host miRNA levels after parasite infection are known, although detailed information about the direct intervention of parasites in the alteration of host miRNA levels and how this is regulated by parasites at molecular level is still lacking. Circulating miRNAs can be detected in biological fluids as serum, saliva and others, exhibiting a good potential as non-invasive biomarkers. Their ability to function as master regulators of the gene expression and the possibility for a relative easy manipulation of the miRNA machinery and related events, coupled with their apparent lack of adverse events when administered, place miRNAs as promising targets for the treatment of diseases. Moreover, the dependence of parasites over the host cellular machinery to accomplish infection and complete their biological cycles, together with the potential manipulation of host's responses through parasite miRNAs, point out that the miRNA machinery is particularly interesting to seek for alternative therapeutic approaches against parasites. Additionally, the studies about parasitic manipulation of the host immune responses thought miRNAs could broaden our knowledge about basic aspects of the host-parasite relationships.

  10. Molecular Diagnosis of Chagas Disease in Colombia: Parasitic Loads and Discrete Typing Units in Patients from Acute and Chronic Phases

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Carolina; Cucunubá, Zulma; Flórez, Carolina; Olivera, Mario; Valencia, Carlos; Zambrano, Pilar; León, Cielo; Ramírez, Juan David

    2016-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of Chagas disease is complex due to the dynamics of parasitemia in the clinical phases of the disease. The molecular tests have been considered promissory because they detect the parasite in all clinical phases. Trypanosoma cruzi presents significant genetic variability and is classified into six Discrete Typing Units TcI-TcVI (DTUs) with the emergence of foreseen genotypes within TcI as TcIDom and TcI Sylvatic. The objective of this study was to determine the operating characteristics of molecular tests (conventional and Real Time PCR) for the detection of T. cruzi DNA, parasitic loads and DTUs in a large cohort of Colombian patients from acute and chronic phases. Methodology/Principal Findings Samples were obtained from 708 patients in all clinical phases. Standard diagnosis (direct and serological tests) and molecular tests (conventional PCR and quantitative PCR) targeting the nuclear satellite DNA region. The genotyping was performed by PCR using the intergenic region of the mini-exon gene, the 24Sa, 18S and A10 regions. The operating capabilities showed that performance of qPCR was higher compared to cPCR. Likewise, the performance of qPCR was significantly higher in acute phase compared with chronic phase. The median parasitic loads detected were 4.69 and 1.33 parasite equivalents/mL for acute and chronic phases. The main DTU identified was TcI (74.2%). TcIDom genotype was significantly more frequent in chronic phase compared to acute phase (82.1% vs 16.6%). The median parasitic load for TcIDom was significantly higher compared with TcI Sylvatic in chronic phase (2.58 vs.0.75 parasite equivalents/ml). Conclusions/Significance The molecular tests are a precise tool to complement the standard diagnosis of Chagas disease, specifically in acute phase showing high discriminative power. However, it is necessary to improve the sensitivity of molecular tests in chronic phase. The frequency and parasitemia of TcIDom genotype in chronic

  11. [Brief discussion on experiences from laboratory certification and accreditation on detection of parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yan-Hong; Guan, Ya-Yi; Cao, Jian-Ping; Zheng, Bin; Wang, Yan-Juan; Zhang, Min-Qi; Zhou, Xiao-Jun

    2013-12-01

    The laboratory certification and accreditation is the development trend of domestic and international laboratories. The National Institute for Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention passed through the site assessment in September 2012 successfully, 26 items in 8 fields declared were all adopted. This article summarizes some work experiences during carrying out the laboratory certification and accreditation.

  12. Characterization of the Skin Microbiota in Italian Stream Frogs (Rana italica) Infected and Uninfected by a Cutaneous Parasitic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Federici, Ermanno; Rossi, Roberta; Fidati, Laura; Paracucchi, Romina; Scargetta, Silvia; Montalbani, Elena; Franzetti, Andrea; La Porta, Gianandrea; Fagotti, Anna; Simonceli, Francesca; Cenci, Giovanni; Di Rosa, Ines

    2015-01-01

    In human and wildlife populations, the natural microbiota plays an important role in health maintenance and the prevention of emerging infectious diseases. In amphibians, infectious diseases have been closely associated with population decline and extinction worldwide. Skin symbiont communities have been suggested as one of the factors driving the different susceptibilities of amphibians to diseases. The activity of the skin microbiota of amphibians against fungal pathogens, such as Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, has been examined extensively, whereas its protective role towards the cutaneous infectious diseases caused by Amphibiocystidium parasites has not yet been elucidated in detail. In the present study, we investigated, for the first time, the cutaneous microbiota of the Italian stream frog (Rana italica) and characterized the microbial assemblages of frogs uninfected and infected by Amphibiocystidium using the Illumina next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 629 different OTUs belonging to 16 different phyla were detected. Bacterial populations shared by all individuals represented only one fifth of all OTUs and were dominated by a small number of OTUs. Statistical analyses based on Bray-Curtis distances showed that uninfected and infected specimens had distinct cutaneous bacterial community structures. Phylotypes belonging to the genera Janthinobacterium, Pseudomonas, and Flavobacterium were more abundant, and sometimes almost exclusively present, in uninfected than in infected specimens. These bacterial populations, known to exhibit antifungal activity in amphibians, may also play a role in protection against cutaneous infectious diseases caused by Amphibiocystidium parasites. PMID:26370166

  13. Characterization of the Skin Microbiota in Italian Stream Frogs (Rana italica) Infected and Uninfected by a Cutaneous Parasitic Disease.

    PubMed

    Federici, Ermanno; Rossi, Roberta; Fidati, Laura; Paracucchi, Romina; Scargetta, Silvia; Montalbani, Elena; Franzetti, Andrea; La Porta, Gianandrea; Fagotti, Anna; Simonceli, Francesca; Cenci, Giovanni; Di Rosa, Ines

    2015-01-01

    In human and wildlife populations, the natural microbiota plays an important role in health maintenance and the prevention of emerging infectious diseases. In amphibians, infectious diseases have been closely associated with population decline and extinction worldwide. Skin symbiont communities have been suggested as one of the factors driving the different susceptibilities of amphibians to diseases. The activity of the skin microbiota of amphibians against fungal pathogens, such as Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, has been examined extensively, whereas its protective role towards the cutaneous infectious diseases caused by Amphibiocystidium parasites has not yet been elucidated in detail. In the present study, we investigated, for the first time, the cutaneous microbiota of the Italian stream frog (Rana italica) and characterized the microbial assemblages of frogs uninfected and infected by Amphibiocystidium using the Illumina next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 629 different OTUs belonging to 16 different phyla were detected. Bacterial populations shared by all individuals represented only one fifth of all OTUs and were dominated by a small number of OTUs. Statistical analyses based on Bray-Curtis distances showed that uninfected and infected specimens had distinct cutaneous bacterial community structures. Phylotypes belonging to the genera Janthinobacterium, Pseudomonas, and Flavobacterium were more abundant, and sometimes almost exclusively present, in uninfected than in infected specimens. These bacterial populations, known to exhibit antifungal activity in amphibians, may also play a role in protection against cutaneous infectious diseases caused by Amphibiocystidium parasites.

  14. Food plant derived disease tolerance and resistance in a natural butterfly-plant-parasite interactions.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Eleanore D; Lefèvre, Thierry; Li, James; de Castillejo, Carlos Lopez Fernandez; Li, Hui; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2012-11-01

    Organisms can protect themselves against parasite-induced fitness costs through resistance or tolerance. Resistance includes mechanisms that prevent infection or limit parasite growth while tolerance alleviates the fitness costs from parasitism without limiting infection. Although tolerance and resistance affect host-parasite coevolution in fundamentally different ways, tolerance has often been ignored in animal-parasite systems. Where it has been studied, tolerance has been assumed to be a genetic mechanism, unaffected by the host environment. Here we studied the effects of host ecology on tolerance and resistance to infection by rearing monarch butterflies on 12 different species of milkweed food plants and infecting them with a naturally occurring protozoan parasite. Our results show that monarch butterflies experience different levels of tolerance to parasitism depending on the species of milkweed that they feed on, with some species providing over twofold greater tolerance than other milkweed species. Resistance was also affected by milkweed species, but there was no relationship between milkweed-conferred resistance and tolerance. Chemical analysis suggests that infected monarchs obtain highest fitness when reared on milkweeds with an intermediate concentration, diversity, and polarity of toxic secondary plant chemicals known as cardenolides. Our results demonstrate that environmental factors-such as interacting species in ecological food webs-are important drivers of disease tolerance.

  15. Network transmission inference: host behavior and parasite life cycle make social networks meaningful in disease ecology.

    PubMed

    Grear, Daniel A; Luong, Lien T; Hudson, Peter J

    2013-12-01

    The process of disease transmission is determined by the interaction of host susceptibility and exposure to parasite infectious stages. Host behavior is an important determinant of the likelihood of exposure to infectious stages but is difficult to measure and often assumed to be homogenous in models of disease spread. We evaluated the importance of precisely defining host contact when using networks that estimate exposure and predict infection prevalence in a replicated, empirical system. In particular, we hypothesized that infection patterns would be predicted only by a contact network that is defined according to host behavior and parasite life cycle. Two competing host contact criteria were used to construct networks defined by parasite life cycle and social contacts. First, parasite-defined contacts were based on shared space with a time delay corresponding to the environmental development time of nematode parasites with a direct fecal-oral life cycle. Second, social contacts were defined by shared space in the same time period. To quantify the competing networks of exposure and infection, we sampled natural populations of the eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus) and infection of their gastrointestinal helminth community using replicated longitudinal capture-mark-recapture techniques. We predicted that (1) infection with parasites with direct fecal-oral life cycles would be explained by the time delay contact network, but not the social contact network; (2) infection with parasites with trophic life cycles (via a mobile intermediate host; thus, spatially decoupling transmission from host contact) would not be explained by either contact network. The prevalence of fecal-oral life cycle nematode parasites was strongly correlated to the number and strength of network connections from the parasite-defined network (including the time delay), while the prevalence of trophic life cycle parasites was not correlated with any network metrics. We concluded that

  16. [Parasitic dead-end: update].

    PubMed

    Magnaval, J F

    2006-08-01

    Parasitic dead-ends occur when a parasite is unable to establish a permanent interaction in an unnatural host. Although the likelihood of successful reproduction by the pathogenic agent is nul, parasitic dead-end heralds capture of new parasites and therefore expansion of the host range. Angiostrongyliasis due to A. cantonensis or A. costaricensis, anisakiasis, Ancylostoma caninum infection, gnathostomiasis and sparganosis are undoubtedly emerging zoonoses of particular medical interest. Prevention of these diseases relies on abstinence from eating raw meat from invertebrates or cold-blooded (poikilotherm) vertebrates (e.g. used in exotic dishes). These guidelines must be included in recommendations to travelers.

  17. [ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL RISK FOR CONTAMINATION OF SURFACE WATER RESERVOIRS BY PATHOGENS OF HUMAN PARASITIC DISEASES].

    PubMed

    Khromenkova, E P; Dimidova, L L; Dumbadze, O S; Aidinov, G T; Shendo, G L; Agirov, A Kh; Batchaev, Kh Kh

    2015-01-01

    Sanitary and parasitological studies of the waste effluents and surface reservoir waters were conducted in the south of Russia. The efficiency of purification of waste effluents from the pathogens of parasitic diseases was investigated in the region's sewage-purification facilities. The water of the surface water reservoirs was found to contain helminthic eggs and larvae and intestinal protozoan cysts because of the poor purification and disinfection of service fecal sewage waters. The poor purification and disinvasion of waste effluents in the region determine the potential risk of contamination of the surface water reservoirs and infection of the population with the pathogens of human parasitic diseases.

  18. [Basic features in the current practice of clinical medicine in the tropics (I). Parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Ramos, J M; de Górgolas, M; Cuadros, J; Malmierca, E

    2012-06-01

    In recent years an increasing number of physicians want to spend part of their medical training in health facilities in developing countries. Working in these areas requires good clinical skills, particularly where diagnostic resources are limited. Trainees will attend patients with many different parasitic diseases such as malaria and soil transmitted helminthic infections. The aim of this work is to provide basic concepts of epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of the principal parasitic diseases that could occur in a rural health post in the tropics.

  19. Phaeohyphomycoses, Emerging Opportunistic Diseases in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Seyedmousavi, S.; Guillot, J.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging fungal diseases due to black yeasts and relatives in domestic or wild animals and in invertebrates or cold- and warm-blooded vertebrates are continually being reported, either as novel pathogens or as familiar pathogens affecting new species of hosts. Different epidemiological situations can be distinguished, i.e., occurrence as single infections or as zoonoses, and infection may occur sporadically in otherwise healthy hosts. Such infections are found mostly in mammals but also in cold-blooded animals, are frequently subcutaneous or cerebral, and bear much similarity to human primary disorders. Infections of the nervous system are mostly fatal, and the source and route of infection are currently unknown. A third epidemiological situation corresponds to pseudoepidemics, i.e., infection of a large host population due to a common source. It is often observed and generally hypothesized that the susceptible animals are under stress, e.g., due to poor housing conditions of mammals or to a change of basins in the case of fishes. The descriptions in this article represent an overview of the more commonly reported and recurring black fungi and the corresponding diseases in different types of animals. PMID:23297257

  20. Non-communicable diseases in emergencies: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Demaio, Alessandro; Jamieson, Jennifer; Horn, Rebecca; de Courten, Maximilian; Tellier, Siri

    2013-09-06

    Recent years have demonstrated the devastating health consequences of complex emergencies and natural disasters and thereby highlighted the importance of comprehensive and collaborative approaches to humanitarian responses and risk reduction. Simultaneously, noncommunicable diseases are now recognised as a real and growing threat to population health and development; a threat that is magnified by and during emergencies. Noncommunicable diseases, however, continue to receive little attention from humanitarian organisations in the acute phase of disaster and emergency response. This paper calls on all sectors to recognise and address the specific health challenges posed by noncommunicable diseases in emergencies and disaster situations. This publication aims to highlight the need for: • Increased research on morbidity and mortality patterns due to noncommunicable diseases during and following emergencies; • Raised awareness through greater advocacy for the issue and challenges of noncommunicable diseases during and following emergencies; • Incorporation of noncommunicable diseases into existing emergency-related policies, standards, and resources; • Development of technical guidelines on the clinical management of noncommunicable diseases in emergencies; • Greater integration and coordination in health service provision during and following emergencies; • Integrating noncommunicable diseases into practical and academic training of emergency workers and emergency-response coordinators.

  1. Non-Communicable Diseases in Emergencies: A Call to Action

    PubMed Central

    Demaio, Alessandro; Jamieson, Jennifer; Horn, Rebecca; de Courten, Maximilian; Tellier, Siri

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have demonstrated the devastating health consequences of complex emergencies and natural disasters and thereby highlighted the importance of comprehensive and collaborative approaches to humanitarian responses and risk reduction. Simultaneously, noncommunicable diseases are now recognised as a real and growing threat to population health and development; a threat that is magnified by and during emergencies. Noncommunicable diseases, however, continue to receive little attention from humanitarian organisations in the acute phase of disaster and emergency response. This paper calls on all sectors to recognise and address the specific health challenges posed by noncommunicable diseases in emergencies and disaster situations. This publication aims to highlight the need for: • Increased research on morbidity and mortality patterns due to noncommunicable diseases during and following emergencies; • Raised awareness through greater advocacy for the issue and challenges of noncommunicable diseases during and following emergencies; • Incorporation of noncommunicable diseases into existing emergency-related policies, standards, and resources; • Development of technical guidelines on the clinical management of noncommunicable diseases in emergencies; • Greater integration and coordination in health service provision during and following emergencies; • Integrating noncommunicable diseases into practical and academic training of emergency workers and emergency-response coordinators. PMID:24056956

  2. Immunodominance: a new hypothesis to explain parasite escape and host/parasite equilibrium leading to the chronic phase of Chagas' disease?

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, M M; Alencar, B C G de; Claser, C; Tzelepis, F

    2009-03-01

    Intense immune responses are observed during human or experimental infection with the digenetic protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The reasons why such immune responses are unable to completely eliminate the parasites are unknown. The survival of the parasite leads to a parasite-host equilibrium found during the chronic phase of chagasic infection in most individuals. Parasite persistence is recognized as the most likely cause of the chagasic chronic pathologies. Therefore, a key question in Chagas' disease is to understand how this equilibrium is established and maintained for a long period. Understanding the basis for this equilibrium may lead to new approaches to interventions that could help millions of individuals at risk for infection or who are already infected with T. cruzi. Here, we propose that the phenomenon of immunodominance may be significant in terms of regulating the host-parasite equilibrium observed in Chagas' disease. T. cruzi infection restricts the repertoire of specific T cells generating, in some cases, an intense immunodominant phenotype and in others causing a dramatic interference in the response to distinct epitopes. This immune response is sufficiently strong to maintain the host alive during the acute phase carrying them to the chronic phase where transmission usually occurs. At the same time, immunodominance interferes with the development of a higher and broader immune response that could be able to completely eliminate the parasite. Based on this, we discuss how we can interfere with or take advantage of immunodominance in order to provide an immunotherapeutic alternative for chagasic individuals.

  3. Edible vaccines against veterinary parasitic diseases--current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Siju S; Cherian, Susan; Sumithra, T G; Raina, O K; Sankar, M

    2013-04-08

    Protection of domestic animals against parasitic infections remains a major challenge in most of the developing countries, especially in the surge of drug resistant strains. In this circumstance vaccination seems to be the sole practical strategy to combat parasites. Most of the presently available live or killed parasitic vaccines possess many disadvantages. Thus, expression of parasitic antigens has seen a continued interest over the past few decades. However, only a limited success was achieved using bacterial, yeast, insect and mammalian expression systems. This is witnessed by an increasing number of reports on transgenic plant expression of previously reported and new antigens. Oral delivery of plant-made vaccines is particularly attractive due to their exceptional advantages. Moreover, the regulatory burden for veterinary vaccines is less compared to human vaccines. This led to an incredible investment in the field of transgenic plant vaccines for veterinary purpose. Plant based vaccine trials have been conducted to combat various significant parasitic diseases such as fasciolosis, schistosomosis, poultry coccidiosis, porcine cycticercosis and ascariosis. Besides, passive immunization by oral delivery of antibodies expressed in transgenic plants against poultry coccidiosis is an innovative strategy. These trials may pave way to the development of promising edible veterinary vaccines in the near future. As the existing data regarding edible parasitic vaccines are scattered, an attempt has been made to assemble the available literature.

  4. Polycystic kidney disease: an unrecognized emerging infectious disease?

    PubMed Central

    Miller-Hjelle, M. A.; Hjelle, J. T.; Jones, M.; Mayberry, W. R.; Dombrink-Kurtzman, M. A.; Peterson, S. W.; Nowak, D. M.; Darras, F. S.

    1997-01-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common genetic diseases in humans. We contend that it may be an emerging infectious disease and/or microbial toxicosis in a vulnerable human subpopulation. Use of a differential activation protocol for the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay showed bacterial endotoxin and fungal (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans in cyst fluids from human kidneys with PKD. Fatty acid analysis of cyst fluid confirmed the presence of 3-hydroxy fatty acids characteristic of endotoxin. Tissue and cyst fluid from three PKD patients were examined for fungal components. Serologic tests showed Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Candida antigens. IgE, but not IgG, reactive with Fusarium and Candida were also detected in cyst fluid. Fungal DNA was detected in kidney tissue and cyst fluid from these three PKD patients, but not in healthy human kidney tissue. We examine the intertwined nature of the actions of endotoxin and fungal components, sphingolipid biology in PKD, the structure of PKD gene products, infections, and integrity of gut function to establish a mechanistic hypothesis for microbial provocation of human cystic disease. Proof of this hypothesis will require identification of the microbes and microbial components involved and multifaceted studies of PKD cell biology. PMID:9204292

  5. [SWOT analysis of laboratory certification and accreditation on detection of parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yan-hong; Zheng, Bin

    2014-04-01

    This study analyzes the strength, weakness, opportunity and threat (SWOT) of laboratory certification and accreditation on detection of parasitic diseases by SWOT analysis comprehensively, and it puts forward some development strategies specifically, in order to provide some indicative references for the further development.

  6. Co-infection of tuberculosis and parasitic diseases in humans: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Co-infection of tuberculosis and parasitic diseases in humans is an important public problem in co-endemic areas in developing countries. However, there is a paucity of studies on co-infection and even fewer reviews. This review examines 44 appropriate papers by PRISMA from 289 papers searched in PubMed via the NCBI Entrez system (no grey literature) up to December 2012 in order to analyze the factors that influence epidemic and host’s immunity of co-infection. The limited evidence in this review indicates that most common parasite species are concurrent with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in multiple organs; socio-demographics such as gender and age, special populations with susceptibility such as renal transplant recipients, patients on maintenance haemodialysis, HIV positive patients and migrants, and living in or coming from co-endemic areas are all likely to have an impact on co-infection. Pulmonary tuberculosis and parasitic diseases were shown to be risk factors for each other. Co-infection may significantly inhibit the host’s immune system, increase antibacterial therapy intolerance and be detrimental to the prognosis of the disease; in addition, infection with parasitic diseases can alter the protective immune response to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:23522098

  7. Co-infection of tuberculosis and parasitic diseases in humans: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Xu; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2013-03-22

    Co-infection of tuberculosis and parasitic diseases in humans is an important public problem in co-endemic areas in developing countries. However, there is a paucity of studies on co-infection and even fewer reviews. This review examines 44 appropriate papers by PRISMA from 289 papers searched in PubMed via the NCBI Entrez system (no grey literature) up to December 2012 in order to analyze the factors that influence epidemic and host's immunity of co-infection. The limited evidence in this review indicates that most common parasite species are concurrent with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in multiple organs; socio-demographics such as gender and age, special populations with susceptibility such as renal transplant recipients, patients on maintenance haemodialysis, HIV positive patients and migrants, and living in or coming from co-endemic areas are all likely to have an impact on co-infection. Pulmonary tuberculosis and parasitic diseases were shown to be risk factors for each other. Co-infection may significantly inhibit the host's immune system, increase antibacterial therapy intolerance and be detrimental to the prognosis of the disease; in addition, infection with parasitic diseases can alter the protective immune response to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  8. Environmental change and the dynamics of parasitic diseases in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Confalonieri, Ulisses E C; Margonari, Carina; Quintão, Ana Flávia

    2014-01-01

    The Amazonian environment is changing rapidly, due to deforestation, in the short term, and, climatic change is projected to alter its forest cover, in the next few decades. These modifications to the, environment have been altering the dynamics of infectious diseases which have natural foci in the, Amazonian biome, especially in its forest. Current land use practices which are changing the, epidemiological profile of the parasitic diseases in the region are road building; logging; mining; expansion of agriculture and cattle ranching and the building of large dams. Malaria and the cutaneous, leishmaniasis are the diseases best known for their rapid changes in response to environmental, modifications. Others such as soil-transmitted helminthiases, filarial infections and toxoplasmosis, which have part of their developmental cycles in the biophysical environment, are also expected to, change rapidly. An interdisciplinary approach and an integrated, international surveillance are needed, to manage the environmentally-driven changes in the Amazonian parasitic diseases in the near future.

  9. Disease, parasite, and commensal prevalences for blue crab Callinectes sapidus at shedding facilities in Louisiana, USA.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Holly A; Taylor, Sabrina S; Hawke, John P; Schott, Eric J; Anderson Lively, Julie A

    2015-01-15

    Blue crab diseases, parasites, and commensals are not well studied in the Gulf of Mexico, and their prevalence rates have only been sporadically determined. Commercial soft shell shedding facilities in Louisiana experience high mortality rates of pre-molt crabs, and some of these deaths may be attributable to diseases or parasites. During the active shedding season in 2013, we determined the prevalence of shell disease, Vibrio spp., Lagenophrys callinectes, and Hematodinium perezi at 4 commercial shedding facilities along the Louisiana coast. We also detected Ameson michaelis and reo-like virus infections. Shell disease was moderately prevalent at rates above 50% and varied by shedding facility, collection month, and crab size. Vibrio spp. bacteria were prevalent in the hemolymph of 37% of the pre-molt crabs. Lagenophrys callinectes was highly prevalent in the pre-molt crabs, but because it is a commensal species, it may not cause high mortality rates. Hematodinium perezi was absent in all pre-molt crabs.

  10. Parasite biomass-related inflammation, endothelial activation, microvascular dysfunction and disease severity in vivax malaria.

    PubMed

    Barber, Bridget E; William, Timothy; Grigg, Matthew J; Parameswaran, Uma; Piera, Kim A; Price, Ric N; Yeo, Tsin W; Anstey, Nicholas M

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax can cause severe malaria, however its pathogenesis is poorly understood. In contrast to P. falciparum, circulating vivax parasitemia is low, with minimal apparent sequestration in endothelium-lined microvasculature, and pathogenesis thought unrelated to parasite biomass. However, the relationships between vivax disease-severity and total parasite biomass, endothelial autocrine activation and microvascular dysfunction are unknown. We measured circulating parasitemia and markers of total parasite biomass (plasma parasite lactate dehydrogenase [pLDH] and PvLDH) in adults with severe (n = 9) and non-severe (n = 53) vivax malaria, and examined relationships with disease-severity, endothelial activation, and microvascular function. Healthy controls and adults with non-severe and severe falciparum malaria were enrolled for comparison. Median peripheral parasitemia, PvLDH and pLDH were 2.4-fold, 3.7-fold and 6.9-fold higher in severe compared to non-severe vivax malaria (p = 0.02, p = 0.02 and p = 0.015, respectively), suggesting that, as in falciparum malaria, peripheral P. vivax parasitemia underestimates total parasite biomass, particularly in severe disease. P. vivax schizonts were under-represented in peripheral blood. Severe vivax malaria was associated with increased angiopoietin-2 and impaired microvascular reactivity. Peripheral vivax parasitemia correlated with endothelial activation (angiopoietin-2, von-Willebrand-Factor [VWF], E-selectin), whereas markers of total vivax biomass correlated only with systemic inflammation (IL-6, IL-10). Activity of the VWF-cleaving-protease, ADAMTS13, was deficient in proportion to endothelial activation, IL-6, thrombocytopenia and vivax disease-severity, and associated with impaired microvascular reactivity in severe disease. Impaired microvascular reactivity correlated with lactate in severe vivax malaria. Findings suggest that tissue accumulation of P. vivax may occur, with the hidden

  11. Parasite Biomass-Related Inflammation, Endothelial Activation, Microvascular Dysfunction and Disease Severity in Vivax Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Bridget E.; William, Timothy; Grigg, Matthew J.; Parameswaran, Uma; Piera, Kim A.; Price, Ric N.; Yeo, Tsin W.; Anstey, Nicholas M.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax can cause severe malaria, however its pathogenesis is poorly understood. In contrast to P. falciparum, circulating vivax parasitemia is low, with minimal apparent sequestration in endothelium-lined microvasculature, and pathogenesis thought unrelated to parasite biomass. However, the relationships between vivax disease-severity and total parasite biomass, endothelial autocrine activation and microvascular dysfunction are unknown. We measured circulating parasitemia and markers of total parasite biomass (plasma parasite lactate dehydrogenase [pLDH] and PvLDH) in adults with severe (n = 9) and non-severe (n = 53) vivax malaria, and examined relationships with disease-severity, endothelial activation, and microvascular function. Healthy controls and adults with non-severe and severe falciparum malaria were enrolled for comparison. Median peripheral parasitemia, PvLDH and pLDH were 2.4-fold, 3.7-fold and 6.9-fold higher in severe compared to non-severe vivax malaria (p = 0.02, p = 0.02 and p = 0.015, respectively), suggesting that, as in falciparum malaria, peripheral P. vivax parasitemia underestimates total parasite biomass, particularly in severe disease. P. vivax schizonts were under-represented in peripheral blood. Severe vivax malaria was associated with increased angiopoietin-2 and impaired microvascular reactivity. Peripheral vivax parasitemia correlated with endothelial activation (angiopoietin-2, von-Willebrand-Factor [VWF], E-selectin), whereas markers of total vivax biomass correlated only with systemic inflammation (IL-6, IL-10). Activity of the VWF-cleaving-protease, ADAMTS13, was deficient in proportion to endothelial activation, IL-6, thrombocytopenia and vivax disease-severity, and associated with impaired microvascular reactivity in severe disease. Impaired microvascular reactivity correlated with lactate in severe vivax malaria. Findings suggest that tissue accumulation of P. vivax may occur, with the hidden

  12. Managing marine disease emergencies in an era of rapid change

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, Jeffrey; Breyta, Rachel; Carnegie, Ryan B.; Dobson, Andy; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Froelich, Brett; Garren, Melissa; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Heron, Scott F.; Noble, Rachel T.; Revie, Crawford W.; Shields, Jeffrey D.; Vanderstichel, Raphaël; Weil, Ernesto; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Harvell, C. Drew

    2016-01-01

    Infectious marine diseases can decimate populations and are increasing among some taxa due to global change and our increasing reliance on marine environments. Marine diseases become emergencies when significant ecological, economic or social impacts occur. We can prepare for and manage these emergencies through improved surveillance, and the development and iterative refinement of approaches to mitigate disease and its impacts. Improving surveillance requires fast, accurate diagnoses, forecasting disease risk and real-time monitoring of disease-promoting environmental conditions. Diversifying impact mitigation involves increasing host resilience to disease, reducing pathogen abundance and managing environmental factors that facilitate disease. Disease surveillance and mitigation can be adaptive if informed by research advances and catalysed by communication among observers, researchers and decision-makers using information-sharing platforms. Recent increases in the awareness of the threats posed by marine diseases may lead to policy frameworks that facilitate the responses and management that marine disease emergencies require. PMID:26880835

  13. Managing marine disease emergencies in an era of rapid change.

    PubMed

    Groner, Maya L; Maynard, Jeffrey; Breyta, Rachel; Carnegie, Ryan B; Dobson, Andy; Friedman, Carolyn S; Froelich, Brett; Garren, Melissa; Gulland, Frances M D; Heron, Scott F; Noble, Rachel T; Revie, Crawford W; Shields, Jeffrey D; Vanderstichel, Raphaël; Weil, Ernesto; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Harvell, C Drew

    2016-03-05

    Infectious marine diseases can decimate populations and are increasing among some taxa due to global change and our increasing reliance on marine environments. Marine diseases become emergencies when significant ecological, economic or social impacts occur. We can prepare for and manage these emergencies through improved surveillance, and the development and iterative refinement of approaches to mitigate disease and its impacts. Improving surveillance requires fast, accurate diagnoses, forecasting disease risk and real-time monitoring of disease-promoting environmental conditions. Diversifying impact mitigation involves increasing host resilience to disease, reducing pathogen abundance and managing environmental factors that facilitate disease. Disease surveillance and mitigation can be adaptive if informed by research advances and catalysed by communication among observers, researchers and decision-makers using information-sharing platforms. Recent increases in the awareness of the threats posed by marine diseases may lead to policy frameworks that facilitate the responses and management that marine disease emergencies require.

  14. Progression of the load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases in the State of Amazonas.

    PubMed

    Martins, Marilaine; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Moura, Marco Antonio Saboia; Santos, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva; Saraceni, Valéria; Saraiva, Maria Graças Gomes

    2015-01-01

    In the State of Amazonas, Brazil, urban expansion together with precarious basic sanitation conditions and human settlement on river banks has contributed to the persistence of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases. Time series of the recorded cases of cholera, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and leptospirosis are described, using data from different levels of the surveillance systems. The sources for intestinal parasitosis prevalence data (non-compulsory reporting in Brazil) were Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Literatura Latino-Americana (LILACS) and the annals of major scientific meetings. Relevant papers and abstracts in all languages were accessed by two independent reviewers. The references cited by each relevant paper were scrutinized to locate additional papers. Despite its initial dissemination across the entire State of Amazonas, cholera was controlled in 1998. The magnitude of typhoid fever has decreased; however, a pattern characterized by eventual outbreaks still remains. Leptospirosis is an increasing cause of concern in association with the annual floods. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites is high regardless of the municipality and the characteristics of areas and populations. The incidence of hepatitis A has decreased over the past decade. A comparison of older and recent surveys shows that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases has remained constant. The load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases ranks high among the health problems present in the State of Amazonas. Interventions aiming at basic sanitation and vaccination for hepatitis A were formulated and implemented, but assessment of their effectiveness in the targeted populations is still needed.

  15. Emerging Infectious Disease Leads to Rapid Population Declines of Common British Birds

    PubMed Central

    Toms, Mike P.; Peck, Kirsi M.; Kirkwood, James K.; Chantrey, Julian; Clatworthy, Innes R.; Evans, Andy D.; Hughes, Laura A.; Hutchinson, Oliver C.; John, Shinto K.; Pennycott, Tom W.; Perkins, Matthew W.; Rowley, Peter S.; Simpson, Vic R.; Tyler, Kevin M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly cited as threats to wildlife, livestock and humans alike. They can threaten geographically isolated or critically endangered wildlife populations; however, relatively few studies have clearly demonstrated the extent to which emerging diseases can impact populations of common wildlife species. Here, we report the impact of an emerging protozoal disease on British populations of greenfinch Carduelis chloris and chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, two of the most common birds in Britain. Morphological and molecular analyses showed this to be due to Trichomonas gallinae. Trichomonosis emerged as a novel fatal disease of finches in Britain in 2005 and rapidly became epidemic within greenfinch, and to a lesser extent chaffinch, populations in 2006. By 2007, breeding populations of greenfinches and chaffinches in the geographic region of highest disease incidence had decreased by 35% and 21% respectively, representing mortality in excess of half a million birds. In contrast, declines were less pronounced or absent in these species in regions where the disease was found in intermediate or low incidence. Also, populations of dunnock Prunella modularis, which similarly feeds in gardens, but in which T. gallinae was rarely recorded, did not decline. This is the first trichomonosis epidemic reported in the scientific literature to negatively impact populations of free-ranging non-columbiform species, and such levels of mortality and decline due to an emerging infectious disease are unprecedented in British wild bird populations. This disease emergence event demonstrates the potential for a protozoan parasite to jump avian host taxonomic groups with dramatic effect over a short time period. PMID:20805869

  16. Host Penetration and Emergence Patterns of the Mosquito-Parasitic Mermithids Romanomermis iyengari and Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Nematoda: Mermithidae).

    PubMed

    Sanad, Manar M; Shamseldean, Muhammad S M; Elgindi, Abd-Elmoneim Y; Gaugler, Randy

    2013-03-01

    Romanomermis iyengari and Strelkovimermis spiculatus are mermithid nematodes that parasitize mosquito larvae. We describe host penetration and emergence patterns of Romanomermis iyengari and Strelkovimermis spiculatus in laboratory exposures against Culex pipiens pipiens larvae. The mermithid species differed in host penetration behavior, with R. iyengari juveniles attaching to the host integument before assuming a rigid penetration posture at the lateral thorax (66.7%) or abdominal segments V to VIII (33.3%). Strelkovimermis spiculatus attached first to a host hair in a coiled posture that provided a stable base for penetration, usually through the lateral thorax (83.3%). Superparasitism was reduced by discriminating against previously infected hosts, but R. iyengari's ability to avoid superparasitism declined at a higher inoculum rate. Host emergence was signaled by robust nematode movements that induced aberrant host swimming. Postparasites of R. iyengari usually emerged from the lateral prothorax (93.2%), whereas S. spiculatus emergence was peri-anal. In superparasitized hosts, emergence was initiated by males in R. iyengari and females in S. spiculatus; emergence was otherwise nearly synchronous. Protandry was observed in R. iyengari. The ability of S. spiculatus to sustain an optimal sex ratio suggested superior self-regulation. Mermithid penetration and emergence behaviors and sites may be supplementary clues for identification. Species differences could be useful in developing production and release strategies.

  17. Immunoendocrine mechanisms associated with resistance or susceptibility to parasitic diseases during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Villavicencio, José Antonio; De León-Nava, Marco A; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    During pregnancy, the mammalian endocrine system plays a leading role in maintaining the fetus, characterized by an increase in the level of hormones such as progesterone, oestradiol and some gonadotropic hormones. The immune system participates during pregnancy by self-regulating to prevent fetus rejection. The distinctive type of immunity during gestation is characterized by an increase in levels of Th2 type cytokines IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10, concomitant with a decrease in IL-2, INF-gamma and TNF-alpha levels. Along pregnancy, sex steroids and factors associated with them regulate the immune response. In this way, endocrine and immunologic factors have an impact on the pregnant female's susceptibility or resistance to parasitic diseases. There are three main mechanisms proposed to explain this susceptibility or resistance: (1) sex steroids influence the host's immune system; (2) hormones acting directly on the parasites inhibit or promote their reproduction, or (3) the two effects can occur simultaneously within a network of immuno-endocrine host-parasite interactions, mediated by hormones, cytokines, antibodies and other factors interacting directly and bidirectionally. The present work reviews recent literature concerning the most frequent parasitic infections during pregnancy and discusses the mechanisms implied in the establishment, growth, reproduction or elimination of the parasite.

  18. Counter-insurgents of the blue revolution? Parasites and diseases affecting aquaculture and science.

    PubMed

    Blaylock, Reginald B; Bullard, Stephen A

    2014-12-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest-growing segment of food production and is expected to supply a growing portion of animal protein for consumption by humans. Because industrial aquaculture developed only recently compared to industrial agriculture, its development occurred within the context of a growing environmental awareness and acknowledgment of environmental issues associated with industrial farming. As such, parasites and diseases have become central criticisms of commercial aquaculture. This focus on parasites and diseases, however, has created a nexus of opportunities for research that has facilitated considerable scientific advances in the fields of parasitology and aquaculture. This paper reviews Myxobolus cerebralis , Lepeophtheirus salmonis , white spot syndrome virus, and assorted flatworms as select marquee aquaculture pathogens, summarizes the status of the diseases caused by each and their impacts on aquaculture, and highlights some of the significant contributions these pathogens have made to the science of parasitology and aquaculture.

  19. Epizootiology of diseases of oysters (Crassostrea virginica), and parasites of associated organisms in eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, J. D.

    1984-03-01

    Haplosporidan parasites of oysters have been reported from four continents. Those of the general Minchinia, Haplosporidium, and Marteilia, which cause serious diseases of oysters, have been intensively studied. Epizootiology of these highly pathogenic species is well known. Life cycles are obscure for all haplosporidans because artificial infections have not been achieved. The high pathogenicity of newly-discovered haplosporidan diseases to native oysters in eastern North America and western Europe may indicate that these are exotic pathogens parasitizing susceptible oysters not previously exposed to these disease agents. Epizootiology of two haplosporidan pathogens along the middle Atlantic Coast of North America during 25 years of disease activity is discussed. Haplosporidium nelsoni sporulates only rarely and its life cycle remains unconfirmed. Resistant oysters were developed in nature and from laboratory breeding. Haplosporidium costale which causes “Seaside Disease” in high-salinity waters appears to be a more acclimated disease with regular patterns of infection and mortality. Several minor parasites whose life cycles and host species need more study are mentioned.

  20. Pathogen–host–environment interplay and disease emergence

    PubMed Central

    Engering, Anneke; Hogerwerf, Lenny; Slingenbergh, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Gaining insight in likely disease emergence scenarios is critical to preventing such events from happening. Recent focus has been on emerging zoonoses and on identifying common patterns and drivers of emerging diseases. However, no overarching framework exists to integrate knowledge on all emerging infectious disease events. Here, we propose such a conceptual framework based on changes in the interplay of pathogens, hosts and environment that lead to the formation of novel disease patterns and pathogen genetic adjustment. We categorize infectious disease emergence events into three groups: (i) pathogens showing up in a novel host, ranging from spill-over, including zoonoses, to complete species jumps; (ii) mutant pathogens displaying novel traits in the same host, including an increase in virulence, antimicrobial resistance and host immune escape; and (iii) disease complexes emerging in a new geographic area, either through range expansion or through long distance jumps. Each of these categories is characterized by a typical set of drivers of emergence, matching pathogen trait profiles, disease ecology and transmission dynamics. Our framework may assist in disentangling and structuring the rapidly growing amount of available information on infectious diseases. Moreover, it may contribute to a better understanding of how human action changes disease landscapes globally. PMID:26038452

  1. World Health Organization Estimates of the Global and Regional Disease Burden of 11 Foodborne Parasitic Diseases, 2010: A Data Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Torgerson, Paul R.; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Willingham, Arve Lee; Kasuga, Fumiko; Rokni, Mohammad B.; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Fèvre, Eric M.; Sripa, Banchob; Gargouri, Neyla; Fürst, Thomas; Budke, Christine M.; Carabin, Hélène; Kirk, Martyn D.; Angulo, Frederick J.; Havelaar, Arie; de Silva, Nilanthi

    2015-01-01

    Background Foodborne diseases are globally important, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. Parasitic diseases often result in high burdens of disease in low and middle income countries and are frequently transmitted to humans via contaminated food. This study presents the first estimates of the global and regional human disease burden of 10 helminth diseases and toxoplasmosis that may be attributed to contaminated food. Methods and Findings Data were abstracted from 16 systematic reviews or similar studies published between 2010 and 2015; from 5 disease data bases accessed in 2015; and from 79 reports, 73 of which have been published since 2000, 4 published between 1995 and 2000 and 2 published in 1986 and 1981. These included reports from national surveillance systems, journal articles, and national estimates of foodborne diseases. These data were used to estimate the number of infections, sequelae, deaths, and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), by age and region for 2010. These parasitic diseases, resulted in 48.4 million cases (95% Uncertainty intervals [UI] of 43.4–79.0 million) and 59,724 (95% UI 48,017–83,616) deaths annually resulting in 8.78 million (95% UI 7.62–12.51 million) DALYs. We estimated that 48% (95% UI 38%-56%) of cases of these parasitic diseases were foodborne, resulting in 76% (95% UI 65%-81%) of the DALYs attributable to these diseases. Overall, foodborne parasitic disease, excluding enteric protozoa, caused an estimated 23.2 million (95% UI 18.2–38.1 million) cases and 45,927 (95% UI 34,763–59,933) deaths annually resulting in an estimated 6.64 million (95% UI 5.61–8.41 million) DALYs. Foodborne Ascaris infection (12.3 million cases, 95% UI 8.29–22.0 million) and foodborne toxoplasmosis (10.3 million cases, 95% UI 7.40–14.9 million) were the most common foodborne parasitic diseases. Human cysticercosis with 2.78 million DALYs (95% UI 2.14–3.61 million), foodborne trematodosis with 2.02 million DALYs (95

  2. A suspected parasite spill-back of two novel Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea) causing disease in Australian endemic frogs found in the invasive Cane toad.

    PubMed

    Hartigan, Ashlie; Fiala, Ivan; Dyková, Iva; Jirků, Miloslav; Okimoto, Ben; Rose, Karrie; Phalen, David N; Šlapeta, Jan

    2011-04-25

    Infectious diseases are contributing to the decline of endangered amphibians. We identified myxosporean parasites, Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea: Myxozoa), in the brain and liver of declining native frogs, the Green and Golden Bell frog (Litoria aurea) and the Southern Bell frog (Litoria raniformis). We unequivocally identified two Myxidium spp. (both generalist) affecting Australian native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (Bufo marinus, syn. Rhinella marina) and demonstrated their association with disease. Our study tested the identity of Myxidium spp. within native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (brought to Australia in 1935, via Hawaii) to resolve the question whether the Cane toad introduced them to Australia. We showed that the Australian brain and liver Myxidium spp. differed 9%, 7%, 34% and 37% at the small subunit rDNA, large subunit rDNA, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, but were distinct from Myxidium cf. immersum from Cane toads in Brazil. Plotting minimum within-group distance against maximum intra-group distance confirmed their independent evolutionary trajectory. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the brain stages localize inside axons. Myxospores were morphologically indistinguishable, therefore genetic characterisation was necessary to recognise these cryptic species. It is unlikely that the Cane toad brought the myxosporean parasites to Australia, because the parasites were not found in 261 Hawaiian Cane toads. Instead, these data support the enemy-release hypothesis predicting that not all parasites are translocated with their hosts and suggest that the Cane toad may have played an important spill-back role in their emergence and facilitated their dissemination. This work emphasizes the importance of accurate species identification of pathogens relevant to wildlife management and disease control. In our case it is paving the road for the spill-back role of the Cane toad and the parasite emergence.

  3. [The evolution of the Th2 immune responses and its relationships with parasitic diseases and allergy].

    PubMed

    Caraballo, Luis; Zakzuk, Josefina

    2012-01-01

    A variety of links occur between parasites, particularly helminths, and allergic diseases--both common conditions of epidemiological importance in tropical regions. Although speculations are often made about the effects of parasitic diseases on the evolution of the immune system, the selective forces that have shaped the allergic response are unknown and probably include evolutionary mechanisms different to those traditionally reported. Helminths, infectious and antigenic sources that induce allergic-like responses, established themselves as parasites in organisms that already had cell groups related to the type 2 immunity. An essential component in the relationship between helminths and their hosts is that the former induce immunosuppression, creating a kind of balance that allows the survival of both. The development of this equilibrium undoubtedly includes adaptations in both organisms, and the survival of the parasite is the result of (a) acquiring immune suppressor mechanisms and (b) finding hosts with lower intensity of the type 2 response. This in turn suggests that although helminth infections have influenced the formation of type 2 immunity, they have not been an important selective force in the particular case of allergic response. The latter is more related to an exaggerated Th2/IgE response.

  4. New vaccines for neglected parasitic diseases and dengue.

    PubMed

    Beaumier, Coreen M; Gillespie, Portia M; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2013-09-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a significant source of morbidity and socioeconomic burden among the world's poor. Virtually all of the 2.4 billion people who live on less than $2 per d, more than a third of the world's population, are at risk for these debilitating NTDs. Although chemotherapeutic measures exist for many of these pathogens, they are not sustainable countermeasures on their own because of rates of reinfection, risk of drug resistance, and inconsistent maintenance of drug treatment programs. Preventative and therapeutic NTD vaccines are needed as long-term solutions. Because there is no market in the for-profit sector of vaccine development for these pathogens, much of the effort to develop vaccines is driven by nonprofit entities, mostly through product development partnerships. This review describes the progress of vaccines under development for many of the NTDs, with a specific focus on those about to enter or that are currently in human clinical trials. Specifically, we report on the progress on dengue, hookworm, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, Chagas disease, and onchocerciasis vaccines. These products will be some of the first with specific objectives to aid the world's poorest populations.

  5. Disease ecology and the global emergence of zoonotic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Bruce A; Gubler, Duane J

    2005-09-01

    The incidence and frequency of epidemic transmission of zoonotic diseases, both known and newly recognized, has increased dramatically in the past 30 years. It is thought that this dramatic disease emergence is primarily the result of the social, demographic, and environmental transformation that has occurred globally since World War II. However, the causal linkages have not been elucidated. Investigating emerging zoonotic pathogens as an ecological phenomenon can provide significant insights as to why some of these pathogens have jumped species and caused major epidemics in humans. A review of concepts and theory from biological ecology and of causal factors in disease emergence previously described suggests a general model of global zoonotic disease emergence. The model links demographic and societal factors to land use and land cover change whose associated ecological factors help explain disease emergence. The scale and magnitude of these changes are more significant than those associated with climate change, the effects of which are largely not yet understood. Unfortunately, the complex character and non-linear behavior of the human-natural systems in which host-pathogen systems are embedded makes specific incidences of disease emergence or epidemics inherently difficult to predict. Employing a complex systems analytical approach, however, may show how a few key ecological variables and system properties, including the adaptive capacity of institutions, explains the emergence of infectious diseases and how an integrated, multi-level approach to zoonotic disease control can reduce risk.

  6. Disease emergence in birds: challenges for the twenty-first century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, M.; McLean, R.G.; Dein, F.J.

    2001-01-01

    The paper by Hartup et al. (2001) on House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) conjunctivitis is an example of the rapid geographic spread that can result from disease emergence in na??ve populations. That event was neither novel nor transient relative to its occurrence or effects. Disease emergence and reemergence are hallmarks of the latter part of the twentieth century (Center for Disease Control 1994, Levins et al. 1994, DaSilva and Laccarino 1999, Gratz 1999). Current examples involving domestic animals include the problems in Europe with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or a??mad cow diseasea??) (Brown 2001) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) (Kitching 1999). Human health has been affected by diseases caused by an array of viruses (Morse 1993, Nichol et al. 1993, Murphy and Nathanson 1994), bacteria (Dennis 1998, DaSilva and Laccarino 1999), rickettsia (Walker and Dumier 1996, Azad et al. 1997), protozoans (Tuerrant 1997, Saini et al. 2000), and metazoan parasites (Hildreth et al. 1991, Gubler 1998), as well as other causes. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has received the most notoriety of those diseases (Hahn et al. 2000, Schwartlander et al. 2000). A similar pattern exists on a global scale for free-ranging wildlife populations (Table 1) (Friend 1994, 1995; Epstein et al. 1998, Daszak et al. 2000). However, in comparison to disease emergence affecting humans and domestic animals, response to emerging diseases of wildlife is generally superficial. We present concepts and data to support our contention that failure to adequately address disease emergence in free-ranging wildlife is resulting in a diminished capability to achieve and sustain desired geographic distributions and population abundance for species of wild birds, including some threatened and endangered avifauna. For clarity, we define disease and disease emergence in the context of our use of those terms because they are the focus of our comments. Disease is any departure from health

  7. Eosinophils in Gastrointestinal disorders- eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel diseases and parasitic infections

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Pooja; Furuta, Glenn T.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis The gastrointestinal tract provides an intriguing organ for considering the eosinophil’s role in health and disease. The normal gastrointestinal (GI) tract, except for the esophagus, is populated by eosinophils that are present throughout the mucosa in varying numbers. This latter fact raises the possibility that eosinophils participate in innate mechanisms of defense. In contrast, a number of clinical studies provide a wealth of data that associates increased numbers of eosinophils with inflammatory GI diseases; these findings prompt concerns that eosinophils may have a deleterious effect on the gut. In this article we present clinical features of 4 disease processes that have been associated with eosinophilia and suggest areas requiring investigation as to their clinical significance and scientific relevance. PMID:26209893

  8. Disease dynamics of honeybees with Varroa destructor as parasite and virus vector.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yun; Blanco, Krystal; Davis, Talia; Wang, Ying; DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria

    2016-05-01

    The worldwide decline in honeybee colonies during the past 50 years has often been linked to the spread of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its interaction with certain honeybee viruses carried by Varroa mites. In this paper, we propose a honeybee-mite-virus model that incorporates (1) parasitic interactions between honeybees and the Varroa mites; (2) five virus transmission terms between honeybees and mites at different stages of Varroa mites: from honeybees to honeybees, from adult honeybees to the phoretic mites, from brood to the reproductive mites, from the reproductive mites to brood, and from adult honeybees to the phoretic mites; and (3) Allee effects in the honeybee population generated by its internal organization such as division of labor. We provide completed local and global analysis for the full system and its subsystems. Our analytical and numerical results allow us have a better understanding of the synergistic effects of parasitism and virus infections on honeybee population dynamics and its persistence. Interesting findings from our work include: (a) due to Allee effects experienced by the honeybee population, initial conditions are essential for the survival of the colony. (b) Low adult honeybees to brood ratios have destabilizing effects on the system which generate fluctuating dynamics that lead to a catastrophic event where both honeybees and mites suddenly become extinct. This catastrophic event could be potentially linked to Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) of honeybee colonies. (c) Virus infections may have stabilizing effects on the system, and parasitic mites could make disease more persistent. Our model illustrates how the synergy between the parasitic mites and virus infections consequently generates rich dynamics including multiple attractors where all species can coexist or go extinct depending on initial conditions. Our findings may provide important insights on honeybee viruses and parasites and how to best control them.

  9. Emerging and Neglected Infectious Diseases: Insights, Advances, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Infectious diseases are a significant burden on public health and economic stability of societies all over the world. They have for centuries been among the leading causes of death and disability and presented growing challenges to health security and human progress. The threat posed by infectious diseases is further deepened by the continued emergence of new, unrecognized, and old infectious disease epidemics of global impact. Over the past three and half decades at least 30 new infectious agents affecting humans have emerged, most of which are zoonotic and their origins have been shown to correlate significantly with socioeconomic, environmental, and ecological factors. As these factors continue to increase, putting people in increased contact with the disease causing pathogens, there is concern that infectious diseases may continue to present a formidable challenge. Constant awareness and pursuance of effective strategies for controlling infectious diseases and disease emergence thus remain crucial. This review presents current updates on emerging and neglected infectious diseases and highlights the scope, dynamics, and advances in infectious disease management with particular focus on WHO top priority emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) and neglected tropical infectious diseases. PMID:28286767

  10. Pooled sequencing and rare variant association tests for identifying the determinants of emerging drug resistance in malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Cheeseman, Ian H; McDew-White, Marina; Phyo, Aung Pyae; Sriprawat, Kanlaya; Nosten, François; Anderson, Timothy J C

    2015-04-01

    We explored the potential of pooled sequencing to swiftly and economically identify selective sweeps due to emerging artemisinin (ART) resistance in a South-East Asian malaria parasite population. ART resistance is defined by slow parasite clearance from the blood of ART-treated patients and mutations in the kelch gene (chr. 13) have been strongly implicated to play a role. We constructed triplicate pools of 70 slow-clearing (resistant) and 70 fast-clearing (sensitive) infections collected from the Thai-Myanmar border and sequenced these to high (∼ 150-fold) read depth. Allele frequency estimates from pools showed almost perfect correlation (Lin's concordance = 0.98) with allele frequencies at 93 single nucleotide polymorphisms measured directly from individual infections, giving us confidence in the accuracy of this approach. By mapping genome-wide divergence (FST) between pools of drug-resistant and drug-sensitive parasites, we identified two large (>150 kb) regions (on chrs. 13 and 14) and 17 smaller candidate genome regions. To identify individual genes within these genome regions, we resequenced an additional 38 parasite genomes (16 slow and 22 fast-clearing) and performed rare variant association tests. These confirmed kelch as a major molecular marker for ART resistance (P = 6.03 × 10(-6)). This two-tier approach is powerful because pooled sequencing rapidly narrows down genome regions of interest, while targeted rare variant association testing within these regions can pinpoint the genetic basis of resistance. We show that our approach is robust to recurrent mutation and the generation of soft selective sweeps, which are predicted to be common in pathogen populations with large effective population sizes, and may confound more traditional gene mapping approaches.

  11. Emergence of ratio-dependent and predator-dependent functional responses for pollination mutualism and seed parasitism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeAngelis, Donald L.; Holland, J. Nathaniel

    2006-01-01

    Prey (N) dependence [g(N)], predator (P) dependence [g(P) or g(N,P)], and ratio dependence [f(P/N)] are often seen as contrasting forms of the predator's functional response describing predator consumption rates on prey resources in predator–prey and parasitoid–host interactions. Analogously, prey-, predator-, and ratio-dependent functional responses are apparently alternative functional responses for other types of consumer–resource interactions. These include, for example, the fraction of flowers pollinated or seeds parasitized in pollination (pre-dispersal) seed-parasitism mutualisms, such as those between fig wasps and fig trees or yucca moths and yucca plants. Here we examine the appropriate functional responses for how the fraction of flowers pollinated and seeds parasitized vary with the density of pollinators (predator dependence) or the ratio of pollinator and flower densities (ratio dependence). We show that both types of functional responses can emerge from minor, but biologically important variations on a single model. An individual-based model was first used to describe plant–pollinator interactions. Conditional upon on whether the number of flowers visited by the pollinator was limited by factors other than search time (e.g., by the number of eggs it had to lay, if it was also a seed parasite), and on whether the pollinator could directly find flowers on a plant, or had to search, the simulation results lead to either a predator-dependent or a ratio-dependent functional response. An analytic model was then used to show mathematically how these two cases can arise.

  12. Interactions Between Trypanosoma cruzi the Chagas Disease Parasite and Naturally Infected Wild Mepraia Vectors of Chile.

    PubMed

    Campos-Soto, Ricardo; Ortiz, Sylvia; Cordova, Ivan; Bruneau, Nicole; Botto-Mahan, Carezza; Solari, Aldo

    2016-03-01

    Chagas disease, which ranks among the world's most neglected diseases, is a chronic, systemic, parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Mepraia species are the wild vectors of this parasite in Chile. Host-parasite interactions can occur at several levels, such as co-speciation and ecological host fitting, among others. Thus, we are exploring the interactions between T. cruzi circulating in naturally infected Mepraia species in all areas endemic of Chile. We evaluated T. cruzi infection rates of 27 different haplotypes of the wild Mepraia species and identified their parasite genotypes using minicircle PCR amplification and hybridization tests with genotype-specific DNA probes. Infection rates were lower in northern Chile where Mepraia gajardoi circulates (10-35%); in central Chile, Mepraia spinolai is most abundant, and infection rates varied in space and time (0-55%). T. cruzi discrete typing units (DTUs) TcI, TcII, TcV, and Tc VI were detected. Mixed infections with two or more DTUs are frequently found in highly infected insects. T. cruzi DTUs have distinct, but not exclusive, ecological and epidemiological associations with their hosts. T. cruzi infection rates of M. spinolai were higher than in M. gajardoi, but the presence of mixed infection with more than one T. cruzi DTU was the same. The same T. cruzi DTUs (TcI, TcII, TcV, and TcVI) were found circulating in both vector species, even though TcI was not equally distributed. These results suggest that T. cruzi DTUs are not associated with any of the two genetically related vector species nor with the geographic area. The T. cruzi vectors interactions are discussed in terms of old and recent events. By exploring T. cruzi DTUs present in Mepraia haplotypes and species from northern to central Chile, we open the analysis on these invertebrate host-parasite interactions.

  13. Targeting Transmission Pathways for Emerging Zoonotic Disease Surveillance and Control

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Elizabeth H.; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Olival, Kevin J.; Bogich, Tiffany L.; Johnson, Christine K.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.; Karesh, William

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We used literature searches and a database of all reported emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) to analyze the most important transmission pathways (e.g., vector-borne, aerosol droplet transmitted) for emerging zoonoses. Our results suggest that at the broad scale, the likelihood of transmission occurring through any one pathway is approximately equal. However, the major transmission pathways for zoonoses differ widely according to the specific underlying drivers of EID events (e.g., land-use change, agricultural intensification). These results can be used to develop better targeting of surveillance for, and more effective control of newly emerged zoonoses in regions under different underlying pressures that drive disease emergence. PMID:26186515

  14. Global trends in emerging viral diseases of wildlife origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Ip, Hon S.

    2015-01-01

    The following article provides examples of recently emerged viral diseases of wildlife origin. The examples have been selected to illustrate the drivers of emerging viral diseases, both novel pathogens and previously known diseases, the impacts of these diseases, as well as the role of wildlife both as “villains” or reservoirs as well as “victims” of these viral diseases. The article also discusses potential management strategies for emerging viral diseases in wildlife populations and future science directions in wildlife health to prevent, prepare, respond to, and recover from these disease events. Finally, the concept of One Health and its potential role in developing solutions to these issues of mutual concern is discussed.

  15. Eurytrematosis: An emerging and neglected disease in South Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Schwertz, Claiton Ismael; Lucca, Neuber Jose; da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer; Baska, Piotr; Bonetto, Gustavo; Gabriel, Mateus Eloir; Centofanti, Fábio; Mendes, Ricardo Evandro

    2015-01-01

    The trematodes of the genus Eurytrema are low pathogenic pancreatic parasites, but can be related to a decrease in cattle productive performance and eventually death. Parasitized animals develop chronic interstitial pancreatitis and may show a productive performance drop and emaciation. Human infection by Eurytrema sp. has already been reported in other countries as an incidental finding during autopsy or routine tests, but the parasite has not been found in humans in Brazil. However, it is possible that a large number of people could be infected, since parasitological tests have low sensitivity and the parasite is neglected as a pathogen for humans and even animals. Attempts to control and treat Eurytrematosis have generally presented low effectiveness. With the aim to control the disease and provide more information regarding its pathogenicity, our research group is developing a number of studies about Eurytrema spp. We hope to determine the damage in productivity, as well as, establish an efficient protocol for treatment and control of Eurytrematosis based on immunoprophylaxis and antiparasitical drug therapy. PMID:26309817

  16. Internet-based surveillance systems for monitoring emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Milinovich, Gabriel J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A; Hu, Wenbiao

    2014-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases present a complex challenge to public health officials and governments; these challenges have been compounded by rapidly shifting patterns of human behaviour and globalisation. The increase in emerging infectious diseases has led to calls for new technologies and approaches for detection, tracking, reporting, and response. Internet-based surveillance systems offer a novel and developing means of monitoring conditions of public health concern, including emerging infectious diseases. We review studies that have exploited internet use and search trends to monitor two such diseases: influenza and dengue. Internet-based surveillance systems have good congruence with traditional surveillance approaches. Additionally, internet-based approaches are logistically and economically appealing. However, they do not have the capacity to replace traditional surveillance systems; they should not be viewed as an alternative, but rather an extension. Future research should focus on using data generated through internet-based surveillance and response systems to bolster the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for emerging infectious diseases.

  17. Ancient human sialic acid variant restricts an emerging zoonotic malaria parasite.

    PubMed

    Dankwa, Selasi; Lim, Caeul; Bei, Amy K; Jiang, Rays H Y; Abshire, James R; Patel, Saurabh D; Goldberg, Jonathan M; Moreno, Yovany; Kono, Maya; Niles, Jacquin C; Duraisingh, Manoj T

    2016-04-04

    Plasmodium knowlesi is a zoonotic parasite transmitted from macaques causing malaria in humans in Southeast Asia. Plasmodium parasites bind to red blood cell (RBC) surface receptors, many of which are sialylated. While macaques synthesize the sialic acid variant N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), humans cannot because of a mutation in the enzyme CMAH that converts N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) to Neu5Gc. Here we reconstitute CMAH in human RBCs for the reintroduction of Neu5Gc, which results in enhancement of P. knowlesi invasion. We show that two P. knowlesi invasion ligands, PkDBPβ and PkDBPγ, bind specifically to Neu5Gc-containing receptors. A human-adapted P. knowlesi line invades human RBCs independently of Neu5Gc, with duplication of the sialic acid-independent invasion ligand, PkDBPα and loss of PkDBPγ. Our results suggest that absence of Neu5Gc on human RBCs limits P. knowlesi invasion, but that parasites may evolve to invade human RBCs through the use of sialic acid-independent pathways.

  18. Ancient human sialic acid variant restricts an emerging zoonotic malaria parasite

    PubMed Central

    Dankwa, Selasi; Lim, Caeul; Bei, Amy K.; Jiang, Rays H. Y.; Abshire, James R.; Patel, Saurabh D.; Goldberg, Jonathan M.; Moreno, Yovany; Kono, Maya; Niles, Jacquin C.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi is a zoonotic parasite transmitted from macaques causing malaria in humans in Southeast Asia. Plasmodium parasites bind to red blood cell (RBC) surface receptors, many of which are sialylated. While macaques synthesize the sialic acid variant N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), humans cannot because of a mutation in the enzyme CMAH that converts N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) to Neu5Gc. Here we reconstitute CMAH in human RBCs for the reintroduction of Neu5Gc, which results in enhancement of P. knowlesi invasion. We show that two P. knowlesi invasion ligands, PkDBPβ and PkDBPγ, bind specifically to Neu5Gc-containing receptors. A human-adapted P. knowlesi line invades human RBCs independently of Neu5Gc, with duplication of the sialic acid-independent invasion ligand, PkDBPα and loss of PkDBPγ. Our results suggest that absence of Neu5Gc on human RBCs limits P. knowlesi invasion, but that parasites may evolve to invade human RBCs through the use of sialic acid-independent pathways. PMID:27041489

  19. Sinuolinea niloticus n. sp., a myxozoan parasite that causes disease in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Vaz Rodrigues, Marianna; Francisco, Claire Juliana; Biondi, Germano Francisco; Júnior, João Pessoa Araújo

    2016-11-01

    Sinuolinea species are myxozoans of the order Bivalvulida, suborder Variisporina, and family Sinuolineidae, which can be parasites for freshwater and marine fish. The aim of this study was to describe the occurrence of Sinuolinea niloticus n. sp. infecting Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from aquaculture and from river sources with morphological and molecular analyses. Between March 2010 and November 2012, 116 Nile tilapia were randomly sampled from aquaculture net fishing (n = 56) in Mira Estrela, São Paulo, and from the Capivari River (n = 60) in Botucatu, São Paulo. The fishes that were sampled were examined by necropsy, microscopic observation and molecular techniques for detection and identification of the myxozoan causing disease in tilapia. All of the tissues that were sampled for analysis showed the presence of the parasite. It was observed by microscopy that the myxozoan belongs to the Sinuolinea genus. This identification was performed based on morphological characteristics and histopathology findings, such as structures consistent with myxozoan in the interstices in all analysed tissues, coagulative necrosis, haemorrhage, inflammatory processes, presence of melano-macrophages and eosinophils. The results of the molecular analyses revealed that the myxozoan detected and identified in this study is sister to a group of other Sinuolinea species. Because this is the first report of this parasite in Nile tilapia, the parasite was named S. niloticus n. sp. This is the first report of a Sinuolinea species in Brazil and in tilapia.

  20. Interdisciplinary approaches to understanding disease emergence: the past, present, and future drivers of Nipah virus emergence.

    PubMed

    Daszak, Peter; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Bogich, Tiffany L; Fernandez, Miguel; Epstein, Jonathan H; Murray, Kris A; Hamilton, Healy

    2013-02-26

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose a significant threat to human health, economic stability, and biodiversity. Despite this, the mechanisms underlying disease emergence are still not fully understood, and control measures rely heavily on mitigating the impact of EIDs after they have emerged. Here, we highlight the emergence of a zoonotic Henipavirus, Nipah virus, to demonstrate the interdisciplinary and macroecological approaches necessary to understand EID emergence. Previous work suggests that Nipah virus emerged due to the interaction of the wildlife reservoir (Pteropus spp. fruit bats) with intensively managed livestock. The emergence of this and other henipaviruses involves interactions among a suite of anthropogenic environmental changes, socioeconomic factors, and changes in demography that overlay and interact with the distribution of these pathogens in their wildlife reservoirs. Here, we demonstrate how ecological niche modeling may be used to investigate the potential role of a changing climate on the future risk for Henipavirus emergence. We show that the distribution of Henipavirus reservoirs, and therefore henipaviruses, will likely change under climate change scenarios, a fundamental precondition for disease emergence in humans. We assess the variation among climate models to estimate where Henipavirus host distribution is most likely to expand, contract, or remain stable, presenting new risks for human health. We conclude that there is substantial potential to use this modeling framework to explore the distribution of wildlife hosts under a changing climate. These approaches may directly inform current and future management and surveillance strategies aiming to improve pathogen detection and, ultimately, reduce emergence risk.

  1. Interdisciplinary approaches to understanding disease emergence: The past, present, and future drivers of Nipah virus emergence

    PubMed Central

    Daszak, Peter; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Bogich, Tiffany L.; Fernandez, Miguel; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Murray, Kris A.; Hamilton, Healy

    2013-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose a significant threat to human health, economic stability, and biodiversity. Despite this, the mechanisms underlying disease emergence are still not fully understood, and control measures rely heavily on mitigating the impact of EIDs after they have emerged. Here, we highlight the emergence of a zoonotic Henipavirus, Nipah virus, to demonstrate the interdisciplinary and macroecological approaches necessary to understand EID emergence. Previous work suggests that Nipah virus emerged due to the interaction of the wildlife reservoir (Pteropus spp. fruit bats) with intensively managed livestock. The emergence of this and other henipaviruses involves interactions among a suite of anthropogenic environmental changes, socioeconomic factors, and changes in demography that overlay and interact with the distribution of these pathogens in their wildlife reservoirs. Here, we demonstrate how ecological niche modeling may be used to investigate the potential role of a changing climate on the future risk for Henipavirus emergence. We show that the distribution of Henipavirus reservoirs, and therefore henipaviruses, will likely change under climate change scenarios, a fundamental precondition for disease emergence in humans. We assess the variation among climate models to estimate where Henipavirus host distribution is most likely to expand, contract, or remain stable, presenting new risks for human health. We conclude that there is substantial potential to use this modeling framework to explore the distribution of wildlife hosts under a changing climate. These approaches may directly inform current and future management and surveillance strategies aiming to improve pathogen detection and, ultimately, reduce emergence risk. PMID:22936052

  2. SURVEYING THE RISKS FROM EMERGING DISEASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite advances in sanitation and public health, new waterborne diseases have continued to cause outbreaks in humans. The reason why these organisms can cause disease outbreaks, is that their biology allows them to circumvent the safeguards put in place to prevent transmission ...

  3. Mycoplasma genitalium: An emergent sexually transmitted disease?

    PubMed

    Manhart, Lisa E

    2013-12-01

    This article summarizes the epidemiologic evidence linking Mycoplasma genitalium to sexually transmitted disease syndromes, including male urethritis, and female cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and adverse birth outcomes. It discusses the relationship of this bacterium to human immunodeficiency virus infection and reviews the available literature on the efficacy of standard antimicrobial therapies against M genitalium.

  4. Trypanosoma cruzi in the Chicken Model: Chagas-Like Heart Disease in the Absence of Parasitism

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Antonio R. L.; Gomes, Clever; Nitz, Nadjar; Sousa, Alessandro O.; Alves, Rozeneide M.; Guimaro, Maria C.; Cordeiro, Ciro; Bernal, Francisco M.; Rosa, Ana C.; Hejnar, Jiri; Leonardecz, Eduardo; Hecht, Mariana M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The administration of anti-trypanosome nitroderivatives curtails Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Chagas disease patients, but does not prevent destructive lesions in the heart. This observation suggests that an effective treatment for the disease requires understanding its pathogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings To understand the origin of clinical manifestations of the heart disease we used a chicken model system in which infection can be initiated in the egg, but parasite persistence is precluded. T. cruzi inoculation into the air chamber of embryonated chicken eggs generated chicks that retained only the parasite mitochondrial kinetoplast DNA minicircle in their genome after eight days of gestation. Crossbreeding showed that minicircles were transferred vertically via the germ line to chicken progeny. Minicircle integration in coding regions was shown by targeted-primer thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR, and detected by direct genomic analysis. The kDNA-mutated chickens died with arrhythmias, shortness of breath, cyanosis and heart failure. These chickens with cardiomyopathy had rupture of the dystrophin and other genes that regulate cell growth and differentiation. Tissue pathology revealed inflammatory dilated cardiomegaly whereby immune system mononuclear cells lyse parasite-free target heart fibers. The heart cell destruction implicated a thymus-dependent, autoimmune; self-tissue rejection carried out by CD45+, CD8γδ+, and CD8α lymphocytes. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that genetic alterations resulting from kDNA integration in the host genome lead to autoimmune-mediated destruction of heart tissue in the absence of T. cruzi parasites. PMID:21468314

  5. PROGRESSION OF DISEASES CAUSED BY THE OYSTER PARASITES, PERKINSUS MARINUS AND HAPLOSPORIDIUM NELSONI IN CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA ON CONSTRUCTED INTERTIDAL REEFS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The progression of diseases caused by the oyster parasites, Perkinsus marinus and Haplosporidium nelsoni, were evaluated by periodic sampling (May 1994 - December 1995) of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, on an artificial reef located in the Piankatank River, Virginia. The infecti...

  6. Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases. Grades 9-12. NIH Curriculum Supplement Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs.

    This curriculum supplement guide brings the latest medical discoveries to classrooms. This module focuses on the objectives of introducing students to major concepts related to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, and developing an understanding of the relationship between biomedical research and personal and public health. This module…

  7. Self-disseminating vaccines for emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Aisling A.; Redwood, Alec J.; Jarvis, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Modern human activity fueled by economic development is profoundly altering our relationship with microorganisms. This altered interaction with microbes is believed to be the major driving force behind the increased rate of emerging infectious diseases from animals. The spate of recent infectious disease outbreaks, including Ebola virus disease and Middle East respiratory syndrome, emphasize the need for development of new innovative tools to manage these emerging diseases. Disseminating vaccines are one such novel approach to potentially interrupt animal to human (zoonotic) transmission of these pathogens. PMID:26524478

  8. Self-disseminating vaccines for emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Aisling A; Redwood, Alec J; Jarvis, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Modern human activity fueled by economic development is profoundly altering our relationship with microorganisms. This altered interaction with microbes is believed to be the major driving force behind the increased rate of emerging infectious diseases from animals. The spate of recent infectious disease outbreaks, including Ebola virus disease and Middle East respiratory syndrome, emphasize the need for development of new innovative tools to manage these emerging diseases. Disseminating vaccines are one such novel approach to potentially interrupt animal to human (zoonotic) transmission of these pathogens.

  9. Disease emergence and resurgence: The wildlife-human connection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton

    2006-01-01

    In 2000, the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) was organized as a global disease watchdog group to coordinate disease outbreak information and health crisis response. The World Health Organization (WHO) is the headquarters for this network.2 Understandably, the primary focus for WHO is human health. However, diseases such as the H5N1 avian influenza epizootic in Asian bird populations demonstrate the need for integrating knowledge about disease emergence in animals and in humans.

  10. Isoprenoid precursor biosynthesis offers potential targets for drug discovery against diseases caused by apicomplexan parasites.

    PubMed

    Hunter, William N

    2011-01-01

    Two, simple, C5 compounds, dimethylally diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate, are the universal precursors of isoprenoids, a large family of natural products involved in numerous important biological processes. Two distinct biosynthetic pathways have evolved to supply these precursors. Humans use the mevalonate route whilst many species of bacteria including important pathogens, plant chloroplasts and apicomplexan parasites exploit the non-mevalonate pathway. The absence from humans, combined with genetic and chemical validation suggests that the non-mevalonate pathway holds the potential to support new drug discovery programmes targeting Gram-negative bacteria and the apicomplexan parasites responsible for causing serious human diseases, and also infections of veterinary importance. The non-mevalonate pathway relies on eight enzyme-catalyzed stages exploiting a range of cofactors and metal ions. A wealth of structural and mechanistic data, mainly derived from studies of bacterial enzymes, now exists for most components of the pathway and these will be described. Particular attention will be paid to how these data inform on the apicomplexan orthologues concentrating on the enzymes from Plasmodium spp. these cause malaria, one the most important parasitic diseases in the world today.

  11. Examinations regarding the prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases in Polish soldiers contingents assigned to missions abroad.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the program of diagnostic examinations regarding the detection and following treatment of intestinal parasitic diseases in the population of Polish soldiers serving in different climatic and sanitary conditions. Intestinal parasitoses remain one of the health problems of soldiers participating in contemporary military operations. This fact mainly results from unsatisfactory sanitary and hygienic standards in the regions where troops are deployed, contamination of water and soil, inappropriate processes of purifying drinking water, and the terrible condition of sewage systems, water purification plants, or sewage treatment facilities. The occurrence of such diseases is further facilitated by disregard of some basic principles of food and feeding hygiene. Mass examinations of Polish troops to find the prevalence of intestinal parasitoses will cause a decrease in the morbidity rate of parasitic diseases among Polish soldiers deployed in military operations. They can also lead to a decrease in expenditure on medical treatment of disease-related complications and on damages awarded to soldiers who have developed a serious disease while being engaged in a mission abroad.

  12. Exploring the interface between diagnostics and maps of neglected parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Although not new, the 'One Health' concept is gaining progressively more importance in parasitology. Now more than ever, veterinary and human perspectives should be closely joined in diagnosis and surveillance of neglected parasitic diseases. We argue that concerted, standardized and harmonized diagnostic and surveillance strategies are needed for the control and/or elimination of animal and human neglected parasitic infections. A key challenge is to integrate parasitological data with available geospatial methods in an accessible and user-friendly framework. We discuss the capability of new diagnostic devices (e.g. Mini-FLOTAC) and geospatial technologies supported by mobile- and electronic-based approaches as one of the research priorities of the new millennium.

  13. Molecular diagnosis of Chagas' disease and use of an animal model to study parasite tropism.

    PubMed

    Vera-Cruz, J M; Magallón-Gastelum, E; Grijalva, G; Rincón, A R; Ramos-García, C; Armendáriz-Borunda, J

    2003-04-01

    Chagas' disease, which is an important health problem in humans, is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The cellular and molecular mechanisms, involved in the selective tropism of T. cruzi to different organs remain largely unknown. In this study we designed a PCR-based molecular diagnosis method in order to study the tropism and growth kinetics of T. cruzi in a murine model infected with parasites isolated from an endemic area of Mexico. The growth kinetics and parasite tropism of T. cruzi were also evaluated in the blood and other tissues. We observed that T. cruzi isolates from the Western Mexico showed a major tropism to mouse heart and skeletal muscles in this murine model.

  14. Successful aquatic animal disease emergency programmes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hastein, T.; Hill, B.J.; Winton, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The third part provides a historical review of the build-up of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) in Norway and the attempts to control the disease using legal measures in the absence of detailed knowledge of the aetiology, epizootiology, pathogenesis, etc. of the disease. The measures taken show that the spread of ISA can be controlled using restrictions on the movement of fish, disinfection procedures, etc. However, acceptance and understanding of the chosen strategy by the fish farmers is a pre-requisite to reach that goal. Finally, the paper summarises future needs for national and international legislation, including the development of standard approaches for control, the creation of appropriate infrastructures and a better understanding of the epidemiology of aquatic animal diseases.

  15. Wildlife trade and global disease emergence.

    PubMed

    Karesh, William B; Cook, Robert A; Bennett, Elizabeth L; Newcomb, James

    2005-07-01

    The global trade in wildlife provides disease transmission mechanisms that not only cause human disease outbreaks but also threaten livestock, international trade, rural livelihoods, native wildlife populations, and the health of ecosystems. Outbreaks resulting from wildlife trade have caused hundreds of billions of dollars of economic damage globally. Rather than attempting to eradicate pathogens or the wild species that may harbor them, a practical approach would include decreasing the contact rate among species, including humans, at the interface created by the wildlife trade. Since wildlife marketing functions as a system of scale-free networks with major hubs, these points provide control opportunities to maximize the effects of regulatory efforts.

  16. Parasitic Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M.; McQuade, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Over one billion people worldwide harbor intestinal parasites. Parasitic intestinal infections have a predilection for developing countries due to overcrowding and poor sanitation but are also found in developed nations, such as the United States, particularly in immigrants or in the setting of sporadic outbreaks. Although the majority of people are asymptomatically colonized with parasites, the clinical presentation can range from mild abdominal discomfort or diarrhea to serious complications, such as perforation or bleeding. Protozoa and helminths (worms) are the two major classes of intestinal parasites. Protozoal intestinal infections include cryptosporidiosis, cystoisosporiasis, cyclosporiasis, balantidiasis, giardiasis, amebiasis, and Chagas disease, while helminth infections include ascariasis, trichuriasis, strongyloidiasis, enterobiasis, and schistosomiasis. Intestinal parasites are predominantly small intestine pathogens but the large intestine is also frequently involved. This article highlights important aspects of parasitic infections of the colon including epidemiology, transmission, symptoms, and diagnostic methods as well as appropriate medical and surgical treatment. PMID:26034403

  17. [Socioeconomic impacts of an emerging disease].

    PubMed

    Grisotti, Márcia; de Avila-Pires, Fernando Dias

    2011-02-01

    In 1955 a population explosion of the slug Sarasinula linguaeformis (Semper, 1885) damaged crop plantations in the municipalities of Nova Itaberaba and Planalto Alegre, western of Santa Catarina State, Brazil. In this article we analyze the socioeconomic impacts caused by the emergence of this plague, which raised the suspicion, eventually confirmed, of the occurrence of human cases of abdominal angyostrongiliasis. The data were collected through the observation of a serological study during the period of August 2000 to August 2001 by a research team from the Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS) together with field technicians from the Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina S.A. (Epagri-SC), and with the members of 50 local families. In order to analyze these impacts, we elaborated several analytical categories as economic losses; preventive measures, habit change and social prejudice, that emerged from the narratives of the residents interviewed. It became evident the need for sociological analyses of epidemiological problems, in addition to strictly medico-sanitary considerations.

  18. Emerging importance of mismatch repair components including UvrD helicase and their cross-talk with the development of drug resistance in malaria parasite.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Moaz; Tuteja, Renu

    2014-12-01

    Human malaria is an important parasitic infection responsible for a significant number of deaths worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. The recent scenario has worsened mainly because of the emergence of drug-resistant malaria parasites having the potential to spread across the world. Drug-resistant parasites possess a defective mismatch repair (MMR); therefore, it is essential to explore its mechanism in detail to determine the underlying cause. Recently, artemisinin-resistant parasites have been reported to exhibit nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes involved in MMR pathways such as MutL homolog (MLH) and UvrD. Plasmodium falciparum MLH is an endonuclease required to restore the defective MMR in drug-resistant W2 strain of P. falciparum. Although the role of helicases in eukaryotic MMR has been questioned, the identification and characterization of the UvrD helicase and their cross-talk with MLH in P. falciparum suggests the possible involvement of UvrD in MMR. A comparative genome-wide analysis revealed the presence of the UvrD helicase in Plasmodium species, while it is absent in human host. Therefore, PfUvrD may emerge as a suitable drug target to control malaria. This review study is focused on recent developments in MMR biochemistry, emerging importance of the UvrD helicase, possibility of its involvement in MMR and the emerging cross-talk between MMR components and drug resistance in malaria parasite.

  19. Bats, emerging infectious diseases, and the rabies paradigm revisited

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Bozick, Brooke; Guagliardo, Sarah A.; Kunkel, Rebekah; Shak, Joshua R.; Tong, Suxiang; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2011-01-01

    The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses), for other it has been suggested (filoviruses). Several recently identified viruses remain to be ‘orphan’ but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses). In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions). We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels. PMID:24149032

  20. Perspectives of public health laboratories in emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Kaw Bing; Gubler, Duane J

    2013-01-01

    The world has experienced an increased incidence and transboundary spread of emerging infectious diseases over the last four decades. We divided emerging infectious diseases into four categories, with subcategories in categories 1 and 4. The categorization was based on the nature and characteristics of pathogens or infectious agents causing the emerging infections, which are directly related to the mechanisms and patterns of infectious disease emergence. The factors or combinations of factors contributing to the emergence of these pathogens vary within each category. We also classified public health laboratories into three types based on function, namely, research, reference and analytical diagnostic laboratories, with the last category being subclassified into primary (community-based) public health and clinical (medical) analytical diagnostic laboratories. The frontline/leading and/or supportive roles to be adopted by each type of public health laboratory for optimal performance to establish the correct etiological agents causing the diseases or outbreaks vary with respect to each category of emerging infectious diseases. We emphasize the need, especially for an outbreak investigation, to establish a harmonized and coordinated national public health laboratory system that integrates different categories of public health laboratories within a country and that is closely linked to the national public health delivery system and regional and international high-end laboratories. PMID:26038473

  1. Emerging drugs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Seifart, Carola; Vogelmeier, Claus

    2009-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is one of the most relevant diseases with increasing incidence, morbidity and mortality. Although there have been therapeutic advances in the past decades, there is a lot of room for improvement. There are several new therapeutic strategies and a variety of novel drugs under development that are based on established concepts. These new drugs have the following targets: i) smoking; ii) airways obstruction; iii) inflammation; iv) protease-antiprotease imbalance; and v) regeneration of lung tissue. In the next few years, there will be bronchodilators with longer duration of action that may improve adherence. In addition, there will be fixed combinations of different bronchodilators and bronchodilators with corticosteroids, which may have a positive impact on parameters such as exacerbations, dyspnea and exercise capacity. Novel anti-inflammatory concepts that go beyond corticosteroids are in early phases of development and it remains to be seen how effective they are and what side effects they may carry.

  2. Emerging Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Al Mamun, Mohammad; Rumana, Nahid; Pervin, Kumkum; Azad, Muhammad Chanchal; Shahana, Nahid; Choudhury, Sohel Reza; Zaman, M Mostafa; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury

    2016-01-01

    As a result of an epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases for last few decades, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are being considered as an important cause of mortality and morbidity in many developing countries including Bangladesh. Performing an extensive literature search, we compiled, summarized, and categorized the existing information about CVD mortality and morbidity among different clusters of Bangladeshi population. The present review reports that the burden of CVD in terms of mortality and morbidity is on the rise in Bangladesh. Despite a few non-communicable disease prevention and control programs currently running in Bangladesh, there is an urgent need for well-coordinated national intervention strategies and public health actions to minimize the CVD burden in Bangladesh. As the main challenge for CVD control in a developing country is unavailability of adequate epidemiological data related to various CVD events, the present review attempted to accumulate such data in the current context of Bangladesh. This may be of interest to all stakeholder groups working for CVD prevention and control across the country and globe.

  3. Phytotherapy: emerging therapeutic option in urologic disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Phytotherapy belongs to the area of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and the definition of phytotherapy is the use of plants or plant extracts for medicinal uses. Interest in phytotherapy is growing in both Asian and western countries for its use in the prevention and management of disease, improvement of general health and anti-aging. And also, there are several studies about the efficacy of phytotherapy in urologic diseases like benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), erectile dysfunction (ED), late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) and infertility in males. Phytotherapy for BPH including saw palmetto, pygeum, and nettles, is under vigorous research for the therapeutic effect. No solid evidence showing better effective treatment modality for ED than placebo has been found yet for phytotherapy. Recently, a potent NO donor, L-arginine is under research with promising results. Phytotherapy is used by a number of patients with urological disease, and urologists need to have accurate knowledge about phytotherapy as well as keep a cautious approach. The possible effects and side effects should be defined and related to urologic patients by urologists. PMID:26816707

  4. Communicable diseases in complex emergencies: impact and challenges.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Máire A; Gayer, Michelle; Ryan, Michael J; Salama, Peter; Spiegel, Paul; Heymann, David L

    Communicable diseases, alone or in combination with malnutrition, account for most deaths in complex emergencies. Factors promoting disease transmission interact synergistically leading to high incidence rates of diarrhoea, respiratory infection, malaria, and measles. This excess morbidity and mortality is avoidable as effective interventions are available. Adequate shelter, water, food, and sanitation linked to effective case management, immunisation, health education, and disease surveillance are crucial. However, delivery mechanisms are often compromised by loss of health staff, damage to infrastructure, insecurity, and poor co-ordination. Although progress has been made in the control of specific communicable diseases in camp settings, complex emergencies affecting large geographical areas or entire countries pose a greater challenge. Available interventions need to be implemented more systematically in complex emergencies with higher levels of coordination between governments, UN agencies, and non-governmental organisations. In addition, further research is needed to adapt and simplify interventions, and to explore novel diagnostics, vaccines, and therapies.

  5. Emerging viral diseases of Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, J S; Chua, K B; Daniels, P W; Eaton, B T; Field, H E; Hall, R A; Halpin, K; Johansen, C A; Kirkland, P D; Lam, S K; McMinn, P; Nisbet, D J; Paru, R; Pyke, A T; Ritchie, S A; Siba, P; Smith, D W; Smith, G A; van den Hurk, A F; Wang, L F; Williams, D T

    2001-01-01

    Over the past 6 years, a number of zoonotic and vectorborne viral diseases have emerged in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. Vectorborne disease agents discussed in this article include Japanese encephalitis, Barmah Forest, Ross River, and Chikungunya viruses. However, most emerging viruses have been zoonotic, with fruit bats, including flying fox species as the probable wildlife hosts, and these will be discussed as well. The first of these disease agents to emerge was Hendra virus, formerly called equine morbillivirus. This was followed by outbreaks caused by a rabies-related virus, Australian bat lyssavirus, and a virus associated with porcine stillbirths and malformations, Menangle virus. Nipah virus caused an outbreak of fatal pneumonia in pigs and encephalitis in humans in the Malay Peninsula. Most recently, Tioman virus has been isolated from flying foxes, but it has not yet been associated with animal or human disease. Of nonzoonotic viruses, the most important regionally have been enterovirus 71 and HIV.

  6. Emerging viral diseases of Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific.

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, J. S.; Chua, K. B.; Daniels, P. W.; Eaton, B. T.; Field, H. E.; Hall, R. A.; Halpin, K.; Johansen, C. A.; Kirkland, P. D.; Lam, S. K.; McMinn, P.; Nisbet, D. J.; Paru, R.; Pyke, A. T.; Ritchie, S. A.; Siba, P.; Smith, D. W.; Smith, G. A.; van den Hurk, A. F.; Wang, L. F.; Williams, D. T.

    2001-01-01

    Over the past 6 years, a number of zoonotic and vectorborne viral diseases have emerged in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. Vectorborne disease agents discussed in this article include Japanese encephalitis, Barmah Forest, Ross River, and Chikungunya viruses. However, most emerging viruses have been zoonotic, with fruit bats, including flying fox species as the probable wildlife hosts, and these will be discussed as well. The first of these disease agents to emerge was Hendra virus, formerly called equine morbillivirus. This was followed by outbreaks caused by a rabies-related virus, Australian bat lyssavirus, and a virus associated with porcine stillbirths and malformations, Menangle virus. Nipah virus caused an outbreak of fatal pneumonia in pigs and encephalitis in humans in the Malay Peninsula. Most recently, Tioman virus has been isolated from flying foxes, but it has not yet been associated with animal or human disease. Of nonzoonotic viruses, the most important regionally have been enterovirus 71 and HIV. PMID:11485641

  7. Nosocomial transmission and infection control aspects of parasitic and ectoparasitic diseases. Part III. Ectoparasites/summary and conclusions.

    PubMed

    Lettau, L A

    1991-03-01

    As a rule, both the standard of hygiene and sanitation prevalent in hospitals in the United States and the rarity of parasitic diseases compared to viral, bacterial, and fungal infections, reduce the hazard of nosocomial acquisition of parasites to relatively trivial levels. However, abetted by the resultant low index of suspicion on the part of clinical staff, certain parasitic microorganisms may at times cause significant morbidity and even mortality in both normal and immunocompromised patients, as summarized in this review. Also, the nosocomial acquisition of parasites may be somewhat underappreciated because the incubation period for clinical illness may be days to weeks and thus a hospital-acquired infection may not be recognized as such, particularly if the parasite is endemic locally. Parasitic diseases have been a much more significant problem in certain special facilities, such as custodial institutions for the mentally ill or retarded, where crowding, poor environmental sanitation, and low levels of personal hygiene have in the past allowed the rapid dissemination and endemic occurrence of a large variety of parasitic infections. It is likely that nosocomial transmission of parasites may be an even greater problem in some hospitals in the tropics, where strict hygienic standards are costly or otherwise more difficult to maintain, and where often an increased proportion of the patient population harbors one or more parasites. However, the exact magnitude of the problem in tropical hospitals is also more difficult to determine because nosocomial acquisition of a parasitic infection may not be distinguished easily versus exogenous infection or reactivation of latent infection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. The distribution of parasite strains among hosts affects disease spread in a social insect.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Yuko; Schmid-Hempel, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Social insects present highly interesting and experimentally amenable systems for the study of disease transmission because they naturally live in dense groups of frequently interacting individuals. Using experimental inoculations of five trypanosomatid strains into groups of its natural host, the bumblebee Bombus terrestris, we investigate the effects of the initial parasite strain distribution across group members on the establishment and transmission success of the different strains to new hosts. For a given number of parasite strains circulating within a host group, transmission to new hosts was increased when the strains were initially inoculated as mixed infections (as opposed to separate single infections), presumably because mixed infections generally favored fast replicating strains. In contrast, separate single infections reduced transmission at least in part through a precedence effect, whereby weak strains appeared to persist by making their host unavailable to superinfection. These results suggest that host groups could benefit from 'compartmentalizing' infections by different parasite strains across different group members, which might be achieved in social insects, for example, by division of labor.

  9. Contagious ovine digital dermatitis: an emerging disease.

    PubMed

    Duncan, J S; Angell, J W; Carter, S D; Evans, N J; Sullivan, L E; Grove-White, D H

    2014-09-01

    The novel sheep disease, contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) was first described in the UK in 1997. The disease is characterised by severe lameness associated with initial inflammation at the coronary band, followed by progressive separation of the hoof capsule from the underlying tissue. On microbiological examination, treponeme bacteria have been frequently isolated from cases of CODD, including treponemes phylogenetically identical to those associated with bovine digital dermatitis (BDD). Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum have also been isolated from CODD lesions although their role in the pathogenesis remains uncertain. While epidemiological data indicate that the prevalence of CODD is increasing in the UK, the routes of transmission and associated risk factors have not been clearly elucidated. Evidenced-based treatment trials indicate that parenteral administration of long-acting amoxicillin is an efficacious treatment for CODD, while anecdotal evidence suggests other antibiotics, given locally and/or parenterally, may also be beneficial. Further microbiological and epidemiological research is urgently required to develop sustainable control strategies, including the development of vaccines and appropriate biosecurity and farm management protocols. In this review current knowledge of the clinical, aetiological, and epidemiological aspects of CODD is assessed as well as approaches to its control.

  10. Understanding complexity in neurodegenerative diseases: in silico reconstruction of emergence

    PubMed Central

    Kolodkin, Alexey; Simeonidis, Evangelos; Balling, Rudi; Westerhoff, Hans V.

    2012-01-01

    Healthy functioning is an emergent property of the network of interacting biomolecules that comprise an organism. It follows that disease (a network shift that causes malfunction) is also an emergent property, emerging from a perturbation of the network. On the one hand, the biomolecular network of every individual is unique and this is evident when similar disease-producing agents cause different individual pathologies. Consequently, a personalized model and approach for every patient may be required for therapies to become effective across mankind. On the other hand, diverse combinations of internal and external perturbation factors may cause a similar shift in network functioning. We offer this as an explanation for the multi-factorial nature of most diseases: they are “systems biology diseases,” or “network diseases.” Here we use neurodegenerative diseases, like Parkinson's disease (PD), as an example to show that due to the inherent complexity of these networks, it is difficult to understand multi-factorial diseases with simply our “naked brain.” When describing interactions between biomolecules through mathematical equations and integrating those equations into a mathematical model, we try to reconstruct the emergent properties of the system in silico. The reconstruction of emergence from interactions between huge numbers of macromolecules is one of the aims of systems biology. Systems biology approaches enable us to break through the limitation of the human brain to perceive the extraordinarily large number of interactions, but this also means that we delegate the understanding of reality to the computer. We no longer recognize all those essences in the system's design crucial for important physiological behavior (the so-called “design principles” of the system). In this paper we review evidence that by using more abstract approaches and by experimenting in silico, one may still be able to discover and understand the design principles that

  11. Kidney pathology and parasite intensity in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss surviving proliferative kidney disease: time course and influence of temperature.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Bettge, Kathrin; Forster, Ursula; Segner, Helmut; Wahli, Thomas

    2012-01-24

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is an endoparasitic disease of salmonids caused by the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae. We recently described the development of the disease from initial infection until manifestation of clinical disease signs in rainbow trout held at 2 water temperatures, 12 and 18°C. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether (1) infected fish surviving the clinical phase would recover from renal pathological changes, (2) whether they would be able to reduce the parasite load in the kidneys, and (3) whether water temperatures would influence renal recovery and parasite clearance. At 18°C, fish showed a gradual recovery of normal kidney morphology which was associated with a decline in parasite numbers and infection prevalence. Fish kept at 12°C initially showed an enhancement of kidney lesions before recovery of normal kidney morphology took place. The decrease in renal parasite load was retarded compared to 18°C. The results from the present study provide evidence that rainbow trout surviving the clinical phase of PKD are able to (1) fully restore renal structure, and (2) significantly reduce renal parasite loads, although 100% clearance was not achieved within the experimental period of this study. Water temperature influences the rate but not the outcome of the recovery process.

  12. Current and emerging therapy for celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Makharia, Govind K

    2014-01-01

    At present, strict and lifelong gluten-free diet is the only effective treatment for celiac disease. Even small amounts of gluten (50 mg/day) can be immunogenic; therefore all food and food items and drugs that contain gluten and its derivatives must be eliminated completely from the diet. While prescribing gluten-free diet is easy; the key to the success is the dietary counseling by a nutrition specialist and maintenance of adherence to GFD by the patient. In recent times, a number of targets to halt the process of immunological injury have been explored to find out alternative treatment for celiac disease. These targets include exploration of ancient wheat if they are less immunogenic, intra-luminal digestion of gluten using prolylendopeptidases, pretreatment of whole gluten with bacterial-derived peptidase before ingestion; prevention of passage of immunogenic peptides through the tight junctions such as zonulin antagonists, Blocking of HLA-DQ2 to prevent binding of immunogenic peptides, inhibition of transglutaminase 2, immune-modulation, and induction of tolerance to gluten using gluten tolerizing vaccines, use of gluten-sequestering polymers, use of anti-inflammatory drugs (glucocorticoids, budesonides) and anti-cytokines such as anti TNF-α, and anti-interleukin-15. While many of these targets are still in the pre-clinical phase, some of them including zonulin antagonist and endopeptidases have already reached phase II and phase III clinical trials. Furthermore, while these targets appear very exciting; they at best are likely to be used as adjunctive therapy rather than a complete replacement for gluten-free diet.

  13. Current and Emerging Therapy for Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Makharia, Govind K.

    2014-01-01

    At present, strict and lifelong gluten-free diet is the only effective treatment for celiac disease. Even small amounts of gluten (50 mg/day) can be immunogenic; therefore all food and food items and drugs that contain gluten and its derivatives must be eliminated completely from the diet. While prescribing gluten-free diet is easy; the key to the success is the dietary counseling by a nutrition specialist and maintenance of adherence to GFD by the patient. In recent times, a number of targets to halt the process of immunological injury have been explored to find out alternative treatment for celiac disease. These targets include exploration of ancient wheat if they are less immunogenic, intra-luminal digestion of gluten using prolylendopeptidases, pretreatment of whole gluten with bacterial-derived peptidase before ingestion; prevention of passage of immunogenic peptides through the tight junctions such as zonulin antagonists, Blocking of HLA-DQ2 to prevent binding of immunogenic peptides, inhibition of transglutaminase 2, immune-modulation, and induction of tolerance to gluten using gluten tolerizing vaccines, use of gluten-sequestering polymers, use of anti-inflammatory drugs (glucocorticoids, budesonides) and anti-cytokines such as anti TNF-α, and anti-interleukin-15. While many of these targets are still in the pre-clinical phase, some of them including zonulin antagonist and endopeptidases have already reached phase II and phase III clinical trials. Furthermore, while these targets appear very exciting; they at best are likely to be used as adjunctive therapy rather than a complete replacement for gluten-free diet. PMID:25705619

  14. Onchocerciasis in Yemen: Time to take action against a neglected tropical parasitic disease.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Beier, John C

    2016-10-01

    Onchocerciasis is a neglected parasitic disease affecting the poorest underserved people in Yemen. A national control programme with goals to eliminate onchocerciasis has yet to be launched due to the current upheaval and social unrest in the country. The disease, locally termed as sowda, is unique in its clinicopathologic pattern, being of the localized, non-blinding, hyperreactive onchocercal skin disease. Although early reports identified endemic foci along seasonal watercourses, there is a need to redefine its epidemiologic patterns as well as health and socioeconomic impacts. Laboratory diagnosis of sowda among Yemeni patients is difficult due to the low load of microfilariae in skin snips and the presence of asymptomatic itching-free microfilaria carriers. Adoption of ivermectin use at three-month intervals as a control strategy has not been evaluated because the drug is mostly used in clinics and distributed to only a few affected communities. This paper addresses key aspects of onchocerciasis in Yemen and highlights the need for screening at-risk populations using highly sensitive techniques and mapping the distributions of the parasite in human and vector populations of blackflies. The new research should be integrated with the launch of a national onchocerciasis control programme to achieve onchocerciasis elimination.

  15. [Development and application of information system for epidemiological investigation on parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Hu, Fei; Li, Yi-feng; Yuan, Min; Li, Jian-ying; Liu, Yue-min; Li, Zhao-jun; Lin, Dan-dan

    2014-10-01

    An information system for epidemiological investigation on parasitic diseases was developed. The foreground of this system was realized by using C# programming language, and the ACCESS database was used to implement the data management. The system was improved by continuous field application, and has been updated from version 1.0 to 3.0. The average treatment time, logic error rate, rate of sample loss, and post-processing error rate have now been reduced by 88.0%, 100%, 98.1%, and 100%, respectively (P<0.01). This system can reduce the human error and change the field investigation into effective and high-quality pattern.

  16. Emerging infectious diseases in southeast Asia: regional challenges to control.

    PubMed

    Coker, Richard J; Hunter, Benjamin M; Rudge, James W; Liverani, Marco; Hanvoravongchai, Piya

    2011-02-12

    Southeast Asia is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases, including those with pandemic potential. Emerging infectious diseases have exacted heavy public health and economic tolls. Severe acute respiratory syndrome rapidly decimated the region's tourist industry. Influenza A H5N1 has had a profound effect on the poultry industry. The reasons why southeast Asia is at risk from emerging infectious diseases are complex. The region is home to dynamic systems in which biological, social, ecological, and technological processes interconnect in ways that enable microbes to exploit new ecological niches. These processes include population growth and movement, urbanisation, changes in food production, agriculture and land use, water and sanitation, and the effect of health systems through generation of drug resistance. Southeast Asia is home to about 600 million people residing in countries as diverse as Singapore, a city state with a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$37,500 per head, and Laos, until recently an overwhelmingly rural economy, with a GDP of US$890 per head. The regional challenges in control of emerging infectious diseases are formidable and range from influencing the factors that drive disease emergence, to making surveillance systems fit for purpose, and ensuring that regional governance mechanisms work effectively to improve control interventions.

  17. Parasitic skin diseases: health care-seeking in a slum in north-east Brazil.

    PubMed

    Heukelbach, Jörg; van Haeff, Evelien; Rump, Babette; Wilcke, Thomas; Moura, Rômulo César Sabóia; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2003-04-01

    Ectoparasitic diseases are endemic in many poor communities in north-east Brazil, and heavy infestation is frequent. We conducted two studies to assess disease perception and health care seeking behaviour in relation to parasitic skin diseases and to determine their public health importance. The first study comprised a representative cross-sectional survey of the population of a slum in north-east Brazil. Inhabitants were examined for the presence of scabies, tungiasis, pediculosis and cutaneous larva migrans (CLM). The second study assessed health care seeking behaviour related to these ectoparasitic diseases of patients attending a Primary Health Care Centre (PHCC) adjacent to the slum. Point prevalence rates in the community were: head lice 43.3% (95% CI: 40.5-46.3), tungiasis 33.6% (95% CI: 30.9-36.4), scabies 8.8% (95% CI: 7.3-10.6) and CLM 3.1% (95% CI: 2.2-4.3). Point prevalence rates of patients attending the PHCC were: head lice 38.2% (95% CI: 32.6-44.1), tungiasis 19.1% (95% CI: 14.7-24.1), scabies 18.8% (95% CI: 14.4-23.7) and CLM 2.1% (95% CI: 0.8-4.5). Only 28 of 54 patients with scabies, three of 55 patients with tungiasis, four of six patients with CLM and zero of 110 patients with head lice sought medical assistance. The physicians of the PHCC only diagnosed a parasitic skin disease when it was pointed out by the patient himself. In all cases patients were correctly informed about the ectoparasites they carried. The results show that tungiasis and pediculosis, and to a lesser extent scabies and CLM, are hyperendemic but neglected by both population and physicians, and that prevalence rates of tungiasis and scabies at the PHCC do not reflect the true prevalence of these diseases in the community.

  18. Health and disease: exploring the relation between parasitic infections, child nutrition status, and markets.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Susan

    2014-10-01

    Research in bioarchaeology and among living people provides insight into the biological and biocultural consequences of subsistence, political, and economic transitions. Central to this effort is examining infectious disease, such as diarrheal disease, respiratory infections, and parasitic infections because they are an important source of nutritional and energetic stress in both past and current groups. Although infection may not always result in overt disease, frequent exposure results in biological stress with a negative effect on child growth and, by extension, health. The goal of this article is to examine the association between a common class of infectious disease, soil-transmitted helminth worms, and nutritional status among youth living in communities that vary with respect to their distance from a commercial center. In 2007, anthropometric measurements and parasitological surveys were collected for 338 2-14-year-old children and adolescents living in lowland Bolivia as part of the Tsimane' Amazonian Panel Study. Associations between the presence of helminth infections and markers of both short- and long-term nutritional status were overall weak. Youth living in communities distant from the commercial center were more likely to be positive for multiple parasite species than youth in near communities, but youth in mid-distance communities had lower infection rates. This article demonstrates the challenge of identifying associations between nutritional and disease stress when individual and household factors are nested in a larger context of socioeconomic and environmental change. Increased collaboration between bioarchaeology and human biology should continue to examine the connections between stress and disease across time.

  19. Dirofilaria immitis: an emerging parasite in dogs, red foxes and golden jackals in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Tolnai, Z; Széll, Z; Sproch, Á; Szeredi, L; Sréter, T

    2014-07-14

    Hungary was not considered to be a heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) endemic country until 2007, when the first autochthonous canine infection was described. Herein we report additional autochthonous heartworm infections in two dogs (Canis familiaris), twenty red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) (n=534; prevalence: 3.7%; 95% CI=2.4-5.7%) and two golden jackals (Canis aureus) (n=27; prevalence: 7.4%; 95% CI=2.1-23.4%) coming from eight counties. The identification of the parasite was based on morphology, morphometrics and amplification of 12S rDNA followed by sequencing in all cases. Our results indicate that Hungary became a D. immitis endemic country in the past decade. The prevalence and intensity of heartworm infection in wild canids is similar to or lower than that observed in the Mediterranean countries of Europe (3.7-7.4% vs. 0.4-12.7% and 1.5 vs. 2.9-4.4 worms/animal). These findings are in line with the results of the recently developed climate based forecast model to predict the establishment of D. immitis in Hungary.

  20. Recurrence and emergence of infectious diseases in Djibouti city.

    PubMed

    Rodier, G R; Parra, J P; Kamil, M; Chakib, S O; Cope, S E

    1995-01-01

    Public health authorities are now increasingly concerned by changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases which may have an adverse impact on their budget plans and control strategies. Rapid increases in population and urban migration, various ecological changes, increasing poverty, and a rise in international travel have contributed to the worldwide vulnerability of human populations to the emergence, recurrence or spread of infectious diseases. In the rapidly growing city of Djibouti in East Africa, public health priorities have been altered during the last 10 years by diseases which were unknown or under control until the early 1980s. These diseases, including malaria, AIDS, tuberculosis, dengue fever and cholera, are consuming considerable resources. This article on Djibouti illustrates the epidemiological changes in the region. Besides the specific ecological and behavioural changes, which accompany rapid population growth, poverty seems to be a major cause for the emergence and recurrence of infectious diseases.

  1. Recurrence and emergence of infectious diseases in Djibouti city.

    PubMed Central

    Rodier, G. R.; Parra, J. P.; Kamil, M.; Chakib, S. O.; Cope, S. E.

    1995-01-01

    Public health authorities are now increasingly concerned by changes in the epidemiology of infectious diseases which may have an adverse impact on their budget plans and control strategies. Rapid increases in population and urban migration, various ecological changes, increasing poverty, and a rise in international travel have contributed to the worldwide vulnerability of human populations to the emergence, recurrence or spread of infectious diseases. In the rapidly growing city of Djibouti in East Africa, public health priorities have been altered during the last 10 years by diseases which were unknown or under control until the early 1980s. These diseases, including malaria, AIDS, tuberculosis, dengue fever and cholera, are consuming considerable resources. This article on Djibouti illustrates the epidemiological changes in the region. Besides the specific ecological and behavioural changes, which accompany rapid population growth, poverty seems to be a major cause for the emergence and recurrence of infectious diseases. PMID:8907768

  2. A rare cause of acute abdomen in adults: Parasitic infection-related acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Küpeli, Aydın Hakan; Özdemir, Murat; Topuz, Sezgin; Sözütek, Alper; Paksoy, Tuğba

    2015-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is a common parasitic disease all over the world, especially in less developed countries. Acute appendicitis related to parasitic infection is a rare condition. Parasitic infections should be kept in mind in patients who are admitted to the emergency department with acute abdomen, especially in endemic areas.

  3. A framework for modeling emerging diseases to inform management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, Robin E.; Katz, Rachel A.; Richgels, Katherine L.D.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Grant, Evan

    2017-01-01

    The rapid emergence and reemergence of zoonotic diseases requires the ability to rapidly evaluate and implement optimal management decisions. Actions to control or mitigate the effects of emerging pathogens are commonly delayed because of uncertainty in the estimates and the predicted outcomes of the control tactics. The development of models that describe the best-known information regarding the disease system at the early stages of disease emergence is an essential step for optimal decision-making. Models can predict the potential effects of the pathogen, provide guidance for assessing the likelihood of success of different proposed management actions, quantify the uncertainty surrounding the choice of the optimal decision, and highlight critical areas for immediate research. We demonstrate how to develop models that can be used as a part of a decision-making framework to determine the likelihood of success of different management actions given current knowledge.

  4. A Framework for Modeling Emerging Diseases to Inform Management

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Rachel A.; Richgels, Katherine L.D.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Grant, Evan H.C.

    2017-01-01

    The rapid emergence and reemergence of zoonotic diseases requires the ability to rapidly evaluate and implement optimal management decisions. Actions to control or mitigate the effects of emerging pathogens are commonly delayed because of uncertainty in the estimates and the predicted outcomes of the control tactics. The development of models that describe the best-known information regarding the disease system at the early stages of disease emergence is an essential step for optimal decision-making. Models can predict the potential effects of the pathogen, provide guidance for assessing the likelihood of success of different proposed management actions, quantify the uncertainty surrounding the choice of the optimal decision, and highlight critical areas for immediate research. We demonstrate how to develop models that can be used as a part of a decision-making framework to determine the likelihood of success of different management actions given current knowledge. PMID:27983501

  5. The Interplay of Host Microbiota and Parasitic Protozoans at Mucosal Interfaces: Implications for the Outcomes of Infections and Diseases.

    PubMed

    Bär, Ann-Katrein; Phukan, Niha; Pinheiro, Jully; Simoes-Barbosa, Augusto

    2015-12-01

    Infections by parasitic protozoans are largely neglected, despite threatening millions of people, particularly in developing countries. With descriptions of the microbiota in humans, a new frontier of investigation is developing to decipher the complexity of host-parasite-microbiota relationships, instead of the classic reductionist approach, which considers host-parasite in isolation. Here, we review with specific examples the potential roles that the resident microbiota can play at mucosal interfaces in the transmission of parasitic protozoans and in the progress of infection and disease. Although the mechanisms underlying these relationships remain poorly understood, some examples provide compelling evidence that specific components of the microbiota can potentially alter the outcomes of parasitic infections and diseases in humans. Most findings suggest a protective role of the microbiota, which might lead to exploratory research comprising microbiota-based interventions to prevent and treat protozoal infections in the future. However, these infections are often accompanied by an unbalanced microbiota and, in some specific cases, apparently, these bacteria may contribute synergistically to disease progression. Taken together, these findings provide a different perspective on the ecological nature of protozoal infections. This review focuses attention on the importance of considering polymicrobial associations, i.e., parasitic protozoans and the host microbiota, for understanding these human infections in their natural microbial context.

  6. Disease ecology across soil boundaries: effects of below-ground fungi on above-ground host-parasite interactions.

    PubMed

    Tao, Leiling; Gowler, Camden D; Ahmad, Aamina; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2015-10-22

    Host-parasite interactions are subject to strong trait-mediated indirect effects from other species. However, it remains unexplored whether such indirect effects may occur across soil boundaries and connect spatially isolated organisms. Here, we demonstrate that, by changing plant (milkweed Asclepias sp.) traits, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) significantly affect interactions between a herbivore (the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus) and its protozoan parasite (Ophryocystis elektroscirrha), which represents an interaction across four biological kingdoms. In our experiment, AMF affected parasite virulence, host resistance and host tolerance to the parasite. These effects were dependent on both the density of AMF and the identity of milkweed species: AMF indirectly increased disease in monarchs reared on some species, while alleviating disease in monarchs reared on other species. The species-specificity was driven largely by the effects of AMF on both plant primary (phosphorus) and secondary (cardenolides; toxins in milkweeds) traits. Our study demonstrates that trait-mediated indirect effects in disease ecology are extensive, such that below-ground interactions between AMF and plant roots can alter host-parasite interactions above ground. In general, soil biota may play an underappreciated role in the ecology of many terrestrial host-parasite systems.

  7. Risk of parasite transmission influences perceived vulnerability to disease and perceived danger of disease-relevant animals.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Pavol; Usak, Muhammet; Fancovicová, Jana

    2010-09-01

    Adaptationist view proposes that emotions were shaped by natural selection and their primary function is to protect humans against predators and/or disease threat. This study examined cross-cultural and inter-personal differences in behavioural immune system measured by disgust, fear and perceived danger in participants from high (Turkey) and low (Slovakia) pathogen prevalence areas. We found that behavioural immune system in Turkish participants was activated more than those of Slovakian participants when exposed to photographs depicting disease-relevant cues, but not when exposed to disease-irrelevant cues. However, participants from Slovakia, where human to human disease transmission is expected to be more prevalent than in Turkey, showed lower aversion in Germ Aversion subscale supporting hypersensitiveness of the behavioural immune system. Having animals at home was less frequent both in Turkey and in participants who perceived higher danger about disease relevant animals. Participants more vulnerable to diseases reported higher incidence of illness last year and considered perceived disease-relevant animals more dangerous than others. Females showed greater fear, disgust and danger about disease-relevant animals than males. Our results further support the finding that cultural and inter-personal differences in human personality are influenced by parasite threat.

  8. Environmental effects on parasitic disease transmission exemplified by schistosomiasis in western China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Song; Seto, Edmund Y. W.; Remais, Justin V.; Zhong, Bo; Yang, Changhong; Hubbard, Alan; Davis, George M.; Gu, Xueguang; Qiu, Dongchuan; Spear, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental effects on the transmission of many parasitic diseases are well recognized, but the role of specific factors like climate and agricultural practices in modulating transmission is seldom characterized quantitatively. Based on studies of Schistosoma japonicum transmission in irrigated agricultural environments in western China, a mathematical model was used to quantify environmental impacts on transmission intensity. The model was calibrated by using field data from intervention studies in three villages and simulated to predict the effects of alternative control options. Both the results of these interventions and earlier epidemiological findings confirm the central role of environmental factors, particularly those relating to snail habitat and agricultural and sanitation practices. Moreover, the findings indicate the inadequacy of current niclosamide-praziquantel strategies alone to achieve sustainable interruption of transmission in some endemic areas. More generally, the analysis suggests a village-specific index of transmission potential and how this potential is modulated by time-varying factors, including climatological variables, seasonal water-contact patterns, and irrigation practices. These time-variable factors, a village's internal potential, and its connectedness to its neighbors provide a framework for evaluating the likelihood of sustained schistosomiasis transmission and suggest an approach to quantifying the role of environmental factors for other parasitic diseases. PMID:17438266

  9. [Parasitic diseases are a risk factor of inflammations of the small pelvis organs. Trichomoniasis].

    PubMed

    Gasanova, T A

    2002-01-01

    Clinical and laboratory studies were made in 2259 persons by using serological assays, including cultural and bacterioscopic assays in 1824 and 363 persons, respectively, in order to indicate Trichomonas infection among men, women, and 2-15-year-old children who had chronic inflammation of the urogenital system, as well as among children aged 2 months to 16 years who had a severe somatic disease. Parasitic cenoses of the urogenital tract were studied in women with trichomoniasis and reproductive dysfunction. Trichomonas invasion is an etiological factor of inflammatory small pelvic diseases, chronic prostatitis, reproductive dysfunction in males and females. Furthermore, trichomoniasis is an essential factor, that predisposes to recurrent viral infections: genital herpes and pointed condyloma, and substantially increases the risk of birth of babies with clinical manifestations of intrauterine infection. According to the studies, a laboratory diagnosis of trichomoniasis should be made by cultural assay due to the low sensitivity of bacterioscopy by sampling a biological material from females in the periovulatory period that corresponds to the hyperestrogenicity, which substantially increases the number of isolated cultures and characterizes the depth of integration of metabolic processes of a parasite and its host.

  10. Eco-social processes influencing infectious disease emergence and spread.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bryony A; Betson, Martha; Pfeiffer, Dirk U

    2017-01-01

    The complexity and connectedness of eco-social processes have major influence on the emergence and spread of infectious diseases amongst humans and animals. The disciplinary nature of most research activity has made it difficult to improve our understanding of interactions and feedback loops within the relevant systems. Influenced by the One Health approach, increasing efforts have recently been made to address this knowledge gap. Disease emergence and spread is strongly influenced by host density and contact structures, pathogen characteristics and pathogen population and molecular evolutionary dynamics in different host species, and host response to infection. All these mechanisms are strongly influenced by eco-social processes, such as globalization and urbanization, which lead to changes in global ecosystem dynamics, including patterns of mobility, human population density and contact structures, and food production and consumption. An improved understanding of epidemiological and eco-social processes, including their interdependence, will be essential to be able to manage diseases in these circumstances. The interfaces between wild animals, domestic animals and humans need to be examined to identify the main risk pathways and put in place appropriate mitigation. Some recent examples of emerging infectious disease are described to illustrate eco-social processes that are influencing disease emergence and spread.

  11. Acute Schistosomiasis in Brazilian Traveler: The Importance of Tourism in The Epidemiology of Neglected Parasitic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Guiguet Leal, Diego Averaldo; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Neves, Maria Francisca; Simões, Luciana Franceschi; Bastos, Letícia Aparecida Duart; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Zanotti-Magalhães, Eliana Maria; Magalhães, Luiz Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic infectious diseases acquired in tourist areas may pose a challenge to physicians and to travel medicine practitioners. Acute schistosomiasis may be seen in returning travelers and migrants after primary infection. This form of schistosomiasis is frequently misdiagnosed due to its temporal delay and its nonspecific presentation and might occur even in countries where the disease is endemic, such as in Brazil. The patient developed the acute phase of schistosomiasis with severe clinical manifestations. The quantitative analysis revealed the presence of 240 eggs per gram of stool. The treatment was administered with oxamniquine, and the control of cure of the patient was monitored and was favorable. The present paper aims to emphasize the importance of a detailed clinical history including information regarding travel history. PMID:22844623

  12. [Analysis on theses of the Chinese Journal of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases in 2009-2012].

    PubMed

    Yi, Feng-Yun; Qu, Lin-Ping; Yan, He; Sheng, Hui-Feng

    2013-12-01

    The published articles at the Chinese Journal of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases in 2009-2012 were statistically analyzed. Among 547 papers published in the four years, original articles occupied 45.3% (248/547). The number of authors was 2712, with an average cooperation degree of 5.0, and the co-authorship accounted for 95.4% of the papers. Authors were mainly from colleges/universities (51.9%, 284/547), institutions for disease control (34.4%, 188/547) and hospitals health centers (13.7%, 75/547). The average publishing delay was 212, 141, 191 and 207 d in 2009-2012. Statistical analysis reflected the characteristics and academic level for improving the quality of the journal, and revealed the latest development and trends.

  13. Acute schistosomiasis in brazilian traveler: the importance of tourism in the epidemiology of neglected parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Guiguet Leal, Diego Averaldo; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno; Neves, Maria Francisca; Simões, Luciana Franceschi; Bastos, Letícia Aparecida Duart; Allegretti, Silmara Marques; Zanotti-Magalhães, Eliana Maria; Magalhães, Luiz Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic infectious diseases acquired in tourist areas may pose a challenge to physicians and to travel medicine practitioners. Acute schistosomiasis may be seen in returning travelers and migrants after primary infection. This form of schistosomiasis is frequently misdiagnosed due to its temporal delay and its nonspecific presentation and might occur even in countries where the disease is endemic, such as in Brazil. The patient developed the acute phase of schistosomiasis with severe clinical manifestations. The quantitative analysis revealed the presence of 240 eggs per gram of stool. The treatment was administered with oxamniquine, and the control of cure of the patient was monitored and was favorable. The present paper aims to emphasize the importance of a detailed clinical history including information regarding travel history.

  14. New technologies in predicting, preventing and controlling emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Christaki, Eirini

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance of emerging infectious diseases is vital for the early identification of public health threats. Emergence of novel infections is linked to human factors such as population density, travel and trade and ecological factors like climate change and agricultural practices. A wealth of new technologies is becoming increasingly available for the rapid molecular identification of pathogens but also for the more accurate monitoring of infectious disease activity. Web-based surveillance tools and epidemic intelligence methods, used by all major public health institutions, are intended to facilitate risk assessment and timely outbreak detection. In this review, we present new methods for regional and global infectious disease surveillance and advances in epidemic modeling aimed to predict and prevent future infectious diseases threats.

  15. Emergence of a unique group of necrotizing mycobacterial diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Dobos, K. M.; Quinn, F. D.; Ashford, D. A.; Horsburgh, C. R.; King, C. H.

    1999-01-01

    Although most diseases due to pathogenic mycobacteria are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, several other mycobacterial diseases-caused by M. ulcerans (Buruli ulcer), M. marinum, and M. haemophilum-have begun to emerge. We review the emergence of diseases caused by these three pathogens in the United States and around the world in the last decade. We examine the pathophysiologic similarities of the diseases (all three cause necrotizing skin lesions) and common reservoirs of infection (stagnant or slow-flowing water). Examination of the histologic and pathogenic characteristics of these mycobacteria suggests differences in the modes of transmission and pathogenesis, though no singular mechanism for either characteristic has been definitively described for any of these mycobacteria. PMID:10341173

  16. New technologies in predicting, preventing and controlling emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Christaki, Eirini

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance of emerging infectious diseases is vital for the early identification of public health threats. Emergence of novel infections is linked to human factors such as population density, travel and trade and ecological factors like climate change and agricultural practices. A wealth of new technologies is becoming increasingly available for the rapid molecular identification of pathogens but also for the more accurate monitoring of infectious disease activity. Web-based surveillance tools and epidemic intelligence methods, used by all major public health institutions, are intended to facilitate risk assessment and timely outbreak detection. In this review, we present new methods for regional and global infectious disease surveillance and advances in epidemic modeling aimed to predict and prevent future infectious diseases threats. PMID:26068569

  17. Snake fungal disease: An emerging threat to wild snakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging disease of wild snakes in eastern North America caused by the fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola. The data presented here describe: 1) the types of fungi recovered in culture from the skin of snakes with and without fungal skin infections, 2) the presence or absence of skin lesions in populations of snakes surveyed at several sites in Wisconsin and Minnesota, and 3) the various species of snakes that have been found to harbor O. ophiodiicola.

  18. Population viscosity suppresses disease emergence by preserving local herd immunity.

    PubMed

    Reluga, Timothy C; Shim, Eunha

    2014-12-07

    Animal reservoirs for infectious diseases pose ongoing risks to human populations. In this theory of zoonoses, the introduction event that starts an epidemic is assumed to be independent of all preceding events. However, introductions are often concentrated in communities that bridge the ecological interfaces between reservoirs and the general population. In this paper, we explore how the risks of disease emergence are altered by the aggregation of introduction events within bridge communities. In viscous bridge communities, repeated introductions can elevate the local prevalence of immunity. This local herd immunity can form a barrier reducing the opportunities for disease emergence. In some situations, reducing exposure rates counterintuitively increases the emergence hazards because of off-setting reductions in local immunity. Increases in population mixing can also increase emergence hazards, even when average contact rates are conserved. Our theory of bridge communities may help guide prevention and explain historical emergence events, where disruption of stable economic, political or demographic processes reduced population viscosity at ecological interfaces.

  19. Emerging and reemerging infectious diseases: the perpetual challenge.

    PubMed

    Fauci, Anthony S

    2005-12-01

    Public health officials once suggested that it might someday be possible to "close the book" on the study and treatment of infectious diseases. However, it is now clear that endemic diseases as well as newly emerging ones (e.g., severe acute respiratory syndrome [SARS]), reemerging ones (e.g., West Nile virus), and even deliberately disseminated infectious diseases (e.g., anthrax from bioterrorism) continue to pose a substantial threat throughout the world. Over the past several decades, the global effort to identify and characterize infectious agents, decipher the underlying pathways by which they cause disease, and develop preventive measures and treatments for many of the world's most dangerous pathogens has helped control many endemic diseases. But despite considerable progress, infectious diseases continue to present significant challenges as new microbial threats emerge and reemerge. HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, influenza, SARS, West Nile virus, Marburg virus, and bioterrorism are examples of some of the emerging and reemerging threats. In responding to these ongoing challenges, a new paradigm in countermeasure development is needed. In the past, U.S. government-sponsored biomedical researchers have focused on basic research and concept development, leaving product development to the pharmaceutical industry. Increasingly, however, the government has become involved in more targeted countermeasure development efforts. In this regard, partnerships between government, industry, and academia are necessary as we struggle to maintain and update our armamentarium in the struggle to outwit the microbes that pose a never-ending threat to mankind.

  20. Evasion and Immuno-Endocrine Regulation in Parasite Infection: Two Sides of the Same Coin in Chagas Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Morrot, Alexandre; Villar, Silvina R.; González, Florencia B.; Pérez, Ana R.

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease is a serious illness caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Nearly 30% of chronically infected people develop cardiac, digestive, or mixed alterations, suggesting a broad range of host-parasite interactions that finally impact upon chronic disease outcome. The ability of T. cruzi to persist and cause pathology seems to depend on diverse factors like T. cruzi strains, the infective load and the route of infection, presence of virulence factors, the parasite capacity to avoid protective immune response, the strength and type of host defense mechanisms and the genetic background of the host. The host-parasite interaction is subject to a constant neuro-endocrine regulation that is thought to influence the adaptive immune system, and as the infection proceeds it can lead to a broad range of outcomes, ranging from pathogen elimination to its continued persistence in the host. In this context, T. cruzi evasion strategies and host defense mechanisms can be envisioned as two sides of the same coin, influencing parasite persistence and different outcomes observed in Chagas disease. Understanding how T. cruzi evade host's innate and adaptive immune response will provide important clues to better dissect mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of Chagas disease. PMID:27242726

  1. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Emerging Adults in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abshire, Demetrius Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among emerging adults in college aged 18-25 years. CVD risks that develop during this period often persist into adulthood making it an ideal time to target CVD prevention. The specific aims of this dissertation were to 1) explore perceptions…

  2. Rift Valley fever: a mosquito-borne emerging disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus) is mosquito-borne zoonotic emerging infectious viral disease caused by RVF virus (RVFV) that presents significant threats to global public health and agriculture in Africa and the Middle East. RVFV is listed as a select agent with significant conce...

  3. Deciphering microbial landscapes of fish eggs to mitigate emerging disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animals and plants are increasingly suffering from diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes. These emerging pathogens are now recognised as a global threat to biodiversity and food security. Amongst oomycetes, Saprolegnia species cause significant declines in fish and amphibian populations. Fish eggs ...

  4. Induction of regulatory cells by helminth parasites: exploitation for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Conor M; Walsh, Kevin P; Mills, Kingston H G

    2014-05-01

    Helminth parasites are highly successful pathogens, chronically infecting a quarter of the world's population, causing significant morbidity but rarely causing death. Protective immunity and expulsion of helminths is mediated by T-helper 2 (Th2) cells, type 2 (M2) macrophages, type 2 innate lymphoid cells, and eosinophils. Failure to mount these type 2 immune responses can result in immunopathology mediated by Th1 or Th17 cells. Helminths have evolved a wide variety of approaches for immune suppression, especially the generation of regulatory T cells and anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-β. This is a very effective strategy for subverting protective immune responses to prolong their survival in the host but has the bystander effect of modulating immune responses to unrelated antigens. Epidemiological studies in humans have shown that infection with helminth parasites is associated with a low incidence of allergy/asthma and autoimmunity in developing countries. Experimental studies in mice have demonstrated that regulatory immune responses induced by helminth can suppress Th2 and Th1/Th17 responses that mediate allergy and autoimmunity, respectively. This has provided a rational explanation of the 'hygiene hypothesis' and has also led to the exploitation of helminths or their immunomodulatory products in the development of new immunosuppressive therapies for inflammatory diseases in humans.

  5. Survey of infectious and parasitic diseases in stray cats at the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Ana; Castro, Isabel; Pereira da Fonseca, Isabel M; Almeida, Virgilio; Madeira de Carvalho, Luis M; Meireles, José; Fazendeiro, Maria I; Tavares, Luis; Vaz, Yolanda

    2010-06-01

    A survey of infectious and parasitic diseases of stray cats was carried out using biological samples collected from animals captured during a catch-neuter-release programme in four counties of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area. The main objective was to investigate the potential threat of stray cats for animal and public health. Samples of blood, stool, hair and auricular swabs were collected from 231 cats in 27 colonies. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were detected in 47/194 samples (24.2%); anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies in 1/180 cats (0.6%); intestinal parasites in 23/74 samples (Toxocara cati, Isospora felis, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Dipylidium caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxascaris leonina) and Otodectes cynotis in 4/182 cats (2.2%); dermatophyte fungi were isolated in 40/136 samples (29.4%); feline immunodeficiency virus antibodies were detected in 23/226 samples (10.2%); feline leukaemia virus antigen in 14/198 samples (7.1%); and feline coronavirus RNA in 9/127 samples (7.1%). Our results revealed that zoonotic agents, namely dermatophyte fungi and Toxocara cati were present in stray cat colonies in the investigated counties. Overall the low frequency of major pathogens suggests a balanced relationship between host and agents.

  6. Public apprehension of emerging infectious diseases: are changes afoot?

    PubMed

    Joffe, Helene

    2011-07-01

    Using social representations theory this paper casts light on the pattern of content that characterises the public response to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases (EID). The pattern is: distancing the disease from the self/ one's in-groups; blame of particular entities for the disease's origin and/or spread; and stigmatisation of those who have contracted it and/or who are represented as having intensified its spread. This pattern is not unique to EID but extends to many risks, making EID fruitful events for understanding public apprehension of potential dangers. This process may be driven by worry, fear and anxiety since when levels of these are low, as has arguably been the case with the 2009/10 "Swine Flu" pandemic, the pattern transforms. The distancing-blame-stigma pattern may also be transformed by growing reflexivity, a feature of late modern societies, as well as material features of the epidemic and "EID fatigue".

  7. The Interplay of Host Microbiota and Parasitic Protozoans at Mucosal Interfaces: Implications for the Outcomes of Infections and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Jully; Simoes-Barbosa, Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Infections by parasitic protozoans are largely neglected, despite threatening millions of people, particularly in developing countries. With descriptions of the microbiota in humans, a new frontier of investigation is developing to decipher the complexity of host–parasite–microbiota relationships, instead of the classic reductionist approach, which considers host–parasite in isolation. Here, we review with specific examples the potential roles that the resident microbiota can play at mucosal interfaces in the transmission of parasitic protozoans and in the progress of infection and disease. Although the mechanisms underlying these relationships remain poorly understood, some examples provide compelling evidence that specific components of the microbiota can potentially alter the outcomes of parasitic infections and diseases in humans. Most findings suggest a protective role of the microbiota, which might lead to exploratory research comprising microbiota-based interventions to prevent and treat protozoal infections in the future. However, these infections are often accompanied by an unbalanced microbiota and, in some specific cases, apparently, these bacteria may contribute synergistically to disease progression. Taken together, these findings provide a different perspective on the ecological nature of protozoal infections. This review focuses attention on the importance of considering polymicrobial associations, i.e., parasitic protozoans and the host microbiota, for understanding these human infections in their natural microbial context. PMID:26658061

  8. Parasites in food webs: the ultimate missing links.

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Allesina, Stefano; Arim, Matias; Briggs, Cherie J; De Leo, Giulio; Dobson, Andrew P; Dunne, Jennifer A; Johnson, Pieter T J; Kuris, Armand M; Marcogliese, David J; Martinez, Neo D; Memmott, Jane; Marquet, Pablo A; McLaughlin, John P; Mordecai, Erin A; Pascual, Mercedes; Poulin, Robert; Thieltges, David W

    2008-06-01

    Parasitism is the most common consumer strategy among organisms, yet only recently has there been a call for the inclusion of infectious disease agents in food webs. The value of this effort hinges on whether parasites affect food-web properties. Increasing evidence suggests that parasites have the potential to uniquely alter food-web topology in terms of chain length, connectance and robustness. In addition, parasites might affect food-web stability, interaction strength and energy flow. Food-web structure also affects infectious disease dynamics because parasites depend on the ecological networks in which they live. Empirically, incorporating parasites into food webs is straightforward. We may start with existing food webs and add parasites as nodes, or we may try to build food webs around systems for which we already have a good understanding of infectious processes. In the future, perhaps researchers will add parasites while they construct food webs. Less clear is how food-web theory can accommodate parasites. This is a deep and central problem in theoretical biology and applied mathematics. For instance, is representing parasites with complex life cycles as a single node equivalent to representing other species with ontogenetic niche shifts as a single node? Can parasitism fit into fundamental frameworks such as the niche model? Can we integrate infectious disease models into the emerging field of dynamic food-web modelling? Future progress will benefit from interdisciplinary collaborations between ecologists and infectious disease biologists.

  9. Parasites in food webs: the ultimate missing links

    PubMed Central

    Lafferty, Kevin D; Allesina, Stefano; Arim, Matias; Briggs, Cherie J; De Leo, Giulio; Dobson, Andrew P; Dunne, Jennifer A; Johnson, Pieter T J; Kuris, Armand M; Marcogliese, David J; Martinez, Neo D; Memmott, Jane; Marquet, Pablo A; McLaughlin, John P; Mordecai, Erin A; Pascual, Mercedes; Poulin, Robert; Thieltges, David W

    2008-01-01

    Parasitism is the most common consumer strategy among organisms, yet only recently has there been a call for the inclusion of infectious disease agents in food webs. The value of this effort hinges on whether parasites affect food-web properties. Increasing evidence suggests that parasites have the potential to uniquely alter food-web topology in terms of chain length, connectance and robustness. In addition, parasites might affect food-web stability, interaction strength and energy flow. Food-web structure also affects infectious disease dynamics because parasites depend on the ecological networks in which they live. Empirically, incorporating parasites into food webs is straightforward. We may start with existing food webs and add parasites as nodes, or we may try to build food webs around systems for which we already have a good understanding of infectious processes. In the future, perhaps researchers will add parasites while they construct food webs. Less clear is how food-web theory can accommodate parasites. This is a deep and central problem in theoretical biology and applied mathematics. For instance, is representing parasites with complex life cycles as a single node equivalent to representing other species with ontogenetic niche shifts as a single node? Can parasitism fit into fundamental frameworks such as the niche model? Can we integrate infectious disease models into the emerging field of dynamic food-web modelling? Future progress will benefit from interdisciplinary collaborations between ecologists and infectious disease biologists. PMID:18462196

  10. Parasites in food webs: the ultimate missing links

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Allesina, Stefano; Arim, Matias; Briggs, Cherie J.; De Leo, Giulio A.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Dunne, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Pieter T.J.; Kuris, Armand M.; Marcogliese, David J.; Martinez, Neo D.; Memmott, Jane; Marquet, Pablo A.; McLaughlin, John P.; Mordecai, Eerin A.; Pascual, Mercedes; Poulin, Robert; Thieltges, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Parasitism is the most common consumer strategy among organisms, yet only recently has there been a call for the inclusion of infectious disease agents in food webs. The value of this effort hinges on whether parasites affect food-web properties. Increasing evidence suggests that parasites have the potential to uniquely alter food-web topology in terms of chain length, connectance and robustness. In addition, parasites might affect food-web stability, interaction strength and energy flow. Food-web structure also affects infectious disease dynamics because parasites depend on the ecological networks in which they live. Empirically, incorporating parasites into food webs is straightforward. We may start with existing food webs and add parasites as nodes, or we may try to build food webs around systems for which we already have a good understanding of infectious processes. In the future, perhaps researchers will add parasites while they construct food webs. Less clear is how food-web theory can accommodate parasites. This is a deep and central problem in theoretical biology and applied mathematics. For instance, is representing parasites with complex life cycles as a single node equivalent to representing other species with ontogenetic niche shifts as a single node? Can parasitism fit into fundamental frameworks such as the niche model? Can we integrate infectious disease models into the emerging field of dynamic food-web modelling? Future progress will benefit from interdisciplinary collaborations between ecologists and infectious disease biologists.

  11. Global Eradication of Lymphatic Filariasis: The Value of Chronic Disease Control in Parasite Elimination Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Edwin; Malecela, Mwele N.; Zervos, Mihail; Kazura, James W.

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the global programme against lymphatic filariasis is eradication through irrevocable cessation of transmission using 4 to 6 years of annual single dose mass drug administration. The costs of eradication, managerial impediments to executing national control programmes, and scientific uncertainty about transmission endpoints, are challenges to the success of this effort, especially in areas of high endemicity where financial resources are limited. We used a combined analysis of empirical community data describing the association between infection and chronic disease prevalence, mathematical modelling, and economic analyses to identify and evaluate the feasibility of setting an infection target level at which the chronic pathology attributable to lymphatic filariasis - lymphoedema of the extremities and hydroceles - becomes negligible in the face of continuing transmission as a first stage option in achieving the elimination of this parasitic disease. The results show that microfilaria prevalences below a threshold of 3.55% at a blood sampling volume of 1 ml could constitute readily achievable and sustainable targets to control lymphatic filarial disease. They also show that as a result of the high marginal cost of curing the last few individuals to achieve elimination, maximal benefits can occur at this threshold. Indeed, a key finding from our coupled economic and epidemiological analysis is that when initial uncertainty regarding eradication occurs and prospects for resolving this uncertainty over time exist, it is economically beneficial to adopt a flexible, sequential, eradication strategy based on controlling chronic disease initially. PMID:18698350

  12. Snake fungal disease: an emerging threat to wild snakes.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Knowles, Susan; Lankton, Julia S; Michell, Kathy; Edwards, Jaime L; Kapfer, Joshua M; Staffen, Richard A; Wild, Erik R; Schmidt, Katie Z; Ballmann, Anne E; Blodgett, Doug; Farrell, Terence M; Glorioso, Brad M; Last, Lisa A; Price, Steven J; Schuler, Krysten L; Smith, Christopher E; Wellehan, James F X; Blehert, David S

    2016-12-05

    Since 2006, there has been a marked increase in the number of reports of severe and often fatal fungal skin infections in wild snakes in the eastern USA. The emerging condition, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), was initially documented in rattlesnakes, where the infections were believed to pose a risk to the viability of affected populations. The disease is caused by Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, a fungus recently split from a complex of fungi long referred to as the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV). Here we review the current state of knowledge about O. ophiodiicola and SFD. In addition, we provide original findings which demonstrate that O. ophiodiicola is widely distributed in eastern North America, has a broad host range, is the predominant cause of fungal skin infections in wild snakes and often causes mild infections in snakes emerging from hibernation. This new information, together with what is already available in the scientific literature, advances our knowledge of the cause, pathogenesis and ecology of SFD. However, additional research is necessary to elucidate the factors driving the emergence of this disease and develop strategies to mitigate its impacts.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'.

  13. 75 FR 22817 - Emerging Infectious Diseases: Evaluation to Implementation for Transfusion and Transplantation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Emerging Infectious Diseases: Evaluation to Implementation... Infectious Diseases: Evaluation to Implementation for Transfusion and Transplantation Safety'' (EID public... of risk from, and prioritization of response to, emerging infectious diseases relevant to...

  14. Multi-taxa integrated landscape genetics for zoonotic infectious diseases: deciphering variables influencing disease emergence.

    PubMed

    Leo, Sarah S T; Gonzalez, Andrew; Millien, Virginie

    2016-05-01

    Zoonotic disease transmission systems involve sets of species interacting with each other and their environment. This complexity impedes development of disease monitoring and control programs that require reliable identification of spatial and biotic variables and mechanisms facilitating disease emergence. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a framework that simultaneously examines all species involved in disease emergence by integrating concepts and methods from population genetics, landscape ecology, and spatial statistics. Multi-taxa integrated landscape genetics (MTILG) can reveal how interspecific interactions and landscape variables influence disease emergence patterns. We test the potential of our MTILG-based framework by modelling the emergence of a disease system across multiple species dispersal, interspecific interaction, and landscape scenarios. Our simulations showed that both interspecific-dependent dispersal patterns and landscape characteristics significantly influenced disease spread. Using our framework, we were able to detect statistically similar inter-population genetic differences and highly correlated spatial genetic patterns that imply species-dependent dispersal. Additionally, species that were assigned coupled-dispersal patterns were affected to the same degree by similar landscape variables. This study underlines the importance of an integrated approach to investigating emergence of disease systems. MTILG is a robust approach for such studies and can identify potential avenues for targeted disease management strategies.

  15. Systematic review of current and emerging strategies for reducing morbidity from malaria in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Aneni, Ehimen C; Hamer, Davidson H; Gill, Christopher J

    2013-03-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic debilitating disorder affecting erythrocytes, which is especially prevalent throughout Sub-Saharan Africa and among individuals of African descent. Because malaria is thought to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with SCD, malaria chemoprophylaxis is often recommended for these patients. In SCD, malaria chemoprophylaxis reduces malaria parasite count, anaemia and the need for blood transfusion, and improves clinical outcomes. However, the effectiveness of malaria chemoprophylaxis in the setting of SCD is based on a few studies conducted prior to the emergence of widespread antimalarial drug resistance. Consequently, it is uncertain what the optimal strategy for managing patients with SCD in malarious areas should be. Despite the widespread use of hydroxyurea in non-malarious regions, little is known about its effect in malaria-endemic areas or on malaria-related outcomes. On the one hand, hydroxyurea upregulates intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), the cell surface receptor for adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes, and theoretically, it could enhance parasite replication. On the other hand, hydroxyurea increases levels of foetal haemoglobin, which is protective against malaria. We explore what is currently known about the interactions between SCD and malaria and review the published literature on the efficacy of malaria chemoprophylaxis in SCD. We also consider alternative strategies, including hydroxyurea, in the reduction of malaria-associated morbidity and mortality in patients with SCD.

  16. [Emerging and reemerging diseases: a health problem in the Americas].

    PubMed

    Ridel, Guillermo Mesa; Luis, Iraida Rodríguez; Teja, Julio

    2004-04-01

    In the Region of the Americas the emerging and reemerging infectious diseases that had the greatest impact on health, in terms of their incidence and the number of deaths that they caused during the five-year period of 1999-2003, were: malaria, yellow fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, AIDS, anthrax, and SARS, as well as infection by hantavirus and by West Nile virus. The appearance of epidemics of emerging and reemerging diseases is related to biological, social, and economic factors. Growth in international trade, the movement of large numbers of people across national borders, the variability and genetic adaptability of the causative microorganisms, and inefficiencies in public health systems help to spread infections and epidemics. To avoid or reduce the serious effects of these epidemics, countries should give priority in their national agendas to surveillance of emerging and reemerging diseases and should implement a set of measures to combat the diseases. The most important of these measures is to develop a strategy that is based on early warning and rapid response mechanisms, with personnel and laboratories as well as communications networks that link laboratories with health service providers. This strategy should be backed by priority funding and adequate policies.

  17. Linking environmental nutrient enrichment and disease emergence in humans and wildlife.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Pieter T J; Townsend, Alan R; Cleveland, Cory C; Glibert, Patricia M; Howarth, Robert W; McKenzie, Valerie J; Rejmankova, Eliska; Ward, Mary H

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide increases in human and wildlife diseases have challenged ecologists to understand how large-scale environmental changes affect host-parasite interactions. One of the most profound changes to Earth's ecosystems is the alteration of global nutrient cycles, including those of phosphorus (P) and especially nitrogen (N). Along with the obvious direct benefits of nutrient application for food production, anthropogenic inputs of N and P can indirectly affect the abundance of infectious and noninfectious pathogens. The mechanisms underpinning observed correlations, however, and how such patterns vary with disease type, have long remained conjectural. Here, we highlight recent experimental advances to critically evaluate the relationship between environmental nutrient enrichment and disease. Given the interrelated nature of human and wildlife disease emergence, we include a broad range of human and wildlife examples from terrestrial, marine, and freshwater ecosystems. We examine the consequences of nutrient pollution on directly transmitted, vector-borne, complex life cycle, and noninfectious pathogens, including West Nile virus, malaria, harmful algal blooms, coral reef diseases, and amphibian malformations. Our synthetic examination suggests that the effects of environmental nutrient enrichment on disease are complex and multifaceted, varying with the type of pathogen, host species and condition, attributes of the ecosystem, and the degree of enrichment; some pathogens increase in abundance whereas others decline or disappear. Nevertheless, available evidence indicates that ecological changes associated with nutrient enrichment often exacerbate infection and disease caused by generalist parasites with direct or simple life cycles. Observed mechanisms include changes in host/vector density, host distribution, infection resistance, pathogen virulence or toxicity, and the direct supplementation of pathogens. Collectively, these pathogens may be particularly

  18. Linking environmental nutrient enrichment and disease emergence in humans and wildlife

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Pieter T. J.; Townsend, Alan R.; Cleveland, Cory C.; Glibert, Patricia M.; Howarth, Robert W.; McKenzie, Valerie J.; Rejmankova, Eliska; Ward, Mary H.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide increases in the numbers of human and wildlife diseases present ecologists with the challenge of understanding how large-scale environmental changes affect host-parasite interactions. One of the most profound changes to Earth’s ecosystems is the alteration of global nutrient cycles, including those of phosphorus (P) and especially nitrogen (N). Alongside the obvious direct benefits of nutrient application for food production, growing evidence suggests that anthropogenic inputs of N and P can indirectly affect the abundance of infectious and noninfectious pathogens, sometimes leading to epidemic conditions. However, the mechanisms underpinning observed correlations, and how such patterns vary with disease type, have long remained conjectural. Here, we discuss recent experimental advances in this area to critically evaluate the relationship between environmental nutrient enrichment and disease. Given the inter-related nature of human and wildlife disease emergence, we include a broad range of human and wildlife examples from terrestrial, marine and freshwater ecosystems. We examine the consequences of nutrient pollution on directly transmitted, vector-borne, complex life cycle, and noninfectious pathogens, including West Nile virus, malaria, harmful algal blooms, coral reef diseases and amphibian malformations. Our synthetic examination suggests that the effects of environmental nutrient enrichment on disease are complex and multifaceted, varying with the type of pathogen, host species and condition, attributes of the ecosystem and the degree of enrichment; some pathogens increase in abundance whereas others decline or disappear. Nevertheless, available evidence indicates that ecological changes associated with nutrient enrichment often exacerbate infection and disease caused by generalist parasites with direct or simple life cycles. Observed mechanisms include changes in host/vector density, host distribution, infection resistance, pathogen virulence or

  19. Ecto-Nucleotidase Activities of Promastigotes from Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Relates to Parasite Infectivity and Disease Clinical Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Pauline M.; Gomes, Rodrigo S.; Figueiredo, Amanda B.; Serafim, Tiago D.; Tafuri, Wagner L.; de Souza, Carolina C.; Moura, Sandra A. L.; Fietto, Juliana L. R.; Melo, Maria N.; Ribeiro-Dias, Fátima; Oliveira, Milton A. P.; Rabello, Ana; Afonso, Luís C. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis has been associated with a broad range of clinical manifestations ranging from a simple cutaneous ulcer to destructive mucosal lesions. Factors leading to this diversity of clinical presentations are not clear, but parasite factors have lately been recognized as important in determining disease progression. Given the fact that the activity of ecto-nucleotidases correlates with parasitism and the development of infection, we evaluated the activity of these enzymes in promastigotes from 23 L. braziliensis isolates as a possible parasite-related factor that could influence the clinical outcome of the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Our results show that the isolates differ in their ability to hydrolyze adenine nucleotides. Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between the time for peak of lesion development in C57BL/6J mice and enzymatic activity and clinical manifestation of the isolate. In addition, we found that L. (V.) braziliensis isolates obtained from mucosal lesions hydrolyze higher amounts of adenine nucleotides than isolates obtained from skin lesions. One isolate with high (PPS6m) and another with low (SSF) ecto-nucleotidase activity were chosen for further studies. Mice inoculated with PPS6m show delayed lesion development and present larger parasite loads than animals inoculated with the SSF isolate. In addition, PPS6m modulates the host immune response by inhibiting dendritic cell activation and NO production by activated J774 macrophages. Finally, we observed that the amastigote forms from PPS6m and SSF isolates present low enzymatic activity that does not interfere with NO production and parasite survival in macrophages. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that ecto-nucleotidases present on the promastigote forms of the parasite may interfere with the establishment of the immune response with consequent impaired ability to control parasite dissemination and this may be an important

  20. Viral biocontrol: grand experiments in disease emergence and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Di Giallonardo, Francesca; Holmes, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Although viral emergence is commonly associated with cross-species transmission, the processes and determinants of viral evolution in a novel host environment are poorly understood. We address key questions in virus emergence and evolution using data generated from two unique natural experiments: the deliberate release of myxoma virus (MYXV) and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) as biological control (biocontrol) agents against the European rabbit in Australia, and which have been of enormous benefit to Australia’s ecosystem and agricultural industries. Notably, although virulence evolution in MYXV and RHDV followed different trajectories, a strongly parallel evolutionary process was observed in Australia and Europe. These biocontrol agents were also characterised by a lack of transmission to non-target host species, suggesting that there are major barriers to successful emergence. PMID:25455418

  1. Viral biocontrol: grand experiments in disease emergence and evolution.

    PubMed

    Di Giallonardo, Francesca; Holmes, Edward C

    2015-02-01

    Although viral emergence is commonly associated with cross-species transmission, the processes and determinants of viral evolution in a novel host environment are poorly understood. We address key questions in virus emergence and evolution using data generated from two unique natural experiments: the deliberate release of myxoma virus (MYXV) and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) as biological control (biocontrol) agents against the European rabbit in Australia, and which have been of enormous benefit to Australia's ecosystem and agricultural industries. Notably, although virulence evolution in MYXV and RHDV followed different trajectories, a strongly parallel evolutionary process was observed in Australia and Europe. These biocontrol agents were also characterized by a lack of transmission to nontarget host species, suggesting that there are major barriers to successful emergence.

  2. Genetic variants of Kudoa septempunctata (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida), a flounder parasite causing foodborne disease.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, F; Ogasawara, Y; Kato, K; Sekizuka, T; Nozaki, T; Sugita-Konishi, Y; Ohnishi, T; Kuroda, M

    2016-06-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks caused by raw olive flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus) parasitized with Kudoa septempunctata have been reported in Japan. Origins of olive flounders consumed in Japan vary, being either domestic or imported, and aquaculture-raised or natural. Although it is unknown whether different sources are associated with different outcomes, it is desirable to identify whether this is the case by determining whether unique K. septempunctata strains occur and if so, whether some are associated with foodborne illness. We here developed an intraspecific genotyping method, using the sequence variation of mitochondrial genes. We collected olive flounder samples from foodborne disease outbreaks, domestic fish farms or quarantine offices and investigated whether K. septempunctata genotype is associated with pathogenicity or geographic origin. The 104 samples were classified into three genotypes, ST1, ST2 and ST3. Frequency of symptomatic cases differed by genotypes, but the association was not statistically significant. Whereas K. septempunctata detected from aquaculture-raised and natural fish from Japan were either ST1 or ST2, those from fish inspected at quarantine from Korea to Japan were ST3. Our method can be applied to phylogeographic analysis of K. septempunctata and contribute to containing the foodborne disease. The genotype database is hosted in the PubMLST website (http://pubmlst.org/kseptempunctata/).

  3. Chagas disease in the 21st Century: a public health success or an emerging threat?

    PubMed Central

    Bonney, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major public health burden in Latin America and a potentially serious emerging threat to a number of countries throughout the world. Although public health programs have significantly reduced the prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin America in recent decades, the number of infections in the United States and non-endemic countries in Europe and the Western Pacific Region continues to rise. Moreover, there is still no vaccine or highly effective cure available for the approximately 10 million people currently infected with T. cruzi, a third of which will develop potentially fatal cardiomyopathy and/or severe digestive tract disorders. As Chagas disease becomes an increasingly globalized public health issue in the twenty-first century, continued attentiveness from governmental and health organizations as well as improved diagnostic tools, expanded surveillance and increased research funding will be required to maintain existing public health successes and stymie the spread of the disease to new areas and populations. PMID:24626257

  4. The health impact of polyparasitism in humans: are we under-estimating the burden of parasitic diseases?

    PubMed

    Pullan, R; Brooker, S

    2008-06-01

    Parasitic infections are widespread throughout the tropics and sub-tropics, and infection with multiple parasite species is the norm rather than the exception. Despite the ubiquity of polyparasitism, its public health significance has been inadequately studied. Here we review available studies investigating the nutritional and pathological consequences of multiple infections with Plasmodium and helminth infection and, in doing so, encourage a reassessment of the disease burden caused by polyparasitism. The available evidence is conspicuously sparse but is suggestive that multiple human parasite species may have an additive and/or multiplicative impact on nutrition and organ pathology. Existing studies suffer from a number of methodological limitations and adequately designed studies are clearly necessary. Current methods of estimating the potential global morbidity due to parasitic diseases underestimate the health impact of polyparasitism, and possible reasons for this are presented. As international strategies to control multiple parasite species are rolled-out, there is a number of options to investigate the complexity of polyparasitism, and it is hoped that that the parasitological research community will grasp the opportunity to understand better the health of polyparasitism in humans.

  5. Deciphering microbial landscapes of fish eggs to mitigate emerging diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiying; de Bruijn, Irene; Jack, Allison LH; Drynan, Keith; van den Berg, Albert H; Thoen, Even; Sandoval-Sierra, Vladimir; Skaar, Ida; van West, Pieter; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier; van der Voort, Menno; Mendes, Rodrigo; Mazzola, Mark; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2014-01-01

    Animals and plants are increasingly suffering from diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes. These emerging pathogens are now recognized as a global threat to biodiversity and food security. Among oomycetes, Saprolegnia species cause significant declines in fish and amphibian populations. Fish eggs have an immature adaptive immune system and depend on nonspecific innate defences to ward off pathogens. Here, meta-taxonomic analyses revealed that Atlantic salmon eggs are home to diverse fungal, oomycete and bacterial communities. Although virulent Saprolegnia isolates were found in all salmon egg samples, a low incidence of Saprolegniosis was strongly correlated with a high richness and abundance of specific commensal Actinobacteria, with the genus Frondihabitans (Microbacteriaceae) effectively inhibiting attachment of Saprolegniato salmon eggs. These results highlight that fundamental insights into microbial landscapes of fish eggs may provide new sustainable means to mitigate emerging diseases. PMID:24671087

  6. [Microbiological diagnosis of emerging arboviral and rodent borne diseases].

    PubMed

    Negredo Antón, Ana Isabel; de Ory Manchón, Fernando; Sánchez-Seco Fariñas, M Paz; Franco Narváez, Leticia; Gegúndez Cámara, M Isabel; Navarro Mari, José M; Tenorio Matanzo, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    Vector borne viruses (VBV) include viruses transmitted by arthropods, rodents and other animals. In Spain the three main autochthonous VBVs causing human diseases are: Toscana, West Nile and Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis viruses. There are also other imported viruses that are potential threats to our public health, due to the presence of competent transmission vectors (dengue and chikungunya viruses in areas infested with Aedes albopictus), or due to the potential person-to-person transmission (Lassa and other viruses causing haemorrhagic fever). The Spanish Society for Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology has responded to the emergence of VBVs by publishing a special issue of Microbiological Proceedings focused on the diagnosis of those emerging vector borne viruses of major concern in our country.

  7. Hospital preparedness to bioterrorism and other infectious disease emergencies.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, G; Puro, V; Heptonstall, J

    2006-10-01

    In the last 2 decades, successive outbreaks caused by new, newly recognised and resurgent pathogens, and the risk that high-consequence pathogens might be used as bioterrorism agents amply demonstrated the need to enhance capacity in clinical and public health management of highly infectious diseases. In this article we review these recent and current threats to public health, whether naturally occurring or caused by accidental or intentional release. Moreover, we discuss some components of hospital preparedness for, and response to, infectious disease of the emergencies in developed countries. The issues of clinical awareness and education, initial investigation and management, surge capacity, communication, and caring for staff and others affected by the emergency are discussed. We also emphasise the importance of improving the everyday practice of infection control by healthcare professionals.

  8. Chikungunya fever. Rheumatic manifestations of an emerging disease in Europe.

    PubMed

    Horcada, M Loreto; Díaz-Calderón, Carlos; Garrido, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya fever is a viral disease caused by an alphavirus belonging to the Togaviridae family, transmitted by several species of Aedes mosquitoes: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (A. albopictus). It is endemic in Africa and Asia with recurrent outbreaks. It is an emerging disease and cases in Europe transmitted by A. albopictus have been established in Mediterranean areas. The first autochthonous cases detected on the Caribbean islands suppose a serious threat of spreading disease to America, which so far has been disease free. Clinical symptoms begin abruptly with fever, skin rash and polyarthritis. Although mortality is low, a high percentage of patients develop a chronic phase defined by persistent arthritis for months or even years. A severe immune response is responsible for joint inflammation. The absence of specific treatment and lack of vaccine requires detailed studies about its immunopathogenesis in order to determine the most appropriate target.

  9. International Symposium on Nuclear Techniques in the Study and Control of Parasitic Diseases of Man and Animals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    sensitivity. The functional RIAs that are presently available for the major parasitic diseases of man, including amebiasis, toxoplasmosis , malaria...specificity. The antigen assays appear more specific and offer quantitative analyses which will aid investigators to explore the humoral response more fully. J

  10. PROGRESSION OF DISEASES CAUSED BY THE OYSTER PARASITES, PERKINSUS MARINUS AND HAPLOSPORIDIUM NELSONI, IN CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA ON CONSTRUCTED INTERTIDAL REEFS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The progression of diseases caused by the oyster parasites, Perkinsus marinus and Haplosporidium nelsoni, were evaluated by periodic sampling (May 1994-Dec. 1995) of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, that set on an artificial reef located in the Piankatank River, Virginia, in Augus...

  11. [Progress of research on genetic engineering antibody and its application in prevention and control of parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Yu, Chuan-xin

    2013-08-01

    Antibody has extensive application prospects in the biomedical field. The inherent disadvantages of traditional polyclonal antibody and monoclonal antibody limit their application values. The humanized and fragmented antibody remodeling has given a rise to a series of genetic engineered antibody variant. This paper reviews the progress of research on genetic engineering antibody and its application in prevention and control of parasitic diseases.

  12. Equine immunity to parasites.

    PubMed

    Klei, T R

    2000-04-01

    Helminths are among the most significant parasites of horses in developed countries. This article examines immune responses against helminth parasites and the implications that immunologic investigations have on vaccine development, improvement of diagnostic procedures, and disease eradication.

  13. Emerging infectious diseases with cutaneous manifestations: Viral and bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Nawas, Zeena Y; Tong, Yun; Kollipara, Ramya; Peranteau, Andrew J; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Yan, Albert C; Lupi, Omar; Tyring, Stephen K

    2016-07-01

    Given increased international travel, immigration, and climate change, bacterial and viral infections that were once unrecognized or uncommon are being seen more frequently in the Western Hemisphere. A delay in diagnosis and treatment of these diseases can lead to significant patient morbidity and mortality. However, the diagnosis and management of these infections is fraught with a lack of consistency because there is a dearth of dermatology literature on the cutaneous manifestations of these infections. We review the epidemiology, cutaneous manifestations, diagnosis, and management of these emerging bacterial and viral diseases.

  14. Emerging therapies for Parkinson's disease: from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Tarazi, F I; Sahli, Z T; Wolny, M; Mousa, S A

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) increases with age and is projected to increase in parallel to the rising average age of the population. The disease can have significant health-related, social, and financial implications not only for the patient and the caregiver, but for the health care system as well. While the neuropathology of this neurodegenerative disorder is fairly well understood, its etiology remains a mystery, making it difficult to target therapy. The currently available drugs for treatment provide only symptomatic relief and do not control or prevent disease progression, and as a result patient compliance and satisfaction are low. Several emerging pharmacotherapies for PD are in different stages of clinical development. These therapies include adenosine A2A receptor antagonists, glutamate receptor antagonists, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, anti-apoptotic agents, and antioxidants such as coenzyme Q10, N-acetyl cysteine, and edaravone. Other emerging non-pharmacotherapies include viral vector gene therapy, microRNAs, transglutaminases, RTP801, stem cells and glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). In addition, surgical procedures including deep brain stimulation, pallidotomy, thalamotomy and gamma knife surgery have emerged as alternative interventions for advanced PD patients who have completely utilized standard treatments and still suffer from persistent motor fluctuations. While several of these therapies hold much promise in delaying the onset of the disease and slowing its progression, more pharmacotherapies and surgical interventions need to be investigated in different stages of PD. It is hoped that these emerging therapies and surgical procedures will strengthen our clinical armamentarium for improved treatment of PD.

  15. Snake fungal disease: An emerging threat to wild snakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Knowles, Susan N.; Lankton, Julia S.; Michell, Kathy; Edwards, Jaime L.; Kapfer, Joshua M.; Staffen, Richard A.; Wild, Erik R.; Schmidt, Katie Z.; Ballmann, Anne; Blodgett, Doug; Farrell, Terence M.; Glorioso, Brad M.; Last, Lisa A.; Price, Steven J.; Schuler, Krysten L.; Smith, Christopher E.; Wellehan, James F. X.; Blehert, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2006, there has been a marked increase in the number of reports of severe and often fatal fungal skin infections in wild snakes in the eastern USA. The emerging condition, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), was initially documented in rattlesnakes, where the infections were believed to pose a risk to the viability of affected populations. The disease is caused byOphidiomyces ophiodiicola, a fungus recently split from a complex of fungi long referred to as the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV). Here we review the current state of knowledge about O. ophiodiicola and SFD. In addition, we provide original findings which demonstrate that O. ophiodiicola is widely distributed in eastern North America, has a broad host range, is the predominant cause of fungal skin infections in wild snakes and often causes mild infections in snakes emerging from hibernation. This new information, together with what is already available in the scientific literature, advances our knowledge of the cause, pathogenesis and ecology of SFD. However, additional research is necessary to elucidate the factors driving the emergence of this disease and develop strategies to mitigate its impacts.

  16. Emerging virus diseases: can we ever expect the unexpected?

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Colin R; Fletcher, Nicola F

    2012-01-01

    Emerging virus diseases are a major threat to human and veterinary public health. With new examples occurring approximately one each year, the majority are viruses originating from an animal host. Of the many factors responsible, changes to local ecosystems that perturb the balance between pathogen and principal host species is one of the major drivers, together with increasing urbanization of mankind and changes in human behavior. Many emerging viruses have RNA genomes and as such are capable of rapid mutation and selection of new variants in the face of environmental changes in host numbers and available target species. This review summarizes recent work on aspects of virus emergence and the current understanding of the molecular and immunological basis whereby viruses may cross between species and become established in new ecological niches. Emergence is hard to predict, although mathematical modeling and spatial epidemiology have done much to improve the prediction of where emergence may occur. However, much needs to be done to ensure adequate surveillance is maintained of animal species known to present the greatest risk thus increasing general alertness among physicians, veterinarians and those responsible for formulating public health policy. PMID:26038413

  17. Parasitic diseases as the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953).

    PubMed

    Huh, Sun

    2014-06-01

    To determine the cause of death of prisoners of war during the Korean War (1950-1953), death certificates or medical records were analyzed. Out of 7,614 deaths, 5,013 (65.8%) were due to infectious diseases. Although dysentery and tuberculosis were the most common infectious diseases, parasitic diseases had caused 14 deaths: paragonimiasis in 5, malaria in 3, amoebiasis in 2, intestinal parasitosis in 2, ascariasis in 1, and schistosomiasis in 1. These results showed that paragonimiasis, malaria, and amoebiasis were the most fatal parasitic diseases during the early 1950s in the Korean Peninsula. Since schistosomiasis is not endemic to Korea, it is likely that the infected private soldier moved from China or Japan to Korea.

  18. Emerging leadership lecture: Inflammatory bowel disease in Asia: emergence of a "Western" disease.

    PubMed

    Ng, Siew C

    2015-03-01

    More than a decade ago, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rare in Asia. Today, the importance of IBD in Asia is exemplified by its rapidly increasing incidence, complicated disease behavior, and substantial morbidity. In the first large-scale population-based epidemiologic study in Asia, the incidence of IBD varied from 0.60 to 3.44 per 100,000. There has been a twofold to threefold increase in the incidence of IBD in several countries in Asia. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is more prevalent than Crohn's disease (CD), although CD incidence is rapidly increasing. A positive family history is much less common than in the West, as are extra-intestinal disease manifestations. Complicated and penetrating CD are common in Asia. These epidemiologic changes may relate to increased contact with the West, westernization of diet, improved hygiene, increasing antibiotics use, or changes in the gut microbiota. Asian patients with CD have altered gut microbiota compared with their healthy counterparts and Caucasian CD subjects. Mucosa-associated microbiota in IBD may differ geographically. In a population-based case-control study, breast-feeding, having pets, and better sanitary conditions were protective of IBD, suggesting that childhood environment plays an important role in modulating disease development. Genetic factors also differ between Asians and Caucasians. Nucleotide oligomerization domain-2 (NOD2) and autophagy variants were not associated with CD, but tumor necrosis factor superfamily gene-15 polymorphisms were strongly associated with CD in East Asians. Research in Asia, an area of rapidly changing IBD epidemiology, may lead to the discovery of critical etiologic factors that lead to the development of IBD.

  19. Uncovering zoonoses awareness in an emerging disease ‘hotspot’

    PubMed Central

    Paige, Sarah B.; Malave, Carly; Mbabazi, Edith; Mayer, Jonathan; Goldberg, Tony L.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases from animals pose significant and increasing threats to human health; places of risk are simultaneously viewed as conservation and emerging disease ‘hotspots’. The One World/One Health paradigm is an ‘assemblage’ discipline. Extensive research from the natural and social sciences, as well as public health have contributed to designing surveillance and response policy within the One World/One Health framework. However, little research has been undertaken that considers the lives of those who experience risk in hotspots on a daily basis. As a result, policymakers and practitioners are unable to fully comprehend the social and ecological processes that catalyze cross-species pathogen exchange. This study examined local populations’ comprehension of zoonotic disease. From October 2008-May 2009 we collected data from people living on the periphery of Kibale National Park, in western Uganda. We administered a survey to 72 individuals and conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 14 individuals. Results from the survey showed respondents had statistically significant awareness that transmission of diseases from animals was possible compared to those who did not think such transmission was possible (χ2 = 30.68, df=1, p<0.05). However, individual characteristics such as gender, occupation, location, and age were not significantly predictive of awareness. Both quantitative and qualitative data show local people are aware of zoonoses and provided biomedically accurate examples of possible infections and corresponding animal sources (e.g., worm infection from pigs and Ebola from primates). Qualitative data also revealed expectations about the role of the State in managing the prevention of zoonoses from wildlife. As a result of this research, we recommend meaningful discourse with people living at the frontlines of animal contact in emerging disease and conservation hotspots in order to develop informed and relevant zoonoses

  20. Uncovering zoonoses awareness in an emerging disease 'hotspot'.

    PubMed

    Paige, Sarah B; Malavé, Carly; Mbabazi, Edith; Mayer, Jonathan; Goldberg, Tony L

    2015-03-01

    Emerging infectious diseases from animals pose significant and increasing threats to human health; places of risk are simultaneously viewed as conservation and emerging disease 'hotspots'. The One World/One Health paradigm is an 'assemblage' discipline. Extensive research from the natural and social sciences, as well as public health have contributed to designing surveillance and response policy within the One World/One Health framework. However, little research has been undertaken that considers the lives of those who experience risk in hotspots on a daily basis. As a result, policymakers and practitioners are unable to fully comprehend the social and ecological processes that catalyze cross-species pathogen exchange. This study examined local populations' comprehension of zoonotic disease. From October 2008-May 2009 we collected data from people living on the periphery of Kibale National Park, in western Uganda. We administered a survey to 72 individuals and conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 14 individuals. Results from the survey showed respondents had statistically significant awareness that transmission of diseases from animals was possible compared to those who did not think such transmission was possible (x(2) = 30.68, df = 1, p < 0.05). However, individual characteristics such as gender, occupation, location, and age were not significantly predictive of awareness. Both quantitative and qualitative data show local people are aware of zoonoses and provided biomedically accurate examples of possible infections and corresponding animal sources (e.g., worm infection from pigs and Ebola from primates). Qualitative data also revealed expectations about the role of the State in managing the prevention of zoonoses from wildlife. As a result of this research, we recommend meaningful discourse with people living at the frontlines of animal contact in emerging disease and conservation hotspots in order to develop informed and relevant zoonoses

  1. Hypereosinophilic syndrome, Churg-Strauss syndrome and parasitic diseases: possible links between eosinophilia and thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Maino, Alberto; Rossio, Raffaella; Cugno, Massimo; Marzano, Angelo V; Tedeschi, Alberto

    2012-09-01

    Throughout the past decade, a possible role of eosinophils in blood coagulation and thrombosis has been suggested. We conducted a Pubmed (MEDLINE) search of case and series referring to any kind of thrombotic events described in three conditions characterised by persistent blood eosinophilia, i.e. the hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES), the Churg Strauss syndrome (CSS), and parasitic infestations from 1966 to date. One hundred and ninety-two articles were found regarding thrombotic events in HES and CSS, and 209 cases of thrombosis were extracted. One hundred and seventy- seven articles dealing with parasitic diseases and thrombosis were found, but only 15 manuscripts reporting thrombosis of unknown origin in 22 patients were selected. In HES, arterial thromboses were more frequent than in CSS (p=0.006), representing almost half of the cases (45%), while venous and mixed artero-venous thrombosis were respectively 28% and 27%. In contrast, in CSS there was a predominance of venous thrombosis (56%, p=0.006), with arterial thrombosis representing 38% of total thrombotic events, and mixed thrombosis being the least frequent (4%). The higher incidence of arterial thrombosis in HES patients can be explained by the common cardiac involvement (64% of patients). In the 22 patients with parasitoses and thrombosis, 15 had arterial thrombosis (68%) and 7 had venous thrombosis (32 %). Literature analysis shows that there are numerous reports of thrombotic events in patients with eosinophil-related disorders supporting a role for eosinophils in thrombosis. This observation raises the problem of prevention and treatment of thromboembolism particularly in HES and CSS patients.

  2. [Impact of effect of natural disasters on the circulation of causative agents of parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Vaserin, Iu I; Khromenkova, E P; Dimidova, L L; Tverdokhlebova, T I; Nagornyĭ, S A; Prokopova, L V; Dumbadze, O S; Murashov, N E; Butaev, T M; Agirov, A Kh; Osmolovskiĭ, S V; Papatsenko, L B; Soldatova, M V

    2005-01-01

    The southern region is marked by a high incidence of parasitic diseases and a significant contamination of environmental objects with the eggs and cysts of their pathogens. Background examinations revealed the greatest soil contamination with helminthic eggs in the Temryuksky District of the Krasnodar Territory and in the towns of Vladikavkaz and Digora of the Republic of North Ossetia (Alania). The least contamination was found in Rostov-on-Don and the towns of the south-western area of the Krasnodar Territory. The eggs of Toxocara and astamination. There is an increase in the proportion of soil positive tests from 26.6 to 50.0, with the high (up to 82.0-100.0%) viability of eggs and a rise in the intensive index of their content per kg of soil (from 2.7 to 4.7-11.0). Toxocara eggs were mainly detected. The established high proportion of seropositive persons (10.7-18.0%) among the local population is an additional verification of the wide circulation of Toxocara eggs in nature. By the helminthic egg contamination index, the soils of localities of the south of Russia are qualified as those of moderate epidemic hazard. The floods accompanied by the increased helminthological contamination of the upper soil layer may lead to a higher human risk for contamination with helminthic diseases.

  3. Onchocerciasis in Plateau State; Nigeria: ecological background, local disease perception & treatment; and vector/parasite dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nwoke, B E; Onwuliri, C O; Ufomadu, G O

    1992-01-01

    The physico-biological ecological complex in Plateau State has by definition increased the potential of most rivers to support the breeding and dispersal of vector species as well as human acquisition and dissemination of the disease for several months in a year. Though villagers in endemic areas are of the know of the nuisance of blackfly bites, but the majority of them lacked the aetiological knowledge of onchocercal lesion. Hence disease management is misdirected towards consulting the oracle and appeasing the gods. The vectors of onchocerciasis in Plateau State, S. damnosum, and S. sirbanum are wet season breeders with their peak biting density occurring at the height of rainy season. However, biting flies carry more infective parasites at the beginning and end of rain. These vectors exhibit bimodal biting activity: a small one in the morning hours and a pronounced evening peak. Biting activity is at least influenced by two major climatic factors; illumination and temperature. However, the fastest changing climatic factor relative to an increase in the biting activity of flies was illumination. Microfilarial load in the skin of patients does not significantly change throughout the year or when biopsies are taken under shade throughout the day. Extreme temperatures, however, have significant reducing effect on the skin microfilarial. The epidemiological relevance of these in the ongoing MECTIZAN delivery in the State are discussed.

  4. Parasitic gastro-enteritis in lambs — A model for estimating the timing of the larval emergence peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, J. R.; Thomas, R. J.

    1980-09-01

    The life history of the nematode parasites of domestic ruminants usually involves the development and survival of free-living stages on pasture. The pasture is, therefore, the site of deposition, development and transmission of nematode infection and meteorological factors affecting the pasture will affect the parasites. Recently Thomas and Starr (1978) discussed an empirical technique for forecasting the timing of the summer wave of gastro-intestinal parasitism in North-East England in the lamb crop using meteorological data and in particular estimates of the duration of “surface wetness”. This paper presents an attempt to model “surface wetness” and the temperature limitation to nematode development.

  5. The use of vaccination in emergency animal disease responses.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rob

    2007-01-01

    The author discusses the potential of vaccination to assist in the management and eradication of emergency animal diseases (EADs), as a complementary measure to either minimise the scale of, or to avoid, stamping out. Vaccination is only one of many tools available for disease control, especially for EADs. The decision on whether to use a vaccine in the face of an outbreak can be controversial, as policy-makers in the United Kingdom found during the foot and mouth disease outbreak in 2001. The advantages, disadvantages and limitations of using vaccination are discussed, as are strategies for EAD vaccination and the importance of contingency planning. The author identifies the potential for vaccines to lead to various problems, including encouraging genetic drift in field strains of pathogens, the risk of reassortment with naturally occurring pathogens, or the creation of a carrier state in an infected animal.

  6. Comparison between Two Decades of Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Diseases and Risk Factors in a Brazilian Urban Centre.

    PubMed

    Alves de Oliveira Serra, Maria Aparecida; Chaves, Cristina de Souza; Branco Coêlho, Zirlane Castelo; de Castro Rodrigues, Naya Lúcia; Martins Vale, Josias; Teixeira, Maria Jânia; de Oliveira, Francisco Josemar Alves; de Araújo, Márcio Flávio Moura; Coelho, Ivo Castelo Branco

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study's objective was to compare the prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated risk factors in children in urban communities, in the Brazilian Northeast, between two decades. Methods. This quantitative transversal study consisted of a comparative analysis of two different samples: the first viewing the years 1992-1996 and the other through a coproepidemiological data survey undertaken in 2010-2011. Results. It was evidenced that there was a reduction of intestinal parasites and that there were improvements in the socioenvironmental conditions between the two decades evaluated. It was observed that, in the period 1992-1996, playing out in the streets was associated with a higher risk for acquiring intestinal parasites. Over the 2010-2011 period, the characteristics of more than five residents per household, houses with dirt floors, children who live in homes without piped water, and children who play out in the streets were associated with a higher risk of intestinal parasitic infection. Conclusion. The study showed a reduction of intestinal parasitic diseases to 23.8% in 2010-2011 from 81.3% in 1992-1996 and improvement of the social-sanitary conditions of the population between the decades analyzed.

  7. Comparison between Two Decades of Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Diseases and Risk Factors in a Brazilian Urban Centre

    PubMed Central

    Alves de Oliveira Serra, Maria Aparecida; Chaves, Cristina de Souza; Branco Coêlho, Zirlane Castelo; de Castro Rodrigues, Naya Lúcia; Martins Vale, Josias; Teixeira, Maria Jânia; de Oliveira, Francisco Josemar Alves; de Araújo, Márcio Flávio Moura; Coelho, Ivo Castelo Branco

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study's objective was to compare the prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated risk factors in children in urban communities, in the Brazilian Northeast, between two decades. Methods. This quantitative transversal study consisted of a comparative analysis of two different samples: the first viewing the years 1992–1996 and the other through a coproepidemiological data survey undertaken in 2010-2011. Results. It was evidenced that there was a reduction of intestinal parasites and that there were improvements in the socioenvironmental conditions between the two decades evaluated. It was observed that, in the period 1992–1996, playing out in the streets was associated with a higher risk for acquiring intestinal parasites. Over the 2010-2011 period, the characteristics of more than five residents per household, houses with dirt floors, children who live in homes without piped water, and children who play out in the streets were associated with a higher risk of intestinal parasitic infection. Conclusion. The study showed a reduction of intestinal parasitic diseases to 23.8% in 2010-2011 from 81.3% in 1992–1996 and improvement of the social-sanitary conditions of the population between the decades analyzed. PMID:26692338

  8. Evolutionary aspects of emerging Lyme disease in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ogden, N H; Feil, E J; Leighton, P A; Lindsay, L R; Margos, G; Mechai, S; Michel, P; Moriarty, T J

    2015-11-01

    In North America, Lyme disease (LD) is a tick-borne zoonosis caused by the spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, which is maintained by wildlife. Tick vectors and bacteria are currently spreading into Canada and causing increasing numbers of cases of LD in humans and raising a pressing need for public health responses. There is no vaccine, and LD prevention depends on knowing who is at risk and informing them how to protect themselves from infection. Recently, it was found in the United States that some strains of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto cause severe disease, whereas others cause mild, self-limiting disease. While many strains occurring in the United States also occur in Canada, strains in some parts of Canada are different from those in the United States. We therefore recognize a need to identify which strains specific to Canada can cause severe disease and to characterize their geographic distribution to determine which Canadians are particularly at risk. In this review, we summarize the history of emergence of LD in North America, our current knowledge of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto diversity, its intriguing origins in the ecology and evolution of the bacterium, and its importance for the epidemiology and clinical and laboratory diagnosis of LD. We propose methods for investigating associations between B. burgdorferi sensu stricto diversity, ecology, and pathogenicity and for developing predictive tools to guide public health interventions. We also highlight the emergence of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto in Canada as a unique opportunity for exploring the evolutionary aspects of tick-borne pathogen emergence.

  9. Rice Sheath Rot: An Emerging Ubiquitous Destructive Disease Complex

    PubMed Central

    Bigirimana, Vincent de P.; Hua, Gia K. H.; Nyamangyoku, Obedi I.; Höfte, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Around one century ago, a rice disease characterized mainly by rotting of sheaths was reported in Taiwan. The causal agent was identified as Acrocylindrium oryzae, later known as Sarocladium oryzae. Since then it has become clear that various other organisms can cause similar disease symptoms, including Fusarium sp. and fluorescent pseudomonads. These organisms have in common that they produce a range of phytotoxins that induce necrosis in plants. The same agents also cause grain discoloration, chaffiness, and sterility and are all seed-transmitted. Rice sheath rot disease symptoms are found in all rice-growing areas of the world. The disease is now getting momentum and is considered as an important emerging rice production threat. The disease can lead to variable yield losses, which can be as high as 85%. This review aims at improving our understanding of the disease etiology of rice sheath rot and mainly deals with the three most reported rice sheath rot pathogens: S. oryzae, the Fusarium fujikuroi complex, and Pseudomonas fuscovaginae. Causal agents, pathogenicity determinants, interactions among the various pathogens, epidemiology, geographical distribution, and control options will be discussed. PMID:26697031

  10. Rice Sheath Rot: An Emerging Ubiquitous Destructive Disease Complex.

    PubMed

    Bigirimana, Vincent de P; Hua, Gia K H; Nyamangyoku, Obedi I; Höfte, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Around one century ago, a rice disease characterized mainly by rotting of sheaths was reported in Taiwan. The causal agent was identified as Acrocylindrium oryzae, later known as Sarocladium oryzae. Since then it has become clear that various other organisms can cause similar disease symptoms, including Fusarium sp. and fluorescent pseudomonads. These organisms have in common that they produce a range of phytotoxins that induce necrosis in plants. The same agents also cause grain discoloration, chaffiness, and sterility and are all seed-transmitted. Rice sheath rot disease symptoms are found in all rice-growing areas of the world. The disease is now getting momentum and is considered as an important emerging rice production threat. The disease can lead to variable yield losses, which can be as high as 85%. This review aims at improving our understanding of the disease etiology of rice sheath rot and mainly deals with the three most reported rice sheath rot pathogens: S. oryzae, the Fusarium fujikuroi complex, and Pseudomonas fuscovaginae. Causal agents, pathogenicity determinants, interactions among the various pathogens, epidemiology, geographical distribution, and control options will be discussed.

  11. The emerging theme of redox bioenergetics in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Philip A; Darley-Usmar, Victor M

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial function has long been recognized as central to normal physiology and a contributor to a broad range of pathologies. Much of the early research in mitochondrial biology focused on the mechanisms to generate ATP and characterization of mitochondria from highly energetic tissues such as the heart or liver. More recent studies emphasize the role of mitochondria in redox signaling and in less energetic cells such as those in the innate immune system and the vasculature. In this short overview, we discuss some of these recent developments in translational and basic research in mitochondrial pathophysiology. Advanced high throughput analytical techniques are now allowing the assessment of bioenergetic health in human populations and the emergence of the exciting new field of metabolotherapeutics. These have led to the emergence of the new field of redox bioenergetics which encompasses both the canonical aspects of mitochondrial energy production and the organelles' role in cell signaling and disease.

  12. Foodborne Parasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and foodborne parasitic diseases, though not as widespread as bacterial and viral infections, are common on all continents and in most ecosystems, including arctic, temperate, and tropical regions. Certain foodborne ...

  13. Disease transmission in an extreme environment: nematode parasites infect reindeer during the Arctic winter.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Anja M; Justin Irvine, R; Wilson, Kenneth; Piertney, Stuart B; Halvorsen, Odd; Coulson, Stephen J; Stien, Audun; Albon, Steve D

    2012-07-01

    Parasitic nematodes are found in almost all wild vertebrate populations but few studies have investigated these host-parasite relationships in the wild. For parasites with free-living stages, the external environment has a major influence on life-history traits, and development and survival is generally low at sub-zero temperatures. For reindeer that inhabit the high Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, parasite transmission is expected to occur in the summer, due to the extreme environmental conditions and the reduced food intake by the host in winter. Here we show experimentally that, contrary to most parasitic nematodes, Marshallagia marshalli of Svalbard reindeer is transmitted during the Arctic winter. Winter transmission was demonstrated by removing parasites in the autumn, using a novel delayed-release anthelmintic bolus, and estimating re-infection rates in reindeer sampled in October, February and April. Larval stages of nematodes were identified using molecular tools, whereas adult stages were identified using microscopy. The abundance of M. marshalli adult worms and L4s increased significantly from October to April, indicating that reindeer were being infected with L3s from the pasture throughout the winter. To our knowledge, this study is the first to experimentally demonstrate over-winter transmission of a gastro-intestinal nematode parasite in a wild animal. Potential mechanisms associated with this unusual transmission strategy are discussed in light of our knowledge of the life-history traits of this parasite.

  14. Ecomorphology and disease: cryptic effects of parasitism on host habitat use, thermoregulation, and predator avoidance.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Brett A; Johnson, Pieter T J

    2011-03-01

    Parasites can cause dramatic changes in the phenotypes of their hosts, sometimes leading to a higher probability of predation and parasite transmission. Because an organism's morphology directly affects its locomotion, even subtle changes in key morphological traits may affect survival and behavior. However, despite the ubiquity of parasites in natural communities, few studies have incorporated parasites into ecomorphological research. Here, we evaluated the effects of parasite-induced changes in host phenotype on the habitat use, thermal biology, and simulated predator-escape ability of Pacific chorus frogs (Pseudacris regilla) in natural environments. Frogs with parasite-induced limb malformations were more likely to use ground microhabitats relative to vertical refugia and selected less-angled perches closer to the ground in comparison with normal frogs. Although both groups had similar levels of infection, malformed frogs used warmer microhabitats, which resulted in higher body temperatures. Likely as a result of their morphological abnormalities, malformed frogs allowed a simulated predator to approach closer before escaping and escaped shorter distances relative to normal frogs. These data indicate that parasite-induced morphological changes can significantly alter host behavior and habitat use, highlighting the importance of incorporating the ubiquitous, albeit cryptic, role of parasites into ecomorphological research.

  15. Common and emerging infectious diseases in the animal shelter.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, P A; Murphy, B G

    2014-03-01

    The beneficial role that animal shelters play is unquestionable. An estimated 3 to 4 million animals are cared for or placed in homes each year, and most shelters promote public health and support responsible pet ownership. It is, nonetheless, inevitable that shelters are prime examples of anthropogenic biological instability: even well-run shelters often house transient, displaced, and mixed populations of animals. Many of these animals have received minimal to no prior health care, and some have a history of scavenging or predation to survive. Overcrowding and poor shelter conditions further magnify these inherent risks to create individual, intraspecies, and interspecies stress and provide an environment conducive to exposure to numerous potentially collaborative pathogens. All of these factors can contribute to the evolution and emergence of new pathogens or to alterations in virulence of endemic pathogens. While it is not possible to effectively anticipate the timing or the pathogen type in emergence events, their sites of origin are less enigmatic, and pathologists and diagnosticians who work with sheltered animal populations have recognized several such events in the past decade. This article first considers the contribution of the shelter environment to canine and feline disease. This is followed by summaries of recent research on the pathogenesis of common shelter pathogens, as well as research that has led to the discovery of novel or emerging diseases and the methods that are used for their diagnosis and discovery. For the infectious agents that commonly affect sheltered dogs and cats, including canine distemper virus, canine influenza virus, Streptococcus spp, parvoviruses, feline herpesvirus, feline caliciviruses, and feline infectious peritonitis virus, we present familiar as well as newly recognized lesions associated with infection. Preliminary studies on recently discovered viruses like canine circovirus, canine bocavirus, and feline norovirus

  16. Emergence of Zaire Ebola virus disease in Guinea.

    PubMed

    Baize, Sylvain; Pannetier, Delphine; Oestereich, Lisa; Rieger, Toni; Koivogui, Lamine; Magassouba, N'Faly; Soropogui, Barrè; Sow, Mamadou Saliou; Keïta, Sakoba; De Clerck, Hilde; Tiffany, Amanda; Dominguez, Gemma; Loua, Mathieu; Traoré, Alexis; Kolié, Moussa; Malano, Emmanuel Roland; Heleze, Emmanuel; Bocquin, Anne; Mély, Stephane; Raoul, Hervé; Caro, Valérie; Cadar, Dániel; Gabriel, Martin; Pahlmann, Meike; Tappe, Dennis; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Impouma, Benido; Diallo, Abdoul Karim; Formenty, Pierre; Van Herp, Michel; Günther, Stephan

    2014-10-09

    In March 2014, the World Health Organization was notified of an outbreak of a communicable disease characterized by fever, severe diarrhea, vomiting, and a high fatality rate in Guinea. Virologic investigation identified Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) as the causative agent. Full-length genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that EBOV from Guinea forms a separate clade in relationship to the known EBOV strains from the Democratic Republic of Congo and Gabon. Epidemiologic investigation linked the laboratory-confirmed cases with the presumed first fatality of the outbreak in December 2013. This study demonstrates the emergence of a new EBOV strain in Guinea.

  17. Cracking the nodule worm code advances knowledge of parasite biology and biotechnology to tackle major diseases of livestock.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Rahul; Joachim, Anja; Ruttkowski, Bärbel; Rosa, Bruce A; Martin, John C; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Ozersky, Philip; Wilson, Richard K; Ranganathan, Shoba; Sternberg, Paul W; Gasser, Robin B; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-11-01

    Many infectious diseases caused by eukaryotic pathogens have a devastating, long-term impact on animal health and welfare. Hundreds of millions of animals are affected by parasitic nematodes of the order Strongylida. Unlocking the molecular biology of representatives of this order, and understanding nematode-host interactions, drug resistance and disease using advanced technologies could lead to entirely new ways of controlling the diseases that they cause. Oesophagostomum dentatum (nodule worm; superfamily Strongyloidea) is an economically important strongylid nematode parasite of swine worldwide. The present article reports recent advances made in biology and animal biotechnology through the draft genome and developmental transcriptome of O. dentatum, in order to support biological research of this and related parasitic nematodes as well as the search for new and improved interventions. This first genome of any member of the Strongyloidea is 443 Mb in size and predicted to encode 25,291 protein-coding genes. Here, we review the dynamics of transcription throughout the life cycle of O. dentatum, describe double-stranded RNA interference (RNAi) machinery and infer molecules involved in development and reproduction, and in inducing or modulating immune responses or disease. The secretome predicted for O. dentatum is particularly rich in peptidases linked to interactions with host tissues and/or feeding activity, and a diverse array of molecules likely involved in immune responses. This research progress provides an important resource for future comparative genomic and molecular biological investigations as well as for biotechnological research toward new anthelmintics, vaccines and diagnostic tests.

  18. Xenopus: An Emerging Model for Studying Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kaltenbrun, Erin; Tandon, Panna; Amin, Nirav M.; Waldron, Lauren; Showell, Chris; Conlon, Frank L.

    2011-01-01

    Congenital heart defects affect nearly 1% of all newborns and are a significant cause of infant death. Clinical studies have identified a number of congenital heart syndromes associated with mutations in genes that are involved in the complex process of cardiogenesis. The African clawed frog, Xenopus, has been instrumental in studies of vertebrate heart development and provides a valuable tool to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying human congenital heart diseases. In this review, we discuss the methodologies that make Xenopus an ideal model system to investigate heart development and disease. We also outline congenital heart conditions linked to cardiac genes that have been well-studied in Xenopus and describe some emerging technologies that will further aid in the study of these complex syndromes. PMID:21538812

  19. The emerging role of the intestine in metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Bradley, William D; Zwingelstein, Catherine; Rondinone, Cristina M

    2011-07-01

    The intestine is an important metabolic organ that has gained attention in recent years for the newly identified role that it plays in the pathophysiology of various metabolic diseases including obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. Recent insights regarding the role of enteroendocrine hormones, such as GIP, GLP-1, and PYY in metabolic diseases, as well as the emerging role of the gut microbial community and gastric bypass bariatric surgeries in modulating metabolic function and dysfunction have sparked a wave of interest in understanding the mechanisms involved, in an effort to identify new therapeutics and novel regulators of metabolism. This review summarizes the current evidence that the gastrointestinal tract has a key role in the development of obesity, inflammation, insulin resistance and diabetes and discusses the possible players that can be targeted for therapeutic intervention.

  20. Rift Valley Fever: An Emerging Mosquito-Borne Disease.

    PubMed

    Linthicum, Kenneth J; Britch, Seth C; Anyamba, Assaf

    2016-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF), an emerging mosquito-borne zoonotic infectious viral disease caused by the RVF virus (RVFV) (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus), presents significant threats to global public health and agriculture in Africa and the Middle East. RVFV is listed as a select agent with significant potential for international spread and use in bioterrorism. RVFV has caused large, devastating periodic epizootics and epidemics in Africa over the past ∼60 years, with severe economic and nutritional impacts on humans from illness and livestock loss. In the past 15 years alone, RVFV caused tens of thousands of human cases, hundreds of human deaths, and more than 100,000 domestic animal deaths. Cattle, sheep, goats, and camels are particularly susceptible to RVF and serve as amplifying hosts for the virus. This review highlights recent research on RVF, focusing on vectors and their ecology, transmission dynamics, and use of environmental and climate data to predict disease outbreaks. Important directions for future research are also discussed.

  1. Early action to address an emerging wildlife disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Michael J.; Harris, M. Camille; Grear, Daniel A.

    2017-02-23

    A deadly fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) that affects amphibian skin was discovered during a die-off of European fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra) in 2014. This pathogen has the potential to worsen already severe worldwide amphibian declines. Bsal is a close relative to another fungal disease known as Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Many scientists consider Bd to be the greatest threat to amphibian biodiversity of any disease because it affects a large number of species and has the unusual ability to drive species and populations to extinction.Although not yet detected in the United States, the emergence of Bsal could threaten the salamander population, which is the most diverse in the world. The spread of Bsal likely will lead to more State and federally listed threatened or endangered amphibian species, and associated economic effects.Because of the concern expressed by resource management agencies, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has made Bsal and similar pathogens a priority for research.

  2. Rapid infectious disease screening for field medical emergencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Winston; Rao, Srivasta V.; Low, Peter W.; Hess, John R.

    2000-08-01

    Current blood tests cannot provide rapid support for field medical emergencies that require blood in excess of the tested supply, especially, when additional blood needs to be drawn from the available walking pool. A fluorescence-based rapid infectious disease screening system, based on a disposable disk with an array of wash-free, one-step, membrane strips and an array of optical probes can be used to quantify a panel of transmissible diseases in parallel with high specificity, high sensitivity, and operational simplicity. We have designed and constructed a sandwich membrane assay platform and a laboratory prototype optoelectronic measuring device and used this combined system to quantify hepatitis C antibody over the concentration range of 2 ng/ml to 100 ng/ml in 3 to 5 minutes.

  3. Bats as reservoirs of severe emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Han, Hui-Ju; Wen, Hong-ling; Zhou, Chuan-Min; Chen, Fang-Fang; Luo, Li-Mei; Liu, Jian-wei; Yu, Xue-Jie

    2015-07-02

    In recent years severe infectious diseases have been constantly emerging, causing panic in the world. Now we know that many of these terrible diseases are caused by viruses originated from bats (Table 1), such as Ebola virus, Marburg, SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV). These viruses have co-evolved with bats due to bats' special social, biological and immunological features. Although bats are not in close contact with humans, spillover of viruses from bats to intermediate animal hosts, such as horses, pigs, civets, or non-human primates, is thought to be the most likely mode to cause human infection. Humans may also become infected with viruses through aerosol by intruding into bat roosting caves or via direct contact with bats, such as catching bats or been bitten by bats.

  4. Rapid Detection and Characterization of Emerging Foreign Animal Disease Pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    Jaing, C.

    2016-11-18

    To best safeguard human and animal health requires early detection and characterization of disease events. This must include effective surveillance for emerging infectious diseases. Both deliberate and natural outbreaks have enormous economic and public health impacts, and can present serious threats to national security. In this project, we developed novel next generation detection technologies to protect the agricultural economy and biosecurity. The first technology is a multiplexed assay to simultaneously detection 10 swine viral and bacterial pathogens. The second one is the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA) which can detect more than 10,000 microbial species including 4219 viruses, 5367 bacteria, 265 fungi, 117 protozoa and 293 archaea. We analyzed a series of swine clinical samples from past disease events to demonstrate the utility of the assays for faster and cheaper detection of emerging and foreign animal disease pathogens, and their utility as s routine diagnosis and surveillance tool. A second goal of the study is to better understand mechanisms of African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection in pigs to aid the development of countermeasures and diagnostics. There is no vaccine available for ASF. ASF outbreak is on the rise on several European countries. Though ASF is not currently in the U.S., a potential outbreak in the U.S. would be detrimental to the swine industry and the US agricultural economy. We pursued a genome-wide approach to characterize the pig immune responses after ASFV infection. We used RNA sequencing and bioinformatics methods to identify genes and pathways that are affected during ASF infection. We have identified a list of most differentially expressed genes that are in the immune response pathways.

  5. Diseases and parasites of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, in the Lake Huron basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLain, Alberton L.

    1952-01-01

    Sea lampreys from the Lake Huron basin carried no external parasites and showed a fairly low degree of infection by internal parasites. The material examined represented three life-history stages of the sea lamprey. Recently transformed downstream migrants (215 specimens) harbored only nematodes belonging to the genus Camallanus. The percentage of infection was 2.3. Active feeders from the lake (29 lampreys) revealed the highest degree of parasitism (31.0 percent) with the following parasites present: Echinorhynchus coregoni Linkins; Triaenophorus crassus Forel; and Camallanus sp. Among the 257 sexually mature upstream migrants (14.8 percent infected) Echinorhynchus coregoni and E. leidyi Van Cleave were the most common. Only occasional nematodes and cestodes were found, which fact indicates a failure of the lamprey to carry these parasites to the end of its natural life. Of the parasites observed, only the nematodes gave evidence of serious damage to the host. The study suggests that the role played by parasites in the natural control of the sea lamprey in its new habitat in the upper Great Lakes is of minor importance.

  6. Long-Term Disease Dynamics for a Specialized Parasite of Ant Societies: A Field Study

    PubMed Central

    Loreto, Raquel G.; Elliot, Simon L.; Freitas, Mayara L. R.; Pereira, Thairine M.; Hughes, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have investigated how social insects behave when a parasite is introduced into their colonies. These studies have been conducted in the laboratory, and we still have a limited understanding of the dynamics of ant-parasite interactions under natural conditions. Here we consider a specialized parasite of ant societies (Ophiocordyceps camponoti-rufipedis infecting Camponotus rufipes) within a rainforest. We first established that the parasite is unable to develop to transmission stage when introduced within the host nest. Secondly, we surveyed all colonies in the studied area and recorded 100% prevalence at the colony level (all colonies were infected). Finally, we conducted a long-term detailed census of parasite pressure, by mapping the position of infected dead ants and foraging trails (future hosts) in the immediate vicinity of the colonies over 20 months. We report new dead infected ants for all the months we conducted the census – at an average of 14.5 cadavers/month/colony. Based on the low infection rate, the absence of colony collapse or complete recovery of the colonies, we suggest that this parasite represents a chronic infection in the ant societies. We also proposed a “terminal host model of transmission” that links the age-related polyethism to the persistence of a parasitic infection. PMID:25133749

  7. [Monkey-pox, a model of emergent then reemergent disease].

    PubMed

    Georges, A J; Matton, T; Courbot-Georges, M C

    2004-01-01

    The recent emergence of monkey pox in the United States of America highlights the problem (known for other infectious agents) of dissemination of pathogens outside their endemic area, and of subsequent global threats of variable gravity according to agents. It is a real emergency since monkey pox had been confined to Africa for several decades, where small epidemics occurred from time to time, monkey pox is a "miniature smallpox" which, in Africa, evolves on an endemic (zoonotic) mode with, as reservoirs, several species of wild rodents (mainly squirrels) and some monkey species. It can be accidentally transmitted to man then develops as epidemics, sometimes leading to death. The virus was imported in 2003 in the United States of America, via Gambia rats and wild squirrels (all African species), and infected prairie dogs (which are now in fashion as pets), then crossed the species barrier to man. In the United States of America, screening campaigns, epidemiological investigations, and subsequent treatments led to a rapid control of the epidemic, which is a model of emergent disease for this country. Therapeutic and preventive measures directly applicable to monkey pox are discussed. They can also be applied against other pox virus infections (including smallpox). The risk of criminal introduction of pox viruses is discussed since it is, more than ever, a real worldwide threat.

  8. Lurking in the Shadows: Emerging Rodent Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Besselsen, David G.; Franklin, Craig L.; Livingston, Robert S.; Riley, Lela K.

    2013-01-01

    Rodent parvoviruses, Helicobacter spp., murine norovirus, and several other previously unknown infectious agents have “emerged” in laboratory rodents relatively recently. These agents have been discovered serendipitously or through active investigation of atypical serology results, cell culture contamination, unexpected histopathology, or previously unrecognized clinical disease syndromes. The potential research impact of these agents is not fully known. Infected rodents have demonstrated immunomodulation, tumor suppression, clinical disease (particularly in immunodeficient rodents), and histopathology. Perturbations of organismal and cellular physiology also likely occur. These agents posed unique challenges to laboratory animal resource programs once discovered; it was necessary to develop specific diagnostic assays and an understanding of their epidemiology and transmission routes before attempting eradication, and then evaluate eradication methods for efficacy. Even then management approaches varied significantly, from apathy to total exclusion, and such inconsistency has hindered the sharing and transfer of rodents among institutions, particularly for genetically modified rodent models that may not be readily available. As additional infectious agents are discovered in laboratory rodents in coming years, much of what researchers have learned from experiences with the recently identified pathogens will be applicable. This article provides an overview of the discovery, detection, and research impact of infectious agents recently identified in laboratory rodents. We also discuss emerging syndromes for which there is a suspected infectious etiology, and the unique challenges of managing newly emerging infectious agents. PMID:18506061

  9. Intestinal parasitic infection.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Suk; Kim, Ki Whang; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Lee, Dong Ho

    2008-01-01

    In general, gastrointestinal tract is the primary involvement site of parasites during their life cycle. In this article, we will describe amebiasis, ascariasis, and anisakiasis among the many common intestinal parasitic diseases. We will review the epidemiology, life cycles, clinical manifestations and complications, and illustrate detailed imaging findings of intestinal parasites. Recognizing features of parasitic infection is important to establish an early diagnosis that leads to prompt treatment and helps avoid unnecessary surgery.

  10. Human anthrax as a re-emerging disease.

    PubMed

    Doganay, Mehmet; Demiraslan, Hayati

    2015-01-01

    Anthrax is primarily a disease of herbivores and the etiological agent is B. anthracis which is a gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming, and rod shaped bacterium. Bacillus anthracis spores are highly resistant to heat, pressure, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, chemical agents and disinfectants. For these reasons, B. anthracis spores are an attractive choice as biological agents for the use of bioweapon and/or bioterrorism. Soil is the main reservoir for the infectious agent. The disease most commonly affects wild and domestic mammals. Human are secondarily infected by contact with infected animals and contaminated animal products or directly expose to B. anthracis spores. Anthrax occurs worldwide. This infection is still endemic or hyperendemic in both animals and humans in some part of areas of the world; particularly in Middle East, West Africa, Central Asia, some part of India, South America. However, some countries are claiming free of anthrax, and anthrax has become a re-emerging disease in western countries with the intentional outbreak. Currently, anthrax is classified according to its setting as (1) naturally occurring anthrax, (2) bioterrorism-related anthrax. Vast majority of human anthrax are occurring as naturally occurring anthrax in the world. It is also a threaten disease for western countries. The aim of this paper is to review the relevant patents, short historical perspective, microbiological and epidemiological features, clinical presentations and treatment.

  11. Emerging issues in radiogenic cataracts and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Fujimichi, Yuki; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Fujii, Noriko; Furuhashi, Masato; Kubo, Eri; Minamino, Tohru; Nomura, Takaharu; Sato, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection issued a statement on tissue reactions (formerly termed non-stochastic or deterministic effects) to recommend lowering the threshold for cataracts and the occupational equivalent dose limit for the crystalline lens of the eye. Furthermore, this statement was the first to list circulatory disease (cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease) as a health hazard of radiation exposure and to assign its threshold for the heart and brain. These changes have stimulated various discussions and may have impacts on some radiation workers, such as those in the medical sector. This paper considers emerging issues associated with cataracts and cardiovascular disease. For cataracts, topics dealt with herein include (i) the progressive nature, stochastic nature, target cells and trigger events of lens opacification, (ii) roles of lens protein denaturation, oxidative stress, calcium ions, tumor suppressors and DNA repair factors in cataractogenesis, (iii) dose rate effect, radiation weighting factor, and classification systems for cataracts, and (iv) estimation of the lens dose in clinical settings. Topics for cardiovascular disease include experimental animal models, relevant surrogate markers, latency period, target tissues, and roles of inflammation and cellular senescence. Future research needs are also discussed. PMID:24824673

  12. Parasites, diseases, and health status of sympatric populations of sika deer and white-tailed deer in Maryland and Virginia.

    PubMed

    Davidson, W R; Crow, C B

    1983-10-01

    In July 1981, investigations on parasites, diseases, and herd health status were conducted on sympatric populations of sika deer (Cervus nippon) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge (Maryland) and Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge (Virginia) on the Delmarva Peninsula. Five adult deer of each species were collected from each location and subjected to thorough necropsy examinations and laboratory tests. White-tailed deer at both locations harbored protozoan, helminth, and arthropod parasites typically associated with this species throughout the southeastern United States. In contrast, sika deer at both locations harbored only light burdens of ticks, chiggers, and sarcocysts. Serologic tests for antibodies to seven infectious disease agents revealed evidence of exposure to bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, and parainfluenza3 virus in white-tailed deer, but only BVD virus in sika deer. At both locations the general health status of sika deer was superior to that of white-tailed deer.

  13. Vaccination strategies to prevent emerging diseases for Spanish aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Romalde, J L; Ravelo, C; López-Romalde, S; Avendaño-Herrera, R; Magariños, B; Toranzo, A E

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, three serious diseases have emerged in Spanish aquaculture. These are lactococcosis caused by Lactococcus garvieae, which is of economical importance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss); pseudomonadiasis caused by Pseudomonas anguilliseptica which affects gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus); and flexibacteriosis caused by Tenacibaculum maritimum which became a devastating problem in the emerging culture of sole (Solea spp). To obtain useful information for the design and development of new vaccines, antigenic characterisation of representative strains was performed. In this work we present the strategies adopted for the vaccine formulation (strains included, use of adjuvants) and administration (route, necessity of booster, etc.). The results from laboratory and/or field vaccination trials performed showed that for lactococcosis, protection lasting for five months was obtained with an oil-adjuvanted bacterin formulation. Unadjuvanted bacterin gave only a short duration of protection, which could, however, be prolonged by an antigen boost administered via the feed. A bacterin against Pseudomonas anguilliseptica gave protection for 12 weeks when tested in an experimental challenge trial in turbot. Besides the flexibacteriosis vaccine developed by our group for turbot, and due to the antigenic host-associated variability within T. maritimum, a new bacterin was developed against this bacterium to be used specifically in sole. This new bacterin, administered to sole by intraperitoneal injection, yielded RPS values of 94 % six weeks after immunization. In conclusion, these results suggest that vaccination constitutes a cost-effective method of controlling diseases that have emerged in the most important fish species being cultured in Spain.

  14. Viruses and disease: emerging concepts for prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Herrington, C S; Coates, P J; Duprex, W P

    2015-01-01

    Viruses cause a wide range of human diseases, ranging from acute self-resolving conditions to acute fatal diseases. Effects that arise long after the primary infection can also increase the propensity for chronic conditions or lead to the development of cancer. Recent advances in the fields of virology and pathology have been fundamental in improving our understanding of viral pathogenesis, in providing improved vaccination strategies and in developing newer, more effective treatments for patients worldwide. The reviews assembled here focus on the interface between virology and pathology and encompass aspects of both the clinical pathology of viral disease and the underlying disease mechanisms. Articles on emerging diseases caused by Ebola virus, Marburg virus, coronaviruses such as SARS and MERS, Nipah virus and noroviruses are followed by reviews of enteroviruses, HIV infection, measles, mumps, human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV). The issue concludes with a series of articles reviewing the relationship between viruses and cancer, including the role played by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the pathogenesis of lymphoma and carcinoma; how human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are involved in the development of skin cancer; the involvement of hepatitis B virus infection in hepatocellular carcinoma; and the mechanisms by which Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) leads to Kaposi's sarcoma. We hope that this collection of articles will be of interest to a wide range of scientists and clinicians at a time when there is a renaissance in the appreciation of the power of pathology as virologists dissect the processes of disease.

  15. One World-One Health and neglected zoonotic disease: elimination, emergence and emergency in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Smith, James; Taylor, Emma Michelle; Kingsley, Pete

    2015-03-01

    This paper traces the emergence and tensions of an internationally constructed and framed One World-One Health (OWOH) approach to control and attempt to eliminate African Trypanosomiasis in Uganda. In many respects Trypanosomiasis is a disease that an OWOH approach is perfectly designed to treat, requiring an integrated approach built on effective surveillance in animals and humans, quick diagnosis and targeting of the vector. The reality appears to be that the translation of global notions of OWOH down to national and district levels generates problems, primarily due to interactions between: a) international, external actors not engaging with the Ugandan state; b) actors setting up structures and activities parallel to those of the state; c) actors deciding when emergencies begin and end without consultation; d) weak Ugandan state capacity to coordinate its own integrated response to disease; e) limited collaboration between core Ugandan planning activities and a weak, increasingly devolved district health system. These interrelated dynamics result in the global, international interventionalist mode of OWOH undermining the Coordinating Office for Control of Trypanosomiasis in Uganda (COCTU), the body within the Ugandan state mandated expressly with managing a sustainable One Health response to trypanosomiasis outbreaks in Uganda. This does two things, firstly it suggests we need a more grounded, national perspective of OWOH, where states and health systems are acknowledged and engaged with by international actors and initiatives. Secondly, it suggests that more support needs to be given to core coordinating capacity in resource-poor contexts. Supporting national coordinating bodies, focused around One Health, and ensuring that external actors engage with and through those bodies can help develop a sustained, effective OWOH presence in resource-poor countries, where after all most zoonotic disease burden remains.

  16. Vaccines 85: Molecular and chemical basis of resistance to parasitic, bacterial, and viral diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, R.A.; Chanock, R.M.; Brown, F.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 70 selections. Some of the selection titles are: Structure of the Gene Encoding of Immunodominant Surface Antigen on the Sprozoite of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum; Cloning and Expression in Bacteria of the Genes for Merozite-specific Antigens from the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum; A Major Surface Antigen of Plasmodium falciparum in Merozoites: Studies on the Protein and its Gene; Genetic Construction of Cholera Vaccine Prototypes; and Viral Genes, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes and Immunity.

  17. SPECIES AND STRAIN-SPECIFIC TYPING OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARASITES IN CLINICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cryptosporidiosis has recently attracted attention as an emerging water borne and food borne disease as well as an opportunistic infection in HIV infected indivduals. The lack of genetic information, however, has resulted in confusion in the taxonomy of Cryptosporidium parasites ...

  18. Kelch proteins: emerging roles in skeletal muscle development and diseases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of genes that cause skeletal muscle disease has increased tremendously over the past three decades. Advances in approaches to genetics and genomics have aided in the identification of new pathogenic mechanisms in rare genetic disorders and have opened up new avenues for therapeutic interventions by identification of new molecular pathways in muscle disease. Recent studies have identified mutations of several Kelch proteins in skeletal muscle disorders. The Kelch superfamily is one of the largest evolutionary conserved gene families. The 66 known family members all possess a Kelch-repeat containing domain and are implicated in diverse biological functions. In skeletal muscle development, several Kelch family members regulate the processes of proliferation and/or differentiation resulting in normal functioning of mature muscles. Importantly, many Kelch proteins function as substrate-specific adaptors for Cullin E3 ubiquitin ligase (Cul3), a core component of the ubiquitin-proteasome system to regulate the protein turnover. This review discusses the emerging roles of Kelch proteins in skeletal muscle function and disease. PMID:24959344

  19. An Emerging Infectious Disease Triggering Large-Scale Hyperpredation

    PubMed Central

    Moleón, Marcos; Almaraz, Pablo; Sánchez-Zapata, José A.

    2008-01-01

    Hyperpredation refers to an enhanced predation pressure on a secondary prey due to either an increase in the abundance of a predator population or a sudden drop in the abundance of the main prey. This scarcely documented mechanism has been previously studied in scenarios in which the introduction of a feral prey caused overexploitation of native prey. Here we provide evidence of a previously unreported link between Emergent Infectious Diseases (EIDs) and hyperpredation on a predator-prey community. We show how a viral outbreak caused the population collapse of a host prey at a large spatial scale, which subsequently promoted higher-than-normal predation intensity on a second prey from shared predators. Thus, the disease left a population dynamic fingerprint both in the primary host prey, through direct mortality from the disease, and indirectly in the secondary prey, through hyperpredation. This resulted in synchronized prey population dynamics at a large spatio-temporal scale. We therefore provide evidence for a novel mechanism by which EIDs can disrupt a predator-prey interaction from the individual behavior to the population dynamics. This mechanism can pose a further threat to biodiversity through the human-aided disruption of ecological interactions at large spatial and temporal scales. PMID:18523587

  20. Emerging targets in neurodegeneration: new opportunities for Alzheimer's disease treatment?

    PubMed

    Rampa, Angela; Gobbi, Silvia; Belluti, Federica; Bisi, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the brain associated with memory impairment, progressive cognitive decline and changes in personality and behavior, with rising incidence among elderly people. Reflecting the world population ageing, the scenario is expected to worsen in the next decades if novel drugs or mechanisms that help to counteract neurodegeneration will not be identified. The complex neuropathology of AD is characterized by cholinergic loss, extracellular deposition of amyloid-β plaques, formation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, chronic brain inflammation and oxidative damage. To date, there are no effective treatments that can slow or halt the disease, and currently approved drugs only seem to act as palliative by temporary ameliorating cognitive impairment. On the other hand, the role played by other biological systems in the pathogenetic process is now clearly growing and, as knowledge on how AD develops and triggers brain damage proceeds, drug discovery attempts to identify new potential therapeutic targets. This review will focus on these emerging strategies, some of which could open new therapeutic perspectives in Alzheimer's disease, adding new elements for the medicinal chemist to handle and combine for the design of novel multi-target-directed ligands able to simultaneously modulate 'old classic' and newly identified targets.

  1. Emerging foodborne diseases: an evolving public health challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Tauxe, R. V.

    1997-01-01

    The epidemiology of foodborne disease is changing. New pathogens have emerged, and some have spread worldwide. Many, including Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter, and Yersinia enterocolitica, have reservoirs in healthy food animals, from which they spread to an increasing variety of foods. These pathogens cause millions of cases of sporadic illness and chronic complications, as well as large and challenging outbreaks over many states and nations. Improved surveillance that combines rapid subtyping methods, cluster identification, and collaborative epidemiologic investigation can identify and halt large, dispersed outbreaks. Outbreak investigations and case-control studies of sporadic cases can identify sources of infection and guide the development of specific prevention strategies. Better understanding of how pathogens persist in animal reservoirs is also critical to successful long-term prevention. In the past, the central challenge of foodborne disease lay in preventing the contamination of human food with sewage or animal manure. In the future, prevention of foodborne disease will increasingly depend on controlling contamination of feed and water consumed by the animals themselves. PMID:9366593

  2. Diagnosis of dry eye disease and emerging technologies.

    PubMed

    Zeev, Maya Salomon-Ben; Miller, Darby Douglas; Latkany, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Dry eye is one of the most commonly encountered problems in ophthalmology. Signs can include punctate epithelial erosions, hyperemia, low tear lakes, rapid tear break-up time, and meibomian gland disease. Current methods of diagnosis include a slit-lamp examination with and without different stains, including fluorescein, rose bengal, and lissamine green. Other methods are the Schirmer test, tear function index, tear break-up time, and functional visual acuity. Emerging technologies include meniscometry, optical coherence tomography, tear film stability analysis, interferometry, tear osmolarity, the tear film normalization test, ocular surface thermography, and tear biomarkers. Patient-specific considerations involve relevant history of autoimmune disease, refractive surgery or use of oral medications, and allergies or rosacea. Other patient considerations include clinical examination for lid margin disease and presence of lagophthalmos or blink abnormalities. Given a complex presentation and a variety of signs and symptoms, it would be beneficial if there was an inexpensive, readily available, and reproducible diagnostic test for dry eye.

  3. Diagnosis of dry eye disease and emerging technologies

    PubMed Central

    Zeev, Maya Salomon-Ben; Miller, Darby Douglas; Latkany, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Dry eye is one of the most commonly encountered problems in ophthalmology. Signs can include punctate epithelial erosions, hyperemia, low tear lakes, rapid tear break-up time, and meibomian gland disease. Current methods of diagnosis include a slit-lamp examination with and without different stains, including fluorescein, rose bengal, and lissamine green. Other methods are the Schirmer test, tear function index, tear break-up time, and functional visual acuity. Emerging technologies include meniscometry, optical coherence tomography, tear film stability analysis, interferometry, tear osmolarity, the tear film normalization test, ocular surface thermography, and tear biomarkers. Patient-specific considerations involve relevant history of autoimmune disease, refractive surgery or use of oral medications, and allergies or rosacea. Other patient considerations include clinical examination for lid margin disease and presence of lagophthalmos or blink abnormalities. Given a complex presentation and a variety of signs and symptoms, it would be beneficial if there was an inexpensive, readily available, and reproducible diagnostic test for dry eye. PMID:24672224

  4. The origin and dispersion of human parasitic diseases in the old world (Africa, Europe and Madagascar).

    PubMed

    Nozais, Jean-Pierre

    2003-01-01

    The ancestors of present-day man (Homo sapiens sapiens) appeared in East Africa some three and a half million years ago (Australopithecs), and then migrated to Europe, Asia, and later to the Americas, thus beginning the differentiation process. The passage from nomadic to sedentary life took place in the Middle East in around 8000 BC. Wars, spontaneous migrations and forced migrations (slave trade) led to enormous mixtures of populations in Europe and Africa and favoured the spread of numerous parasitic diseases with specific strains according to geographic area. The three human plasmodia (Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, and P. malariae) were imported from Africa into the Mediterranean region with the first human migrations, but it was the Neolithic revolution (sedentarisation, irrigation, population increase) which brought about actual foci for malaria. The reservoir for Leishmania infantum and L. donovani--the dog--has been domesticated for thousands of years. Wild rodents as reservoirs of L. major have also long been in contact with man and probably were imported from tropical Africa across the Sahara. L. tropica, by contrast, followed the migrations of man, its only reservoir. L. infantum and L. donovani spread with man and his dogs from West Africa. Likewise, for thousands of years, the dog has played an important role in the spread and the endemic character of hydatidosis through sheep (in Europe and North Africa) and dromadary (in the Sahara and North Africa). Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni have existed since prehistoric times in populations living in or passing through the Sahara. These populations then transported them to countries of Northern Africa where the specific, intermediary hosts were already present. Madagascar was inhabited by populations of Indonesian origin who imported lymphatic filariosis across the Indian Ocean (possibly of African origin since the Indonesian sailors had spent time on the African coast before reaching Madagascar

  5. Systems analysis of host-parasite interactions.

    PubMed

    Swann, Justine; Jamshidi, Neema; Lewis, Nathan E; Winzeler, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic diseases caused by protozoan pathogens lead to hundreds of thousands of deaths per year in addition to substantial suffering and socioeconomic decline for millions of people worldwide. The lack of effective vaccines coupled with the widespread emergence of drug-resistant parasites necessitates that the research community take an active role in understanding host-parasite infection biology in order to develop improved therapeutics. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing and the rapid development of publicly accessible genomic databases for many human pathogens have facilitated the application of systems biology to the study of host-parasite interactions. Over the past decade, these technologies have led to the discovery of many important biological processes governing parasitic disease. The integration and interpretation of high-throughput -omic data will undoubtedly generate extraordinary insight into host-parasite interaction networks essential to navigate the intricacies of these complex systems. As systems analysis continues to build the foundation for our understanding of host-parasite biology, this will provide the framework necessary to drive drug discovery research forward and accelerate the development of new antiparasitic therapies.

  6. DNA vaccines for emerging infectious diseases: what if?

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, R. G.

    1996-01-01

    A novel and powerful method for vaccine research, colloquially known as DNA vaccines, involves the deliberate introduction into tissues of a DNA plasmid carrying an antigen-coding gene that transfects cells in vivo and results in an immune response. DNA vaccines have several distinct advantages, which include ease of manipulation, use of a generic technology, simplicity of manufacture, and chemical and biological stability. In addition, DNA vaccines are a great leveler among re-searchers around the world because they provide unprecedented ease of experi-mentation. To facilitate diffusion of information, an Internet site has been established called THE DNA VACCINE WEB (URL:http://www.genweb.com/dnavax/dnavax.html). In this review, a brief survey is undertaken of the experimental models and preclinical work on DNA vaccines to contribute to a greater awareness of the possibilities for emerging infectious diseases. PMID:8903226

  7. The emerging role of microRNAs in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Femminella, Grazia D.; Ferrara, Nicola; Rengo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA which have been shown to regulate gene expression. The alteration ofmiRNAs expression has been associated with several pathological processes, including neurodegeneration. In the search for easily accessible and non-invasive biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis and prognosis, circulating miRNAs are among the most promising candidates. Some of them have been consistently identified as AD-specific miRNAs and their targets also seem implicated in pathophysiological processes underlying AD. Here, we review the emerging role for miRNA in AD, giving an overview on general miRNAs biology, their implications in AD pathophysiology and their potential role as future biomarkers. PMID:25729367

  8. Antibody-based therapies for emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, A

    1996-01-01

    In the 19th century, it was discovered that immune sera were useful in treating infectious diseases. Serum therapy was largely abandoned in the 1940s because of the toxicity associated with the administration of heterologous sera and the introduction of effective antimicrobial chemotherapy. Recent advances in the technology of monoclonal antibody production provide the means to generate human antibody reagents and reintroduce antibody therapies, while avoiding the toxicities associated with serum therapy. Because of the versatility of antibodies, antibody-based therapies could, in theory, be developed against any existing pathogen. The advantages of antibody-based therapies include versatility, low toxicity, pathogen specificity, enhancement of immune function, and favorable pharmacokinetics; the disadvantages include high cost, limited usefulness against mixed infections, and the need for early and precise microbiologic diagnosis. The potential of antibodies as antiinfective agents has not been fully tapped. Antibody-based therapies constitute a potentially useful option against newly emergent pathogens.

  9. Emerging diseases and ecosystem instability: new threats to public health.

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, P R

    1995-01-01

    Ecologists have begun to describe an environmental distress syndrome, whereby widespread loss of top predators and harsh environmental conditions are encouraging the selection of opportunistic pests and pathogens across a wide taxonomic range of plants and animals. Environmental change and pollutants stress individuals and populations, and this may be reflected in the global resurgence of infectious disease as these stresses cascade through the community assemblages of species. In 1993, the sudden appearance of a virulent, rodent-borne hantavirus in the arid US Southwest accompanied anomalous weather patterns, and a novel Vibrio cholerae variant (O139 Bengal) emerged in Asia where marine ecosystems are experiencing a pandemic of coastal algal blooms, apparently harboring and amplifying the agent. This paper suggests a framework for integrating the surveillance of health outcomes and key reservoir and vector species, with ecological and climatic monitoring. PMID:7856775

  10. Emerging Risk Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Diseases and Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Ravi Kant

    2015-01-01

    Present review article highlights various cardiovascular risk prediction biomarkers by incorporating both traditional risk factors to be used as diagnostic markers and recent technologically generated diagnostic and therapeutic markers. This paper explains traditional biomarkers such as lipid profile, glucose, and hormone level and physiological biomarkers based on measurement of levels of important biomolecules such as serum ferritin, triglyceride to HDLp (high density lipoproteins) ratio, lipophorin-cholesterol ratio, lipid-lipophorin ratio, LDL cholesterol level, HDLp and apolipoprotein levels, lipophorins and LTPs ratio, sphingolipids, Omega-3 Index, and ST2 level. In addition, immunohistochemical, oxidative stress, inflammatory, anatomical, imaging, genetic, and therapeutic biomarkers have been explained in detail with their investigational specifications. Many of these biomarkers, alone or in combination, can play important role in prediction of risks, its types, and status of morbidity. As emerging risks are found to be affiliated with minor and microlevel factors and its diagnosis at an earlier stage could find CVD, hence, there is an urgent need of new more authentic, appropriate, and reliable diagnostic and therapeutic markers to confirm disease well in time to start the clinical aid to the patients. Present review aims to discuss new emerging biomarkers that could facilitate more authentic and fast diagnosis of CVDs, HF (heart failures), and various lipid abnormalities and disorders in the future. PMID:25949827

  11. Lysine Deacetylase Inhibitors in Parasites: Past, Present, and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hailu, Gebremedhin S; Robaa, Dina; Forgione, Mariantonietta; Sippl, Wolfgang; Rotili, Dante; Mai, Antonello

    2017-03-15

    Current therapies for human parasite infections rely on a few drugs, most of which have severe side effects, and their helpfulness is being seriously compromised by the drug resistance problem. Globally, this is pushing discovery research of antiparasitic drugs toward new agents endowed with new mechanisms of action. By using a "drug repurposing" strategy, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), which are presently clinically approved for cancer use, are now under investigation for various parasite infections. Because parasitic Zn(2+)- and NAD(+)-dependent HDACs play crucial roles in the modulation of parasite gene expression and many of them are pro-survival for several parasites under various conditions, they are now emerging as novel potential antiparasitic targets. This Perspective summarizes the state of knowledge of HDACi (both class I/II HDACi and sirtuin inhibitors) targeted to the main human parasitic diseases (schistosomiasis, malaria, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and toxoplasmosis) and provides visions into the main issues that challenge their development as antiparasitic agents.

  12. The Emergence and Epidemiology of Haff Disease in China

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2016-01-01

    Haff disease is a rare syndrome of unexplained myalgia and rhabdomyolysis occurring within 24 h of consumption of certain types of cooked freshwater fish or crustacean. It is caused by a yet unidentified heat-stable toxin. In the present review of published case studies and official press releases, the main objective is to report the emergence and epidemiology of Haff disease in China. Haff disease first occurred in Beijing in 2000 and in Lianzhou and Liannan, Guangdong Province in 2009. Subsequent outbreaks mostly occurred in the Jiangsu Province—Nanjing, Yangzhou, Huai’an, and Yancheng. Isolated outbreaks occurred in other cities since 2010—Shijiazhuang, Yueyang, Shanghai, Wuhu, Baoding, Shenzhen, and Hong Kong (imported cases from Shenzhen). Outbreaks occurred predominately in the summer. Crayfish accounted for almost all the outbreaks. Two large outbreaks occurred in Lianzhou and Liannan in 2009 (n = 54) after eating pomfrets and in Nanjing in 2010 (n = 42) after eating crayfish. Other reports or outbreaks involved only 1–9 subjects (median 2 subjects). Variability in individual susceptibility and attack rates were noted, with many subjects remaining asymptomatic despite sharing the same seafood meal as the index cases. Adults were predominately involved. Symptoms occurred within 3–20 h of seafood ingestion, including myalgia, weakness, and, less frequently, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Myalgia and muscle weakness should normally subside within 2–3 days. Serum creatine phosphokinase became normal within 5–6 days. Abnormal renal function was uncommon. Serious complications (renal failure, multi-organ failure, and prolonged myopathy) and death were rare. In any subjects with unexplained myalgia and rhabdomyolysis, seafood consumption should be included in the history. All suspected cases of Haff disease, including milder presentations, should be reported to public health authorities. PMID:27916937

  13. A parasite-derived 68-mer peptide ameliorates autoimmune disease in murine models of Type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Maria E.; Greer, Judith; Dixit, Aakanksha; Alvarado, Raquel; McCauley-Winter, Padraig; To, Joyce; Tanaka, Akane; Hutchinson, Andrew T.; Robinson, Mark W.; Simpson, Ann M.; O’Brien, Bronwyn A.; Dalton, John P.; Donnelly, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Helminth parasites secrete molecules that potently modulate the immune responses of their hosts and, therefore, have potential for the treatment of immune-mediated human diseases. FhHDM-1, a 68-mer peptide secreted by the helminth parasite Fasciola hepatica, ameliorated disease in two different murine models of autoimmunity, type 1 diabetes and relapsing-remitting immune-mediated demyelination. Unexpectedly, FhHDM-1 treatment did not affect the proliferation of auto-antigen specific T cells or their production of cytokines. However, in both conditions, the reduction in clinical symptoms was associated with the absence of immune cell infiltrates in the target organ (islets and the brain tissue). Furthermore, after parenteral administration, the FhHDM-1 peptide interacted with macrophages and reduced their capacity to secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF and IL-6. We propose this inhibition of innate pro-inflammatory immune responses, which are central to the initiation of autoimmunity in both diseases, prevented the trafficking of autoreactive lymphocytes from the periphery to the site of autoimmunity (as opposed to directly modulating their function per se), and thus prevented tissue destruction. The ability of FhHDM-1 to modulate macrophage function, combined with its efficacy in disease prevention in multiple models, suggests that FhHDM-1 has considerable potential as a treatment for autoimmune diseases. PMID:27883079

  14. Gastrointestinal parasite infestation.

    PubMed

    Abd El Bagi, Mohamed E; Sammak, Bassam M; Mohamed, Abdulrahman E; Al Karawi, Mohamed A; Al Shahed, Mona; Al Thagafi, Mohamed A

    2004-03-01

    Twenty-five percent of the world's population could be suffering parasitic infestation. Highest prevalence is in underdeveloped agricultural and rural areas in the tropical and subtropical regions. In some areas incidence may reach 90% of the population. In contrast, some major economic projects intended to promote local development have, paradoxically, caused parasitic proliferation, e.g. bilharziasis in Egypt and Sudan and Chagas disease in Brazil. The commonest cosmopolitan gastrointestinal parasite is Entamoeba histolytica. Some intestinal parasite are endemic in temperate climates, e.g. Entrobius vermicularis. The AIDS epidemic has increased the prevalence and severity of parasitic disease, particularly Strongyloides stercolaris. Tropical parasites are seen in Western people who travel to tropical countries. Radiology has acquired a major role in diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal parasite infestations and their complications.

  15. Treatment of Parasitic Skin Diseases with Dimeticones A New Family of Compounds with a Purely Physical Mode of Action

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal parasitic skin diseases (EPSD) are common in the tropics and sub-tropics. They are caused by mites, lice and other blood-sucking insects. In resource-poor countries they are associated with considerable morbidity. Hitherto, EPSD are treated with insecticides with a neurotoxic mode of action. The efficacy of this treatment is variable, and the development and spread of resistant mites and lice is alarming. A new concept for treating EPSD is presented which is based on the topical application of dimeticones, silicone oils of low viscosity which rapidly kill insects and mites by a physical mode of action. They creep into the respiratory system and block oxygen supply. The physical mode of action makes the development of resistant parasite strains very unlikely. Due to their safety and efficacy, dimeticones are promising candidates for population-based intervention programmes targeted against EPSD in resource-poor settings. PMID:25425946

  16. Four emerging arboviral diseases in North America: Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika virus diseases.

    PubMed

    Pastula, Daniel M; Smith, Daniel E; Beckham, J David; Tyler, Kenneth L

    2016-06-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes, ticks, or sandflies. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families and genera. Recently, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease in North America. Unfortunately, there are currently no proven disease-modifying therapies for these arboviral diseases, so treatment is largely supportive. Given there are also no commercially available vaccines for these four arboviral infections, prevention is the key. To prevent mosquito or tick bites that might result in one of these arboviral diseases, people should wear long-sleeved shirts and pants while outside if feasible, apply insect repellant when going outdoors, using window screens or air conditioning to keep mosquitoes outside, and perform tick checks after being in wooded or brushy outdoor areas.

  17. Four emerging arboviral diseases in North America: Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika virus diseases

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Daniel E.; Beckham, J. David; Tyler, Kenneth L.

    2016-01-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes, ticks, or sandflies. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families and genera. Recently, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease in North America. Unfortunately, there are currently no proven disease-modifying therapies for these arboviral diseases, so treatment is largely supportive. Given there are also no commercially available vaccines for these four arboviral infections, prevention is the key. To prevent mosquito or tick bites that might result in one of these arboviral diseases, people should wear long-sleeved shirts and pants while outside if feasible, apply insect repellant when going outdoors, using window screens or air conditioning to keep mosquitoes outside, and perform tick checks after being in wooded or brushy outdoor areas. PMID:26903031

  18. A parasitic helminth-derived peptide that targets the macrophage lysosome is a novel therapeutic option for autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Raquel; O'Brien, Bronwyn; Tanaka, Akane; Dalton, John P; Donnelly, Sheila

    2015-02-01

    Parasitic worms (helminths) reside in their mammalian hosts for many years. This is attributable, in part, to their ability to skew the host's immune system away from pro-inflammatory responses and towards anti-inflammatory or regulatory responses. This immune modulatory ability ensures helminth longevity within the host, while simultaneously minimises tissue destruction for the host. The molecules that the parasite releases clearly exert potent immune-modulatory actions, which could be exploited clinically, for example in the prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of pro-inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. We have identified a novel family of immune-modulatory proteins, termed helminth defence molecules (HDMs), which are secreted by several medically important helminth parasites. These HDMs share biochemical and structural characteristics with mammalian cathelicidin-like host defence peptides (HDPs), which are significant components of the innate immune system. Like their mammalian counterparts, parasite HDMs block the activation of macrophages via toll like receptor (TLR) 4 signalling, however HDMs are significantly less cytotoxic than HDPs. HDMs can traverse the cell membrane of macrophages and enter the endolysosomal system where they reduce the acidification of lysosomal compartments by inhibiting vacuolar (v)-ATPase activity. In doing this, HDMs can modulate critical cellular functions, such as cytokine secretion and antigen processing/presentation. Here, we review the role of macrophages, specifically their lysosomal mediated activities, in the initiation and perpetuation of pro-inflammatory immune responses. We also discuss the potential of helminth defence molecules (HDMs) as therapeutics to counteract the pro-inflammatory responses underlying autoimmune disease. Given the current lack of effective, non-cytotoxic treatment options to limit the progression of autoimmune pathologies, HDMs open novel treatment avenues.

  19. Emerging risk factors and markers of chronic kidney disease progression.

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, Florian

    2009-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common condition with an increasing prevalence. A number of comorbidities are associated with CKD and prognosis is poor, with many patients experiencing disease progression. Recognizing the factors associated with CKD progression enables high-risk patients to be identified and given more intensive treatment if necessary. The identification of new predictive markers might improve our understanding of the pathogenesis and progression of CKD. This Review discusses a number of emerging factors and markers for which epidemiological evidence from prospective studies indicates an association with progression of CKD. The following factors and markers are discussed: asymmetric dimethylarginine, factors involved in calcium-phosphate metabolism, adrenomedullin, A-type natriuretic peptide, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, liver-type fatty acid binding protein, kidney injury molecule 1, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, apolipoprotein A-IV, adiponectin and some recently identified genetic polymorphisms. Additional epidemiological and experimental data are required before these markers can be broadly used for the prediction of CKD progression and before the risk factors can be considered as potential drug targets in clinical interventional trials.

  20. Emerging Link between Alzheimer's Disease and Homeostatic Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung-Soo; Chung, Hee Jung

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible brain disorder characterized by progressive cognitive decline and neurodegeneration of brain regions that are crucial for learning and memory. Although intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular senile plaques, composed of insoluble amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, have been the hallmarks of postmortem AD brains, memory impairment in early AD correlates better with pathological accumulation of soluble Aβ oligomers and persistent weakening of excitatory synaptic strength, which is demonstrated by inhibition of long-term potentiation, enhancement of long-term depression, and loss of synapses. However, current, approved interventions aiming to reduce Aβ levels have failed to retard disease progression; this has led to a pressing need to identify and target alternative pathogenic mechanisms of AD. Recently, it has been suggested that the disruption of Hebbian synaptic plasticity in AD is due to aberrant metaplasticity, which is a form of homeostatic plasticity that tunes the magnitude and direction of future synaptic plasticity based on previous neuronal or synaptic activity. This review examines emerging evidence for aberrant metaplasticity in AD. Putative mechanisms underlying aberrant metaplasticity in AD will also be discussed. We hope this review inspires future studies to test the extent to which these mechanisms contribute to the etiology of AD and offer therapeutic targets. PMID:27019755

  1. Invasive non-typhoidal salmonella disease: an emerging and neglected tropical disease in Africa.

    PubMed

    Feasey, Nicholas A; Dougan, Gordon; Kingsley, Robert A; Heyderman, Robert S; Gordon, Melita A

    2012-06-30

    Invasive strains of non-typhoidal salmonellae have emerged as a prominent cause of bloodstream infection in African adults and children, with an associated case fatality of 20-25%. The clinical presentation of invasive non-typhoidal salmonella disease in Africa is diverse: fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and respiratory symptoms are common, and features of enterocolitis are often absent. The most important risk factors are HIV infection in adults, and malaria, HIV, and malnutrition in children. A distinct genotype of Salmonella enterica var Typhimurium, ST313, has emerged as a new pathogenic clade in sub-Saharan Africa, and might have adapted to cause invasive disease in human beings. Multidrug-resistant ST313 has caused epidemics in several African countries, and has driven the use of expensive antimicrobial drugs in the poorest health services in the world. Studies of systemic cellular and humoral immune responses in adults infected with HIV have revealed key host immune defects contributing to invasive non-typhoidal salmonella disease. This emerging pathogen might therefore have adapted to occupy an ecological and immunological niche provided by HIV, malaria, and malnutrition in Africa. A good understanding of the epidemiology of this neglected disease will open new avenues for development and implementation of vaccine and public health strategies to prevent infections and interrupt transmission.

  2. INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTIONS AND ATOPIC DISEASES IN CHILDREN: A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY.

    PubMed

    Al Ghwass, Mohamed Me; El Dash, Hanaa H; Amin, Sayed A; Hussin, Shimaa S

    2015-08-01

    Different helminth parasites may have different effects on allergy depending on the timing of the exposure. A meta-analysis of many of studies reported the association between the presence of geohelminth eggs in stool samples and asthma provided some evidence for parasite-specific effects. This study evaluated the occurrence of allergy among different intestinal parasitic infected patients. A cross sectional study was carried out from June, 2013 to October, 2013 in the Pediatric Outpatient Clinic of Al-Fayoum University Hospitals among 55 children aged 2 years to 13 years. The data were collected using ISSAC questionnaire of allergy (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) also laboratory analysis of complete blood picture, stool analysis and measurement of total serum IgE were performed for the patients. Among the patients 27 suffered from allergy and 28 had no allergic complain. Stool examinations showed Entrobius vernicularis (15), Trichostrongylus species (9), Hymenolepis nana (8), Entameba histolytica (8), Giardia lamblia (6), and mixed infections (9). The allergic group by parasitological examination 7 children (25.9%) had Entrobius vermicularis; 6 children (22.2%) Entameba histolytica; and 2 children (7.4 %) Giardia lamblia, with eosinophilic count was higher in the enterobiasis infected children than in protozoa infected ones. There were significantly high IgE levels in mixed parasitic infection (P= 0.006) and with Entrobius vermicularis infections (P=0.04). Also statistically significant difference between allergic groups by ISAAC score and the non allergic group regarding Ig E levels (P= 0.03). There was no significant difference between numbers of children with allergy and those without allergy among different parasitic infections. However, a marked significant association between the allergy and parasitic infected children was not declaimed.

  3. Emerging viral threats in Gabon: health capacities and response to the risk of emerging zoonotic diseases in Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Bourgarel, M; Wauquier, N; Gonzalez, J-P

    2010-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EID) are currently the major threat to public health worldwide and most EID events have involved zoonotic infectious agents. Central Africa in general and Gabon in particular are privileged areas for the emergence of zoonotic EIDs. Indeed, human incursions in Gabonese forests for exploitation purposes lead to intensified contacts between humans and wildlife thus generating an increased risk of emergence of zoonotic diseases. In Gabon, 51 endemic or potential endemic viral infectious diseases have been reported. Among them, 22 are of zoonotic origin and involve 12 families of viruses. The most notorious are dengue, yellow fever, ebola, marburg, Rift Valley fever and chikungunya viruses. Potential EID due to wildlife in Gabon are thereby plentiful and need to be inventoried. The Gabonese Public Health system covers geographically most of the country allowing a good access to sanitary information and efficient monitoring of emerging diseases. However, access to treatment and prevention is better in urban areas where medical structures are more developed and financial means are concentrated even though the population is equally distributed between urban and rural areas. In spite of this, Gabon could be a good field for investigating the emergence or re-emergence of zoonotic EID. Indeed Gabonese health research structures such as CIRMF, advantageously located, offer high quality researchers and facilities that study pathogens and wildlife ecology, aiming toward a better understanding of the contact and transmission mechanisms of new pathogens from wildlife to human, the emergence of zoonotic EID and the breaking of species barriers by pathogens.

  4. Emerging viral threats in Gabon: health capacities and response to the risk of emerging zoonotic diseases in Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bourgarel, M; Wauquier, N; Gonzalez, J-P

    2010-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EID) are currently the major threat to public health worldwide and most EID events have involved zoonotic infectious agents. Central Africa in general and Gabon in particular are privileged areas for the emergence of zoonotic EIDs. Indeed, human incursions in Gabonese forests for exploitation purposes lead to intensified contacts between humans and wildlife thus generating an increased risk of emergence of zoonotic diseases. In Gabon, 51 endemic or potential endemic viral infectious diseases have been reported. Among them, 22 are of zoonotic origin and involve 12 families of viruses. The most notorious are dengue, yellow fever, ebola, marburg, Rift Valley fever and chikungunya viruses. Potential EID due to wildlife in Gabon are thereby plentiful and need to be inventoried. The Gabonese Public Health system covers geographically most of the country allowing a good access to sanitary information and efficient monitoring of emerging diseases. However, access to treatment and prevention is better in urban areas where medical structures are more developed and financial means are concentrated even though the population is equally distributed between urban and rural areas. In spite of this, Gabon could be a good field for investigating the emergence or re-emergence of zoonotic EID. Indeed Gabonese health research structures such as CIRMF, advantageously located, offer high quality researchers and facilities that study pathogens and wildlife ecology, aiming toward a better understanding of the contact and transmission mechanisms of new pathogens from wildlife to human, the emergence of zoonotic EID and the breaking of species barriers by pathogens. PMID:22460397

  5. ACE2 and Microbiota: Emerging Targets for Cardiopulmonary Disease Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cole-Jeffrey, Colleen T; Liu, Meng; Katovich, Michael J; Raizada, Mohan K; Shenoy, Vinayak

    2015-01-01

    The health of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems is inextricably linked to the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Physiologically speaking, a balance between the vasodeleterious (ACE/Ang II/AT1R) and vasoprotective (ACE2/Ang-(1–7)/MasR) components of the RAS is critical for cardiopulmonary homeostasis. Upregulation of the ACE/Ang II/AT1R axis shifts the system toward vasoconstriction, proliferation, hypertrophy, inflammation, and fibrosis, all factors that contribute to the development and progression of cardiopulmonary diseases. Conversely, stimulation of the vasoprotective ACE2/Ang-(1–7)/MasR axis produces a counter-regulatory response that promotes cardiovascular health. Current research is investigating novel strategies to augment actions of the vasoprotective RAS components, particularly ACE2, in order to treat various pathologies. While multiple approaches to increase the activity of ACE2 have displayed beneficial effects against experimental disease models, the mechanisms behind its protective actions remain incompletely understood. Recent work demonstrating a non-catalytic role for ACE2 in amino acid transport in the gut has led us to speculate that the therapeutic effects of ACE2 can be mediated, in part, by its actions on the gastrointestinal tract and/or gut microbiome. This is consistent with emerging data which suggests that dysbiosis of the gut and lung microbiomes is associated with cardiopulmonary disease. This review highlights new developments in the protective actions of ACE2 against cardiopulmonary disorders, discusses innovative approaches to targeting ACE2 for therapy, and explores an evolving role for gut and lung microbiota in cardiopulmonary health. PMID:26322922

  6. ACE2 and Microbiota: Emerging Targets for Cardiopulmonary Disease Therapy.

    PubMed

    Cole-Jeffrey, Colleen T; Liu, Meng; Katovich, Michael J; Raizada, Mohan K; Shenoy, Vinayak

    2015-12-01

    The health of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems is inextricably linked to the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Physiologically speaking, a balance between the vasodeleterious (Angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE]/Angiotensin II [Ang II]/Ang II type 1 receptor [AT1R]) and vasoprotective (Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 [ACE2]/Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)]/Mas receptor [MasR]) components of the RAS is critical for cardiopulmonary homeostasis. Upregulation of the ACE/Ang II/AT1R axis shifts the system toward vasoconstriction, proliferation, hypertrophy, inflammation, and fibrosis, all factors that contribute to the development and progression of cardiopulmonary diseases. Conversely, stimulation of the vasoprotective ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MasR axis produces a counter-regulatory response that promotes cardiovascular health. Current research is investigating novel strategies to augment actions of the vasoprotective RAS components, particularly ACE2, in order to treat various pathologies. Although multiple approaches to increase the activity of ACE2 have displayed beneficial effects against experimental disease models, the mechanisms behind its protective actions remain incompletely understood. Recent work demonstrating a non-catalytic role for ACE2 in amino acid transport in the gut has led us to speculate that the therapeutic effects of ACE2 can be mediated, in part, by its actions on the gastrointestinal tract and/or gut microbiome. This is consistent with emerging data which suggest that dysbiosis of the gut and lung microbiomes is associated with cardiopulmonary disease. This review highlights new developments in the protective actions of ACE2 against cardiopulmonary disorders, discusses innovative approaches to targeting ACE2 for therapy, and explores an evolving role for gut and lung microbiota in cardiopulmonary health.

  7. Cracking the nodule worm code advances knowledge of parasite biology and biotechnology to tackle major diseases of livestock

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Rahul; Joachim, Anja; Ruttkowski, Bärbel; Rosa, Bruce A.; Martin, John C.; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Ozersky, Philip; Wilson, Richard K.; Ranganathan, Shoba; Sternberg, Paul W.; Gasser, Robin B.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2016-01-01

    Many infectious diseases caused by eukaryotic pathogens have a devastating, long-term impact on animal health and welfare. Hundreds of millions of animals are affected by parasitic nematodes of the order Stronglida. Unlocking the molecular biology of representatives of this order, and understanding nematode-host interactions, drug resistance and disease using advanced technologies could lead to entirely new ways of controlling the diseases that they cause. Oesphagostomum dentatum (nodule worm; superfamily Strongyloidea) is an economically important strongylid nematode of swine worldwide. The present article reports recent advances made in biology and animal biotechnology through the draft genome and developmental transcriptome of O. dentatum, in order to support biological research of this and related parasitic nematodes as well as the search for new and improved interventions. This first genome of any member of the Strongyloidea is 443 Mb in size and predicted to encode 25,291 protein-coding genes. Here, we review the dynamics of transcription throughout the life cycle of O. dentatum, describe double-stranded RNA interference (RNAi) machinery and infer molecules involved in development and reproduction, and in inducing or modulating immune responses or disease. The secretome predicted for O. dentatum is particularly rich in peptidases linked to interactions with host tissues and/or feeding activity, and a diverse array of molecules likely involved in immune responses. This research progress provides an important resource for future comparative genomic and molecular biological investigations as well as for biotechnological research toward new anthelmintics, vaccines and diagnostic tests. PMID:26026709

  8. Variations in prevalence of viral, bacterial, and rhizocephalan diseases and parasites of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus).

    PubMed

    Rogers, Holly A; Taylor, Sabrina S; Hawke, John P; Anderson Lively, Julie A

    2015-05-01

    Prevalence of blue crab diseases and parasites has not been consistently monitored in the Gulf of Mexico. To establish current prevalence levels and to more fully understand population dynamics, commercial landing trends, and effects of future natural and anthropogenic disasters on animal health, we measured the prevalence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), Loxothylacus texanus, shell disease, and Vibrio spp. in blue crabs collected from Louisiana in 2013 and the beginning of 2014. We used PCR to detect WSSV and L. texanus infections, visual gross diagnosis for L. texanus externae and shell disease, and standard microbiological culture techniques and biochemical testing for Vibrio spp. We found no crabs infected with WSSV or L. texanus. Absence of L. texanus parasitization was expected based on the sampled salinities and the sampling focus on large crabs. Shell disease was present at a level of 54.8% and was most prevalent in the winter and summer and least prevalent in the spring. Vibrio spp. were found in the hemolymph of 22.3% of the crabs and prevalence varied by site, season, and sex. Additionally, three of 39 crabs tested were infected with reo-like virus.

  9. Chemical Factors in Development and Transmission of Human Parasites.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PARASITES, *PREVENTIVE MEDICINE, *BIOCIDES, *REPELLENTS, HORMONES, TABLES(DATA), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI , BRAZIL, PARASITIC DISEASES, DISEASE VECTORS, INSECT REPELLENTS, CHAGAS DISEASE, TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.

  10. Selective mass treatment with ivermectin to control intestinal helminthiases and parasitic skin diseases in a severely affected population.

    PubMed Central

    Heukelbach, Jörg; Winter, Benedikt; Wilcke, Thomas; Muehlen, Marion; Albrecht, Stephan; de Oliveira, Fabíola Araújo Sales; Kerr-Pontes, Lígia Regina Sansigolo; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the short-term and long-term impact of selective mass treatment with ivermectin on the prevalence of intestinal helminthiases and parasitic skin diseases in an economically depressed community in north-east Brazil. METHODS: An intervention was carried out in a traditional fishing village in north-east Brazil where the population of 605 is heavily affected by ectoparasites and enteroparasites. The prevalence of intestinal helminths was determined by serial stool examination and the prevalence of parasitic skin diseases by clinical inspection. A total of 525 people out of a target population of 576 were treated at baseline. The majority of these were treated with ivermectin (200 microg/kg with a second dose given after 10 days). If ivermectin was contraindicated, participants were treated with albendazole or mebendazole for intestinal helminths or with topical deltamethrin for ectoparasites. Follow-up examinations were performed at 1 month and 9 months after treatment. FINDINGS: Prevalence rates of intestinal helminthiases before treatment and at 1 month and 9 months after mass treatment were: hookworm disease 28.5%, 16.4% and 7.7%; ascariasis 17.1%, 0.4% and 7.2%; trichuriasis 16.5%, 3.4% and 9.4%; strongyloidiasis 11.0%, 0.6% and 0.7%; and hymenolepiasis 0.6%; 0.4% and 0.5%, respectively. Prevalence rates of parasitic skin diseases before treatment and 1 month and 9 months after mass treatment were: active pediculosis 16.1%, 1.0% and 10.3%; scabies 3.8%, 1.0% and 1.5%; cutaneous larva migrans 0.7%, 0% and 0%; tungiasis 51.3%, 52.1% and 31.2%, respectively. Adverse events occurred in 9.4% of treatments. They were all of mild to moderate severity and were transient. CONCLUSION: Mass treatment with ivermectin was an effective and safe means of reducing the prevalence of most of the parasitic diseases prevalent in a poor community in north-east Brazil. The effects of treatment lasted for a prolonged period of time. PMID:15375445

  11. Disease dynamics of honeybees with Varroa destructor as parasite and virus vector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The worldwide decline in honeybee colonies during the past 50 years has often been linked to the spread of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and its interaction with certain honeybee viruses carried by Varroa mites. In this article, we propose a honeybee-mite-virus model that incorporates (1) par...

  12. Evolution in action: climate change, biodiversity dynamics and emerging infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Hoberg, Eric P; Brooks, Daniel R

    2015-04-05

    Climatological variation and ecological perturbation have been pervasive drivers of faunal assembly, structure and diversification for parasites and pathogens through recurrent events of geographical and host colonization at varying spatial and temporal scales of Earth history. Episodic shifts in climate and environmental settings, in conjunction with ecological mechanisms and host switching, are often critical determinants of parasite diversification, a view counter to more than a century of coevolutionary thinking about the nature of complex host-parasite assemblages. Parasites are resource specialists with restricted host ranges, yet shifts onto relatively unrelated hosts are common during phylogenetic diversification of parasite lineages and directly observable in real time. The emerging Stockholm Paradigm resolves this paradox: Ecological Fitting (EF)--phenotypic flexibility and phylogenetic conservatism in traits related to resource use, most notably host preference--provides many opportunities for rapid host switching in changing environments, without the evolution of novel host-utilization capabilities. Host shifts via EF fuel the expansion phase of the Oscillation Hypothesis of host range and speciation and, more generally, the generation of novel combinations of interacting species within the Geographic Mosaic Theory of Coevolution. In synergy, an environmental dynamic of Taxon Pulses establishes an episodic context for host and geographical colonization.

  13. Evolution in action: climate change, biodiversity dynamics and emerging infectious disease

    PubMed Central

    Hoberg, Eric P.; Brooks, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Climatological variation and ecological perturbation have been pervasive drivers of faunal assembly, structure and diversification for parasites and pathogens through recurrent events of geographical and host colonization at varying spatial and temporal scales of Earth history. Episodic shifts in climate and environmental settings, in conjunction with ecological mechanisms and host switching, are often critical determinants of parasite diversification, a view counter to more than a century of coevolutionary thinking about the nature of complex host–parasite assemblages. Parasites are resource specialists with restricted host ranges, yet shifts onto relatively unrelated hosts are common during phylogenetic diversification of parasite lineages and directly observable in real time. The emerging Stockholm Paradigm resolves this paradox: Ecological Fitting (EF)—phenotypic flexibility and phylogenetic conservatism in traits related to resource use, most notably host preference—provides many opportunities for rapid host switching in changing environments, without the evolution of novel host-utilization capabilities. Host shifts via EF fuel the expansion phase of the Oscillation Hypothesis of host range and speciation and, more generally, the generation of novel combinations of interacting species within the Geographic Mosaic Theory of Coevolution. In synergy, an environmental dynamic of Taxon Pulses establishes an episodic context for host and geographical colonization. PMID:25688014

  14. Bioluminescence imaging of chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infections reveals tissue-specific parasite dynamics and heart disease in the absence of locally persistent infection

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Michael D; Fortes Francisco, Amanda; Taylor, Martin C; Burrell-Saward, Hollie; McLatchie, Alex P; Miles, Michael A; Kelly, John M

    2014-01-01

    Summary Chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infections lead to cardiomyopathy in 20–30% of cases. A causal link between cardiac infection and pathology has been difficult to establish because of a lack of robust methods to detect scarce, focally distributed parasites within tissues. We developed a highly sensitive bioluminescence imaging system based on T. cruzi expressing a novel luciferase that emits tissue-penetrating orange-red light. This enabled long-term serial evaluation of parasite burdens in individual mice with an in vivo limit of detection of significantly less than 1000 parasites. Parasite distributions during chronic infections were highly focal and spatiotemporally dynamic, but did not localize to the heart. End-point ex vivo bioluminescence imaging allowed tissue-specific quantification of parasite loads with minimal sampling bias. During chronic infections, the gastro-intestinal tract, specifically the colon and stomach, was the only site where T. cruzi infection was consistently observed. Quantitative PCR-inferred parasite loads correlated with ex vivo bioluminescence and confirmed the gut as the parasite reservoir. Chronically infected mice developed myocarditis and cardiac fibrosis, despite the absence of locally persistent parasites. These data identify the gut as a permissive niche for long-term T. cruzi infection and show that canonical features of Chagas disease can occur without continual myocardium-specific infection. PMID:24712539

  15. Management of select bacterial and parasitic conditions of raptors.

    PubMed

    Willette, Michelle; Ponder, Julia; Cruz-Martinez, Luis; Arent, Lori; Bueno Padilla, Irene; de Francisco, Olga Nicolas; Redig, Patrick

    2009-09-01

    Raptors are susceptible to a broad array of established and emerging bacterial and parasitic diseases, including babesiosis, chlamydiosis, clostridiosis, coccidiosis, cryptosporidiosis, malaria, mycobacteriosis, pasteurellosis, salmonellosis, trichomoniasis, and pododermatitis. Many of these conditions are opportunistic and can be easily managed or averted with proper preventive measures related to captive management, husbandry and diet, and veterinary care. Once infected, treatment must be prompt, appropriate, and judicious. This article examines the significance, diagnosis, management, and prevention of select bacterial and parasitic pathogens of raptors.

  16. [Retrospective analysis of granted projects of the National Institute of Parasitic Disease, China CDC during 2002-2012].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Jun; Guan, Ya-Yi; Zhang, Min-Qi; Xiong, Yan-Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the granted projects of the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases (NIPD), China CDC, was analyzed. The results showed that from 2002 to 2012, 126 projects were granted to NIPD. 28.6% (36/126) of the projects were at the national level; 27% (34/126) were at provincial and ministrerial level. International cooperation projects and those supported by state key laboratory and enterprises accounted for 28.6% (36/126) and 15.8% (20/126), respectively. 94 projects belonged to applied researches and 32 belonged to basic researches. Most project leaders were young and middle-aged researchers with senior professional titles.

  17. Global climate change and implications for disease emergence.

    PubMed

    Slenning, B D

    2010-01-01

    The early consequences of global climate change (GCC) are well documented. However, future impacts on ecosystem health, and on the health of humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, are much less well understood. Evidence of increasing frequency of extreme weather events (the 2003 trans-European heat wave, extended droughts in Australia and South America), of geographic changes in vector-borne disease (bluetongue and hanta viruses emerging in northern Europe, dengue virus expanding in central and northern America), and of altered animal behavioral responses (changes in bird migration patterns and fishery numbers) warrants action. To make valid choices, however, practitioners and decision makers must understand what is known about GCC and what is only theory. There will be a multitude of microbial, vector, and host responses to climate change, for example, and not all organisms will respond similarly or across equal time scales. Unfortunately, for many organisms and ecosystems the scientific community has a relatively poor understanding of current effectors and balances, making it problematic to describe the current situation, let alone to validate future predictions. The need for enhanced basic research and systematic surveillance programs is obvious, but putting such programs into place is daunting. However, the threats are real and fast approaching. What is done in the next few years may be decisive, whether for the good or the ill of all.

  18. Infections and parasitic diseases of the gray wolf and their potential effects on wolf populations in North America.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, C.J.; Pybus, M.J.; Ballard, W.B.; Peterson, R.O.

    1995-01-01

    Numerous infections and parasitic diseases have been reported for the gray wolf, including more than 10 viral, bacterial, and mycotic disease and more than 70 species of helminths and ectoparasites. However, few studies have documented the role of diseases in population dynamics. Disease can affect wolf populations directly by causing mortality or indirectly by affecting physiological and homeostatic processes, thriftiness, reproduction, behavior, or social structure. In addition, wolves are hosts to diseases that can affect prey species, thus affecting wolf populations indirectly by reducing prey abundance or increasing vulnerability to predation. Diseases such as canine distemper and infectious canine hepatitis are enzootic in wolf populations, whereas rabies occurs in wolves primarily as a result of transmission from other species such as artic and red foxes. Contact between wolves and domestic pets and livestock may affect the composition of diseases in wolves and their effects on wolf populations. Dogs were suspected of introducing lice and canine parovirus to several wolf populations. THe potential for disease to affect wolf populations and other wild and domestic animals should be considered in wolf management plans, particularly in plans for reintroduction of wolves to area within their former range.

  19. Parasitism, emergence, and development of Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in pupae of different ages of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang-De; Ji, Xun-Cong; Han, Yun; Fu, Bu-Li; Liu, Kui

    2015-01-01

    The wasp Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a major parasitoid of the pupae of fruit flies, which are a common agricultural pest. An understanding of this intricate host-parasitoid interaction could provide basic information necessary for the sustainable integrated biological control of fruit flies. In this study, we investigated the effect of S. endius on different-aged pupae of the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett by using choice and nonchoice tests under laboratory conditions. We showed that S. endius females oviposited, and their progeny successfully developed, in different-aged pupae of B. cucurbitae regardless of the method of exposure. There was an oviposition preference for 3-5-d-old pupa. The highest mean percentage parasitism occurred on 4- and 5-d-old hosts, followed by 2- and 3-d-old hosts. The average development time for both males and females was significantly longer in 6-7-d-old hosts than in the younger host stages. Adult females that developed from younger host pupae (2-5-d old) were significantly heavier than those from older host pupae (6-7-d old), and they also lived longer. The sex ratio (proportion of females) of the parasite progeny decreased with an increase in host age. Host mortality also decreased gradually as the pupal age increased. The differences in development time, body weight, and longevity between females and males were significant. These results suggest that S. endius is a good candidate for the biological control of B. cucurbitae.

  20. Worms, slugs and humans: the medical and popular construction of an emerging infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Grisotti, Márcia; Avila-Pires, Fernando Dias de

    2011-01-01

    The identification of the worm Angiostrongylus costaricensis parasitizing land snails and humans in Southern Brazil suggests under-diagnosis and under-notification of patients with abdominal angiostrongyliasis. This article analyzes how the concept of abdominal angiostrongyliasis was constructed in different ways in Costa Rica and Brazil and how these changes affected the understanding of its clinical and epidemiological diagnosis. The research shows that abdominal angiostrongyliasis is, de facto, a sociocultural construct, although the parasites and vectors are real. The analisys also shows the importance of an interdisciplinary approach for understanding disease.

  1. Malaria, microscopic view of cellular parasites (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Malaria is a disease caused by parasites that are carried by mosquitoes. Once in the bloodstream, the parasite inhabits the red blood cell (RBC). This picture shows purple-stained malaria parasites inside red blood cells.

  2. Parasitic infections in HIV infected individuals: Diagnostic & therapeutic challenges

    PubMed Central

    Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao

    2011-01-01

    After 30 years of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, parasites have been one of the most common opportunistic infections (OIs) and one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality associated with HIV-infected patients. Due to severe immunosuppression, enteric parasitic pathogens in general are emerging and are OIs capable of causing diarrhoeal disease associated with HIV. Of these, Cryptosporidium parvum and Isospora belli are the two most common intestinal protozoan parasites and pose a public health problem in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. These are the only two enteric protozoan parasites that remain in the case definition of AIDS till today. Leismaniasis, strongyloidiasis and toxoplasmosis are the three main opportunistic causes of systemic involvements reported in HIV-infected patients. Of these, toxoplasmosis is the most important parasitic infection associated with the central nervous system. Due to its complexity in nature, toxoplasmosis is the only parasitic disease capable of not only causing focal but also disseminated forms and it has been included in AIDS-defining illnesses (ADI) ever since. With the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), cryptosporidiosis, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, and toxoplasmosis are among parasitic diseases reported in association with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). This review addresses various aspects of parasitic infections in term of clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic challenges associated with HIV-infection. PMID:22310820

  3. Parasitism, Emergence, and Development of Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Pupae of Different Ages of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Liang-De; Ji, Xun-Cong; Han, Yun; Fu, Bu-Li; Liu, Kui

    2015-01-01

    The wasp Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a major parasitoid of the pupae of fruit flies, which are a common agricultural pest. An understanding of this intricate host–parasitoid interaction could provide basic information necessary for the sustainable integrated biological control of fruit flies. In this study, we investigated the effect of S. endius on different-aged pupae of the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett by using choice and nonchoice tests under laboratory conditions. We showed that S. endius females oviposited, and their progeny successfully developed, in different-aged pupae of B. cucurbitae regardless of the method of exposure. There was an oviposition preference for 3–5-d-old pupa. The highest mean percentage parasitism occurred on 4- and 5-d-old hosts, followed by 2- and 3-d-old hosts. The average development time for both males and females was significantly longer in 6–7-d-old hosts than in the younger host stages. Adult females that developed from younger host pupae (2–5-d old) were significantly heavier than those from older host pupae (6–7-d old), and they also lived longer. The sex ratio (proportion of females) of the parasite progeny decreased with an increase in host age. Host mortality also decreased gradually as the pupal age increased. The differences in development time, body weight, and longevity between females and males were significant. These results suggest that S. endius is a good candidate for the biological control of B. cucurbitae. PMID:25700538

  4. Bartonellosis: one health perspectives for an emerging infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Breitschwerdt, Edward Bealmear

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of Bartonella species have been identified as zoonotic pathogens, transmitted by animal bites, scratches, arthropods and even by needle sticks. Considering the diversity of newly discovered Bartonella species and subspecies and the large number and ecologically diverse animal reservoir hosts and the evolving spectrum of arthropod vectors that can transmit these bacteria among animals and humans, the clinical and diagnostic challenges posed by Bartonella transmission in nature are presumably much more complex than is currently appreciated by diagnosticians, vector biologists, ecologists, physicians, or veterinarians. Historically the term "bartonellosis" was attributed to infections with Bartonella bacilliformis, transmitted by sandflies in the Peruvian Andes. Currently, however, bartonellosis now includes infections caused by any Bartonella sp. anywhere in the world. Potentially, because Bartonella spp. can infect erythrocytes, endothelial cells, pericytes, CD34(+) progenitor cells, and various macrophage-type cells, including microglial cells, dendritic cells, and circulating monocytes in vitro, the clinical and pathological manifestations of bartonellosis appear to be very diverse in both sick animals and human patients. Because 75% of emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses, many of which are vector-transmitted by an arthropod, a One Health approach to bartonellosis and other zoonotic infections is needed to properly address animal health, public health, and environmental factors that influence the distribution and transmission of these bacteria. The One Health concept encourages a spirit of cooperation among animal, environmental, and human health professionals and promotes developing integrated solutions for complex problems that impact the health of animals, humans, and the planet. Importantly, substantial research is needed to define the medical importance of this genus as a cause of animal and human illnesses.

  5. Emerging information management technologies and the future of disease management.

    PubMed

    Nobel, Jeremy J; Norman, Gordon K

    2003-01-01

    Disease management (DM) has become a widely accepted way to support care delivery in the chronically ill patient population. Patients enrolled in these programs have been shown to have better health, fewer complications and comorbidities, and lower health care costs. The development of advanced information management technologies is further enhancing the role DM plays in optimizing outcomes and cost-effectiveness in clinical care. These emerging information management technologies (EIMT) include advances in software, hardware, and networking, all of which share common impact attributes in their ability to improve cost-effectiveness of care, quality of care, and access to care. Specific examples include interactive websites with the ability to engage patients in the self-care management process, the embedding of biometric devices (digital scales, modem-enabled glucose meters in the home, blood pressure monitoring, etc.), workflow and care coordination programs that add intelligence via guideline-directed alerts and reminders to the delivery process, registries that include a summary of personal health data that can be used as a reference point for improved clinical decisions, and the systematic collection of aggregated, de-identified clinical, administrative, and cost data into comprehensive data sets to which predictive modeling analytic tools can be applied. By way of case example, we also present data from a controlled clinical trial utilizing EIMT in the form of home-based weight measurement using a digital scale and linkage to a care coordination center for the management of severe congestive heart failure. Outcome results on 85,515 patient-months of an aggregate commercial and Medicare continuously enrolled population demonstrated an average reduction of care utilization (hospitalization) of 57% and a reduction in related delivery cost (per member per year payments) of 55%. We conclude that EIMT have already begun to offer significant and quantifiable benefits

  6. Fire and Parasites: An Under-Recognized Form of Anthropogenic Land Use Change and Mechanism of Disease Exposure.

    PubMed

    Scasta, John Derek

    2015-09-01

    Anthropogenic land use changes have altered ecosystems and exacerbated the spread of infectious diseases. Recent reviews, however, have revealed that fire suppression in fire-prone natural areas has not been recognized as a form of anthropogenic land use change. Furthermore, fire suppression has been an under-recognized mechanism altering the risk and transmission of infectious disease pathogens and host-parasite dynamics. However, as settlement patterns changed, especially due to colonial expansion in North America, Africa, and Australia, fire suppression became a major form of land use change which has led to broad-scale ecosystem changes. Because parasites of humans and animals can vector viral, bacterial, prion, fungal, or protozoan pathogens, concomitant changes associated with anthropogenic-induced changes to fire frequencies and intensities are of concern. I provide reference to 24 studies that indicate that restoring fire in natural areas has the potential to reduce ectoparasites without wings such as ticks, chiggers, fleas, and lice; ectoparasites with wings such as mosquitos, horn flies, face flies, and stable flies; and endoparasites affecting livestock and wildlife. This suggests that fire ecology and parasitology be considered as a priority area for future research that has implications for both humans and animals.

  7. Parasites in marine food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Most species interactions probably involve parasites. This review considers the extent to which marine ecologists should consider parasites to fully understand marine communities. Parasites are influential parts of food webs in estuaries, temperate reefs, and coral reefs, but their ecological importance is seldom recognized. Though difficult to observe, parasites can have substantial biomass, and they can be just as common as free-living consumers after controlling for body mass and trophic level. Parasites have direct impacts on the energetics of their hosts and some affect host behaviors, with ecosystem-level consequences. Although they cause disease, parasites are sensitive components of ecosystems. In particular, they suffer secondary extinctions due to biodiversity loss. Some parasites can also return to a system after habitat restoration. For these reasons, parasites can make good indicators of ecosystem integrity. Fishing can indirectly increase or decrease parasite populations and the effects of climate change on parasites are likely to be equally as complex.

  8. Diabetic emergencies: new strategies for an old disease.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Gerald

    2014-06-01

    Diabetic emergencies are common presentations to the emergency department. It is estimated that diabetes affects 25.8 million people in the United States, at an annual total cost of over $174 billion. There are 2 general categories of diabetic emergencies: hyperglycemic and hypoglycemic. The hyperglycemic emergencies include diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state. Management of these conditions requires a careful hydration strategy to restore volume and improve perfusion, intravenous insulin therapy, and electrolyte monitoring. Management of hypoglycemia includes identification of the underlying etiology, oral food and/or glucose, intravenous dextrose, and consideration of glucagon. This review evaluates the current strategies for management of diabetic emergencies and offers new information regarding effective diagnostic strategies, selection of fluids for rehydration, correction of potassium, the use of subcutaneous insulin for mild hyperglycemia, and management of metformin-induced lactic acidosis.

  9. Chronic Chagas disease: presence of parasite DNA in the oesophagus of patients without megaoesophagus.

    PubMed

    Vago, Annamaria Ravara; Silva, Denise Marins; Adad, Sheila Jorge; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; d'Avila Reis, Débora

    2003-01-01

    We have previously amplified Trypanosoma cruzi DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the oesophagus of chagasic patients with megaoesophagus, whilst immunohistochemical analysis failed to detect T. cruzi antigen in the oesophagus of chagasic patients without megaoesophagus. During 2000-01, we tested for the presence of T. cruzi DNA in oesophageal tissue from 9 chronic chagasic patients without megaoesophagus and 5 were positive by PCR, which suggests that other factors, besides simply the presence of the parasite, should be considered in the understanding of the pathogenesis of megaoesophagus.

  10. Wild primate populations in emerging infectious disease research: the missing link?

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, N. D.; Escalante, A. A.; Karesh, W. B.; Kilbourn, A.; Spielman, A.; Lal, A. A.

    1998-01-01

    Wild primate populations, an unexplored source of information regarding emerging infectious disease, may hold valuable clues to the origins and evolution of some important pathogens. Primates can act as reservoirs for human pathogens. As members of biologically diverse habitats, they serve as sentinels for surveillance of emerging pathogens and provide models for basic research on natural transmission dynamics. Since emerging infectious diseases also pose serious threats to endangered and threatened primate species, studies of these diseases in primate populations can benefit conservation efforts and may provide the missing link between laboratory studies and the well-recognized needs of early disease detection, identification, and surveillance. PMID:9621185

  11. Emerging horizons of salivary diagnostics for periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, L; Yakob, M; Wong, D T W

    2014-11-01

    The field of salivary diagnostics to allow risk determination for periodontal diseases is advancing. New technologies in proteomics, genomics and nanotechnologies have continued the discovery of discriminatory periodontal disease biomarkers. This review briefly overviews biomarker studies that have been completed in saliva for the detection of periodontal disease since 2010. Disease specific biomarkers could be used in risk determination, treatment planning and disease progression. Currently, diagnostic tests are commercially available, and the development of point-of-care tests is expanding. Even though challenges remain, salivary diagnostics for periodontal disease is promising and could facilitate the diagnostics and treatment in a clinical practice by dental practitioners.

  12. Emerging, evolving, and established infectious diseases and interventions.

    PubMed

    Halloran, M Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M

    2014-09-12

    Planning, implementing, and evaluating interventions against infectious diseases depend on the nature of the infectious disease; the availability of intervention measures; and logistical, economic, and political constraints. Infectious diseases and vaccine- or drug-based interventions can be loosely categorized by the degree to which the infectious disease and the intervention are well established. Pertussis, polio, and measles are three examples of long-known infectious diseases for which global vaccination has dramatically reduced the public health burden. Pertussis vaccination was introduced in the 1940s, polio vaccination in the 1950s, and measles vaccination in the 1960s, nearly eliminating these diseases in many places.

  13. Plasma concentration of parasite DNA as a measure of disease severity in falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Imwong, Mallika; Woodrow, Charles J; Hendriksen, Ilse C E; Veenemans, Jacobien; Verhoef, Hans; Faiz, M Abul; Mohanty, Sanjib; Mishra, Saroj; Mtove, George; Gesase, Samwel; Seni, Amir; Chhaganlal, Kajal D; Day, Nicholas P J; Dondorp, Arjen M; White, Nicholas J

    2015-04-01

    In malaria-endemic areas, Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia is common in apparently healthy children and severe malaria is commonly misdiagnosed in patients with incidental parasitemia. We assessed whether the plasma Plasmodium falciparum DNA concentration is a useful datum for distinguishing uncomplicated from severe malaria in African children and Asian adults. P. falciparum DNA concentrations were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 224 African children (111 with uncomplicated malaria and 113 with severe malaria) and 211 Asian adults (100 with uncomplicated malaria and 111 with severe malaria) presenting with acute falciparum malaria. The diagnostic accuracy of plasma P. falciparum DNA concentrations in identifying severe malaria was 0.834 for children and 0.788 for adults, similar to that of plasma P. falciparum HRP2 levels and substantially superior to that of parasite densities (P < .0001). The diagnostic accuracy of plasma P. falciparum DNA concentrations plus plasma P. falciparum HRP2 concentrations was significantly greater than that of plasma P. falciparum HRP2 concentrations alone (0.904 for children [P = .004] and 0.847 for adults [P = .003]). Quantitative real-time PCR measurement of parasite DNA in plasma is a useful method for diagnosing severe falciparum malaria on fresh or archived plasma samples.

  14. An Emerging Approach for Parallel Quantification of Intracellular Protozoan Parasites and Host Cell Characterization Using TissueFAXS Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Maximilian; Dufner, Bianca; Dürk, Julius; Bedal, Konstanze; Stricker, Kristina; Prokoph, Lukas Ali; Koch, Christoph; Wege, Anja K; Zirpel, Henner; van Zandbergen, Ger; Ecker, Rupert; Boghiu, Bogdan; Ritter, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of host-pathogen interactions is a fundamental approach in microbiological and immunological oriented disciplines. It is commonly accepted that host cells start to change their phenotype after engulfing pathogens. Techniques such as real time PCR or ELISA were used to characterize the genes encoding proteins that are associated either with pathogen elimination or immune escape mechanisms. Most of such studies were performed in vitro using primary host cells or cell lines. Consequently, the data generated with such approaches reflect the global RNA expression or protein amount recovered from all cells in culture. This is justified when all host cells harbor an equal amount of pathogens under experimental conditions. However, the uptake of pathogens by phagocytic cells is not synchronized. Consequently, there are host cells incorporating different amounts of pathogens that might result in distinct pathogen-induced protein biosynthesis. Therefore, we established a technique able to detect and quantify the number of pathogens in the corresponding host cells using immunofluorescence-based high throughput analysis. Paired with multicolor staining of molecules of interest it is now possible to analyze the infection profile of host cell populations and the corresponding phenotype of the host cells as a result of parasite load.

  15. North American soft ticks (Ornithodoros spp.): biology and feral swine parasitism as risks for the emergence of African swine fever in the U.S.A.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African Swine Fever (ASF) is an emerging arboviral disease that affects pigs. The causative agent is the double-stranded DNA African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV). Several soft tick species in the genus Ornithodoros are known arthropod vectors of ASFV. Infection with ASFV can result in a hemorrhagic synd...

  16. Preparing for Emergencies: A Checklist for People with Neuromuscular Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... community’s evacuation routes. q Obtain a battery-operated radio for emergency information. q Pick one out-of- ... or duffel bag. Include: q A battery-powered radio, flashlight and plenty of extra batteries for them ...

  17. Aleutian Disease: An Emerging Disease in Free-Ranging Striped Skunks (Mephitis mephitis) From California.

    PubMed

    LaDouceur, E E B; Anderson, M; Ritchie, B W; Ciembor, P; Rimoldi, G; Piazza, M; Pesti, D; Clifford, D L; Giannitti, F

    2015-11-01

    Aleutian disease virus (ADV, Amdovirus, Parvoviridae) primarily infects farmed mustelids (mink and ferrets) but also other fur-bearing animals and humans. Three Aleutian disease (AD) cases have been described in captive striped skunks; however, little is known about the relevance of AD in free-ranging carnivores. This work describes the pathological findings and temporospatial distribution in 7 cases of AD in free-ranging striped skunks. All cases showed neurologic disease and were found in a 46-month period (2010-2013) within a localized geographical region in California. Lesions included multisystemic plasmacytic and lymphocytic inflammation (ie, interstitial nephritis, myocarditis, hepatitis, meningoencephalitis, pneumonia, and splenitis), glomerulonephritis, arteritis with or without fibrinoid necrosis in several organs (ie, kidney, heart, brain, and spleen), splenomegaly, ascites/hydrothorax, and/or encephalomalacia with cerebral microangiopathy. ADV infection was confirmed in all cases by specific polymerase chain reaction and/or in situ hybridization. The results suggest that AD is an emerging disease in free-ranging striped skunks in California.

  18. Finding the appropriate variables to model the distribution of vector-borne parasites with different environmental preferences: climate is not enough.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Antón; Fernández-González, Sofía; de la Hera, Iván; Pérez-Tris, Javier

    2013-11-01

    Understanding how environmental variation influences the distribution of parasite diversity is critical if we are to anticipate disease emergence risks associated with global change. However, choosing the relevant variables for modelling current and future parasite distributions may be difficult: candidate predictors are many, and they seldom are statistically independent. This problem often leads to simplistic models of current and projected future parasite distributions, with climatic variables prioritized over potentially important landscape features or host population attributes. We studied avian blood parasites of the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon (which are viewed as potential emergent pathogens) in 37 Iberian blackcap Sylvia atricapilla populations. We used Partial Least Squares regression to assess the relative importance of a wide array of putative determinants of variation in the diversity of these parasites, including climate, landscape features and host population migration. Both prevalence and richness of parasites were predominantly related to climate (an effect which was primarily, but not exclusively driven by variation in temperature), but landscape features and host migration also explained variation in parasite diversity. Remarkably, different models emerged for each parasite genus, although all parasites were studied in the same host species. Our results show that parasite distribution models, which are usually based on climatic variables alone, improve by including other types of predictors. Moreover, closely related parasites may show different relationships to the same environmental influences (both in magnitude and direction). Thus, a model used to develop one parasite distribution can probably not be applied identically even to the most similar host-parasite systems.

  19. Wild Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as Sentinels of Parasitic Diseases in the Province of Soria, Northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Lledó, Lourdes; Giménez-Pardo, Consuelo; Saz, José Vicente; Serrano, José Luis

    2015-12-01

    Four hundred red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were examined for ecto- (arthropods) and endoparasites (Leishmania spp., Trichinella spp., and intestinal parasites). Different species of flea (total prevalence, 40.50%), tick (16.25%), mite (7.25%), and fly (1.50%) were identified. The most prevalent flea was Pulex irritans (found on 29% of the foxes); the most prevalent tick, mite, and fly were Ixodes canisuga (on 5%), Sarcoptes scabiei (on 5.25%), and Hippobosca equina (on 1%), respectively. The endoparasites identified included Leishmania spp. (found in 12% of the foxes), Trichinella spp. (in 15.5%, with T. britovi the most prevalent species in 15.25%), Cestoda (in 72.75%, with Mesocestoides spp. the most prevalent in 69.50%), and intestinal ascarids (in 73.25%, with Ancylostoma caninum the most prevalent in 12.50%). No animal was free of parasites. The present results suggest that foxes can act as sentinels of diseases transmitted by ecto- and endoparasites.

  20. Acanthamoeba keratitis: an emerging disease gathering importance worldwide?

    PubMed

    Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Martín-Navarro, Carmen María; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Arnalich-Montiel, Francisco; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio

    2013-04-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is increasingly being recognized as a severe sight-threatening ocular infection worldwide. Although contact lens wear is the leading risk factor for AK, Acanthamoeba parasites are also an important cause of keratitis in non-contact lens wearers. Diagnosis of AK is challenging, and the available treatments are lengthy and not fully effective against all strains. The pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba is still under study, and the identification of the key factors involved in this process should be useful for the development of fully effective therapies. This review focuses on recent developments on AK pathogenesis and diagnosis as well as novel strategies for the evaluation of anti-amoebic agents that could be applied in the near future against these pathogens.

  1. Emerging role of mitophagy in human diseases and physiology.

    PubMed

    Um, Jee-Hyun; Yun, Jeanho

    2017-04-03

    Mitophagy is a process of selective removal of damaged or unnecessary mitochondria using autophagic machineries. Mitophagy plays an essential role in mitochondria quality control and mitochondria homeostasis. Mitochondria dysfunctions and mitophagy defects in neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, metabolic diseases indicate a close link between human disease and mitophagy activity. Furthermore, recent studies showing the involvement of mitophagy in differentiation and development, suggest that mitophagy may play a more active role in controlling cellular functions. The better understanding of mitophagy will provide insight about human disease and offering novel chance for treatment. This review mainly focuses on the recent implications of mitophagy in human diseases and normal physiology.

  2. Publications on fish parasites and diseases, 330 B.C.-A.D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGregor, E.A.

    1963-01-01

    These references were collected in 1924, but until now this collection has been available only in manuscript form. Because of the current increased interest in this field, this bibliography is being issued to make it more generally accessible. They include the earliest known references to fish parasites (330 B.C.) as well as a nearly complete collection up to 1924. In some instances only one or two works of a more prolific researcher are cited, therefore it is recommended that the student use the Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology (U. S. Department of Agriculture) freely. For more current work consult the following, of which Dogiel et al.(1958), Hoffman and Sindermann (1962), Schaperclaus (1954), and Snieszko et aL(in press) have extensive bibliographies:

  3. Publications on fish parasites and diseases, 330 B.C.-A.D. 1923

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGregor, E.A.

    1963-01-01

    These references were collected in 1924, but until now this collection has been available only in manuscript:fbrm. Because of the current increased interest in this field, this bibliography is being issued to make it more generally accessible. They include the earliest known references to fish parasites (330 B. C.) as well as a nearly complete collection up to 1924. In some instances only one or two works of a more prolific re"searcher are cited, therefore it is recommended that the student use the Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology (U. S. Department of Agriculture) freely. For more current work consult the following, of which Dogiel et al.(1958), Hoffman and Sindermann (1962), Scha'perclaus (1954), and Snieszko et aL(in press) have extensive bibliographies

  4. Quantifying trends in disease impact to produce a consistent and reproducible definition of an emerging infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Funk, Sebastian; Bogich, Tiffany L; Jones, Kate E; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Daszak, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The proper allocation of public health resources for research and control requires quantification of both a disease's current burden and the trend in its impact. Infectious diseases that have been labeled as "emerging infectious diseases" (EIDs) have received heightened scientific and public attention and resources. However, the label 'emerging' is rarely backed by quantitative analysis and is often used subjectively. This can lead to over-allocation of resources to diseases that are incorrectly labelled "emerging," and insufficient allocation of resources to diseases for which evidence of an increasing or high sustained impact is strong. We suggest a simple quantitative approach, segmented regression, to characterize the trends and emergence of diseases. Segmented regression identifies one or more trends in a time series and determines the most statistically parsimonious split(s) (or joinpoints) in the time series. These joinpoints in the time series indicate time points when a change in trend occurred and may identify periods in which drivers of disease impact change. We illustrate the method by analyzing temporal patterns in incidence data for twelve diseases. This approach provides a way to classify a disease as currently emerging, re-emerging, receding, or stable based on temporal trends, as well as to pinpoint the time when the change in these trends happened. We argue that quantitative approaches to defining emergence based on the trend in impact of a disease can, with appropriate context, be used to prioritize resources for research and control. Implementing this more rigorous definition of an EID will require buy-in and enforcement from scientists, policy makers, peer reviewers and journal editors, but has the potential to improve resource allocation for global health.

  5. The threat of emerging infections.

    PubMed

    1996-11-01

    A variety of newly discovered pathogens and new forms of older infectious agents threaten to reemerge. Typical symptoms of acute infection are fever, headache, malaise, vomiting, and diarrhea. Some of the better-known emerging viral infections include dengue, filoviruses (Ebola, Marburg), hantaviruses, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV, influenza, lassa fever, measles, rift valley fever, rotavirus, and yellow fever. Emerging bacterial infections include cholera, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, legionnaires disease (Legionella), lyme disease, streptococcus infections (group A), tuberculosis, and typhoid. Emerging parasitic infections include cryptosporidium and other waterborne pathogens and malaria. The causes of many diseases are still shrouded in mystery; thus, treatments and cures for them are as yet unknown.

  6. Disease elimination and re-emergence in differential-equation models.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Scott; Galvani, Alison P; Medlock, Jan

    2015-12-21

    Traditional differential equation models of disease transmission are often used to predict disease trajectories and evaluate the effectiveness of alternative intervention strategies. However, such models cannot account explicitly for probabilistic events, such as those that dominate dynamics when disease prevalence is low during the elimination and re-emergence phases of an outbreak. To account for the dynamics at low prevalence, i.e. the elimination and risk of disease re-emergence, without the added analytical and computational complexity of a stochastic model, we develop a novel application of control theory. We apply our approach to analyze historical data of measles elimination and re-emergence in Iceland from 1923 to 1938, predicting the temporal trajectory of local measles elimination and re-emerge as a result of disease migration from Copenhagen, Denmark.

  7. Food-borne diseases - the challenges of 20 years ago still persist while new ones continue to emerge.

    PubMed

    Newell, Diane G; Koopmans, Marion; Verhoef, Linda; Duizer, Erwin; Aidara-Kane, Awa; Sprong, Hein; Opsteegh, Marieke; Langelaar, Merel; Threfall, John; Scheutz, Flemming; van der Giessen, Joke; Kruse, Hilde

    2010-05-30

    The burden of diseases caused by food-borne pathogens remains largely unknown. Importantly data indicating trends in food-borne infectious intestinal disease is limited to a few industrialised countries, and even fewer pathogens. It has been predicted that the importance of diarrhoeal disease, mainly due to contaminated food and water, as a cause of death will decline worldwide. Evidence for such a downward trend is limited. This prediction presumes that improvements in the production and retail of microbiologically safe food will be sustained in the developed world and, moreover, will be rolled out to those countries of the developing world increasingly producing food for a global market. In this review evidence is presented to indicate that the microbiological safety of food remains a dynamic situation heavily influenced by multiple factors along the food chain from farm to fork. Sustaining food safety standards will depend on constant vigilance maintained by monitoring and surveillance but, with the rising importance of other food-related issues, such as food security, obesity and climate change, competition for resources in the future to enable this may be fierce. In addition the pathogen populations relevant to food safety are not static. Food is an excellent vehicle by which many pathogens (bacteria, viruses/prions and parasites) can reach an appropriate colonisation site in a new host. Although food production practices change, the well-recognised food-borne pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli, seem able to evolve to exploit novel opportunities, for example fresh produce, and even generate new public health challenges, for example antimicrobial resistance. In addition, previously unknown food-borne pathogens, many of which are zoonotic, are constantly emerging. Current understanding of the trends in food-borne diseases for bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens has been reviewed. The bacterial pathogens are exemplified by those well

  8. Valvular heart disease: classic teaching and emerging paradigms.

    PubMed

    Brinkley, D Marshall; Gelfand, Eli V

    2013-12-01

    Valvular heart disease is both prevalent and increases with age. The final pathway of valvular disease is heart failure and sometimes sudden death, so clinicians must identify and treat it before these endpoints occur. Noninvasive diagnostic modalities such as echocardiography, exercise tolerance testing, and cardiac magnetic resonance provide additional quantitative, qualitative, and prognostic data. Studies have elucidated predictors of disease progression and potential medical therapies, but the niche of valvular disease has benefited relatively less from randomized controlled clinical trials than other cardiovascular disease fields. New invasive techniques like transcatheter valve replacement offer hope for high-risk operative candidates. We review classic teaching with current guidelines and emphasize recent advances in disease management.

  9. Emerging novel concept of chaperone therapies for protein misfolding diseases

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Chaperone therapy is a newly developed molecular therapeutic approach to protein misfolding diseases. Among them we found unstable mutant enzyme proteins in a few lysosomal diseases, resulting in rapid intracellular degradation and loss of function. Active-site binding low molecular competitive inhibitors (chemical chaperones) paradoxically stabilized and enhanced the enzyme activity in somatic cells by correction of the misfolding of enzyme protein. They reached the brain through the blood-brain barrier after oral administration, and corrected pathophysiology of the disease. In addition to these inhibitory chaperones, non-competitive chaperones without inhibitory bioactivity are being developed. Furthermore molecular chaperone therapy utilizing the heat shock protein and other chaperone proteins induced by small molecules has been experimentally tried to handle abnormally accumulated proteins as a new approach particularly to neurodegenerative diseases. These three types of chaperones are promising candidates for various types of diseases, genetic or non-genetic, and neurological or non-neurological, in addition to lysosomal diseases. PMID:24814990

  10. Global climate change and the emergence/re-emergence of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Zell, Roland

    2004-04-01

    Variation in the incidence of vector-borne diseases is associated with extreme weather events and annual changes in weather conditions. Moreover, it is assumed that global warming might lead to an increase of infectious disease outbreaks. While a number of reports link disease outbreaks to single weather events, the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and other large-scale climate fluctuations, no report unequivocally associates vector-borne diseases with increased temperature and the environmental changes expected to accompany it. The complexity of not yet fully understood pathogen transmission dynamics with numerous variables might be an explanation of the problems in assessing the risk factors.

  11. Biowarfare, bioterrorism, and animal diseases as bioweapons: Chapter 6 in Disease emergence and resurgence: The wildlife-human connection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton

    2006-01-01

    Linkages between disease in humans and the maladies of animals continue to be a focus for those concerned with disease effects on human health. References to animal diseases, particularly zoonoses such as rabies and glanders, are found in the writings of Greek (Hippocrates, Democritus, Aristotle, Galen, Dioscorides), Byzantine (Oribasius, Actius of Amida), and Roman (Pliny the Elder, Celsus) physicians and naturalists.3 Also, early advances in disease knowledge were closely associated with the study of contagions in animals to the extent that “The most complete ancient accounts of the concepts of contagion and contamination are found in treatises on veterinary medicine.”4,5Opportunities for disease transfer between animals and humans have increased during modern times, partly because of advances in animal husbandry and intensive agriculture that result in increased contacts among humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Infectious pathogens exploit these contacts, and must be considered in this era of increased world tensions and international terrorism (Fig. 6.1).Disease emergence and resurgence are generally associated with natural processes and unanticipated outcomes related to human behavior and actions. That perspective has been broadened by recent acts of bioterrorism. A new category of deliberately emerging diseases contains emerging microbes that are developed by humans, usually for nefarious use.211 Included are naturally occurring microbial agents and those altered by bioengineering.This chapter highlights the wildlife component of the pathogen-host-environment triad to focus attention on the potential for bioterrorists to use wildlife as a means for infectious disease attacks against society. The value of this focus is that the underlying causes of disease emergence and the optimal prevention or control response frequently differ for disease emergence, resurgence, and deliberately emerging diseases.211 Differences also exist relative to the potential

  12. How to find and access information on emerging infectious diseases: Chapter 7 in Disease emergence and resurgence: The wildlife-human connection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesenberg, Katherine; Friend, Milton

    2006-01-01

    During the last two decades of the 20th century, and continuing today, there has been a global emergence and resurgence of infectious disease of humans and other species. The “exotic” nature and serious consequences of many of these diseases results in media attention and public interest, in addition to the scientific exploration and efforts associated with combating these diseases. Finding and accessing information about diseases and keeping informed about current events and new discoveries is a daunting task because of the diversity of information sources and the great volume of published materials. This chapter provides guidance for effectively traveling the information highway and efficiently negotiating the information maze.

  13. Wildlife parasites in a One Health world.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Emily J; Simon, Audrey; Bachand, Nicholas; Stephen, Craig

    2015-05-01

    One Health has gained a remarkable profile in the animal and public health communities, in part owing to the pressing issues of emerging infectious diseases of wildlife origin. Wildlife parasitology can offer insights into One Health, and likewise One Health can provide justification to study and act on wildlife parasites. But how do we decide which wildlife parasites are One Health issues? We explore toxoplasmosis in wildlife in the Canadian Arctic as an example of a parasite that poses a risk to human health, and that also has potential to adversely affect wildlife populations of conservation concern and importance for food security and cultural well-being. This One Health framework can help communities, researchers, and policymakers prioritize issues for action in a resource-limited world.

  14. Women and HIV Disease: An Emerging Social Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuntzner-Gibson, Denise

    1991-01-01

    Addresses major social issues faced by women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease and explores gender differences in HIV transmission, disease progression, and diagnosis. Discusses how women's sexuality and reproductive rights are affected. Examines specific issues regarding HIV-infected women who use intravenous drugs, women of color,…

  15. Major emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases of public health importance in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Manisha A; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Buck, Peter A; Drebot, Michael A; Lindsay, L Robbin; Ogden, Nicholas H

    2015-06-10

    In Canada, the emergence of vector-borne diseases may occur via international movement and subsequent establishment of vectors and pathogens, or via northward spread from endemic areas in the USA. Re-emergence of endemic vector-borne diseases may occur due to climate-driven changes to their geographic range and ecology. Lyme disease, West Nile virus (WNV), and other vector-borne diseases were identified as priority emerging non-enteric zoonoses in Canada in a prioritization exercise conducted by public health stakeholders in 2013. We review and present the state of knowledge on the public health importance of these high priority emerging vector-borne diseases in Canada. Lyme disease is emerging in Canada due to range expansion of the tick vector, which also signals concern for the emergence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and Powassan virus. WNV has been established in Canada since 2001, with epidemics of varying intensity in following years linked to climatic drivers. Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Jamestown Canyon virus, snowshoe hare virus, and Cache Valley virus are other mosquito-borne viruses endemic to Canada with the potential for human health impact. Increased surveillance for emerging pathogens and vectors and coordinated efforts among sectors and jurisdictions will aid in early detection and timely public health response.

  16. Major emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases of public health importance in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Manisha A; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Buck, Peter A; Drebot, Michael A; Lindsay, L Robbin; Ogden, Nicholas H

    2015-01-01

    In Canada, the emergence of vector-borne diseases may occur via international movement and subsequent establishment of vectors and pathogens, or via northward spread from endemic areas in the USA. Re-emergence of endemic vector-borne diseases may occur due to climate-driven changes to their geographic range and ecology. Lyme disease, West Nile virus (WNV), and other vector-borne diseases were identified as priority emerging non-enteric zoonoses in Canada in a prioritization exercise conducted by public health stakeholders in 2013. We review and present the state of knowledge on the public health importance of these high priority emerging vector-borne diseases in Canada. Lyme disease is emerging in Canada due to range expansion of the tick vector, which also signals concern for the emergence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and Powassan virus. WNV has been established in Canada since 2001, with epidemics of varying intensity in following years linked to climatic drivers. Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Jamestown Canyon virus, snowshoe hare virus, and Cache Valley virus are other mosquito-borne viruses endemic to Canada with the potential for human health impact. Increased surveillance for emerging pathogens and vectors and coordinated efforts among sectors and jurisdictions will aid in early detection and timely public health response. PMID:26954882

  17. Parasites and biological invasions: parallels, interactions, and control.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Alison M; Hatcher, Melanie J

    2015-05-01

    Species distributions are changing at an unprecedented rate owing to human activity. We examine how two key processes of redistribution - biological invasion and disease emergence - are interlinked. There are many parallels between invasion and emergence processes, and invasions can drive the spread of new diseases to wildlife. We examine the potential impacts of invasion and disease emergence, and discuss how these threats can be countered, focusing on biosecurity. In contrast with international policy on emerging diseases of humans and managed species, policy on invasive species and parasites of wildlife is fragmented, and the lack of international cooperation encourages individual parties to minimize their input into control. We call for international policy that acknowledges the strong links between emerging diseases and invasion risk.

  18. The emerging role of Wolbachia species in heartworm disease.

    PubMed

    Frank, Kristen; Heald, R Dennis

    2010-04-01

    Heartworm disease was first recognized in dogs more than 100 years ago and is still prevalent among dogs and found in cats worldwide. The complications of heartworm disease can be devastating, and treatment carries risks. Wolbachia spp are gram-negative bacteria that infect filarial nematodes, including Dirofilaria immitis, and elicit an inflammatory response in cats and dogs. Antimicrobial therapy directed against these bacteria has resulted in decreased microfilarial loads, inhibition of the development of larval worms, female worm infertility, and reduced numbers of Wolbachia organisms. Antimicrobial therapy against Wolbachia spp may be useful in treating heartworm disease in cats and dogs, but further research is needed.

  19. Trypanosoma cruzi III from armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus novemcinctus) from Northeastern Venezuela and its biological behavior in murine model. Risk of emergency of Chagas' disease.

    PubMed

    Morocoima, Antonio; Carrasco, Hernán J; Boadas, Johanna; Chique, José David; Herrera, Leidi; Urdaneta-Morales, Servio

    2012-11-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, etiological agent of Chagas' disease, was isolated from armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus novemcinctus) captured in rural communities Northeastern Venezuela from Nueva Esparta State (no endemic for Chagas' disease), Monagas and Anzoátegui States (endemics). The isolates, genetically typed by PCR-RFLP as belonging to the TcIII DTU, have demonstrated in murine model heterogenic parasitemia, mortality and histotropism with marked parasitism in cardiac, skeletal, and smooth myocytes that showed correlation with lymphobasophilic inflammatory infiltrates. Our finding of T. cruzi infected armadillos in Isla Margarita (Nueva Esparta State), together with reports of triatomine vectors in this region, the accentuated synanthropy of armadillos, intense economic activity, migration due to tourism and the lack of environmental education programs all of them represent risks that could cause the emergence of Chagas' disease in this area. This is the first report of the TcIII DTU in Northeastern Venezuela, thus widening the geographic distribution of this DTU.

  20. Paleoparasitology: the origin of human parasites.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Adauto; Reinhard, Karl; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Pucu, Elisa; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo

    2013-09-01

    Parasitism is composed by three subsystems: the parasite, the host, and the environment. There are no organisms that cannot be parasitized. The relationship between a parasite and its host species most of the time do not result in damage or disease to the host. However, in a parasitic disease the presence of a given parasite is always necessary, at least in a given moment of the infection. Some parasite species that infect humans were inherited from pre-hominids, and were shared with other phylogenetically close host species, but other parasite species were acquired from the environment as humans evolved. Human migration spread inherited parasites throughout the globe. To recover and trace the origin and evolution of infectious diseases, paleoparasitology was created. Paleoparasitology is the study of parasites in ancient material, which provided new information on the evolution, paleoepidemiology, ecology and phylogenetics of infectious diseases.

  1. Exploiting dendrimer multivalency to combat emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mintzer, Meredith A.; Dane, Eric L.; O’Toole, George A.; Grinstaff, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of bacterial strains that are resistant to current antibiotics reveals the clinical need for new agents that possess broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Furthermore, bacteriophobic coatings that repel bacteria are important for medical devices, as the lifetime, reliability, and performance of implant devices are hindered by bacterial adhesion and infection. Dendrimers, a specific class of monodisperse macromolecules, have recently shown potential to function as both antibacterial agents as well as antimicrobial surface coatings. This review discusses the limitations with currently used antibacterial agents and describes how various classes of dendrimers, including glycodendrimers, cationic dendrimers, anionic dendrimers, and peptide dendrimers, have the potential to improve upon or replace certain antibiotics. Furthermore, the unexplored areas in this field of research will be mentioned to present opportunities for additional studies regarding the use of dendrimers as antimicrobial agents. PMID:22126461

  2. Demodectic Mange, Dermatophilosis, and other parasitic and bacterial dermatologic diseases in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the United States from 1975-2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a common and widespread North American game species. To evaluate the incidence, clinical manifestations, demography, and pathology of bacterial and parasitic dermatologic diseases in white-tailed deer in the southeastern United States, we retrospecti...

  3. A world wide public health problem: the principal re-emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    De Luca D'Alessandro, E; Giraldi, G

    2011-01-01

    The extraordinary progress in the knowledge of infectious disease, the discovery of antibiotics and effective vaccines are among the great achievement of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. These achievement have led to a dramatic reduction in the levels of mortality from these diseases. According to the World Health Organization, the term "re-emerging infectious diseases" refers to infectious diseases, which although well known, have not been of recent public health importance. However, climate change, migration, changes in health services, antibiotic resistance, population increase, international travel, the increase in the number of immune-depressed patients ,etc have lead to the re-emergence of these diseases. The climate changes are exposing sectors of the population to inadequate fresh air, water, food and resources for survival which, in consequence, provoke increases in both internal and international migration. In this particular period in which we find ourselves, characterized by globalization, the international community has become aware that the re-emergence of these diseases poses an important risk for public health underlines the necessity to adopt appropriate strategies for their prevention and control. The re-emerging diseases of the twenty-first century are a serious problem for public health and even though there has been enormous progress in medical science and in the battle against infectious diseases, they are still a long way from being really brought under control. A well organized monitoring system would enable the epidemiological characteristics of the infectious diseases to be analyzed and the success or otherwise of preventive interventions to be precisely evaluated. For this reason, the World Health Organization and the European Union have discussed the formation of a collaborative network for the monitoring and control of re-emerging diseases and has initiated special programmes. The battle between humanity and infectious disease

  4. The emerging role of nutrition in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Seidl, Stacey E; Santiago, Jose A; Bilyk, Hope; Potashkin, Judith A

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease in ageing individuals. It is now clear that genetic susceptibility and environmental factors play a role in disease etiology and progression. Because environmental factors are involved with the majority of the cases of PD, it is important to understand the role nutrition plays in both neuroprotection and neurodegeneration. Recent epidemiological studies have revealed the promise of some nutrients in reducing the risk of PD. In contrast, other nutrients may be involved with the etiology of neurodegeneration or exacerbate disease progression. This review summarizes the studies that have addressed these issues and describes in detail the nutrients and their putative mechanisms of action in PD.

  5. NOD2 prevents emergence of disease-predisposing microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Secher, Thomas; Normand, Sylvain; Chamaillard, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    The gut flora is composed of a huge number of diverse, well-adapted symbionts that interact with epithelial lining throughout the host's entire life. Not all commensals have the same ability to maintain quiescent, protective inflammation. Importantly, instability in the composition of gut microbial communities (referred to as dysbiosis) has been linked to loss of gut barrier in the context of common human illnesses with increasing socio-economic impacts, such as Crohn disease and colorectal cancer. Our recent findings suggest that disease-predisposing dysbiosis can now be intentionally manipulated by targeting the major Crohn disease-predisposing NOD2 gene. That knowledge will not only add a new dimension to the often overlooked microbiology of Crohn disease and colorectal cancer, but will also have a broad impact on biomedical sciences worldwide. PMID:23778641

  6. The emerging role of nutrition in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Stacey E.; Santiago, Jose A.; Bilyk, Hope; Potashkin, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease in ageing individuals. It is now clear that genetic susceptibility and environmental factors play a role in disease etiology and progression. Because environmental factors are involved with the majority of the cases of PD, it is important to understand the role nutrition plays in both neuroprotection and neurodegeneration. Recent epidemiological studies have revealed the promise of some nutrients in reducing the risk of PD. In contrast, other nutrients may be involved with the etiology of neurodegeneration or exacerbate disease progression. This review summarizes the studies that have addressed these issues and describes in detail the nutrients and their putative mechanisms of action in PD. PMID:24639650

  7. Light and sound - emerging imaging techniques for inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Knieling, Ferdinand; Waldner, Maximilian J

    2016-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease are known to have a high demand of recurrent evaluation for therapy and disease activity. Further, the risk of developing cancer during the disease progression is increasing from year to year. New, mostly non-radiant, quick to perform and quantitative methods are challenging, conventional endoscopy with biopsy as gold standard. Especially, new physical imaging approaches utilizing light and sound waves have facilitated the development of advanced functional and molecular modalities. Besides these advantages they hold the promise to predict personalized therapeutic responses and to spare frequent invasive procedures. Within this article we highlight their potential for initial diagnosis, assessment of disease activity and surveillance of cancer development in established techniques and recent advances such as wide-view full-spectrum endoscopy, chromoendoscopy, autofluorescence endoscopy, endocytoscopy, confocal laser endoscopy, multiphoton endoscopy, molecular imaging endoscopy, B-mode and Doppler ultrasound, contrast-enhanced ultrasound, ultrasound molecular imaging, and elastography. PMID:27433080

  8. Research toward integrate management of the emerging viroid disease on tomato through seed health test, disinfectant application and disease resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the last few years, several devastating viroid disease outbreaks were identified on greenhouse tomatoes in North America. These emerging diseases have caused serious concerns to the tomato industry and seed suppliers. Several closely related viroid species, including Potato spindle tuber viroid...

  9. Biology Today: Parasites and Human Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1984-01-01

    Offers various reasons why the study of parasites and the diseases they cause should be incorporated into classroom biology discussions. Examples of several parasitic diseases and their ecological significance are provided. (JN)

  10. Parasite threat to panda conservation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Daszak, Peter; Huang, Hua-Li; Yang, Guang-You; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Zhang, Shuyi

    2008-03-01

    The giant panda is a global symbol of wildlife conservation that is threatened by historic and current habitat loss. Despite a great deal of research on the physiology, reproductive biology, and diet of pandas in the wild and in captivity, there is little information on wild panda mortality. Here we integrate previously unavailable data on the mortality of wild pandas. We report on three recent phases of panda mortality: deaths due to bamboo flowering in the 1970s and 1980s, surprisingly extensive poaching in the 1980s and 1990s, and a parasitic infection over the past few years. Our analyses suggest that the current most significant threat to wild panda survival is disease due to extraintestinal migration (visceral larval migrans) by an ascarid nematode. We demonstrate that the probability of death of wild pandas being caused by this disease increased significantly between 1971 and 2005 and discuss the possible factors leading to the emergence of this disease.

  11. Emerging prion disease drives host selection in a wildlife population.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Stacie J; Samuel, Michael D; Johnson, Chad J; Adams, Marie; McKenzie, Debbie I

    2012-04-01

    Infectious diseases are increasingly recognized as an important force driving population dynamics, conservation biology, and natural selection in wildlife populations. Infectious agents have been implicated in the decline of small or endangered populations and may act to constrain population size, distribution, growth rates, or migration patterns. Further, diseases may provide selective pressures that shape the genetic diversity of populations or species. Thus, understanding disease dynamics and selective pressures from pathogens is crucial to understanding population processes, managing wildlife diseases, and conserving biological diversity. There is ample evidence that variation in the prion protein gene (PRNP) impacts host susceptibility to prion diseases. Still, little is known about how genetic differences might influence natural selection within wildlife populations. Here we link genetic variation with differential susceptibility of white-tailed deer to chronic wasting disease (CWD), with implications for fitness and disease-driven genetic selection. We developed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay to efficiently genotype deer at the locus of interest (in the 96th codon of the PRNP gene). Then, using a Bayesian modeling approach, we found that the more susceptible genotype had over four times greater risk of CWD infection; and, once infected, deer with the resistant genotype survived 49% longer (8.25 more months). We used these epidemiological parameters in a multi-stage population matrix model to evaluate relative fitness based on genotype-specific population growth rates. The differences in disease infection and mortality rates allowed genetically resistant deer to achieve higher population growth and obtain a long-term fitness advantage, which translated into a selection coefficient of over 1% favoring the CWD-resistant genotype. This selective pressure suggests that the resistant allele could become dominant in the population within an

  12. Chikungunya virus: is this the next emerging disease threat to the americas?

    PubMed

    Girimont, Trina M

    2014-12-01

    Chikungunya fever is a mosquito-borne infection for which no cure or vaccine is available. It made its first appearance in the Americas in December 2013. Seven months later, two locally acquired cases of the disease emerged in the United States. The emergence of chikungunya fever cases in the Americas emphasizes the need for sustained vector control, clear public health information, and disease awareness and surveillance.

  13. Super Bugs, Resurgent and Emerging Diseases, and Pandemics: A National Security Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    1 - SUPERBUGS , RESURGENT AND EMERGING DISEASES, AND PANDEMICS: A NATIONAL SECURITY PERSPECTIVE By Frances T. Pilch and 2nd Lt Kenneth...in reality, ― superbugs ‖ (those bacteria that have developed immunity to a wide number of antibiotics), emergent and resurgent diseases, and pandemics...release; distribution is unlimited. While not often considered, ― superbugs ‖ may pose a greater threat to U.S. national security than terrorists or WMDs

  14. Review of the diseases, parasites and miscellaneous pathological conditions of North American bison

    PubMed Central

    Tessaro, Stacy V.

    1989-01-01

    The involvement of veterinarians in the health management of North American bison will continue to increase, particularly in regard to the development of the bison ranching industry. More intensive management of bison will lead to greater recognition of diseases, and will raise concerns about the transmission of diseases between bison and other livestock species. This review of the infectious and noninfectious diseases of free-ranging and captive bison populations indicates that bison are susceptible to a wide range of indigenous and foreign diseases that occur in cattle and other livestock species. Most of the available information is based on necropsy results or serological surveys, and there is much less information on clinical, diagnostic and preventive medicine, or on the evaluation of conventional diagnostic tests, therapeutic regimens, or vaccines in bison. PMID:17423322

  15. Respiratory diseases among U.S. military personnel: countering emerging threats.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, G. C.; Callahan, J. D.; Hawksworth, A. W.; Fisher, C. A.; Gaydos, J. C.

    1999-01-01

    Emerging respiratory disease agents, increased antibiotic resistance, and the loss of effective vaccines threaten to increase the incidence of respiratory disease in military personnel. We examine six respiratory pathogens (adenoviruses, influenza viruses, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Bordetella pertussis) and review the impact of the diseases they cause, past efforts to control these diseases in U.S. military personnel, as well as current treatment and surveillance strategies, limitations in diagnostic testing, and vaccine needs. PMID:10341174

  16. The emerging mysteries of IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Smit, Wouter; Barnes, Eleanor

    2014-12-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is increasingly recognised in Western societies as a multi-system, inflammatory, fibrosing disease of unknown aetiology that typically, though not exclusively, presents in older men. The clinical manifestations are diverse and almost any organ may be affected. The cardinal histological features are a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis and an abundance of IgG4+ plasma cells in affected organs. Serum IgG4 levels are elevated in approximately 70% of patients and are a useful biomarker when present. IgG4-RD is frequently misdiagnosed as malignancy. Making the correct diagnosis is important as the disease is usually steroid responsive, although relapse rates are high. Second-line immunosuppressive agents and B-cell depletion therapy have also been used in retreatment strategies. Recent data suggests that the disease is associated with both progressive organ failure and malignancy. The biological mechanisms driving IgG4-RD remain unclear but this is currently an area of intense scientific investigation. Broadly, IgG4+ B cells are thought to exhibit a regulatory phenotype, but it is not known if these are pathogenic or simply represent a bystander effect. Extending our understanding of the role of IgG4 immunoglobulins in health and disease, the assessment of B and T cell immune phenotype, and large genetic studies of IgG4-RD may enhance our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Ultimately it may be that there is not a single, simple unifying aetiology and so careful stratification of disease by clinical phenotype will be required in multi-centre prospective clinical cohorts. These cohorts will also be essential for the study of treatment outcomes with novel therapies.

  17. Ultrasound treatment of neurological diseases--current and emerging applications.

    PubMed

    Leinenga, Gerhard; Langton, Christian; Nisbet, Rebecca; Götz, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Like cardiovascular disease and cancer, neurological disorders present an increasing challenge for an ageing population. Whereas nonpharmacological procedures are routine for eliminating cancer tissue or opening a blocked artery, the focus in neurological disease remains on pharmacological interventions. Setbacks in clinical trials and the obstacle of access to the brain for drug delivery and surgery have highlighted the potential for therapeutic use of ultrasound in neurological diseases, and the technology has proved useful for inducing focused lesions, clearing protein aggregates, facilitating drug uptake, and modulating neuronal function. In this Review, we discuss milestones in the development of therapeutic ultrasound, from the first steps in the 1950s to recent improvements in technology. We provide an overview of the principles of diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound, for surgery and transient opening of the blood-brain barrier, and its application in clinical trials of stroke, Parkinson disease and chronic pain. We discuss the promising outcomes of safety and feasibility studies in preclinical models, including rodents, pigs and macaques, and efficacy studies in models of Alzheimer disease. We also consider the challenges faced on the road to clinical translation.

  18. Kidney disease physician workforce: where is the emerging pipeline?

    PubMed

    Pogue, Velvie A; Norris, Keith C; Dillard, Martin G

    2002-08-01

    A predicted increase in the number of patients with end-stage renal disease in coming years, coupled with significant numbers of qualified nephrologists reaching retirement age, will place great demands on the renal physician workforce. Action is required on several fronts to combat the predicted shortfall in full-time nephrologists. Of particular importance is the need to recruit and train greater numbers of physicians from ethnic minority groups. Changes in the demographics of kidney disease make it increasingly a disease of ethnic minorities and the poor. These demographic changes, together with the existing racial disparities in the diagnosis and treatment of kidney disease, highlight the specific need for nephrologists who are cognizant of the issues and barriers that prevent optimal care of high-risk minority populations. The current lack of academic role models and the drive by medical schools and residency programs to encourage minority group physicians to become primary care providers, rather than specialists, are issues that must be urgently addressed. Equally, changes in the training of renal fellows are required to merge the critical need for cutting edge research activity in renal science and with the insights and sensitivity to equip clinicians with the necessary skills for the team-based approach to patient care that increasingly characterizes the management and care of the patient with chronic kidney disease.

  19. The emerging roles of β-arrestins in fibrotic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yuan-jing; Sun, Wu-yi; Zhang, Sen; Wu, Jing-jing; Wei, Wei

    2015-01-01

    β-Arrestins and β-arrestin2 are important adaptor proteins and signal transduction proteins that are mainly involved in the desensitization and internalization of G-protein-coupled receptors. Fibrosis is characterized by accumulation of excess extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules caused by chronic tissue injury. If highly progressive, the fibrotic process leads to organ malfunction and, eventually, death. The incurable lung fibrosis, renal fibrosis and liver fibrosis are among the most common fibrotic diseases. Recent studies show that β-arrestins can activate signaling cascades independent of G-protein activation and scaffold many intracellular signaling networks by diverse types of signaling pathways, including the Hedgehog, Wnt, Notch and transforming growth factor-β pathways, as well as downstream kinases such as MAPK and PI3K. These signaling pathways are involved in the pathological process of fibrosis and fibrotic diseases. This β-arrestin-mediated regulation not only affects cell growth and apoptosis, but also the deposition of ECM, activation of inflammatory response and development of fibrotic diseases. In this review, we survey the involvement of β-arrestins in various signaling pathways and highlight different aspects of their regulation of fibrosis. We also discuss the important roles of β-arrestins in the process of fibrotic diseases by regulating the inflammation and deposit of ECM. It is becoming more evident that targeting β-arrestins may offer therapeutic potential for the treatment of fibrotic diseases. PMID:26388156

  20. The Infectious Diseases Society of America emerging infections network: bridging the gap between clinical infectious diseases and public health.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Satish K; Beekmann, Susan E; Santibanez, Scott; Polgreen, Philip M

    2014-04-01

    In 1995, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention granted a Cooperative Agreement Program award to the Infectious Diseases Society of America to develop a provider-based emerging infections sentinel network, the Emerging Infections Network (EIN). Over the past 17 years, the EIN has evolved into a flexible, nationwide network with membership representing a broad cross-section of infectious disease physicians. The EIN has an active electronic mail conference (listserv) that facilitates communication among infectious disease providers and the public health community, and also sends members periodic queries (short surveys on infectious disease topics) that have addressed numerous topics relevant to both clinical infectious diseases and public health practice. The article reviews how the various functions of EIN contribute to clinical care and public health, identifies opportunities to further link clinical medicine and public health, and describes future directions for the EIN.

  1. Alzheimer's Disease Mechanisms and Emerging Roads to Novel Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Sala Frigerio, Carlo; De Strooper, Bart

    2016-07-08

    Ten years of remarkable progress in understanding the fundamental biochemistry of Alzheimer's disease have been followed by ten years of remarkable and increasing clinical insight into the natural progression of the disorder. The concept of a long, intermediary, prodromal phase between the first appearance of amyloid plaques and tangles and the manifestation of dementia is now well established. The major challenge for the next decade is to chart the many cellular processes that underlie this phase and link the biochemical alterations to the clinical manifestation of Alzheimer's disease. We discuss here how genetics, new cell culture systems, and improved animal models will fuel this work. We anticipate that the resulting novel insights will provide a basis for further drug development for this terrible disease.

  2. Disease emergence from global climate and land use change.

    PubMed

    Patz, Jonathan A; Olson, Sarah H; Uejio, Christopher K; Gibbs, Holly K

    2008-11-01

    Climate change and land use change can affect multiple infectious diseases of humans, acting either independently or synergistically. Expanded efforts in empiric and future scenario-based risk assessment are required to anticipate problems. Moreover, the many health impacts of climate and land use change must be examined in the context of the myriad other environmental and behavioral determinants of disease. To optimize prevention capabilities, upstream environmental approaches must be part of any intervention, rather than assaults on single agents of disease. Clinicians must develop stronger ties, not only to public health officials and scientists, but also to earth and environmental scientists and policy makers. Without such efforts, we will inevitably benefit our current generation at the cost of generations to come.

  3. How urbanization affects the epidemiology of emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Neiderud, Carl-Johan

    2015-01-01

    The world is becoming more urban every day, and the process has been ongoing since the industrial revolution in the 18th century. The United Nations now estimates that 3.9 billion people live in urban centres. The rapid influx of residents is however not universal and the developed countries are already urban, but the big rise in urban population in the next 30 years is expected to be in Asia and Africa. Urbanization leads to many challenges for global health and the epidemiology of infectious diseases. New megacities can be incubators for new epidemics, and zoonotic diseases can spread in a more rapid manner and become worldwide threats. Adequate city planning and surveillance can be powerful tools to improve the global health and decrease the burden of communicable diseases. PMID:26112265

  4. Why is antibiotic resistance a deadly emerging disease?

    PubMed

    Courvalin, P

    2016-05-01

    Evolution of bacteria towards resistance to antimicrobial agents, including multidrug resistance, is unavoidable because it represents a particular aspect of the general evolution of bacteria that is unstoppable. Therefore, the only means of dealing with this situation is to delay the emergence and subsequent dissemination of resistant bacteria or resistance genes. In this review, we will consider the biochemical mechanisms and the genetics that bacteria use to offset antibiotic selective pressure. The data provided are mainly, if not exclusively, taken from the work carried out in the laboratory, although there are numerous other examples in the literature.

  5. Alternative medicines as emerging therapies for inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Udai P; Singh, Narendra P; Busbee, Brandon; Guan, H; Singh, Balwan; Price, Robert L; Taub, Dennis D; Mishra, Manoj K; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S

    2012-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can be divided into two major categories, ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn disease (CD). While the main cause(s) of IBD remain unknown, a number of interventional and preventive strategies have been proposed for use against CD and UC. Many reports have focused on the use of alternative natural medicines as potential therapeutic interventions in IBD patients with minimal side effects. While the use of alternative medicines may be effective in IBD patients that are refractory to corticosteroids or thiopurins, alternative treatment strategies are limited and require extensive clinical testing before being optimized for use in patients.

  6. Targeting Inflammation in Emerging Therapies for Genetic Retinal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Viringipurampeer, Ishaq A.; Bashar, Abu E.; Gregory-Evans, Cheryl Y.; Moritz, Orson L.; Gregory-Evans, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Genetic retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and monogenic diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa account for some of the commonest causes of blindness in the developed world. Diverse genetic abnormalities and environmental causes have been implicated in triggering multiple pathological mechanisms such as oxidative stress, lipofuscin deposits, neovascularisation, and programmed cell death. In recent years, inflammation has also been highlighted although whether inflammatory mediators play a central role in pathogenesis or a more minor secondary role has yet to be established. Despite this, numerous interventional studies, particularly targeting the complement system, are underway with the promise of novel therapeutic strategies for these important blinding conditions. PMID:23509666

  7. [A very up-to-date stage in the fate of infectious diseases: parasitic and fungal opportunistic infections].

    PubMed

    Ambroise-Thomas, P; Grillot, R

    1995-04-01

    Opportunistic parasitosis and mycosis are becoming ever more widespread, mainly under the influence of major immunodeficiencies, either acquired (AIDS) or therapeutic. In this general overview, their main aspects, both clinical and epidemiological, are underlined. In terms of epidemiology, three types of phenomena have been observed: 1) emergence of human parasitosis unknown before (microsporidiosis due to Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoom hellem or Septata intestinalis); 2) among the human parasites already known, identification of very pathogenic strains (Toxoplasma gondii, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans); 3) origin probably or certainly nosocomial of certain infections (pneumocystosis; toxoplasmosis and visceral leishmaniasis transmitted during bone-marrow or organ transplantations). The development of deep mycosis (invasive aspergillosis) is particularly promoted by granulopenia and alterations in the phagocytosis. On the other hand, opportunistic protozoosis (toxoplasmosis and leishmaniasis) and helminthiasis (strongyloidosis due to Strongyloides stercolaris) are related, above all, to disorders in cellular immunity (deficit of CD4+, mainly). Finally, several of these infections may be characterised by a variety of clinical pictures and outcome, depending on the contributory factors (immunodeficit or not) which led to the development of the infection.

  8. Land-use change and emerging infectious disease on an island continent.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Rosemary A; Sleigh, Adrian C; McMichael, Anthony J

    2013-06-28

    A more rigorous and nuanced understanding of land-use change (LUC) as a driver of emerging infectious disease (EID) is required. Here we examine post hunter-gatherer LUC as a driver of infectious disease in one biogeographical region with a compressed and documented history--continental Australia. We do this by examining land-use and native vegetation change (LUCC) associations with infectious disease emergence identified through a systematic (1973-2010) and historical (1788-1973) review of infectious disease literature of humans and animals. We find that 22% (20) of the systematically reviewed EIDs are associated with LUCC, most frequently where natural landscapes have been removed or replaced with agriculture, plantations, livestock or urban development. Historical clustering of vector-borne, zoonotic and environmental disease emergence also follows major periods of extensive land clearing. These advanced stages of LUCC are accompanied by changes in the distribution and density of hosts and vectors, at varying scales and chronology. This review of infectious disease emergence in one continent provides valuable insight into the association between accelerated global LUC and concurrent accelerated infectious disease emergence.

  9. Land-Use Change and Emerging Infectious Disease on an Island Continent

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, Rosemary A.; Sleigh, Adrian C.; McMichael, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    A more rigorous and nuanced understanding of land-use change (LUC) as a driver of emerging infectious disease (EID) is required. Here we examine post hunter-gatherer LUC as a driver of infectious disease in one biogeographical region with a compressed and documented history—continental Australia. We do this by examining land-use and native vegetation change (LUCC) associations with infectious disease emergence identified through a systematic (1973–2010) and historical (1788–1973) review of infectious disease literature of humans and animals. We find that 22% (20) of the systematically reviewed EIDs are associated with LUCC, most frequently where natural landscapes have been removed or replaced with agriculture, plantations, livestock or urban development. Historical clustering of vector-borne, zoonotic and environmental disease emergence also follows major periods of extensive land clearing. These advanced stages of LUCC are accompanied by changes in the distribution and density of hosts and vectors, at varying scales and chronology. This review of infectious disease emergence in one continent provides valuable insight into the association between accelerated global LUC and concurrent accelerated infectious disease emergence. PMID:23812027

  10. Military-civilian cooperative emergency response to infectious disease prevention and control in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hui; Dong, Ji-Ping; Zhou, Na; Pu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the incidence of severe infectious diseases has increased, and the number of emerging infectious diseases continues to increase. The Chinese government and military forces have paid a great deal of attention to infectious disease prevention and control, and using military-civilian cooperation, they have successfully prevented numerous severe epidemic situations, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), influenza A (H1N1), avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9, and Ebola hemorrhagic fever, while actively maintained public health, economic development, and national construction. This paper focuses on the mechanisms of the military-cooperative emergency response to infectious diseases--the joint working mechanism, the information-sharing mechanism, the research collaboration mechanism, and the joint disposal mechanism--and presents a sorted summary of the practices and experiences of cooperative emergency responses to infectious diseases. In the future, the Chinese military and the civilian sector will further strengthen the cooperative joint command system and emergency rescue force and will reinforce their collaborative information-sharing platform and technical equipment system to further improve military-civilian collaborative emergency infectious diseases disposal, advance the level of infectious disease prevention and control, and maintain public health.

  11. Epidemiological and clinical description of the top three reportable parasitic diseases in a Canadian community.

    PubMed

    Ravel, A; Nesbitt, A; Pintar, K; Macarthur, A; Wang, H-L; Marshall, B; Pollari, F

    2013-02-01

    This study provides a comprehensive epidemio-clinical picture of sporadic, domestically acquired cases of amoebiasis, cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis in one Canadian community based on patient symptom, outcome and exposure data from an enhanced surveillance system. It yields valuable data for estimating the burden of those diseases including the proportion of bloody diarrhoea, hospitalization, and disease duration. Age differences were observed by incidence rate and for some clinical information and exposures to risk factors. For each of the three diseases, the animal/environment-to-person route was the most common possible main transmission route according to the exposure reported, whereas the person-to-person route was the least common. Exposure was higher for the 10-24 years age group of giardiasis cases for swimming in recreational waters (79%) and attending a barbeque (50%). Therefore, comparisons between groups of cases or extrapolation of results when estimating the burden of illness should be adjusted for age.

  12. Cystatin C: an emerging biomarker in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Angelidis, Christos; Deftereos, Spyridon; Giannopoulos, Georgios; Anatoliotakis, Nikolaos; Bouras, Georgios; Hatzis, Georgios; Panagopoulou, Vasiliki; Pyrgakis, Vlasios; Cleman, Michael W

    2013-01-01

    Cystatin C (cys-C) is a small protein molecule (120 amino acid peptide chain, approximately 13kDa) produced by virtually all nucleated cells in the human body. It belongs to the family of papain-like cysteine proteases and its main biological role is the extracellular inhibition of cathepsins. It's near constant production rate, the fact that it is freely filtered from the glomerular membrane and then completely reabsorbed without being secreted from the proximal tubular cells, made it an almost perfect candidate for estimating renal function. The strong correlation between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) along with the growing understanding of the role of cysteinyl cathepsins in the pathophysiology of CVD inspired researchers to explore the potential association of cys-C with CVD. Throughout the spectrum of CVD (peripheral arterial disease, stroke, abdominal aortic aneurysm, heart failure, coronary artery disease) adverse outcomes and risk stratification have been associated with high plasma levels of cys-C. The exact mechanisms behind the observed correlations have not been comprehensively clarified. Plausible links between high cys-C levels and poor cardiovascular outcome could be impaired renal function, atherogenesis and inflammatory mediators, remodeling of myocardial tissue and others (genetic factors, aging and social habits). The scope of the present article is to systematically review the current knowledge about cys-C biochemistry, metabolism, methods of detection and quantification and pathophysiological associations with different aspects of CVD.

  13. Emerging Candidate Biomarkers for Parkinson’s Disease: a Review

    PubMed Central

    Saracchi, Enrico; Fermi, Silvia; Brighina, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder leading to progressive motor impairment affecting more than 1% of the over-65 population. In spite of considerable progress in identifying the genetic and biochemical basis of PD, to date the diagnosis remains clinical and disease-modifying therapies continue to be elusive. A cornerstone in recent PD research is the investigation of biological markers that could help in identifying at-risk population or to track disease progression and response to therapies. Although none of these parameters has been validated for routine clinical practice yet, however some biochemical candidates hold great promise for application in PD patients, especially in the early stages of disease, and it is likely that in the future the diagnosis of PD will require a combination of genetic, imaging and laboratory data. In this review we discuss the most interesting biochemical markers for PD (including the “-omics” techniques), focusing on the methodological challenges in using ex vivo blood/CSF/tissue-based biomarkers and suggesting alternative strategies to overcome the difficulties that still prevent their actual use. PMID:24490114

  14. Emerging concepts and therapies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Natya; McIvor, R Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although considerable advances have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of COPD, much remains to be done both to alleviate symptoms and reduce mortality associated with this condition. Previously, diagnosis, management, and research all centred on staging based on the forced expiratory flow in 1 second. It is now becoming apparent that this is inadequate to truly capture current disease burden and future deterioration. Fortunately, new approaches to care are constantly being identified. It is now known that symptoms and, in particular, exacerbations represent pivotal events in the patient's life that should trigger optimization of care. Much work is currently underway to identify various phenotypes in COPD because it has become obvious that this is a heterogeneous disease and applying the same management algorithms for all patients is insufficient. Several new medications are at various stages of development, some being approved and on the market, while others are undergoing clinical trials. These allow for more options for individualized care of patients. In addition, new applications of old medications, such as long‑term antibiotics, also provide new options for patients struggling with recurrent symptoms. Finally, the growing awareness that this is a heterogeneous disease composed not only of differing phenotypes but also having significant extrapulmonary comorbidities have opened new avenues of research and interdisciplinary collaboration that will further enable us to offer personalized care to patients.

  15. Emerging links between homeostatic synaptic plasticity and neurological disease.

    PubMed

    Wondolowski, Joyce; Dickman, Dion

    2013-11-21

    Homeostatic signaling systems are ubiquitous forms of biological regulation, having been studied for hundreds of years in the context of diverse physiological processes including body temperature and osmotic balance. However, only recently has this concept been brought to the study of excitatory and inhibitory electrical activity that the nervous system uses to establish and maintain stable communication. Synapses are a primary target of neuronal regulation with a variety of studies over the past 15 years demonstrating that these cellular junctions are under bidirectional homeostatic control. Recent work from an array of diverse systems and approaches has revealed exciting new links between homeostatic synaptic plasticity and a variety of seemingly disparate neurological and psychiatric diseases. These include autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities, schizophrenia, and Fragile X Syndrome. Although the molecular mechanisms through which defective homeostatic signaling may lead to disease pathogenesis remain unclear, rapid progress is likely to be made in the coming years using a powerful combination of genetic, imaging, electrophysiological, and next generation sequencing approaches. Importantly, understanding homeostatic synaptic plasticity at a cellular and molecular level may lead to developments in new therapeutic innovations to treat these diseases. In this review we will examine recent studies that demonstrate homeostatic control of postsynaptic protein translation, retrograde signaling, and presynaptic function that may contribute to the etiology of complex neurological and psychiatric diseases.

  16. Vaccine-preventable diseases in humanitarian emergencies among refugee and internally-displaced populations

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Eugene; McCarthy, Amanda; Brennan, Muireann

    2015-01-01

    Humanitarian emergencies may result in breakdown of regular health services including routine vaccination programs. Displaced populations including refugees and internally displaced persons are particularly susceptible to outbreaks of communicable diseases such as vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). Common VPDs encountered in humanitarian emergencies include measles, polio, and depending on geographical location, meningococcal meningitis, yellow fever, hepatitis A, and cholera. We conducted a review of 50 published articles from 2000 to 2015 concerning VPDs in humanitarian emergencies. This article provides an update on the available literature regarding vaccinations among this highly vulnerable population and describes the unique challenges of VPDs during humanitarian emergencies. Humanitarian emergencies place affected populations at risk for elevated morbidity and mortality from VPDs due to creation or exacerbation of factors associated with disease transmission such as mass population movements, overcrowding, malnutrition, and poor water and sanitation conditions. Vaccination is one of the most basic and critical health interventions for protecting vulnerable populations during emergencies. Growing insecurity, as seen in the increasing number of targeted attacks on health workers in recent years, as well as destruction of cold chain and infrastructure for transportation of supplies, are creating new challenges in provision of life saving vaccines in conflict settings. Population displacement can also threaten global VPD eradication and elimination efforts. While highly effective vaccines and guidelines to combat VPDs are available, the trend of increasing number of humanitarian emergencies globally poses new and emerging challenges in providing vaccination among displaced populations. PMID:26406333

  17. Parasite age-intensity relationships in red-spotted newts: does immune memory influence salamander disease dynamics?

    PubMed

    Raffel, Thomas R; LeGros, Robert P; Love, Brenda C; Rohr, Jason R; Hudson, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    Acquired immune memory in vertebrates influences transmission and persistence of infections, with consequences for parasite dynamics at both the individual and population levels. The potential impact of acquired immunity is of particular interest for salamanders, whose acquired immune systems are thought to be less effective than those of frogs and other tetrapods. One way to examine the importance of acquired immunity to parasite dynamics at the population level is by examining the relationship between host age and parasite infection intensity. Acquired immunity reduces infection rates in older animals, causing decreased parasite intensity in older age classes and leading to curvilinear age-intensity relationships for persistent parasites and convex age-intensity relationships for transient parasites. We used age-intensity relationships to look for the signature of acquired immunity for 12 parasite taxa of red-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens), using data from a 2-year parasitological survey of six newt populations. We estimated ages from snout-vent length (SVL) based on the relationship between SVL and skeletochronologically-derived ages in a subset of newts. We found evidence of acquired immunity to two parasite taxa, bacterial pathogens and the protist Amphibiocystidium viridescens, whose convex age-intensity relationships could not be easily explained by alternative mechanisms. Our results suggest that the acquired immune response of newts is sufficient to influence the dynamics of at least some parasites.

  18. Protein moonlighting in parasitic protists.

    PubMed

    Ginger, Michael L

    2014-12-01

    Reductive evolution during the adaptation to obligate parasitism and expansions of gene families encoding virulence factors are characteristics evident to greater or lesser degrees in all parasitic protists studied to date. Large evolutionary distances separate many parasitic protists from the yeast and animal models upon which classic views of eukaryotic biochemistry are often based. Thus a combination of evolutionary divergence, niche adaptation and reductive evolution means the biochemistry of parasitic protists is often very different from their hosts and to other eukaryotes generally, making parasites intriguing subjects for those interested in the phenomenon of moonlighting proteins. In common with other organisms, the contribution of protein moonlighting to parasite biology is only just emerging, and it is not without controversy. Here, an overview of recently identified moonlighting proteins in parasitic protists is provided, together with discussion of some of the controversies.

  19. Parasite transmission through suspension feeding.

    PubMed

    Ben-Horin, Tal; Bidegain, Gorka; Huey, Lauren; Narvaez, Diego A; Bushek, David

    2015-10-01

    Suspension-feeding bivalve molluscs are confronted with a wide range of materials in the benthic marine environment. These materials include various sized plankton and the organic material derived from it, macroalgae, detritus and a diversity of microbial parasites that have adapted life stages to survive in the water column. For bivalve parasites to infect hosts though, they must first survive and remain infectious in the water column to make initial contact with hosts, and once in contact, enter and overcome elaborate pathways for particle sorting and selection. Even past these defenses, bivalve parasites are challenged with efficient systems of mechanical and chemical digestion and highly evolved systems of innate immunity. Here we review how bivalve parasites evade these hurdles to complete their life cycles and establish within bivalve hosts. We broadly cover significant viral, bacterial, and protozoan parasites of marine bivalve molluscs, and illustrate the emergent properties of these host-parasite systems where parasite transmission occurs through suspension feeding.

  20. Factors shaping the adaptive landscape for arboviruses: implications for the emergence of disease

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Lark L; Forrester, Naomi; Tsetsarkin, Konstantin; Vasilakis, Nikos; Weaver, Scott C

    2013-01-01

    Many examples of the emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases involve the adaptation of zoonotic viruses to new amplification hosts or to humans themselves. These include several instances of simple mutational adaptations, often to hosts closely related to the natural reservoirs. However, based on theoretical grounds, arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, may face several challenges for adaptation to new hosts. Here, we review recent findings regarding adaptive evolution of arboviruses and its impact on disease emergence. We focus on the zoonotic alphaviruses Venezuelan equine encephalitis and chikungunya viruses, which have undergone adaptive evolution that mediated recent outbreaks of disease, as well as the flaviviruses dengue and West Nile viruses, which have emerged via less dramatic adaptive mechanisms. PMID:23374123